WorldWideScience

Sample records for united states-asia environmental

  1. Censoring History: Citizenship and Memory in Japan, Germany, and the United States. Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Laura, Ed.; Selden, Mark, Ed.

    This collection of essays focuses on textbook treatments of World War II in Japan, Germany, and the United States and gives readers a new perspective on the creation of national identities and international misunderstandings. Essays in the collection are: (1) "The Lessons of War, Global Power, and Social Change" (Laura Hein; Mark Selden); (2) "The…

  2. Censoring History: Citizenship and Memory in Japan, Germany, and the United States. Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Laura, Ed.; Selden, Mark, Ed.

    This collection of essays focuses on textbook treatments of World War II in Japan, Germany, and the United States and gives readers a new perspective on the creation of national identities and international misunderstandings. Essays in the collection are: (1) "The Lessons of War, Global Power, and Social Change" (Laura Hein; Mark…

  3. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  4. United States Asia-Pacific Economic Strategy:New Trend and Its Motivation%美国亚太经济战略新动态及动因探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林迎娟

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of US “rebalance” strategy, Obama administration has gradually deployed its Asia-Pacific economic policy in the region. US is not only actively participates in the existing economic cooperation mechanisms in the region, but also negotiates proactively for TPP which comprises high environmental and regulatory standards, and builds its own environmental trade development strategies. The motivation of US’s Asia-Pacific economic strategy could be summarized in three aspects. Firstly, the superpower is trying to contain the emerging power. Secondly, US wants to expand environmental goods and services to the Asia-Pacific market. Thirdly, US competes for the power of trade and regulatory rule-making. Ultimately, US attempts to dominate the process of economic system in the Region.%在美国亚太“再平衡”战略框架下,奥巴马政府逐步完成了对亚太经济战略的部署。在积极参与亚太地区原有的经济合作机制外,美国将跨太平洋伙伴关系等包含高环境与监管标准的贸易协定摆在首要位置,积极构建本国环境贸易发展战略。美国加强对亚太经济战略调整的动因可概括为三方面:守成大国对新兴大国的遏制、拓展美国环境产品与服务的亚太市场、在国际贸易监管竞争中争夺贸易规则制定的主导权,以期实现美国主导亚太地区经济制度的根本目标。

  5. Environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' effort to manage its environment including air, water nature, and biodiversity to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  6. 78 FR 47046 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Colombia Environmental Cooperation... the first United States--Colombia Environmental Cooperation Work Program. SUMMARY: The Department... Program for implementing the United States--Colombia Environmental Cooperation Agreement, which...

  7. Russian: United States Environmental Restoration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Russian - United States Environmental Restoration Workshop, held in Washington, D.C., and Richland, Washington, from April 5 through 18, 1993, was the first extended collaborative information exchange between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Russian scientists at the site level. In addition to the Russian scientists, workshop participants included scientists and staff from DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the US Environmental Training Institute (USETI), universities, and the private sector. The first week (April 5 through 10) of the workshop took place in Washington, D.C., where the Russian and US participants were presented with a US perspective on environmental restoration and remediation issues from representatives in DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second week (April 11 through 18) occurred in Richland, Washington, where the participants were presented with site-specific environmental restoration and remediation issues related to Hanford Site cleanup. This report is a compilation of the presentations, discussions, and experiences shared during the second week of the workshop in Richland, Washington.

  8. Environmental Control Unit with Integral Thermal Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-12

    integrated PCM Heat Exchanger (PHX) to provide thermal energy storage. By storing thermal energy during the hottest part of the day and rejecting this stored...Environmental Control Unit (ECU) that uses an integrated PCM Heat Exchanger (PHX) to provide thermal energy storage. To aid in the development of the PHX... Thermal Storage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911QX-14-C-0014 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Michael C. Ellis Ryan McDevitt 5d

  9. 76 FR 21786 - Meetings of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... of The United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on ] Forest Sector Governance,...

  10. 77 FR 28419 - Meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance ACTION: Notice of meetings of the United States-Peru Environmental Affairs Council, Environmental Cooperation Commission and Sub-Committee on Forest Sector Governance,...

  11. 78 FR 72972 - Meeting of the United States-Colombia Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... of the United States-Colombia Environmental Affairs Council and Environmental Cooperation Commission...) are providing notice that the United States and Colombia intend to hold the first meeting of the... implementation of Chapter 18 (Environment) of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (TPA) and...

  12. Teaching Environmentalism in United States History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Saul

    1980-01-01

    Discusses books and laws relevant to public health and the environment. Published in the late 1950s and after, the books discuss environmental issues in the late 19th century, the early 20th century, and the present. Topics include cholera epidemics, health hazards from patent medicines, wilderness, conservation, population, land use, and…

  13. Environmental Statement, Lake City Station, Unit One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-09-17

    Rulifson, R.L., and G. Abel, 1971. Nitrogen supersaturation in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Abstract. Government Reports, Topical Announcements, U.S...Thermal aquaculture : engineering and economics. Environmental Science and Technology, 6(3): 232. 5.2-2 Krenkel, P. A., and F. L. Parker, 1969

  14. Teaching Environmentalism in United States History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Saul

    1980-01-01

    Discusses books and laws relevant to public health and the environment. Published in the late 1950s and after, the books discuss environmental issues in the late 19th century, the early 20th century, and the present. Topics include cholera epidemics, health hazards from patent medicines, wilderness, conservation, population, land use, and…

  15. OECD environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' efforts to manage its environment including air, water, nature, and biodiversity; to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 47 figs., 20 tabs.

  16. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F

    2003-08-15

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  17. 77 FR 12903 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Chile Environmental Cooperation Agreement ACTION: Notice of preparation of the 2012-2014 U.S.-Chile Environmental Cooperation Work Program... suggestions regarding items for inclusion in a new work program for implementing the U.S.-Chile...

  18. Environmental activism and dynamics of unit-based pricing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijkgraaf, Elbert [SEOR-ECRi and Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Room H 7-25, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands); Gradus, Raymond [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and ECRi, De Boelelaan 1105, Room 1E-66, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-01-15

    It is well-known that unit-based pricing systems have a significant effect on the quantity of collected waste. Part of this effect may, however, result from a selection bias or environmental activism effect. Based on a pooled cross-section for the Netherlands for 1998-2005 we show that despite the correction for environmental activism the effect of the weight and bag unit-based pricing system on the quantity of waste is sizeable. Moreover, this environmental activism effect is decreasing over time, so that the most environmental friendly municipalities implement unit-based pricing systems at first. In addition, we show that the volume effects of the different unit-based pricing systems are rather stable over time. Although we find some evidence for a learning effect, nearly no evidence is found for an awareness erosion effect. This means at least that the effect of unit-based pricing does not decrease over time, which is reassuring from an environmental point of view. Pricing waste helps. (author)

  19. Environmental Securitization within the United Nations: A Political Ecology Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    If empirical evidences show that environmental security is on the United Nations agenda, very few studies try to understand the agenda-setting process of this issue. My thesis research intends to fill this gap by analyzing the process of environmental securitization within the organization. Securitization theories and critical security studies propose a first useful set of theoretical tools. Nonetheless, this communication argues that they are not the only ones, and that Political Ecology cou...

  20. Environmental health needs and launching of an environmental health protection unit in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Z A; Kazi, B M; Bile, K M; Magan, M; Nasir, J A

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is seriously confronted by many complex and difficult environmental challenges related to air, water, soil, forests and food including issues such as climate change. The close link between environment and health is neither well understood nor appreciated. The annual cost of environmental degradation in Pakistan has been estimated to be around US $4.0 billion orat least 6% of the country's GDP. Up to 35% of the burden of disease is attributable to environmental hazards and risk factors and most of this burden is preventable. A systematic process for identifying environmental health needs and issues as well as the efforts made by the government of Pakistan and the World Health Organization in establishing and launching an environmental health protection unit are described. Also presented are the mission, functions, structure (operational and logistical) and technical requirements as well as sustainability aspects of the environmental health protection unit.

  1. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wickham; Timothy Wade; Kurt Riitters

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States...

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: COMM ENGINEERING, USA ENVIRONMENTAL VAPOR RECOVERY UNIT (EVRU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the testing of a new technology that recovers and utilizes vapors from crude oil storage tanks employed in the oil production and processing industry. The COMM Engineering, USA Environmental Vapor Recovery Unit (EVRU) is a non-mechanical eductor, or jet pump...

  3. Assessment of Environmental Contamination and Environmental Decontamination Practices within an Ebola Holding Unit, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Youkee

    Full Text Available Evidence to inform decontamination practices at Ebola holding units (EHUs and treatment centres is lacking. We conducted an audit of decontamination procedures inside Connaught Hospital EHU in Freetown, Sierra Leone, by assessing environmental swab specimens for evidence of contamination with Ebola virus by RT-PCR. Swabs were collected following discharge of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD patients before and after routine decontamination. Prior to decontamination, Ebola virus RNA was detected within a limited area at all bedside sites tested, but not at any sites distant to the bedside. Following decontamination, few areas contained detectable Ebola virus RNA. In areas beneath the bed there was evidence of transfer of Ebola virus material during cleaning. Retraining of cleaning staff reduced evidence of environmental contamination after decontamination. Current decontamination procedures appear to be effective in eradicating persistence of viral RNA. This study supports the use of viral swabs to assess Ebola viral contamination within the clinical setting. We recommend that regular refresher training of cleaning staff and audit of environmental contamination become standard practice at all Ebola care facilities during EVD outbreaks.

  4. Assessment of Environmental Contamination and Environmental Decontamination Practices within an Ebola Holding Unit, Freetown, Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youkee, Daniel; Brown, Colin S; Lilburn, Paul; Shetty, Nandini; Brooks, Tim; Simpson, Andrew; Bentley, Neil; Lado, Marta; Kamara, Thaim B; Walker, Naomi F; Johnson, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Evidence to inform decontamination practices at Ebola holding units (EHUs) and treatment centres is lacking. We conducted an audit of decontamination procedures inside Connaught Hospital EHU in Freetown, Sierra Leone, by assessing environmental swab specimens for evidence of contamination with Ebola virus by RT-PCR. Swabs were collected following discharge of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) patients before and after routine decontamination. Prior to decontamination, Ebola virus RNA was detected within a limited area at all bedside sites tested, but not at any sites distant to the bedside. Following decontamination, few areas contained detectable Ebola virus RNA. In areas beneath the bed there was evidence of transfer of Ebola virus material during cleaning. Retraining of cleaning staff reduced evidence of environmental contamination after decontamination. Current decontamination procedures appear to be effective in eradicating persistence of viral RNA. This study supports the use of viral swabs to assess Ebola viral contamination within the clinical setting. We recommend that regular refresher training of cleaning staff and audit of environmental contamination become standard practice at all Ebola care facilities during EVD outbreaks.

  5. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfu

  6. From Rural Studies to Environmental Education in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman, Ann

    1986-01-01

    Traces the historical development of environmental education in England, indicating the changes that have occurred in program emphases and implementation patterns since the early 1960s. Lists the values associated with teaching environmentally. (ML)

  7. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Stansfeld

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the auditory effects of noise on humans have been established, the non-auditory effects are not so well established. The emerging links between noise and cardiovascular disease (CVD have potentially important implications on public health and policy. In the United Kingdom (UK, noise from transport is a problem, where more than half of the population is exposed to more than the recommended maximum day-time noise level and just under three-quarters of the population live in areas where the recommended night-time noise level is exceeded. This review focuses on findings from studies conducted in the UK that examined environmental noise and cardiovascular disease. There were statistically no significant associations between road traffic noise and incident ischemic heart disease in the Caerphilly and Speedwell studies, but there was a suggestion of effects when modifying factors such as length of residence, room orientation, and window opening were taken into account. In a sample stratified by pre-existing disease a strongly increased odds of incident ischemic heart disease for the highest annoyance category was found compared to the lowest among men without pre-existing disease (OR = 2.45, 95%1.13 - 5.31, which was not found in men with pre-existing disease. In the Hypertension and exposure to noise near airports (HYENA study, night time aircraft noise exposure (L night was associated with an increased risk of hypertension, in fully adjusted analyses. A 10-dB increase in aircraft noise exposure was associated with an odds ratio of 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01 - 1.29. Aircraft noise was not consistently related to raised systolic blood pressure in children in the road traffic and aircraft noise exposure and children′s cognition and health (RANCH study. There is some evidence of an association among environmental noise exposure and hypertension and ischemic heart disease in the UK studies; further studies are required to explore gender differences, the

  8. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  9. CCA 3101/4101 Environmental Humanities: The History of a Unit through an Ecopedagogical Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Charles

    2012-01-01

    In 2011 the author taught, for the first time, the well-established unit CCA3101/4101 Environmental Humanities in the School of Communications and Arts at ECU (Edith Cowan University) in Western Australia. The unit has a 20-year history through associate professor Rod Giblett and parallels the development of the environmental humanities as a field…

  10. The Environmental History of the United States. Course Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Thad W.

    1981-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive course syllabus for a semester course in environmental history which investigates human attitudes toward nature and the response they evoke to environmental issues. Includes weekly topics, reading assignments, course format and requirements, and essay topics. (Author/DC)

  11. Urban Ecology for Secondary Schools, Unit I - Technology and Environmental Pollution, Parts 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    Materials for a course on Urban Ecology are developed in these two documents which represent the first unit - Technology and Environmental Pollution. The entire course consists of seven units dealing with the many aspects of our way of life that produce an effect on, and in turn affected by, the quality of our physical environment. Unit I treats…

  12. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  13. Environmental Assessment: Interim Western United States C-17 Landing Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    RESEARCH STATE CLEARINGHOUSE AND PLANNING UNIT ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER GOVERNOR January 7, 2008 Doug Allbright U.S. Air Force Headquarters Air...STATE OF CALIFORNIA GoVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING AND RESEARCH STATE CLEARINGHOUSE AND PLANNING UNIT ARNOLD SCHWARZENBGGER. CYNTHJABRYANT DIRECTOR

  14. Environmental measures for Escuintla No. 3 unit thermal power project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quisquinay, Carlos; Fabian Rosales, Alejandro [Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, (Guatemala)

    1996-12-31

    The environmental measures in relation to the project implementation was studied with reference to the Japanese Standards and incorporated in the Implementation Program. This report is prepared however, to review the environmental measures for the project in more detail as to the allowable standards and regulations concerning the measures for the environmental pollution. The authors present the environmental conditions around the Escuintla Power Station in Guatemala; the measures for environmental pollution and evaluation; the measures for prevention of air pollution and diffusion calculations (estimation and assessment of environmental impacts) [Espanol] Las medidas ambientales con relacion a la consolidacion del proyecto, se estudiaron con referencia a los Estandares Japoneses e incorporados en el Programa de Consolidacion. Sin embargo, este reporte ha sido preparado para revisar las medidas ambientales para el proyecto mas detalladamente, con relacion a los estandares y reglamentaciones admisibles concernientes a las medidas de contaminacion ambiental. Los autores presentan las condiciones ambientales en los alrededores de la Central Termoelectrica de Escuintla de Guatemala; las medidas para la prevencion de la contaminacion del aire y los calculos de difusion (estimacion y evaluacion del impacto ambiental)

  15. Environmental Impact Assessment for Olkiluoto 4 Nuclear Power Plant Unit in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dersten, Riitta; Gahmberg, Sini; Takala, Jenni [Teollisuuden Voima Oyj, Olkiluoto, FI-27160 Eurajoki (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    In order to improve its readiness for constructing additional production capacity, Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) initiated in spring 2007 the environmental impact assessment procedure (EIA procedure) concerning a new nuclear power plant unit that would possibly be located at Olkiluoto. When assessing the environmental impacts of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant extension project, the present state of the environment was first examined, and after that, the changes caused by the projects as well as their significance were assessed, taking into account the combined impacts of the operations at Olkiluoto. The environmental impact assessment for the planned nuclear power plant unit covers the entire life cycle of the plant unit. (authors)

  16. Development of certified environmental management in hospital and outpatient haemodialysis units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio García Vicente

    2015-11-01

    Discussion: There is no official documentation of the implementation of EMS in dialysis units. Making this list provides an approach to the situation, with special reference to haemodialysis because of its significant environmental impact.

  17. Final Environmental Assessment : Livestock Grazing Management Seven Blackfeet Habitat Unit : Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final environmental assessment for the grazing management within the Seven Blackfeet Habitat Unit of the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, in relation to...

  18. Elementary Schools in Rural Honduras. Problems in Exporting Environmental Education Models from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Sam H.; Castillo, Lizeth

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a study designed to determine the best approaches for developing environmental education and teacher training materials for schools in Honduras. Results dispute the value of materials produced in the United States for use in developing nations. (CW)

  19. United States of America Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Committee Public Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This reports contains documentation of presentations given at the United States of America Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Committee Public Meeting held December 14--15, 1993 in Alexandria, Virginia.

  20. Environmental Assessment for the Reestablishment of Water Control Unit 2: Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An environmental assessment for reestablishment of water control in Unit II of the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge was prepared in November, 1985. The Fish and...

  1. United States-Russia: Environmental management activities, Summer 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A Joint Coordinating Committee for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (JCCEM) was formed between the US and Russia. This report describes the areas of research being studied under JCCEM, namely: Efficient separations; Contaminant transport and site characterization; Mixed wastes; High level waste tank remediation; Transuranic stabilization; Decontamination and decommissioning; and Emergency response. Other sections describe: Administrative framework for cooperation; Scientist exchange; Future actions; Non-JCCEM DOE-Russian activities; and JCCEM publications.

  2. EPA and a Brief History of Environmental Law in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are numerous environmental laws in the United States (US) which provide the common purpose to protect human health and the environment. Most current major environmental statutes were passed in a timeframe from the late 1960s through the early 1980s. On 1 January 1970, Pre...

  3. The Global Energy Situation on Earth, Student Guide. Computer Technology Program Environmental Education Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This is the student guide in a set of five computer-oriented environmental/energy education units. Contents of this guide are: (1) Introduction to the unit; (2) The "EARTH" program; (3) Exercises; and (4) Sources of information on the energy crisis. This guide supplements a simulation which allows students to analyze different aspects of…

  4. Water Quality Monitoring: An Environmental Studies Unit for Biology 20/30. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Environment, Edmonton. Environmental Education Resources Branch.

    The objective of this environmental studies unit is to establish a water quality monitoring project for high school students in Alberta while simultaneously providing a unit which meets the objectives of the Biology 20 program (and which may also be used in Biology 10 and 30). Through this project, students assist in the collection,…

  5. United States-Mexico electricity transfers: Of alien electrons and the migration of undocumented environmental burdens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This article intends to set forth the necessity for reform in the United States policy and procedures regarding approval of power transfers between the United States and Mexico. In order to do this, the article will review the history of electrical power transfers between the United States and Mexico (Part II), analyze recent regulatory changes in the United States and Mexico which may result in increased power exports to Mexico (Part III), evaluate the extent to which the present permit and authorization system in the United States considers the increased environmental burden of such power transfers (Part IV), and, where appropriate, propose some procedural and policy reforms that could take into account the environmental burdens generated by the production of power destined for transfer across the United States-Mexico border (Part V).

  6. Environmental remediation and waste management in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntzing, L. Manning; Person, John C.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental remediation of radioactively and chemically contaminated sites represents one of the most complex challenges of our age. From a practical view point, if contaminated sites can not be successfully remediated, the future of the nuclear industry and of other industries could be challenged. From a moral standpoint, this generation has an obligation to remedy the harmful by-products of the otherwise necessary and beneficial activities in which is has engaged. The task is challenging for several reasons. First, standards governing remedial action are complex and constantly evolving. Second, unless contaminated material is to be stabilized in place, it must be removed and sent to another facility for storage and ultimate disposal. Yet, there is a shortage of such facilities and it is becoming increasingly difficult to develop additional ones. Third, the task is technically demanding. Fourth, the challenge is a risky one, Those who seek to remediate past contamination may find themselves exposed to expanding and unfair allegations of liability for that very contamination. Finally, there is often a basis crisis of public confidence regarding remediation efforts which overshadows and permeates the foregoing considerations. (author).

  7. 75 FR 4426 - Florida Power and Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Units 3 and 4; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... the beltline region of the Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 reactor pressure vessels. Environmental Impacts... COMMISSION Florida Power and Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Units 3 and 4; Environmental..., located in Miami, Florida. In accordance with 10 CFR 51.21, the NRC prepared an environmental assessment...

  8. Environmental persistence of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a French intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantel, Alix; Richaud-Morel, Brigitte; Cazaban, Michel; Bouziges, Nicole; Sotto, Albert; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2016-03-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative rods is an emerging global problem. This study describes the epidemiologic features of an outbreak caused by an environmental reservoir of OXA-48-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae caused by persistence of the bacteria during 20 months in an intensive care unit in France. This report emphasizes the importance of early environmental screening to interrupt the transmission of carbapenemase-producingEnterobacteriaceae.

  9. A comparison of temporal trends in United States autism prevalence to trends in suspected environmental factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nevison, Cynthia D

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of diagnosed autism has increased rapidly over the last several decades among U.S. children. Environmental factors are thought to be driving this increase and a list of the top ten suspected environmental toxins was published recently. Methods Temporal trends in autism for birth years 1970–2005 were derived from a combination of data from the California Department of Developmental Services (CDDS) and the United States Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA...

  10. Modelling of an industrial NGL-Recovery unit considering environmental and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharratt, P. N.; Hernandez-Enriquez, A.; Flores-Tlacuahuac, A.

    2009-07-01

    In this work, an integrated model is presented that identifies key areas in the operation of a cryogenic NGL-recovery unit. This methodology sets out to provide deep understanding of various interrelationship across multiple plant operating factors including reliability, which could be essential for substantial improvement of process performance. The integrated model has been developed to predict the economic and environmental impacts of a real cryogenic unit (600 MMCUF/D) during normal operation, and has been built in Aspen TM. (Author)

  11. Importance of asymptomatic shedding of Clostridium difficile in environmental contamination of a neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faden, Howard S; Dryja, Diane

    2015-08-01

    A survey of C. difficle in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was conducted. Approximately 25% of infants in the NICU were colonized with Clostridium difficle. Environmental surface cultures were obtained from the NICU and compared with cultures taken from infant, adolescent, and hematology/oncology units. From 150 surface cultures, C difficle was recovered exclusively from the NICU. Of the 16 different types of surfaces cultured, diaper scales and the surrounding area were contaminated most often at 50%.

  12. Operable Unit 3: Proposed Plan/Environmental Assessment for interim remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This document presents a Proposed Plan and an Environmental Assessment for an interim remedial action to be undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) within Operable Unit 3 (OU3) at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This proposed plan provides site background information, describes the remedial alternatives being considered, presents a comparative evaluation of the alternatives and a rationnale for the identification of DOE`s preferred alternative, evaluates the potential environmental and public health effects associated with the alternatives, and outlines the public`s role in helping DOE and the EPA to make the final decision on a remedy.

  13. Improving environmental performance through unit-level organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment: A capability perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Elisa; Spitzeck, Heiko

    2016-11-01

    Organizational citizenship behaviors for the environment (OCBEs) are increasingly advocated as a means of complementing formal practices in improving environmental performance. Adopting a capability perspective, we propose that a firm's employee involvement capability translates into environmental performance through the manifestation of unit-level OCBEs, and that this relationship is amplified by a shared vision capability. In a cross-country and multi-industry sample of 170 firms, we find support for our hypotheses, shedding light on contextual determinants of OCBEs, and on how firms may engender a positive relationship between top-down environmental initiatives and bottom-up behaviors.

  14. Development of certified environmental management in hospital and outpatient haemodialysis units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vicente, Sergio; Morales Suárez-Varela, María; Martí Monrós, Anna; Llopis González, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impact of haemodialysis is very high. Institutional activity in this sense is important, even in the production of references. Voluntary environmental management systems (EMS), environmental management and auditing systems (EMAS) and the International Organization for Standardization standards (ISO 14001) are important tools for environmental protection, together with legislation, taxation and tax benefits. To determine the degree of implementation of EMS in hospital units and outpatient haemodialysis in the Spanish National Health System to provide a group of reference centres in environmental management in this healthcare activity. Development of a list by autonomous communities showing hospital and outpatient dialysis units using an EMAS and/or ISO 14001 in 2012-2013. The sources of information were the Spanish National Catalogue of Hospitals, Spanish Registry of Healthcare Certification and Accreditation, European and regional EMAS records, world ISO registrations, dialysis centre lists from scientific societies and patients, responses from accredited entities in Spain for environmental certification and the institutional website of each haemodialysis centre identified. Of the 210 hospitals with a dialysis unit, 53 (25%) have the ISO 14001 and 15 of these also have an EMAS). This constitutes 30% of all hospital dialysis chairs in Spain: 1,291 (of 4,298). Only 11 outpatient clinics are recorded, all with the ISO 14001. There is no official documentation of the implementation of EMS in dialysis units. Making this list provides an approach to the situation, with special reference to haemodialysis because of its significant environmental impact. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, P.L.; Legeay, A.J.; Pesce, D.S.; Stanley, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    This report, Site Descriptions of Environmental Restoration Units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is being prepared to assimilate information on sites included in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of the K-25 Site, one of three major installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) built during World War III as part of the Manhattan Project. The information included in this report will be used to establish program priorities so that resources allotted to the K-25 ER Program can be best used to decrease any risk to humans or the environment, and to determine the sequence in which any remedial activities should be conducted. This document will be updated periodically in both paper and Internet versions. Units within this report are described in individual data sheets arranged alphanumerically. Each data sheet includes entries on project status, unit location, dimensions and capacity, dates operated, present function, lifecycle operation, waste characteristics, site status, media of concern, comments, and references. Each data sheet is accompanied by a photograph of the unit, and each unit is located on one of 13 area maps. These areas, along with the sub-area, unit, and sub-unit breakdowns within them, are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B is a summary of information on remote aerial sensing and its applicability to the ER program.

  16. 77 FR 39320 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Singapore Memorandum of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... United States and Singapore negotiated the MOI in parallel with the U.S.-Singapore Free Trade Agreement... illegal trade in environmentally sensitive goods through bilateral and regional cooperative activities... the FTA. These documents are available at: http://www.state.gov/e/oes/env/trade/singapore/index.htm...

  17. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter Research Focusing on the Past 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolf, Kent B.; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N.; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W.; Young, Andrew J.; Zambraski, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of…

  18. Man's Effect on the Environment, Teacher's Guide. Environmental Education Unit, Sixth Grade Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little Rock School District, AR.

    Part of a sequential series of curriculum units in environmental education for grades 4 through 12, this sixth grade curriculum guide focuses on man's effect upon the environment. Extensive classroom activities and field trips introduce the student to population, technology, pollution, natural resources, responsibility, career opportunities, and…

  19. 76 FR 53994 - Final Environmental Impact Statement, Single Nuclear Unit at the Bellefonte Plant Site, Jackson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... capacity, alternatives considered by TVA, the history of the Bellefonte project, environmental consequences... sources were not found sufficient to meet power needs in the required time frame. Completing Bellefonte... finding of no effects on historic properties associated with completion and operation of a nuclear unit...

  20. Anthropogenic Climate Change in Undergraduate Marine and Environmental Science Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlietstra, Lucy S.; Mrakovcich, Karina L.; Futch, Victoria C.; Stutzman, Brooke S.

    2016-01-01

    To develop a context for program-level design decisions pertaining to anthropogenic climate change, the authors studied the prevalence of courses focused on human-induced climate change in undergraduate marine science and environmental science degree programs in the United States. Of the 86 institutions and 125 programs the authors examined, 37%…

  1. 75 FR 5354 - Tennessee Valley Authority; Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Tennessee Valley Authority; Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Units 1, 2, and 3 Environmental Assessment...-68, issued to Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA, the licensee), for operation of the Browns Ferry...

  2. 77 FR 51071 - Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ..., operational, or storing processes). The fuel storage and handling, radioactive waste, and other systems which... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Environmental Assessment and...

  3. Geoecology: a county-level environmental data base for the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, R.J.; Emerson, C.J.; Nungesser, M.K.

    1980-09-01

    The Geoecology Data Base represents a unique compilation of computerized environmental data for research and development needs. Environmental assessment and planning for energy development require rapid access to data at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. In the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), we have developed an integrated data base of diverse environmental resource information from extant sources. Data are stored at the county level of resolution for the conterminous United States with some data available for subcounty units within larger, more diverse eastern counties. The Geoecology Data Base contains selected data on terrain and soils, water resources, forestry, vegetation, agriculture, land use, wildlife, air quality, climate, natural areas, and endangered species. Basic files on human population are also included to complement the environmental files. Data are stored in metric-SI units. The Geoecology Data Base is currently fulfilling diverse ongoing research needs while it is being expanded and updated as needs and new data are identified. This report is both a documentation and a user's guide to the Geoecology Data Base. It describes the Data Base design, illustrates applications, provides examples of accessing the Data Base, and gives general information on the data set contents.

  4. Environmental contamination and airborne microbial counts: a role for hydroxyl radical disinfection units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, V; Staniforth, K; Boswell, T C

    2011-07-01

    Environmental contamination is thought to play a role in the spread of infection in hospitals and there has been increased interest in novel air disinfection systems in preventing infection. In this study the efficacy of a hydroxyl radical air disinfection system (Inov8 unit) in reducing the number of airborne bacteria was assessed in a clinical setting. Environmental contamination was assessed using settle plates and air samples in three settings: (1) non-clinical room; (2) non-clinical room with defined activity; and (3) single intensive care unit cubicle. A comparison of air counts and environmental contamination rates was made with the Inov8 units on and off. The Inov8 unit produced an overall reduction in both air sample and settle plate counts in each setting (Penvironmental contamination within clinical isolation rooms. Further work is required to assess the effect on specific pathogens, and to establish whether this will reduce the risks of patients and/or healthcare workers acquiring such pathogens from the environment.

  5. Distribution of Industrial Farms in the United States and Socioeconomic, Health, and Environmental Characteristics of Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Rafael Harun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of producing food animals has changed in the United States over the past century, moving from traditional burns to enclosed structures resembling industrial buildings, where animals are raised in high stocking density (commonly known as “Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations,” CAFOs. The objective to maximize profit has resulted in poor farm management; raised issues of environmental pollution, public health, animal rights, and environmental justice, and had socio-economic impacts. Studies concerning the issues are limited to specific regions and types of CAFOs. In addition, studies on the spatial distribution and temporal changes of CAFO at a country scale are lacking. This study bridges some of the gaps by analyzing the spatial distribution of industrial farms in the United States in 2002 and 2007 and their relationship with vulnerable population and exploring the relationships among the concentrations of farms, socio-economic, health, and environmental characteristics of the counties. A range of spatial statistics tools were applied in this study. The study revealed variations in spatial distribution depending on the type of the CAFOs. The issue of environmental justice was found prevalent depending on the types of industrial farms. Each type of industrial farm was found to interact uniquely with the selected demographic, health, and environmental parameters.

  6. 78 FR 20133 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Bull Mountain Unit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to analyze a Master Development Plan (MDP) that proposes to drill up to 150... preparing an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the 150-well Bull Mountain Unit MDP from September 21 to... April 23, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments related to the proposed Bull Mountain Unit MDP by...

  7. Environmental risk of mesothelioma in the United States: An emerging concern-epidemiological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Francine; Carbone, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Despite predictions of decline in mesothelioma following the ban of asbestos in most industrial countries, the incidence is still increasing globally, particularly in women. Because occupational exposure to asbestos is the main cause of mesothelioma, it occurs four- to eightfold more frequently in men than women, at a median age of 74 years. When mesothelioma is due to an environmental exposure, the M:F sex ratio is 1:1 and the median age at diagnosis is ~60 years. Studying environmental risk of mesothelioma is challenging because of the long latency period and small numbers, and because this type of exposure is involuntary and unknown. Individual-based methods cannot be used, and new approaches need to be found. To better understand the most recent trends of mesothelioma in the United States, all mesothelioma deaths reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during 1999-2010 were analyzed. Among all mesothelioma deaths in the United States, the 1920s birth cohort significantly predominated, and the proportion of younger cohorts constantly decreased with time, suggesting a decline in occupational exposure in these cohorts. The M:F mesothelioma sex ratio fell with time, suggesting an increased proportion of environmental cases. Environmental exposures occur in specific geographic areas. At the large scale of a state, mesotheliomas related to environmental exposure are diluted among occupational cases. The spatial analysis at a smaller scale, such as county, enables detection of areas with higher proportions of female and young mesothelioma cases, thus indicating possible environmental exposure, where geological and environmental investigations need to be carried out.

  8. Environmental Risks to Public Health in the United Arab Emirates: A Quantitative Assessment and Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Zeinab S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Environmental risks to health in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) have shifted rapidly from infectious to noninfectious diseases as the nation has developed at an unprecedented rate. In response to public concerns over newly emerging environmental risks, the Environment Agency–Abu Dhabi commissioned a multidisciplinary environmental health strategic planning project. Objectives: In order to develop the environmental health strategic plan, we sought to quantify the illnesses and premature deaths in the UAE attributable to 14 environmental pollutant categories, prioritize these 14 risk factors, and identify interventions. Methods: We estimated the disease burden imposed by each risk factor using an attributable fraction approach, and we prioritized the risks using an empirically tested stakeholder engagement process. We then engaged government personnel, scientists, and other stakeholders to identify interventions. Results: The UAE’s environmental disease burden is low by global standards. Ambient air pollution is the leading contributor to premature mortality [~ 650 annual deaths; 95% confidence interval (CI): 140, 1,400]. Risk factors leading to > 10,000 annual health care facility visits included occupational exposures, indoor air pollution, drinking water contamination, seafood contamination, and ambient air pollution. Among the 14 risks considered, on average, outdoor air pollution was ranked by the stakeholders as the highest priority (mean rank, 1.4; interquartile range, 1–2) and indoor air pollution as the second-highest priority (mean rank 3.3; interquartile range, 2–4). The resulting strategic plan identified 216 potential interventions for reducing environmental risks to health. Conclusions: The strategic planning exercise described here provides a framework for systematically deciding how to invest public funds to maximize expected returns in environmental health, where returns are measured in terms of reductions in a population

  9. Assessing the edible city: Environmental implications of urban agriculture in the Northeast United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul

    One of the pivotal environmental challenges in the coming decades will be feeding an increasingly wealthy and populated planet in a sustainable manner. As industrialization and concomitant urbanization aects hitherto peripheral economies, much of this challenge will depend on the ability to support...... the nutritional demands of a global urban population in a fashion aligned with the biophysical capacity of the planet. Amongst the myriad of solutions proposed to guide humanity towards more environmentally sustainable food system, co-locating food production and consumption in cities is an area that has seen...... signicant action in research, design and practice. In the Northeast United States, where per capita diets are amongst the most environmentally intensive globally, there is a growing interest in local food production as a way to reduce the ecological burdens of food demand. Urban farms and pro...

  10. Deaths and medical visits attributable to environmental pollution in the United Arab Emirates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study estimates the potential health gains achievable in the United Arab Emirates (UAE with improved controls on environmental pollution. The UAE is an emerging economy in which population health risks have shifted rapidly from infectious diseases to chronic conditions observed in developed nations. The UAE government commissioned this work as part of an environmental health strategic planning project intended to address this shift in the nature of the country's disease burden. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the burden of disease attributable to six environmental exposure routes outdoor air, indoor air, drinking water, coastal water, occupational environments, and climate change. For every exposure route, we integrated UAE environmental monitoring and public health data in a spatially resolved Monte Carlo simulation model to estimate the annual disease burden attributable to selected pollutants. The assessment included the entire UAE population (4.5 million for the year of analysis. The study found that outdoor air pollution was the leading contributor to mortality, with 651 attributable deaths (95% confidence interval [CI] 143-1,440, or 7.3% of all deaths. Indoor air pollution and occupational exposures were the second and third leading contributors to mortality, with 153 (95% CI 85-216 and 46 attributable deaths (95% CI 26-72, respectively. The leading contributor to health-care facility visits was drinking water pollution, to which 46,600 (95% CI 15,300-61,400 health-care facility visits were attributed (about 15% of the visits for all the diseases considered in this study. Major study limitations included (1 a lack of information needed to translate health-care facility visits to quality-adjusted-life-year estimates and (2 insufficient spatial coverage of environmental data. CONCLUSIONS: Based on international comparisons, the UAE's environmental disease burden is low for all factors except outdoor air pollution. From a

  11. Environmental study of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemic in a burn unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, W A; Katz, E B; Sherertz, R J; Sarubbi, F A

    1983-01-01

    During an outbreak of infections caused by methicillin-resistant (MR) Staphylococcus aureus in our burn unit, we conducted an extensive 10-week study to define the environmental epidemiology of the organism. The inanimate environment in patient rooms and adjacent areas was examined by using volumetric air samplers and Rodac plates. Airborne and surface level contamination with MR S. aureus was quantitated, and overall, MR S. aureus comprised 16, 31, and 40% of all bacterial growth from air, elevated surfaces, and floor surfaces, respectively. Mean air, elevated surface, and floor surface MR S. aureus contamination in rooms of MR S. aureus-infected burn patients were 1.9 MR S. aureus per ft3 (ca. 0.028 m3), 20 MR S. aureus per Rodac plate and 48 MR S. aureus per Rodac plate, respectively. Peak patient room environmental contamination levels were 6.9 MR S. aureus per ft3 of air, 70 MR S. aureus per Rodac plate per elevated surface and 138 MR S. aureus per Rodac plate per floor surface. Environmental contamination levels in the adjacent work areas were considerably lower than in infected patient rooms. There was ample opportunity for contamination of personnel through the inanimate environment in this unit. PMID:6630447

  12. Environmental challenges threatening the growth of urban agriculture in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Sam E; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

    2013-09-01

    Urban agriculture, though often difficult to define, is an emerging sector of local food economies in the United States. Although urban and agricultural landscapes are often integrated in countries around the world, the establishment of mid- to large-scale food production in the U.S. urban ecosystem is a relatively new development. Many of the urban agricultural projects in the United States have emerged from social movements and nonprofit organizations focused on urban renewal, education, job training, community development, and sustainability initiatives. Although these social initiatives have traction, critical knowledge gaps exist regarding the science of food production in urban ecosystems. Developing a science-based approach to urban agriculture is essential to the economic and environmental sustainability of the movement. This paper reviews abiotic environmental factors influencing urban cropping systems, including soil contamination and remediation; atmospheric pollutants and altered climatic conditions; and water management, sources, and safety. This review paper seeks to characterize the limited state of the science on urban agricultural systems and identify future research questions most relevant to urban farmers, land-use planners, and environmental consultants.

  13. Facilitating resident information seeking regarding meals in a special care unit: an environmental design intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Beth A D; Mathews, R Mark

    2004-10-01

    Repetitive questions and requests for information are common in older adults with dementia. The purpose of this environmental design intervention was to provide residents continuous access to information about common mealtime questions with the intent of decreasing agitation around mealtimes and facilitating more pleasant patient-staff and patient-patient interactions. A special care unit for residents with dementia of the Alzheimer's type was the setting. During the intervention conditions, a large clock and a sign with large lettering that identified mealtimes were hung in the dining area. Direct observations of 35 residents were conducted at mealtimes for a 5-month period. Results showed reductions from baseline to the intervention phase in food-related questions or requests. These results suggest a simple, inexpensive environmental change intervention can reduce repetitive questions commonly exhibited by individuals with dementia.

  14. Synchronous environmental and cultural change in the prehistory of the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Samuel E; Gajewski, Konrad; Peros, Matthew C

    2010-12-21

    Climatic changes during the late Quaternary have resulted in substantial, often abrupt, rearrangements of terrestrial ecosystems, but the relationship between these environmental changes and prehistoric human culture and population size remains unclear. Using a database of archaeological radiocarbon dates alongside a network of paleoecological records (sedimentary pollen and charcoal) and paleoclimatic reconstructions, we show that periods of cultural and demographic change in the northeastern United States occurred at the same times as the major environmental-climatic transitions of that region. At 11.6, 8.2, 5.4, and 3.0 kyr BP (10(3) calendar years before present), changes in forest composition altered the distribution, availability, and predictability of food resources which triggered technological adjustments manifested in the archaeological record. Human population level has varied in response to these external changes in ecosystems, but the adoption of maize agriculture during the late Holocene also resulted in a substantial population increase. This study demonstrates the long-term interconnectedness of prehistoric human cultures and the ecosystems they inhabited, and provides a consolidated environmental-cultural framework from which more interdisciplinary research and discussion can develop. Moreover, it emphasizes the complex nature of human responses to environmental change in a temperate region.

  15. Environmental Noise Pollution in the United States: Developing an Effective Public Health Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Monica S.; Swinburn, Tracy K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. Objectives: We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. Discussion: We estimated that 104 million individuals had annual LEQ(24) levels > 70 dBA (equivalent to a continuous average exposure level of >70 dBA over 24 hr) in 2013 and were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Conclusion: Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda. Citation: Hammer MS, Swinburn TK, Neitzel RL. 2014. Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response. Environ Health Perspect 122:115–119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307272 PMID:24311120

  16. Final environmental assessment : Using livestock grazing as a management tool to provide quality wildlife habitat : Silver Dollar Habitat Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This final environmental assessment is for the use of livestock grazing to improve the quality of wildlife habitats within the Silver Dollar Habitat Unit on Charles...

  17. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake. CAU 496 consists of one site located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  18. Inland sea as a unit for environmental history: East Asian inland seas from prehistory to future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Kati; Uchiyama, Junzo

    2012-04-01

    The boundaries of landscape policies often coincide with political or economic boundaries, thus creating a situation where a unit of landscape protection or management reflects more its present political status than its historico-geographical situation, its historical function and formation. At the same time, it is evident that no unit can exist independently of the context that has given birth to it and that environmental protection in isolated units cannot be very effective. The present paper will discuss inland sea as a landscape unit from prehistory to modern days and its implications for future landscape planning, using EastAsian inland sea (Japan Sea and East China Sea) rim as an example. Historically an area of active communication, EastAsian inland sea rim has become a politically very sharply divided area. The authors will bring examples to demonstrate how cultural communication on the inland sea level has influenced the formation of several landscape features that are now targets for local or national landscape protection programs, and how a unified view could benefit the future of landscape policies in the whole region.

  19. Unit environmental transport assessment of contaminants from Hanford`s past-practice waste sites. Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, G.; Buck, J.W.; Castleton, K.J. [and others

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) contracted Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide support to Advanced Sciences, Incorporated (ASI) in implementing tile regional no-action risk assessment in the Hanford Remedial Action Environmental Impact Statement. Researchers at PNL were charged with developing unit concentrations for soil, groundwater, surface water, and air at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of tile Hanford installation. Using the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS), PNL simulated (1) a unit release of one ci for each radionuclide and one kg for each chemical from contaminated soils and ponded sites, (2) transport of the contaminants in and through various environmental media and (3) exposure/risk of four exposure scenarios, outlined by the Hanford Site Baseline Remedial Action Methodology. These four scenarios include residential, recreational, industrial, and agricultural exposures. Spacially and temporally distributed environmental concentrations based on unit releases of radionuclides and chemicals were supported to ASI in support of the HRA-EIS. Risk for the four exposure scenarios, based on unit environment concentrations in air, water, and soil. were also supplied to ASI. This report outlines the procedure that was used to implement the unit transport portion of the HRA-EIS baseline risk assessment. Deliverables include unit groundwater, surface water, air, and soil concentrations at multiple locations within an 80-km radius from the center of the Hanford installation.

