WorldWideScience

Sample records for united states some regions

  1. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including...

  2. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI 1.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950

  3. Costly Regional Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains information on costly regional landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. The extents of the regional events were drawn from...

  4. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  5. Regional Lg attenuation for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, H.M.; Frankel, A.; Boore, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of the Fourier amplitude spectra of Lg phases recorded at high frequency (0.5 to 14.0 Hz) by broadband seismic stations are used to determine regional attenuation relationships for southern California, the Basin and Range Province, the central United States, and the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Fourier spectral amplitudes were measured every quarter octave from Lg phases windowed between 3.0 and 3.7 km sec-1 and recorded in the distance range of 150 to 1000 km. Attenuation at each frequency is determined by assuming a geometrical spreading exponent of 0.5 and inverting for Q and source and receiver terms. Both southern California and the Basin and Range Province are well described by low Lg Q and frequency-dependent attenuation. Lg spectral amplitudes in southern California are fit at low frequencies (0.625 to 0.875 Hz) by a constant Lg Q of 224 and by a frequency-dependent Lg Q function Q = 187-7+7 f0.55(??0.03) in the frequency band 1.0 to 7.0 Hz. The Basin and Range Province is characterized by a constant Lg Q of 192 for frequencies of 0.5 to 0.875 Hz and by the frequency-dependent Lg Q function Q = 235-11+11 f0.56(??0.04) in the frequency band 1.0 to 5.0 Hz. A change in frequency dependence above 5.0 Hz is possible due to contamination of the Lg window by Pn and Sn phases. Lg spectral amplitudes in the central United States are fit by a mean frequency-independent Lg Q of 1291 for frequencies of 1.5 to 7.0 Hz, while a frequency-dependent Lg Q of Q = 1052-83+91(f/1.5)0.22(??0.06) fits the Lg spectral amplitudes for the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada over the passband 1.5 to 14.0 Hz. Attenuation measurements for these areas were restricted to frequencies >1.5 Hz due to larger microseismic noise levels at the lower frequencies.

  6. Some concepts of favorability for world-class-type uranium deposits in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, H.H.

    1981-03-01

    An account is given of concepts of favorability of geologic environments in the eastern United States for uranium deposits of several major types existing elsewhere in the world. The purpose is to convey some initial ideas about the interrelationships of the geology of the eastern United States and the geologic settings of certain of these world-class deposits. The study and report include consideration of uranium deposits other than those generally manifesting the geologic, geochemical and genetic characteristics associated with the conventional sandstone-type ores of the western United States.

  7. Management and marketing in health care. Some lessons for the United States from the British system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbiner, R; Frye, R

    1973-06-01

    The British health care system has been examined by sociologists, political scientists, and medical care specialists before, but in this presentation a section of the British health care system is viewed through the eyes of modern business management, particularly as to cost and consumer effectiveness. Examination of positive features as well as problems may be helpful in relation to some future health care delivery system in the United States. Cross fertilization between the disciplines of management and medicine has much to offer to the rapidly changing delivery of health care in the United States.

  8. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects.

  9. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  10. Magnetic susceptibility data for some exposed bedrock in the western conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettings, Mark E.; Bultman, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    In-place rock magnetic susceptibility measurements for 746 sites in the western conterminous United States are reported in a database. Of these 746 sites, 408 sites are in the Silverton Caldera area of the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado. Of the 408 sites in the Silverton Caldera area, 106 sites are underground. The remaining 338 sites outside the Silverton Caldera area were on outcropping rock, are distributed from southern Arizona to northwestern Wyoming, and include data from California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. Rock-density measurements are included for some sites. These data have been collected by various U.S. Geological Survey studies from 1991 through 2012 and are intended to help improve geophysical modeling of the Earth’s crust in the Western United States. A map-based graphical user interface is included to facilitate use of the data.

  11. Inventory of power plants in the United States. [By state within standard Federal Regions, using county codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The purpose of this inventory of power plants is to provide a ready reference for planners whose focus is on the state, standard Federal region, and/or national level. Thus the inventory is compiled alphabetically by state within standard Federal regions. The units are listed alphabetically within electric utility systems which in turn are listed alphabetically within states. The locations are identified to county level according to the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication Counties and County Equivalents of the States of the United States. Data compiled include existing and projected electrical generation units, jointly owned units, and projected construction units.

  12. Regional Patterns of Communication in the United States: A Theoretical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Peter A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Provides the rationale for a systematic study of regional patterns of communication in the United States. Conceptualizes regionalism, appraises regional influences on communication, and establishes their significance. Describes regional development of the U.S. and proposes a program of regional research on U.S. communication. Examines deficiencies…

  13. Continental United States Military Housing Inspection National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    lead, copper, microbial (total coliform ) contamination, and chlorine residue. The water samples were collected from buildings selected at random...selected locations from 23 accompanied housing and 4 units in the barracks for lead, copper, total coliform , E. Coli, and residual chlorine. The... coliform and E. Coli bacteria. All drinking water quality test results were below applicable action levels for community water suppliers. The same 27

  14. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 20 - United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIATION Pt. 20, App. D Appendix D to Part 20—United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices..., Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Kansas, Louisiana, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma...

  15. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Hydrologic Landscape Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the area of Hydrologic Landscape Regions (HLR) compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data...

  16. 2016 State of Wind Development in the United States by Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, Ruth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-19

    Significant expansion of wind energy development will be required to achieve the scenarios outlined in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE)'s Wind Vision: 20% wind energy by 2030 and 35% wind energy by 2050. Wind energy currently provides nearly 5% of the nation's electricity but has the potential to provide much more. The wind industry and the DOE's Wind Energy Technologies Office are addressing technical wind energy challenges, such as reducing turbine costs and increasing energy production and reliability. The Office recognizes that public acceptance of wind energy can be challenging, depending on the proximity of proposed wind farms to local populations. Informed decision makers and communities equipped with unbiased information about the benefits and impacts of wind energy development are better prepared to navigate the sometimes contentious development process. In 2014, DOE established six Regional Resource Centers (RRCs) across the United States to communicate unbiased, credible information about wind energy to stakeholders through regional networks. The RRCs provide ready access to this information to familiarize the public with wind energy; raise awareness about potential benefits and issues; and disseminate data on siting considerations such as turbine sound and wildlife habitat protection. This document summarizes the status and drivers for U.S. wind energy development during 2016. RRC leaders provided a report of wind energy development in their regions, which was combined with findings from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) researchers to provide an account of the state of the regions, as well as updates on developments in individual states. NREL researchers and state partners added updates for all states that are not directly supported by an RRC. Accounts for each region include updates on renewable portfolio standards, the Clean Power Plan, workforce development, manufacturing and economic development, and individual

  17. Regional impacts of technical change: the case of structural particleboard in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi Xu; David N. Bengston; Hans M. Gregersen; Allen L. Lundgren

    1992-01-01

    Analyzes the regional impacts of research benefits in the United States due to the introduction of structural particleboard. The distribution of consumer benefits, producer benefits, direct employment impacts, and changes in wood requirements are analyzed for the four census regions. The distribution of benefits is found to differ widely between regions, indicating...

  18. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects. Usin

  19. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects. Usin

  20. 76 FR 35017 - United States et al. v. United Regional Health Care System; Public Comments and Response on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... alone''); United States v. Mid-Am. Dairymen, Inc., 1977-1 Trade Cas. (CCH)11 61,508, at 71,980 (W.D. Mo... available to health-care providers.'' Without access to the profitable sources of business in the health... United Regional's total patient volume.'' Without access to the most profitable segment of the health...

  1. 76 FR 13209 - United States and State of Texas v. United Regional Health Care System; Proposed Final Judgment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... those patients; and (3) reducing quality competition between United Regional and its competitors. In... ``existing in a county with a population of more than 100,000 and a municipality with a population of more... those ] patients; and (3) reduced quality competition between United Regional and its competitors. (1...

  2. Are Productivity Levels Higher in Some European Countries than in the United States?

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert Cette

    2005-01-01

    Estimates produced by the OECD indicate that labour productivity levels are higher in a number of European countries than in the United States, implying that Europe and not the United States is the world technological leader. The author argues that a structural measure of labour productivity, closer to a measure of technical efficiency, would take into account the much lower employment rates and hours of work in Europe. Low employment rates reflect the exclusion of certain low-porductivity gr...

  3. Regional Poverty and Population Response:A Comparison of Three Regions in the United States and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Siebert

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine poverty in three regions in the United States and Germany and discuss its causes and demographic consequences. The three regions are those with the highest rates of poverty in the two countries: the Mississippi Delta and Texas Borderland in the United States and the Northeastern Border Region in Germany. We show that standard models to explain poverty need to be placed in the historical legacies of the three regions in order to understand their current levels of poverty. While our results show many common factors for poverty in the three regions, they also point to important differences. Similarly, we identify differences among the regions in their demographic responses to poverty, in part reflecting their different historical legacies. Thus, one implication of the paper is the importance of place-based poverty-mitigation strategies for successful policy planning.

  4. Caloric Value of Some Forest Fuels of the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter A. Hough

    1969-01-01

    The caloric value of a variety of southern forest fuels was determined in an oxygen bomb calorimeter. High heat values ranged between about 3,600 and 5,200 cal./g. for fuels as sampled and between 4,500 and 5,600 cal./g. for fuels on an ash-free basis. Additional tests of forest fuels from the Southern, Eastern, and North Central United States showed a...

  5. Initiatives of cross-border regional planning in Matamoros-Brownsville (Mexico-United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Oliveras González

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border regional planning is a recent phenomenon, which its first initiatives date back to 1960s. Currently some experiences have been conducted, most of them in Europe. The weak development of this phenomenon lies on the obstacles and limitations that it has to deal with. Those obstacles derive from the asymmetries between the political and administrative systems, urban and spatial policies, land planning and land uses, etc. on each side of an international border. In a great extent, cross-border planning has been theoretically approached from an institutional construction perspective. However, in this research it has been adopted the symbolic regional construction perspective that allows to analyze cross-border regional planning through spatial imaginaries. In this sense, crossborder planning is understood as a result of the interaction between regional actors and the social constructed values and meanings (geographical, cultural, social, economic, historical, etc. given to border and cross-border regions. This investigation pursues, in first place, to determine the spatial imaginaries on which cross-border planning is constructed and, at the same time, the spatial imaginaries that cross-border planning reproduces; in second place, to determine in which way cross-border planning contributes to deactivate the border (deborder or, on the contrary, to reproduce and reinforce the spatial differentiation process (the process by which two contiguous national or bordered spaces build spatial discontinuities as a way to distinguish of each other. To achieve these objectives, it has been conducted a content analysis based on the documentation of the spatial and urban planning and of the cross-border initiatives from a case study area; a direct observation of an ongoing cross-border initiative; and interviews to key informants (planning agencies and other organizations related to cross-border initiatives. In the Mexico-United States border region

  6. Trends in Tuberculosis Reported from the Appalachian Region: United States, 1993-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Armstrong, Lori R.; Pratt, Robert H.; Kammerer, J. Steve; Iademarco, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has been characterized by its poverty, a factor associated with tuberculosis, yet little is known about the disease in this region. Purpose: To determine whether Appalachian tuberculosis risk factors, trends, and rates differ from the rest of the United States. Methods: Analysis of tuberculosis cases reported to the Centers for…

  7. Trends in Tuberculosis Reported from the Appalachian Region: United States, 1993-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan M.; Armstrong, Lori R.; Pratt, Robert H.; Kammerer, J. Steve; Iademarco, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Appalachia has been characterized by its poverty, a factor associated with tuberculosis, yet little is known about the disease in this region. Purpose: To determine whether Appalachian tuberculosis risk factors, trends, and rates differ from the rest of the United States. Methods: Analysis of tuberculosis cases reported to the Centers for…