  20. 75 FR 14634 - Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc.; Millstone Power Station, Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... part 73, for certain uninterruptible power supply requirements. The proposed action, an extension of... COMMISSION Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc.; Millstone Power Station, Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3; Environmental... Power Station, Unit Nos. 1, 2, and 3 (MPS1, MPS2, and MPS3, respectively), located in New London...

  1. 75 FR 43571 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment And...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Catawba Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment And..., issued to Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Catawba Nuclear Station, Units...

  2. 75 FR 24997 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment... Energy Point Beach, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

  3. Optimization of {sup 210}Po estimation in environmental samples using an improved deposition unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Jay Singh; Sahoo, Sunil Kumar; Mohapatra, Swagatika; Lenka, Pradyumna; Patra, Aditi Chakravarty; Thakur, Virender Kumar; Ravi, Pazhayath Mana; Tripathi, Raj Mangal [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Health Physics Div.

    2015-06-01

    Measurement of {sup 210}Po in environmental matrices is important due to its very high specific activity, present in every compartment of the environment due to a daughter product of uranium ({sup 238}U), accumulative and highly toxic in nature. Conventional method for {sup 210}Po estimation is by auto-deposition onto both sides of a silver disc followed by alpha spectrometry of both the sides. A new deposition unit having the facility to hold the silver disc and magnetic stirring bar has designed and fabricated for {sup 210}Po estimation in which only one side is counted. In the conventional method, the total activity is distributed to the both sides of the silver disc and more counting time is required whereas in the improved deposition unit, only one side contain all the activity so that one time counting is required with better statistical significance. The same has been observed in spike recovery and water sample assessment. The tracer recovery in the conventional method was 72%-88% and 70%-85% whereas for the new deposition the recovery is 87%-99% and 78%-94% for spike recovery study and environmental samples, respectively. Certified tracers were analysed for the assurance of the reliability of the method and the results were in good agreement with the recommended value with a relative error <20%. The MDA of the method is 1.5 mBq for the estimation of {sup 210}Po at 3σ confidence level, 86400 s. counting time and 100 ml of water sample, taking the detector efficiency and chemical yield into consideration. The results obtained from both the methods were compared statistically. χ{sup 2} test, repeatability parameters, relative bias measurement and linearity test was performed for both the methods. The % difference between the two methods in terms of linearity is 0.2%. From the χ{sup 2} test it can be concluded that the measured data by two methods falls within 99% confidence interval. The modified deposition unit enhance the statistical significance, reduce

  4. Deaths and Medical Visits Attributable to Environmental Pollution in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald Gibson, Jacqueline; Thomsen, Jens; Launay, Frederic; Harder, Elizabeth; DeFelice, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Background This study estimates the potential health gains achievable in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) with improved controls on environmental pollution. The UAE is an emerging economy in which population health risks have shifted rapidly from infectious diseases to chronic conditions observed in developed nations. The UAE government commissioned this work as part of an environmental health strategic planning project intended to address this shift in the nature of the country’s disease burden. Methods and Findings We assessed the burden of disease attributable to six environmental exposure routes outdoor air, indoor air, drinking water, coastal water, occupational environments, and climate change. For every exposure route, we integrated UAE environmental monitoring and public health data in a spatially resolved Monte Carlo simulation model to estimate the annual disease burden attributable to selected pollutants. The assessment included the entire UAE population (4.5 million for the year of analysis). The study found that outdoor air pollution was the leading contributor to mortality, with 651 attributable deaths (95% confidence interval [CI] 143–1,440), or 7.3% of all deaths. Indoor air pollution and occupational exposures were the second and third leading contributors to mortality, with 153 (95% CI 85–216) and 46 attributable deaths (95% CI 26–72), respectively. The leading contributor to health-care facility visits was drinking water pollution, to which 46,600 (95% CI 15,300–61,400) health-care facility visits were attributed (about 15% of the visits for all the diseases considered in this study). Major study limitations included (1) a lack of information needed to translate health-care facility visits to quality-adjusted-life-year estimates and (2) insufficient spatial coverage of environmental data. Conclusions Based on international comparisons, the UAE’s environmental disease burden is low for all factors except outdoor air pollution. From a

  5. Proceedings of Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An exchange between the United States and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Scientists, engineers, elected officials, and industry regulators from the United, States and Germany met in Albuquerque, New Mexico, August 16--20, 1993, in the first joint international workshop to discuss uranium tailings remediation. Entitled ``Workshop on Uranium Production Environmental Restoration: An Exchange between the US and Germany,`` the meeting was hosted by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The goal of the workshop was to further understanding and communication on the uranium tailings cleanup projects in the US and Germany. Many communities around the world are faced with an environmental legacy -- enormous quantities of hazardous and low-level radioactive materials from the production of uranium used for energy and nuclear weapons. In 1978, the US Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act. Title I of the law established a program to assess the tailings at inactive uranium processing sites and provide a means for joint federal and state funding of the cleanup efforts at sites where all or substantially all of the uranium was produced for sale to a federal agency. The UMTRA Project is responsible for the cleanup of 24 sites in 10 states. Germany is facing nearly identical uranium cleanup problems and has established a cleanup project. At the workshop, participants had an opportunity to interact with a broad cross section of the environmental restoration and waste disposal community, discuss common concerns and problems, and develop a broader understanding of the issues. Abstracts are catalogued individually for the data base.

  6. National patterns in environmental injustice and inequality: outdoor NO2 air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2014-01-01

    We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, penvironmental health implications of that concentration disparity are compelling. For example, we estimate that reducing nonwhites' NO2 concentrations to levels experienced by whites would reduce Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) mortality by ∼7,000 deaths per year, which is equivalent to 16 million people increasing their physical activity level from inactive (0 hours/week of physical activity) to sufficiently active (>2.5 hours/week of physical activity). Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08). Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile) for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

  7. National patterns in environmental injustice and inequality: outdoor NO2 air pollution in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara P Clark

    Full Text Available We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, p2.5 hours/week of physical activity. Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08. Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

  8. National Patterns in Environmental Injustice and Inequality: Outdoor NO2 Air Pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P.; Millet, Dylan B.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-01-01

    We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, p2.5 hours/week of physical activity). Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08). Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile) for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin. PMID:24736569

  9. Making the Environmental Justice Grade: The Relative Burden of Air Pollution Exposure in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Edwards, Sharon E.; Keating, Martha H.; Paul, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses whether the Clean Air Act and its Amendments have been equally successful in ensuring the right to healthful air quality in both advantaged and disadvantaged communities in the United States. Using a method to rank air quality established by the American Lung Association in its 2009 State of the Air report along with EPA air quality data, we assess the environmental justice dimensions of air pollution exposure and access to air quality information in the United States. We focus on the race, age, and poverty demographics of communities with differing levels of ozone and particulate matter exposure, as well as communities with and without air quality information. Focusing on PM2.5 and ozone, we find that within areas covered by the monitoring networks, non-Hispanic blacks are consistently overrepresented in communities with the poorest air quality. The results for older and younger age as well as poverty vary by the pollution metric under consideration. Rural areas are typically outside the bounds of air quality monitoring networks leaving large segments of the population without information about their ambient air quality. These results suggest that substantial areas of the United States lack monitoring data, and among areas where monitoring data are available, low income and minority communities tend to experience higher ambient pollution levels. PMID:21776200

  10. Internal Environmental Displacement: A Growing Challenge to the United States Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While the greatest potential for environmental displacement occurs in poorer nations, internal displacement has resulted from environmental change and disasters in the United States; and climate change will likely amplify this movement. I describe how environmental displacement is a policy drift that reduces the effectiveness of current welfare state policies to protect US populations from the risk of impoverishment. Evidence from previous disasters indicates environmental displacees have particular assistance needs. I identify the four main assistance needs in my Environmental Displacement and Resilience Model then use this model to evaluate whether current policies address housing, finances, health, and discrimination needs of those displaced. My analysis highlights a gap between the country’s response to disasters and the current welfare state social safety nets. Without disaster and welfare policy changes environmental displacement will continue to be a policy drift that leave displacees vulnerable to social and economic marginalization. Mientras que el mayor potencial de desplazamientos por causas medioambientales se da en los países más pobres, en los Estados Unidos se ha producido un desplazamiento interno como resultado de cambios ambientales y desastres; y es probable que el cambio climático aumente estos movimientos. Se describe cómo los desplazamientos por causas ambientales suponen un fallo político que reduce la eficacia de las actuales políticas del estado de bienestar que se deben desarrollar para proteger a la población de Estados Unidos contra el riesgo de empobrecimiento. Evidencias de desastres anteriores indican que los desplazados por causas medioambientales tienen necesidades de asistencia especiales. Se identifican las cuatro necesidades de asistencia principales que recoge Modelo de Desplazamiento Medioambiental y Resiliciencia de la autora, para después usar este modelo para evaluar si las políticas actuales

  11. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Parker, A.F.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides summary information on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) sites as listed in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), dated January 1, 1992, Appendix C. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory was built in 1943 as part of the World War II Manhattan Project. The original mission of ORNL was to produce and chemically separate the first gram-quantities of plutonium as part of the national effort to produce the atomic bomb. The current mission of ORNL is to provide applied research and development in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in nuclear fusion and fission, energy conservation, fossil fuels, and other energy technologies and to perform basic scientific research in selected areas of the physical, life, and environmental sciences. ER is also tasked with clean up or mitigation of environmental impacts resulting from past waste management practices on portions of the approximately 37,000 acres within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Other installations located within the ORR are the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25) and the Y-12 plant. The remedial action strategy currently integrates state and federal regulations for efficient compliance and approaches for both investigations and remediation efforts on a Waste Area Grouping (WAG) basis. As defined in the ORR FFA Quarterly Report July - September 1995, a WAG is a grouping of potentially contaminated sites based on drainage area and similar waste characteristics. These contaminated sites are further divided into four categories based on existing information concerning whether the data are generated for scoping or remedial investigation (RI) purposes. These areas are as follows: (1) Operable Units (OU); (2) Characterization Areas (CA); (3) Remedial Site Evaluation (RSE) Areas; and (4) Removal Site Evaluation (RmSE) Areas.

  12. Reduction in MRSA environmental contamination with a portable HEPA-filtration unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, T C; Fox, P C

    2006-05-01

    There is renewed interest in the hospital environment as a potentially important factor for cross-infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and other nosocomial pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a portable high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA)-filtration unit (IQAir Cleanroom H13, Incen AG, Goldach, Switzerland) at reducing MRSA environmental surface contamination within a clinical setting. The MRSA contamination rate on horizontal surfaces was assessed with agar settle plates in ward side-rooms of three patients who were heavy MRSA dispersers. Contamination rates were measured at different air filtration rates (60-235 m(3)/h) and compared with no air filtration using Poisson regression. Without air filtration, between 80% and 100% of settle plates were positive for MRSA, with the mean number of MRSA colony-forming units (cfu)/10-h exposure/plate ranging from 4.1 to 27.7. Air filtration at a rate of 140 m(3)/h (one patient) and 235 m(3)/h (two patients), resulted in a highly significant decrease in contamination rates compared with no air filtration (adjusted rate ratios 0.037, 0.099 and 0.248, respectively; P contamination within patient isolation rooms, and this may prove to be a useful addition to existing MRSA infection control measures.

  13. Food waste in the United States: A contributing factor toward environmental instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eHickey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The world’s population continues to increase at record rates along with corresponding nutritional needs and related agricultural consequences. In the United States, food waste levels serve as dominant components of land-fill masses, oil and freshwater waste, methane and CO2 emissions, damage to wildlife ecosystems, and substantial financial losses. Agricultural effects on the environment were investigated through various research studies, referenced in this document, and efforts made toward food waste recycling were discussed as noteworthy models concerning improvements in sustainable agricultural practices. Food waste levels in the United States can be traced as faults of consumers, agricultural businesses, as well as federal legislation and there is an evident need for reform to maintain consumer health, viable foreign affairs, and environmental sustainability. Present agricultural practices are intense and rapid, increasing the risk of soil infertility and commercial alterations in production yields; repercussions well documented in neighboring nations. Experts argue that food waste in developed countries damages food availability around the world and, based on current agricultural practices and production, there is debate conc

  14. Environmental design in acute care settings: a case study of a neurological rehabilitation unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunn, Lindsay J; Gifford, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine environmental variables that lead to staff error in acute care settings: noise; lighting; ergonomics, furniture, and equipment; and patient room design and unit layout. Chaudhury, Mahmood, & Valente (2009) reviewed a number of design considerations related to reducing errors by nursing staff in acute care settings. The Neurological Rehabilitation Unit (NRU) at one hospital served to further examine the design recommendations outlined by Chaudhury et al. (2009). Based on photographs, a site tour, interviews with the NRU manager and with the son of a patient of 5 months, comparisons were made between the NRU and the acute care setting design considerations reviewed by Chaudhury et al. (2009). The NRU appeared to comply with many recommendations: enforced noise reduction was facilitated through limiting both the number of patients per room and the number of patients admitted to the unit. Distinct rooms were used for various tasks that helped to contain activity-based noise. A combination of daylighting and artificial lighting was in place, but efforts to control glare and thermal comfort were not integrated into the design. The ergonomic needs of employees were incorporated in the design of the NRU, and the layouts of patient rooms and the layout of the NRU in general also were compatible with the design recommendations reviewed by Chaudhury et al. (2009). Many of the design attributes advocated by Chaudhury et al. (2009) were included in the NRU. Supplemental research should be undertaken, however, to objectively measure nursing error, efficiency, and staff satisfaction with respect to the comparisons and assumptions presented in this study. Case study, design, hospital, satisfaction, staff.

  15. Corrective action management unit application for the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    The Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) is to accept both CERCLA (EPA-regulated) and RCRA (Ecology-regulated) remediation waste. The ERDF is considered part of the overall remediation strategy on the Hanford Site, and as such, determination of ERDF viability has followed both RCRA and CERCLA decision making processes. Typically, determination of the viability of a unit, such as the ERDF, would occur as part of record of decision (ROD) or permit modification for each remediation site before construction of the ERDF. However, because construction of the ERDF may take a significant amount of time, it is necessary to begin design and construction of the ERDF before final RODs/permit modifications for the remediation sites. This will allow movement of waste to occur quickly once the final remediation strategy for the RCRA and CERCLA past-practice units is determined. Construction of the ERDF is a unique situation relative to Hanford Facility cleanup, requiring a Hanford Facility specific process be developed for implementing the ERDF that would satisfy both RCRA and CERCLA requirements. While the ERDF will play a significant role in the remediation process, initiation of the ERDF does not preclude the evaluation of remedial alternatives at each remediation site. To facilitate this, the January 1994 amendment to the Tri-Party Agreement recognizes the necessity for the ERDF, and the Tri-Party Agreement states: ``Ecology, EPA, and DOE agree to proceed with the steps necessary to design, approve, construct, and operate such a ... facility.`` The Tri-Party Agreement requires the DOE-RL to prepare a comprehensive ``package`` for the EPA and Ecology to consider in evaluating the ERDF. The package is to address the criteria listed in 40 CFR 264.552(c) for corrective action management unit (CAMU) designation and a CERCLA ROD. This CAMU application is submitted as part of the Tri-Party Agreement-required information package.

  16. Environmental risk assessment of hydrotropes in the United States, Europe, and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Kathleen; Tibazarwa, Caritas; Certa, Hans; Greggs, William; Hillebold, Donna; Jovanovich, Lela; Woltering, Daniel; Sedlak, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An environmental assessment of hydrotropes was conducted under the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Screening Information Data Sets (SIDS) for High Production Volume (HPV) Program via the Global International Council of Chemical Associations (ICCA) Hydrotropes Consortium. The assessment and its conclusions were presented at a meeting of the OECD member countries in Washington, DC in 2005. The SIDS Initial Assessment Report (SIAR) was accepted by the membership. Their conclusion was “The chemicals in this [hydrotropes] category are of low priority for further work because of their low hazard profile.” Hydrotropes are used to solubilize the water-insoluble ingredients of cleaning and personal care products including, for example, powder and liquid laundry detergents, hard-surface cleaners, machine dishwashing rinse aids, hand dishwashing liquids, body washes, shampoos, hair conditioners, and liquid hand and face soaps. Global production equals approximately 46 500 metric tons, a little more than half of which is used in the United States. The 8 chemicals accounted for in the “hydrotropes category” include ammonium, Ca, K, and Na salts that are described by 10 Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) registration numbers. The 8 chemical entities are generally comparable and predictable in their chemical behavior and that measured and/or modeled data for members from one subgroup can be applied to other subgroups and to the hydrotropes category as a whole. The assessment is based on a search for and evaluation of available data on physical–chemical properties, biodegradability, removal by wastewater treatment, and aquatic toxicity. Reliable ecotoxicity and environmental fate data were found for selected members of the category. Partitioning, once released into the environment, and exposure in surface waters were modeled for consumer use and manufacturing scenarios relevant to the United States, Europe, and Australia. The models indicate

  17. A network of Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units (PEHSUs: Filling a critical gap in the health care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Zachek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A network of pediatric environmental health specialty units (PEHSUs in the United States was formed in 1998 out of a recognized need for clinical expertise in children’s environmental health. Documented trends in a rise of pediatric diseases caused or exacerbated by environmental conditions, coupled with the failure of medical schools and residency programs to cover these issues in a significant way, leaves health care providers, parents, communities, and governments at a loss for this specialized knowledge. The PEHSUs fill this gap by providing: 1 medical education, 2 general outreach and communications, and 3 consultative services to communities and health care professionals. This paper presents examples of key situations where PEHSU involvement was instrumental in improved patient outcomes or advancing clinical expertise in children’s environmental health. Challenges and opportunities for future directions for the program are also discussed.

  18. Environmental risk assessment of low density polyethylene unit using the method of failure mode and effect analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salati Parinaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ninth olefin plan of Arya Sasol Petrochemical Company (A.S.P.C. is regarded the largest gas Olefin Unit located on Pars Special Economic Energy Zone (P.S.E.E.Z. Considering the importance of the petrochemical unit, its environmental assessment seems necessary to identify and reduce potential hazards. For this purpose, after determining the scope of the study area, identification and measurement of the environmental parameters, environmental risk assessment of the unit was carried out using Environment Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (EFMEA. Using the noted method, sources causing environmental risks were identified, rated and prioritized. Beside, the impacts of the environmental aspects derived from the unit activities as well as their consequences were also analyzed. Furthermore, the identified impacts were prioritized based on Risk Priority Number (RPN and severity level of the consequences imposed on the affected environment. After performing statistical calculations, it was found that the environmental aspects owing the risk priority number higher than 15 have a high level of risk. Results obtained from Low Density Polyethylene Unit revealed that the highest risk belongs to the emergency vent system with risk priority number equal to 48. It is occurred due to imperfect performance of the reactor safety system leading to the emissions of ethylene gas, particles, and radioactive steam as well as air and noise pollutions. Results derived from secondary assessment of the environmental aspects, through difference in calculated RPN and activities risk levels showed that employing modern methods and risk assessment are have remarkably reduced the severity of risk and consequently detracted the damages and losses incurred on the environment.

  19. 75 FR 78338 - Meeting of the United States-Oman Joint Forum on Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... conservation and cooperation on sustainable tourism in protected areas. The Department of the Interior, the... the previous Work Program and anticipate defining four main priority areas for cooperation activities... areas, and other ecologically important ecosystems; Improved private sector environmental...

  20. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENT OF COLOMBIA WITH THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This article is the result of a study carried out by the Environmental law Research Area of Universidad del Rosario, within the project of environmental conflicts applied to international decisions. One of the topics discussed in this research is the analysis of relationships between Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) and the Free Trade Agreement, or Trade Promotion Agreement, which was entered into by Colombia and the United States of America (Col-USA FTA) with the purpose of deter...

  1. Conservation unit and water quality: the influence of environmental integrity on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessé Renan Scapini Sobczak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a Conservation Unit (CU in maintaining the quality of freshwater habitats and to evaluate the influence of environmental integrity on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. METHODS: The research was conducted at sampling sites located within and outside of the CU in the Alto Uruguai region, southern Brazil, and included two stages: (i the collection of benthic macroinvertebrates and (ii the application of a Rapid Assessment Protocol (RAP to characterise the habitat quality. RESULTS: A total of 1,362 benthic macroinvertebrates were collected during the study, totalling 30 taxa. The densities within and outside the CU were significantly different (F= 160.08; p= 0.05, and the Shannon diversity and taxa richness followed the same pattern (F= 118.72, p= 0.05; and F= 176.33, p= 0.04, respectively. In contrast, the Pielou equitability did not differ within and outside the CU (F= 0.19, p= 0.74. The biotic index (Biological Monitoring Working Party indicated that water quality was good or very good in the majority of cases. Most of the sampling sites were classified as ‘natural’ according to the RAP. The taxa richness was significantly related to habitat diversity (F= 7.24; p = 0.05, but no significant relationship was found between the habitat diversity and the Shannon diversity (F= 2.13, p = 0.22. CONCLUSION: The CU was effective for the conservation of water quality and the freshwater biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates. The results show that the environmental integrity was related to the distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates, primarily to the taxa richness. More detailed investigations need to be developed to better understand these relationships and to take into account the temporal scale. An analysis of the most significant sources of stress on the aquatic life outside the area is recommended.

  2. Environmental and demographic determinants of avian influenza viruses in waterfowl across the contiguous United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Farnsworth

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of avian influenza in North American poultry have been linked to wild waterfowl. A first step towards understanding where and when avian influenza viruses might emerge from North American waterfowl is to identify environmental and demographic determinants of infection in their populations. Laboratory studies indicate water temperature as one determinant of environmental viral persistence and we explored this hypothesis at the landscape scale. We also hypothesized that the interval apparent prevalence in ducks within a local watershed during the overwintering season would influence infection probabilities during the following breeding season within the same local watershed. Using avian influenza virus surveillance data collected from 19,965 wild waterfowl across the contiguous United States between October 2006 and September 2009 We fit Logistic regression models relating the infection status of individual birds sampled on their breeding grounds to demographic characteristics, temperature, and interval apparent prevalence during the preceding overwintering season at the local watershed scale. We found strong support for sex, age, and species differences in the probability an individual duck tested positive for avian influenza virus. In addition, we found that for every seven days the local minimum temperature fell below zero, the chance an individual would test positive for avian influenza virus increased by 5.9 percent. We also found a twelve percent increase in the chance an individual would test positive during the breeding season for every ten percent increase in the interval apparent prevalence during the prior overwintering season. These results suggest that viral deposition in water and sub-freezing temperatures during the overwintering season may act as determinants of individual level infection risk during the subsequent breeding season. Our findings have implications for future surveillance activities in waterfowl and domestic

  3. Environmental and economic suitability of forest biomass-based bioenergy production in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Puneet

    This study attempts to ascertain the environmental and economic suitability of utilizing forest biomass for cellulosic ethanol production in the Southern United States. The study is divided into six chapters. The first chapter details the background and defines the relevance of the study along with objectives. The second chapter reviews the existing literature to ascertain the present status of various existing conversion technologies. The third chapter assesses the net energy ratio and global warming impact of ethanol produced from slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm.) biomass. A life-cycle assessment was applied to achieve the task. The fourth chapter assesses the role of emerging bioenergy and voluntary carbon markets on the profitability of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) landowners by combining the Faustmann and Hartmann models. The fifth chapter assesses perceptions of four stakeholder groups (Non-Government Organization, Academics, Industries, and Government) on the use of forest biomass for bioenergy production in the Southern United States using the SWOT-AHP (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat-Analytical Hierarchy Process) technique. Finally, overall conclusions are made in the sixth chapter. Results indicate that currently the production of cellulosic ethanol is limited as the production cost of cellulosic ethanol is higher than the production cost of ethanol derived from corn. However, it is expected that the production cost of cellulosic ethanol will come down in the future from its current level due to ongoing research efforts. The total global warming impact of E85 fuel (production and consumption) was found as 10.44 tons where as global warming impact of an equivalent amount of gasoline (production and consumption) was 21.45 tons. This suggests that the production and use of ethanol derived from slash pine biomass in the form of E85 fuel in an automobile saves about 51% of carbon emissions when compared to gasoline. The net energy ratio

  4. United States Department of Energy Environmental Management Advisory Board: Public meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-15

    This meeting of the Environmental Management Advisory Board was held to discuss environmental concerns that everybody has and to provide a strategy for dealing with the problems. Plans for the Environmental Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement are presented. A report is included of the subcommittee on institutional barriers to advanced technology use. The subcommittee on environmental restoration cost effectiveness also presents a report. The status of public involvement activities is evaluated. A presentation on the status of spent fuel management is included.

  5. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITYNEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada.

  6. Only One Earth: United Nations Environmental Sabbath/Earth Rest Day, June 1-3, 1990. [Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Environment Program, New York, NY.

    This publication was assembled with the idea of assisting religious leaders in all denominations to conduct services which would relate to the healing of Planet Earth in conjunction with the first United Nations Environmental Sabbath during June, 1990. Part I is introductory, in nature, and contains factual data concerning the following…

  7. 75 FR 14206 - FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-266 And 50-301; NRC-2010-0123 FPL Energy Point Beach, LLC; Point Beach Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear...

  8. 75 FR 43572 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, McGuire Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2; Environmental Assessment and... No. NPF-17, issued to Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the McGuire Nuclear...

  9. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    A study analyzed the occupational structure and qualifications associated with the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the United Kingdom. The analysis included nine case studies based on interviews with firms in the chemicals and metals sectors. Information was gathered within an analytical framework that…

  10. The mini mobile environmental monitoring unit: a novel bio-assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolok, Alan S; Miller, Jeffrey T; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new bio-assessment tool, the mini-mobile environmental monitoring unit (MMU). The MMU is a portable, lightweight, energy-efficient, miniaturized laboratory that provides a low-flow system for on-site exposure of aquatic animals to local receiving waters in a protected, controllable environment. Prototypes of the MMU were tested twice in week-long studies conducted during the summers of 2008 and 2009, and in a 12-day study in 2010. In 2008, fathead minnows and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) were deployed downstream from the Hastings, Nebraska wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), a waterway known to contain estrogenic contaminants in biologically active concentrations. In 2009, minnows and POCIS were deployed downstream, upstream and within the Grand Island, Nebraska WWTP, a site where the estrogenic contaminants had been detected, but were found at levels below those necessary to directly impact fish. In 2010, an advanced prototype was tested at the Sauk Center, Minnesota WWTP to compare its performance with that of traditional fish exposure methods including caged fish and static-renewal laboratory testing of effluent. Results from the prototype illustrate the capabilities of the MMU and offer an inexpensive monitoring tool to integrate the effects of pollutant sources with temporally varying composition and concentration.

  11. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, up-to-date, comprehensive, spatial, national-scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000−36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale-gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection-induced earthquakes.

  12. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-07-01

    Until now, up-to-date, comprehensive, spatial, national-scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000-36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale-gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection-induced earthquakes.

  13. Geographical Dynamics of Environmental Service Firms at Metropolitan and National Scales in the United States: The Case of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James T. Hathaway

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A close look at Pittsburgh’s environmental service firms in recent decades provides insight into the locational dynamics and trends of the United States environmental industry and insight into forces underlying this broad ranging sector of the economy. For my purposes, I place environmental services into two categories of producer services: professional services (e.g., environmental consulting or engineering and environmental contractors (e.g., remediation, emergency response while the third category lies in the realm of consumer services: operation and maintenance services (e.g., waste collection, treatment and disposal. I will provide portraits of these businesses by describing their revenues, employment, labor characteristics, clientele, and overall nature. My sources of information include trade publications and business databases, census data, content from firm websites, and personal interviews. I use a political economy perspective 1 to illuminate the forces affecting the locational dynamics and evolution of environmental service firms at metropolitan, national, and global scales and 2 to see what an analysis of environmental firms can contribute to debates on such processes as agglomeration and dispersal, outsourcing, the changing regulatory environment, and the “greening” of industry. Large manufacturing job declines have stimulated a move in the Pittsburgh area toward the environmental sector, but some environmental service industries have had turbulent trajectories. Pittsburgh’s environmental service firms have benefited from the region’s long history of struggling with environmental issues and by national trends including the public sector’s retreat from the provision of services and the “greening” of industry.

  14. Environmental Consumerism in the United Kingdom: Some Reflections on Managerial Responses and Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, P. J.; Jones, E. L.

    1996-01-01

    In England, management policies on land use and environmental consumerism are demand led, reactive, and detached from ecological and economic realities. Education that emphasizes environmental management from a standpoint of ethics, economics, political science, and law is recommended. (SK)

  15. Environmental Consumerism in the United Kingdom: Some Reflections on Managerial Responses and Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, P. J.; Jones, E. L.

    1996-01-01

    In England, management policies on land use and environmental consumerism are demand led, reactive, and detached from ecological and economic realities. Education that emphasizes environmental management from a standpoint of ethics, economics, political science, and law is recommended. (SK)

  16. Measurement of personal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Palausky, M.A.; Counts, R.W. [and others

    1995-12-31

    A study of personal exposure of non-smokers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been conducted in 16 cities in the United States. Individual participants wear one of two personal sampling pumps, one each at work and away-from-work. Samples of breathing zone air analyzed for both particle- and vapor-phase markers of ETS. In addition, prior- and post-exposure saliva samples are collected, in order that smoking status can be assessed through cotinine levels. The distribution of subjects among smoking and non-smoking workplaces and homes is such that ca. 54% of the participants worked and lived in non-smoking situations. A comparison of the demographic distribution of the sample population with that of the US non-smoking population indicates that the sample population is more female and of higher socioeconomic status. Subjects living and working with smokers are more highly exposed to ETS than those subjects who live and work in predominantly ETS-free environments. However, even the smoke exposures of subjects living and working in smoking venues are low relative to area concentrations of ETS reported in previous studies. It is clear that in general (not considering cell designation), ETS exposure is inversely correlated with household income. Additional data analysis has indicated that although participants perceive their greatest exposures to ETS to occur in the workplace, in fact, exposure to ETS when living with a smoker is demonstrably greater than that received in a smoking workplace, on an individual basis, correlation between salivary cotinine levels and ETS nicotine exposure was non-existent. However, there appears to be significant correlation between the two parameters when participants with measurable exposures are segregated into groups of 25.

  17. Evaluation of indoor environmental quality conditions in elementary schools׳ classrooms in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshood Olawale Fadeyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents findings of indoor environmental quality (IEQ investigations conducted in elementary schools׳ classrooms in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Average TVOC, CO2, O3, CO, and particle concentrations measured in the classrooms were 815 µg/m3, 1605 ppm, 0.05 ppm, 1.16 ppm, and 1730 µg/m3, respectively. Whereas, local authority known as Dubai Municipality recommended 300 µg/m3, 800 ppm, 0.06 ppm, 9 ppm, and 150–300 µg/m3 for TVOC, CO2, O3, CO, and particle, respectively. Dubai Municipality recommended temperature and relative humidity (RH levels of 22.5 °C to 25.5 °C and 30%–60%, respectively. Average temperature and RH levels measured in the classrooms were 24.5 °C and 40.4%, respectively. Average sound level in the classrooms was 24 dB greater than recommended sound level limit of 35 dB. Six (6 classrooms had average lux levels in the range of 400–800 lux. Two (2 classrooms had average lux levels in the range of 100–200 lux. The remaining classrooms had lux levels around the recommended 300 lux. High occupancy density was observed in majority of the studied classrooms. Observations during walkthrough investigations could be used to explain measured IEQ data. Poor IEQ conditions in the studied classrooms highlight the need for further research investigation to understand how poor classrooms׳ IEQ condition could influence students׳ health, comfort, attendance rate, and academic performance.

  18. Galling insects are bioindicators of environmental quality in a Conservation Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Portugal Santana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Galls are well distributed across the World and among plant families. Their diversity can support the status of conservation of an area as an urban park, once inventories are presented. These inventories also help to understand the morphological patterns of the galls, based on their most common shape, color, host botanical families, inducers and galled organs. This study is about an inventory of galls at Parque Estadual Serra Verde, Brazil. This conservation unit is an urban park strongly anthropized in a transition area of Cerrado and Mata Atlântica. Galls from four different trails were observed, and collected monthly during one year. The terminology morphospecies was used to distinguish the galls because the identification of the inducers were not always possible. Seventy five morphospecies of galls belonging to 43 host plant species of 24 botanical families were observed. Mostly of the galls was induced by Diptera:Cecidomyiidae, in Fabaceae and Myrtaceae. The most common traits were the globoid shape and green color. The leaves were the most frequent galled organ and followed by the stems. All these tendencies had been already observed in other inventories. Comparing current results with other studies at similar areas, we can assume that the Parque Estadual Serra Verde is very important for conservation. Urban green areas are subject to high disturbance and degradation but also increase the quality of life for the population inhabiting the areas nearby. The diversity of galls at Parque Estadual Serra Verde reflects an area with high levels of stress but with moderate botanical diversity. These features make this protected area an important site for the continuous conservation and regeneration, and highlight the environmental value of Parque Estadual Serra Verde.

  19. Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-09

    This report describes environmental monitoring activities at Hanford Reservation. Attention is focused on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. All Hanford contractors reviewed potential sources of contamination. A facility effluent monitoring plan was written for each facility with the potential to release significant quantities of hazardous materials, addressing both radiological and nonradiological effluent monitoring. The environmental surveillance program assesses onsite and offsite environmental impacts and offsite human health exposures. The program monitors air, surface water, sediment, agricultural products, vegetation, soil, and wildlife. In addition, independent onsite surveillance is conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Hanford Site effluent controls in order to comply with applicable environmental standards and regulations.

  20. 78 FR 285 - Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement for Healy Power Generation Unit #2, Healy, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-03

    ..., now known as Healy Unit 1. Healy Unit 1 is a 25 megawatt (MW) coal-fired boiler that has been owned...- fired steam generator owned by AIDEA, which underwent test operation for two years as part of...

  1. 75 FR 18238 - United States Section; Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ..., Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission (USIBWC) Presidio Flood Control Project (FCP), Presidio, TX AGENCY: United States... potential consequences of each action alternative in reference to flood control improvements. Following...

  2. Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisovsky, I. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Jacovlev, V. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Prutskov, V. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). First Central Research Inst. of Naval Shipbuilding; Tarasov, I. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). 23 State Marine Project Inst.; Blecher, A. [State Unitary Enterprise (Russian Federation). Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine; Zvonariev, B.; Kuchin, N.; Rubanov, S.; Sergeiev, I. [State Scientific Centre (Russian Federation). Central Research Inst. of A. Krylov; Morozov, S.; Koshkin, V.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Rigina, O. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Bergman, R. [ed.] [Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden). Div. of NBC Defence

    1999-05-01

    This Technical Report, being part of the INTAS project 96-1802, constitutes a comprehensive presentation - covering basic results from separate contributions as specified below - of work performed during the first period (February 1998- February 1999). The aim of the INTAS project 96-1802: `Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia` is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in north-west Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The present material comprises in more detail the contributions from participants no.4 and no.5 based on the four internal reports referred to below: (1) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia: `Determination of the list of typical sources of danger emergency radioactive releases in an environment in connection with military activity in the North of Russia.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.5. St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg. July 1998. 43 p.; (2) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in North-west Russia: `Analysis and description of source-term characteristics for accident linked with airborne radioactive releases from Kola Nuclear Power Plant. Establishing a network facility at INEP for communication among the INTAS Project participants.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.4. Kola Science Centre, Apatity. August 1998. 56 p.; (3) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in

  3. 76 FR 800 - Ameren Missouri, Combined License Application for Callaway Plant Unit 2; Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ...) for the Callaway Plant (Callaway), Unit 2, Combined License (COL) Application, Docket Number 52-037... located in Callaway ] County, Missouri. The NRC's review activities relating to the Callaway, Unit 2, COL... adjudicatory proceedings related to the Callaway, Unit 2, COL application were terminated by the Atomic...

  4. Environmental, safety, and health plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This document outlines the environmental, safety, and health (ES&H) approach to be followed for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 10 at Oak at Ridge National Laboratory. This ES&H Plan addresses hazards associated with upcoming Operable Unit 3 field work activities and provides the program elements required to maintain minimal personnel exposures and to reduce the potential for environmental impacts during field operations. The hazards evaluation for WAG 10 is presented in Sect. 3. This section includes the potential radiological, chemical, and physical hazards that may be encountered. Previous sampling results suggest that the primary contaminants of concern will be radiological (cobalt-60, europium-154, americium-241, strontium-90, plutonium-238, plutonium-239, cesium-134, cesium-137, and curium-244). External and internal exposures to radioactive materials will be minimized through engineering controls (e.g., ventilation, containment, isolation) and administrative controls (e.g., procedures, training, postings, protective clothing).

  5. Environmental Education Research. Seminar Report (London, England, United Kingdom, December 3, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Environmental Education, London (England).

    The seminar aimed to improve the degree and quality of Environmental Education Research (EER) in the context of global environmental change with particular emphasis on the role of the social sciences. The report is divided into six sections and appendices. Section 1, an introduction, includes the seminar background, aim, objectives, and chair's…

  6. Environmental Carcinogen Releases and Lung Cancer Mortality in Rural-Urban Areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juhua; Hendryx, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Environmental hazards are unevenly distributed across communities and populations; however, little is known about the distribution of environmental carcinogenic pollutants and lung cancer risk across populations defined by race, sex, and rural-urban setting. Methods: We used the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) database to conduct an…

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH BRIEF: WASTE REDUCTION ACTIVITIES AND OPTIONS FOR A MANUFACTURER OF COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION UNITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) funded a project with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) to assist in conducting waste minimization assessments at thirty small- to medium-sized businesses in the state of New Jersey. One of the...

  8. The Status of Environmental Studies in United States and Canadian Geography Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Gary A.

    1982-01-01

    A 30-item questionnaire was mailed to 325 geography departments (206 returned) to determine status of environmental studies curricula-courses. Areas addressed and discussed include nature of institutions, enrollment trends, environmental courses within geography curricula, academics/career objectives of courses, job placement records, other…

  9. Environmental impact of manufacturing softwood lumber in northeastern and north central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2010-01-01

    Finding the environmental impact of building materials is becoming increasingly more important because of public environmental awareness. Accurate and precise life-cycle inventory data on wood products are needed to meet this demand. This study examined softwood lumber manufacturing in the northeastern and north central US using life-cycle inventory methods. Material...

  10. Environmental Monitoring Plan United States Department of Energy Richland Operations Office. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-10

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was prepared for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Richland Operations Office (RL) to implement the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1. According to the Order, each DOE site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials shall prepare a written environmental monitoring plan covering two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. The plan is to contain information discussing the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring programs, sampling locations and schedules, quality assurance requirements, program implementation procedures, analytical procedures, and reporting requirements. The plan`s purpose is to assist DOE in the management of environmental activities at the Hanford Site and to help ensure that operations on the site are conducted in an environmentally safe and sound manner.

  11. An Analysis of Terrestrial and Aquatic Environmental Controls of Riverine Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Conterminous United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichun Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of environmental controls on riverine carbon fluxes are critical for improved understanding of the mechanisms regulating carbon cycling along the terrestrial-aquatic continuum. Here, we compile and analyze riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentration data from 1402 United States Geological Survey (USGS gauge stations to examine the spatial variability and environmental controls of DOC concentrations in the United States (U.S. surface waters. DOC concentrations exhibit high spatial variability in the U.S., with an average of 6.42 ± 6.47 mg C/L (Mean ± Standard Deviation. High DOC concentrations occur in the Upper Mississippi River basin and the southeastern U.S., while low concentrations are mainly distributed in the western U.S. Soil properties such as soil organic matter, soil water content, and soil sand content mainly show positive correlations with DOC concentrations; forest and shrub land have positive correlations with DOC concentrations, but urban area and cropland demonstrate negative impacts; and total instream phosphorus and dam density correlate positively with DOC concentrations. Notably, the relative importance of these environmental controls varies substantially across major U.S. water resource regions. In addition, DOC concentrations and environmental controls also show significant variability from small streams to large rivers. In sum, our results reveal that general multi-linear regression of twenty environmental factors can partially explain (56% the DOC concentration variability. This study also highlights the complexity of the interactions among these environmental factors in determining DOC concentrations, thus calls for processes-based, non-linear methodologies to constrain uncertainties in riverine DOC cycling.

  12. The Environmental Impacts of a Desktop Computer: Influence of Choice of Functional Unit, System Boundary and User Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanovska, J.; Šteina, Māra; Valters, K.; Bažbauers, G.

    2009-01-01

    The pollution prevention during the design phase of products and processes in environmental policy gains its importance over the other, more historically known principle - pollution reduction in the end-of-pipe. This approach requires prediction of potential environmental impacts to be avoided or reduced and a prioritisation of the most efficient areas for action. Currently the most appropriate method for this purpose is life cycle assessment (LCA)- a method for accounting and attributing all environmental impacts which arise during the life time of a product, starting with the production of raw materials and ending with the disposal, or recycling of the wasted product at the end of life. The LCA, however, can be misleading if the performers of the study disregard gaps of information and the limitations of the chosen methodology. During the study we researched the environmental impact of desktop computers, using a simplified LCA method - Indicators' 99, and by developing various scenarios (changing service life, user behaviour, energy supply etc). The study demonstrates that actions for improvements lie in very different areas. The study also concludes that the approach of defining functional unit must be sufficiently flexible in order to avoid discounting areas of potential actions. Therefore, with regard to computers we agree with other authors using the functional unit "one computer" but suggest not to bind this to service life or usage time, but to develop several scenarios varying these parameters. The study also demonstrates the importance of a systemic approach when assessing complex product systems - as more complex the system is, the more broad the scope for potential actions. We conclude that, regarding computers, which belong to energy using and material- intensive products, the measures to reduce environmental impacts lie not only with the producer and user of the particular product, but also with the whole national energy supply and waste management

  13. Final Environmental Assessment : Recreation management on the Lake Minatare Unit, North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Environmental Assessment is to evaluate the feasibility of removing portions of the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge from the National...

  14. 75 FR 7522 - United States Section; Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Environmental Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, Presidio Flood Control... EIS) for flood control improvements to the Presidio Flood Control Project, Presidio, Texas (Presidio... Impact Statement, Flood Control Improvements and Partial Levee Relocation, USIBWC Presidio Flood......

  15. 76 FR 55723 - Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement, Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Units 1 and 2 License...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ..., Recommendations for Enhancing Reactor Safety in the 21st Century: The Near-Term Task Force Review of Insights from... environmentally unacceptable conditions. Following the events at the Fukushima (Japan) Daiichi Nuclear Power...

  16. Sacred Places in Nature: A Unitive Theme for a Transpersonal Approach to Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Provides background information on and development and use of mental imagery exercises in environmental education. The exercises are designed to help people make contact with those symbolic forms which then actualize certain aspects of their personality. (JN)

  17. United States Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office Environmental Compliance Handbook. Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Environment, Safety & Health Division (ESHD) of the Nevada Operations Office has prepared this Environmental Compliance Handbook for all users of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) facilities. The Handbook gives an overview of the important environmental laws and regulations that apply to the activities conducted by the Nevada Operations Office and other users of DOE/NV facilities in Nevada.

  18. Environmental Monitoring Report - United States Department of Energy, Oak Ridge Facilities, Calendar Year 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    Each year since 1972, a report has been prepared on the environmental monitoring activities for the DOE facilities in oak Ridge, Tennessee, for the previous calendar year. previously, the individual facilities published quarterly and annual progress reports that contained some environmental monitoring data. The environmental monitoring program for 1984 includes sampling and analysis of air, water from surface streams, groundwater, creek sediment, biota, and soil for both radioactive and nonradioactive (including hazardous) materials. Special environmental studies that have been conducted in the Oak Ridge area are included in this report, primarily as abstracts or brief summaries. The annual report for 1984 on environmental monitoring and surveillance of the Oak Ridge community by Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) is included as an appendix. A brief description of the topography and climate of the Oak Ridge area and a short description of the three DOE facilities are provided below to enhance the reader's understanding of the direction and contents of the environmental monitoring program for Oak Ridge.