  8. Regional Climate and Variability of the Summertime Continental United States in Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, M G.; Robertson, F. R.; Roberts, B.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding climate variability at regional scales is an important for research and societal needs. Atmospheric retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) integrate multitudes of observing systems with numerical models to produce continuous data that include variables not easily observed, if at all. The breadth of variables as well as observational influence included in reanalyses make them ideal for investigating climate variability. In this paper, we assess NASA s Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Application (MERRA) regional variability in North America, specifically the United States, in conjunction with current satellite data reanalyses. Emphasis is placed on summertime precipitation because 1) it is a difficult parameter to capture in the most difficult season, 2) significant observational resources exist to benchmark comparisons, and 3) accurate assessment of precipitation variability is crucial to a multitude of sectors and applications. Likewise, we have also begun to evaluate surface air temperature. While precipitation biases are identified, year to year variability of the precipitation variations, in many cases, are quite reasonable. However, some spurious long term trends and sudden shifts in the time series are also identified. In surface air temperature, analysis of station observations provides ERA Interim a clear overall advantage. However, in a number of regions, all the reanalyses are quite comparable in variability and trend. In other regions, significant precipitation biases may occur, which has implications for the ancillary process data in a reanalysis, such as surface fluxes. We also characterize the reanalyses ability to capture variability related to ENSO. In general, the summertime variations of precipitation in the reanalyses are more highly correlated (positively) to ENSO (using ENSO34) than are the observations. The Northwestern US shows the largest positive correlations to ENSO34, and reanalyses agree with that, and

  9. Pharmaceutical patents and some international trade issues: Canada, the United States, and NAFTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tancer, R S

    1993-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of a more aggressive US policy for the protection of the intellectual property rights of its citizens, individual and corporate, who do business aborad. It focuses on the pharmaceutical industry and, in particular, the harmonization of conflicting US and Canadian policies. In reconciling these policy differences, the United States unilaterally applied relatively new procedures authorized under section 301 and Special 301 of its trade laws. It also utilized the bilateral dispute mechanism mandating cooperation "in the Uruguay Round ... to improve protection of intellectual property," as provided in the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement. These efforts were successful; Canada amended its patent law in 1993 to conform to current international practices. These changes were incorporated into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), making it a state-of-the-art example of the protection of intellectual property rights. The intellectual property chapter of NAFTA will serve as the model for US intellectual property rights negotiations for the foreseeable future.

  10. Cervical cancer incidence in the United States in the US-Mexico border region, 1998-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Richards, Thomas B; Nasseri, Kiumarss; Weiss, Nancy S; Wiggins, Charles L; Saraiya, Mona; Stinchcomb, David G; Vensor, Veronica M; Nielson, Carrie M

    2008-11-15

    Cervical cancer mortality rates have declined in the United States, primarily because of Papanicolaou testing. However, limited information is available about the incidence of the disease in the US-Mexico border region, where some of the poorest counties in the United States are located. This study was undertaken to help compare the patterns of cervical cancer incidence among women in the US-Mexico border region and other parts of the United States. Age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence rates for border counties in the states bordering Mexico (California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas) for the years 1998 to 2003 were compared with the rates for nonborder counties of the border states and with those of nonborder states. Differences were examined by age, race, ethnicity, rural residence, educational attainment, poverty, migration, stage of disease, and histology. Overall, Hispanic women had almost twice the cervical cancer incidence of non-Hispanic women in border counties, and Hispanic women in the border states had higher rates than did non-Hispanic women in nonborder states. In contrast, cervical cancer incidence rates among black women in the border counties were lower than those among black women in the nonborder states. Among white women, however, incidence rates were higher among those in nonborder states. Differences in cervical cancer incidence rates by geographic locality were also evident by age, urban/rural residence, migration from outside the United States, and stage of disease. Disparities in cervical cancer incidence in the US-Mexico border counties, when the incidence is compared with that of other counties and geographic regions, are evident. Of particular concern are the higher rates of late-stage cervical cancer diagnosed among women in the border states, especially because such cervical cancer is preventable.

  11. Groundwater availability in the United States: the value of quantitative regional assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Kevin F.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Cunningham, William L.

    2015-01-01

    The sustainability of water resources is under continued threat from the challenges associated with a growing population, competing demands, and a changing climate. Freshwater scarcity has become a fact in many areas. Much of the United States surface-water supplies are fully apportioned for use; thus, in some areas the only potential alternative freshwater source that can provide needed quantities is groundwater. Although frequently overlooked, groundwater serves as the principal reserve of freshwater in the US and represents much of the potential supply during periods of drought. Some nations have requirements to monitor and characterize the availability of groundwater such as the European Union’s Water Framework Directive (EPCEU 2000). In the US there is no such national requirement. Quantitative regional groundwater availability assessments, however, are essential to document the status and trends of groundwater availability for the US and make informed water-resource decisions possible now and in the future. Barthel (2014) highlighted that the value of regional groundwater assessments goes well beyond just quantifying the resource so that it can be better managed. The tools and techniques required to evaluate these unique regional systems advance the science of hydrogeology and provide enhanced methods that can benefit local-scale groundwater investigations. In addition, a significant, yet under-utilized benefit is the digital spatial and temporal data sets routinely generated as part of these studies. Even though there is no legal or regulatory requirement for regional groundwater assessments in the US, there is a logical basis for their implementation. The purpose of this essay is to articulate the rationale for and reaffirm the value of regional groundwater assessments primarily in the US; however, the arguments hold for all nations. The importance of the data sets and the methods and model development that occur as part of these assessments is stressed

  12. Perceived barriers to the regionalization of adult critical care in the United States: a qualitative preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenfeld Gordon D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regionalization of adult critical care services may improve outcomes for critically ill patients. We sought to develop a framework for understanding clinician attitudes toward regionalization and potential barriers to developing a tiered, regionalized system of care in the United States. Methods We performed a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews of critical care stakeholders in the United States, including physicians, nurses and hospital administrators. Stakeholders were identified from a stratified-random sample of United States general medical and surgical hospitals. Key barriers and potential solutions were identified by performing content analysis of the interview transcriptions. Results We interviewed 30 stakeholders from 24 different hospitals, representing a broad range of hospital locations and sizes. Key barriers to regionalization included personal and economic strain on families, loss of autonomy on the part of referring physicians and hospitals, loss of revenue on the part of referring physicians and hospitals, the potential to worsen outcomes at small hospitals by limiting services, and the potential to overwhelm large hospitals. Improving communication between destination and source hospitals, provider education, instituting voluntary objective criteria to become a designated referral center, and mechanisms to feed back patients and revenue to source hospitals were identified as potential solutions to some of these barriers. Conclusion Regionalization efforts will be met with significant conceptual and structural barriers. These data provide a foundation for future research and can be used to inform policy decisions regarding the design and implementation of a regionalized system of critical care.

  13. Immigration and males' earnings inequality in the regions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D

    2001-08-01

    In this paper I investigate the impact of recent immigration on males' earnings distributions in the major regions of the United States. I use six counterfactual scenarios to describe alternative regional skill distributions and wage structures for the population of natives and long-term immigrants in the absence of recent immigration. I find that immigration over the last three decades can account for a substantial portion of the variation in inequality across the regions. Recent immigration has contributed moderately to national growth in males' earnings inequality, primarily by changing the composition of the population.

  14. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts in the United States: Four Regional Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miles, J. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Zammit, D. [James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA (United States); Loomis, D. [Great Lakes Wind Network, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This report uses the offshore wind Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model and provides four case studies of potential offshore deployment scenarios in different regions of the United States: the Southeast, the Great Lakes, the Gulf Coast, and the Mid-Atlantic. Researchers worked with developers and industry representatives in each region to create potential offshore wind deployment and supply chain growth scenarios, specific to their locations. These scenarios were used as inputs into the offshore JEDI model to estimate jobs and other gross economic impacts in each region.

  15. Regional distribution of fatiguing illnesses in the United States: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating illness with no known cause or effective therapy. Population-based epidemiologic data on CFS prevalence are critical to put CFS in a realistic context for public health officials and others responsible for allocating resources. Methods We conducted a pilot random-digit-dialing survey to estimate the prevalence of fatiguing illnesses in different geographic regions and in urban and rural populations of the United States. This...

  16. Ecology, Planning, and River Management in the United States: Some Historical Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Reuss

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available River ecologists are also river-basin planners. However, their role in planning has developed slowly over the decades since the beginning of the 20th century. Three major factors explain this phenomenon. First, ecologists focused on plant and animal communities rather than on broader policy issues related to land settlement and water development. Second, the federal government, and most state and local governments as well, used mainly economic criteria to justify projects. Intangible benefits, including the value of species or an aesthetically pleasing landscape, drew relatively little attention. Third, the public generally favored development, especially during the Great Depression of the 1930s. Only after World War II did the public's position shift in favor of more preservation, as ecologists developed the concept of the ecosystem, large dam projects forced basin inhabitants from their homes, and chemical and nuclear pollutants threatened the environment. Also, urbanization increased support for the preservation of recreation sites and of streams undisturbed by human intervention. Meanwhile, partly through important advances in geomorphology and hydrology, ecologists acquired new tools to understand the land-water relationship within river basins. Neverthless, benefit-cost analysis continued to dominate federal water-resources planning, and organizational culture and competing or overlapping bureaucracies hampered rational water resources administration. Environmental groups and physical, natural, and even social scientists began to promote alternative ways to develop rivers. Today, the ideas of integrated water resources management, sustainable development, and comprehensive river-basin management dominate much of the thinking about the future course of river planning in the United States. Any future planning must include ecologists who can help their planning colleagues choose from among rational choices that balance ecological and human

  17. Seasonal rainfall predictions over the southeast United States using the Florida State University nested regional spectral model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocke, Steven; Larow, T. E.; Shin, D. W.

    2007-02-01

    Seasonal rainfall predictions over the southeast United States using the recently developed Florida State University (FSU) nested regional spectral model are presented. The regional model is nested within the FSU coupled model, which includes a version of the Max Plank Institute Hamburg Ocean Primitive Equation model. The southeast U.S. winter has a rather strong climatic signal due to teleconnections with tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures and thus provides a good test case scenario for a modeling study. Simulations were done for 12 boreal winter seasons, from 1986 to 1997. Both the regional and global models captured the basic large-scale patterns of precipitation reasonably well when compared to observed station data. The regional model was able to predict the anomaly pattern somewhat better than the global model. The regional model was particularly more skillful at predicting the frequency of significant rainfall events, in part because of the ability to produce heavier rainfall events.

  18. Unusually High Nitrate Concentrations in Some Midwest United States Streams in 2013 Following the 2012 Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B. J.; Van Metre, P. C.; Frey, J. W.; Musgrove, M.; Nakagaki, N.; Qi, S.; Wieczorek, M.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen sources in the Mississippi River basin have been linked to degradation of stream ecology and to Gulf of Mexico hypoxia. In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency characterized water-quality stressors and ecological conditions in 100 wadeable streams across the Midwestern United States. Relatively wet conditions (2013) followed a severe drought (2012); this dry-wet pattern has been shown to be associated with elevated nitrogen concentrations and loads in streams. Nitrate concentrations during the May to August 2013 sampling period ranged from <0.04 mg L-1 to 41.8 mg L-1 as N, with a mean of 5.31 mg L-1. The highest concentrations were in Iowa and Minnesota (means of 14.4 and 10.2 mg L-1, respectively). Nitrate concentration departure from normal was positively correlated to the 2013-2012 antecedent precipitation index, a measure of the departure from normal precipitation. Correlations to watershed characteristics and nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate indicate that inorganic fertilizer and manure use in crop production, principally corn, were the dominant sources of nitrate. The anomalously high nitrate levels in parts of the Midwest in 2013 coincided with reported higher-than-normal nitrate loads in the Mississippi River. Because forecasts of future climate indicate that more frequent floods and droughts are likely in the Midwest, nitrate anomalies such as those measured in response to the dry-wet pattern in 2012 and 2013 could become more frequent.

  19. Behavior of the aggregate wind resource in the ISO regions in the United States

    KAUST Repository

    Gunturu, Udaya

    2015-04-01

    The collective behavior of wind farms in seven Independent System Operator (ISO) areas has been studied. The generation duration curves for each ISO show that there is no aggregated power for some fraction of time. Aggregation of wind turbines mitigates intermittency to some extent, but in each ISO there is considerable fraction of time when there is less than 5% capacity. The hourly wind power time series show benefit of aggregation but the high and low wind events are lumped in time, thus indicating that intermittency is synchronized in each region. The timeseries show that there are instances when there is no wind power in most ISOs because of large-scale high pressure systems. An analytical consideration of the collective behavior of aggregated wind turbines shows that the benefit of aggregation saturates beyond a certain number of generating units asymptotically. Also, the benefit of aggregation falls rapidly with temporal correlation between the generating units.

  20. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  1. Convective transport over the central United States and its role in regional CO and ozone budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ellis, William G., Jr.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Mcnamara, Donna P.; Simpson, Joanne

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5 deg - 50 deg N, 90 deg - 105 deg W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month of June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO produced from oxidation of methane, isoprene, and anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Calculations of deep convective venting are based on the method pf Pickering et al.(1992a) which uses a satellite-derived deep convective cloud climatology along with transport statistics from convective cloud model simulations of observed prototype squall line events. This study uses analyses of convective episodes in 1985 and 1989 and CO measurements taken during several midwestern field campaigns. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer over this moderately polluted region provides a net (upward minus downward) flux of 18.1 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month to the free troposphere during early summer. Shallow cumulus and synoptic-scale weather systems together make a comparable contribution (total net flux 16.2 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month). Boundary layer venting of CO with other O3 precursors leads to efficient free troposheric O3 formation. We estimate that deep convective transport of CO and other precursors over the central United States in early summer leads to a gross production of 0.66 - 1.1 Gmol O3/d in good agreement with estimates of O3 production from boundary layer venting in a continental-scale model (Jacob et al., 1993a, b). On this respect the central U.S. region acts as s `chimney' for the country, and presumably this O3 contributes to high background levels of O3 in the eastern United States and O3 export to the North Atlantic.

  2. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  3. U.S. Navy Regional Climatic Study of the United States Atlantic Coast and Associated Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    239 M. L. DICKENSON NAVAIR 50-1C-555 U.S. NAVY REGIONAL CLIMATIC STUDY OF THE UNITED STATES ATLANTIC COAST AND ASSOCIATED WATERS JANUARY, 1989 NO , s o...of coastal impact, with winds exceeding 98 knots and storm tides greater than . fot. Hurricane Donna in 1960 was the first storm in 75 years to have...and then quickly becoming a hurriaInc within three days as it moved westward. Donna had recorded winds of 129 knots in the rlorida Keys, and 82 knots on

  4. Parameter regionalization of a monthly water balance model for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Andrew R.; Hay, Lauren E.; McCabe, Gregory J.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Atkinson, R. Dwight

    2016-07-01

    A parameter regionalization scheme to transfer parameter values from gaged to ungaged areas for a monthly water balance model (MWBM) was developed and tested for the conterminous United States (CONUS). The Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test, a global-sensitivity algorithm, was implemented on a MWBM to generate parameter sensitivities on a set of 109 951 hydrologic response units (HRUs) across the CONUS. The HRUs were grouped into 110 calibration regions based on similar parameter sensitivities. Subsequently, measured runoff from 1575 streamgages within the calibration regions were used to calibrate the MWBM parameters to produce parameter sets for each calibration region. Measured and simulated runoff at the 1575 streamgages showed good correspondence for the majority of the CONUS, with a median computed Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient of 0.76 over all streamgages. These methods maximize the use of available runoff information, resulting in a calibrated CONUS-wide application of the MWBM suitable for providing estimates of water availability at the HRU resolution for both gaged and ungaged areas of the CONUS.

  5. Regional Variability and Uncertainty of Electric Vehicle Life Cycle CO₂ Emissions across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayao, Mili-Ann M; Michalek, Jeremy J; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-07-21

    We characterize regionally specific life cycle CO2 emissions per mile traveled for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs) across the United States under alternative assumptions for regional electricity emission factors, regional boundaries, and charging schemes. We find that estimates based on marginal vs average grid emission factors differ by as much as 50% (using National Electricity Reliability Commission (NERC) regional boundaries). Use of state boundaries versus NERC region boundaries results in estimates that differ by as much as 120% for the same location (using average emission factors). We argue that consumption-based marginal emission factors are conceptually appropriate for evaluating the emissions implications of policies that increase electric vehicle sales or use in a region. We also examine generation-based marginal emission factors to assess robustness. Using these two estimates of NERC region marginal emission factors, we find the following: (1) delayed charging (i.e., starting at midnight) leads to higher emissions in most cases due largely to increased coal in the marginal generation mix at night; (2) the Chevrolet Volt has higher expected life cycle emissions than the Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle (the most efficient U.S. gasoline vehicle) across the U.S. in nearly all scenarios; (3) the Nissan Leaf BEV has lower life cycle emissions than the Prius in the western U.S. and in Texas, but the Prius has lower emissions in the northern Midwest regardless of assumed charging scheme and marginal emissions estimation method; (4) in other regions the lowest emitting vehicle depends on charge timing and emission factor estimation assumptions.

  6. Diversity of United States medical students by region compared to US census data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mark M Smith,1 Steven H Rose,1 Darrell R Schroeder,2 Timothy R Long1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Purpose: Increasing the diversity of the United States (US physician workforce to better represent the general population has received considerable attention. The purpose of this study was to compare medical student race data to that of the US general population. We hypothesized that race demographics of medical school matriculants would reflect that of the general population. Patients and methods: Published race data from the United States Census Bureau (USCB 2010 census and the 2011 Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC allopathic medical school application and enrollment by race and ethnicity survey were analyzed and compared. Race data of enrolled medical students was compared to race data of the general population within geographic regions and subregions. Additionally, race data of medical school applicants and matriculants were compared to race data of the overall general population. Results: Race distribution within US medical schools was significantly different than race distribution for the overall, regional, and subregional populations of the US (P<0.001. Additionally, the overall race distribution of medical school applicants differed significantly to the race distribution of the general population (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that race demographics of US medical school applicants and matriculants are significantly different from that of the general population, and may be resultant of societal quandaries present early in formal education. Initiatives targeting underrepresented minorities at an early stage to enhance health care career interest and provide academic support and mentorship will be required to address the racial disparity that exists in US

  7. Regional variation of climatic influences on West Nile virus outbreaks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimberly, Michael C; Lamsal, Aashis; Giacomo, Paolla; Chuang, Ting-Wu

    2014-10-01

    The national resurgence of human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in 2012 raised questions about the factors responsible for WNV outbreaks. Interannual climatic variations may influence WNV amplification and transmission to humans through multiple pathways, including mosquito breeding habitats, gonotrophic cycles, extrinsic incubation, avian communities, and human behavior. We examined the influences of temperature and precipitation anomalies on interannual variation in human WNV cases in three regions of the United States. There were consistent positive influences of winter temperatures, weaker and more variable positive effects of spring and summer temperatures, and highly variable precipitation effects that ranged from positive to negative. The overwintering period may be a particularly important climatic constraint on the dynamics of WNV in cold-temperate regions of North America. Geographic differences in the seasonal timing and relative importance of climatic drivers of WNV risk likely reflect underlying variability in key ecological and social characteristics.

  8. Regional impacts of oil and gas development on ozone formation in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Marco A; Barna, Michael G; Moore, Tom

    2009-09-01

    The Intermountain West is currently experiencing increased growth in oil and gas production, which has the potential to affect the visibility and air quality of various Class I areas in the region. The following work presents an analysis of these impacts using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions (CAMx). CAMx is a state-of-the-science, "one-atmosphere" Eulerian photochemical dispersion model that has been widely used in the assessment of gaseous and particulate air pollution (ozone, fine [PM2.5], and coarse [PM10] particulate matter). Meteorology and emissions inventories developed by the Western Regional Air Partnership Regional Modeling Center for regional haze analysis and planning are used to establish an ozone baseline simulation for the year 2002. The predicted range of values for ozone in the national parks and other Class I areas in the western United States is then evaluated with available observations from the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET). This evaluation demonstrates the model's suitability for subsequent planning, sensitivity, and emissions control strategy modeling. Once the ozone baseline simulation has been established, an analysis of the model results is performed to investigate the regional impacts of oil and gas development on the ozone concentrations that affect the air quality of Class I areas. Results indicate that the maximum 8-hr ozone enhancement from oil and gas (9.6 parts per billion [ppb]) could affect southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico. Class I areas in this region that are likely to be impacted by increased ozone include Mesa Verde National Park and Weminuche Wilderness Area in Colorado and San Pedro Parks Wilderness Area, Bandelier Wilderness Area, Pecos Wilderness Area, and Wheeler Peak Wilderness Area in New Mexico.

  9. Pathways of fish invasions in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Nicolas W. R.; Fuller, Pam; Neilson, Matthew; Murphy, Brian R.; Angermeier, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Non-native fish introductions are a major threat to biodiversity and fisheries, and occur through numerous pathways that vary regionally in importance. A key strategy for managing invasions is to focus prevention efforts on pathways posing the greatest risk of future introductions. We identified high-risk pathways for fish establishment in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States based on estimates of probability of establishment and records of previous introductions, which were considered in the context of emerging socioeconomic trends. We used estimates of propagule pressure, species’ environmental tolerance, and size of species pool to assess the risk of establishment by pathway. Pathways varied considerably in historic importance and species composition, with the majority of species introduced intentionally via stocking (primarily for sport, forage, or biocontrol) or bait release. Bait release, private stocking, illegal introductions intended to establish reproducing populations (e.g., of sport fish), aquaculture, and the sale of live organisms all create risks for future invasions in the Mid-Atlantic region. Of these pathways, bait release probably poses the greatest risk of introductions for the Mid-Atlantic region because propagule pressure is moderate, most released species are tolerant of local environmental conditions, and the pool of species available for transplantation is large. Our findings differ considerably from studies in other regions (e.g., bait release is a dominant pathway in the Mid-Atlantic region, whereas illegal introduction of sport fish is dominant in the western US and aquarium releases are dominant in Florida), demonstrating the need for regional-scale assessments of, and management strategies for, introduction pathways.

  10. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor) in the southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Brett G; Roemer, Gary W; McRae, Brad H; Rundall, Jill M

    2013-01-01

    The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor) are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate the dispersal

  11. Models of regional habitat quality and connectivity for pumas (Puma concolor in the southwestern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett G Dickson

    Full Text Available The impact of landscape changes on the quality and connectivity of habitats for multiple wildlife species is of global conservation concern. In the southwestern United States, pumas (Puma concolor are a well distributed and wide-ranging large carnivore that are sensitive to loss of habitat and to the disruption of pathways that connect their populations. We used an expert-based approach to define and derive variables hypothesized to influence the quality, location, and permeability of habitat for pumas within an area encompassing the entire states of Arizona and New Mexico. Survey results indicated that the presence of woodland and forest cover types, rugged terrain, and canyon bottom and ridgeline topography were expected to be important predictors of both high quality habitat and heightened permeability. As road density, distance to water, or human population density increased, the quality and permeability of habitats were predicted to decline. Using these results, we identified 67 high quality patches across the study area, and applied concepts from electronic circuit theory to estimate regional patterns of connectivity among these patches. Maps of current flow among individual pairs of patches highlighted possible pinch points along two major interstate highways. Current flow summed across all pairs of patches highlighted areas important for keeping the entire network connected, regardless of patch size. Cumulative current flow was highest in Arizona north of the Colorado River and around Grand Canyon National Park, and in the Sky Islands region owing to the many small habitat patches present. Our outputs present a first approximation of habitat quality and connectivity for dispersing pumas in the southwestern United States. Map results can be used to help target finer-scaled analyses in support of planning efforts concerned with the maintenance of puma metapopulation structure, as well as the protection of landscape features that facilitate

  12. Regional trends of daily precipitation indices in northwest Mexico and southwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga-RamíRez, Sarahí; Cavazos, Tereza

    2010-07-01

    A regionalization based on a rotated principal component analysis (PCA) was used to produce six precipitation regions in northwest Mexico and the southwest United States. Monthly precipitation data from 184 meteorological stations for the 1960-1997 period were used in the PCA. The aim of this study was to estimate annual and seasonal trends of 10 daily precipitation indices in the six regions, including four indices related with extreme precipitation. The annual indices show a larger number of statistically significant trends than the seasonal indices, especially in Arizona-New Mexico and in the monsoon region in northwest Mexico (MON). Significant positive trends common to these two contiguous regions are extreme precipitation exceeding the 95th (R95p) and 99th (R99p) percentiles. The analysis of summer (June-October) daily precipitation indices also reveals the occurrence of significant positive trends in R95p in MON, mainly due to tropical cyclone activity. With the exception of the trends in MON, the most important contribution to the annual trends comes from the winter indices. Four of the six regions in the study area show significant positive trends in extreme winter precipitation (R10mm, R95p or R99p) during the study period. The variability of the annual indices that show statistically significant trends in extreme precipitation are partially linked to natural variations resulting from the combined effects of El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) and, in most cases, the trends are explained by the PDO.