  19. Environmental Assessment Rehabilitation and Maintenance of Wetlands Unit 3 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — For management purposes, Prime Hook is divided into four units using highways which transect the refuge. This proposal concerns the rehabilitation of wetlands...

  20. The terrain signatures of administrative units: a tool for environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliaresis, George Ch

    2009-03-01

    The quantification of knowledge related to the terrain and the landuse/landcover of administrative units in Southern Greece (Peloponnesus) is performed from the CGIAR-CSI SRTM digital elevation model and the CORINE landuse/landcover database. Each administrative unit is parametrically represented by a set of attributes related to its relief. Administrative units are classified on the basis of K-means cluster analysis in an attempt to see how they are organized into groups and cluster derived geometric signatures are defined. Finally each cluster is parametrically represented on the basis of the occurrence of the Corine landuse/landcover classes included and thus, landcover signatures are derived. The geometric and the landuse/landcover signatures revealed a terrain dependent landuse/landcover organization that was used in the assessment of the forest fires impact at moderate resolution scale.

  1. Total cylindrospermopsins, microcystins/nodularins, and saxitoxins data for the 2007 United States Environmental Protection Agency National Lake Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Keith A.; Dietze, Julie E.; Meyer, Michael T.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Maksimowicz, Megan M.; Toyne, Kathryn D.

    2016-05-26

    Phytoplankton communities in freshwater lakes, ponds, and reservoirs may be dominated by cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) under certain environmental conditions. Cyanobacteria may cause a range of water-quality impairments, including the potential for toxin production. Cyanobacteria toxins (cyanotoxins) may adversely impact human and ecological health. Microcystins are considered to be one of the most commonly found classes of cyanotoxins in freshwater ecosystems, and as such were selected as a recreational indicator of water quality for the 2007 United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Lakes Assessment. However, much less is known about the occurrence of other classes of cyanotoxins in fresh surface water such as anatoxins, cylindrospermopsins, nodularins, and saxitoxins.

  2. Offsite environmental monitoring report. Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S. C.; Grossman, R. F.; Mullen, A. A.; Potter, G. D.; Smith, D. D. [comps.

    1983-07-01

    A principal activity of the Offsite Radiological Safety Program is routine environmental monitoring for radioactive materials in various media and for radiation in areas which may be affected by nuclear tests. It is conducted to document compliance with standards, to identify trends, and to provide information to the public. This report summarizes these activities for CY 1982.

  3. 75 FR 57326 - Request for Comments and Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... U.S.- Oman Free Trade Agreement, and (4) the Environmental Review of the U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement. (Documents are available at: http://www.state.gov/g/oes/env/trade/oman/index.htm ). DATES: To be... environment while promoting sustainable development in concert with the expanded bilateral trade relationship...

  4. Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Closure (Withdrawal of Units) of Norton Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    0.43 A Alabama Street Northbound Increase 652 0.47 A Southbound 668 Barton Road Eastbound Increase 860 0.58 B Westbound 560 aLevel -of-service...compliance programs Gary J. Mariner Ph.D., Physics Project leader 17 years experience in environmental assessment Thomas A. O’Neil M.S., Wildlife Biology

  5. Final Environmental Statement. Continental United States Over-the- Horizon Backscatter Radar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Integrated Grant Administration ( IGA ) (2) Unified Work Program (DOT 1130.2) (3) Environmental Protection - Consolidated Program Grants...the old Atmosphere had been Milk. The Mold acted as a kind of Rennet, and so. Instead of Milk, here remained only this hard Curd and the clear Whey

  6. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  7. 77 FR 39746 - Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc. Millstone Power Station, Unit 2; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...,'' for Facility Operating License No. DPR-65 issued to Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc. (DNC or the.... Environmental Assessment Identification of the Proposed Action DNC proposed that the NRC grant exemptions to... certain requirements of 10 CFR part 50, appendix R, Section III.G.2. DNC proposed a number of OMAs in...

  8. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  9. Environmental Sustainability Practices in Publicly Supported Two-Year Colleges in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Michael J.; Webster, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    In September of 2012, a mixed methods exploratory research study was conducted from among the 270 presidents of public two-year colleges in the 11-state region accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges. The purpose of the study was to examine the environmental sustainability practices used at these…

  10. Fe(0) Nanomotors in Ton Quantities (10(20) Units) for Environmental Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Wei Zhe; Zboril, Radek; Medrik, Ivo; Pumera, Martin

    2016-03-24

    Despite demonstrating potential for environmental remediation and biomedical applications, the practical environmental applications of autonomous self-propelled micro-/nanorobots have been limited by the inability to fabricate these devices in large (kilograms/tons) quantities. In view of the demand for large-scale environmental remediation by micro-/nanomotors, which are easily synthesized and powered by nontoxic fuel, we have developed bubble-propelled Fe(0) Janus nanomotors by a facile thermally induced solid-state procedure and investigated their potential as decontamination agents of pollutants. These Fe(0) Janus nanomotors, stabilized by an ultrathin iron oxide shell, were fuelled by their decomposition in citric acid, leading to the asymmetric bubble propulsion. The degradation of azo-dyes was dramatically increased in the presence of moving self-propelled Fe(0) nanomotors, which acted as reducing agents. Such enhanced pollutant decomposition triggered by biocompatible Fe(0) (nanoscale zero-valent iron motors), which can be handled in the air and fabricated in ton quantities for low cost, will revolutionize the way that environmental remediation is carried out.

  11. Environmental Impacts of Surgical Procedures: Life Cycle Assessment of Hysterectomy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The healthcare sector is a driver of economic growth in the U.S., with spending on healthcare in 2012 reaching $2.8 trillion, or 17% of the U.S. gross domestic product, but it is also a significant source of emissions that adversely impact environmental and public health. The current state of the healthcare industry offers significant opportunities for environmental efficiency improvements, potentially leading to reductions in costs, resource use, and waste without compromising patient care. However, limited research exists that can provide quantitative, sustainable solutions. The operating room is the most resource-intensive area of a hospital, and surgery is therefore an important focal point to understand healthcare-related emissions. Hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to quantify environmental emissions from four different surgical approaches (abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic, and robotic) used in the second most common major procedure for women in the U.S., the hysterectomy. Data were collected from 62 cases of hysterectomy. Life cycle assessment results show that major sources of environmental emissions include the production of disposable materials and single-use surgical devices, energy used for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning, and anesthetic gases. By scientifically evaluating emissions, the healthcare industry can strategically optimize its transition to a more sustainable system. PMID:25517602

  12. Technological and environmental characteristics of intensive care units. Implications for job redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, B A; Hagenmueller, A C

    1994-04-01

    Nurse executives are experiencing severe pressures to create systems of care delivery that provide services in more cost-conscious ways. Before care systems can be restructured, a systematic assessment of the work and the environment of the nursing unit must take place. This study found significant differences among nine intensive care units regarding both the nature of their work and their environments. These differences provided information that can be used in staffing decisions, nurse/physician interaction, and staff nurse and managerial recruitment.

  13. Public Health Applications of Remotely-sensed Environmental Datasets for the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Economou, Sigrid; Estes, Marice Jr; Estes, Sue; Hemmings, Sarah; Kent, Shia; Puckett, Mark; Quattrochi, Dale; Wade, Gina

    2013-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is collaborating with the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) School of Public Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Public Health Informatics to address issues of environmental health and enhance public health decision-making using NASA remotely-sensed data and products. The objectives of this study are to develop high-quality spatial data sets of environmental variables, link these with public health data from a national cohort study, and deliver the linked data sets and associated analyses to local, state and federal end-user groups. Three daily environmental data sets were developed for the conterminous U.S. on different spatial resolutions for the period 2003-2008: (1) spatial surfaces of estimated fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposures on a 10-km grid using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground observations and NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data; (2) a 1-km grid of Land Surface Temperature (LST) using MODIS data; and (3) a 12-km grid of daily Incoming Solar Radiation (Insolation) and heat-related products using the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) forcing data. These environmental data sets were linked with public health data from the UAB REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) national cohort study to determine whether exposures to these environmental risk factors are related to cognitive decline, stroke and other health outcomes. These environmental datasets and the results of the public health linkage analyses will be disseminated to end-users for decision-making through the CDC Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system and through peer-reviewed publications respectively. The linkage of these data with the CDC WONDER system substantially expands public access to NASA data, making their use by a wide range of decision makers feasible. By successful

  14. Congressional Testimony: Statement of Wade T. Najjum Before the Subcommittee on Superfund and Environmental Health Committee on Environment and Public Works United States Senate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statement of Wade T. Najjum Assistant Inspector General for Program Evaluation U.S. EPA Office of Inspector General Before the Subcommittee on Superfund and Environmental Health Committee on Environment and Public Works United States Senate

  15. Environmental assessment: Reduction of public use and over-the-sand vehicle impacts at Holgate Unit, Barnegat Division, Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This environmental assessment proposes to restrict public use and the operation of over-the-sand vehicles at the Holgate Unit, Barnegat Division, Edwin B. Forysthe...

  16. Expanded public notice: Washington State notice of intent for corrective action management unit, Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This document is to serve notice of the intent to operate an Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF), adjacent to the 200 West Area of the Hanford Facility, Richland, Washington, as a Corrective Action Management Unit (CAMU), in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 264.552. The ERDF CAMU will serve as a management unit for the majority of waste (primarily soil) excavated during remediation of waste management sites on the Hanford Facility. Only waste that originates from the Hanford Facility can be accepted in this ERDF CAMU. The waste is expected to consist of dangerous waste, radioactive waste, and mixed waste. Mixed waste contains radioactive and dangerous components. The primary features of the ERDF could include the following: one or more trenches, rail and tractor/trailer container handling capability, railroads, an inventory control system, a decontamination building, and operational offices.

  17. Teaching Basic Science Environmentally, The Concept: The cell is basic unit of structure of most organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Phyllis S.

    1985-01-01

    Suggests simple ways to introduce students to the concept that the cell is the basic unit of structure of most organisms. Mentions materials for microscope study that are readily available and easy to handle, e.g., membranes from between the scales of the onion bulb, thin-leaved plants, pond water, and pollen. (JHZ)

  18. Teachers Environmental Resource Unit: Industry: Iron/Steel & Pulp/Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemiss, Clair W.

    Iron and steel and pulp and paper industries, two representatives of American industry, are selected in this teacher's guide for the study of industrial pollution and current pollution control efforts. The resource unit is intended to provide the teacher with basic information that will aid classroom review of these problems. Both industries are…

  19. Solar Energy: A Middle School Unit. Environmental Education Occasional Paper No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Jack L.; Cantrell, Joseph S.

    This collection of teaching activities was developed to provide teachers with guidance in presenting solar energy education to students of middle school age. The unit provides activities presenting learning opportunities involving: (1) passive solar collectors, (2) active solar collectors, (3) concentrating collectors, and (4) photovoltaic cell…

  20. Determining the environmental training needs and training preferences of tribal officials on reservations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Jeeta Lakhani

    The problem of this research was to determine the priority environmental management training needs (drinking water, wastewater, and solid waste), classroom training system preferences and related cultural factors of Native American tribal officials with environmental responsibilities living on reservations in the United States. The researcher conducted telephone interviews with 18 tribal officials on reservations in diverse geographic areas of the United States to determine their classroom training preferences. These officials also responded to a mail/fax survey comprised of 28 statements describing their environmental responsibilities in the areas of drinking water, wastewater, and solid waste. Tribal officials indicated how important the statements were according to them on a scale of 1--5 (1 being low importance and 5 being high importance). Tribal officials also indicated their ability to perform in the stated areas on a scale of 1 to 5 (1 being low ability and 5 being high ability). It was found that tribal officials felt they needed training in the areas of: (1) Solid Waste: Awareness of conventional and alternative solid waste management strategies as well as assessing the reservation's need related to solid waste management. (2) Regional or Inter-Governmental Strategies : Working with the federal, and, state governments for enforcing and developing regulations. (3) Drinking water: Assessing the reservation's drinking water needs and awareness of conventional and alternative drinking water systems. (4) Training for environmental staff: Determining and planning training for environmental personnel is another area of need indicated by the responding tribal officials. (5) Wastewater : Assessing the reservations wastewater needs, compliance and liability issues and awareness of alternative and conventional wastewater systems. It was also found that tribal officials preferred: (1) Trainers who were knowledgeable about the subject matter and tribal culture

  1. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J.; Dicey, B.B.; Mullen, A.A.; Neale, A.C.; Sparks, A.R.; Fontana, C.A.; Carroll, L.D.; Phillips, W.G.; Smith, D.D.; Thome, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1991 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory-Las Vegas. This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ion chambers (PICs); and by biological monitoring of animals, food crops, and humans. Personnel with mobile monitoring equipment are placed in areas downwind from the test site prior to each nuclear weapons test to implement protective actions, provide immediate radiation monitoring, and obtain environmental samples rapidly after any occurrence of radioactivity release. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no radioactivity detected offsite by the various EPA monitoring networks and no exposure above natural background to the population living in the vicinity of the NTS that could be attributed to current NTS activities. Annual and long-term trends were evaluated in the Noble Gas, Tritium, Milk Surveillance, Biomonitoring, TLD, PIC networks, and the Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program.

  2. Environmental Assessment (EA): Proposed Emergency Power Unit Overhaul Complex at Little Mountain Test Annex, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-14

    Confederated Tribes of the Goshute Indian Reservation (w/o Attachments 3 and 4) Crow Tribe of Montana (w/o Attachments 3 and 4) Duckwater Shoshone Tribe (w...Demolition cc: Blackfeet Indian Tri be (w/o Attachments 3 and 4) Confederated Tribes of the Goshute Indian Reservation (w/o Attachments 3 and 4) Crow ...Responses From American Indian Tribes LIST OF ACRONYMS AND CHEMICAL TERMS AFB Air Force Base AFCEE Air Force Center for Environmental

  3. United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program. Guidance on Soil Vapor Extraction Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    DoD Department of Defense DNAPL Dense non-aqueous phase liquid DPE dual-phase extraction DQO Data quality objective ECD electron capture device...EPA Environmental Protection Agency ER electrical resistance FID flame ionization detector Hg Mercury MCL maximum contaminant level MCLG Maximum...Well Ground Surface Soil (Advection) V a d o s e Z o n e (Diffusion) Massive Clay Sand Sand Vadose Zone Groundwater Zone LNAPL DNAPL Groundwater Table

  4. Environmental Security in the Danube River Basin: Policy Implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    lead to instability, consti- tute what has been termed the “environmental security pillar ” of preventive defense (Goodman, 1996). The Department and...Wetlands (b) Metals cadmium, mercury, copper , nickel, lead, zinc, chromium, arsenic (c) Danube related (d) Data too scarce to allow for proper...chlorine producing industry; zinc from electroplating and the pulp industries; chromium from waste treatment discharges fiom tanning, electroplating

  5. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaloud, D.J; Daigler, D.M.; Davis, M.G. [and others

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program conducted during 1993 by the Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory - Las Vegas (EMSL-LV). This laboratory operates an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs); by biological monitoring of foodstuffs including animal tissues and food crops; and by measurement of radioactive material deposited in humans.

  6. The environmental impact of obesity: longitudinal evidence from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squalli, J

    2017-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between obesity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while accounting for the environmental impact of growth in transportation output and in crop and animal farming. The study makes use of US state-level longitudinal data over the 1997-2011 period. Random effects and fixed effects estimators are employed within a multiple regression analysis framework. After controlling for other sources of emissions, there is evidence that the effect of transportation output on CO2 emissions worsens at obesity rates exceeding 33.7% and the effect on N2O emissions worsens at obesity rates exceeding 22.5%. In addition, the impact of crop and animal farming on N2O emissions worsens at obesity rates exceeding 20.2%. This paper provides significant and new insight about the causal link between obesity and environmental emissions and highlights the importance of addressing the obesity epidemic on public health and environmental grounds. Thus, mitigating GHG emissions connected to obesity requires joint effort between policymakers, public health officials, and parties from concerned economic sectors in pursuing remedial actions to reverse the current obesity trend. Various policy measures are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  8. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REPORT FISCAL YEAR 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S.

    2010-10-22

    The mission of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) is to clean up the environmental legacy of nuclear weapons research and production during the Cold War. That mission includes cleaning up nuclear waste, contaminated groundwater and soil, nuclear materials, and contaminated facilities covering two million acres of land in thirty-five states. EM's principal program goals include timely completion of tank waste treatment facilities, reduction of the life-cycle costs and acceleration of the cleanup of the Cold War legacy, and reduction of the EM footprint. The mission of the EM Technology Innovation and Development program is to transform science and innovation into practical solutions to achieve the EM mission. During fiscal year 2010 (October 2009-September 2010), EM focused upon accelerating environmental cleanup by expeditiously filling identified gaps in available knowledge and technology in the EM program areas. This report describes some of the approaches and transformational technologies in tank waste processing, groundwater and soil remediation, nuclear materials disposition, and facility deactivation and decommissioning developed during fiscal year 2010 that will enable EM to meet its most pressing program goals.

  9. Exposure potential of salt marsh units in Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge to environmental health stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Jones, Daniel K.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Aquino, Kimberly C.; Carbo, Chelsea L.; Kaufhold, Erika E.; Benzel, William M.; Fisher, Shawn C.; Griffin, Dale W.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Loftin, Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic contaminants, pathogens, and viruses are found in soils and sediments throughout the United States. Enhanced dispersion and concentration of these environmental health stressors in coastal regions can result from sea level rise and storm-derived disturbances. The combination of existing environmental health stressors and those mobilized by natural or anthropogenic disasters could adversely impact the health and resilience of coastal communities and ecosystems. This dataset displays the exposure potential to environmental health stressors in the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (EBFNWR), which spans over Great Bay, Little Egg Harbor, and Barnegat Bay in New Jersey, USA. Exposure potential is calculated with the Sediment-bound Contaminant Resiliency and Response (SCoRR) ranking system (Reilly and others, 2015) designed to define baseline and post-event sediment-bound environmental health stressors. Facilities obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) and Facility Registry Service (FRS) databases were ranked based on their potential contaminant hazard. Ranks were based in part on previous work by Olsen and others (2013), literature reviews, and an expert review panel. A 2000 meter search radius was used to identify nearby ranked facility locations. As part of the Hurricane Sandy Science Plan, the U.S. Geological Survey has started a Wetland Synthesis Project to expand National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards and forecast products to coastal wetlands. The intent is to provide federal, state, and local managers with tools to estimate their vulnerability and ecosystem service potential. For this purpose, the response and resilience of coastal wetlands to physical factors need to be assessed in terms of the ensuing change to their vulnerability and ecosystem services. EBFNWR was selected as a pilot study area.

  10. Food waste in the United States: A contributing factor toward environmental instability

    OpenAIRE

    Michael eHickey; Gulnihal eOzbay

    2014-01-01

    The world's population continues to increase at record rates along with corresponding nutritional needs and related agricultural consequences. In the United States, food waste levels serve as dominant components of land-fill masses, oil and freshwater waste, methane and CO2 emissions, damage to wildlife ecosystems, and substantial financial losses. Agricultural effects on the environment were investigated through various research studies, referenced in this document, and efforts made toward f...

  11. Galling insects are bioindicators of environmental quality in a Conservation Unit

    OpenAIRE

    André Portugal Santana; Rosy Mary dos Santos Isaias

    2014-01-01

    Galls are well distributed across the World and among plant families. Their diversity can support the status of conservation of an area as an urban park, once inventories are presented. These inventories also help to understand the morphological patterns of the galls, based on their most common shape, color, host botanical families, inducers and galled organs. This study is about an inventory of galls at Parque Estadual Serra Verde, Brazil. This conservation unit is an urban park strongly ant...

  12. Performance and Environmental Test Results of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas; Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Pinero, Luis; Peterson, Todd; Mathers, Alex

    2012-01-01

    NASA Science Mission Directorate's In-Space Propulsion Technology Program is sponsoring the development of a 3.5 kW-class engineering development unit Hall thruster for implementation in NASA science and exploration missions. NASA Glenn and Aerojet are developing a high fidelity high voltage Hall accelerator that can achieve specific impulse magnitudes greater than 2,700 seconds and xenon throughput capability in excess of 300 kilograms. Performance, plume mappings, thermal characterization, and vibration tests of the high voltage Hall accelerator engineering development unit have been performed. Performance test results indicated that at 3.9 kW the thruster achieved a total thrust efficiency and specific impulse of 58%, and 2,700 sec, respectively. Thermal characterization tests indicated that the thruster component temperatures were within the prescribed material maximum operating temperature limits during full power thruster operation. Finally, thruster vibration tests indicated that the thruster survived the 3-axes qualification full-level random vibration test series. Pre and post-vibration test performance mappings indicated almost identical thruster performance. Finally, an update on the development progress of a power processing unit and a xenon feed system is provided.

  13. 75 FR 9455 - U.S. Biomedical Corp., (f/k/a United Textiles & Toys, Inc.), U.S. Environmental Solutions, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION U.S. Biomedical Corp., (f/k/a United Textiles & Toys, Inc.), U.S. Environmental Solutions, Inc. (n... accurate information concerning the securities of U.S. Biomedical Corp. (f/k/a United Textiles & Toys,...

  14. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT WASTE PROCESSING ANNUAL TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT REPORT 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S.

    2009-11-05

    The Office of Waste Processing identifies and reduces engineering and technical risks and uncertainties of the waste processing programs and projects of the Department of Energy's Environmental Management (EM) mission through the timely development of solutions to technical issues. The risks, and actions taken to mitigate those risks, are determined through technology readiness assessments, program reviews, technology information exchanges, external technical reviews, technical assistance, and targeted technology development and deployment. The Office of Waste Processing works with other DOE Headquarters offices and project and field organizations to proactively evaluate technical needs, identify multi-site solutions, and improve the technology and engineering associated with project and contract management. Participants in this program are empowered with the authority, resources, and training to implement their defined priorities, roles, and responsibilities. The Office of Waste Processing Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) supports the goals and objectives of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) - Office of Environmental Management Engineering and Technology Roadmap by providing direction for technology enhancement, development, and demonstration that will lead to a reduction of technical risks and uncertainties in EM waste processing activities. The MYPP summarizes the program areas and the scope of activities within each program area proposed for the next five years to improve safety and reduce costs and environmental impacts associated with waste processing; authorized budget levels will impact how much of the scope of activities can be executed, on a year-to-year basis. Waste Processing Program activities within the Roadmap and the MYPP are described in these seven program areas: (1) Improved Waste Storage Technology; (2) Reliable and Efficient Waste Retrieval Technologies; (3) Enhanced Tank Closure Processes; (4) Next-Generation Pretreatment Solutions; (5

  15. Finding of No Significant Impact & Tiered Environmental Assessment: Public Law 84-99 Rehabilitation Program Levee Unit R-627 - Grace Street Ditch, Douglas County, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    99 REHABILITATION PROGRAM Levee Unit R-627 – Grace Street Ditch Douglas County, Nebraska December 2014 PROJECT...Environmental Assessment: Public Law 84-99 Rehabilitation Program Levee Unit R-627 ??? Grace Street Ditch Douglas County, Nebraska 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...UNIT R-627 – GRACE STREET DITCH BANK EROSION REPAIR PROJECT OMAHA, DOUGLAS COUNTY, NEBRASKA December 2014 In accordance with the National

  16. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OFFICE OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM ANNUAL REPORT FOR 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J

    2008-08-26

    The DOE-EM Office of Engineering and Technology is responsible for implementing EM's international cooperative program. The Office of Engineering and Technology's international efforts are aimed at supporting EM's mission of risk reduction and accelerated cleanup of the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons program and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. To do this, EM pursues collaborations with government organizations, educational institutions, and private industry to identify and develop technologies that can address the site cleanup needs of DOE. The Office of Engineering and Technology has developed a Technology Roadmap and a Multi-year Program Plan to identify technology needs and identify areas for focused research and development to support DOE-EM's environmental cleanup and waste management objectives. The international cooperative program is an important element of the technology development roadmap, leveraging of world-wide expertise in the advancement and deployment of remediation and treatment technologies. Introductory briefings aimed at furthering familiarity with the DOE-EM mission, and the vital role that technology development plays within it, were presented at two international meetings. The Office of Engineering and Technology currently works with the Khlopin Radium Institute (KRI) and SIA Radon Institute in Russia, the International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) in Ukraine and the Nuclear Engineering and Technology Institute (NETEC) in South Korea through cooperative bilateral arrangements to support EM's accelerated cleanup and closure mission.

  17. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

    2008-06-03

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

  18. Radioecology in hte Arctic: Activities of the new environmental protection unit of the NRPA in Tromsoe[Norwegian RadiationProtection Authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerland, S.; Lind, B. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Polar Environmental Centre, Environmental Proctection Unit, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2002-04-01

    In August 1999, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Statens straelevern) established an Environmental Protection Unit in the Polar Environmental Centre in Tromsoe, northern Norway. Major tasks of the three persons at the unit include monitoring and research in both marine and terrestrial environments in northern Eurasian areas and the Arctic. This includes field and laboratory work, collaboration with the other institutions within the Polar Environmental Centre (e.g. the Norwegian Polar Institute), and integrating studies within the AMAP programme. The Environmental Protection Unit was recently involved in fieldwork in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard), an international cruise to the Fram Strait, a technetium monitoring program in the Western Barents Sea, and radiation measurements on the site in the Barents Sea where the Russian submarine 'Kursk' sunk. (LN)

  19. Selection of Environmentally Friendly Solvents for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Secondary Oxygen Pack Cold Trap Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John; Chullen, Cinda; Morenz, Jesse; Stephenson, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Freon-113(TradeMark) has been used as a chemistry lab sampling solvent at NASA/JSC for EMU (extravehicular Mobility Unit) SOP (Secondary Oxygen Pack) oxygen testing Cold Traps utilized at the USA (United Space Alliance) Houston facility. Similar testing has occurred at the HSWL (Hamilton Sundstrand Windsor Locks) facility. A NASA Executive Order bans the procurement of all ODS (ozone depleting substances), including Freon-113 by the end of 2009. In order to comply with NASA direction, HSWL began evaluating viable solvents to replace Freon-113 . The study and testing effort to find Freon-113 replacements used for Cold Trap sampling is the subject of this paper. Test results have shown HFE-7100 (a 3M fluorinated ether) to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to remove and measure the non-volatile residue collected in a Cold Trap during oxygen testing. Furthermore, S-316 (a Horiba Instruments Inc. high molecular weight, non-ODS chlorofluorocarbon) was found to be an adequate replacement for Freon-113 as a solvent to reconstitute non-volatile residue removed from a Cold Trap during oxygen testing for subsequent HC (hydrocarbon) analysis via FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy).

  20. United States import safety, environmental health, and food safety regulation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambok, Edward O; Kastner, Justin J

    2012-01-01

    China boasts a rapidly growing economy and is a leading food exporter. Since China has dominated world export markets in food, electronics, and toys, many safety concerns about Chinese exports have emerged. For example, many countries have had problems with Chinese food products and food-processing ingredients. Factors behind food safety and environmental health problems in China include poor industrial waste management, the use of counterfeit agricultural inputs, inadequate training of farmers on good farm management practices, and weak food safety laws and poor enforcement. In the face of rising import safety problems, the U.S. is now requiring certification of products and foreign importers, pursuing providing incentives to importers who uphold good safety practices, and considering publicizing the names of certified importers.

  1. Environmental geologic studies on the southeastern United States Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf, 1977-1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popenoe, Peter; Popenoe, Peter

    1981-01-01

    This report is a summary of the second year of marine environmental research activities by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on the southeaster U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin, in accordance with with Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) AA551-MU8-13 between the USGS and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The report covers studies whose fieldwork was conducted during the period from 1 October 1977 to 30 September 1978. The results of the first year of study are reported in Popenoe (1978a and b) and as U.S. Department of Commerce NTIS report PB 300-820. The purpose of these investigations is to provide basic geologic and oceanographic data to the BLM Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Marine Environmental Studies Program in support of management decisions which relate to possible development of oil and gas resources of the continental shelf. The objectives of the USGS-BLM geologic research program for fiscal year 1978 (FY-78) were 1) to determine the sedimentation rates and processes on the upper slope and inner Blake Plateau; 2) to determine the distribution, areal extent, and vertical characteristics of geological features supportive of biological communities; 3) to monitor the transport of bottom sediment across the OCS, evaluate its possible effect on pollutant transfer along the seabed and the potential of sediment as a pollutant sink, determine the implications of erosion/deposition on pipeline emplacement, and aid the interpretation of chemical, biological, and physical data; 4) to determine the concentration levels of chosen trace metals and silica in three chemically defined fractions of the suspended particulate matter (seston); 5) to study the shelf edge and slope near areas of oil and gas interest, and the northern portion of the Blake Plateau for evidence of slope instability and other geologic hazards, and 6) to determine the depth and rate of sediment mixing caused by large storms and/or by benthic organisms and where possible to estimate the rate of

  2. Spatial association between dissection density and environmental factors over the entire conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Jasiewicz, Jaroslaw; Stepinski, Tomasz; Wang, Jinfeng; Xu, Chengdong; Cang, Xuezhi

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies of land dissection density (D) often find contradictory results regarding factors controlling its spatial variation. We hypothesize that the dominant controlling factors (and the interactions between them) vary from region to region due to differences in each region's local characteristics and geologic history. We test this hypothesis by applying a geographical detector method to eight physiographic divisions of the conterminous United States and identify the dominant factor(s) in each. The geographical detector method computes the power of determinant (q) that quantitatively measures the affinity between the factor considered and D. Results show that the factor (or factor combination) with the largest q value is different for physiographic regions with different characteristics and geologic histories. For example, lithology dominates in mountainous regions, curvature dominates in plains, and glaciation dominates in previously glaciated areas. The geographical detector method offers an objective framework for revealing factors controlling Earth surface processes.

  3. Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) for wind energy planning: Lessons from the United Kingdom and Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phylip-Jones, J., E-mail: jonesjp@liverpool.ac.uk; Fischer, T.B., E-mail: fischer@liv.ac.uk

    2015-01-15

    This paper reports on SEA applied in the wind energy sector in the UK and Germany. Based on a review of 18 SEAs, it is found that the quality of SEA documentation is variable, with over a third of them being deemed unsatisfactory. Furthermore, SEA processes are conducted to varying degrees of effectiveness, with scoping a strength but impact prediction and mitigation weaknesses. Generally speaking, the influence of SEA on German wind energy plan making was found to be low and the influence of SEA on UK plans deemed to be moderate. The German plans had a low influence mainly because of a perceived high environmental performance of the underlying plans in the first instance. Substantive outcomes of SEA are not always clear and the influence of SEA on decision making is said to be limited in many cases. Finally, a lack of effective tiering between SEA and project level EIA is also observed. In addition, our findings echo some of the weaknesses of SEA practice found in previous studies of SEA effectiveness, including poor impact prediction and significance sections and a lack of detailed monitoring programmes for post plan implementation.

  4. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 4. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.

    1976-08-10

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Unit 1 of the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS 1) was conducted for the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected during 1975. The hydrothermal analysis includes a discussion of models used in plume predictions prior to plant operation and an evaluation of the present hydrothermal monitoring program. The ecological evaluation was directed toward reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of the various sampling programs designed to monitor the planktonic, benthic, and nektonic communities inhabiting the inshore coastal area in the vicinity of San Onofre.

  5. Methods used to characterize the chemical composition and biological activity of environmental waters throughout the United States, 2012-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Barber, Larry B.; Boone, J. Scott; Buxton, Herbert T.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Hladik, Michelle; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Journey, Celeste; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Loftin, Keith A.; Mills, Marc A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2017-03-22

    A vast array of chemical compounds are in wide commercial use in the United States, and the potential ecological and human-health effect of exposure to chemical mixtures has been identified as a high priority in environment health science. Awareness of the potential effects of low-level chemical exposures is rising. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a study in which samples were collected from 38 streams in 25 States to provide an overview of contaminants found in stream water across the Nation. Additionally, biological screening assays were used to help determine any potential ecological and human-health effects of these chemical mixtures and to prioritize target chemicals for future toxicological studies. This report describes the site locations and the sampling and analytical methods and quality-assurance procedures used in the study.

  6. The diversity of arthropods in homes across the United States as determined by environmental DNA analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Anne A; Barberán, Albert; Bertone, Matthew A; Menninger, Holly L; Dunn, Robert R; Fierer, Noah

    2016-12-01

    We spend most of our lives inside homes, surrounded by arthropods that impact our property as pests and our health as disease vectors and producers of sensitizing allergens. Despite their relevance to human health and well-being, we know relatively little about the arthropods that exist in our homes and the factors structuring their diversity. As previous work has been limited in scale by the costs and time associated with collecting arthropods and the subsequent morphological identification, we used a DNA-based method for investigating the arthropod diversity in homes via high-throughput marker gene sequencing of home dust. Settled dust samples were collected by citizen scientists from both inside and outside more than 700 homes across the United States, yielding the first continental-scale estimates of arthropod diversity associated with our residences. We were able to document food webs and previously unknown geographic distributions of diverse arthropods - from allergen producers to invasive species and nuisance pests. Home characteristics, including the presence of basements, home occupants and surrounding land use, were more useful than climate parameters in predicting arthropod diversity in homes. These noninvasive, scalable tools and resultant findings not only provide the first continental-scale maps of household arthropod diversity, but our analyses also provide valuable baseline information on arthropod allergen exposures and the distributions of invasive pests inside homes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Offsite environmental monitoring report; radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Huff, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    This report describes the Offsite Radiation Safety Program. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling milk, water, and air; by deploying thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs). No nuclear weapons testing was conducted in 1996 due to the continuing nuclear test moratorium. During this period, R and IE personnel maintained readiness capability to provide direct monitoring support if testing were to be resumed and ascertained compliance with applicable EPA, DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. Comparison of the measurements and sample analysis results with background levels and with appropriate standards and regulations indicated that there was no airborne radioactivity from diffusion or resuspension detected by the various EPA monitoring networks surrounding the NTS. There was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater and no radiation exposure above natural background was received by the offsite population. All evaluated data were consistent with previous data history.

  8. Potential environmental contaminant risks to avian species at important bird areas in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Ackerson, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental contaminants, acting at molecular through population levels of biological organization, can have profound effects upon birds. A screening level risk assessment was conducted that examined potential contaminant threats at 52 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in the northeastern Atlantic coast drainage. Using geographic information system methodology, data layers describing or integrating pollutant hazards (impaired waters, fish or wildlife consumption advisories, toxic release inventory data, estimated pesticide use and hazard) were overlaid on buffered IBA boundaries, and the relative contaminant threat for each site was ranked. The 10 sites identified as having the greatest contaminant threats included Jefferson National Forest, Stewart B. McKinney National Wildlife Refuge, Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Blue Ridge Parkway, Shenandoah National Park, Adirondack Park, Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, George Washington National Forest, Green Mountain National Forest, and Long Island Piping Plover Beaches. These sites accounted for over 50% of the entire study area, and in general had moderate to high percentages of impaired waters, fish consumption advisories related to mercury and PCBs, and were located in counties with substantial application rates of pesticides known to be toxic to birds. Avian species at these IBAs include Federally endangered Roseate terns (Sterna dougallii), threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus), neotropical migrants, Bicknell?s thrush (Catharus bicknelli), Swainson?s warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii) and wintering brant geese (Branta bernicla). Extant data for free-ranging birds from the Contaminant Exposure and Effects--Terrestrial Vertebrates database were examined within the buffered boundaries of each IBA, and for a moderate number of sites there was qualitative concordance between the perceived risk and actual contaminant exposure data. However, several of the IBAs with substantial contaminant

  9. Life-cycle environmental inventory of passenger transportation modes in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail Vin

    To appropriately mitigate environmental impacts from transportation, it is necessary for decision makers to consider the life-cycle energy consumption and emissions associated with each mode. A life-cycle energy, greenhouse gas, and criteria air pollutant emissions inventory is created for the passenger transportation modes of automobiles, urban buses, heavy rail transit, light rail transit, and aircraft in the U.S. Each mode's inventory includes an assessment of vehicles, infrastructure, and fuel components. For each component, analysis is performed for material extraction through use and maintenance in both direct and indirect (supply chain) processes. For each mode's life-cycle components, energy inputs and emission outputs are determined. Energy inputs include electricity and petroleum-based fuels. Emission outputs include greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, and N2O) and criteria pollutants (CO, SO2, NOx , VOCs, and PM). The inputs and outputs are normalized by vehicle lifetime, vehicle mile traveled, and passenger mile traveled. A consistent system boundary is applied to all modal inventories which captures the entire life-cycle, except for end-of-life. For each modal life-cycle component, both direct and indirect processes are included if possible. A hybrid life-cycle assessment approach is used to estimate the components in the inventories. We find that life-cycle energy inputs and emission outputs increase significantly compared to the vehicle operational phase. Life-cycle energy consumption is 39-56% larger than vehicle operation for autos, 38% for buses, 93-160% for rail, and 19-24% for air systems per passenger mile traveled. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions are 47-65% larger than vehicle operation for autos, 43% for buses, 39-150% for rail, and 24-31% for air systems per passenger mile traveled. The energy and greenhouse gas increases are primarily due to vehicle manufacturing and maintenance, infrastructure construction, and fuel production. For criteria

  10. Predictive value of human biomonitoring in environmental medicine: experiences at the outpatient unit of environmental medicine (UEM) of the University Hospital Aachen, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straff, Wolfgang; Möller, Manfred; Jakobi, Nikolaus; Weishoff-Houben, Michaela; Dott, Wolfgang; Wiesmüller, Gerhard Andreas

    2002-07-01

    There is little data on the distribution of biomonitoring parameters in patients at outpatient Units of Environmental Medicine (UEM). We evaluated the biomonitoring parameters of 646 UEM outpatients from our University Hospital 1988-1998. Few patients were exposed to specific substances. Data of patients who were not obviously exposed was analysed statistically (geometric mean, standard deviation, median, 95th percentile). Results were compared with reference values in literature. Normal distribution of biomonitoring parameters was rare. 95th percentiles for arsenic, chromium, selenium, zinc, phenol and toluene were below standard, 95th percentiles for copper and mercury above, and 95th percentiles for lead, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, lindane, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane were within the published range of reference values. Thallium as well as most volatile organic compounds analyzed were below detection levels. Aluminum and fluorine exposure was rarely analysed. In view of these results, it is concluded that the indication for biomonitoring needs to be stringent as levels of biomonitoring parameters are generally not risen in patients of the UEM.

  11. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 574: Neptune, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-08-31

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 574, Neptune. CAU 574 is included in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996 [as amended March 2010]) and consists of the following two Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) CAS 12-23-10, U12c.03 Crater (Neptune); (2) CAS 12-45-01, U12e.05 Crater (Blanca). This plan provides the methodology for the field activities that will be performed to gather the necessary information for closure of the two CASs. There is sufficient information and process knowledge regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 574 using the SAFER process. Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, field screening, analytical results, the results of the data quality objective (DQO) process (Section 3.0), and an evaluation of corrective action alternatives (Appendix B), closure in place with administrative controls is the expected closure strategy for CAU 574. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation to verify and support the expected closure strategy and provide a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. This will be presented in a Closure Report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval.

  12. Advancing strategic environmental assessment in the offshore oil and gas sector: Lessons from Norway, Canada, and the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidler, Courtney, E-mail: crfidler@gmail.com [Department of Geography and Planning, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A5 (Canada); Noble, Bram, E-mail: b.noble@usask.ca [Department of Geography and Planning, School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A5 (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    Abstract: Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) for offshore oil and gas planning and development is utilized in select international jurisdictions, but the sector has received limited attention in the SEA literature. While the potential benefits of and rationale for SEA are well argued, there have been few empirical studies of SEA processes for the offshore sector. Hence, little is known about the efficacy of SEA offshore, in particular its influence on planning and development decisions. This paper examines SEA practice and influence in three international offshore systems: Norway, Atlantic Canada and the United Kingdom, with the intent to identify the challenges, lessons and opportunities for advancing SEA in offshore planning and impact assessment. Results demonstrate that SEA can help inform and improve the efficacy and efficiency of project-based assessment in the offshore sector, however weak coordination between higher and lower tiers limit SEA's ability to influence planning and development decisions in a broad regional environmental and socioeconomic context. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA can inform and improve the efficacy and efficiency of project EA offshore Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scope and deliverables of SEA offshore often differ from stakeholder expectations Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable variability in influence of SEA output beyond licensing decisions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sector-based SEA offshore is often too restrictive to generate expected benefits.

  13. Participation for effective environmental governance? Evidence from Water Framework Directive implementation in Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochskämper, Elisa; Challies, Edward; Newig, Jens; Jager, Nicolas W

    2016-10-01

    Effectiveness of participation in environmental governance is a proliferating assertion in literature that is also reflected in European legislation, such as the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). The Directive mandates participatory river basin management planning across the EU aiming at the delivery of better policy outputs and enhanced implementation. Yet, the impact of this planning mode in WFD implementation remains unclear, though the first planning phase was completed in 2009 and the first implementation cycle by the end of 2015. Notwithstanding the expanding body of literature on WFD implementation, a rather scattered single case study approach seems to predominate. This paper reports on implementation of the WFD in three case studies from Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom, reflecting three substantially different approaches to participatory river basin management planning, on the basis of a comparative case study design. We ask if and how participation improved the environmental standard of outputs and the quality of implementation. We found an increasing quality of outputs with increasing intensity of local participation. Further, social outcomes such as learning occurred within dialogical settings, whereas empowerment and network building emerged also in the case characterized mainly by one-way information. Finally, one important finding deviant from the literature is that stakeholder acceptance seems to be more related to processes than to outputs.

  14. Population structure of clinical and environmental Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Turner

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a common marine bacterium and a leading cause of seafood-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Although this bacterium has been the subject of much research, the population structure of cold-water populations remains largely undescribed. We present a broad phylogenetic analysis of clinical and environmental V. parahaemolyticus originating largely from the Pacific Northwest coast of the United States. Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR (REP-PCR separated 167 isolates into 39 groups and subsequent multilocus sequence typing (MLST separated a subset of 77 isolates into 24 sequence types. The Pacific Northwest population exhibited a semi-clonal structure attributed to an environmental clade (ST3, N = 17 isolates clonally related to the pandemic O3:K6 complex and a clinical clade (ST36, N = 20 isolates genetically related to a regionally endemic O4:K12 complex. Further, the identification of at least five additional clinical sequence types (i.e., ST43, 50, 65, 135 and 417 demonstrates that V. parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis in the Pacific Northwest is polyphyletic in nature. Recombination was evident as a significant source of genetic diversity and in particular, the recA and dtdS alleles showed strong support for frequent recombination. Although pandemic-related illnesses were not documented during the study, the environmental occurrence of the pandemic clone may present a significant threat to human health and warrants continued monitoring. It is evident that V. parahaemolyticus population structure in the Pacific Northwest is semi-clonal and it would appear that multiple sequence types are contributing to the burden of disease in this region.