  13. Climatic Effects of Contrail Cirrus over the Western United States: A Regional Climate Model Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, K.; Ou, S. S.; Kim, J.; Gu, Y.; Yang, P.; Friedl, R. R.

    2009-12-01

    We investigate the impact of contrails and contrail induced cirrus clouds (CICC) on regional energy and water cycles over the Western United States (WUS), a region of both heavy air traffic and high climate sensitivity. Mountain snowpack in the WUS is a major source of warm-season water supply for Southern California and is highly sensitive to seasonal insolation variation, which can be significantly affected by the frequent presence of contrails/CICC. A regional climate model with an 18-km horizontal resolution based on the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model has been developed, which includes improved parameterizations of the optical properties of ice clouds and contrails in the Fu-Liou broadband radiative transfer model. The large-scale forcing data for driving regional climate simulations has been obtained from the NCEP/DOE re-analysis-2. We conduct multiple-year perpetual-spring climate runs to simulate the current climate conditions of the WUS and to investigate the climatic impact of contrails/CICC on radiative forcing, surface temperature, precipitation, and snowpack coverage. As a first approximation, we develop a linear correlation between available aviation emission data and contrail cover using the existing GCM results as proxy. Additionally, we use the ice crystal size spectrum and shape determined from the Subsonic Aircraft Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) for calculations of the optical properties of contrails/CICC for input to the regional climate model. Preliminary simulation results and uncertainty analysis are presented in association with the effects of contrails/CICC cover and ice crystal size/shape on surface radiative forcing, surface temperature, and snow cover over the WUS in spring.

  14. Communities with Source Separated Organics Programs, United States, 2015, EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent communities with residential organics collection programs in the United States. EPA used US Census Bureau...

  15. The United States Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Program Validation Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litynski, John T; Plasynski, Sean; McIlvried, Howard G; Mahoney, Christopher; Srivastava, Rameshwar D

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the Validation Phase (Phase II) of the Department of Energy's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships initiative. In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy created a nationwide network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP) to help determine and implement the technology, infrastructure, and regulations most appropriate to promote carbon sequestration in different regions of the nation. The objectives of the Characterization Phase (Phase I) were to characterize the geologic and terrestrial opportunities for carbon sequestration; to identify CO(2) point sources within the territories of the individual partnerships; to assess the transportation infrastructure needed for future deployment; to evaluate CO(2) capture technologies for existing and future power plants; and to identify the most promising sequestration opportunities that would need to be validated through a series of field projects. The Characterization Phase was highly successful, with the following achievements: established a national network of companies and professionals working to support sequestration deployment; created regional and national carbon sequestration atlases for the United States and portions of Canada; evaluated available and developing technologies for the capture of CO(2) from point sources; developed an improved understanding of the permitting requirements that future sequestration activities will need to address as well as defined the gap in permitting requirements for large scale deployment of these technologies; created a raised awareness of, and support for, carbon sequestration as a greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation option, both within industry and among the general public; identified the most promising carbon sequestration opportunities for future field tests; and established protocols for project implementation, accounting, and management. Economic evaluation was started and is continuing and will be a factor in project selection. During the

  16. Climate and climate variability of the wind power resources in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Li; S. Zhong; X. Bian; W.E. Heilman

    2010-01-01

    The climate and climate variability of low-level winds over the Great Lakes region of the United States is examined using 30 year (1979-2008) wind records from the recently released North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), a three-dimensional, high-spatial and temporal resolution, and dynamically consistent climate data set. The analyses focus on spatial distribution...

  17. Newly incident cannabis use in the United States, 2002–2011: a regional and state level benchmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob P. Leinweber

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Cannabis use and cannabis regulatory policies recently re-surfaced as noteworthy global research and social media topics, including claims that Mexicans have been sending cannabis and other drug supplies through a porous border into the United States. These circumstances prompted us to conduct an epidemiological test of whether the states bordering Mexico had exceptionally large cannabis incidence rates for 2002–2011. The resulting range of cannabis incidence rates disclosed here can serve as 2002–2011 benchmark values against which estimates from later years can be compared. Methods The population under study is 12-to-24-year-old non-institutionalized civilian community residents of the US, sampled and assessed with confidential audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI during National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, 2002–2011 (aggregate n ∼ 420,000 for which public use datasets were available. We estimated state-specific cannabis incidence rates based on independent replication sample surveys across these years, and derived meta-analysis estimates for 10 pre-specified regions, including the Mexico border region. Results From meta-analysis, the estimated annual incidence rate for cannabis use in the Mexico Border Region is 5% (95% CI [4%–7%], which is not an exceptional value relative to the overall US estimate of 6% (95% CI [5%–6%]. Geographically quite distant from Mexico and from states of the western US with liberalized cannabis policies, the North Atlantic Region population has the numerically largest incidence estimate at 7% (95% CI [6%–8%], while the Gulf of Mexico Border Region population has the lowest incidence rate at 5% (95% CI [4%–6%]. Within the set of state-specific estimates, Vermont’s and Utah’s populations have the largest and smallest incidence rates, respectively (VT: 9%; 95% CI [8%–10%]; UT: 3%; 95% CI [3%–4%]. Discussion Based on this study’s estimates, among 12-to-24-year-old US

  18. Regional distribution of fatiguing illnesses in the United States: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierl, Cynthia; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Hoaglin, David C; Randall, Bonnie; Jones, Ann-Britt; Unger, Elizabeth R; Reeves, William C

    2004-01-01

    Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating illness with no known cause or effective therapy. Population-based epidemiologic data on CFS prevalence are critical to put CFS in a realistic context for public health officials and others responsible for allocating resources. Methods We conducted a pilot random-digit-dialing survey to estimate the prevalence of fatiguing illnesses in different geographic regions and in urban and rural populations of the United States. This report focuses on 884 of 7,317 respondents 18 to 69 years old. Fatigued (440) and randomly selected non-fatigued (444) respondents completed telephone questionnaires concerning fatigue, other symptoms, and medical history. Results We estimated 12,186 per 100,000 persons 18 to 69 years of age suffered from fatigue lasting for at least 6 months (chronic fatigue), and 1,197 per 100,000 described an illness that, though lacking clinical evaluation, met criteria for CFS (CFS-like). Chronic fatigue and CFS-like illness were more common in rural than in urban populations, although the differences were not significant. The prevalence of these fatiguing illnesses did not differ meaningfully among the four regions surveyed, and no significant geographic trends were observed. Conclusions This investigation estimated that nearly 2.2 million American adults suffer from CFS-like illness. The study also suggested the need to focus future investigations of fatigue on populations with lower incomes and less education. There was no evidence for regional differences in the occurrence of fatiguing illnesses. PMID:14761250

  19. Regional distribution of fatiguing illnesses in the United States: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unger Elizabeth R

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating illness with no known cause or effective therapy. Population-based epidemiologic data on CFS prevalence are critical to put CFS in a realistic context for public health officials and others responsible for allocating resources. Methods We conducted a pilot random-digit-dialing survey to estimate the prevalence of fatiguing illnesses in different geographic regions and in urban and rural populations of the United States. This report focuses on 884 of 7,317 respondents 18 to 69 years old. Fatigued (440 and randomly selected non-fatigued (444 respondents completed telephone questionnaires concerning fatigue, other symptoms, and medical history. Results We estimated 12,186 per 100,000 persons 18 to 69 years of age suffered from fatigue lasting for at least 6 months (chronic fatigue, and 1,197 per 100,000 described an illness that, though lacking clinical evaluation, met criteria for CFS (CFS-like. Chronic fatigue and CFS-like illness were more common in rural than in urban populations, although the differences were not significant. The prevalence of these fatiguing illnesses did not differ meaningfully among the four regions surveyed, and no significant geographic trends were observed. Conclusions This investigation estimated that nearly 2.2 million American adults suffer from CFS-like illness. The study also suggested the need to focus future investigations of fatigue on populations with lower incomes and less education. There was no evidence for regional differences in the occurrence of fatiguing illnesses.

  20. The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) Network in the PNW region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, K.; Austin, K.; Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.; Fengler, K.; Doelger, S.

    2007-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Region (PNW) of the United States contains a variety of geologic regions and tectonic problems. These include the Cascadia Subduction Zone, Mt. St. Helens and the transition to the Basin and Range province. Since September of 2003, the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), which is part of the larger NSF-funded EarthScope project, has been installing a network of continuously operating GPS, strainmeter and tiltmeter instruments. There are currently 78 GPS, 13 strainmeter/borehole seismometers, and 4 tiltmeters operating in the PNW region. The data from this network has already been used to study Episodic Tremor Events (ETS) during September 2005 and January 2007, and renewed activity on Mt. St. Helens that began on September 23, 2004. The goal is have 134 continuously operating GPS stations by the end of September 2008. The locations of the GPS stations were determined by scientific committees. Whenever possible, multiple instruments are deployed at the same location, and share power and communications resources. Examples of this are GPS antennas mounted on top of strainmeter boreholes in the forearc region of western Washington and tiltmeters collecting data through GPS receivers on Mt. St. Helens. In addition, a number of stations provide real time kinematic data to professional surveyors within the region. During the fall of 2006, a 16 GPS and 4 tiltmeter station network was completed on Mt. St. Helens. Results from analysis of both PBO and USGS GPS stations on the mountain, show a radially inward and downward motion, with the maximum vertical offsets high on the mountain and the maximum horizontal offsets located at distances of 5-10km from the crater. Displacements are small over the 2004-present eruption with a maximum of 3cm of inward movement. GPS stations installed high on the mountain experience severe weather and heavy rime accumulations for approximately 6 months of the year. Ice build-up causes distortion of the GPS antenna phase

  1. Review: Regional groundwater flow modeling in heavily irrigated basins of selected states in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Nathan R.; Zlotnik, Vitaly A.

    2013-09-01

    Water resources in agriculture-dominated basins of the arid western United States are stressed due to long-term impacts from pumping. A review of 88 regional groundwater-flow modeling applications from seven intensively irrigated western states (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Nebraska and Texas) was conducted to provide hydrogeologists, modelers, water managers, and decision makers insight about past modeling studies that will aid future model development. Groundwater models were classified into three types: resource evaluation models (39 %), which quantify water budgets and act as preliminary models intended to be updated later, or constitute re-calibrations of older models; management/planning models (55 %), used to explore and identify management plans based on the response of the groundwater system to water-development or climate scenarios, sometimes under water-use constraints; and water rights models (7 %), used to make water administration decisions based on model output and to quantify water shortages incurred by water users or climate changes. Results for 27 model characteristics are summarized by state and model type, and important comparisons and contrasts are highlighted. Consideration of modeling uncertainty and the management focus toward sustainability, adaptive management and resilience are discussed, and future modeling recommendations, in light of the reviewed models and other published works, are presented.

  2. Regional climate effects of irrigation and urbanization in thewestern united states: a model intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, M.A.; Kueppers, L.M.; Sloan, L.C.; Cavan, D.C.; Jin, J.; Kanamaru, H.; Miller, N.L.; Tyree, M.; Du, H.; Weare, B.