  15. A Multi-Unit Project for Building Scientific Confidence via Authentic Research in Identification of Environmental Bacterial Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Chatfield

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This authentic research project is designed to identify environmental isolates by metabolic phenotypes and 16s sequence analysis and with an investigation of biofilm growth is presented as implemented in an upper-level microbiology lab course. Three units were used in the lab: one for basic metabolic identification, one for the 16s rDNA sequencing and a third for biofilm growth analysis. Assessment was by weekly notebook entries detailing the outcomes of each day in lab, providing relatively on-time feedback on student understanding and learning to both the student and the instructor. The intent for these units was for each to increase the uncertainty of the project outcomes and to challenge students to design projects with open-ended results. All student groups have been able to obtain DNA sequence data in the limited 6-7 weeks of the lab project. Students report increased confidence in their abilities and a general excitement about the project methods and results. The data produced by the students can be incorporated into larger research questions posed by the faculty running the course as determined by the source of the unknown bacterial isolates.

  16. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 3. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.; Witten, A.J.

    1976-08-10

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Units 2 and 3 of the Peach Bottom Nuclear Power Plant was conducted for the Office of Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of both the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected from 1967 through 1976. Specific recommendations are made for improving both the present hydrothermal and ecological monitoring programs. Hydrothermal monitoring would be improved by more complete reporting of in-plant operating parameters. In addition, the present boat surveys could be discontinued, and monitoring efforts could be directed toward expanding the present thermograph network. Ecological monitoring programs were judged to be of high quality because standardized collection techniques, consistent reporting formats, and statistical analyses were performed on all of the data and were presented in an annual report. Sampling for all trophic groups was adequate for the purposes of assessing power plant induced perturbations. Considering the extensive period of preoperational data (six years) and operational data (three years) available for analysis, consideration could be given to reducing monitoring effort after data have been collected for a period when both units are operating at full capacity. In this way, an assessment of the potential ecological impact of the Peach Bottom facility can be made under conditions of maximum plant induced perturbations.

  17. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 114: Area 25 EMAD Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 114, Area 25 EMAD Facility, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 114 comprises the following corrective action site (CAS) located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-41-03, EMAD Facility This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing CAS 25-41-03. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 114 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for CAS 25-41-03. It is anticipated that the results of the field investigation and implementation of corrective actions will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to NDEP for review and approval. The CAS will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 30, 2009, by representatives of NDEP and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAS 25-41-03. The following text summarizes the SAFER

  18. Environmental risk factors associated with Helicobacter pylori seroprevalence in the United States: a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Converse, R R; Wade, T J

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori imparts a considerable burden to public health. Infections are mainly acquired in childhood and can lead to chronic diseases, including gastric ulcers and cancer. The bacterium subsists in water, but the environment's role in transmission remains poorly understood. The nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was examined for environmental risk factors associated with H. pylori seroprevalence. Data from 1999-2000 were examined and weighted to represent the US population. Multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations with seropositivity. Self-reported general health condition was inversely associated with seropositivity. Of participants aged <20 years, seropositivity was significantly associated with having a well as the source of home tap water (aOR 1·7, 95% CI 1·1-2·6) and living in a more crowded home (aOR 2·3, 95% CI 1·5-3·7). Of adults aged ⩾20 years, seropositivity was not associated with well water or crowded living conditions, but adults in soil-related occupations had significantly higher odds of seropositivity compared to those in non-soil-related occupations (aOR 1·9, 95% CI 1·2-2·9). Exposures to both well water and occupationally related soil increased the effect size of adults' odds of seropositivity compared to non-exposed adults (aOR 2·7, 95% CI 1·3-5·6). Environmental exposures (well-water usage and occupational contact with soil) play a role in H. pylori transmission. A disproportionate burden of infection is associated with poor health and crowded living conditions, but risks vary by age and race/ethnicity. These findings could help inform interventions to reduce the burden of infections in the United States.

  19. Effects of environmental covariates and density on the catchability of fish populations and interpretation of catch per unit effort trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Josh; Yard, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Article for outlet: Fisheries Research. Abstract: Quantifying temporal and spatial trends in abundance or relative abundance is required to evaluate effects of harvest and changes in habitat for exploited and endangered fish populations. In many cases, the proportion of the population or stock that is captured (catchability or capture probability) is unknown but is often assumed to be constant over space and time. We used data from a large-scale mark-recapture study to evaluate the extent of spatial and temporal variation, and the effects of fish density, fish size, and environmental covariates, on the capture probability of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Colorado River, AZ. Estimates of capture probability for boat electrofishing varied 5-fold across five reaches, 2.8-fold across the range of fish densities that were encountered, 2.1-fold over 19 trips, and 1.6-fold over five fish size classes. Shoreline angle and turbidity were the best covariates explaining variation in capture probability across reaches and trips. Patterns in capture probability were driven by changes in gear efficiency and spatial aggregation, but the latter was more important. Failure to account for effects of fish density on capture probability when translating a historical catch per unit effort time series into a time series of abundance, led to 2.5-fold underestimation of the maximum extent of variation in abundance over the period of record, and resulted in unreliable estimates of relative change in critical years. Catch per unit effort surveys have utility for monitoring long-term trends in relative abundance, but are too imprecise and potentially biased to evaluate population response to habitat changes or to modest changes in fishing effort.

  20. Developing Index for Sustainable Water Use with Environmental and Socioeconomic Indicators: an Application for Hydrologic Units in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Kong, I.

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to develop index for sustainable water use over hydrologic units in South Korea. We identified major indicators for sustainable water use with considering multiple aspects of water use: not only physical, biological and chemical aspects but also social and environmental aspects. Furthermore, stressors for sustainable water use were of major interests because they were straightforward and easy to measure in comparison to indicators representing the state- and impact-related indictors. As a result, sustainability index was constructed with a theme-based hierarchical approach. It is comprised of two components of stress and response to sustainable water use and each component includes five sub-components of human water requirements, water quality requirements, 4) h, equitable water use and others. Then for each sub-component, multiple indicators, i.e., proxy variables were identified. For drainage basins in South Korea, standard hydrologic units with their total number of about 100 across the country, total 19 indicators were identified and their data from the various sources such as remote-sensing based datasets and survey-based national datasets were collected for current times. Then they were integrated to estimate the sustainability index with a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) approach. At last, we evaluated sustainability index with focusing on the spatial variability of indices and indicators and the sensitivity of indices to individual indicators to better understand the sustainability of water use in Korea. In addition, we derived the indices with different MCDM methods to evaluate the sensitivity of index to various mathematical techniques.

  1. [A model of occupational, environmental and community medicine. History and evolution of the Hospital Unit of Occupational Medicine (UOOML) in Lombardia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirla, A M; Feltrin, G

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe the historical evolution of the prevention in Lombardia, and the role of the Hospital Units for Occupational Medicine, not only on the clinical oriented fields, but also on the areas of formation and training. Hospital Units for Occupational Medicine are today the best synthesis of "occupational-environmental-community health". There development is based on adequate standards of human and instrumental resources, as so as a real financial budget. At last, it's important that these Units are allocated in a so-called "bipolar department", open to the hospital and also open to the territorial structures for prevention and safety (department of occupational health).

  2. A Cross-Cultural Assessment of Three Theories of Pro-Environmental Behavior: A Comparison between Business Students of Chile and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordano, Mark; Welcomer, Stephanie; Scherer, Robert F.; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor

    2011-01-01

    We surveyed business students in the United States (n = 256) and Chile (n = 310) to compare three theories of pro-environmental behavior.We examined Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action, Schawartz's norm activation theory, and the values-beliefs-norms theory created by Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano, and Kalof. We produced reliable…

  3. Selected Abiotic and Biotic Environmental Stress Factors Affecting Two Economically Important Sugarcane Stalk Boring Pests in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan T. Showler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane, Saccharum spp., in the United States is attacked by a number of different arthropod pests. The most serious among those pests are two stalk boring moths in the Family Crambidae: the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F., and the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar. The two species are affected by abiotic and biotic environmental stress factors. Water deficit and excessive soil nitrogen alter physical and physiochemical aspects of the sugarcane plant that make the crop increasingly vulnerable to E. loftini. Weed growth can be competitive with sugarcane but it also supports enhanced abundances and diversity of natural enemies that can suppress infestations of D. saccharalis. In an instance where the stalk borer is considered a stress factor, proximity of vulnerable crops to sugarcane can influence levels of E. loftini infestation of sugarcane. The adverse effects of each stress factor, in terms of stalk borer attack, can be reduced by adopting appropriate cultural practices, such as adequate irrigation, judicious use of nitrogen fertilizer, using noncompetitive weed growth, and not planting vulnerable crops near sugarcane fields. Understanding the relationships between stress factors and crop pests can provide valuable insights for plant breeders and tools for incorporation into integrated pest management strategies.

  4. 77 FR 12354 - Meeting of the Joint Forum on Environmental Technical Cooperation Pursuant to the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... issues and the development and effective implementation of Jordanian environmental laws, as defined in... with environmental laws through, among other things, the promotion of economic opportunities, voluntary... and policy strengthening; (2) biodiversity conservation and improved management of protected areas;...

  5. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  6. The associations between environmental quality and preterm birth in the United States, 2000-2005: a cross-sectional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Many environmental factors have been independently associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, exposure is not isolated to a single environmental factor, but rather to many positive and negative factors that co-occur. The environmental quality index (EQI), a measur...

  7. Going green? The relative importance of feelings over calculation in driving environmental intent in the Netherlands and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taufik, Danny; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary environmental campaigns often communicate the benefits of acting environmentally-friendly, assuming that larger benefits will translate into stronger intentions to act environmentally-friendly – a mechanism known as “valuation by calculation”. As such, these campaigns have neglected the

  8. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-03-31

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996 [as amended February 2008]). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. {sm_bullet} CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2){sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a{sm_bullet} CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site{sm_bullet} CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil{sm_bullet} CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10{sm_bullet} CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky) Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107.

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-30

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996 [as amended February 2008]). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. (1) CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt; (2) CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2); (3) CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm; (4) CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area; (5) CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area; (6) CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area; (7) CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area; (8) CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area; (9) CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area; (10) CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area; (11) CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a; (12) CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site; (13) CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil; (14) CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10; and (15) CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky). Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107. CAU 107 closure activities will consist of verifying that the current postings required under Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835 are in place and implementing use restrictions (URs) at two sites, CAS 03-23-29 and CAS 18-23-02. The current radiological postings combined with the URs are adequate administrative controls to limit site access and worker dose.

  10. Mining Available Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency to Support Rapid Life Cycle Inventory Modeling of Chemical Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Sarah A; Meyer, David E; Edelen, Ashley N; Ingwersen, Wesley W; Abraham, John P; Barrett, William M; Gonzalez, Michael A; Randall, Paul M; Ruiz-Mercado, Gerardo; Smith, Raymond L

    2016-09-06

    Demands for quick and accurate life cycle assessments create a need for methods to rapidly generate reliable life cycle inventories (LCI). Data mining is a suitable tool for this purpose, especially given the large amount of available governmental data. These data are typically applied to LCIs on a case-by-case basis. As linked open data becomes more prevalent, it may be possible to automate LCI using data mining by establishing a reproducible approach for identifying, extracting, and processing the data. This work proposes a method for standardizing and eventually automating the discovery and use of publicly available data at the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemical-manufacturing LCI. The method is developed using a case study of acetic acid. The data quality and gap analyses for the generated inventory found that the selected data sources can provide information with equal or better reliability and representativeness on air, water, hazardous waste, on-site energy usage, and production volumes but with key data gaps including material inputs, water usage, purchased electricity, and transportation requirements. A comparison of the generated LCI with existing data revealed that the data mining inventory is in reasonable agreement with existing data and may provide a more-comprehensive inventory of air emissions and water discharges. The case study highlighted challenges for current data management practices that must be overcome to successfully automate the method using semantic technology. Benefits of the method are that the openly available data can be compiled in a standardized and transparent approach that supports potential automation with flexibility to incorporate new data sources as needed.

  11. Integrated sampling and analysis unit for the determination of sexual pheromones in environmental air using fabric phase sorptive extraction and headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcudia-León, M Carmen; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-03-10

    This article presents a novel unit that integrates for the first time air sampling and preconcentration based on the use of fabric phase sorptive extraction principles. The determination of Tuta absoluta sexual pheromone traces in environmental air has been selected as analytical problem. For this aim, a novel laboratory-built unit made up of commercial brass elements as holder of the sol-gel coated fabric extracting phase has been designed and optimized. The performance of the integrated unit was evaluated analyzing environmental air sampled in tomato crops. The unit can work under sampling and analysis mode which eliminates any need for sorptive phase manipulation prior to instrumental analysis. In the sampling mode, the unit can be connected to a sampling pump to pass the air through the sorptive phase at a controlled flow-rate. In the analysis mode, it is placed in the gas chromatograph autosampler without any instrumental modification. It also diminishes the risk of cross contamination between sampling and analysis. The performance of the new unit has been evaluated using the main components of the sexual pheromone of Tuta absoluta [(3E,8Z,11Z)-tetradecatrien-1-yl acetate and (3E,8Z)-tetradecadien-1-yl acetate] as model analytes. The limits of detection for both compounds resulted to be 1.6μg and 0.8μg, respectively, while the precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) was better than 3.7%. Finally, the unit has been deployed in the field to analyze a number of real life samples, some of them were found positive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence and Environmental Effects of Boscalid and Other Fungicides in Three Targeted Use Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, T. J.; Smalling, K. L.; Wilson, E. R.

    2011-12-01

    Fungicides are typically used to control the outbreak of persistent, historically significant plant diseases like late blight (caused by Phytophthora infestans and responsible for the Irish Potato famine of 1846) and newer plant diseases like Asian Soy Rust, both of which are potentially devastating if not controlled. Of the more than 67,000 pesticide products currently registered for use in the United States, over 3,600 are used to combat fungal diseases. Although they are widely used, relatively little is known about the fate and potential secondary effects of fungicides in the aquatic environment. Even less is known about the fate and environmental occurrence of recently registered fungicides including boscalid, which was first registered for use in the US in 2003. Unlike most other pesticides, multiple fungicides are typically applied as a prophylactic crop protectant upwards of ten times per season (depending upon conditions and crop type), but at lower application rates than herbicides or insecticides. This difference in usage increases the likelihood of chronic exposure of aquatic ecosystems to low concentrations of fungicides. Using a newly developed analytical method, the U.S. Geological Survey measured 33 fungicides in surface water and shallow groundwater in three geographic areas of intense fungicide use across the US. Sampling sites were selected near or within farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of the crop type and their geographic location. At least one fungicide was detected in 75% of the surface waters (n=60) and 58% of the groundwater (n=12) samples. Twelve fungicides were detected in surface- and groundwater including boscalid (72%), azoxystrobin (51%), pyraclostrobin (40%), chlorothalonil (38%) and pyrimethanil (28%). Boscalid was the most frequently detected pesticide and has not been previously documented in the aquatic environment. In this study, an average of 44% of the pesticide concentration in a water sample

  13. Addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    The following is an addendum to the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, DOE/NV--1275, dated May 2008. This addendum expands upon information provided in the May 2008 plan. It provides specific details regarding samples to be collected at Corrective Action Sites 15-01-05 and 29-01-01. It also provides discussion and rationale for establishing the spatial boundaries of Corrective Action Sites.

  14. Hydrochemical Regions of the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States, and Their Environmental and Water-Quality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Warner, Kelly L.; Groschen, George E.; Caldwell, James P.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The glacial aquifer system in the United States is a large (953,000 square miles) regional aquifer system of heterogeneous composition. As described in this report, the glacial aquifer system includes all unconsolidated geologic material above bedrock that lies on or north of the line of maximum glacial advance within the United States. Examining ground-water quality on a regional scale indicates that variations in the concentrations of major and minor ions and some trace elements most likely are the result of natural variations in the geologic and physical environment. Study of the glacial aquifer system was designed around a regional framework based on the assumption that two primary characteristics of the aquifer system can affect water quality: intrinsic susceptibility (hydraulic properties) and vulnerability (geochemical properties). The hydrochemical regions described in this report were developed to identify and explain regional spatial variations in ground-water quality in the glacial aquifer system within the hypothetical framework context. Data analyzed for this study were collected from 1991 to 2003 at 1,716 wells open to the glacial aquifer system. Cluster analysis was used to group wells with similar ground-water concentrations of calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulfate, and bicarbonate into five unique groups. Maximum Likelihood Classification was used to make the extrapolation from clustered groups of wells, defined by points, to areas of similar water quality (hydrochemical regions) defined in a geospatial model. Spatial data that represented average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, land use, land-surface slope, vertical soil permeability, average soil clay content, texture of surficial deposits, type of surficial deposit, and potential for ground-water recharge were used in the Maximum Likelihood Classification to classify the areas so the characteristics of the hydrochemical regions would resemble the

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites. CAU 398, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996), and consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1): (1) CAS 25-44-01 , a fuel spill on soil that covers a concrete pad. The origins and use of the spill material are unknown, but the spill is suspected to be railroad bedding material. (2) CAS 25-44-02, a spill of liquid to the soil from leaking drums. (3) CAS 25-44-03, a spill of oil from two leaking drums onto a concrete pad and surrounding soil. (4) CAS 25-44-04, a spill from two tanks containing sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide used for a water demineralization process. (5) CAS 25-25-02, a fuel or oil spill from leaking drums that were removed in 1992. (6) CAS 25-25-03, an oil spill adjacent to a tipped-over drum. The source of the drum is not listed, although it is noted that the drum was removed in 1991. (7) CAS 25-25-04, an area on the north side of the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility, where oils and cooling fluids from metal machining operations were poured directly onto the ground. (8) CAS 25-25-05, an area of oil and/or hydraulic fluid spills beneath the heavy equipment once stored there. (9) CAS 25-25-06, an area of diesel fuel staining beneath two generators that have since been removed. (10) CAS 25-25-07, an area of hydraulic oil spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside X-Tunnel. (11) CAS 25-25-08, an area of hydraulic fluid spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside Y-Tunnel. (12) CAS 25-25-16, a diesel fuel spill from an above-ground storage tank located near Building 3320 at Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) that was removed in 1998. (13) CAS 25-25-17, a hydraulic oil spill

  16. Public choice and environmental regulation: tradable permit systems in the United States and CO2 taxation in Europe. New Horizons in Environmental Economics series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    Svendsen provides a comprehensive description and assessment of the actual experience with systems of tradable permits for environmental management. Moreover, he puts this treatment in a public-choice framework so that we can understand why policy makers in Europe have chosen green taxes, while...

  17. Final environmental impact report. Part I. Pacific Gas and Electric Company Geysers Unit 16, Geothermal Power Plant, Lake County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The environmental analysis includes the following: geology, soils, hydrology, water quality, vegetation, wildlife, air resources, health and safety, noise, waste management, cultural resources, land use, aesthetics, socioeconomics, public services, transportation, and energy and material resources. Also included are: the project description, a summary of environmental consequences, and alternatives to the proposed action. (MHR)

  18. Final environmental impact statement for the construction and operation of an independent spent fuel storage installation to store the Three Mile Island Unit 2 spent fuel at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Docket Number 72-20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) contains an assessment of the potential environmental impacts of the construction and operation of an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) fuel debris at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL). US Department of Energy-Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) is proposing to design, construct, and operate at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The TMI-2 fuel debris would be removed from wet storage, transported to the ISFSI, and placed in storage modules on a concrete basemat. As part of its overall spent nuclear fuel (SNF) management program, the US DOE has prepared a final programmatic environmental impact statement (EIS) that provides an overview of the spent fuel management proposed for INEEL, including the construction and operation of the TMI-2 ISFSI. In addition, DOE-ID has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) to describe the environmental impacts associated with the stabilization of the storage pool and the construction/operation of the ISFSI at the ICPP. As provided in NRC`s NEPA procedures, a FEIS of another Federal agency may be adopted in whole or in part in accordance with the procedures outlined in 40 CFR 1506.3 of the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ). Under 40 CFR 1506.3(b), if the actions covered by the original EIS and the proposed action are substantially the same, the agency adopting another agency`s statement is not required to recirculate it except as a final statement. The NRC has determined that its proposed action is substantially the same as actions considered in DOE`s environmental documents referenced above and, therefore, has elected to adopt the DOE documents as the NRC FEIS.

  19. Cooperation versus confrontation: a comparison of approaches to environmental risk management in Japan and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covello, V.T.; Kawamura, K.; Boroush, M.; Ikeda, S.; Lynes, P.F.; Minor, M.S.

    1988-06-01

    This paper compares approaches to environmental risk management in Japan and the US. The paper includes a historical examination of two case studies of environmental risk management: synthetic detergents and lead in gasoline. In addition, the paper discusses several important differences between Japan and the US, including (a) different attitudes toward separating environmental risk management from environmental risk assessment, and (b) different approaches toward environmental risk management. Specifically, the Japanese approach is based largely on a cooperative model of risk management, with a strong emphasis on negotiation and consensus-building, while the US approach is based largely on a confrontational model of risk management, with a strong emphasis on rigorous scientific analysis and open adversarial processes.

  20. 78 FR 18325 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Formal Training Unit (FTU) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Unit (FTU) and Main Operating Base 1 (MOB 1) for the Beddown of KC-46A Tanker Aircraft AGENCY... Training Unit (FTU) and Main Operating Base 1 (MOB 1) for the Beddown of KC-46A Tanker Aircraft. The EIS... infrastructure and manpower of the FTU and MOB 1 at existing active duty Air Force installations within...

  1. 77 FR 5867 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Jordan Joint Statement on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... enhance environmental performance, and job creation. The priority areas are: (1) Institutional and policy... request for comments and suggestions, and is not a request for applications. No granting of money is...

  2. Mercury Contamination in Fish in Midcontinent Great Rivers of the United States: Importance of Species Traits and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg accumulation. Concentrations were generally lower (80% of ...

  3. Mercury Contamination in Fish in Midcontinent Great Rivers of the United States: Importance of Species Traits and Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg accumulation. Concentrations were generally lower (80% of ...

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 134: Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-05-31

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 134, Aboveground Storage Tanks. CAU 134 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 15, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1): (1) CAS 03-01-03, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 03-01-04, Tank; (3) CAS 15-01-05, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (4) CAS 29-01-01, Hydrocarbon Stain. CAS 03-01-03 consists of a mud tank that is located at the intersection of the 3-07 and the 3-12 Roads in Area 3 of the NTS. The tank and its contents are uncontaminated and will be dispositioned in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations. This CAS will be closed by taking no further action. CAS 03-01-04 consists of a potable water tank that is located at the Core Complex in Area 3 of the NTS. The tank will be closed by taking no further action. CAS 15-01-05 consists of an aboveground storage tank (AST) and associated impacted soil, if any. This CAS is located on a steep slope near the Climax Mine in Area 15 of the NTS. The AST is empty and will be dispositioned in accordance with applicable federal, state, and local regulations. Soil below the AST will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted by chemicals at concentrations exceeding the action levels. It appears that the tank is not at its original location. Soil will also be sampled at the original tank location, if it can be found. If soil at either location has been impacted at concentrations that exceed the action levels, then the extent of contamination will be identified and a use restriction (UR) will be implemented. The site may be clean closed if contamination is less than one cubic yard in extent and can be readily excavated. If action levels are not exceeded, then no

  5. 78 FR 34639 - Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Restart of Healy Power Plant Unit #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... (MW) coal-fired boiler that has been owned and operated by Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA) since 1967. Healy Unit 2 is a 50 MW coal-fired steam generator owned by AIDEA, which underwent...

  6. Exposure potential of salt marsh units in Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge to environmental health stressors (polygon shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Natural and anthropogenic contaminants, pathogens, and viruses are found in soils and sediments throughout the United States. Enhanced dispersion and concentration...

  7. Exposure potential of salt marsh units in Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge to environmental health stressors (polygon shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Natural and anthropogenic contaminants, pathogens, and viruses are found in soils and sediments throughout the United States. Enhanced dispersion and concentration...

  8. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  9. Visualizing 3D/4D Environmental Big Data Using Many-core Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) and Multi-core Central Processing Unit (CPUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Jiang, Y.; Yang, C.; Huang, Q.

    2012-12-01

    Visualizing 3D/4D environmental Big Data is critical to understand and predict environmental phenomena for relevant decision making. This research explores how to best utilize Graphics Process Units (GPUs) and Central Processing Units (CPUs) collaboratively to speed up the visualization process. Taking the visualization of dust storm as an example, we developed a systematic visualization framework. To compare the potential speedup of using GPUs versus that of using CPUs, we implemented visualization components based on both multi-core CPUs and many-core GPUs. We found that 1) multi-core CPUs and many-core GPUs can improve the efficiency of mathematical calculations and graphics rendering using multithreading techniques; 2) when increasing the size of blocks of GPUs for reprojecting, interpolating and rendering the same data, the executing time drops consistently before reaching a peak.; 3) GPU-based implementations is faster than CPU-based implementations. However, the best performance of rendering with GPUs is very close to that with CPUs. Therefore, visualization of 3D/4D environmental data using GPUs is a better solution than that of using CPUs.

  10. Work plan for the remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment for the quarry residuals operable unit at the Weldon Spring Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The Weldon Spring site consists of two noncontiguous areas -- the chemical plant area, which includes four raffinate pits, and the quarry. Cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site are conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, incorporating the values of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The contents of the documents prepared for the project are not intended to represent a statement regarding the legal applicability of NEPA to remedial actions conducted under CERCLA. In accordance with the integrated CERCLA/NEPA approach, a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental assessment (RI/FS-EA) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the quarry residuals operable unit (QROU). This operable unit consists of the following areas and/or media: the residual material remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the pond water and bulk waste; underlying groundwater; and other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough. This work plan identifies the activities within the RI/FS-EA process that are being proposed to address contamination remaining at the quarry area.

  11. USEPA Environmental Quality Index (EQI) - Air, Water, Land, Built, and Sociodemographic Domains Transformed Variables Dataset as Input for the USEPA EQI, by County for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) in the Environmental Public Health Division...

  12. Assessment of environmental problems associated with increased enhanced oil recovery in the United States: 1980-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, E.; Garrell, M.; Royce, B.; Riedel, E.F.; Sathaye, J.

    1983-01-01

    Water requirements and uncontrolled air emissions from well vents and steam generators were estimated for each technology based upon available literature. Estimates of best air emission control technologies were made using data for EOR steam generators actually in use, as well as control technologies presently available but used by other industries. Amounts of solid wastes were calculated for each air emission control technology. Estimates were also made of the heavy metal content of these solid wastes. The study also included environmental residuals which may be expected should coal be used instead of lean crude to produce steam for thermal EOR. It was concluded that from an environmental prospective tertiary oil is preferable in many respects to shale oil, coal and synfuels. Alternative sources of oil such as syncrude, new exploration, and primary production could cause far more environmental damage than incremental EOR. Future EOR in specific regions may be constrained because of environmental issues: air emissions, solid waste disposal, water availability, and aquifer contaminators. Competition for water and the scarcity of surface water or groundwater which are low in total diminutive solids will impede some EOR projects. Risks of groundwater contamination should be minimized particularly because of requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency's new underground injection control program. A quantitative environmental assessment will require a complete and consistent data base for all fields for which EOR is planned out in which tertiary production is taking place. This is particularly true for EOR which will occur in Alaska or in offshore areas, where environments are fragile and where operating conditions are severe. 147 references, 29 figures, 46 tables.

  13. Complex governance to cope with global environmental risk: an assessment of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnheim, Bruno; Tezcan, Mehmet Y

    2010-09-01

    In this article, a framework is suggested to deal with the analysis of global environmental risk governance. Climate Change is taken as a particular form of contemporary environmental risk, and mobilised to refine and characterize some salient aspects of new governance challenges. A governance framework is elaborated along three basic features: (1) a close relationship with science, (2) an in-built reflexivity, and (3) forms of governmentality. The UNFCCC-centered system is then assessed according to this three-tier framework. While the two-first requisites are largely met, the analysis of governmentality points to some institutional weak spots.

  14. EXPLORATION ON ENVIRONMENTAL FRIENDLY PRODUCTION AND RUNNING OF MTBE UNIT%MTBE 装置绿色环保生产运行探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟

    2014-01-01

    分析MTBE装置停工、开工、正常生产过程中的环境风险,介绍哈尔滨石化在降低环境风险方面的经验,提出了延长催化剂使用寿命可以有效降低风险的措施。%The paper analyzed environmental risks existing in course of shut down , start and regular production of MTBE unit , described the experiences of Harbin Petrochemical Com-pany in reducing the environmental risks and put forth some measurements which could reduce effectively the risks by prolonging the catalyst service life.

  15. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  16. Environmental Education through the Lens of Diverse Elementary School Students in the United States: A Phenomenographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz Enriquez, Brissa Yazmin

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental change is occurring, putting our planet under pressure. Children need to understand not only why the environment is important, but also their role as citizens of a globalized society and their necessary contribution to solving global problems. Students carry their own perspectives about the environment and education, and these…

  17. Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Closure (Withdrawal of Units) of Norton Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    638 0.43 A Alabama Street Northbound Increase 652 0.47 A Southbound 668 Barton Road Eastbound Increase 860 0.58 B Westbound 560 aLevel -of-service...Wildlife Biology , Threatened and 12 years experience in endangered species, research and environmental cultural resources, assessment land use Das

  18. Environmental Education through the Lens of Diverse Elementary School Students in the United States: A Phenomenographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz Enriquez, Brissa Yazmin

    2013-01-01

    Global environmental change is occurring, putting our planet under pressure. Children need to understand not only why the environment is important, but also their role as citizens of a globalized society and their necessary contribution to solving global problems. Students carry their own perspectives about the environment and education, and these…

  19. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Prereading Skills and Early Reading and Spelling Development in the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Stefan; Olson, Richard; Wadsworth, Sally; Corley, Robin; DeFries, John C.; Willcutt, Erik; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Byrne, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on prereading skills in preschool and on early reading and spelling development at the end of kindergarten were compared among samples of identical and fraternal twins from the U.S. (Colorado), Australia, and Scandinavia. Mean comparisons revealed significantly lower preschool print knowledge in Scandinavia,…

  20. A Review of Life-Cycle Based Tools Used to Assess the Environmental Sustainability of Biofuels in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no simple answer to the question “are materials from bio-based feedstocks environmentally preferable?” Bioenergy, as an alternative energy source, might be effective in reducing fossil fuel use and dependence, slowing or reducing global warming effects, and providing inc...

  1. A Review of Life-Cycle Based Tools Used to Assess the Environmental Sustainability of Biofuels in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no simple answer to the question “are materials from bio-based feedstocks environmentally preferable?” Bioenergy, as an alternative energy source, might be effective in reducing fossil fuel use and dependence, slowing or reducing global warming effects, and providing inc...

  2. 75 FR 69137 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company Inc. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., issued to Southern Nuclear Company (SNC, the licensee), for operation of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant.... ] Environmental Assessment Identification of the Proposed Action The proposed action would allow SNC to use GNF... that SNC can use GNF-Ziron as an advanced alloy for fuel rod cladding and other assembly...

  3. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Permit Application by United States Steel Corp., Proposed Lake Front Steel Mill, Conneaut, Ohio. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Diesel Deep Creek 19,200 Hydro-Turbine Unit 1 9,600 Hydro 2 9,600 Hydro Piney 28,800 Hydro-Turbine Unit 1 9,600 Hydro 2 9,600 Hydro 3 9,600 Hydro Warrior ...Major Interconnections Interconnections With Max Tie kVA Tie Voltage, kV Metropolitan Edison Company 75 115 44 230 Niagara Mohawk Company 480 230 83 115...reference "The Grand River Reservoir Project: Impact on Wildlife," Grand River Committee, Ohio Chapter of the Wildlife Society (August, 1971). The basin

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 124: Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Draft), Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 124, Areas 8, 15, and 16 Storage Tanks, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 124 consists of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8, 15, and 16 of the Nevada Test Site as follows: • 08-02-01, Underground Storage Tank • 15-02-01, Irrigation Piping • 16-02-03, Underground Storage Tank • 16-02-04, Fuel Oil Piping • 16-99-04, Fuel Line (Buried) and UST This plan provides the methodology of field activities necessary to gather information to close each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 124 using the SAFER process.

  5. Spatial patterns and environmental controls of particulate organic carbon in surface waters in the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qichun; Zhang, Xuesong; Xu, Xingya; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Smith, Richard A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Duan, Shuiwang

    2016-06-01

    Carbon stocks and fluxes in inland waters have been identified as important, but poorly constrained components of the global carbon cycle. In this study, we compile and analyze particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration data from 1145 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrologic stations to investigate the spatial variability and environmental controls of POC concentration. We observe substantial spatial variability in POC concentration (1.43 ± 2.56 mg C/ L, Mean ± Standard Deviation), with the Upper Mississippi River basin and the Piedmont region in the eastern U.S. having the highest POC concentration. Further, we employ generalized linear regression models to analyze the impacts of sediment transport and algae growth as well as twenty-one other environmental factors on the POC variability. Suspended sediment and chlorophyll-a explain 26% and 17% of the variability in POC concentration, respectively. At the national level, the twenty-one selected environmental factors combined can explain ca. 40% of the spatial variance in POC concentration. Overall, urban area and soil clay content show significant negative correlation with POC concentration, while soil water content and soil bulk density correlate positively with POC. In addition, total phosphorus concentration and dam density covariate positively with POC concentration. Furthermore, regional scale analyses reveal substantial variation in environmental controls determining POC concentration across the 18 major water resource regions in the U.S. The POC concentration and associated environmental controls also vary non-monotonically with river order. These findings indicate complex interactions among multiple factors in regulating POC production over different spatial scales and across various sections of the river networks. This complexity together with the large unexplained uncertainty highlight the need for consideration of non-linear processes that control them and developing appropriate methodologies to

  6. Sediments, structural framework, petroleum potential, environmental conditions, and operational considerations of the United States North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1975-01-01

    Scotian Shelf, Cretaceous sandstones are considered to be potential reservoir rocks. Local zones of porous dolomite are believed to be present in carbonate rocks of Jurassic age and should not be overlooked as potential reservoirs. Structural highs related to draping and differential compaction over basement blocks could be important potential petroleum traps. Additional traps may include reef structures near the shelf edge, updip pinchouts, and stratigraphic traps in both clastic and carbonate sediment. A statistical mean for the undiscovered recoverable petroleum resources is calculated to be 0.9 billion barrels of oil and 4.2 trillion cubic feet of gas. At the 5 percent probability level (1 in 20 chance) the undiscovered recoverable petroleum resources are calculated to be 2.4 billion barrels of oil and 12.5 trillion cubic feet of gas. These undiscovered recoverable petroleum resources are those quantities of oil and gas that may be reasonably expected to exist in favorable settings, but which have not yet been identified by drilling. Such estimates, therefore, carry a high degree of uncertainty. Environmental studies of Georges Bank indicated a low-moderate risk from petroleum development. However, the risk estimate is based on very limited data. Drift bottle returns used to infer oil spill trajectories show about a 2% overall recovery rate. Meteorologic data comes mainly from nearby land areas and from ships attempting to avoid storms. Seismicity on Georges Bank is low. This may reflect, in large part, the difficulty of land-based stations in recording earthquakes far from the coast. Direct data on the engineering properties of shallow buried sediment comes mainly from two Texas Tower surveys of limited areas on Georges Shoal and Nantucket Shoals made in the early 1950's. The 17 holes (most less than 30 m deep) reveal some silty layers below loose sand and much lateral variability in sediment type over short distances. The technology for exploration at the required

  7. Bus crash severity in the United-States: The role of driver behavior, service type, road factors and environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011.The cu...

  8. 76 FR 70067 - Taxpayers and Ratepayers United, et al.; Environmental Impacts of Severe Reactor and Spent Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... identifies the ADAMS accession numbers for each PRM. In addition, the following table provides the specific... Docket Nos. ADAMS Accession No. affected Gene Stilp, on behalf of Taxpayers PRM-51-14 ML112430559 Bell Bend. and Ratepayers United. Diane Curran, on behalf of San PRM-51-15 ML11236A322 Diablo Canyon....

  9. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: DEVELOPMENT OF A PHOTOTHERMAL DETOXIFICATION UNIT - ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GROUP - UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The University of Dayton Research Institute has developed a novel photochemical process embodied in a device called a Photothermal Detoxification Unit (PDU) which offers an efficient means of destroying hazardous organic wastes. The PDU, which overcomes the problems of slow react...

  10. Environmental Assessment, United States Air Force Proposed Lease Replacement for Scandia Elementary School, Travis Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    matter such as wood . Other pollutants that are considered by EPA to be GHGs, but which are much less prevalent in the atmosphere, include...was conducted at Scandia Elementary School in 1999 (Penn Environmental 1999). That survey identified friable ACM in the pipe run insulation in the...ornatus> sinuosus Suisun>shrew None None SSC ? Animals>?> Mammals Antrozous>pallidus pallid> bat None None SSC ? Animals>?> Mammals Corynorhinus> townsendii

  11. Differences in Learning Style Preferences, Environmental Press Perceptions and Job Satisfaction between Surgical Intensive Care and General Surgical Unit Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    well-defined theoretical basis (Bonham, 1988; Kirby, 1979). Although Kolb (1984) incorporated the works of Kurt Lewin , Jean Piaget and Carl Jung, John...styles influence how individuals assimilate environmental demands. Kolb’s (1984) Experiential Learning Theory, whose roots are traced to John Dewey, Kurt ... Lewin , and Jean Piaget, provides a methodological framework to understand and strengthen the relationshios between education, personal development

  12. Environmental Assessment of the Use of Prescribed Fire on Six Burn Units Westover Air Reserve Base, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Massachusetts. The Base is in close proximity to the Cities of Holyoke and Springfield, the Towns of West Springfield, Granby, and South Hadley, and is...a Federal statute requiring the identification and analysis of potential environmental impacts of proposed Federal actions before those actions are...Plan. April 1998. Westover Air Reserve Base (WARB). 1998b. Wetland Identification and Delineation Report. September 1998. Westover Air Reserve

  13. Linking Environmental Research and Practice: Lessons From The Integration of Climate Science and Water Management in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Rice, J.; Woodhouse, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts to better connect scientific research with people and organizations involved in environmental decision making are receiving increased interest and attention. Some of the challenges we currently face, however—including complex questions associated with climate change—present unique challenges because of their scale and scope. Focused research on the intersections between environment and society has provided substantial insight into dynamics of large-scale environmental change and the related impacts on people, natural resources, and ecosystems, yet our ability to connect this research to real-world decision making remains limited. Addressing these complex environmental problems requires broad cooperation between scientists and those who may apply research results in decision making, but there are few templates for guiding the growing number of scientists and practitioners now engaging in this kind of cooperative work. This presentation will offer a set of heuristics for carrying out collaborative work between scientists and practitioners. These heuristics were derived from research that examined the direct experiences of water resources professionals and climate researchers who have been working to integrate science and practice.

  14. Public choice and environmental regulation. Tradable permit systems in the United States and CO{sub 2} taxation in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G. [The Aarhus School of Business, Dept. of Economics (Denmark)

    1996-05-01

    The thesis raises the question whether taxation or permit markets are most cost-effective in environmental regulation. The general answer given by the author is that a combination of these two economic control measures would minimize the cost of CO{sub 2} abatement. A `grandfather` permit market can prove to be more cost-effective than a CO{sub 2} tax with regard to organized interests: first because in the near future both industry and electric utilities will experience a growing competition in the common market, secondly because permit markets offer essential results to the environmental organizations. Taxation can come in useful where interests are poorly organized, like in households and transportation sector. Taxes can force environmental improvements through as well as eliminate tax distortion due to income tax reduction. Thus the state has a strong economic interest in development of economic incentive measures, increasing production and exports. The use of a comparative method and the rationale for transferring US experience to European ground is considered. CO{sub 2} taxation in Denmark and the failed attempt to introduce a common CO{sub 2} tax in the EU is analyzed. Perspectives of a CO{sub 2} market on an EU scale and global scale are discussed. (EG) 139 refs.

  15. An Analytical Assessment of Assurance Practices in Social Environmental and Sustainable Reporting in the United Kingdom and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Melissa Manurung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to continue and extend previous studies in evaluating the extent to which current assurance practices promote transparency and accountability to stakeholders. This is carried out by conducting an empirical analysis of the content of assurance statements accompanying a sample of non-financial reports short-listed for the Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA U.K. Sustainability Reporting Award and the CERES-ACCA Sustainability Reporting Award from 2006 to 2008. The findings of this study show that several new trends in social, environmental and sustainability assurance can be observed. Firstly, accountants tend to limit their intended readership to management only and state a disclaimer for other potential readers. This diminishes the transparency and stakeholder accountability of the reporting. Secondly, there is even stronger evidence that management has the control over the scope of the assurance engagement and over what information gets publicly disclosed. The evidence is shown in the fact that in many assurance statements prepared by accountants, only selected parts of the reports are being assured, with no indication that it is not management who selects these parts. Finally, the recent practices of assurance engagements represented by the sample in this study have not improved the transparency and stakeholder accountability of social, environmental and sustainable reporting. Similar to the two previous studies, we assert that a generally accepted standard is needed to promote assurance statements that add meaningful values to the reliability of social, environmental and sustainability reporting.

  16. Nuclear Operations Application to Environmental Restoration at Corrective Action Unit 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites, at the Nevada National Security Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Cabble (NSO), Mark Krauss and Patrick Matthews (N-I)

    2011-03-03

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office has responsibility for environmental restoration at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly the Nevada Test Site). This includes remediation at locations where past testing activities have resulted in the release of plutonium to the environment. One of the current remediation efforts involves a site where an underground subcritical nuclear safety test was conducted in 1964. The underground test was vented through a steel pipe to the surface in a closed system where gas samples were obtained. The piping downstream of the gas-sampling apparatus was routed belowground to a location where it was allowed to vent into an existing radioactively contaminated borehole. The length of the pipe above the ground surface is approximately 200 meters. This pipe remained in place until remediation efforts began in 2007, at which time internal plutonium contamination was discovered. Following this discovery, an assessment was conducted to determine the quantity of plutonium present in the pipe. This site has been identified as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 547, Miscellaneous Contaminated Waste Sites. The quantity of plutonium identified at CAU 547 exceeded the Hazard Category 3 threshold but was below the Hazard Category 2 threshold specified in DOE Standard DOE-STD-1027-92. This CAU, therefore, was initially categorized as a Hazard Category 3 environmental restoration site. A contaminated facility or site that is initially categorized as Hazard Category 3, however, may be downgraded to below Hazard Category 3 if it can be demonstrated through further analysis that the form of the material and the energy available for release support reducing the hazard category. This is an important consideration when performing hazard categorization of environmental restoration sites because energy sources available for release of material are generally fewer at an environmental restoration site

  17. Update to An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United States for the Years 1987, 1995, and 2000 (2013, External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2006, EPA published an inventory of sources and environmental releases of dioxin-like compounds in the United States. This draft report presents an update and revision to that dioxin source inventory. It also presents updated estimates of environmental releases of dioxin-like...

  18. Challenge theme 7: Information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  19. Characterization of the environmental biophysical units of the Glacís de Buenavista, Morelos, by means of a geomorphogenetic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidel Martínez García

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available By means of applying a morphogenetic geomorphologic approach, the environmental biophysical units (EBU of the Glacís of Buenavista volcanic-piedmont were delineated and characterized. The study area belongs to the Colotepec River Basin in the State of Morelos, Central Mexico. The criteria applied to delineate EBU were, in the first phase an analytic geomorphologic procedure and in the second phase, a synthetic one. The thematic maps of geology, climatology, edaphology, hydrology, and land use/cover were used. In addition, it was included the basic information of the EBU delineation process within a GIS and a CAD environment. A description of the 65 EBU units of the Glacis of Buenavista volcanic-piedmont is included. The study area (20,272 ha was classified in seven categories according with its relief type, origin, lithology-age and geometric class of relief in: 1. Mountain-slopes of pyroclastic flows of Plio-Quaternary volcanic endogenous origin; 2. Hillslopes of pyroclastic flows of Plio- Quaternary volcanic endogenous origin; 3. General piedmonts of pyroclastic flows of Plio-Quaternary volcanic endogenous origin; 4. Summit interfluvial surfaces with adjacent barrancos of Plio-Quaternary volcanic endogenous origin; 5. Local piedmont of Quaternary accumulative alluvial exogenous origin; 6. Alluvial plains of Quaternary accumulative exogenous origin; and, 7. Barranco´s hillslopes of denudational exogenous origin of Quaternary (Holocene with marginal accumulative alluvial plains. The biophysical characteristics of the EBU and the present environmental situation of the study area were synthesised.

  20. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  1. Intérvalo unitario de tiempo de medición para ruido ambiental Unit timing for environmental noise measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Giraldo A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En las entidades ambientales, los encargados de las mediciones de ruido ambiental y en general todas las personas que de una u otra forma han trabajado en esta temática, en algún momento se han puesto a pensar sobre la representatividad del tiempo unitario de muestreo y la forma de realizar evaluaciones para dar cumplimiento con dicho tiempo, sin que se aumenten considerablemente los costos de medición. En este artículo se plantea una metodología para determinar cómo un intervalo de cierta duración -en este caso, quince (15 minutos- para el muestreo del nivel de presión sonora es representativo para el período de una (1 hora, logrando de esta manera optimizar el uso de los sonómetros "fijos" y proponiendo una estrategia para reducir los costos en las mediciones de ruido ambiental y en general la elaboración de mapas de ruido.The managers of environmental noise measurements in environmental control agencies, or in general every person that work in this subject, have to think on the representativity of the unit measurement time interval, and how to evaluate it in order to get good quality results regarding the unit measurement time without increasing the measurement costs. A methodology for deciding if a certain measuring time interval -in this case, fifteen (15 minutes- is representative of noise pressure levels occurring during one hour, is proposed in this paper. This methodology allows to optimize the use of stationary sound level meters and to propose a strategy for reducing the costs of environmental noise measurements and of the designing of noise maps in general.

  2. The Need for Social Ethics in Interdisciplinary Environmental Science Graduate Programs: Results from a Nation-Wide Survey in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Troy E; Engebretson, Jesse; O'Rourke, Michael; Piso, Zach; Whyte, Kyle; Valles, Sean

    2017-04-01

    Professionals in environmental fields engage with complex problems that involve stakeholders with different values, different forms of knowledge, and contentious decisions. There is increasing recognition of the need to train graduate students in interdisciplinary environmental science programs (IESPs) in these issues, which we refer to as "social ethics." A literature review revealed topics and skills that should be included in such training, as well as potential challenges and barriers. From this review, we developed an online survey, which we administered to faculty from 81 United States colleges and universities offering IESPs (480 surveys were completed). Respondents overwhelmingly agreed that IESPs should address values in applying science to policy and management decisions. They also agreed that programs should engage students with issues related to norms of scientific practice. Agreement was slightly less strong that IESPs should train students in skills related to managing value conflicts among different stakeholders. The primary challenges to incorporating social ethics into the curriculum were related to the lack of materials and expertise for delivery, though challenges such as ethics being marginalized in relation to environmental science content were also prominent. Challenges related to students' interest in ethics were considered less problematic. Respondents believed that social ethics are most effectively delivered when incorporated into existing courses, and they preferred case studies or problem-based learning for delivery. Student competence is generally not assessed, and respondents recognized a need for both curricular materials and assessment tools.

  3. Pulsed-xenon ultraviolet light disinfection in a burn unit: Impact on environmental bioburden, multidrug-resistant organism acquisition and healthcare associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Caroline; Pamplin, Jeremy C; Chafin, Kristine N; Murray, Clinton K; Yun, Heather C

    2017-03-01

    Portable pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection (PPX-UVD) may reduce healthcare associated infections (HAI). There is limited data to inform use in burn intensive care units (BICU), where multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO), especially gram negative rods (GNR), commonly cause disease. We evaluated PPX-UVD effects on environmental bioburden and rates of HAI and MDRO acquisition in a BICU. PPX-UVD was used for 3 months after standard cleaning of patient and operating rooms (ORs). Settle and touch plates in patient rooms and ORs were obtained after standard cleaning, pre-and post-PPX-UVD. HAI and MDRO acquisition were evaluated 1year prior to and for 3 month periods before, during, and after PPX-UVD. 110 touch and settle plates (33 pre- and 30 post-PPX-UVD) were obtained after standard cleaning, pre- and post-PPX-UVD. After PPX-UVD, environmental samples with any growth decreased (48% vs 31%, p=0.02), as did mean colony count/sample (2.8 pre- vs 1.6 post-, p=0.03). The 379 colonies largely represented skin commensals, without identified MDRO. Following PPX-UVD, no changes in device-associated infections, overall MDRO, or MDR GNR were seen, though a prolonged interval without healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection was observed. PPX-UVD in a BICU reduced overall environmental bioburden, without a statistically significant impact on HAI or MDRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Environmental assessment: Transfer of normal and low-enriched uranium billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Under the auspices of an agreement between the U.S. and the United Kingdom, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an opportunity to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium (LEU) to the United Kingdom; thus, reducing long-term surveillance and maintenance burdens at the Hanford Site. The material, in the form of billets, is controlled by DOE`s Defense Programs, and is presently stored as surplus material in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The United Kingdom has expressed a need for the billets. The surplus uranium billets are currently stored in wooden shipping containers in secured facilities in the 300 Area at the Hanford Site (the 303-B and 303-G storage facilities). There are 482 billets at an enrichment level (based on uranium-235 content) of 0.71 weight-percent. This enrichment level is normal uranium; that is, uranium having 0.711 as the percentage by weight of uranium-235 as occurring in nature. There are 3,242 billets at an enrichment level of 0.95 weight-percent (i.e., low-enriched uranium). This inventory represents a total of approximately 532 curies. The facilities are routinely monitored. The dose rate on contact of a uranium billet is approximately 8 millirem per hour. The dose rate on contact of a wooden shipping container containing 4 billets is approximately 4 millirem per hour. The dose rate at the exterior of the storage facilities is indistinguishable from background levels.

  5. Environmental assessment: Transfer of normal and low-enriched uranium billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Under the auspices of an agreement between the U.S. and the United Kingdom, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an opportunity to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium (LEU) to the United Kingdom; thus, reducing long-term surveillance and maintenance burdens at the Hanford Site. The material, in the form of billets, is controlled by DOE`s Defense Programs, and is presently stored as surplus material in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The United Kingdom has expressed a need for the billets. The surplus uranium billets are currently stored in wooden shipping containers in secured facilities in the 300 Area at the Hanford Site (the 303-B and 303-G storage facilities). There are 482 billets at an enrichment level (based on uranium-235 content) of 0.71 weight-percent. This enrichment level is normal uranium; that is, uranium having 0.711 as the percentage by weight of uranium-235 as occurring in nature. There are 3,242 billets at an enrichment level of 0.95 weight-percent (i.e., low-enriched uranium). This inventory represents a total of approximately 532 curies. The facilities are routinely monitored. The dose rate on contact of a uranium billet is approximately 8 millirem per hour. The dose rate on contact of a wooden shipping container containing 4 billets is approximately 4 millirem per hour. The dose rate at the exterior of the storage facilities is indistinguishable from background levels.

  6. What is the strategic value of occupational and environmental medicine? Observations from the United States and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, E A

    1996-11-01

    The world of work is changing rapidly. Occupational health and safety and environmental health increasingly are seen as a joint product with goods and services, requiring line-management responsibility. This new specialty is encouraged to be strategic rather than tactical to optimize its value in the core business of industry-related medical needs. Because employers, governments, and workers bear major costs, they have a strategic interest in outcomes. Strategic opportunities exist for reduction of the impact of occupational injury and disease; stewardship of the environment, product, and process; the reduction of non-occupational health care costs; for having occupational and environmental health and safety follow best business practices and be prominent in the leadership of change; for optimizing human relations/labor policies and practices; and for meeting regulatory requirements. The strategic position of the specialty can be strengthened through discussion, dialogue and vision development, role definition, establishment and use of performance indicators, improved career structures and training, and a proactive approach to qualify initiatives, research, marketing, and strategic alliances.

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area (TTR). Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 408 comprises Corrective Action Site TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. Clean closure of CAU 408 will be accomplished by removal of munitions and explosives of concern within seven target areas and potential disposal pits. The target areas were used to perform submunitions related tests for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of CAU 408 is limited to submunitions released from DOE activities. However, it is recognized that the presence of other types of unexploded ordnance and munitions may be present within the target areas due to the activities of other government organizations. The CAU 408 closure activities consist of: • Clearing bomblet target areas within the study area. • Identifying and remediating disposal pits. • Collecting verification samples. • Performing radiological screening of soil. • Removing soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include unexploded submunitions, explosives, Resource Conservation Recovery Act metals, and depleted uranium. Contaminants are not expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results.

  8. The Approach to Assessing Environmental, Social and Economic Effects of Radioactive Waste Management in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinham, Russell (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority - Radioactive Waste Management Directorate, Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom))

    2009-12-15

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a non-departmental public body, which began operation in April 2005 with a remit to secure the decommissioning and clean-up of the UK's civil public sector nuclear sites. This remit was widened when the Government announced on 25 October 2006 that, following recommendations from the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), higher activity wastes will be managed in the long-term through geological disposal. Government also announced that it would be giving the NDA the responsibility for planning and implementing geological disposal. A new directorate within the NDA was created, the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD), to manage this new remit. RWMD's mission is to deliver geological disposal and provide radioactive waste management solutions. To achieve this mission, RWMD will: Engage with national and local governments and communities to identify a geological disposal facility site; Develop the specification, design, safety case and environmental and sustainability assessments for the disposal system and obtain regulatory support; In conjunction with waste producers, identify and deliver solutions to optimise the management of higher activity waste; Develop and maintain an effective organisation and secure resources to deliver the geological disposal facility programme; Obtain and maintain stakeholder support for our activities; Deliver a focused RandD programme to support geological disposal and optimised packaging solutions; and Seek sustainable, innovative and cost effective solutions that have public support and are in the best interest of the UK. The Government White Paper placed a requirement on the NDA to assess potential social, environmental and economic impacts of implementing a geological disposal facility using SA, SEA and EIA. This paper outlines the NDA's approach to achieving this requirement. Key elements of the approach are: A staged approach linked to the MRWS site

  9. The Approach to Assessing Environmental, Social and Economic Effects of Radioactive Waste Management in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinham, Russell [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority - Radioactive Waste Management Directorate, Harwell, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is a non-departmental public body, which began operation in April 2005 with a remit to secure the decommissioning and clean-up of the UK's civil public sector nuclear sites. This remit was widened when the Government announced on 25 October 2006 that, following recommendations from the Committee on Radioactive Waste Management (CoRWM), higher activity wastes will be managed in the long-term through geological disposal. Government also announced that it would be giving the NDA the responsibility for planning and implementing geological disposal. A new directorate within the NDA was created, the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD), to manage this new remit. RWMD's mission is to deliver geological disposal and provide radioactive waste management solutions. To achieve this mission, RWMD will: Engage with national and local governments and communities to identify a geological disposal facility site; Develop the specification, design, safety case and environmental and sustainability assessments for the disposal system and obtain regulatory support; In conjunction with waste producers, identify and deliver solutions to optimise the management of higher activity waste; Develop and maintain an effective organisation and secure resources to deliver the geological disposal facility programme; Obtain and maintain stakeholder support for our activities; Deliver a focused RandD programme to support geological disposal and optimised packaging solutions; and Seek sustainable, innovative and cost effective solutions that have public support and are in the best interest of the UK. The Government White Paper placed a requirement on the NDA to assess potential social, environmental and economic impacts of implementing a geological disposal facility using SA, SEA and EIA. This paper outlines the NDA's approach to achieving this requirement. Key elements of the approach are: A staged approach linked to the MRWS site

  10. Aquatic impacts from operation of three midwestern nuclear power stations: Fort Calhoun station, Unit No. 1 environmental appraisal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shamy, F.

    1981-10-01

    Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1, is located on the west bank of the Missouri River in Washington County, Nebraska. The station, a nuclear powered generating facility producing 475 net megawatts, utilizes a once-through cooling design. The station influences the aquatic biota of the Missouri River vicinity in several ways. The heated discharges of the station were found to have no significant impacts to fish, periphyton, and benthic macroinvertebrates. Minor effects to phytoplankton were noted in warm summer months at the point of discharge. An estimated 227,900,000 fish larvae were entrained annually from the river's ichthyoplankton community, the majority identified as freshwater drum. Fort Calhoun Station impinged an estimated 170,882 fish annually, large numbers of which were freshwater drum and gizzard shad with potential losses to channel and flathead catfish. The station was shown to have little impact on the zooplankton community.

  11. Aggregate resource availability in the conterminous United States, including suggestions for addressing shortages, quality, and environmental concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    2011-01-01

    One-third of America's major roads are in poor or mediocre condition, and over one-quarter of the bridges are either structurally deficient or functionally obsolete. A 70-percent increase in annual aggregate production may be required to upgrade the transportation infrastructure. Natural aggregate is widespread throughout the conterminous United States, but the location of aggregate is determined by geology and is non-negotiable. Natural aggregate is in short supply in the Coastal Plain and Mississippi embayment, Colorado Plateau and Wyoming Basin, glaciated Midwest, High Plains, and the non-glaciated Northern Plains. A variety of techniques have been used to overcome local shortages, such as the use of substitute materials, recycling, and importing high-quality aggregates from more distant locations.

  12. On the Varying Scales of Environmental Risks and the Associated Health Impacts in the Southwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J.; El-Askary, H. M.; Sprigg, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have identified dust particles blown across oceans, for instance China to the western coast of the United States and from Africa to the southeastern coast. Dust can contain bacteria, viruses, and fungal spores. Dust not only triggers events that lead to poor road visibility, but can also have implications on respiratory disease such as asthma, cardiovascular disease, and air and water quality. This study focuses on the scale variability and availability of remote sensing and in situ data that focuses on dust, particulate matter, and other atmospheric particles. Furthermore, a search for health department records was conducted in order to identify possible correlation between atmospheric system components and their implications on public health. The area of interest is the southwestern US where dust events are becoming prevalent. This particular study focuses on Phoenix and Tucson, Arizona.

  13. A unit for environmentally adapted technology for transportation of passengers and goods. Individual personal transportation, electric and hybrid vehicles - a preliminary study; Enhet foer miljoeanpassad teknik foer person- och godstransporter - Individuell persontrafik, el- och hybridfordon - Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauner, D.; Lumsden, K. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Transportation and Logistics

    1996-02-01

    A unit for environmentally adapted transport at Chalmers Univ of Technology offers the possibility to enhance competence, to bestow decision makers with information and permits working with the processes needed. Regarding electric propulsion road vehicles, such a unit can coordinate the experiences from the Swedish projects. Further, it may maintain a secretariat and a managerial function to the database which will provide information to research councils, transport administrations and other government organizations, cities etc. The unit may also coordinate and submit research results and, in a long-term perspective, establish and administer field and laboratory vehicle testing. The unit may also function as a link between the vehicle industry and environmental organizations. The initial activities should include the establishment of a national database for electric vehicles and a full-time research post. The present study deals with individual personal transportation. Corresponding studies should be carried out for other areas in order to form a consistent profile for the unit. 38 refs

  14. The environmental and public health benefits of achieving high penetrations of solar energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Millstein, Dev; Mai, Trieu; Macknick, Jordan; Carpenter, Alberta; Cohen, Stuart; Cole, Wesley; Frew, Bethany; Heath, Garvin

    2016-10-01

    We estimate the environmental and public health benefits that may be realized if solar energy cost reductions continue until solar power is competitive across the U.S. without subsidies. Specifically, we model, from 2015 to 2050, solar power-induced reductions to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, air pollutant emissions, and water usage. To find the incremental benefits of new solar deployment, we compare the difference between two scenarios, one where solar costs have fallen such that solar supplies 14% of the nation's electricity by 2030 and 27% by 2050, and a baseline scenario in which no solar is added after 2014. We monetize benefits, where credible methods exist to do so. We find that under these scenarios, solar power reduces GHG and air pollutants by ~10%, from 2015 to 2050, providing a discounted present value of $56-$789 billion (central value of ~$250 billion, equivalent to ~2 cents/kWh-solar) in climate benefits and $77-$298 billion (central value of $167 billion, or ~1.4 cents/kWh-solar) in air quality and public health benefits. The ranges reflect uncertainty within the literature about the marginal impact of emissions of GHG and air pollutants. Solar power is also found to reduce water withdrawals and consumption by 4% and 9%, respectively, including in many drought-prone states.

  15. Radioactive and other environmental threats to the United States and the Arctic resulting from past Soviet activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Earlier this year the Senate Intelligence Committee began to receive reports from environmental and nuclear scientists in Russia detailing the reckless nuclear waste disposal practices, nuclear accidents and the use of nuclear detonations. We found that information disturbing to say the least. Also troubling is the fact that 15 Chernobyl style RBMK nuclear power reactors continue to operate in the former Soviet Union today. These reactors lack a containment structure and they`re designed in such a way that nuclear reaction can actually increase when the reactor overheats. As scientists here at the University of Alaska have documented, polar air masses and prevailing weather patterns provide a pathway for radioactive contaminants from Eastern Europe and Western Russia, where many of these reactors are located. The threats presented by those potential radioactive risks are just a part of a larger Arctic pollution problem. Every day, industrial activities of the former Soviet Union continue to create pollutants. I think we should face up to the reality that in a country struggling for economic survival, environment protection isn`t necessarily the high priority. And that could be very troubling news for the Arctic in the future.

  16. Mercury contamination in fish in midcontinent great rivers of the united states: Importance of species traits and environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, D.M.; Blocksom, K.A.; Lazorchak, J.M.; Jicha, T.; Angradi, T.R.; Bolgrien, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg accumulation. Concentrations were generally lower (80% of values between 20?200 ng g1 wet weight) than those reported for other regions (e.g., upper Midwest and Northeast U.S.). Mercury exceeded the risk threshold for belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon, the most sensitive species considered) in 33?75% of river length and 1?7% of river length for humans. Concentrations were lower in the Missouri than in the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, consistent with continental-scale patterns in atmospheric Hg deposition. Body size and trophic guild were the best predictors of Hg concentrations, which were highest in large-bodied top predators. Site geochemical and landscape properties were weakly related with fish Hg. Moreover, relationships often ran contrary to conventional wisdom, and the slopes of the relationships (positive or negative) were inconsistent among fish guilds and rivers. For example, sulfate is positively associated with fish Hg concentrations but was negatively correlated with Hg in five of six regression models of tissue concentrations. Variables such as pH, acid neutralizing capacity, and total phosphorus did not occur at levels associated with high fish Hg concentrations, partially explaining the relatively low Hg values we observed. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  17. Environmental control and nosocomial infections in pediatric intensive care unit%PICU环境控制与院内感染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党红星; 许峰

    2012-01-01

    Nosocomial infections take a tremendous impact to patients and curative activities in PICU.The occuring and developing of nosocomial infections are in close relation to the different internal and external environments of the patients.The incidence rate of nosocomial infections can be effectively reduced by the control of environmental factors in timely and reasonably.This paper reviewed the related internal and external environment factors and control measures in PICU nosocomial infections.%院内感染给PICU患儿健康和医疗工作造成巨大影响.院内感染的发生与患儿体内外环境关系密切,及时合理控制环境因素可有效降低院内感染的发生率.本文对与PICU院内感染发生相关的环境因素和防治措施进行综述.

  18. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 113: Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Building Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. L. Smith

    2001-01-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure in place of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 113 Area 25 Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly Facility (R-MAD). CAU 113 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (NDEP, 1996). The CAU is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-04-01, R-MAD Facility (Figures 1-2). This plan provides the methodology for closure in place of CAU 113. The site contains radiologically impacted and hazardous material. Based on preassessment field work, there is sufficient process knowledge to close in place CAU 113 using the SAFER process. At a future date when funding becomes available, the R-MAD Building (25-3110) will be demolished and inaccessible radiologic waste will be properly disposed in the Area 3 Radiological Waste Management Site (RWMS).

  19. Comparison of production-phase environmental impact metrics derived at the farm- and national-scale for United States agricultural commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Christine; Xue, Xiaobo; Howarth, Robert W.

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural production is critical for human survival and simultaneously contributes to ecosystem degradation. There is a need for transparent, rapid methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of agricultural production at the system-level in order to develop sustainable food supplies. We have developed a method for estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and reactive nitrogen inputs associated with the agricultural production phase of major crop and livestock commodities produced in the United States (US). Materials flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques were applied to national inventory datasets. The net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) toolbox served as the primary accounting tool for LCA and MFA. NANI was updated to create links between nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fixation associated with feed crops and animal food commodities. Results for the functional units kilogram (kg) of product and kg of protein for 2002 data fall within ranges of published LCA results from farm-scale studies across most metrics. Exceptions include eutrophication potential for milk and GHGs for chicken and eggs, these exceptions arise due to differing methods and boundary assumptions; suggestions for increasing agreement are identified. Land use for livestock commodities are generally higher than reported by other LCA studies due to the inclusion of all land identified as pasture or grazing land in the US in this study and given that most of the estimates from other LCAs were completed in Europe where land is less abundant. The method provides a view of the entire US agricultural system and could be applied to any year using publically available data. Additionally, utilizing a top-down approach reduces data collection and processing time making it possible to develop environmental inventory metrics rapidly for system-level decision-making.

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 117: Area 26 Pluto Disassembly Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada With Errata Sheets, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pat Matthews

    2007-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 117, Pluto Disassembly Facility, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 117 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), CAS 26-41-01, located in Area 26 of the Nevada Test Site. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing CAS 26-41-01. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 117 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before finalizing the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary following SAFER activities. This will be presented in a Closure Report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated to meet the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 27, 2007, by representatives of NDEP; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for CAS 26-41-01 in CAU 117.

  1. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 118: Area 27 Super Kukla Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Strand

    2006-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 118, Area 27 Super Kukla Facility, identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. Corrective Action Unit 118 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS), 27-41-01, located in Area 27 of the Nevada Test Site. Corrective Action Site 27-41-01 consists of the following four structures: (1) Building 5400A, Reactor High Bay; (2) Building 5400, Reactor Building and access tunnel; (3) Building 5410, Mechanical Building; and (4) Wooden Shed, a.k.a. ''Brock House''. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing the CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and site confirmation data collected in 2005 and 2006 to recommend closure of CAU 118 using the SAFER process. The Data Quality Objective process developed for this CAU identified the following expected closure option: closure in place with use restrictions. This expected closure option was selected based on available information including contaminants of potential concern, future land use, and assumed risks. There are two decisions that need to be answered for closure. Decision I is to determine the nature of contaminants of concern in environmental media or potential source material that could impact human health or the environment. Decision II is to determine whether or not sufficient information has been obtained to confirm that closure objectives were met. This decision includes determining whether the extent of any contamination remaining on site has been defined, and whether actions have been taken to eliminate exposure pathways.

  2. Environmental and Climatic Control on the Occurrence and Abundance of Long Chain Alkenones in Lakes of the Interior United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toney, J. L.; Fritz, S.; Baker, P. A.; Grimm, E. C.; Nyren, P.; Theroux, S.; Huang, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Long chain alkenones are a class of temperature sensitive lipids with great potential for quantitative paleoclimatic reconstructions from continental locations. We have surveyed 57 lacustrine core-top sediments in the in the interior US for alkenones in order to constrain the environmental conditions that control the occurrence of alkenone-producing haptophytes in lakes and determine the possibility of using lacustrine alkenones to reconstruct temperature. Thirteen out of the 57 sites surveyed contain alkenones in surface sediments. Three of the 13 lakes contain abundant C37:4 alkenones as commonly found in lake sediments, whereas the rest of the lakes show a surprising absence of C37:4 alkenone. 18S Ribosomal DNA sequences amplified from the C37:4 containing lakes suggests the alkenone-producing haptophyte falls amongst the Isochrysis spp. and showcases a strong similarity to a haptophyte derived from Ace Lake, Antarctica, whereas the other lakes probably contain a different species. We also find cold, oligosaline conditions with high concentrations of sodium and sulfate promote high concentrations of alkenones. Salinity serves as a threshold control on the C37:4 alkenone such that C37:4 is only found in lakes with salinity above 2.74 g / L. Sites with the C37:4 alkenone plot along a previously published calibration. We also create a new alkenone temperature calibration using water column filters from Lake George spanning a temperature range of 8 to 24 degrees C. In addition, we obtain an alkenone- inferred temperature record from Lake George, ND for the instrumental period and a high-resolution (~20 year resolution) Holocene length record from Brush Lake, MT, in order to further assess the applicability of lacustrine alkenones for continental paleo-temperature reconstructions.

  3. Offshore Finfish Aquaculture in the United States: An Examination of Federal Laws That Could be Used to Address Environmental and Occupational Public Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian P. Fry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Half of the world’s edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 575: Area 15 Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 575, Area 15 Miscellaneous Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). CAU 575 comprises the following four corrective action sites (CASs) located in Area 15 of the Nevada National Security Site: • 15-19-02, Waste Burial Pit • 15-30-01, Surface Features at Borehole Sites • 15-64-01, Decontamination Area • 15-99-03, Aggregate Plant This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 575 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, to affirm the predicted corrective action decisions, and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective actions. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval.

  5. Postconstruction report of the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, L.B.; Siberell, J.K.; Voskuil, T.L.

    1993-06-01

    Remedial actions conducted under the auspices of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) were completed at the Y-12 United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site in August 1992. The purpose of this Postconstruction Report is to summarize numerous technical reports and provide CERCLA documentation for completion of the remedial actions. Other CERCLA reports, such as the Feasibility Study for the UNC Disposal Site, provide documentation leading up to the remedial action decision. The remedial action chosen, placement of a modified RCRA cap, was completed successfully, and performance standards were either met or exceeded. This remedial action provided solutions to two environmentally contaminated areas and achieved the goal of minimizing the potential for contamination of the shallow groundwater downgradient of the site, thereby providing protection of human health and the environment. Surveillance and maintenance of the cap will be accomplished to ensure cap integrity, and groundwater monitoring downgradient of the site will continue to confirm the acceptability of the remedial action chosen.

  6. Offshore finfish aquaculture in the United States: An examination of federal laws that could be used to address environmental and occupational public health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; Shukla, Arunima; Lee, Ryan M

    2014-11-19

    Half of the world's edible seafood comes from aquaculture, and the United States (US) government is working to develop an offshore finfish aquaculture industry in federal waters. To date, US aquaculture has largely been regulated at the state level, and creating an offshore aquaculture industry will require the development of a new regulatory structure. Some aquaculture practices involve hazardous working conditions and the use of veterinary drugs, agrochemicals, and questionable farming methods, which could raise environmental and occupational public health concerns if these methods are employed in the offshore finfish industry in the US. This policy analysis aims to inform public health professionals and other stakeholders in the policy debate regarding how offshore finfish aquaculture should be regulated in the US to protect human health; previous policy analyses on this topic have focused on environmental impacts. We identified 20 federal laws related to offshore finfish aquaculture, including 11 that are relevant to preventing, controlling, or monitoring potential public health risks. Given the novelty of the industry in the US, myriad relevant laws, and jurisdictional issues in an offshore setting, federal agencies need to work collaboratively and transparently to ensure that a comprehensive and functional regulatory structure is established that addresses the potential public health risks associated with this type of food production.

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 575: Area 15 Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 575, Area 15 Miscellaneous Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). CAU 575 comprises the following four corrective action sites (CASs) located in Area 15 of the Nevada National Security Site: 15-19-02, Waste Burial Pit, 15-30-01, Surface Features at Borehole Sites, 15-64-01, Decontamination Area, 15-99-03, Aggregate Plant This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 575 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, to affirm the predicted corrective action decisions, and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective actions. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval.

  8. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration (SAFER) plan for corrective action unit 412: clean slate I plutonium dispersion (TTR) tonopah test range, Nevada, revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412. CAU 412 is located on the Tonopah Test Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-01CS, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1997 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 412 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 412 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information and determine whether the CAU 412 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU.The following summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 412:• Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information.• If no COCs are present, establish clean closure as the corrective action. • If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions will be evaluated with the stakeholders (NDEP, USAF).• Confirm the preferred closure option is sufficient to protect human health and the environment.

  9. A Political, Economic, Social, Technology, Legal and Environmental (PESTLE Approach for Risk Identification of the Tidal Industry in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Kolios

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of renewable and especially tidal energy through a political, economic, social, technology, legal and environmental (PESTLE analysis approach and by reviewing the most up to date relevant literature. The study focuses on the United Kingdom given the favourable environmental resources for such technologies; the number of different design concepts that are currently under development as well as the research funding that has been invested over the last few years. Findings of the analysis identify the risks and multiple stakeholders involved at all stages of the tidal energy projects development from the conceptualization of the design, right through to decommissioning. Many of the stakeholders present benefits to the tidal developers through funding, incentives and knowledge sharing, but at the same time they also present potential risks to the future of projects. This is mostly down to different approaches of the most important aspect of tidal energy that needs to be considered, making it hard for technologists and developers to equally address all requirements. From this research it can be concluded that several of these risks can be mitigated early on providing that particular stakeholders are involved at the correct stage of a project.

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 538: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 538: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]). (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk. (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for either clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and where DOE will reach consensus with NDEP before beginning the next phase of work.

  11. Environmental setting and factors that affect water quality in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, M.P.; Oaksford, E.T.; Darst, M.R.; Marella, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit covers an area of nearly 62,000 square miles in the southeastern United States, mostly in the Coastal Plain physiographic province. Land resource provinces have been designated based on generalized soil classifications. Land resource provinces in the study area include: the Coastal Flatwoods, the Southern Coastal Plain, the Central Florida Ridge, the Sand Hills, and the Southern Piedmont. The study area includes all or parts of seven hydrologic subregions: the Ogeechee-Savannah, the Altamaha- St.Marys, the Suwannee, the Ochlockonee, the St. Johns, the Peace-Tampa Bay, and the Southern Florida. The primary source of water for public supply in the study area is ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. In 1990, more than 90 percent of the 2,888 million gallons per day of ground water used came from this aquifer. The population of the study area was 9.3 million in 1990. The cities of Jacksonville, Orlando, St. Petersburg, Tallahassee, and Tampa, Florida, and parts of Atlanta and Savannah, Georgia, are located in the study area. Forest and agricultural areas are the most common land uses in the study area, accounting for 48 percent and 25 percent of the study area, respectively. Climatic conditions range from temperate in Atlanta, Georgia, where mean annual temperature is about 61.3 degrees Fahrenheit, to subtropical in Tampa, Florida, where mean annual temperature is about 72.4 degrees Fahrenheit. Long-term average precipitation (1961-90) ranges from 43.9 inches per year in Tampa, Florida, and 44.6 in Macon, Georgia, to 65.7 inches per year in Tallahassee, Florida. Floods in the study area result from frontal systems, hurricanes, tropical storms, or severe thunderstorms. Droughts are not common in the study area,especially in the Florida part of the study area due to extensive maritime exposure. The primary physical and cultural characteristics in the study area include physiography, soils and land resource provinces

  12. Projecting the land cover change and its environmental impacts in the Cedar River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Sohl, Terry L.; Young, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    The physical surface of the Earth is in constant change due to climate forcing and human activities. In the Midwestern United States, urban area, farmland, and dedicated energy crop (e.g., switchgrass) cultivation are predicted to expand in the coming decades, which will lead to changes in hydrological processes. This study is designed to (1) project the land use and land cover (LULC) by mid-century using the FORecasting SCEnarios of future land-use (FORE-SCE) model under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (future condition) and (2) assess its potential impacts on the water cycle and water quality against the 2001 baseline condition in the Cedar River Basin using the physically based soil and water assessment tool (SWAT). We compared the baseline LULC (National Land Cover data 2001) and 2050 projection, indicating substantial expansions of urban area and pastureland (including the cultivation of bioenergy crops) and a decrease in rangeland. We then used the above two LULC maps as the input data to drive the SWAT model, keeping other input data (e.g., climate) unchanged to isolate the LULC change impacts. The modeling results indicate that quick-response surface runoff would increase significantly (about 10.5%) due to the projected urban expansion (i.e., increase in impervious areas), and the baseflow would decrease substantially (about 7.3%) because of the reduced infiltration. Although the net effect may cause an increase in water yield, the increased variability may impede its use for public supply. Additionally, the cultivation of bioenergy crops such as switchgrass in the newly added pasture lands may further reduce the soil water content and lead to an increase in nitrogen loading (about 2.5% increase) due to intensified fertilizer application. These study results will be informative to decision makers for sustainable water resource management when facing LULC change and an increasing demand for biofuel production in this area.

  13. Assessing the genome level diversity of Listeria monocytogenes from contaminated ice cream and environmental samples linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Luo, Yan; Curry, Phillip; Timme, Ruth; Melka, David; Doyle, Matthew; Parish, Mickey; Hammack, Thomas S.; Allard, Marc W.; Brown, Eric W.; Strain, Errol A.

    2017-01-01

    A listeriosis outbreak in the United States implicated contaminated ice cream produced by one company, which operated 3 facilities. We performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis on Listeria monocytogenes from food, environmental and clinical sources, identifying two clusters and a single branch, belonging to PCR serogroup IIb and genetic lineage I. WGS Cluster I, representing one outbreak strain, contained 82 food and environmental isolates from Facility I and 4 clinical isolates. These isolates differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 9 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence type (ST) 5 of clonal complex 5 (CC5). WGS Cluster II contained 51 food and environmental isolates from Facility II, 4 food isolates from Facility I and 5 clinical isolates. Among them the isolates from Facility II and clinical isolates formed a clade and represented another outbreak strain. Isolates in this clade differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 3 PFGE profiles and ST5. The only isolate collected from Facility III belonged to singleton ST489, which was in a single branch separate from Clusters I and II, and was not associated with the outbreak. WGS analyses clustered together outbreak-associated isolates exhibiting multiple PFGE profiles, while differentiating them from epidemiologically unrelated isolates that exhibited outbreak PFGE profiles. The complete genome of a Cluster I isolate allowed the identification and analyses of putative prophages, revealing that Cluster I isolates differed by the gain or loss of three putative prophages, causing the banding pattern differences among all 3 AscI-PFGE profiles observed in Cluster I isolates. WGS data suggested that certain ice cream varieties and/or production lines might have contamination sources unique to them. The SNP-based analysis was able to distinguish CC5 as a group from non-CC5 isolates and differentiate among CC5 isolates from

  14. Assessing the genome level diversity of Listeria monocytogenes from contaminated ice cream and environmental samples linked to a listeriosis outbreak in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Luo, Yan; Curry, Phillip; Timme, Ruth; Melka, David; Doyle, Matthew; Parish, Mickey; Hammack, Thomas S; Allard, Marc W; Brown, Eric W; Strain, Errol A

    2017-01-01

    A listeriosis outbreak in the United States implicated contaminated ice cream produced by one company, which operated 3 facilities. We performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based whole genome sequencing (WGS) analysis on Listeria monocytogenes from food, environmental and clinical sources, identifying two clusters and a single branch, belonging to PCR serogroup IIb and genetic lineage I. WGS Cluster I, representing one outbreak strain, contained 82 food and environmental isolates from Facility I and 4 clinical isolates. These isolates differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 9 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) sequence type (ST) 5 of clonal complex 5 (CC5). WGS Cluster II contained 51 food and environmental isolates from Facility II, 4 food isolates from Facility I and 5 clinical isolates. Among them the isolates from Facility II and clinical isolates formed a clade and represented another outbreak strain. Isolates in this clade differed by up to 29 SNPs, exhibited 3 PFGE profiles and ST5. The only isolate collected from Facility III belonged to singleton ST489, which was in a single branch separate from Clusters I and II, and was not associated with the outbreak. WGS analyses clustered together outbreak-associated isolates exhibiting multiple PFGE profiles, while differentiating them from epidemiologically unrelated isolates that exhibited outbreak PFGE profiles. The complete genome of a Cluster I isolate allowed the identification and analyses of putative prophages, revealing that Cluster I isolates differed by the gain or loss of three putative prophages, causing the banding pattern differences among all 3 AscI-PFGE profiles observed in Cluster I isolates. WGS data suggested that certain ice cream varieties and/or production lines might have contamination sources unique to them. The SNP-based analysis was able to distinguish CC5 as a group from non-CC5 isolates and differentiate among CC5 isolates from

  15. Identifying potential areas for biofuel production and evaluating the environmental effects: a case study of the James River Basin in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Li, Zhengpeng

    2012-01-01

    Biofuels are now an important resource in the United States because of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. Both increased corn growth for ethanol production and perennial dedicated energy crop growth for cellulosic feedstocks are potential sources to meet the rising demand for biofuels. However, these measures may cause adverse environmental consequences that are not yet fully understood. This study 1) evaluates the long-term impacts of increased frequency of corn in the crop rotation system on water quantity and quality as well as soil fertility in the James River Basin and 2) identifies potential grasslands for cultivating bioenergy crops (e.g. switchgrass), estimating the water quality impacts. We selected the soil and water assessment tool, a physically based multidisciplinary model, as the modeling approach to simulate a series of biofuel production scenarios involving crop rotation and land cover changes. The model simulations with different crop rotation scenarios indicate that decreases in water yield and soil nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration along with an increase in NO3-N load to stream water could justify serious concerns regarding increased corn rotations in this basin. Simulations with land cover change scenarios helped us spatially classify the grasslands in terms of biomass productivity and nitrogen loads, and we further derived the relationship of biomass production targets and the resulting nitrogen loads against switchgrass planting acreages. The suggested economically efficient (planting acreage) and environmentally friendly (water quality) planting locations and acreages can be a valuable guide for cultivating switchgrass in this basin. This information, along with the projected environmental costs (i.e. reduced water yield and increased nitrogen load), can contribute to decision support tools for land managers to seek the sustainability of biofuel development in this region.

  16. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 411. Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis), Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick K. [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 411, Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis). CAU 411 is located on the Nevada Test and Training Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), NAFR-23-01, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1996 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 411 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 411 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, and to determine whether the CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU. The results of the field investigation will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 20, 2014, by representatives of NDEP, the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine whether CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 411; Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information; If COCs are no longer present, establish clean closure as the corrective action; If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions

  17. A dynamic level IV multimedia environmental model: application to the fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in the United Kingdom over a 60-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, Andrew J; Cousins, Ian T; Seth, Rajesh; Jones, Kevin C; Mackay, Donald

    2002-05-01

    A dynamic or level IV multimedia model is described and illustrated by application to the fate of three polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in the United Kingdom over a 60-year period from their introduction into commerce until the present. Models of this type are shown to be valuable for elucidating the time response of environmental systems to increasing, decreasing, or pulse inputs. The suggestion is made that in addition to the outputs of time-dependent concentrations (which can be compared with monitoring data for validation purposes), it is useful to examine masses, fugacities, and fugacity ratios between media? The relative importance of processes is best evaluated by compiling cumulative intermedia fluxes and quantities lost by reaction and advection and examining the corresponding process rate constants or their reciprocals, the characteristic times. The suggestion is made that uncertainty and sensitivity analyses are desirable, but it must be appreciated that relative sensitivities of input parameters may change during the simulation period, so a single sensitivity analysis conducted at one point in time can be misleading. The use of the model for forecasting future trends in concentration is illustrated. Given the uncertainties in emission and advective inflow rates, the simulation of PCB fate in the United Kingdom is regarded as showing time trends that are in satisfactory agreement with monitoring data.

  18. Disparity between state fish consumption advisory systems for methylmercury and US Environmental Protection Agency recommendations: A case study of the south central United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kimberly J; Drenner, Ray W; Chumchal, Matthew M; Donato, David I

    2016-01-01

    Fish consumption advisories are used to inform citizens in the United States about noncommercial game fish with hazardous levels of methylmercury (MeHg). The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) suggests issuing a fish consumption advisory when concentrations of MeHg in fish exceed a human health screening value of 300 ng/g. However, states have authority to develop their own systems for issuing fish consumption advisories for MeHg. Five states in the south central United States (Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Texas) issue advisories for the general human population when concentrations of MeHg exceed 700 ng/g to 1000 ng/g. The objective of the present study was to estimate the increase in fish consumption advisories that would occur if these states followed USEPA recommendations. The authors used the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish to estimate the mercury concentrations in 5 size categories of largemouth bass-equivalent fish at 766 lentic and lotic sites within the 5 states. The authors found that states in this region have not issued site-specific fish consumption advisories for most of the water bodies that would have such advisories if USEPA recommendations were followed. One outcome of the present study may be to stimulate discussion between scientists and policy makers at the federal and state levels about appropriate screening values to protect the public from the health hazards of consuming MeHg-contaminated game fish.