    2006-05-01

    In the western United States, more than 30,500 square miles has been converted to irrigated agriculture and urban areas. This study compares the climate responses of four regional climate models (RCMs) to these past land-use changes. The RCMs used two contrasting land cover distributions: potential natural vegetation, and modern land cover that includes agriculture and urban areas. Three of the RCMs represented irrigation by supplementing soil moisture, producing large decreases in August mean (-2.5 F to -5.6 F) and maximum (-5.2 F to -10.1 F) 2-meter temperatures where natural vegetation was converted to irrigated agriculture. Conversion to irrigated agriculture also resulted in large increases in relative humidity (9 percent 36 percent absolute change). Only one of the RCMs produced increases in summer minimum temperature. Converting natural vegetation to urban land cover produced modest but discernable climate effects in all models, with the magnitude of the effects dependent upon the preexisting vegetation type. Overall, the RCM results indicate that land use change impacts are most pronounced during the summer months, when surface heating is strongest and differences in surface moisture between irrigated land and natural vegetation are largest. The irrigation effect on summer maximum temperatures is comparable in magnitude (but opposite in sign) to predicted future temperature change due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations.

  3. Implementing climate change adaptation in forested regions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica E. Halofsky; David L. Peterson; Linda A. Joyce; Constance I. Millar; Janine M. Rice; Christopher W. Swanston

    2014-01-01

    Natural resource managers need concrete ways to adapt to the effects of climate change. Science-management partnerships have proven to be an effective means of facilitating climate change adaptation for natural resource management agencies. Here we describe the process and results of several science-management partnerships in different forested regions of the United...

  4. Return migration to region of birth among retirement-age persons in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A

    1990-05-01

    This study addresses some of the methodological difficulties one encounters in assessing the question of whether older persons display an increasing tendency to return to their state of birth after reaching retirement age. It reanalyzes previously studied data on the question and concludes that there is no indication that elderly people are more prone than nonelderly to "return home" to their native state.

  5. Hydrochemical Regions of the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States, and Their Environmental and Water-Quality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Warner, Kelly L.; Groschen, George E.; Caldwell, James P.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The glacial aquifer system in the United States is a large (953,000 square miles) regional aquifer system of heterogeneous composition. As described in this report, the glacial aquifer system includes all unconsolidated geologic material above bedrock that lies on or north of the line of maximum glacial advance within the United States. Examining ground-water quality on a regional scale indicates that variations in the concentrations of major and minor ions and some trace elements most likely are the result of natural variations in the geologic and physical environment. Study of the glacial aquifer system was designed around a regional framework based on the assumption that two primary characteristics of the aquifer system can affect water quality: intrinsic susceptibility (hydraulic properties) and vulnerability (geochemical properties). The hydrochemical regions described in this report were developed to identify and explain regional spatial variations in ground-water quality in the glacial aquifer system within the hypothetical framework context. Data analyzed for this study were collected from 1991 to 2003 at 1,716 wells open to the glacial aquifer system. Cluster analysis was used to group wells with similar ground-water concentrations of calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulfate, and bicarbonate into five unique groups. Maximum Likelihood Classification was used to make the extrapolation from clustered groups of wells, defined by points, to areas of similar water quality (hydrochemical regions) defined in a geospatial model. Spatial data that represented average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, land use, land-surface slope, vertical soil permeability, average soil clay content, texture of surficial deposits, type of surficial deposit, and potential for ground-water recharge were used in the Maximum Likelihood Classification to classify the areas so the characteristics of the hydrochemical regions would resemble the

  6. La Crosse Virus in Aedes japonicus japonicus Mosquitoes in the Appalachian Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotseth, Eric J.; Jackson, Bryan T.; Zink, Steven D.; Marek, Paul E.; Kramer, Laura D.; Paulson, Sally L.; Hawley, Dana M.

    2015-01-01

    La Crosse virus (LACV), a leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in children in the United States, is emerging in Appalachia. For local arboviral surveillance, mosquitoes were tested. LACV RNA was detected and isolated from Aedes japonicus mosquitoes. These invasive mosquitoes may significantly affect LACV range expansion and dynamics. PMID:25811131

  7. Application of Linked Regional Scale Growth, Biogeography, and Economic Models for Southeastern United States Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. McNulty; Jennifer A. Moore; Louis Iverson; Anantha Prasad; Robert Abt; Bryan Smith; Ge Sun; Michael Gavazzi; John Bartlett; Brian Murray; Robert A. Mickler; John D. Aber

    2000-01-01

    The southern United States produces over 50% of commercial timber harvests in the US and the demand for southern timber are likely to increase in the future. Global change is altering the physical and chemical environmental which will play a major role in determining future forest stand growth, insect and disease outbreaks, regeneration success, and distribution of...

  8. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  9. Improved Analysis of Long-Term Monitoring Data Demonstrates Marked Regional Declines of Bat Populations in the Eastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E Ingersoll

    Full Text Available Bats are diverse and ecologically important, but are also subject to a suite of severe threats. Evidence for localized bat mortality from these threats is well-documented in some cases, but long-term changes in regional populations of bats remain poorly understood. Bat hibernation surveys provide an opportunity to improve understanding, but analysis is complicated by bats' cryptic nature, non-conformity of count data to assumptions of traditional statistical methods, and observation heterogeneities such as variation in survey timing. We used generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs to account for these complicating factors and to evaluate long-term, regional population trajectories of bats. We focused on four hibernating bat species - little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus, tri-colored bat (Perimyotis subflavus, Indiana myotis (M. sodalis, and northern myotis (M. septentrionalis - in a four-state region of the eastern United States during 1999-2011. Our results, from counts of nearly 1.2 million bats, suggest that cumulative declines in regional relative abundance by 2011 from peak levels were 71% (with 95% confidence interval of ±11% in M. lucifugus, 34% (±38% in P. subflavus, 30% (±26% in M. sodalis, and 31% (±18% in M. septentrionalis. The M. lucifugus population fluctuated until 2004 before persistently declining, and the populations of the other three species declined persistently throughout the study period. Population trajectories suggest declines likely resulted from the combined effect of multiple threats, and indicate a need for enhanced conservation efforts. They provide strong support for a change in the IUCN Red List conservation status in M. lucifugus from Least Concern to Endangered within the study area, and are suggestive of a need to change the conservation status of the other species. Our modeling approach provided estimates of uncertainty, accommodated non-linearities, and controlled for observation heterogeneities, and

  10. Advances in regional crop yield estimation over the United States using satellite remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. M.; Dorn, M. F.; Crawford, C.

    2015-12-01

    Since the dawn of earth observation imagery, particularly from systems like Landsat and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, there has been an overarching desire to regionally estimate crop production remotely. Research efforts integrating space-based imagery into yield models to achieve this need have indeed paralleled these systems through the years, yet development of a truly useful crop production monitoring system has been arguably mediocre in coming. As a result, relatively few organizations have yet to operationalize the concept, and this is most acute in regions of the globe where there are not even alternative sources of crop production data being collected. However, the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) has continued to push for this type of data source as a means to complement its long-standing, traditional crop production survey efforts which are financially costly to the government and create undue respondent burden on farmers. Corn and soybeans, the two largest field crops in the United States, have been the focus of satellite-based production monitoring by NASS for the past decade. Data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) has been seen as the most pragmatic input source for modeling yields primarily based on its daily revisit capabilities and reasonable ground sample resolution. The research methods presented here will be broad but provides a summary of what is useful and adoptable with satellite imagery in terms of crop yield estimation. Corn and soybeans will be of particular focus but other major staple crops like wheat and rice will also be presented. NASS will demonstrate that while MODIS provides a slew of vegetation related products, the traditional normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is still ideal. Results using land surface temperature products, also generated from MODIS, will also be shown. Beyond the MODIS data itself, NASS research has also focused efforts on understanding a

  11. Convection-Permitting Regional Climate Simulations over the Contiguous United States Including Potential Climate Change Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changhai; Rasmussen, Roy; Ikeda, Kyoko; Barlage, Michael; Chen, Fei; Clark, Martyn; Dai, Aiguo; Dudhia, Jimy; Gochis, David; Gutmann, Ethan; Li, Yanping; Newman, Andrew; Thompson, Gregory

    2016-04-01

    The WRF model with a domain size of 1360x1016x51 points, using a 4 km spacing to encompass most of North America, is employed to investigate the water cycle and climate change impacts over the Contiguous United States (CONUS). Four suites of numerical experiments are being conducted, consisting of a 13-year retrospective simulation forced with ERA-I reanalysis, a 13-year climate sensitivity or Pseudo-Global Warming (PGW) simulation, and two 10-year CMIP5-based historical/future period simulations based on a revised bias-correction method. The major objectives are: 1) to evaluate high-resolution WRF's capability to capture orographic precipitation and snow mass balance over the western CONUS and convective precipitation over the eastern CONUS; 2) to assess future changes of seasonal snowfall and snowpack and associated hydrological cycles along with their regional variability across the different mountain barriers and elevation dependency, in response to the CMIP5 projected 2071-2100 climate warming; 3) to examine the precipitation changes under the projected global warming, with an emphasis on precipitation extremes and the warm-season precipitation corridor in association with MCS tracks in the central US; and 4) to provide a valuable community dataset for regional climate change and impact studies. Preliminary analysis of the retrospective simulation shows both seasonal/sub-seasonal precipitation and temperature are well reproduced, with precipitation bias being within 10% of the observations and temperature bias being below 1 degree C in most seasons and locations. The observed annual cycle of snow water equivalent (SWE), such as peak time and disappearance time, is also realistically replicated, even though the peak value is somewhat underestimated. The PGW simulation shows a large cold-season warming in northeast US and eastern Canada, possibly associated with snow albedo feedback, and a strong summer warming in north central US in association with

  12. Source regions of granites and their links to tectonic environment: examples from the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Elizabeth Y.

    2005-03-01

    concentrations of Rb, SiO 2, and high concentrations of transition elements. These parameters change through the system to the youngest unit (granite), which has the most negative ɛNd (-8.5), the highest 87Sr/ 86Sr i (0.7092), and is chemically most evolved. Correlation between chemical and Nd isotopic evolution probably resulted from a continuous process of progressive assimilation, in which mafic magmas invade and incorporate continental crust. Deposits in Arizona with ɛNd values more negative than the -8.5 of Sierrita lie in the older Yavapai province in the northwestern part of the state. The difference in the most negative epsilon Nd implies that Nd isotopic signature is sensitive to the age of the Precambrian domain. The granites from the Colorado Mineral Belt were emplaced during the transition from Laramide convergence to mid-Tertiary extension. Three different groups of granites are recognized. The first is Laramide and was formed during assimilation-fractional crystallization involving lower crustal mafic source materials; the second and third groups are mid-Tertiary and represent intracrustal melting of heterogeneous sources. This change in source regions and melt regimes in transition from convergence to extension is fundamental to the Mesozoic and Cenozoic evolution of western North America.

  13. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis includes all major aquifer systems in Cenozoic deposits in the Gulf Coastal Plain in the States of Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, and small areas in Alabama and Florida (western panhandle area), an area of about 290,000 square miles. The Gulf Coast geosyncline and the Mississippi embayment were the major depocenters for the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits that form the framework for the aquifer systems.

  14. Regional Warming from Aerosol Removal over the United States: Results from a Transient 2010-2050 Climate Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley, L. J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Jacob, D. J.; Rind, D.

    2012-01-01

    We use a general circulation model (NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies GCM 3) to investigate the regional climate response to removal of aerosols over the United States. We perform a pair of transient 2010e2050 climate simulations following a scenario of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, with and without aerosols over the United States and with present-day aerosols elsewhere. We find that removing U.S. aerosol significantly enhances the warming from greenhouse gases in a spatial pattern that strongly correlates with that of the aerosol. Warming is nearly negligible outside the United States, but annual mean surface temperatures increase by 0.4e0.6 K in the eastern United States. Temperatures during summer heat waves in the Northeast rise by as much as 1e2 K due to aerosol removal, driven in part by positive feedbacks involving soil moisture and low cloud cover. Reducing U.S. aerosol sources to achieve air quality objectives could thus have significant unintended regional warming consequences.