  19. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 553: Areas 19, 20 Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. It has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. A SAFER may be performed when the following criteria are met: (1) Conceptual corrective actions are clearly identified (although some degree of investigation may be necessary to select a specific corrective action before completion of the Corrective Action Investigation [CAI]); (2) Uncertainty of the nature, extent, and corrective action must be limited to an acceptable level of risk; (3) The SAFER Plan includes decision points and criteria for making data quality objective (DQO) decisions. The purpose of the investigation will be to document and verify the adequacy of existing information; to affirm the decision for clean closure, closure in place, or no further action; and to provide sufficient data to implement the corrective action. The actual corrective action selected will be based on characterization activities implemented under this SAFER Plan. This SAFER Plan identifies decision points developed in cooperation with the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP), where the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) will reach consensus with the NDEP before beginning the next phase of work. Corrective Action Unit 553 is located in Areas 19 and 20 of the NTS, approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 553 is comprised of the four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: 19-99-01, Mud Spill; 19-99-11, Mud Spill; 20-09-09, Mud Spill; and 20-99-03, Mud Spill. There is sufficient

  20. Assessment of environmental public exposure from a hypothetical nuclear accident for Unit-1 Bushehr nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, M; Ghasemi, M; Amrollahi, R; Khamooshi, C; Parsouzi, Z

    2013-05-01

    Unit-1 of the Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP-1) is a VVER-type reactor with 1,000-MWe power constructed near Bushehr city at the coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran. The reactor has been recently operational to near its full power. The radiological impact of nuclear power plant (NPP) accidents is of public concern, and the assessment of radiological consequences of any hypothetical nuclear accident on public exposure is vital. The hypothetical accident scenario considered in this paper is a design-basis accident, that is, a primary coolant leakage to the secondary circuit. This scenario was selected in order to compare and verify the results obtained in the present paper with those reported in the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR 2007) of the BNPP-1 and to develop a well-proven methodology that can be used to study other and more severe hypothetical accident scenarios for this reactor. In the present study, the version 2.01 of the PC COSYMA code was applied. In the early phase of the accidental releases, effective doses (from external and internal exposures) as well as individual and collective doses (due to the late phase of accidental releases) were evaluated. The surrounding area of the BNPP-1 within a radius of 80 km was subdivided into seven concentric rings and 16 sectors, and distribution of population and agricultural products was calculated for this grid. The results show that during the first year following the modeled hypothetical accident, the effective doses do not exceed the limit of 5 mSv, for the considered distances from the BNPP-1. The results obtained in this study are in good agreement with those in the FSAR-2007 report. The agreement obtained is in light of many inherent uncertainties and variables existing in the two modeling procedures applied and proves that the methodology applied here can also be used to model other severe hypothetical accident scenarios of the BNPP-1 such as a small and large break in the reactor coolant system as well

  1. PICU内环境清洁水平的量化评估%Quantitative evaluation of environmental surface cleanliness in pediatrics intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾艳; 许宏; 马玉新

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To quantitatively evaluate the environmental surface cleanliness in the pediatrics intensive care unit (PICU) of the hospital and to monitor the efficacy of the cleaning methods used and standardize the cleaning procedure. METHODS A total of 22 different kinds of environmental surfaces in PICU, Fuwai Heart Hospital & Cardiovascular Institute were chosen based on the hand contact frequency and contamination risk level. Their cleanliness was evaluated using an ATP bioluminescence method. RESULTS It was shown that the average ATP values of simple respirator, physiological bedside monitor panel, infusion pump panel, pressurized infusion bag ball and nurse's table were >500 relative light units (RLU) before the cleaning, indicating high contamination risk, while the RLUs of all environmental surfaces reduced to 500 4 hours after cleaning. It was surprising to discover that the average RLU of a blood-gas analyzer panel, screen and injection port were >15 000. CONCLUSION It is concluded that in a PICU the use of an ATP method could provide quantitative information of cleaning efficacy and ATP trends, to allow the identification of environmental surfaces that require the additional cleaning or cleaning schedule amendments.%目的 为量化评估小儿重症监护病房(PICU)环境清洁水平、规范清洁流程、探索环境清洁效果的监测方式提供依据.方法 基于手接触频率、人员活动以及与病患接触程度,选择PICU内22种医疗器械和环境表面,应用三磷酸腺苷(ATP)生物荧光技术,比较了清洁前、清洁后即刻、2、4、8h的表面相对荧光强度(Relative Light Units,RLU)值.结果 护士桌板、简易呼吸器、监护仪按钮、输液泵面板、加压输液袋的充气皮球、床头桌板和尺子表面RLU值>500;清洁可有效降低医疗器械和环境表面RLU值,但清洁后监护仪按钮、输液泵面板、床头桌板和简易呼吸器等RLU值上升较快,清洁后4h RLU值>500;血气分

  2. Environmental Cognition on the Socialized and Unitized Campus%社会化校园与单位式校园空间的环境认知

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文智; 朱佩娟; 李爱年; 陈颖

    2013-01-01

    中国社会转型带来的改革和建设不断促使大学校园走向开放与多元。针对单位式校园向社会化校园转变的趋势,研究两类校园空间的环境认知,对我国高校今后的发展与建设具有重要的理论意义。文章借鉴环境行为学方法,在探索性研究的基础上,采用调查问卷抽取环境认知与空间行为样本,通过边界与中心认知、行为地图缓冲区分析、网格统计和空间叠置等方法进行定性和定量分析,选取湖南师范大学和中南大学的本部校园作为对比案例,得出以下结论:1)社会化校园在被动地适应社会转型中融入城市系统,导致环境认知差于单位式校园;2)自然地理条件、功能格局和使用者主观意识相互交织,在时间因素的推动下,使社会化校园产生有别于单位式校园的空间行为格局;3)学生认知的发展性和社会转型环境影响的持续性,构建了环境认知与空间行为相互作用的机制。最后简单探讨了对大学校园建设的一些看法。%Colleges and universities are trending towards openness and diversification with the influence of reform and construction promoted by the social transition in China. Study of the environment cognition on two types of campus would make it significant to construction and development of colleges and universities based on the tendency from unitized campus to socialized campus. Using Environment-behavior study as an entry point, this paper selects Hunan Normal University and Central South University, which represent socialized campus and unitized campus respectively, as comparative cases. Questionnaire survey on the basis of exploratory research is used to extract samples of environmental cognition and spatial behavior, and the subjective evaluation and sketches depicting are employed to obtain the first-hand data and information. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis of statistical data

  3. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 114: Area 25 EMAD Facility Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burmeister

    2009-08-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 114, Area 25 EMAD Facility, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 114 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-41-03, EMAD Facility • 25-99-20, EMAD Facility Exterior Releases This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 114 using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. It is anticipated that the results of the field investigation and implementation of a corrective action of clean closure will support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to NDEP for review and approval. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 30, 2009, by representatives of NDEP; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data

  4. Sediments, structural framework, petroleum potential, environmental conditions, and operational considerations of the United States South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1975-01-01

    The area designated for possible oil and gas lease sale in Bureau of Land Management memorandum 3310 #43 (722) and referred to therein as part of the United States South Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) contains about 98,000 square kilometres of the continental margin seaward of the 3 mile offshore limit and within the 600 metre isobath. The designated area, offshore of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, encompasses parts of three physiographic provinces: the Continental Shelf, the Florida-Hatteras Slope, and the Blake Plateau. The structural framework of the U.3. South Atlantic region is dominated by the Southeast Georgia Embayment --an east-plunging depression recessed into the Atlantic Coastal Plain and shelf between Cape Fear, North Carolina and Jacksonville, Florida. The embayment is bounded to the north by the Cape Fear Arch and to southeast by the Peninsular Arch. Refraction data indicate a minor basement(?) ridge beneath the outer shelf between 30? and 32?N at 80?W. Drill hole data also suggest a gentle fold or accretionary structure (reef?) off the east coast of Florida. Several other structural features have been identified by refraction and reflection techniques and drilling. These are the Yamacraw Uplift, Burton High, Stone Arch, and the Suwannee Channel. Gravity and magnetic anomalies within the area probably result from emplacement of magma bodies along linear features representing fundamental crustal boundaries. Of these anomalies, the most prominent, is a segment of the East Coast Magnetic Anomaly which crosses the coast at Brunswick, Georgia. This anomaly has been interpreted as representing an ancient continental boundary where two formerly separate continental plates collided and were welded together. There may be as much as 5,000 m of sedimentary rocks in the Southeast Georgia Embayment out to the 600 m isobath. Basement rocks beneath the Southeast Georgia Embayment are expected to be similar to those exposed in the

  5. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    & competitiveness; c) employment, and d) the tax system. These are the main conclusions of a report on environmental taxes by the European Environment Agency (EEA), requested by the European Parliament. The report provides an overview of the main issues involved in environmental taxes, with a particular focus......EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1.Although the 5th Environmental Action Programme of the EU in 1992 recommended the greater use of economic instruments such as environmental taxes, there has been little progress in their use since then at the EU level. At Member State level, however, there has been a continuing...... increase in the use of environmental taxes over the last decade, which has accelerated in the last 5-6 years. This is primarily apparent in Scandinavia, but it is also noticeable in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom.2.Evaluation studies of 16 environmental taxes have...

  6. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  7. "FACILS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology" (hereafter "FACILS") presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Methe, Barbara

    2016-02-03

    As we enter the 21st century, the sustainability of the biosphere is a global challenge that can best be met with a global response. This includes how we train and promote our next generation of research scientists in the emerging arenas of genome-enabled biology and a bio-based economy. It is this fundamental issue that formed the motivation for designing and conducting a shortcourse entitled “FACILIS 2014: Microbially-driven facilitation systems in environmental biotechnology” (hereafter “FACILIS”) presented here by the European Commission (EC)-United States (US) Task Force on Biotechnology Research. This WG was established in 1994 under the umbrella of the US-EC Task Force on Biotechnology Research, a transatlantic collaborative group overseen by the US Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and the EC. The Environmental Biotechnology Working Group maintains several goals, including establishing research links between scientists in EU countries and the US and fostering the careers of junior scientists from both sides of the Atlantic to the global nature of scientific cooperation. To that end, a shortcourse was held at the University of Milan in Italy on July 12-25 2014 organized around cross-cutting themes of genomic science and designed to attract a stellar group of interdisciplinary early carrier researchers. A total of 22 students, 10 from the US and 12 from the EU participated. The course provided them with hands-on experience with the latest scientific methods in genomics and bioinformatics; using a format that combines lectures, laboratory research and field work with the final goal to enable researchers to finally turn data into knowledge.

  8. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 539: Area 25 and Area 26 Railroad Tracks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 539, Areas 25 and 26 Railroad Tracks, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). A modification to the FFACOwas approved in May 2010 to transfer the two Railroad Tracks corrective action sites (CASs) from CAU 114 into CAU539. The two CASs are located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site: • 25-99-21, Area 25 Railroad Tracks • 26-99-05, Area 26 Railroad Tracks This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing the two CASs. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of the CAU 539 Railroad Tracks CASs using the SAFER process. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation should support a defensible recommendation that no further corrective action is necessary. If it is determined that complete clean closure cannot be accomplished during the SAFER, then a hold point will have been reached and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) will be consulted to determine whether the remaining contamination will be closed under the alternative corrective action of closure in place with use restrictions. This will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on December 14, 2009, by representatives of U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Navarro Nevada Environmental Services, LLC (NNES); and National Security Technologies

  9. Valorization/Recognition of Environmental Protection Qualifications in the Chemical and Metal Industries. Synthesis of the National Reports: Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Catherine

    Reports on the development and recognition of environmental protection qualifications in the chemical and metal industries in Germany, France, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom were synthesized. The synthesis focused on companies' and social partners' current and planned strategies and obligations of companies regarding recognizing…

  10. Waste Management Plan for the Remedial Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 10, Operable Unit 3, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Waste Management Plan (WMP) supplements the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Project WMP and defines the criteria and methods to be used for managing and characterizing waste generated during activities associated with the RI of 23 wells near the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF). These wells are within the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 area of contamination (AOC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Field activities for the limited RI of Operable Unit (OU) 3 of WAG 10 will involve sampling and measurement of various environmental media (e.g., liquids and gases). Many of these activities will occur in areas known to be contaminated with radioactive materials or hazardous chemical substances, and it is anticipated that contaminated solid and liquid wastes and noncontaminated wastes will be generated as a result of these activities. On a project-wide basis, handling of these waste materials will be accomplished in accordance with the RI/FS Project WMP and the procedures referenced throughout the plan.

  11. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 415: Project 57 No. 1 Plutonium Dispersion (NTTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick; Burmeister, Mark

    2014-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 415, Project 57 No. 1 Plutonium Dispersion (NTTR). CAU 415 is located on Range 4808A of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) and consists of one corrective action site: NAFR-23-02, Pu Contaminated Soil. The CAU 415 site consists of the atmospheric release of radiological contaminants to surface soil from the Project 57 safety experiment conducted in 1957. The safety experiment released plutonium (Pu), uranium (U), and americium (Am) to the surface soil over an area of approximately 1.9 square miles. This area is currently fenced and posted as a radiological contamination area. Vehicles and debris contaminated by the experiment were subsequently buried in a disposal trench within the surface-contaminated, fenced area and are assumed to have released radiological contamination to subsurface soils. Potential source materials in the form of pole-mounted electrical transformers were also identified at the site and will be removed as part of closure activities.

  12. Quantifying the impact of environmental variables upon catch per unit effort of the blue shark Prionace glauca in the western English Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J D; Collins, K J; Miller, P I; Suberg, L A

    2014-09-01

    The effect of environmental variables on blue shark Prionace glauca catch per unit effort (CPUE) in a recreational fishery in the western English Channel, between June and September 1998-2011, was quantified using generalized additive models (GAMs). Sea surface temperature (SST) explained 1·4% of GAM deviance, and highest CPUE occurred at 16·7° C, reflecting the optimal thermal preferences of this species. Surface chlorophyll a concentration (CHL) significantly affected CPUE and caused 27·5% of GAM deviance. Additionally, increasing CHL led to rising CPUE, probably due to higher productivity supporting greater prey biomass. The density of shelf-sea tidal mixing fronts explained 5% of GAM deviance, but was non-significant, with increasing front density negatively affecting CPUE. Time-lagged frontal density significantly affected CPUE, however, causing 12·6% of the deviance in a second GAM and displayed a positive correlation. This outcome suggested a delay between the evolution of frontal features and the subsequent accumulation of productivity and attraction of higher trophic level predators, such as P. glauca. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Genetic Characterization of Fungi Isolated from the Environmental Swabs collected from a Compounding Center Known to Cause Multistate Meningitis Outbreak in United States Using ITS Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad M. Sulaiman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A multistate fungal meningitis outbreak started in September of 2012 which spread in 20 states of the United States. The outbreak has been fatal so far, and has affected 751 individuals with 64 deaths among those who received contaminated spinal injections manufactured by a Compounding Center located in Massachusetts. In a preliminary study, Food and Drug Administration (FDA investigated the outbreak in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, state and local health departments, and identified four fungal and several bacterial contaminations in the recalled unopened injection vials. This follow-up study was carried out to assess DNA sequencing of the ITS1 region of rRNA gene for rapid identification of fungal pathogens during public health outbreak investigations. A total of 26 environmental swabs were collected from several locations at the manufacturing premises of the Compounding Center known to have caused the outbreak. The swab samples were initially examined by conventional microbiologic protocols and a wide range of fungal species were recovered. Species-identification of these microorganisms was accomplished by nucleotide sequencing of ITS1 region of rRNA gene. Analysis of data confirmed 14 additional fungal species in the swabs analyzed.

  14. Aldrin and dieldrin: a review of research on their production, environmental deposition and fate, bioaccumulation, toxicology, and epidemiology in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, J L

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade four international agreements have focused on a group of chemical substances known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Global agreement on the reduction and eventual elimination of these substances by banning their production and trade is a long-term goal. Negotiations for these agreements have focused on the need to correlate data from scientists working on soil and water sampling and air pollution monitoring. Toxicologists and epidemiologists have focused on wildlife and human health effects and understanding patterns of disease requires better access to these data. In the last 20 years, substantial databases have been created and now are becoming available on the Internet. This review is a detailed examination of 2 of the 12 POPs, aldrin and dieldrin, and how scientific groups identify and measure their effects. It draws on research findings from a variety of environmental monitoring networks in the United States. An overview of the ecologic and health effects of aldrin and dieldrin provides examples of how to streamline some of the programs and improve access to mutually useful scientific data. The research groups are located in many government departments, universities, and private organizations. Identifying databases can provide an "information accelerator" useful to a larger audience and can help build better plant and animal research models across scientific fields. PMID:11250811

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 465: Hydronuclear Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 465, Hydronuclear, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 465 comprises the following four corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 6 and 27 of the Nevada National Security Site: (1) 00-23-01, Hydronuclear Experiment; (2) 00-23-02, Hydronuclear Experiment; (3) 00-23-03, Hydronuclear Experiment; (4) 06-99-01, Hydronuclear. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on July 6, 2011, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine and implement appropriate corrective actions for each CAS in CAU 465. For CAU 465, two potential release components have been identified. The subsurface release component includes potential releases of radiological and nonradiological contaminants from the subsurface hydronuclear experiments and disposal boreholes. The surface release component consists of other potential releases of radiological and nonradiological contaminants to surface soils that may have occurred during the pre- and post-test activities. This plan provides the methodology for collection of the necessary information for closing each CAS component. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation, contaminant characteristics, existing regional and site groundwater models, and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 465 using the SAFER process. For potential subsurface releases, flow and transport models will be developed to integrate existing data into a conservative

  16. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 177: Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 177, Mud Pits and Cellars, identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. Corrective Action Unit 177 consists of the 12 following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8, 9, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site: (1) 08-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (2) 09-09-41, Unknown No.3 Mud Pit/Disposal Area; (3) 09-09-45, U-9bz PS No.1A Mud Pit (1) and Cellar; (4) 09-23-05, Mud Pit and Cellar; (5) 09-23-08, Mud Pit and Cellar; (6) 09-23-09, U-9itsx20 PS No.1A Cellar; (7) 10-23-02, Mud Pit and Cellar; (8) 10-23-03, Mud Pit and Cellar; (9) 19-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (10) 19-23-02, Cellar and Waste Storage Area; (11) 19-23-03, Cellar with Casing; and (12) 20-23-07, Cellar. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 177 using the SAFER process. The data quality objective process developed for this CAU identified the following expected closure options: (1) investigation and confirmation that no contamination exists above the preliminary action levels (PALs), leading to a no further action declaration, or (2) characterization of the nature and extent of contamination, leading to closure in place with use restrictions. The expected closure options were selected based on available information including contaminants of potential concern, future land use, and assumed risks. A decision flow process was developed to outline the collection of data necessary to achieve closure. There are two decisions that need to be answered for closure. Decision I is to determine whether contaminants of potential concern are present in concentrations

  17. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision No. 0, August 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2001-08-21

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; CAS 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; CAS 03-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 20-16-01, Landfill; CAS 20-22-21, Drums. Sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations are the basis for the development of the phased approach chosen to address the data collection activities prior to implementing the preferred closure alternative for each CAS. The Phase I investigation will determine through collection of environmental samples from targeted populations (i.e., mud/soil cuttings above textural discontinuity) if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels (PALs) at each of the CASs. If COPCs are present above PALs, a Phase II investigation will be implemented to determine the extent of contamination to support the appropriate corrective action alternative to complete closure of the site. Groundwater impacts from potentially migrating contaminants are not expected due to the depths to groundwater and limiting hydrologic drivers of low precipitation and high evaporation rates. Future land-use scenarios limit future uses to industrial activities; therefore, future residential uses are not considered. Potential exposure routes to site workers from contaminants of concern in septage and soils include oral ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact (absorption) through in-advertent disturbance of contaminated structures and/or soils. Diesel within drilling muds is expected to be the primary COPC based on process

  18. Activity and Action: Bridging Environmental Sciences and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Abramovitch, Anat

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the Environmental Workshop unit taught to Environmental Sciences majors in the high schools in Israel and learn if, and in what ways, this unit could become a model for environmental education throughout the high school curriculum. We studied the special characteristics of the Environmental Workshop (EW)…

  19. Activity and Action: Bridging Environmental Sciences and Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Tali; Abramovitch, Anat

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine the Environmental Workshop unit taught to Environmental Sciences majors in the high schools in Israel and learn if, and in what ways, this unit could become a model for environmental education throughout the high school curriculum. We studied the special characteristics of the Environmental Workshop (EW)…

  20. What design condition affect the outcomes of voluntary environmental programs, and how? A fuzzy-set analysis of 35 cases from Australia, the Netherlands and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, J.

    2014-01-01

    Voluntary Environmental Programs (VEPs) have become increasingly popular in addressing environmental risks that are too complex to solve through traditional direct regulatory interventions. Whilst VEPs have attracted much scholarly attention, still little is known how they cause their outcomes. Taki

  1. Characterization of Erysipelothrix species isolates from clinically affected pigs, environmental samples, and vaccine strains from six recent swine erysipelas outbreaks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, J S; Shen, H G; Irwin, C K; Schwartz, K J; Opriessnig, T

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Erysipelothrix sp. isolates from clinically affected pigs and their environment and compare them to the Erysipelothrix sp. vaccines used at the sites. Samples were collected during swine erysipelas outbreaks in vaccinated pigs in six Midwest United States swine operations from 2007 to 2009. Pig tissue samples were collected from 1 to 3 pigs from each site. Environmental samples (manure, feed, central-line water, oral fluids, and swabs collected from walls, feed lines, air inlets, exhaust fans, and nipple drinkers) and live vaccine samples were collected following the isolation of Erysipelothrix spp. from clinically affected pigs. All Erysipelothrix sp. isolates obtained were further characterized by serotyping. Selected isolates were further characterized by PCR assays for genotype (E. rhusiopathiae, E. tonsillarum, Erysipelothrix sp. strain 1, and Erysipelothrix sp. strain 2) and surface protective antigen (spa) type (A, B1, B2, and C). All 26 isolates obtained from affected pigs were E. rhusiopathiae, specifically, serotypes 1a, 1b, 2, and 21. From environmental samples, 56 isolates were obtained and 52/56 were E. rhusiopathiae (serotypes 1a, 1b, 2, 6, 9, 12, and 21), 3/56 were Erysipelothrix sp. strain 1 (serotypes 13 and untypeable), and one was a novel species designated Erysipelothrix sp. strain 3 (serotype untypeable). Four of six vaccines used at the sites were commercially available products and contained live E. rhusiopathiae serotype 1a. Of the remaining two vaccines, one was an autogenous live vaccine and contained live E. rhusiopathiae serotype 2 and one was a commercially produced inactivated vaccine and was described by the manufacturer to contain serotype 2 antigen. All E. rhusiopathiae isolates were positive for spaA. All Erysipelothrix sp. strain 1 isolates and the novel Erysipelothrix sp. strain 3 isolate were negative for all currently known spa types (A, B1, B2, and C). These results indicate that

  2. An estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sharmista; Seagrave, Richard C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an estimate of the second law thermodynamic efficiency of the various units comprising an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The technique adopted here is based on an evaluation of the 'lost work' within each functional unit of the subsystem. Pertinent information for our analysis is obtained from a user interactive integrated model of an ECLSS. The model was developed using ASPEN. A potential benefit of this analysis is the identification of subsystems with high entropy generation as the most likely candidates for engineering improvements. This work has been motivated by the fact that the design objective for a long term mission should be the evaluation of existing ECLSS technologies not only the basis of the quantity of work needed for or obtained from each subsystem but also on the quality of work. In a previous study Brandhorst showed that the power consumption for partially closed and completely closed regenerable life support systems was estimated as 3.5 kw/individual and 10-12 kw/individual respectively. With the increasing cost and scarcity of energy resources, our attention is drawn to evaluate the existing ECLSS technologies on the basis of their energy efficiency. In general the first law efficiency of a system is usually greater than 50 percent. From literature, the second law efficiency is usually about 10 percent. The estimation of second law efficiency of the system indicates the percentage of energy degraded as irreversibilities within the process. This estimate offers more room for improvement in the design of equipment. From another perspective, our objective is to keep the total entropy production of a life support system as low as possible and still ensure a positive entropy gradient between the system and the surroundings. The reason for doing so is as the entropy production of the system increases, the entropy gradient between the system and the surroundings decreases, and the

  3. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-08-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330, Areas 6,22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. The CAUs are currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). This CAU is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1). CAU 330 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 06-02-04 - Consists of an underground tank and piping. This CAS is close to an area that was part of the Animal Investigation Program (AIP), conducted under the U.S. Public Health Service. Its purpose was to study and perform tests on the cattle and wild animals in and around the NTS that were exposed to radionuclides. It is unknown if this tank was part of these operations. (2) CAS 22-99-06 - Is a fuel spill that is believed to be a waste oil release which occurred when Camp Desert Rock was an active facility. This CAS was originally identified as being a small depression where liquids were poured onto the ground, located on the west side of Building T-1001. This building has been identified as housing a fire station, radio station, and radio net remote and telephone switchboard. (3) CAS 23-01-02 - Is a large aboveground storage tank (AST) farm that was constructed to provide gasoline and diesel storage in Area 23. The site consists of two ASTs, a concrete foundation, a surrounding earthen berm, associated piping, and unloading stations. (4) CAS 23-25-05 - Consists of an asphalt oil spill/tar release that contains a wash covered with asphalt oil/tar material, a half buried 208-liter (L) (55-gallon [gal]) drum, rebar, and concrete located in the vicinity.

  4. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 326: Areas 6 and 27 Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. T. Urbon

    2001-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 326, Areas 6 and 27 Release Sites. This CAU is currently listed in the January 2001, Appendix III of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996). CAU 326 is located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASS) (Figure 1): CAS 06-25-01--Is a rupture in an underground pipe that carried heating oil (diesel) from the underground heating oil tank (Tank 6-CP-1) located to the west of Building CP-70 to the boiler in Building CP-1 in the Area 6 Control Point (CP) compound. CAS 06-25-02--A heating oil spill that is a result of overfilling an underground heating oil tank (Tank 6-DAF-5) located at the Area 6 Device Assembly Facility (DAF). CAS 06-25-04--A release of waste oil that occurred while removing used oil to from Tank 6-619-4. Tank 6-619-4 is located northwest of Building 6-619 at the Area 6 Gas Station. CAS 27-25-01--Consists of an excavation that was created in an attempt to remove impacted stained soil from the Site Maintenance Yard in Area 27. Approximately 53.5 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (70 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) of soil impacted by total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was excavated before the excavation activities were halted. The excavation activities were stopped because the volume of impacted soil exceeded estimated quantities and budget.

  5. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 544: Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 544, Cellars, Mud Pits, and Oil Spills, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 544 comprises the following 20 corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 7, 9, 10, 12, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): • 02-37-08, Cellar & Mud Pit • 02-37-09, Cellar & Mud Pit • 07-09-01, Mud Pit • 09-09-46, U-9itsx20 PS #1A Mud Pit • 10-09-01, Mud Pit • 12-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 19-09-03, Mud Pit • 19-09-04, Mud Pit • 19-25-01, Oil Spill • 19-99-06, Waste Spill • 20-09-01, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-02, Mud Pit • 20-09-03, Mud Pit • 20-09-04, Mud Pits (2) • 20-09-06, Mud Pit • 20-09-07, Mud Pit • 20-09-10, Mud Pit • 20-25-04, Oil Spills • 20-25-05, Oil Spills This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 544 using the SAFER process. Using the approach approved for previous mud pit investigations (CAUs 530–535), 14 mud pits have been identified that • are either a single mud pit or a system of mud pits, • are not located in a radiologically posted area, and • have no evident biasing factors based on visual inspections. These 14 mud pits are recommended for no further action (NFA), and further field investigations will not be conducted. For the sites that do not meet the previously approved closure criteria, additional information will be obtained by conducting a field investigation before selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible

  6. A Bayesian hierarchical model of environmental impact on human mortality and its spatial variation in the United States 2000-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Many environmental factors influence human mortality simultaneously. However, assessing their cumulative effects remains a challenging task. In this study we used the Environmental Quality Index (EQI), developed by the U.S. EPA, as a measure of overall...

  7. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  8. Current United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on understanding agrochemical fate and transport to prevent and mitigate adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Rice, Clifford P; Sadeghi, Ali M; Schmidt, Walter F; McCarty, Gregory W; Starr, James L; Rice, Pamela J; Angier, Jonathan T; Harman-Fetcho, J A

    2003-01-01

    Environmentally and economically viable agriculture requires a variety of cultivation practices and pest management options as no one system will be appropriate for every situation. Agrochemicals are some of the many pest control tools used in an integrated approach to pest management. They are applied with the intent of maximizing efficacy while minimizing off-site movement; however, their judicious use demands a practical knowledge of their fate and effects in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Agrochemical distribution into environmental compartments is influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the agrochemical and environmental conditions, ie soil type and structure, and meteorological conditions. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) researchers working in the area of agrochemical fate have focused on accurately describing those processes that govern the transport, degradation and bioavailability of these chemicals under conditions reflecting actual agronomic practices. Results from ARS research concerning the environmental fate and effects of agrochemicals have led to the development of science-based management practices that will protect vulnerable areas of the ecosystem. The new challenge is to identify these vulnerable areas and the temporal and spatial variations prior to use of the chemical by predicting how it will behave in environmental matrices, and using that information, predict its transport and transformation within an air- or watershed. With the development of better predictive tools and GIS (Geographic Information System)-based modeling, the risks of agricultural management systems can be assessed at the watershed and basin levels, and management strategies can be identified that minimize negative environmental impacts.

  9. San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge: Sweetwater Marsh and South San Diego Bay Units: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Impact Statement: Volume I

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on San Diego Bay NWR (Sweetwater Marsh and South San Diego Bay Units) for the next 15...

  10. Operable Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  11. USEPA Environmental Quality Index (EQI) - Air, Water, Land, Built, and Sociodemographic Domains Non-Transformed Variables Dataset as Input for the USEPA EQI, by County for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) in the Environmental Public Health Division...

  12. Environmental Assessment for the Operation of the Glass Melter Thermal Treatment Unit at the US Department of Energy`s Mound Plant, Miamisburg, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The glass melter would thermally treat mixed waste (hazardous waste contaminated with radioactive constituents largely tritium, Pu-238, and/or Th-230) that was generated at the Mound Plant and is now in storage, by stabilizing the waste in glass blocks. Depending on the radiation level of the waste, the glass melter may operate for 1 to 6 years. Two onsite alternatives and seven offsite alternatives were considered. This environmental assessment indicates that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the human environment according to NEPA, and therefore the finding of no significant impact is made, obviating the need for an environmental impact statement.

  13. Environmental forensic research for emerging contaminants in complex environmental matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has established criteria to address many of the significant traditional pollutants demonstrated to have adverse affects on environmental quality. However, new chemicals are being created almost daily, and these new chemicals, as ...

  14. Environmental forensic research for emerging contaminants in complex environmental matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has established criteria to address many of the significant traditional pollutants demonstrated to have adverse affects on environmental quality. However, new chemicals are being created almost daily, and these new chemicals, as ...

  15. Understanding Cultural Differences in the Antecedents of Pro-Environmental Behavior: A Comparative Analysis of Business Students in the United States and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordano, Mark; Welcomer, Stephanie; Scherer, Robert; Pradenas, Lorena; Parada, Victor

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed business students in the U. S. (n = 256) and Chile (n = 310). The survey included measures drawn from studies of pro-environmental behavior using Schwartz's norm activation theory (Schwartz, 1977), the theory of reasoned action (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), and a values-beliefs-norms model created by Stern, Dietz, Abel, Guagnano, and…

  16. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 116: Area 25 Test Cell C Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-12-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C (TCC) Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 116 is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (as amended February 2008) and consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 25-23-20, Nuclear Furnace Piping; and (2) CAS 25-41-05, Test Cell C Facility. CAS 25-41-05 is described in the FFACO as the TCC Facility but actually includes Building 3210 and attached concrete shield wall only. CAU 116 will be closed by demolishing Building 3210, the attached concrete shield wall, and the nuclear furnace piping. In addition, as a best management practice (BMP), Building 3211 (moveable shed) will be demolished due to its close proximity to Building 3210. This will aid in demolition and disposal operations. Radiological surveys will be performed on the demolition debris to determine the proper disposal pathway. As much of the demolition debris as space allows will be placed into the Building 3210 basement structure. After filling to capacity with demolition debris, the basement structure will be mounded or capped and closed with administrative controls. Prior to beginning demolition activities and according to an approved Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), representative sampling of surface areas that are known, suspected, or have the potential to contain hazardous constituents such as lead or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) will be performed throughout all buildings and structures. Sections 2.3.2, 4.2.2.2, 4.2.2.3, 4.3, and 6.2.6.1 address the methodologies employed that assure the solid debris placed in the basement structure will not contain contaminants of concern (COCs) above hazardous waste levels. The anticipated post

  17. Simulating long-term impacts of cover crops and climate change on crop production and environmental outcomes in the midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is critical to evaluate conservation practices that protect soil and water resources from climate change in the Midwestern United States, a region that produces one-quarter of the world’s soybeans and one-third of the world’s maize. An over-winter cover crop in a maize-soybean rotation offers mul...

  18. Solving the problems we face: the United States Environmental Protection Agency, sustainability, and the challenges of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing the problems of the twenty-first century will require new initiatives that complement traditional regulatory activities. Existing regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act are important safety nets in the United States for protecting human health and t...

  19. Source evaluation report phase 2 investigation: Limited field investigation. Final report: United States Air Force Environmental Restoration Program, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the limited field investigation work done to address issues and answer unresolved questions regarding a collection of potential contaminant sources at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB), near Fairbanks, Alaska. These sources were listed in the Eielson AFB Federal Facility Agreement supporting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) cleanup of the base. The limited field investigation began in 1993 to resolve all remaining technical issues and provide the data and analysis required to evaluate the environmental hazard associated with these sites. The objective of the limited field investigation was to allow the remedial project managers to sort each site into one of three categories: requiring remedial investigation/feasibility study, requiring interim removal action, or requiring no further remedial action.

  20. Implementation of compulsory hazard analysis critical control point system and its effect on concentrations of carcass and environmental surface bacterial indicators in United Kingdom red meat slaughterhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Michael L; Thomas, D John I; Small, Alison H; Buncic, Sava; Howell, Mary

    2007-07-01

    Statutory microbiological test results were collected from British meat plants over a 4-year period from June 2002 to May 2006. A total of 49,074 carcass test results from 19,409 cattle, 14,706 sheep, and 14,959 pig swabs and 95,179 environmental test results from surface swabs were obtained. These test results were donated by 94 slaughterhouses, which process about two thirds of the British national annual throughput of cattle, sheep, and pig carcasses. The data were collectively analyzed to determine any historical trends for numbers of total aerobes and Enterobacteriaceae. Significant reductions were observed in the numbers of indicator organisms on carcasses for all three species between 2002 and 2006. Reductions were also observed for numbers of aerobes on environmental and food contact surfaces. There were seasonal differences in bacterial numbers isolated from carcasses. Cattle and sheep carcasses had significantly higher numbers of total aerobes and Enterobacteriaceae in late summer and early autumn, whereas numbers of total aerobes on pig carcasses were higher in winter. Bacterial numbers on environmental surfaces were not influenced by the month that the swab samples were collected. Possible reasons for the observed reductions in bacterial numbers on carcasses and surfaces and the implications for carcass testing for process control purposes are discussed.

  1. Prospective environmental restoration/ restoration up front: a concept for an incentive-based program to increase restoration planning and implementation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Ralph G; Gouguet, Ron; DeSantis, Amanda; Liu, Jenny; Ammann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a concept variously termed prospective environmental restoration, restoration up front, or restoration banking. Briefly, the concept centers on the ability of an entity, public or private, to gain durable credits for undertaking proactive restoration activities. Once obtained, these credits can be applied to an existing liability, held in the event of a future liability, or traded or sold to others that might have need for the credits. In the case of a natural resource damage claim or response action, possessing or applying the credits does not negate the need for responsible entities to clean up spills or releases of hazardous substances or oil or to address their clean-up requirements under applicable federal and state statutes. Concepts similar to prospective environmental restoration/restoration up front include wetlands mitigation banking, conservation habitat banking, and emissions trading. Much of the concept and details provided herein stem from the practice of natural resource damage assessment, although that is not the sole driver for the concept. The concept could also apply where the credits could be used to offset other environmental liabilities, for example, to provide habitat mitigation where development is being planned. The authors believe that the concept, if widely applied, could reduce the time and costs associated with restoration and perhaps lead to an increase in voluntary restoration and conservation nationally. Currently, there are no state or federal regulations or policies that directly provide for this approach.

  2. Tourism and Environmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Proposes that tourism should be part of the environmental education curriculum. Discusses the significance of tourism, the impacts of tourism on the environment, the concept of sustainable tourism, and tourism in education in the United Kingdom. (MDH)

  3. Challenge theme 7: information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  4. Environmental Assessment for Construction of the United States Air Force Technical Application Center (AFTAC) on Patrick Air Force Base, Florida (Amended)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    requires a laboratory to replace one which was closed due to the Base Realignment Closure Act of 1995. The lab was located on McClellan AFB in... Sacramento , California which was closed officially in 2001, and has been turned over to mainly civilian use with only some military use by the Coast...1l>irire ~ 100_ ’VEAR IL;.rin.: ~ !-Xl_ Y’"’~R 0 0.04 0.08 0.32 •--=:~~--==----=======---Miles 0.1 6 0.24 Patrick AFB Area Map Environmental

  5. Life Cycle Environmental Impacts Resulting from the Manufacture of the Heliostat Field for a Reference Power Tower Design in the United States: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.

    2012-10-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as a useful analytical approach for quantifying environmental impacts of renewable energy technologies, including concentrating solar power (CSP). An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is conducting a series of LCA studies for various CSP technologies. This paper contributes to a thorough LCA of a 100 MWnet molten salt power tower CSP plant by estimating the environmental impacts resulting from the manufacture of heliostats. Three life cycle metrics are evaluated: greenhouse gas emissions, water consumption, and cumulative energy demand. The heliostat under consideration (the 148 m2 Advanced Thermal Systems heliostat) emits 5,300 kg CO2eq, consumes 274 m3 of water, and requires 159,000 MJeq during its manufacture. Future work will incorporate the results from this study into the LCA model used to estimate the life cycle impacts of the entire 100 MWnet power tower CSP plant.

  6. On the Path to SunShot - The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Penetrations of Solar Energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Monetizing the environmental health benefits of solar could add ~3.5¢/kWh to the value of solar energy (see Wiser et al. 2016). The monetary impacts due to environmental degradation and public health impacts seem far removed from the apparent “sticker price” of electricity. Yet quantifying these impacts is essential to understanding the true costs and benefits of solar and conventional generating technologies. Compared with fossil fuel generators, PV and CSP produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). Achieving the SunShot-level solar deployment targets—14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050—could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238–$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0–2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (¢/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4¢/kWh-solar—while also preventing 25,000–59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, the estimated 3.5¢/kWh-solar in benefits due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional LCOE reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, water savings from achieving the SunShot goals, could result in the 2015–2050 cumulative savings of 4% of total power-sector withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector consumption—a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. Improving public health and the environment is but one aspect of solar’s many costs and benefits. Clearly, however

  7. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration closure report for Corrective Action Unit 120: Areas 5 and 6 aboveground storage tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 120 of the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). CAU 120 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 5 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which are approximately 130 kilometers (80 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAS 05-01-01 is located in Area 5 and consists of three 45,800-liter (12,100-gallon) aboveground storage tanks (ASTs), piping, and debris associated with Well RNM-1. CAS 06-01-01 consists of two ASTs and two tanker trailers (all portable) that were originally located at the Area 6 Cp-50 Hot Park and which had been moved to the Area 6 Waste Handling Facility. All of the items in CAU 120 have been used to contain or convey radiologically contaminated fluid that was generated during post-nuclear event activities at the NTS.

  8. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  9. 2012 NEHA/UL sabbatical report: vulnerability to potential impacts of climate change: adaptation and risk communication strategies for environmental health practitioners in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnapradipa, Dhitinut

    2014-04-01

    Climate change risk assessment, adaptation, and mitigation planning have become increasingly important to environmental health practitioners (EHPs). The NEHA/UL Sabbatical Exchange Award allowed me to investigate how EHPs in the UK are incorporating climate change planning and communication strategies into their work. Projected climate change risks in the UK include flooding, extreme heat, water shortages, severe weather, decreased air quality, and changes in vectors. Despite public perception and funding challenges, all the local government representatives with whom I met incorporated climate change risk assessment, adaptation, and mitigation planning into their work. The mandated Community Risk Register serves as a key planning document developed by each local government authority and is a meaningful way to look at potential climate change health risks. Adaptation and sustainability were common threads in my meetings. These often took the form of "going green" with transportation, energy efficiency, conserving resources, and building design because the efforts made sense monetarily as future cost savings. Communication strategies targeted a variety of audiences (EHPs, non-EHP government employees, politicians, and the general public) using a broad range of communication channels (professional training, lobbying, conferences and fairs, publications, print materials, Internet resources, social media, billboards, etc).

  10. Distribution and environmental persistence of the causative agent of white-nose syndrome, Geomyces destructans, in bat hibernacula of the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Muller, Laura K.; Russell, Robin E.; O'Connor, Michael; Lindner, Daniel L.; Blehert, David S.

    2012-01-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating bats caused by the recently described fungus Geomyces destructans. First isolated in 2008, the origins of this fungus in North America and its ability to persist in the environment remain undefined. To investigate the correlation between manifestation of WNS and distribution of G. destructans in the U.S., we analyzed sediment samples collected from 55 bat hibernacula (caves and mines) both within and outside the known range of WNS using a newly developed real-time PCR assay. Geomyces destructans was detected in 17 of 21 sites within the known range of WNS at the time the samples were collected; the fungus was not found in 28 sites beyond the known range of the disease at the time that environmental samples were collected. These data indicate that distribution of G. destructans is correlated with disease in hibernating bats and support the hypothesis that the fungus is likely an exotic species in North America. Additionally, we examined whether G. destructans persists in infested bat hibernacula when bats are absent. Sediment samples were collected from 14 WNS-positive hibernacula, and the samples were screened for viable fungus using a culture technique. Viable G. destructans was cultivated from 7 of the 14 sites sampled during late summer when bats were no longer in hibernation, suggesting the fungus can persist in the environment in the absence of bat hosts for long periods of time.

  11. Remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 2 (Rust Spoil Area, SY-200 Yard, Spoil Area 1) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) in 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) to RCRA in 1984 created management requirements for hazardous waste facilities. The facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) were in the process of meeting the RCRA requirements when ORR was placed on the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) National Priorities List (NPL) on November 21, 1989. Under RCRA, the actions typically follow the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA)/RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI)/Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/Corrective Measures implementation process. Under CERCLA the actions follow the PA/SI/Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study (FS)/Remedial Design/Remedial Action process. The development of this document will incorporate requirements under both RCRA and CERCLA into an RI work plan for the characterization of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  12. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 3 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Upper East Fork Popular Creek Operable Unit 3 (UEFPC OU 3) is a source term OU composed of seven sites, and is located in the western portion of the Y-12 Plant. For the most part, the UEFPC OU 3 sites served unrelated purposes and are geographically removed from one another. The seven sites include the following: Building 81-10, the S-2 Site, Salvage Yard oil storage tanks, the Salvage Yard oil/solvent drum storage area, Tank Site 2063-U, the Salvage Yard drum deheader, and the Salvage Yard scrap metal storage area. All of these sites are contaminated with at least one or more hazardous and/or radioactive chemicals. All sites have had some previous investigation under the Y-12 Plant RCRA Program. The work plan contains summaries of geographical, historical, operational, geological, and hydrological information specific to each OU 3 site. The potential for release of contaminants to receptors through various media is addressed, and a sampling and analysis plan is presented to obtain objectives for the remedial investigation. Proposed sampling activities are contingent upon the screening level risk assessment, which includes shallow soil sampling, soil borings, monitoring well installation, groundwater sampling, and surface water sampling. Data from the site characterization activities will be used to meet the above objectives. A Field Sampling Investigation Plan, Health and Safety Plan, and Waste Management Plan are also included in this work plan.

  13. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 120: Areas 5 and 6 Aboveground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison Urban

    1999-06-01

    This Closure Report provides documentation for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 120. CAU 120 consists of two Corrective Action Sites located in Areas 5 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site. CAS 05-01-01 is located in Area 5 and consists of three 45,800-liter aboveground storage tanks, piping, and debris associated with Well RNM-1. CAS 06-01-01 in Area 6 consists of two aboveground storage tanks and two tanker trailers All the CAU 120 items have been used to convey or contain radiologically contaminated fluid from post-nuclear event activities at the NTS> Closure of this CAU was completed by collecting samples to identify the appropriate method of disposal for tanks, piping, debris, and tankers in each CAS. Placing low-level radioactive waste into the appropriate containers and disposing of waste in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, the Area 9 10C Landfill, and the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site.

  14. Long-term decrease in satellite vegetation indices in response to environmental variables in an iconic desert riparian ecosystem: the Upper San Pedro, Arizona, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Scott, Russell L.

    2015-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River is one of the few remaining undammed rivers that maintain a vibrant riparian ecosystem in the southwest United States. However, its riparian forest is threatened by diminishing groundwater and surface water inputs, due to either changes in watershed characteristics such as changes in riparian and upland vegetation, or human activities such as regional groundwater pumping. We used satellite vegetation indices to quantify the green leaf density of the groundwater-dependent riparian forest from 1984 to 2012. The river was divided into a southern, upstream (mainly perennial flow) reach and a northern, downstream (mainly intermittent and ephemeral flow) reach. Pre-monsoon (June) Landsat normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values showed a 20% drop for the northern reach (P  0·05). NDVI and enhanced vegetation index values were positively correlated (P factor in reducing river flows. Climate change, regional groundwater pumping, changes in the intensity of monsoon rain events and lack of overbank flooding are feasible explanations for deterioration of the riparian forest in the northern reach.

  15. On the Path to SunShot. The Environmental and Public Health Benefits of Achieving High Solar Penetrations in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Carpenter, Alberta [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Compared with fossil fuel generators, photovoltaics (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) produce far lower lifecycle levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and harmful pollutants including fine particular matter (PM2.5), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In this report, we monetize the emission reductions from achieving the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot deployment goals: 14% of U.S. electricity demand met by solar in 2030 and 27% in 2050. We estimate that achieving these goals could reduce cumulative power-sector GHG emissions by 10% between 2015 and 2050, resulting in savings of $238-$252 billion. This is equivalent to 2.0-2.2 cents per kilowatt-hour of solar installed (cents/kWh-solar). Similarly, realizing these levels of solar deployment could reduce cumulative power-sector emissions of PM2.5 by 8%, SO2 by 9%, and NOx by 11% between 2015 and 2050. This could produce $167 billion in savings from lower future health and environmental damages, or 1.4 cents/kWh-solar--while also preventing 25,000-59,000 premature deaths. To put this in perspective, this estimated combined benefit of 3.5 cents/kWh-solar due to SunShot-level solar deployment is approximately equal to the additional levelized cost of electricity reduction needed to make unsubsidized utility-scale solar competitive with conventional generators today. In addition, the analysis shows that achieving the SunShot goals could save 4% of total power-sector water withdrawals and 9% of total power-sector water consumption over the 2015-2050 period--a particularly important consideration for arid states where substantial solar will be deployed. These results have potential implications for policy innovation and the economic competitiveness of solar and other generation technologies.

  16. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 357: Mud Pits and Waste Dump, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-25

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan was prepared as a characterization and closure report for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 357, Mud Pits and Waste Dump, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 4, 7, 8, 10, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). All of the CASs are found within Yucca Flat except CAS 25-15-01 (Waste Dump). Corrective Action Site 25-15-01 is found in Area 25 in Jackass Flat. Of the 14 CASs in CAU 357, 11 are mud pits, suspected mud pits, or mud processing-related sites, which are by-products of drilling activities in support of the underground nuclear weapons testing done on the NTS. Of the remaining CASs, one CAS is a waste dump, one CAS contains scattered lead bricks, and one CAS has a building associated with Project 31.2. All 14 of the CASs are inactive and abandoned. Clean closure with no further action of CAU 357 will be completed if no contaminants are detected above preliminary action levels. A closure report will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for review and approval upon completion of the field activities. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  17. Closing the circle on the splitting of the atom: The environmental legacy of nuclear weapons production in the United States and what the Department of Energy is doing about it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    In the grand scheme of things we are a little more than halfway through the cycle of splitting the atom for weapons purposes. If we visualize this historic cycle as the full sweep of a clockface, at zero hour we would find the first nuclear chain reaction by Enrico Fermi, followed immediately by the Manhattan Project and the explosion of the first atomic bombs. From two o`clock until five, the United States built and ran a massive industrial complex that produced tens of thousands of nuclear weapons. At half past, the Cold War ended, and the United States shut down most of its nuclear weapons factories. The second half of this cycle involves dealing with the waste and contamination from nuclear weapons production - a task that had, for the most part, been postponed into the indefinite future. That future is now upon us. Dealing with the environmental legacy of the Cold War is in many ways as big a challenge for us today as the building of the atomic bomb was for the Manhattan Project pioneers in the 1940s. Our challenges are political and social as well as technical, and we are meeting those challenges. We are reducing risks, treating wastes, developing new technologies, and building democratic institutions for a constructive debate on our future course.

  18. Producing remote sensing-based emission estimates of prescribed burning in the contiguous United States for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2011 National Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, J. L.; Pouliot, G. A.; Soja, A. J.; Miller, M. E.; Rao, T.

    2013-12-01

    Prescribed fires in agricultural landscapes generally produce smaller burned areas than wildland fires but are important contributors to emissions impacting air quality and human health. Currently, there are a variety of available satellite-based estimates of crop residue burning, including the NOAA/NESDIS Hazard Mapping System (HMS) the Satellite Mapping Automated Reanalysis Tool for Fire Incident Reconciliation (SMARTFIRE 2), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Official Burned Area Product (MCD45A1)), the MODIS Direct Broadcast Burned Area Product (MCD64A1) the MODIS Active Fire Product (MCD14ML), and a regionally-tuned 8-day cropland differenced Normalized Burn Ratio product for the contiguous U.S. The purpose of this NASA-funded research was to refine the regionally-tuned product utilizing higher spatial resolution crop type data from the USDA NASS Cropland Data Layer and burned area training data from field work and high resolution commercial satellite data to improve the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI). The final product delivered to the EPA included a detailed database of 25 different atmospheric emissions at the county level, emission distributions by crop type and seasonality, and GIS data. The resulting emission databases were shared with the U.S. EPA and regional offices, the National Wildfire Coordinating Group (NWGC) Smoke Committee, and all 48 states in the contiguous U.S., with detailed error estimations for Wyoming and Indiana and detailed analyses of results for Florida, Minnesota, North Dakota, Oklahoma, and Oregon. This work also provided opportunities in discovering the different needs of federal and state partners, including the various geospatial abilities and platforms across the many users and how to incorporate expert air quality, policy, and land management knowledge into quantitative earth observation-based estimations of prescribed fire emissions. Finally, this work

  19. Environmental and individual determinants of core and non-core food and drink intake in preschool-aged children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, L; Croker, H; Wardle, J; Cooke, L J

    2012-03-01

    Strategies to achieve healthier diets for children are likely to benefit from an understanding of the determinants. We examined environmental and individual predictors of children's intake of 'core' foods (fruit and vegetables) and 'non-core' foods (snacks and sweetened beverages). Predictors included parental intake, home availability, parental feeding styles (Encouragement and Monitoring) and children's food preferences. Based on research with older children, we expected intake of both food types to be associated with maternal intake, core foods to be more associated with children's preferences and non-core food intake more with the home environment. Primary caregivers (n=434) of children (2-5 years) from preschools and Children's Centres in London, UK, completed a self-report survey in 2008. Multiple regression analyses indicated children's fruit intake was associated with maternal fruit intake (B=0.29; P=0.000), children's liking for fruit (B=0.81; P=0.000) and a Monitoring style of parental feeding (B=0.13; P=0.021). Children's vegetable intake was similarly associated with maternal intake (B=0.39; P=0.000), children's liking for vegetables (B=0.77; P=0.000), Encouragement (B=0.19; P=0.021) and Monitoring (B=0.11; P=0.029). Non-core snack intake was associated with maternal intake (B=0.25; P=0.029), Monitoring (B=-0.16; P=0.010), home availability (B=0.10; P=0.022) and television viewing (TV) (B=0.28; P=0.012). Non-core drink intake was associated with maternal intake (B=0.32; P=0.000) and TV (B=0.20; P=0.019). Results indicate commonalities and differences in the predictors of core and non-core food intake, with only maternal intake being important across all types. Effective interventions to improve young children's diets may need to call on different strategies for different foods.

  20. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed....... In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them...

  1. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed....... In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them...

  2. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Units 530, 531, 532, 533, 534, and 535, Nevada Test Site Mud Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for the following six corrective action units (CAUs) identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996): (1) CAU 530 - LANL Preshot Mud Pits; (2) CAU 531 - LANL Postshot Mud Pits; (3) CAU 532 - LLNL Preshot Mud Pits; (4) CAU 533 - LLNL Postshot Mud Pits; (5) CAU 534 - Exploratory/Instrumentation Mud Pits; and (6) CAU 535 - Mud Pits/Disposal Areas. Corrective Action Units 530-535 consist of corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 1-10, 14, 17, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This plan provides the approach for activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing all the CASs within these CAUs. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of all CASs within CAUs 530-535 using the SAFER process. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process utilized in this investigation follows the approved risk-based closure strategy outlined in the ''Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004b). The closure strategy was developed based on available information including historical documentation of process knowledge, analytical results from previous sampling activities for contaminants of potential concern at similar mud pits located at the NTS and at off-site locations, future land-use scenarios for each NTS area, and potential exposure scenarios along with the calculated risk for human and ecological receptors.

  3. Water-quality assessment of the Ozark Plateaus study unit, Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma- fish communities in streams of the Ozark Plateaus and their relations to selected environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, James C.

    1998-01-01

    Fish communities from 22 reaches at 18 stations in the Ozark Plateaus were sampled in 1993, 1994, and 1995. The 18 stations were chosen to represent selected combinations of major environmental factors (geology/physiographic area, land use, and basin size). Additional physical, chemical, and biological factors also were measured for each of the 22 reaches and the influence of these factors upon the fish communities was investigated. Fish community samples collected at the 22 reaches identified differences in these communities that can be attributed to differences in land use and related water-quality and habitat characteristics. Communities from agriculture reaches tended to have more species, increased relative abundance of stonerollers and members of the sucker family, and decreased relative abundance of members of the sunfish and darter families. Several groups of environmental factors (concentrations of nutrients, organic carbon, suspended sediment, and dissolved oxygen; measures related to ionic strength; measures related to riparian vegetation; measures related to substrate; and measures related to stream size) appear to be related to land-use differences and fish community differences. Three multivariate analysis techniques (two ordination techniques and a classification technique) yielded similar results when applied to the fish community data. Fish communities from reaches with more similar land use in their basins and with similar drainage areas generally were grouped closer together in the analysis. Water quality, substrate, stream morphology, and riparian measures appear to be affecting fish communities at these reaches. The relations between land use, stream size, and fish communities have implications for waterquality assessments of Ozark streams. Compared to other parts of the United States, many fish species live in the Ozark Plateaus. At least 19 of these species are endemic to the Ozarks area. Many of these species are intolerant of habitat or

  4. AUSTA - a self-sufficient environmental analysis station for the analysis of nitrogen, sulfur and carbon compounds. Sub-project: development and construction of the central processing unit for the self-sufficient environmental analysis station. Final report; AUSTA - Autarke Umweltmessstation zur Analyse von Stickstoff-, Schwefel- und Kohlenstoffverbindungen. Teilvorhaben: Entwicklung und Konstruktion der Zentraleinheit fuer die autarke Umweltmessstation. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenk, N.; Ehrling, C.

    2002-07-01

    The aim of the common research project was the development of basics as well as the construction and the testing of a functional model for an environmental analysis system. This system should be able not only to analyze independently environmental toxicologically interesting Carbon, Nitrogen and Sulfur species from watery samples, but also to evaluate and document the results of the analysis. A functional model for the determination of TC/TN and the species TIC, Nitrate, Nitrite, Ammonium, Sulfite and Sulfide from an aqueous matrix, was built and tested successfully in the laboratory. The functional model was realized in a modular construction. Micro system technical components were integrated into the system. The dosage of samples and standards as well as the sample preparation for the determination of Nitrate is carried out via a special own-developed control module. The construction of the combustion unit with reactors and the appendant technique for joining parts was carried out in a miniaturization, not realized up to now. (orig.)

  5. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  6. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  7. Effects of antihistamine on up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled cedar pollen challenge in an environmental exposure unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Kitamura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we examined the effects of antihistamine on the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled exposure to pollen using an environmental exposure unit. Out of 20 patients, we designated 14 responders, whose levels of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa were increased after the first pollen exposure and excluded 6 non-responders. Accordingly, the first exposure to pollen without treatment significantly induced both nasal symptoms and the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of the responders. Subsequently, prophylactic administration of antihistamine prior to the second pollen exposure significantly inhibited both of the above effects in the responders. Moreover, the nasal expression of H1R mRNA before the second pollen exposure in the responders pretreated with antihistamine was significantly decreased, as compared with that before the first pollen exposure without treatment. These findings suggest that antihistamines suppressed histamine-induced transcriptional activation of H1R gene in the nasal mucosa, in addition to their blocking effect against histamine on H1R, resulting in a decrease of nasal symptoms. These findings further suggest that by their inverse agonistic activity, antihistamines suppress the basal transcription of nasal H1R in the absence of histamine in responders.

  8. Effects of antihistamine on up-regulation of histamine H1 receptor mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled cedar pollen challenge in an environmental exposure unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Hideyuki; Fujii, Tatsuya; Sakoda, Takema; Enomoto, Tadao; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Noriaki

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we examined the effects of antihistamine on the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of patients with pollinosis induced by controlled exposure to pollen using an environmental exposure unit. Out of 20 patients, we designated 14 responders, whose levels of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa were increased after the first pollen exposure and excluded 6 non-responders. Accordingly, the first exposure to pollen without treatment significantly induced both nasal symptoms and the up-regulation of H1R mRNA in the nasal mucosa of the responders. Subsequently, prophylactic administration of antihistamine prior to the second pollen exposure significantly inhibited both of the above effects in the responders. Moreover, the nasal expression of H1R mRNA before the second pollen exposure in the responders pretreated with antihistamine was significantly decreased, as compared with that before the first pollen exposure without treatment. These findings suggest that antihistamines suppressed histamine-induced transcriptional activation of H1R gene in the nasal mucosa, in addition to their blocking effect against histamine on H1R, resulting in a decrease of nasal symptoms. These findings further suggest that by their inverse agonistic activity, antihistamines suppress the basal transcription of nasal H1R in the absence of histamine in responders.

  9. Environmental Statement, Oswego Steam Station, Unit Six.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-03-29

    Onoclea sensibilis), jewelweed (Impatiens capensis) and sedges ( Cyperaceae ). Shrubs surrounding the marsh include alder and buttonbush (Cephalanthus...dominated by cattails. Other important species found in the marsh areas were rushes F i(Juncareae) and sedges ( Cyperaceae ), sensitive fern, purple loosestrife...cordata) sedges ( Cyperaceae ) arrowhead (Sagittaria sp. cattail (Typha latifolia) duckweed (Lemna minor purple loosestrife (Lythru salicaria) sensitive

  10. Environmental Statement. Oswego Steam Station. Unit 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-12-27

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation is sincerely appreciated. I regret that the press of other business prevented a more prompt reply to your comunication of...will not be contravened by construction of the proposed works, to install appromir1ately 850 lineal feet. Riprap seawall is not to exceed 100 feet from...FOR CARRYING OUT THE FOLLOWING WORKS: Install1 approximately 850 lineal feet of rip-rap seawall which extends not more than 100 feet from existing

  11. 冷战后美国亚太战略对中日经济关系的影响%The Influence of the United States' Asia-Pacific Strategy on Sino-Japanese Economic Relationship in the Post-Cold-War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵洪伟

    2007-01-01

    从冷战时代到今天,中日两个国家之间的关系经历了长期的发展变化.除了中日两国自身利益关系因素外,最为关键的因素是受到美国亚太战略的影响,这一点很值得研究.以分析中日经济关系在冷战后所发生的变化为中心,进而考察中日经济关系中美国亚太战略的演变,并在探讨这一变化的发展趋势的同时,研究中日经济关系的互动及其影响因素问题.从中日经济关系发展的前景看,两国经济发展都需要对方.预计在今后十年内,伴随着中国社会主义市场经济体制的不断完善,两国关系会在摩擦中继续发展和加强,从而促进地区经济发展和世界经济繁荣.

  12. ATP生物荧光检测法对重症医学科环境清洁质量的干预效果%Intervention efficacy of ATP bioluminescence assay in environmental hygiene quality in an intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋雪松; 崔丹; 王昊; 宋清

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the intervention efficacy of ATP bioluminescence assay in environmental hy-giene quality in an intensive care unit (ICU).Methods From December 2013 to February 2014,the baseline status of object surfaces in the ICU of a hospital was detected,then ATP bioluminescence assay was adopted to detect and intervene ICU object surfaces,environmental hygiene quality was evaluated.Results In the baseline survey,a total of 627 object surfaces were monitored,qualified rate was 61 .2%(n=384).The median of relative light unit (RLU) of head of bedrails,telephone keyboards,doorknobs,and computer mice were all > 300.Before,during,and after intervention,qualified rates of object surfaces were 61 .2%,76.6%,and 90.0% respectively (χ2 = 142.23,P <0.001 );after intervention,qualified rate of ICU working environment,main instruments and equipments,and oth-er medical devices were all higher than before intervention (85.5% vs 48.8%,98.3% vs 84.4%,92.6% vs 69.1 %,all P <0.05).Conclusion ATP bioluminescence assay can easily and quickly detect disinfection efficacy,it is helpful for timely and effective intervention in ICU,and improving the qualified rate of environmental hygiene.%目的:了解 ATP 生物荧光检测法对重症医学科(ICU)环境清洁质量的干预效果。方法2013年12月—2014 年 2月对某院 ICU 物体表面进行基线检测,然后采用 ATP 生物荧光检测法对 ICU 物体表面进行检测并进行干预,评价干预后环境清洁质量。结果基线调查共采样627份,合格384份,合格率61.2%,其中床栏头端、电话按键、门把手、电脑鼠标相对光单位(RLU)中位数>300。干预前、中、后 ICU 物体表面清洁合格率分别为61.2%、76.6%、90.0%(χ2=142.23,P <0.001);干预后 ICU 工作环境、主要仪器设备、其他医疗器具清洁合格率分别为85.5%、98.3%、92.6%,均高于干预前(分别为48.8%、84.4%、69.1

  13. Environmental education at Bacia de Campos: activities sponsored by the Exploration and Production business Unit in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Educacao ambiental na Bacia de Campos: acoes desenvolvidas na Unidade de Negocios de Exploracao e Producao do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Ana Lucia Bueno; Vidal, Roseane Dias de Medeiros; Rocha, Valmir Gomes da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios

    2004-07-01

    PETROBRAS Exploration and Production Business Unit in the State of Rio de Janeiro - PETROBRAS/UN-RIO has been developing environmental education actions as part of its environmental license process at Campos Basin. These actions are included in the project for the education of the multiplier groups in environmental education and core skills on environmental education. The goals of the project are either to create an integrated understanding of the environmental issue and a responsible conduction on natural resource and community values preservation. The multiplier groups are formed by associated professionals from the state government secretaries of education, health, environment and infra-structure areas. This Project has been developed at the north area of the State of Rio de Janeiro since 1999, in partnership of the Non Government Organization - NGO named 'Centro Norte Fluminense para Conservacao da Natureza - CNFCN'. Initial actions were based on a training course to prepare multiplier professionals on environmental education. In order to keep the multiplier Professional updated on environmental skills additional training course and local seminars are planned to be implemented in the region. Another project consider to create environmental skill cores to be implemented in the region based on training courses through either the use of the local public schools facilities and the volunteer contribution of the multiplier professionals. (author)

  14. Investigating the Toxicity and Environmental Fate of Graphene Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hersam Laboratory at Northwestern University works with the Center for Environmental Implications of Nanotechnology and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to study the toxicity and environmental fate of emergent nanomaterials, specifically carbon-based nanomate...

  15. Environmental Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, S; Gallegos, G; Berg, L L; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Cerruti, S; Doman, J L; Ferry, L S; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Kumamoto, G; Larson, J; MacQueen, D H; Paterson, L; Revelli, M A; Ridley, M; Rueppel, D; Wegrecki, A M; Wilson, K; Woollett, J

    2008-09-24

    , foodstuff, ambient radiation, and special status wildlife and plants (Chapter 6). Complete monitoring data, which are summarized in the body of the report, are provided in Appendix A. The remaining three chapters discuss the radiological impact on the public from LLNL operations (Chapter 7), LLNL's groundwater remediation program (Chapter 8), and quality assurance for the environmental monitoring programs (Chapter 9). The report uses Systeme International units, consistent with the federal Metric Conversion Act of 1975 and Executive Order 12770, Metric Usage in Federal Government Programs (1991). For ease of comparison to environmental reports issued prior to 1991, dose values and many radiological measurements are given in both metric and U.S. customary units. A conversion table is provided in the glossary.

  16. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  17. Environmental Participation and Environmental Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Torgler, Benno; María A. García Valiñas; Macintyre, Alison

    2009-01-01

    We explore whether environmental motivation affects environmental behavior by focusing on volunteering. The paper first introduces a theoretical model of volunteering in environmental organizations. In a next step, it tests the hypothesis working with a large micro data set covering 32 countries from both Western and Eastern Europe using several different proxies to measure environmental motivation. Our results indicate that environmental motivation has a strong impact on individuals? volunta...

  18. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...... perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive...... situations. Instead, managers undertake careful consideration of the circumstances in which their company operates, paying special attention to their customers’ environmental preferences....

  19. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  20. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive...... situations. Instead, managers undertake careful consideration of the circumstances in which their company operates, paying special attention to their customers’ environmental preferences....

  1. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    as its starting point to investigate liveness within a specific kind of contemporary performance: ‘environmental performances’. Environmental performances are arts practices that take environmental processes as their focus by framing activities of non-human performers such as clouds, wind and weeds - key...

  2. FEE-FISHING UNITS IN THE BASIN OF CORUMBATAÍ: SOCIOECONOMIC-ENVIRONMENTAL DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF EFFLUENT = UNIDADES DE PESQUE-PAGUE NA BACIA DO RIO CORUMBATAÍ: DIAGNÓSTICO SOCIOECONÔMICO-AMBIENTAL E TRATAMENTO DE EFLUENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Maria Tauk-Tornisielo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was concerned to distinguish the main environmental and socio-economic aspects of 16 fee-fishing located in the Corumbataí river basin, São Paulo. Together, it verified the possibility of effluent treatment system with these units constructed wetlands system (CWS. Previously, it collected information on the number, location and diversity of activities of fee-fishing, as different government agencies and institutions did not have that information. Questionnaires were applied to collect information about the socio-economic and environmental aspects of fee-fishing units located in Corumbatai river basin. Were determinate abiotic and biotic factors present in water and effluent from the tanks of fee-fishing. It was applied a principal component analysis to the values of these factors monitored. The results showed that despite being a tourist attraction for the region and there is a considerable frequency of tourists on fee-fishing, it is still an activity that is economically unstable in Corumbataí River Basin. The results of the tests performed were compared with the limits for class 2 freshwater by CONAMA Resolution 357/05. These results showed that most of the values of the factors studied were above the limit established by this resolution, showing deterioration of water quality of the fee-fishing in this study. From an environmental standpoint, the fish-pay were considered potentially polluting sources, characterized by higher values of total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, conductivity, turbidity, total phosphorus and microorganisms. The presence of excessive nutrients in the effluents in water is responsible for eutrophication and may indicate impairment of water quality of rivers in the basin study. Thus, the effluents from fish-you may pay in need of treatment, such as stabilization ponds and wastewater treatment systems using aquatic weeds before they are discarded into the environment. = Neste estudo preocupou

  3. Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Harold J.

    This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

  4. Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Harold J.

    This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

  5. UNIT, TIBET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  6. Environmental history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    Environmental history is an interdisciplinary pursuit that has developed as a form of conscience to counter an increasingly powerful, forward-looking liberal theory of the environment. It deals with the relations between environmental ideas and materialities, from the work of the geographers George...... risks”. These are exposed by environmental history’s focus on long-run analysis and its narrative form that identifies the stories that we tell ourselves about nature. How a better understanding of past environmental transformations helps to analyse society and agency, and what this can mean...... for solutions and policies, is the agenda for an engaged environmental history from now on....

  7. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  8. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  9. Environmental Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Cerruti, S; Dibley, V; Doman, J L; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Kumamoto, G; MacQueen, D H; Nelson, J C; Paterson, L; Revelli, M A; Wegrecki, A M; Wilson, K; Woollett, J

    2009-09-16

    , ambient radiation, and special status wildlife and plants (Chapter 6). Complete monitoring data, which are summarized in the body of the report, are provided in Appendix A. The remaining three chapters discuss the radiological impact on the public from LLNL operations (Chapter 7), LLNL's groundwater remediation program (Chapter 8), and quality assurance for the environmental monitoring programs (Chapter 9). The report uses Systeme International units, consistent with the federal Metric Conversion Act of 1975 and Executive Order 12770, Metric Usage in Federal Government Programs (1991). For ease of comparison to environmental reports issued prior to 1991, dose values and many radiological measurements are given in both metric and U.S. customary units. A conversion table is provided in the glossary. The report is the responsibility of LLNL's Environmental Protection Department. Monitoring data were obtained through the combined efforts of the Environmental Protection Department; Environmental Restoration Department; Physical and Life Sciences Environmental Monitoring Radiation Laboratory; and the Hazards Control Department.

  10. The evolving environmental marketplace, using green to make green[An introduction to the U.S. Green Building Council, Performance Rating Systems, LEED as a benchmarking tool in the United States and green economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andereck, K.J. [Skidmore Owings and Merrill LLP, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Using an economic perspective, it is possible to make a case for green buildings and green development practices by placing emphasis on Energy Efficiency and Environmental Design. Several case studies have demonstrated that green buildings save money through reduced consumption of natural resources, electricity and gas both at the building site and at the source of energy. Sound environmental practices and energy efficiency measures improve the environmental conditions throughout the state by reducing power plant emissions and reducing operations and maintenance budgets in the state. The author presented a case study where a green development project was guided and monitored using the Environmental Performance Rating System called Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), version 2.0. The work was registered to achieve LEED certification. A brief study on current construction related costs was also included. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Estressores em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva: versão brasileira do The Environmental Stressor Questionnaire Estresores en Unidad de Terapia Intensiva: versión brasileña del Environmental Stressor Questionnaire Stressors at the Intensive Care Unit: the Brazilian version of The Environmental Stressor Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ângelo Rosa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo realizar a adaptação cultural do The Environmental Stressor Questionnaire - (ESQ para a língua portuguesa do Brasil e verificar sua confiabilidade e validade. Foram empregadas as etapas metodológicas recomendadas pela literatura para adaptação cultural. A versão brasileira do ESQ foi aplicada a 106 pacientes de Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI de dois hospitais, público e privado, do interior do Estado de São Paulo. A confiabilidade foi avaliada quanto à consistência interna e estabilidade (teste e reteste; a validade convergente foi verificada por meio da correlação entre o ESQ e questão genérica sobre estresse em UTI. A confiabilidade foi satisfatória com Alfa de Crombach=0,94 e Coeficiente de Correlação Intraclasse=0,861 (IC95% 0,723; 0,933. Constatou-se correlação entre o escore total do ESQ e a questão genérica sobre estresse (r=0,70, confirmando a validade convergente. A versão brasileira do ESQ mostrou-se uma ferramenta confiável e válida para avaliação de estressores em UTI.Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la adaptación cultural del Environmental Stressor Questionnaire (ESQ a la lengua portuguesa de Brasil y verificar su confiabilidad y validez. Fueron empleadas las etapas metodológicas recomendadas por la bibliografía para la adaptación cultural. La versión brasileña del ESQ fue aplicada a 106 pacientes de Unidad de Terapia Intensiva (UTI de dos hospitales, público y privado, del interior del estado de San Pablo, Brasil. La confiabilidad fue evaluada respecto de la consistencia interna y la estabilidad (test y retest; la validez convergente fue verificada a través de la correlación entre el ESQ y pregunta genérica acerca de estrés en UTI. La confiabilidad fue satisfactoria, con Alfa de Cronbach = 0,94 y Coeficiente de Relación Intraclase = 0,861 (IC 95%; 0,723; 0,933. Se constató correlación entre el puntaje total del ESQ y la pregunta genérica sobre estr

  12. 袁河流域水环境管理中控制单元的划分研究%Division of Control Units in Water Environmental Management in Yuanhe River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭昆国; 王涛; 张萌; 陈宏文

    2012-01-01

    以江西省袁河流域为例,介绍了控制单元划分的原则和方法,初步提出了控制单元的命名方法,同时还探讨了控制单元划分的尺度和等级问题.根据划分结果,袁河流域自上游而下共划分为5个控制单元,依次为芦溪控制单元、袁州区控制单元、仙女湖控制单元、新余控制单元和樟树控制单元,这样的划分模式既保证了小流域的完整性,又为袁河流域水质目标管理提供了实施单元.%With Yuanhe River Basin in Jiangxi Province as the example, the principle and method of control units division were introduced, and the nomenclature of control unit was proposed tentatively,in addition,the dimension and grade of control unit were also discussed. According to the results,five control units were divided along Yuanhe River from up-stream to down-stream,I. E. Luxi control unit,Yuanzhouqu control unit, Xiannvhu control unit,Xinyu control unit and Zhangshu control unit. The divided pattern of control unit in Yuanhe River Basin not only kept the integrity of sub -basin,but also provided implementation unit for water quality target management.

  13. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  14. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  15. Environmental Tritium

    OpenAIRE

    百島, 則幸

    2000-01-01

    Environmental tritium was first observed in a helium fraction at a liquid air production facility in Germany in 1949. During the 1950s and early 1960s, huge amounts of artificial tritium were released into the atmosphere by nuclear testing. The environmental tritium level increased to more than 200 times the natural tritium level. Since the signing of a test ban treaty in 1963, the environmental tritium level has decreased, and analysis of recent Japanese rain samples has shown that the envir...

  16. Environmental Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Identified Sites coverage, used to support the environmental quality program, references types and concentrations of contaminants, contaminated media and...

  17. Environmentally Benign Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Daniel; Schipper, Lee; Deluchi, Mark; Wang, Quanlu

    1992-01-01

    His dream has come true. There's now more than one vehicle for every licensed driver in the United States, and other developed countries are not far behind. But has the car's success created the conditions for its own demise? Conventional wisdom of market researchers, consultants, and other experts is that the automobile and its petroleum-powered internal combustion engine will be with us for a long time and that any energy and environmental problems can be readily solved. T...

  18. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Three - Appendix F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    This appendix supports the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-13711/V1. This volume contains Appendix F. Appendix F is essentially a photocopy of the ORNL researchers' laboratory notebooks from the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) and the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL).

  19. Environmental Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeevaert, T.; Vanmarcke, H

    1998-07-01

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's programme on environmental restoration are (1) to optimize and validate models for the impact assessment from environmental, radioactive contaminations, including waste disposal or discharge; (2) to support the policy of national authorities for public health and radioactive waste management. Progress and achievements in 1997 are reported.

  20. Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, M C; Tennant, J

    1997-11-01

    The significance, standard elements, components, and documentation of an environmental assessment in home care are discussed. This assessment is delineated within Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and from a functional perspective. An Environmental Assessment Form that can be used as a documentation tool is included.

  1. Environmental occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section.

  2. Corporate environmentalism and environmental innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-Hsing; Sam, Abdoul G

    2015-04-15

    Several papers have explored the effect of tighter environmental standards on environmental innovation. While mandatory regulation remains the central tenet of US environmental policy, the regulatory landscape has changed since the early 1990s with the increased recourse by federal and state agencies to corporate environmentalism--voluntary pollution prevention (P2) by firms--to achieve environmental improvements. We therefore estimate the effects of voluntary P2 activities on the patenting of environmental technologies by a sample of manufacturing firms. With our panel data of 352 firms over the 1991-2000 period, we adopt an instrumental variable Poisson framework to account for the count nature of patents and the endogeneity of the P2 adoption decision. Our results indicate that the adoption of voluntary P2 activities in the manufacturing sector has led to a statistically and economically significant increase in the number of environmental patents, suggesting that corporate environmentalism can act as a catalyst for investments in cleaner technologies. Our findings are internationally relevant given the increasing ubiquity of corporate environmentalism in both developed and developing economies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Environmental taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekins, P.; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Vos, H.

    on their environmental effectiveness and on the political barriers to their implementation. It provides illustrative examples of environmental taxes only; comprehensive reviews are available from OECD (1995).http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/92-9167-000-6-sum/page002.html [Summary available in 10 languages]...... been identified and reviewed in this report. Within the limitations of the studies, it appears that these taxes have been environmentally effective (achieving their environmental objectives) and they seem to have achieved such objectives at reasonable cost. Examples of particularly successful taxes...... to implementation, especially of energy (particularly on specific sectors or regions); and on low income groups can be overcome by: a) careful design, b) the use of environmental taxes and respective revenues as part of policy packages and green tax reforms, c) gradual implementation; d) extensive consultation...

  4. Dynamics of land-use change and conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States: environmental and economic implications with linkages to rural community well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, William; Hoag, Dana; Johnson, Rex; Koontz, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Rural America has changed dramatically over the last century, from having over half the population living in rural settings to only 20 percent residing in a rural area today, and outmigration of younger populations from rural communities remains a constant issue for local governing officials. A declining tax base and concurrent rising costs for maintenance and repair of aging infrastructure add further challenges to policy decisions. Reduced enrollment has caused school closures or mergers. Farm consolidation and technical advances reduced the demand for local labor. On the positive side, however, record-high commodity prices have amplified farm income to new heights. The increased revenues can lead to farmers spending additional money within the local region, while at the same time increased transportation of products has impacted local infrastructure such as roads and bridges. Such dynamics present challenges for municipal leaders charged with promoting economic development and balanced spending, while at the same time maintaining the way of life and rural character that are so important to area residents. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the United States covers much of the Northern Great Plains, including parts of North and South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, and a small part of Montana, and extends across a broad swath of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The region is defined largely by its rural character but has experienced extensive land conversion over the last century, with agricultural areas replacing native prairie habitat. Additional pressures arise from oil and gas development, global markets for agricultural production, and increased demands for biofuel feedstocks. Record-high commodity prices increase pressure on the native prairie as farmers look for new cropland acres. The volatility of commodity prices has raised fears over the intensity of land conversion to row-crop agriculture, the economic health and resiliency of rural communities, and ultimately

  5. Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin

    The doctoral research project is co-financed by DUCED-I&UA and is part of a joint effort of Thai, Malay, South African and Danish universities to conduct collaborative research on the overarching theme "Environmental Management: Globalisation and Industrial Governance in Developing Countries......". The PhD project is expected to conclude ultimo 2005. Environmental management and cleaner production (CP) are both internationally recognised as tools for minimising environmental impacts of production or services. However, several studies have shown that especially SMEs, which probably amount to more...

  6. Environmental Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin

    The doctoral research project is co-financed by DUCED-I&UA and is part of a joint effort of Thai, Malay, South African and Danish universities to conduct collaborative research on the overarching theme "Environmental Management: Globalisation and Industrial Governance in Developing Countries......". The PhD project is expected to conclude ultimo 2005. Environmental management and cleaner production (CP) are both internationally recognised as tools for minimising environmental impacts of production or services. However, several studies have shown that especially SMEs, which probably amount to more...

  7. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  8. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  9. The Development of Environmental Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten;

    2015-01-01

    The Danish "Klima 2020" plan sets an ambitious target for the complete phasing-out of fossil fuels by 2050. The Danish energy sector currently accounts for 40% of national CO2 emissions. Based on an extended Farrell input distance function that accounts for CO2 as an undesirable output, we estimate...... the environmental productivity of individual generator units based on a panel data set for the period 1998 to 2011 that includes virtually all fuel-fired generator units in Denmark. We further decompose total environmental energy conversion productivity into conversion efficiency, best conversion practice ratio...

  10. Studies of Environmental Data Management in Representative Developed Countries and Suggestions to Data Sharing and Usage in Environmental Unites of China%以他国为例兼论数据促进我国环境部门 资源整合与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙九林; 任博

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the work and responsibilities of environmental departments or agencies and their related units of representative developed countries are examined. Some of their work is frontier, supportive, comprehensive and beneficial to sustainable development. Though the difference in national conditions, some experiences or modes of data resources exploration and practice of developed countries would be beneficial for us, would help us to enhance collaboration between internal departments of government or beyond, for example the business and Non-profit organization. Opening and sharing data would reduce cost, promote data usage, help to protect environment, benefit economy and improve people’s day-to-day life. Data is a new resource for human. Data are from nature and human and its core role is to serve human and nature.%文章介绍并论述了欧美及俄罗斯、日本等国家环境及其相关部门的职责及其工作。其部分工作体现了其综合性、前端性、支撑性、服务性。国情不同,相关事务自然不能一概而论。但他国以环境为资源,用数据科学的思想、方法对环境资源进行统筹、分析、挖掘,其实践思路和实践也许有借鉴的可能。并指出,我国在借鉴之中,或可加强政府部门之间、社会盈利与非盈利组织之间、政府部门与社会组织之间、以及个人之间的合作,通过数据公开、数据共享,从而降低成本,进行数据挖掘、利用,协力解决环境与人和谐共生问题,同时激发新的经济增长点。真正体现数据来源于自然、来源于人;同时形成数据资源这一新资源,保护并服务于自然与人。

  11. United States 2030 Food Loss and Waste Reduction Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 16, 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the first ever domestic goal to reduce food loss and waste by half by the year 2030.

  12. Environmental sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, C.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sciences are engaged in a remarkable effort of interdisciplinary cooperation and integration. Some long-running international scientific programs, notably the World Climate Research Programme and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, play an important role therein. The

  13. Environmental decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C. (eds.)

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

  14. Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our environment affects our health. If parts of the environment, like the air, water, or soil become polluted, it ... in the home can trigger asthma attacks. Some environmental risks are a part of the natural world, ...

  15. Environmental teratogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Brent, R. L.; Beckman, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    By far the largest category of malformations, 65% falls into the group of those with an unknown cause(s). Purely genetic causes of malformations (autosomal and cytogenetic), estimated to produce 20 to 25% of all human malformations, comprise the largest group of congenital malformations with known etiology. Although environmental causes of human malformations account for 10% or fewer of malformations, most of these environmentally induced malformations are related to maternal disease states. ...

  16. Environmental futures research at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Olson

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little research on environmental futures has been carried out in the United States. An exception is the long-running futures research that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting since the 1970s. This paper reviews past and current efforts toward developing a capacity for environmental foresight within the EPA, and discusses some...

  17. Uncovering Students' Environmental Identity: An Exploration of Activities in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica

    2014-01-01

    This study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States explores how students' environmental identities are affected by various activities in an Environmental Science course. Data was collected as part of an ethnographic study involving an Environmental Science teacher and her tenth-twelfth grade students. The results focus on…

  18. Uncovering Students' Environmental Identity: An Exploration of Activities in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica

    2014-01-01

    This study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States explores how students' environmental identities are affected by various activities in an Environmental Science course. Data was collected as part of an ethnographic study involving an Environmental Science teacher and her tenth-twelfth grade students. The results focus on…

  19. Uncovering Students' Environmental Identity: An Exploration of Activities in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica

    2014-01-01

    This study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States explores how students' environmental identities are affected by various activities in an Environmental Science course. Data was collected as part of an ethnographic study involving an Environmental Science teacher and her tenth-twelfth grade students. The results focus on…

  20. Inorganic and organic concentration data collected from 38 streams in the United States, 2012-2014, with supporting data, as part of the Chemical Mixtures and Environmental Effects Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste

    2017-01-01

    This USGS data release contains station and laboratory method information and geospatial information, as well as concentration results for inorganic and organic compounds and bioluminescent yeast estrogen screen and transgenic zebrafish embryo estrogren bioassay, analyzed at 38 sites in 25 states as part of the Chemical Mixtures and Environmental Effects Pilot Study, 2012-2014.

  1. FLYING UNITED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apart from selling hundreds of airplanes to China, Boeing buys locally made aircraft parts and transfers technology, in the true spirit of partnership Whenever Boeing's senior manager hear of a visit by one of China's state leaders, it's no doubt cause for celebration. Since China and the United States established diplomatic ties in 1978, every official trip by China's top statesmen has included a meeting with Boeing that

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS IN THE AFTERMATH OF HURRICANE KATRINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes the environmental sampling completed by EPA in southeastern Louisiana after Hurricane Katrina caused major catastrophic damage. Presentation also describes EPA's Environmental Unit activities in Baton Rouge and New Orleans, LA, and Dallas, TX.

  3. The role of non-governmental organisations in the environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of non-governmental organisations in the environmental justice paradigm. ... governance, environmental racism and climate change amongst others. ... the global or international sphere (using the example of the United Nations), ...

  4. 39 CFR 775.8 - Environmental evaluation guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental evaluation guidelines. 775.8 Section 775.8 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT PROCEDURES § 775.8 Environmental evaluation guidelines. (a) Approach. When dealing...

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION: JOINT (NSF-EPA) VERIFICATION STATEMENT AND REPORT FOR THE REMOVAL OF MERCURY FROM DENTAL OFFICE WASTEWATER, DENTAL RECYCLING OF NORTH AMERICA (DRNA) MERCURY REMOVAL UNIT (MRU). - NSF 02/01/EPAWQPC-SWP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification testing of the Dental Recycling North America (DRNA) Mercury Removal Unit (MRU) was conducted over a seven week period, at a dental office in Michigan that had three operatory rooms and two hygiene rooms. The office operated four days per week and averaged approxiam...

  6. Cooperative wind erosion mechanics research between USDA-ARS Wind Erosion and Water Conservation Research Unit(WEWC) and Key Lab of Western Environmental Disaster (KLWED), Lanzhou University, Gansu, P.R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad expanses of bare, fragile soil and frequent high-velocity winds create conditions leading to wind-induced soil loss and fugitive dust generation in the semi-arid regions of the United States and People’s Republic of China. Mechanistic process driven models have necessitated an increased under...

  7. Elements of environmental management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antweiler, Werner

    2014-01-01

    ... important area of expertise. This book is an interdisciplinary texbook that integrates corporate environmental strategy with environmental economics, environmental law, and environmental engineering...

  8. 40 CFR 157.27 - Unit packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unit packaging. 157.27 Section 157.27 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Child-Resistant Packaging § 157.27 Unit packaging. Pesticide...

  9. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    2017-01-01

    Presence, attention and awareness are challenged in a cultural landscape with an overflow of media and information (big data, mediatization processes), an overflow of time scheduling (rationalization, effectuation), and an overflow of marketing for example of ‘live performance’ as a promotional...... from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television......, performance art), and seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate on the quality and status of live performance (Reason & Lindelof 2016). As a critical response to the above mentioned overflows these performances make their own overflow through their characteristically non-representational, unpredictable...

  10. Environmental Tracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Elliot

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental tracers continue to provide an important tool for understanding the source, flow and mixing dynamics of water resource systems through their imprint on the system or their sensitivity to alteration within it. However, 60 years or so after the first isotopic tracer studies were applied to hydrology, the use of isotopes and other environmental tracers are still not routinely necessarily applied in hydrogeological and water resources investigations where appropriate. There is therefore a continuing need to promote their use for developing sustainable management policies for the protection of water resources and the aquatic environment. This Special Issue focuses on the robustness or fitness-for-purpose of the application and use of environmental tracers in addressing problems and opportunities scientifically, to promote their wider use and to address substantive issues of vulnerability, sustainability, and uncertainty in (groundwater resources systems and their management.

  11. Environmental teratogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, R. L.; Beckman, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    By far the largest category of malformations, 65% falls into the group of those with an unknown cause(s). Purely genetic causes of malformations (autosomal and cytogenetic), estimated to produce 20 to 25% of all human malformations, comprise the largest group of congenital malformations with known etiology. Although environmental causes of human malformations account for 10% or fewer of malformations, most of these environmentally induced malformations are related to maternal disease states. Fewer than 1% of all human malformations are related to drug exposure, chemicals, or radiation, but studies of environmentally induced malformations are important because they may teach us how to predict and test for teratogenicity, understand the mechanisms of teratogenesis from all etiologies, and provide a means by which human malformations can be prevented. PMID:2194610

  12. Environmental teratogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent, R.L.; Beckman, D.A. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-03-01

    By far the largest category of malformations, 65% falls into the group of those with an unknown cause(s). Purely genetic causes of malformations (autosomal and cytogenetic), estimated to produce 20 to 25% of all human malformations, comprise the largest group of congenital malformations with known etiology. Although environmental causes of human malformations account for 10% or fewer of malformations, most of these environmentally induced malformations are related to maternal disease states. Fewer than 1% of all human malformations are related to drug exposure, chemicals, or radiation, but studies of environmentally induced malformations are important because they may teach us how to predict and test for teratogenicity, understand the mechanisms of teratogenesis from all etiologies, and provide a means by which human malformations can be prevented.298 references.