  15. Tooth Loss in Appalachia and the Mississippi Delta Relative to Other Regions in the United States, 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Marina Mileo; Sanders, Seth G.; Wu, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined regional variation in tooth loss in the United States from 1999 to 2010. Methods. We used 6 waves of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and data on county characteristics to describe regional trends in tooth loss and decompose diverging trends into the parts explained by individual and county components. Results. Appalachia and the Mississippi Delta had higher levels of tooth loss than the rest of the country in 1999. From 1999 to 2010, tooth loss declined in the United States. However, Appalachia did not converge toward the US average, and the Mississippi Delta worsened relative to the United States. Socioeconomic status explained the largest portion of differences between regions in 1999, but a smaller portion of the trends. The Mississippi Delta is aging more quickly than the rest of the country, which explains 17% of the disparity in the time trend. Conclusions. The disadvantage in tooth loss is persistent in Appalachia and growing in the Mississippi Delta. The increasing disparity is partly explained by changes in the age structure but is also associated with behavioral and environmental factors. PMID:24524527

  16. Increasing cervical cancer screening in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Beti; Vilchis, Hugo; Moran, Crystal; Copeland, Wade; Holte, Sarah; Duggan, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic women living on the United States-México border experience health disparities, are less likely to access cervical cancer screening services, and have a higher rate of cervical cancer incidence compared to women living in nonborder areas. Here we investigate the effects of an intervention delivered by community health workers (CHWs, known as lay health educators or Promotores de Salud in Spanish) on rates of cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women who were out of compliance with recommended screening guidelines. Hispanic women out of compliance with screening guidelines, attending clinics in southern New Mexico, were identified using medical record review. All eligible women were offered the intervention. The study was conducted between 2009 and 2011, and data were analyzed in 2012. Setting/participants--162 Hispanic women, resident in New Mexico border counties, aged 29-80 years, who had not had a Pap test within the past 3 years. Intervention--a CHW-led, culturally appropriate, computerized education intervention. Main outcome measures--the percentage of women who underwent cervical cancer screening within 12 months of receiving the intervention. Change in knowledge of, and attitudes toward cervical cancer and screening as assessed by a baseline and follow-up questionnaire. 76.5% of women had a Pap test after the intervention. Women displayed increased knowledge about cervical cancer screening and about HPV. A culturally appropriate promotora-led intervention is successful in increasing cervical cancer screening in at-risk Hispanic women on the United States-México border. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  17. Disseminated histoplasmosis in two juvenile raccoons (Procyon lotor) from a nonendemic region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Kristin A; Villanueva, Michelle; Torain, Andrea; Reinl, Steve; Barr, Bradd

    2014-03-01

    Two 6-month-old raccoon kits, which had been rescued and fostered in preparation for return to the wild, became acutely ill and died 3 weeks before scheduled release. At necropsy, the kits had grossly enlarged livers and spleens, diffusely consolidated lungs, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Histologically, extensive infiltrates of macrophages containing yeast organisms were identified in lung, liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, intestinal tissues, brain, adrenal gland, bone marrow, and thymus of both animals. Histiocytic inflammation with accompanying fibrosis was widespread, with necrotic foci evident in lungs, spleen, and intestinal sections. Fungal organisms were observed on sheep blood agar plates; however, repeated subcultures to fungal media designed to induce conidial structures for fungal identification were unsuccessful. Partial DNA sequencing of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene of the blood agar isolate identified 100% homology with Ajellomyces capsulatus (anamorphic name Histoplasma capsulatum). The kits were rescued and fostered in the San Francisco Bay area and it is likely that the exposure to H. capsulatum occurred in this area. Histoplasma sp. infection in wild mammal species is often used as an indication of spore contamination of a geographic region. Northern California is not known to be an endemic region for H. capsulatum, which is not a reportable disease in this state. The presence of severe, disseminated disease and the need for molecular identification associated with the isolate from a nonendemic region identified in the present report may indicate genetic adaptation and altered characteristics of this agent and may warrant further investigation.

  18. Modern aerial gamma-ray spectrometry and regional potassium map of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Joseph S.

    1990-01-01

    Aerial gamma-ray surveys of the natural environment measure the flux of gamma rays produced by the radioactive decay of 40K, 214Bi, and 208Tl in the upper 10–20 cm of surface materials. 40K is a radioactive potassium isotope which can be used to estimate the total amount of potassium in the soils and rocks. 214Bi is a decay product of the 238U radioactive decay series and is used to estimate the uranium concentrations, and 208Tl, a decay product of the 232Th radioactive decay series, is used to estimate thorium concentrations. Aerial gamma-ray data covering the 48 contiguous states of the United States have been compiled to produce maps showing the distributions of equivalent uranium, equivalent thorium, and potassium. This compilation involved processing the aerial survey data from about 470 1° × 2° quadrangle maps.

  19. Factors affecting stream nutrient loads: A synthesis of regional SPARROW model results for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Crawford, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    We compared the results of 12 recently calibrated regional SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models covering most of the continental United States to evaluate the consistency and regional differences in factors affecting stream nutrient loads. The models - 6 for total nitrogen and 6 for total phosphorus - all provide similar levels of prediction accuracy, but those for major river basins in the eastern half of the country were somewhat more accurate. The models simulate long-term mean annual stream nutrient loads as a function of a wide range of known sources and climatic (precipitation, temperature), landscape (e.g., soils, geology), and aquatic factors affecting nutrient fate and transport. The results confirm the dominant effects of urban and agricultural sources on stream nutrient loads nationally and regionally, but reveal considerable spatial variability in the specific types of sources that control water quality. These include regional differences in the relative importance of different types of urban (municipal and industrial point vs. diffuse urban runoff) and agriculture (crop cultivation vs. animal waste) sources, as well as the effects of atmospheric deposition, mining, and background (e.g., soil phosphorus) sources on stream nutrients. Overall, we found that the SPARROW model results provide a consistent set of information for identifying the major sources and environmental factors affecting nutrient fate and transport in United States watersheds at regional and subregional scales. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Helpful tools for criminal prosecution in domestic violence cases: Some ideas from the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoglin Katie

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author presents three instruments that have been proven helpful in domestic violence prosecutions in the United States, particularly in California: (1 laws, (2 inter-agency protocols, and (3 victim support services. Prosecutors have found that certain laws have been helpful in domestic violence prosecutions. These include restraining orders, criminal penalties for violations of restraining orders, and evidence code provisions permitting certain kinds of testimony. Second, many jurisdictions in California have drafted inter-agency protocols. The purpose of these protocols is to help law enforcement, health care workers, and social workers in gathering evidence relating to domestic violence cases. Finally, most victims are not familiar with the criminal justice system many are nervous about going to court for domestic violence cases, for a variety of reasons. As a result, many jurisdictions have established victim support services.

  1. Episodic response project: Wet deposition at watersheds in three regions of the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.

    1991-11-01

    During the period from August 1988 to June 1990, wet-only sampling of precipitation was carried out at three Episodic Response Project sites and at one supplemental site. The three watershed sites are Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, and Linn Run. The supplemental site was the MAP3S site at Pennsylvania State University that characterizes the central group of northern Appalachian streams. The site operators adhered by varying degrees to the sample collection protocol based on the daily sampling protocol of the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network. Sulfate and nitrate ion together accounted for more than 80% of total anions (in {mu}Eq/L) in the precipitation at all sites. Wet deposition of sulfate at Moss Lake, Biscuit Brook, Penn State, and Linn Run averaged 223, 230, 253, and 402 mg/m{sup 2}/month, respectively, whereas nitrate wet deposition averaged 197, 195, 160, and 233 mg/m{sup 2}/month, respectively. Sulfate deposition was a factor of 2 to 4 higher in summer than in winter. The seasonal pattern for nitrate deposition was weak; the seasonal contrast was less than a factor of 2.5 at all sites. The association between the wet deposition and precipitation chemistry at the MAP3S monitoring site and the average for the study watersheds was dependent on the distance between the site and watershed and the intervening terrain. Precipitation chemistry at the monitoring site is representative of that at the ERP study watersheds in the Adirondack and Catskill regions and in the south-western group of watersheds in the Appalachian region. High spatial variability in precipitation amounts makes this assumption weaker for wet deposition. Chemical input to watersheds from dry deposition has not been determined at any site but could range from a factor of 0.3 to 1.0 of the wet deposition. 7 refs., 38 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. ENSO anomalies over the Western United States: present and future patterns in regional climate simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yongxin; Qian, Yun; Duliere, Valerie; Salathe, E.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2012-01-03

    Surface temperature, precipitation, specific humidity and wind anomalies associated with the warm and cold phases of ENSO simulated by WRF and HadRM are examined for the present and future decades. WRF is driven by ECHAM5 and CCSM3, respectively, and HadRM is driven by HadCM3. For the current decades, all simulations show some capability in resolving the observed warm-dry and coolwet teleconnection patterns over the PNW and the Southwest U.S. for warm and cold ENSO. Differences in the regional simulations originate primarily from the respective driving fields. For the future decades, the warm-dry and cool-wet teleconnection patterns in association with ENSO are still represented in ECHAM5-WRF and HadRM. However, there are indications of changes in the ENSO teleconnection patterns for CCSM3-WRF in the future, with wet anomalies dominating in the PNW and the Southwest U.S. for both warm and cold ENSO, in contrast to the canonical patterns of precipitation anomalies. Interaction of anomalous wind flow with local terrain plays a critical role in the generation of anomalous precipitation over the western U.S. Anomalous dry conditions are always associated with anomalous airflow that runs parallel to local mountains and wet conditions with airflow that runs perpendicular to local mountains. Future changes in temperature and precipitation associated with the ENSO events in the regional simulations indicate varying responses depending on the variables examined as well as depending on the phase of ENSO.

  3. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  4. Pollution and regional variations of lung cancer mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Justin Xavier; Akinyemiju, Tomi; Wang, Henry E

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to identify counties in the United States (US) with high rates of lung cancer mortality, and to characterize the associated community-level factors while focusing on particulate-matter pollution. We performed a descriptive analysis of lung cancer deaths in the US from 2004 through 2014. We categorized counties as "clustered" or "non-clustered" - based on whether or not they had high lung cancer mortality rates - using novel geospatial autocorrelation methods. We contrasted community characteristics between cluster categories. We performed logistic regression for the association between cluster category and particulate-matter pollution. Among 362 counties (11.6%) categorized as clustered, the age-adjusted lung cancer mortality rate was 99.70 deaths per 100,000 persons (95%CI: 99.1-100.3). Compared with non-clustered counties, clustered counties were more likely in the south (72.9% versus 42.1%, Pobesity and physical inactivity, less access to healthcare, and greater unemployment rates (Plung mortality ranging from eastern Oklahoma through central Appalachia; these counties were characterized by higher pollution, a more rural population, lower socioeconomic status and poorer access to healthcare. To mitigate the burden of lung cancer mortality in the US, both urban and rural areas should consider minimizing air pollution. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada.

  6. Development of a United States-Mexico Emissions Inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Hampden; Knipping, Eladio M; Vukovich, Jeffrey M

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study was commissioned to investigate the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain of the BRAVO Study includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The first regional-scale Mexican emissions inventory designed for air-quality modeling applications was developed for 10 northern Mexican states, the Tula Industrial Park in the state of Hidalgo, and the Popocatépetl volcano in the state of Puebla. Emissions data were compiled from numerous sources, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (now Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), the Eastern Research Group, the Minerals Management Service, the Instituto Nacional de Ecología, and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía y Informática. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and PM < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter. Wind-blown dust and biomass burning were not included in the inventory, although high concentrations of dust and organic PM attributed to biomass burning have been observed at Big Bend National Park. The SMOKE modeling system was used to generate gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions

  7. The regional distribution and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom: a socioecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff

    2013-07-01

    In recent years the topic of entrepreneurship has become a major focus in the social sciences, with renewed interest in the links between personality and entrepreneurship. Taking a socioecological perspective to psychology, which emphasizes the role of social habitats and their interactions with mind and behavior, we investigated regional variation in and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone Big Five profile. Specifically, we analyzed personality data collected from over half a million U.S. residents (N = 619,397) as well as public archival data on state-level entrepreneurial activity (i.e., business-creation and self-employment rates). Results revealed that an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile is regionally clustered. This geographical distribution corresponds to the pattern that can be observed when mapping entrepreneurial activity across the United States. Indeed, the state-level correlation (N = 51) between an entrepreneurial personality structure and entrepreneurial activity was positive in direction, substantial in magnitude, and robust even when controlling for regional economic prosperity. These correlations persisted at the level of U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (N = 15) and were replicated in independent German (N = 19,842; 14 regions) and British (N = 15,617; 12 regions) samples. In contrast to these profile-based analyses, an analysis linking the individual Big Five dimensions to regional measures of entrepreneurial activity did not yield consistent findings. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for interdisciplinary theory development and practical applications.