  13. Health and Safety Plan for Operations Performed for the Environmental Restoration Program: Task, Characterization of Potential Waste Sources at Auxiliary Reactor Area-1 Operable Unit 5--07 site ARA-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, S.L.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-06-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the ERP. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  14. Health and Safety Plan for Operations Performed for the Environmental Restoration Program: Task, Characterization of Potential Waste Sources at Auxiliary Reactor Area-1 Operable Unit 5--07 site ARA-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, S.L.; Morton, S.L.

    1992-06-01

    This document constitutes the generic health and safety plan for the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP). It addresses the health and safety requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 29 CFR 1910.120 standard; and EG&G Idaho, Inc. This plan is a guide to individuals who must complete a health and safety plan for a task performed for the ERP. It contains a task specific addendum that, when completed, specifically addresses task specific health and safety issues. This health and safety plan reduces the time it takes to write a task specific health and safety plan by providing discussions of requirements, guidance on where specific information is located, and specific topics in the Addendum that must be discussed at a task level. This format encourages a complete task specific health and safety plan and a standard for all health and safety plans written for ERP.

  15. Assessing the Environmental Safety of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology research in the United States is coordinated under the National Nano-technology Initiative with the goal of fostering development and implementation of nanomaterials and products that incorporate them and assuring that they are environmentally safe. The environmen...

  16. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates social and…

  17. Bodies, Pollution, and Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The field of American Studies explores the cultures and practices of individuals and communities in the United States, as well as their transnational exchanges and impacts. It is an interdisciplinary field that is based on making "connections." Environmental justice, as a social movement, also makes important connections. It integrates…

  18. Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

  19. [Environmental microbiological control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Salas, Carmen; Tordoya Titichoca, Igberto J; Ezpeleta Baquedano, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    The environmental microbiological control is necessary to prevent infections associated with certain procedures that are performed at the hospital. In this review the procedures for control of water and dialysis fluids, and air in operating rooms and immunocompromised units are addressed. The dialysis quality management guidelines define the highest levels of chemical, microbiological and endotoxin in purified water and dialysis fluids based on the recommendations of scientific societies. The microbiological control of water and dialysis fluids should include detection of microorganisms and endotoxin levels. Regarding the microbiological air sampling of operating rooms and immunocompromised units the types of clean rooms in which is recommended to perform microbiological air monitoring; the sample collection methods; culture media; incubation conditions; the most common microorganisms, and permissible levels depending on the type of surgery are described.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROPHOTOMATER INNOVA AIR TECH INSTRUMENTS MODEL 1312 MULTI-GAS MONITOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Through the Environmental Technology Verification Program, is working to accelerate the acceptance and use of innovative technologies that improve the way the United States manages its environmental problems. This report documents demons...

  1. Festive environmentalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Christiansen, Lene Bull

    2016-01-01

    Mikhail Bakhtin’s idea of the carnivalesque is applied here to a case study of eco-voluntourism at the Roskilde Festival, an international culture and music event held in Denmark. In the literature on popular forms of environmentalism a dichotomy between engaging and educating about the political...... a venue for both to be stimulated....

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    20160639Cai Wutian(Center for Hydrogeology a nd Environmental Geology Survey,China Geological Survey,Baoding071051,China)Several Issues on Contaminated Sites(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,42(1),2015,p.123

  3. Environmental sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, C.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sciences are engaged in a remarkable effort of interdisciplinary cooperation and integration. Some long-running international scientific programs, notably the World Climate Research Programme and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, play an important role therein. The o

  4. Environmental sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwa, C.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental sciences are engaged in a remarkable effort of interdisciplinary cooperation and integration. Some long-running international scientific programs, notably the World Climate Research Programme and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, play an important role therein. The o

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>20040834 Chen Yijiu (Geological Exploration Bureau of Guangdong Province, Guangzhou, Guangdong) Discussion on Natural Chornic Irradiation Environment and Pertinent Problems in Guangdong Province, China (Guangdong Geology, ISSN 1001 - 8670, CN44-1201/P, 18(1), 2003, p. 30-41, 7 tables, 1 ref. , with English abstract) Keywords: radioactivity radiation environmental pollution Guangdong Province

  6. Environmental Impact Research Program. Transplanting of the Seagrasses Halodule wrightii, Syringodium filiforme, and Thalassia testudinum for Sediment Stabilization and Habitat Development in the Southeast Region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    transplanting technique for shoalgrass ( Halodule wrightii ) and manatee grass (Syringodium filiforme). Instruction Report EL-84-1 (corrected), US Army Engineer...seagrasses Zostera marina and Halodule wrightii for sediment stabilization and habitat development . on the East Coast of the United States. Tech. Rep...TRANSPLANTING OF THE SEAGRASSES HALODULE WRIGHT/I, SYRINGODIUM FILIFORME, AND THALASSIA TESTUDINUM * - -FOR SEDIMENT STABILIZATION AND HABITAT DEVELOPMENT IN

  7. EnviroAtlas - NHDPlus V2 Hydrologic Unit Boundaries Web Service - Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service contains layers depicting hydrologic unit boundary layers and labels for the Subregion level (4-digit HUCs), Subbasin level (8-digit...

  8. EPA Office of Water (OW): 12-digit Hydrologic Unit Boundaries of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) is a complete digital hydrologic unit national boundary layer that is at the Subwatershed (12-digit) level. It is composed of...

  9. Mitochondrial genome sequencing and development of genetic markers for the detection of DNA of invasive bighead and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix) in environmental water samples from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Heather L; Edwards, Christine E; Guan, Xin; Carr, Matthew R; Baerwaldt, Kelly; Lance, Richard F

    2015-01-01

    Invasive Asian bighead and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix) pose a substantial threat to North American aquatic ecosystems. Recently, environmental DNA (eDNA), genetic material shed by organisms into their environment that can be detected by non-invasive sampling strategies and genetic assays, has gained recognition as a tool for tracking the invasion front of these species toward the Great Lakes. The goal of this study was to develop new species-specific conventional PCR (cPCR) and quantitative (qPCR) markers for detection of these species in North American surface waters. We first generated complete mitochondrial genome sequences from 33 bighead and 29 silver carp individuals collected throughout their introduced range. These sequences were aligned with those from other common and closely related fish species from the Illinois River watershed to identify and design new species-specific markers for the detection of bighead and silver carp DNA in environmental water samples. We then tested these genetic markers in the laboratory for species-specificity and sensitivity. Newly developed markers performed well in field trials, did not have any false positive detections, and many markers had much higher detection rates and sensitivity compared to the markers currently used in eDNA surveillance programs. We also explored the use of multiple genetic markers to determine whether it would improve detection rates, results of which showed that using multiple highly sensitive markers should maximize detection rates in environmental samples. The new markers developed in this study greatly expand the number of species-specific genetic markers available to track the invasion front of bighead and silver carp and will improve the resolution of these assays. Additionally, the use of the qPCR markers developed in this study may reduce sample processing time and cost of eDNA monitoring for these species.

  10. Mitochondrial genome sequencing and development of genetic markers for the detection of DNA of invasive bighead and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix in environmental water samples from the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L Farrington

    Full Text Available Invasive Asian bighead and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and H. molitrix pose a substantial threat to North American aquatic ecosystems. Recently, environmental DNA (eDNA, genetic material shed by organisms into their environment that can be detected by non-invasive sampling strategies and genetic assays, has gained recognition as a tool for tracking the invasion front of these species toward the Great Lakes. The goal of this study was to develop new species-specific conventional PCR (cPCR and quantitative (qPCR markers for detection of these species in North American surface waters. We first generated complete mitochondrial genome sequences from 33 bighead and 29 silver carp individuals collected throughout their introduced range. These sequences were aligned with those from other common and closely related fish species from the Illinois River watershed to identify and design new species-specific markers for the detection of bighead and silver carp DNA in environmental water samples. We then tested these genetic markers in the laboratory for species-specificity and sensitivity. Newly developed markers performed well in field trials, did not have any false positive detections, and many markers had much higher detection rates and sensitivity compared to the markers currently used in eDNA surveillance programs. We also explored the use of multiple genetic markers to determine whether it would improve detection rates, results of which showed that using multiple highly sensitive markers should maximize detection rates in environmental samples. The new markers developed in this study greatly expand the number of species-specific genetic markers available to track the invasion front of bighead and silver carp and will improve the resolution of these assays. Additionally, the use of the qPCR markers developed in this study may reduce sample processing time and cost of eDNA monitoring for these species.

  11. Original desarrollo de la gestión medioambiental certificada en unidades hospitalarias y ambulatorias de hemodiálisis. Development of certified environmental management in hospital and outpatient haemodialysis units

    OpenAIRE

    García Vicente, Sergio; María M. Morales Suárez-Varela; Martí Monrós, Anna; Llopis González, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: El impacto ambiental de la hemodiálisis es destacado. Está destacando la acti-vidad en este sentido incluso a nivel bibliográfico. Los sistemas de gestión medioambiental(SGMA) voluntarios, Environmental Management and Auditing System (EMAS) e Interna-tional Organization for Standardization (ISO 14001), son instrumentos destacados para laprotección medioambiental junto a legislación, impuestos y beneficios fiscales.Objetivos: Conocer el grado de implantación de los SGMA en las un...

  12. Race, class, gender, and American environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorceta E. Taylor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental experiences of middle and working class whites and people of color in the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. It examines their activism and how their environmental experiences influenced the kinds of discourses they developed. The paper posits that race, class, and gender had profound effects on people's...

  13. Monitoring environmental quality at the landscape scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert V. O' Neill; Carolyn T. Hunsaker; K. Bruce Jones; Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Paul M. Schwartz; Iris A. Goodman; Barbara L. Jackson; William S. Baillargeon

    1997-01-01

    Over the past century, technological advances have greatly improved the standard of living in the United States. But these same advances have caused sweeping environmental changes, often unforeseen and potentially irreparable. Ethical stewardship of the environment requires that society monitor and assess environmental changes at the national scale with a view toward...

  14. Las unidades ambientales homogéneas como herramienta para la ordenación territorial y la caracterización de litorales áridos / Use of Homogeneous Environmental Management Units as a Tool for Land-Use Planning and Characterization of Arid Coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Camino Dorta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En Canarias, en las últimas dos décadas se ha generalizado en la actividad de ordenación territorial el empleo de las denominadas unidades de diagnóstico, que fueron reguladas en 1995 por el Decreto 35/95 de Evaluación Ambiental (hoy derogado. Las unidades ambientales homogéneas se han convertido en una herramienta del planificador. La validez de las mismas, los problemas y ventajas que ofrecen en la práctica, es analizada en este artículo de cara a la ordenación y gestión litorales. Desde la praxis se valora la eficacia de esta metodología en las costas orientales de Canarias y su posible extrapolación a otros territorios continentales, comprobando su validez y eficacia en las cercanas costas saharianas y su espacio litoral.In the Canary Islands, the use of so-called diagnostic units, has been widespread in the activity of land usein the last two decades. These diagnostic units were regulated in 1995 by Decree 35/95 of Environmental Assessment (now repealed. Homogenous environmental management units have become a tool for planners. Their validity, problems and advantages are analyzed in this paper for coastal planning and management. In practice, effectiveness of this methodology on the eastern coasts of the Canary Islands and its possible extrapolation to other mainland regions is assessed by checking its validity and effectiveness in nearby Saharan coasts and coastal areas.

  15. Study on Environmental Radiation Exposure and Shielding Methods of the Leksell Gamma Unit%γ-刀环境辐射探测及防护措施初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全红; 陈大庆; 吴春松; 林洪; 黄兆慧; 陈小惠

    2001-01-01

    For the radiation source of the Gamma Unit is Co-60 with a total activity of 223480 GBq, it is necessary to take account of its safety and reliability. Although the Gamma Unit is shielded, background radiation and radiation leakage are unavoidable. Therefore, it is essential to measure the exposure rates in both the treatment room and the surrounding as the exposure levels in the treatment room during operation of the Gamma Unit. In the step experiment, background radiation and radiation leakage in both the treatment room and the surrounding during the stereotactic radiotherapy were measured under the on-state and off-state of the Gamma Unit. Then, the received radiation dose at the neck of the patients was measured in the process of the treatment of Gamma Unit and the protective measures investigated. The results showed that the exposure rates ranged from 10 to 130 000 μGy/h in the treatment room and from 0.18 to 0.63 μGy/h in the surrounding area during operation of the Gamma Unit, respectively. None of the area outside the treatment room exceeded the Atomic Energy Council(AEC). All measured exposure levels were well below the limits established by the AEC. The exposure dose of most of patient's neck during operation exceeded 50 mSv, a shielding instrument containing lead for the patient's neck during operation was needed.%由于γ-刀使用的201个60Co放射源其活度最高可达223 480 GBq,使用时应考虑其安全性及可靠性。虽然γ-刀本身有较为严格的防护措施,然而背景辐射和辐射渗漏是不可避免的。因此,准确掌握治疗室内及周围环境的辐射状况及其变化具有重要意义。通过分步设计实验,测量出γ-刀立体定向放射治疗中,在开机与关机两种情况下,治疗室内及周围环境的背景辐射与辐射渗漏。在此基础上,进一步测量患者在接受γ-刀治疗的整个过程中,颈部所接受的漏射线的剂量,并探讨对颈部的防护措施。结

  16. Staff rosters for 1979: environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The roster of the scientific and professional staffs of the Environmental Programs of the Department of Energy and Environment has been compiled as of December 1979. Staff members have been listed according to their organizational units, i.e., the Atmospheric Sciences Division, the Environmental Chemistry Division, the Oceanographic Sciences Division, and the Land and Freshwater Environmental Sciences Group. Educational background, research interests, professional activities, summary of experience at BNL, and selected publications have been included for each member listed.

  17. Environmental Biosciences Quarterly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence C. Mohr, M.D.

    2007-01-31

    In May 2002, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) signed Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC09-02CH11109 with the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) to support the Environmental Biosciences Program (EBP). This funding instrument replaces DOE Assistance Instrument Number DE-FC02-98CH10902. EBP is an integrated, multidisciplinary scientific research program, employing a range of research initiatives to identify, study and resolve environmental health risks. These initiatives are consistent with the MUSC role as a comprehensive state-supported health sciences institution and with the nation's need for new and better approaches to the solution of a complex and expansive array of environment-related health problems. The intrinsic capabilities of a comprehensive health sciences institution enable MUSC to be a national resource for the scientific investigation of environmental health issues. EBPs success as a nationally prominent research program is due, in part, to its ability to task-organize scientific expertise from multiple disciplines in addressing these complex problems. Current research projects have focused EBP talent and resources on providing the scientific basis for risk-based standards, risk-based decision making and the accelerated clean-up of widespread environmental hazards. These hazards include trichloroethylene and low-dose ionizing radiation. Work on the trichloroethylene research projects has been slowed as a result of funding uncertainties. The impact of these funding uncertainties has been discussed with the DOE. Plans for restructuring the performance schedule of the trichloroethylene projects have been submitted to the department. A project is also being conducted in the use of geographical information system technology to analyze population health risks related to environmental hazards as a tool for risk-based decision-making. Questions, comments or requests for further information concerning the activities under this

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>20070678 Cao Wenbing (Beijing Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China); Wan Li Impacts of Global Warming on the Eco-Environment in the Headwater Region of the Yellow River (Earth Science Frontiers, ISSN1005-2321, CN11-3370, 13(1), 2006, p.40-47, 4 illus., 1 table, 5 refs.) Key words: habitat, global warming, Yellow River

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141810 Bian Yumei(Geological Environmental Monitoring Center of Liaoning Province,Shenyang 110032,China);Zhang Jing Zoning Haicheng,Liaoning Province,by GeoHazard Risk and Geo-Hazard Assessment(Journal of Geological Hazards and Environment Preservation,ISSN1006-4362,CN51-1467/P,24(3),2013,p.5-9,2 illus.,tables,refs.)

  20. Environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, E. L.; Waligora, J. M.; Horrigan, D. J.; Shumate, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    The selection of an Apollo spacecraft atmosphere was based on the establishment of an acceptable range of atmospheric composition and pressure, the establishment of acceptable carbon dioxide levels, thermal comfort criteria, and acceleration and impact limits. The prime design requirements in a spacecraft system are minimum weight, volume, power usage, reliability, ease of maintenance, environmental compatibility, integration with other systems, and crew compatibility. The selection considerations are reviewed.

  1. Environmental Activities. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This unit attempts to respond to societal concerns for the rapid depletion of our world's natural resources, our increasing world population, current pollution problems and the lack of knowledge about natural interdependence. The material is intended as a source from which primary teachers can select activities from five generalized groups as…

  2. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume One - Main Text and Appendices A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    The laboratory investigation was performed to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing in situ chemical oxidation for remediating the secondary source of groundwater contaminants at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) Site. The study involved trichloroethene (TCE) contaminated media (groundwater, soil, and sludge) from TAN. The effectiveness of the selected oxidant, potassium permanganate (KMn0(sub4)), was evaluated at multiple oxidant and contaminant concentrations. Experiments were performed to determine the oxidant demand of each medium and the rate of TCE oxidation. The experiments were performed under highly controlled conditions (gas-tight reactors, constant 12C temperature). Multiple parameter were monitored over time including MN0(sub 4) and TCE concentrations and pH.

  4. Laboratory Evaluation of In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation, Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Volume Two, Appendices C, D, and E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, S.R.; Denton, D.L.; Giaquinto, J.M.; McCracken, M.K.; Starr, R.C.

    1999-04-01

    These appendices support the results and discussion of the laboratory work performed to evaluate the feasibility of in situ chemical oxidation for Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory's (INEEL) Test Area North (TAN) which is contained in ORNL/TM-1371 l/Vol. This volume contains Appendices C-E. Appendix C is a compilation of all recorded data and mathematical calculations made to interpret the data. For the Task 3 and Task 4 work, the spreadsheet column definitions are included immediately before the actual spreadsheet pages and are listed as ''Sample Calculations/Column Definitions'' in the table of contents. Appendix D includes the chronological order in which the experiments were conducted and the final project costs through October 1998. Appendix E is a compilation of the monthly progress reports submitted to INEEL during the course of the project.

  5. Environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. The nature and magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. Within the United States, operational DOE facilities, as well as the decontamination and decommissioning of inactive facilities, have produced significant amounts of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. In order to ensure worker safety and the protection of the public, DOE must: (1) assess, remediate, and monitor sites and facilities; (2) store, treat, and dispose of wastes from past and current operations; and (3) develop and implement innovative technologies for environmental restoration and waste management. The EM directive necessitates looking beyond domestic capabilities to technological solutions found outside US borders. Following the collapse of the Soviet regime, formerly restricted elite Soviet scientific expertise became available to the West. EM has established a cooperative technology development program with Russian scientific institutes that meets domestic cleanup objectives by: (1) identifying and accessing Russian EM-related technologies, thereby leveraging investments and providing cost-savings; (2) improving access to technical information, scientific expertise, and technologies applicable to EM needs; and (3) increasing US private sector opportunities in Russian in EM-related areas.

  6. Environmental management activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Office of Environmental Management (EM) has been delegated the responsibility for the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) cleanup of the nuclear weapons complex. The nature and magnitude of the waste management and environmental remediation problem requires the identification of technologies and scientific expertise from domestic and foreign sources. Within the United States, operational DOE facilities, as well as the decontamination and decommissioning of inactive facilities, have produced significant amounts of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes. In order to ensure worker safety and the protection of the public, DOE must: (1) assess, remediate, and monitor sites and facilities; (2) store, treat, and dispose of wastes from past and current operations; and (3) develop and implement innovative technologies for environmental restoration and waste management. The EM directive necessitates looking beyond domestic capabilities to technological solutions found outside US borders. Following the collapse of the Soviet regime, formerly restricted elite Soviet scientific expertise became available to the West. EM has established a cooperative technology development program with Russian scientific institutes that meets domestic cleanup objectives by: (1) identifying and accessing Russian EM-related technologies, thereby leveraging investments and providing cost-savings; (2) improving access to technical information, scientific expertise, and technologies applicable to EM needs; and (3) increasing US private sector opportunities in Russian in EM-related areas.

  7. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Critical Environmental Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VICTOR SOROCOVSCHI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A short etymological interpretation of the notion of regions (Rette Lineatte, etc.. The region is: R= f (S+P, where S is space and P is power. There follows an evaluation of the characteristics of the region and the presentation of different approaches to the region. From the classic ideas (von Humboldt, 1885, Dokuceaev, 1899, Herbertson, 1905, and others we get to a wide interpretative array of what we accept as organizational spatial units of geographical reality. The environmental region has important connotations with regard to the system as a surrounded element (man, society and the adjacent system. Critical environmental regions are areas where there already exists interactive degradation. The critical character may be physical, hence the “geocritical regions” or the result of human impact, hence the “anthropocritical regions.” Critical situations are differentiated at the local, regional, and global level. In order to understand critical regional situations we must refer to the following characteristics: fragility, resilience, and vulnerability. Still there are few environmental studies on critical regions and work must be done in this field.

  9. Environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.

    2001-04-01

    The Alberta Chamber of Resources (ACR) believes that resource development and environmental management should be achieved through consultation and cooperation processes. The ACR, through the Land and Resource Partnership (LRP) regarding the Species at Risk Act (SARA), is involved in the consultation process with the Federal government. The aim is to achieve consensus and equilibrium between the interests of environmental organizations and industry while protecting species at risk. One of the important issues examined concerns regulatory takings (restrictions on the use of land) and compensation for the loss of use of land, which has no precedent in Canada. At the request of the government, Dr. Pearse, a scientist specializing in economics and forestry at the University of British Columbia (UBC), conducted a study on the topic and submitted a report to the government. Representatives of the ACR had met with Dr. Pearse to make their views known. The ACR disagrees with a proposal included in the report, which states that above a 10 per cent threshold of loss of value of land, 50 per cent of the remaining loss should be compensated by the government, instead of full government compensation advocated by the ACR. In the case of private rights on crown land, Dr. Pearse recommended that no compensation be offered to the energy industry for incremental costs resulting from restrictions. In the SARA legislation, the government favors a collaborative approach with all parties affected, thereby eliminating the requirement for compensation. The Civil Cause of Action was removed from SARA. The legislation still includes strict liability offences, which are considered troublesome by the ACR in the case of accidental disturbance of a protected species. The ACR believes that the resource industries are responsible and perform their activities in a way which protects species at risk. Management through consultation and cooperation will accomplish the goals. Environmental concerns

  10. United Nations Illiteracy in America: Thoughts on Integrating the United Nations into the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, John

    2003-01-01

    To provide an international perspective, and to get American students focused on the United Nations (UN) as a legitimate scientific institution, the United Nations and its role in addressing global environmental concerns should be taught in the American science classroom. The target audience for this paper is high school teachers. The United…

  11. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  12. Environmental Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Holger

    2009-01-01

    NASA's White Sands Test Facility has six core environmental compliance capabilities: remote hazardous testing of reactive, explosive and toxic materials and fluids; hypergolic fluids materials and systems testing; oxygen materials and system testing; hypervelocity impact testing; flight hardware processing; and, propulsion testing. The facility's permit status and challenges are reviewed. Historic operations and practices dating from the 1960s through the early 1980s resulted in contamination of the facility's groundwater. An environmental restoration effort has been employed to protect public health and the health of the workforce. The restoration seeks to properly handle hazardous materials and waste processes; determine the nature and extent of the contamination; stop the migration of contaminated groundwater; stabilize the plume front which has been assessed as the greatest risk to public health; and, clean-up the environment to restore it to preexisting conditions. The Plume Front Treatment System is operational and seeks to stop the westward movement of the plume to protect drinking water and irrigation well. Specifically, the treatment system will extract contaminated water from the aquifer, remove chemical using the best available technology, and return (inject) the treated water back to the aquifer. The Mid-Plume Interception Treatment System also seeks to stop the migration of containment, as well as to evaluate new technologies to accelerate cleanup, such as bioremediation.

  13. Major Technical Measures for Revamp of FCC Units in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Wenjie

    2003-01-01

    FCC units are playing an important role at refineries, in particular at Chinese refineries. To cope with the current demand for better economic benefits, environmental protection and product slate adjustment, a host of FCC units need to be technically revamped. This article describes the practical processes, technologies and equipment to serve different revamp targets with analysis of two examples on revamp of commercial units.

  14. Calibration of the High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry Detection Systems from the Environmental Radioactivity Unit and Radiological Surveillance (ARU and RV); Calibracion de los Sistemas Detectores de Espectrometria Gamma de Alta Resolucion de la Unidad de Radiactividad Ambiental y Vigilancia Radiologica (URA y VR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, J. A.; Gasco, C.; Arana, M.; Suanez, A.

    2012-11-01

    In accordance with international regulations and with the quality criteria imposed by the internal quality system of the laboratory of gamma spectrometry, which belongs to the Unit of Environmental Radioactivity and Radiation Monitoring (URA y VR), it is necessary to perform a periodic calibration of the measurement systems of gamma spectrometry. The equipment calibration carries with the need for the preparation of the geometries of measurement and calibration in energy and in efficiencies. This report reflects the procedures for the preparation of the wide range of geometries available in the laboratory, as well as the different calibrations performed with those geometries in almost all the laboratory gamma detectors using the CANBERRA software Genie 2k. (Author) 9 refs.

  15. The development of environmental productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Schröder, Sascha T.

    The Danish “Klima 2020” plan sets an ambitious target for the complete phasing-out of fossil fuels by 2050. The Danish energy sector currently accounts for 40% of national CO2 emissions. Based on an extended Farrell input distance function that accounts for CO2 as an undesirable output, we estimate...... the environmental productivity of individual generator units based on a panel data set for the period 1998 to 2011 that includes virtually all fuel-fired generator units in Denmark. We further decompose total productivity into technical efficiency, best practice ratio, and scale efficiency and use a global...

  16. 美国国家环保局(EPA)温室气体清单编制机制%Greenhouse Gas Inventory Estimates Mechanism in United States Environmental Protection Agency(EPA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟强; 吴安琪

    2012-01-01

    美国虽拒签《京都议定书》,但仍积极编制本国的温室气体清单。本文基于对IPCC和EPA温室气体清单方法学的比较研究,并通过对EPA温室气体清单编制的演变过程、流程和特点的系统分析,揭示其内在机制。以期借鉴较为成熟的温室气体清单编制方法,完善我国温室气体排放的核算体系。%Though the United States refused to sign the Kyoto protocol,it is still active in its National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.Based on the comparative study on methodology to greenhouse gas inventory emissions of IPCC and EPA,this paper reveals the inner mechanism by systematically analyzing the evolution process,procedures and characteristics of EPA’s greenhouse gas inventory estimates.Reference to the mature methods to greenhouse gas inventory estimates,we can optimize our national greenhouse gas inventory estimates system.

  17. Summer Undergraduate Research Program: Environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, J. [ed.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of the summer undergraduate internship program for research in environmental studies is to provide an opportunity for well-qualified students to undertake an original research project as an apprentice to an active research scientist in basic environmental research. The students are offered research topics at the Medical University in the scientific areas of pharmacology and toxicology, epidemiology and risk assessment, environmental microbiology, and marine sciences. Students are also afforded the opportunity to work with faculty at the University of Charleston, SC, on projects with an environmental theme. Ten well-qualified students from colleges and universities throughout the eastern United States were accepted into the program.

  18. Environmental fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marier, J.R.; Rose, D.

    1971-01-01

    Modern-day man is probably exposed to more environmental fluoride than was heretofore suspected, and consideration must be given to the total ingestion from various sources as well as the types of fluoride present in air, foods, beverages, and other commodities. An effort should also be made to study the symptomology of chronic fluorine intoxication, especially the early non-skeletal manifestations of arthritic-like symptoms that may be complicated by metabolic and/or nutritional inadequacies. Finally, it must be emphasized again that dental fluorosis (i.e. mottling) will only be seen in subjects who have been exposed to fluoride during the time when the enamel of the permanent teeth is being formed, and its absence cannot be assumed to indicate freedom from other fluoride-induced effects including effects of organofluorides and their metabolites. 168 references.

  19. Environmental change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    in the Denmark. Introducing dikes in coastal cities in order to protect them against floods would thus both have a huge spatial impact, but also a huge effect on issues related to identity, understanding and history. Therefore it is important that we as architects and planners understand and handle these new...... of a changing environment is also addressing social and human issues and concerns, and architectural norms and tools. One of the main themes and questions concerns how we relate the built environment and open urban spaces to water. Water plays an important role in Danish culture, tradition. To many Danes...... environmental conditions both in a practical, functional way but also in an aesthetical, spatial way. As professionals we should contribute to the creation of new images, ideas, strategies and solutions able to handle the challenges, to investigate the potentials and interpret these architecturally...

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091993 Cao Wei(Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute,CAS,Lanzhou 730000,China);Sheng Yu Grey Relation Projection Model for the Assessment of Permafrost Environment in Coal Mining Areas(Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology,ISSN1000-3665,CN11-2202/P,35(4),2008,p.111-115,2 tables,15 refs.)Key words:miming,frozen ground,environment impact statementsDue to the intense effect of coal mining activity on permafrost,the permafrost environment in coal mining areas is very frail.It is very important to assess the permafrost environment in coal mining areas.The permafrost environment is

  1. Environmental quality improvement of agricultural lands through silvopasture in southeastern United States Melhoria da qualidade ambiental de terras agricultáveis por meio da silvopastagem no sudeste dos Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimala D. Nair

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that, because of the ability of trees to sequester carbon (C in the deep soil profile and remove excess nutrients from soils, the silvopastoral agroforestry system could enhance the environmental quality of the agricultural lands. To test this hypothesis, two sets of experiments were conducted in two soil orders in Florida, Spodosols and Ultisols, with two major objectives: i determining the soil C accumulation and tracing the plant sources of C in soil fractions, and ii quantifying water soluble phosphorus (WSP and estimating the Soil P Storage Capacity (SPSC. Total C in both soil orders was greater under silvopasture than in treeless pastures, particularly at lower depths. Stable-isotope signature analysis suggested that C3 plants (in this case, slash pine, Pinus elliotii contributed to a more stable C fraction than C4 plants (in this case, bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum at soil depths up to 1 m. WSP was consistently higher in treeless pastures, while the remaining SPSC was lower in this land-use system, suggesting the greater likelihood of P moving out of the soil under treeless pasture than in silvopasture. Thus, the presence of trees in pastures contributed to more stable C within the soil profiles, lower WSP, and greater SPSC, indicating more environmental benefits provided by silvopastoral systems as compared to treeless pastures under similar ecological settings.Nossa hipótese é de que devido à habilidade das árvores seqüestrarem carbono (C no perfil profundo do solo e remover o excesso de nutrientes dos solos, o sistema de silvopastagem agroflorestal poderia melhorar a qualidade ambiental de terras agricultáveis. Para testar esta hipótese, dois grupos de experimentos foram conduzidos em duas ordens de solos na Florida, Espodossolos e Ultissolos, com dois objetivos principais: i determinar a acumulação de C do solo e investigar as fontes de C para as plantas nas frações dos solos, e ii quantificar o fósforo sol

  2. 76 FR 36613 - Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Nueces County, TX AGENCY: Federal Highway... advise the public that an environmental impact statement (EIS) will be prepared for the proposed United... (SAFETEA-LU) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gregory...

  3. Exploring Environmental Identity and Behavioral Change in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures,…

  4. Exploring Environmental Identity and Behavioral Change in an Environmental Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2013-01-01

    This ethnographic study at a public high school in the Northeastern United States investigates the process of change in students' environmental identity and proenvironmental behaviors during an Environmental Science course. The study explores how sociocultural factors, such as students' background, social interactions, and classroom structures,…

  5. Veterinarians in Environmental Health: Opportunities for Veterinarians at the Environmental Protection Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 partially in response to widespread public concern about environmental degradation. The EPA mission is to protect human health and the environment and the Agency is tasked with enforcing our nation's envi...

  6. Flora fúngica no ambiente da Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica e Neonatal em hospital terciário Environmental fungal flora in Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Units at a tertiary hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Lopes S. de Melo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: As infecções nosocomiais são responsáveis por morbidade e mortalidade significativas no período neonatal. Considerando-se a preocupação com a qualidade do ar de áreas críticas como Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI, foi realizado um levantamento da flora fúngica das UTI Pediátrica e Neonatal do Hospital das Clínicas Samuel Libânio, Pouso Alegre (MG, com a finalidade de identificar a presença de fungos potencialmente patogênicos e oportunistas. MÉTODOS: Foram realizadas 30 coletas, que incluíram leitos, incubadoras, janelas, aparelhos de ar condicionado, telefone, estetoscópios, portas e maçanetas. Placas de Agar Sabouraud Dextrose com o material das coletas foram incubadas em temperatura ambiente por 15 dias. A identificação foi baseada nas características macroscópicas no exame direto e em microcultivos. RESULTADOS: Fungos potencialmente patogênicos e toxigênicos foram isolados. A análise quantitativa das colônias revelou a presença de 11 gêneros. Verificou-se que mais de 40% das colônias correspondem ao gênero Penicillium spp, seguido por Cladosporium spp e Chrysosporium spp. CONCLUSÕES: Os fungos encontrados podem apresentar grande potencial de patogenicidade, principalmente em imunodeprimidos. É importante adotar medidas de controle ambiental, como assepsia dos equipamentos, controle da presença de visitantes, lavagem das mãos pelos funcionários e troca de filtros de ar condicionado.OBJECTIVE: Nosocomial infections lead to significant morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Considering the concern regarding air quality in critical hospital areas, such as Intensive Care Units (ICU, this study aims to identify the presence of potentially pathological fungi in the Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of the Samuel Libânio Hospital in Pouso Alegre, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Thirty samples were collected in the following areas: surface of beds, incubators, windows, air

  7. Steamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan For Corrective Action Unit 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (November 2001, Rev. 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV)

    2001-09-24

    This plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 394: Areas 12, 18, and 29, Spill/Release Sites, identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site, consists of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-25-04, UST 12-16-2 Waste Oil Release; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 18-25-03, Oil Spill; CAS 18-25-04, Spill (Diesel Fuel); CAS 29-44-01, Fuel Spill (a & b). Process knowledge is the basis for the development of the conceptual site models (CSMs). The CSMs describe the most probable scenario for current conditions at each site, and define the assumptions that are the basis for the SAFER plan. The assumptions are formulated from historical information and process knowledge. Vertical migration of contaminant(s) of potential concern (COPCs) is expected to be predominant over lateral migration in the absence of any barrier (with asphalt /concrete being the exception at least two of the CASs). Soil is the impacted or potentially impacted media at all the sites, with asphalt and/or concrete potentially impacted at two of the CASs. Radionuclides are not expected at any CAS; hydrocarbons are the primary COPC at each CAS, and can be used to guide the investigation; future land-use scenarios limit use to various nonresidential uses; and exposure scenarios are limited by future land-use scenarios to site workers. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 394 using the SAFER process. On completion of the field activities, a Closure Report will be prepared and submitted to the NDEP for review and approval.

  8. Annual Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, Gene

    1999-09-23

    This report provides information about environmental programs and compliance with environmental regulations in calendar year 1998 (CY98) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The most significant information in this report is summarized in the following sections: (1) Environmental Compliance--Section 2 contains the complete Environmental Compliance information; (2) Environmental Non-Radiological Program--Section 3 contains the complete Environmental Non-Radiological information; and (3) Environmental Radiological Program--Section 4 contains the complete Environmental Radiological information.

  9. Environmental damage in the General Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan K. Lanegra Quispe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at environmental damage definition stipulated by Peruvian General Environmental Law as well as its implications for the environmental policy development. It also outlines complexities involved identifying environmental damage as much as designing and implementing public policies according to Peruvian legislation processing.

  10. Environmental Education and Small Business Environmental Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Janice; Walker, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education is seen as a key driver of small business environmental management, yet little is known about the activities small business owner-managers are undertaking to reduce their environmental impact or in what areas they may need education. Therefore, research that can identify environmental management activities being undertaken…

  11. Intervención ambiental en sitios contaminados por plomo: la experiencia en los Estados Unidos de América Environmental intervention in sites contaminated by lead: the United States of America experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Ceto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante una década, los organismos estatales y federales han trabajado de manera conjunta con las comunidades a lo largo del territorio estadounidense, con el objeto de valorar el riesgo a la salud que implica la contaminación por plomo en las zonas residenciales. A menudo dichas comunidades han estado vinculadas con instalaciones destinadas anteriormente a actividades como la minería y la metalurgia; sin embargo, existen otras industrias como por ejemplo la fabricación de pinturas y el reciclaje de baterías, también identificadas como fuentes de contaminación por este metal. La vasta experiencia en las tareas de limpieza de los sitios contaminados ha puesto de manifiesto que los amplios programas destinados a identificar y manejar las vías de exposición pueden ayudar, de manera efectiva, a disminuir los niveles de plomo en sangre de las poblaciones más suceptibles, como la de los de niños en edades tempranas. Los programas de intervención ambiental son más efectivos cuando en las localidades afectadas se ejecutan programas de educación/intervención en salud, orientados al desarrollo de estrategias individualizadas para manejar el riesgo que implica la presencia de dicho metal en el ambiente.For a decade, state and federal agencies have worked jointly with communities throughout the USA, with the objective of measuring the health-risk from lead pollution in residential zones. Often these communities have been linked with facilities previously associated with activities like mining and metallurgy; nevertheless, there are other industries like paint manufacturing and battery recycling, that have also been identified as lead pollution sources. The vast experience in cleaning up the contaminated sites has shown that ample programs designed to identify and handle the exposure routes can help, in an effective manner, to diminish blood lead levels (BLL in susceptible populations, such as in young children. Environmental intervention

  12. Environmental Assessment Stockbridge Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    slopes farmland lima silt loam, 3 to 8 percent ltB Not Hydric All areas are prime slopes farmland Lima very stony silt loam, LuC Not Hydric Not...RITF David Stillwell, United States Department of the Interior-Fish and Wildlife Service (USDOI-FWS) Ms. Jean PetrusiakkNew York State Department of...Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC), New Yor Natural Heritage Program Mr. Jesse Bergevin, Oneida Indian Nation Legal Department Nancy Herter, New

  13. Avaliação da sustentabilidade agroambiental de unidades produtivas agroflorestais em várzeas flúvio marinhas de Cametá - Pará Agro-environmental sustainability evaluation of productive agroforestry units in tidal river floodplains Cametá Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Nonato da Silveira Ribeiro

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é avaliar o potencial de sustentabilidade agroambiental de unidades produtivas agroflorestais ribeirinhas. A metodologia empregou técnicas de inventário florestal, coleta e análise laboratorial de solo, questionários, observações de campo e orçamentos unitários. As variáveis-indicadores são relativas ao clima, ao solo, a estrutura fitossociológica, ao potencial produtivo da agrofloresta e a geração de renda. Os resultados revelaram que o clima e o solo não são fatores limitantes. Cerca de 27 % da composição florística são espécies comerciais e somam mais de 92 % da população total com baixo potencial para a extração de madeiras e uma diversidade de produtos não-madeireiros. A renda bruta estimada atingiu valores de R$ 2.000,00/ha/ano. O potencial de sustentabilidade agroambiental das unidades produtivas é mediano, obtido pela avaliação das variáveis-indicadores por meio de um sistema de pontuação e inserção em um nível de sustentabilidade previamente proposto.The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the agro-environmental sustainability potential of productive agroforestry units in tidal river floodplains. The methodology employed forest inventory techniques, soil collection and laboratory analysis, questionnaires, field observations and budget sheets. The indicator variables are relative to climate, soils, sociological plant structure, agroforestry's productive potential and the generation of income. Results revealed that climate and soil are not limiting factors. Approximately 27% of the floristic composition is commercial species, making up over 92% of the total tree population having low timber extraction potential and a diversity of non-timber products. Estimated gross income reached sums of R$2,000.00/ha/year. The agro-environmental sustainability potential of the productive units is median and was measured by evaluating the indicator variables on a point system and placed within a

  14. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  15. Environmental Denial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Grušovnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though today reliable information about the negative impact of humans on the environment is only two clicks away, a considerable number of people still deny it. Why? Research shows that what we might call 'environmental denial' is a consequence of specific social and psychological factors: if we were to admit the negative impact of our lifestyles on the environment, we would have to change our way of life founded on consumerism. However, consumerism is not simply a way of exchanging goods; it is also something around which we organize the meaning of our lives, as consumer research clearly shows. Therefore we deny the information on the negattive impact of human activity on the environment because admitting it would lead to a conflict between cognition (attitudes, beliefs and actions (behaviour around which we organize the meaning of our lives. Such an exposition points to wider sociopolitical effects. Firstly, it raises questions about education that have to take into account the non-rational nature of human beings, and secondly it raises questions about the directions and possible outcomes of social action.

  16. Environmental Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alma, Peter

    1995-04-01

    This series of A-level social biology topic books responds to the changing demands of social biology syllabuses, with each text dealing with a particular area of interest. Although the series is primarily intended for students of A-level social biology, the books will appeal to students studying a wide range of biological subjects at A-level. Environmental Concerns covers topics common to several A-level human and social biology syllabuses. It is particularly relevant to the human ecology and conservation options. The text focuses on the social and economic implications of current ecological issues as well as the basic biological concepts involved. It deals with the causes, effects and prevention of atmospheric and water pollution as well as with the disruption of ecosystems by changes in land use. The conflict of interests between conservation and exploitation is discussed, along with management techniques including the controversial method of culling to maintain diversity. The moral and aesthetic aspects of conservation and management are emphasised throughout, in addition to the scientific background of these techniques.

  17. Environmental issues in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travis, P.S.

    1991-10-01

    Global concern about the environment is increasing, and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is not immune from such concerns. The Chinese face issues similar to those of many other developing nations. The US Department of Energy is particularly interested in national and world pollution issues, especially those that may infringe on other countries' economic growth and development. The DOE is also interested in any opportunities that might exist for US technical assistance and equipment in combating environmental problems. Our studies of articles in the China Daily, and English-language daily newspaper published by the Chinese government, show that population, pollution, and energy are major concerns of the Chinese Communist Party. Thus this report emphasizes the official Chinese government view. Supporting data were also obtained from other sources. Regardless of the severity of their various environmental problems, the Chinese will only try to remedy those problems with the greatest negative effects on its developing economy. They will be looking for foreign assistance, financial and informational, to help implement solutions. With the Chinese government seeking assistance, the United States has an opportunity to export basic technical information, especially in the areas of pollution control and monitoring, oil exploration methods, oil drilling technology, water and sewage treatment procedures, hazardous waste and nuclear waste handling techniques, and nuclear power plant safety procedures. In those areas the US has expertise and extensive technical experience, and by exporting the technologies the US would benefit both economically and politically. 59 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  19. 78 FR 6740 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley United Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley United Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  20. Principles of study design in environmental epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenstern, H.; Thomas, D

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the principles of study design and related methodologic issues in environmental epidemiology. Emphasis is given to studies aimed at evaluating causal hypotheses regarding exposures to suspected health hazards. Following background sections on the quantitative objectives and methods of population-based research, we present the major types of observational designs used in environmental epidemiology: first, the three basic designs involving the individual as the unit of anal...