  8. Land-use change, economics, and rural well-being in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, William R.; Hoag, Dana L.K.; Johnson, Rex R.; Koontz, Lynne M.; Thomas, Catherine Cullinane

    2013-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings included in a comprehensive new report (see USGS Professional Paper 1800) which investigated land-use change, economic characteristics, and rural community well-being in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States. Once one of the largest grassland-wetlands ecosystems on earth, the North American prairie has experienced extensive conversion to cultivated agriculture, with farming becoming the dominant land use in the region over the last century. Both perennial habitat lands and agricultural croplands retain importance economically, socially, and culturally. Greatly increased oil and gas development in recent years brought rises in employment and income but also stressed infrastructure, cost of living, and crime rates. Research described in these reports focuses on land-use dynamics and illuminates how economic variables and rural development in the Prairie Pothole Region might be influenced as land uses change.

  9. Paleotectonic investigations of the Pennsylvanian System in the United States, part I: introduction and regional analyses of the Pennsylvanian System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin D.; Crosby, Eleanor J.; Bachman, George O.; Bell, Kenneth G.; Dixon, George H.; Frezon, Sherwood E.; Glick, Ernest E.; Irwin, William P.; Mallory, William W.; Mapel, William J.; Maughan, Edwin K.; Prichard, George E.; Shideler, Gerald L.; Stewart, Gary F.; Wanless, Harold R.; Wilson, Richard F.

    1975-01-01

    The Pennsylvanian is the fourth geologic system to be analyzed and synthesized by geologists of the U.S. Geological Survey in the form of a paleotectonic study covering the conterminous United States. Earlier investigations were of the Jurassic, Triassic, and Permian Systems. Results were published as Miscellaneous Geologic Investigation Maps I-175, I-300, and I-450 and in Professional Paper 515. The objective of these investigations is to provide in graphic form the factual basis for recognition of tectonic events of each system on a countrywide scale. The maps in this publication depict rock thickness, generalized lithology, ancient geography, and other regional relations of the Pennsylvanian System. Method of preparation of the maps, the stratigraphic limits of the map units, and various stratigraphic and structural features and their probable tectonic significance are discussed. Pennsylvanian data were largely compiled between 1961 and 196 by 16 geologists, including the late Harold R. Wanless, who covered the five eastern regions and contributed to several of the special studies. The areas of responsibility of the cooperating geologists are indicated in figure 1. Work in Kansas was done by Gary F. Stewart, of the Kansas Geological Survey. Results of this investigation are presented in three units. Part I comprises an introduction and 17 chapters, each describing and discussing one of the regions in which the conterminous United States was divided for purposes of study and mapping. Part II is a synthesis of Pennsylvanian history to accompany interpretive maps of the five divisions of the Pennsylvanian System treated in this publication; it also includes a series of chapters on depositional environments, climatic conditions, and economic products of the system. The final section of part II is devoted to an index of localities and sources used in construction of the principal maps of this publication. Part III consists of the plates on which are presented the

  10. Integrated multi-regional energy and interindustry model of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettle, IV, Richard J.; Cherniavsky, Ellen A.; Tessmer, Jr, Raymond G.

    1977-05-01

    The energy sector of the proposed formulation is represented in a detailed multi-regional linear programming model. This model optimally allocates regionally produced energy resources and selects the optimal regional mix of energy supply, conversiion, and demand technologies according to least cost or other important criteria (e.g. an aggregate environmental index or foreign energy imports) to meet projected regional energy demands. Regions are linked by both imports and exports of natural resources and converted fuels or products, including electricity. Resources are characterized by region-specific supply functions, and regional energy demands are specified in terms of functional end use. The energy sector model is integrated with a multi-regional Leontief interindustry model of the economic system. Here, regions are linked not only by inter-regional energy flows but also by inter-regional industrial flows. The traditional components of final demand result from macroeconomic projections of regional product and its composition and may be derived from a typical multi-regional econometric model. The advantages of this integrated formulation are (1) the LP formulation allows for intraregional interfuel substitution and variable inter-regional energy trade patterns; these are precluded in a standard multi-regional interindustry model; and (2) the interindustry formulation, though accepting structural overrides from the LP in regional energy production, conversion, and consumption activities, preserves the conceptual dependency of the energy sector on the larger regional economic system in which it is embedded. Two solution methodologies are outlined. The first is an iterative technique that has been successfully employed in a national version of this integrated model. The second is a reduced system LP formulation of the combined model.

  11. Integrated multi-regional energy and interindustry model of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goettle, IV, Richard J.; Cherniavsky, Ellen A.; Tessmer, Jr, Raymond G.

    1977-05-01

    The energy sector of the proposed formulation is represented in a detailed multi-regional linear programming model. This model optimally allocates regionally produced energy resources and selects the optimal regional mix of energy supply, conversiion, and demand technologies according to least cost or other important criteria (e.g. an aggregate environmental index or foreign energy imports) to meet projected regional energy demands. Regions are linked by both imports and exports of natural resources and converted fuels or products, including electricity. Resources are characterized by region-specific supply functions, and regional energy demands are specified in terms of functional end use. The energy sector model is integrated with a multi-regional Leontief interindustry model of the economic system. Here, regions are linked not only by inter-regional energy flows but also by inter-regional industrial flows. The traditional components of final demand result from macroeconomic projections of regional product and its composition and may be derived from a typical multi-regional econometric model. The advantages of this integrated formulation are (1) the LP formulation allows for intraregional interfuel substitution and variable inter-regional energy trade patterns; these are precluded in a standard multi-regional interindustry model; and (2) the interindustry formulation, though accepting structural overrides from the LP in regional energy production, conversion, and consumption activities, preserves the conceptual dependency of the energy sector on the larger regional economic system in which it is embedded. Two solution methodologies are outlined. The first is an iterative technique that has been successfully employed in a national version of this integrated model. The second is a reduced system LP formulation of the combined model.

  12. Estimated fluoride intake of 6-month-old infants in four dietary regions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophaug, R H; Singer, L; Harland, B F

    1980-02-01

    Eleven composite food groups comprising the infant "market basket" food collections for 1977 or 1978 from each of four dietary regions of the United States were analyzed for their fluoride content. Based upon the determined fluoride content of each composite and Food and Drug Administration estimates of food consumption the daily fluoride intake of an average 6-month-old infant residing in each of the dietary regions was calculated. The daily fluoride intake varied from 0.207 mg/day in Grand Rapids, Mich. (north central dietary region) to 0.541 mg/day in Orlando, Fla. (south dietary region). Flouride intakes of 0.272 and 0.354 mg/day were calculated for Philadelphia, Pa. (northeast dietary region) and Los Angeles, Calif. (west dietary region), respectively. The fluoride content of the water supplies ranged from 0.37 ppm (Los Angeles) to 1.04 ppm (Grand Rapids). Drinking water, dairy products and substitutes (other than milk), and grain and cereal products contributed 44 to 80% of the daily fluoride intake. In three of the four dietary regions the daily fluoride intake was less than the optimum level of 0.05 mg/kg body weight.

  13. Redefining climate regions in the United States of America using satellite remote sensing and machine learning for public health applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Liss

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing climate classification has not been designed for an efficient handling of public health scenarios. This work aims to design an objective spatial climate regionalization method for assessing health risks in response to extreme weather. Specific climate regions for the conterminous United States of America (USA were defined using satellite remote sensing (RS data and compared with the conventional Köppen-Geiger (KG divisions. Using the nationwide database of hospitalisations among the elderly (≥65 year olds, we examined the utility of a RS-based climate regionalization to assess public health risk due to extreme weather, by comparing the rate of hospitalisations in response to thermal extremes across climatic regions. Satellite image composites from 2002-2012 were aggregated, masked and compiled into a multi-dimensional dataset. The conterminous USA was classified into 8 distinct regions using a stepwise regionalization approach to limit noise and collinearity (LKN, which exhibited a high degree of consistency with the KG regions and a well-defined regional delineation by annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation values. The most populous was a temperate wet region (10.9 million, while the highest rate of hospitalisations due to exposure to heat and cold (9.6 and 17.7 cases per 100,000 persons at risk, respectively was observed in the relatively warm and humid south-eastern region. RS-based regionalization demonstrates strong potential for assessing the adverse effects of severe weather on human health and for decision support. Its utility in forecasting and mitigating these effects has to be further explored.

  14. Urbanization Trends (2001-2006) In The Conterminous United States And Regional Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, G. Z.; Homer, C.

    2011-12-01

    More than 50% of the world population now lives in urban and suburban areas. The rate of urbanization in the world is expected to continue to accelerate in the near future. As urban areas expand by transforming the surrounding landscape into impervious surface, the changes of urban land cover (ULC) have significant implications for wide range consequences. Monitoring changes in large urban areas becomes increasingly important. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently published the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 products including land cover and percent impervious surface area (ISA) for the conterminous United States (CONUS). The percent ISA, which represents the fraction of impervious area in a 30 m grid, was estimated using regression tree algorithms with both Landsat and nighttime lights imagery. Generally, the approach comprises four major procedures: creating a training dataset, modeling a synthetic impervious surface, comparing model outputs for optimal selection and final product clean up. The ISA product was used to define four different ULC types by categorizing percent ISA and quantitatively determining the extent of ULC. We analyzed 2001 and 2006 imperviousness variations to summarize two areal increments: ISA, which calculates the area of imperviousness proportion in every 30 m pixels, and urban area, which totals the number of 30 m pixels that contain any impervious surface. The new ISA in 2006 increases 4.1% (4095 km2) from the 2001 base amount across the CONUS. The growth of ISA reached approximately 819 km2 per year during the period. The total ISA in 2006 reached 103,615 km2, which is slightly smaller than the state of Kentucky. The new urban area in 2006 was 12,365 km2 and the total urban area reached 500,153 km2, which is close to the size of California and Indiana combined. To analyze the interactions between ULC change and climate systems, we used both the gridded climate data from the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent

  15. Summary of three regional assessment studies of solar electric generation opportunities in the Southwest, Southeast, and Northeast United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, R.L.; Harty, H.

    1981-02-01

    Market opportunities for solar generation of electricity for utility and for residential/commercial/industrial applications in the Northeast, Southeast, and Southwest regions of the United States were evaluated in three studies (JBF 1979, Stone and Webster 1979a, 1979b) and are summarized. The evaluations were based on both economic analyses and user perception of what they would require to select or approve the use of solar electric generation for themselves or for their employers. Over 30 utilities and several industrial and commercial firms and homeowners were involved. Solar electric technologies considered included biomass, hybrid retrofit, OTEC, photovoltaic, solar thermal, and wind. The studies projected that solar electric technologies could account for several percent of the forecast generation in year 2000 in the Southeast and Southwest regions,and up to 10 to 20% in the Northeast region. No single solar electric technology or application (for utility or industrial/commercial/residential use) arrived earlier at economic breakeven than other technologies in the Southeast region, but wind generation for both utility and industrial applications predominated in the Northeast region. The Southwest region, in which only utility applications were considered, showed wind energy and retrofit hybrid (a solar adjunct to an existing fossil-fueled plant) to be the most likely early applications.

  16. The United States and the Asia-Pacific Region: Security Strategy for the Obama Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    popular culture, regional tourism , and sub-regional communications, have created a new atmosphere in which cooperative approaches to a wide range...promotion of good governance, capac- ity building, and advisory assistance if requested by Bangkok to deal with its insurgency along the Thai-Malaysia

  17. The role of inflation differentials in regional adjustments : Evidence from the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Kool, C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Within a monetary union, regional inflation differentials lead to a competition between a real interest rate and wealth channels on the one hand and the real exchange rate channel on the other hand in the transmission of regional shocks. This may have implications for the length and vehemence of reg

  18. Multi-Agent Many-Objective Robust Decision Making: Supporting Cooperative Regional Water Portfolio Planning in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. D.; Zeff, H. B.; Reed, P. M.; Characklis, G. W.

    2013-12-01

    In the Eastern United States, water infrastructure and institutional frameworks have evolved in a historically water-rich environment. However, large regional droughts over the past decade combined with continuing population growth have marked a transition to a state of water scarcity, for which current planning paradigms are ill-suited. Significant opportunities exist to improve the efficiency of water infrastructure via regional coordination, namely, regional 'portfolios' of water-related assets such as reservoirs, conveyance, conservation measures, and transfer agreements. Regional coordination offers the potential to improve reliability, cost, and environmental impact in the expected future state of the world, and, with informed planning, to improve robustness to future uncertainty. In support of this challenge, this study advances a multi-agent many-objective robust decision making (multi-agent MORDM) framework that blends novel computational search and uncertainty analysis tools to discover flexible, robust regional portfolios. Our multi-agent MORDM framework is demonstrated for four water utilities in the Research Triangle region of North Carolina, USA. The utilities supply nearly two million customers and have the ability to interact with one another via transfer agreements and shared infrastructure. We show that strategies for this region which are Pareto-optimal in the expected future state of the world remain vulnerable to performance degradation under alternative scenarios of deeply uncertain hydrologic and economic factors. We then apply the Patient Rule Induction Method (PRIM) to identify which of these uncertain factors drives the individual and collective vulnerabilities for the four cooperating utilities. Our results indicate that clear multi-agent tradeoffs emerge for attaining robustness across the utilities. Furthermore, the key factor identified for improving the robustness of the region's water supply is cooperative demand reduction. This type

  19. Prioritization of constituents for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Zogorski, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2,541 constituents were evaluated and prioritized for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States. This prioritization was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in preparation for the upcoming third decade (Cycle 3; 2013–23) of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report provides the methods used to prioritize the constituents and the results of that prioritization. Constituents were prioritized by the NAWQA National Target Analyte Strategy (NTAS) work group on the basis of available information on physical and chemical properties, observed or predicted environmental occurrence and fate, and observed or anticipated adverse effects on human health or aquatic life. Constituents were evaluated within constituent groups that were determined on the basis of physical or chemical properties or on uses or sources. Some constituents were evaluated within more than one constituent group. Although comparable objectives were used in the prioritization of constituents within the different constituent groups, differences in the availability of information accessed for each constituent group led to the development of separate prioritization approaches adapted to each constituent group to make best use of available resources. Constituents were assigned to one of three prioritization tiers: Tier 1, those having the highest priority for inclusion in ambient monitoring of water or sediment on a national or regional scale (including NAWQA Cycle 3 monitoring) on the basis of their likelihood of environmental occurrence in ambient water or sediment, or likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; Tier 2, those having intermediate priority for monitoring on the basis of their lower likelihood of environmental occurrence or lower likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; and Tier 3, those having low or no priority for monitoring on the basis of evidence of nonoccurrence or lack of

  20. Multilevel Hierarchical Modeling of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Responses to Urbanization in Nine Metropolitan Regions across the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashuba, Roxolana; Cha, YoonKyung; Alameddine, Ibrahim; Lee, Boknam; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Multilevel hierarchical modeling methodology has been developed for use in ecological data analysis. The effect of urbanization on stream macroinvertebrate communities was measured across a gradient of basins in each of nine metropolitan regions across the conterminous United States. The hierarchical nature of this dataset was harnessed in a multi-tiered model structure, predicting both invertebrate response at the basin scale and differences in invertebrate response at the region scale. Ordination site scores, total taxa richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) taxa richness, and richness-weighted mean tolerance of organisms at a site were used to describe invertebrate responses. Percentage of urban land cover was used as a basin-level predictor variable. Regional mean precipitation, air temperature, and antecedent agriculture were used as region-level predictor variables. Multilevel hierarchical models were fit to both levels of data simultaneously, borrowing statistical strength from the complete dataset to reduce uncertainty in regional coefficient estimates. Additionally, whereas non-hierarchical regressions were only able to show differing relations between invertebrate responses and urban intensity separately for each region, the multilevel hierarchical regressions were able to explain and quantify those differences within a single model. In this way, this modeling approach directly establishes the importance of antecedent agricultural conditions in masking the response of invertebrates to urbanization in metropolitan regions such as Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; and Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas. Also, these models show that regions with high precipitation, such as Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; and Portland, Oregon, start out with better regional background conditions of invertebrates prior to urbanization but experience faster negative rates of change with urbanization. Ultimately, this urbanization

  1. Regional and Local Controls on the Distribution of Geothermal Systems in the Great Basin, Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolbaugh, M. F.; Blewitt, G.; Faulds, J. E.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2005-12-01

    In the Great Basin (GB) of the western United States, geothermal systems with reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C can be classified into two main categories (magmatic and amagmatic) according to the presence or absence of shallow magmatic heat sources. Magmatic systems are restricted to the margins of the GB where they are closely associated with Quaternary silicic volcanic rocks, whereas amagmatic systems occur over a large portion of the Great Basin interior and are not spatially associated with young silicic volcanism. A tabulation of temperature gradients for known geothermal systems in the world confirms research by others indicating that both magmatic and amagmatic systems occur within areas of high temperature gradients and high heat flow. However, high heat flow alone is not sufficient to explain the abundance of high-temperature geothermal activity in the GB interior. While the distribution of favorable host rocks likely plays a role, active crustal tectonics appears instrumental in explaining patterns of geothermal activity. At a detailed scale, Quaternary faults control the location of most geothermal systems in the GB. However, hundreds of Quaternary faults are distributed throughout the GB, and most do not host high-temperature geothermal resources. Spatial statistical analysis demonstrates that high-temperature geothermal systems (more than 150 C) are preferentially associated with NE-striking Quaternary faults, which in turn are oriented roughly perpendicular to the current direction of crustal extension in the western GB. Maps of active crustal extension rates in the GB, derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity measurements and estimated slip rates on Quaternary faults, correlate well with the distribution of high-temperature geothermal systems and help explain why some faults with lower slip rates or unfavorable orientations don't host geothermal activity. Many geothermal systems in the GB occur in a broad transitional region

  2. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  3. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  4. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2010 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  8. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  9. Climatic regions as an indicator of forest coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liknes Greg C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coarse and fine woody debris are substantial forest ecosystem carbon stocks; however, there is a lack of understanding how these detrital carbon stocks vary across forested landscapes. Because forest woody detritus production and decay rates may partially depend on climatic conditions, the accumulation of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks in forests may be correlated with climate. This study used a nationwide inventory of coarse and fine woody debris in the United States to examine how these carbon stocks vary by climatic regions and variables. Results Mean coarse and fine woody debris forest carbon stocks vary by Köppen's climatic regions across the United States. The highest carbon stocks were found in regions with cool summers while the lowest carbon stocks were found in arid desert/steppes or temperate humid regions. Coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks were found to be positively correlated with available moisture and negatively correlated with maximum temperature. Conclusion It was concluded with only medium confidence that coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks may be at risk of becoming net emitter of carbon under a global climate warming scenario as increases in coarse or fine woody debris production (sinks may be more than offset by increases in forest woody detritus decay rates (emission. Given the preliminary results of this study and the rather tenuous status of coarse and fine woody debris carbon stocks as either a source or sink of CO2, further research is suggested in the areas of forest detritus decay and production.

  10. Effects of Land Use Land Cover (LULC) and Climate on Simulation of Phosphorus loading in the Southeast United States Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jima, T. G.; Roberts, A.

    2013-12-01

    Quality of coastal and freshwater resources in the Southeastern United States is threatened due to Eutrophication as a result of excessive nutrients, and phosphorus is acknowledged as one of the major limiting nutrients. In areas with much non-point source (NPS) pollution, land use land cover and climate have been found to have significant impact on water quality. Landscape metrics applied in catchment and riparian stream based nutrient export models are known to significantly improve nutrient prediction. The regional SPARROW (Spatially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes), which predicts Total Phosphorus has been developed by the Southeastern United States regions USGS, as part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program and the model accuracy was found to be 67%. However, landscape composition and configuration metrics which play a significant role in the source, transport and delivery of the nutrient have not been incorporated in the model. Including these matrices in the models parameterization will improve the models accuracy and improve decision making process for mitigating and managing NPS phosphorus in the region. The National Land Cover Data 2001 raster data will be used (since the base line is 2002) for the region (with 8321 watersheds ) with fragstats 4.1 and ArcGIS Desktop 10.1 for the analysis of landscape matrices, buffers and creating map layers. The result will be imported to the Southeast SPARROW model and will be analyzed. Resulting statistical significance and model accuracy will be assessed and predictions for those areas with no water quality monitoring station will be made.

  11. First definitive record of a stygobiotic fish (Percopsiformes, Amblyopsidae, Typhlichthys from the Appalachians karst region in the eastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L. Niemiller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the central and eastern United States, cavefishes have been known historically only from the Interior Low Plateau and Ozarks karst regions. Previously, cavefishes were unknown from the Appalachians karst region, which extends from southeastern New York southwestward into eastern Tennessee, northwestern Georgia, and northeastern Alabama. Here we report the discovery of a new population of the amblyopsid cavefish Typhlichthys subterraneus Girard, 1859 from a cave in Catoosa County, Georgia, that significantly extends the known distribution of the species. The cave is located in the Appalachian Valley and Ridge physiographic province and Appalachians karst region, and represents the first definitive report of a stygobiotic fish from the Appalachians karst region. Genetic analyses of one mitochondrial and one nuclear locus from the cavefish indicate this population is closely allied with populations that occur along the western margins of Lookout and Fox mountains in Dade County, Georgia, and populations to the northwest in southern Marion County, Tennessee. It is likely that these populations are also related to those from Wills Valley, DeKalb County, Alabama. The distribution of this new population of T. subterraneus and its close allies pre-dates the emergence of a Tennessee-Coosa River drainage divide in the Pliocene. The potential exists to discover additional populations in caves within the Appalachians karst region in Catoosa County and northward into Hamilton County, Tennessee.

  12. Multi-regional synthesis of temporal trends in biotic assemblages in streams and rivers of the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Keenen, Jonathan G.

    2013-01-01

    Biotic assemblages in aquatic ecosystems are excellent integrators and indicators of changing environmental conditions within a watershed. Therefore, temporal changes in abiotic environmental variables often can be inferred from temporal changes in biotic assemblages. Algae, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblage data were collected from 91 sampling sites in 4 geographic regions (northeastern/north-central, southeastern, south-central, and western), collectively encompassing the continental United States, from 1993 to 2009 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This report uses a multivariate approach to synthesize temporal trends in biotic assemblages and correlations with relevant abiotic parameters as a function of biotic assemblage, geographic region, and land use. Of the three groups of biota, algal assemblages had temporal trends at the greatest percentage of sites. Of the regions, a greater percentage of sites in the northeastern/north-central and western regions had temporal trends in biotic assemblages. In terms of land use, a greater percentage of watersheds draining agricultural, urban, and undeveloped areas had significant temporal changes in biota, as compared to watersheds with mixed use. Correlations between biotic assemblages and abiotic variables indicate that, in general, macroinvertebrate assemblages correlated with water quality and fish assemblages correlated with physical habitat. Taken together, results indicate that there are regional differences in how individual biotic assemblages (algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish) respond to different abiotic drivers of change.

  13. Landscape, demographic and climatic associations with human West Nile virus occurrence regionally in 2012 in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. DeGroote

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After several years of low West Nile virus (WNV occurrence in the United States of America (USA, 2012 wit- nessed large outbreaks in several parts of the country. In order to understand the outbreak dynamics, spatial clustering and landscape, demographic and climatic associations with WNV occurrence were investigated at a regional level in the USA. Previous research has demonstrated that there are a handful of prominent WNV mosquito vectors with varying ecological requirements responsible for WNV transmission in the USA. Published range maps of these important vectors were georef- erenced and used to define eight functional ecological regions in the coterminous USA. The number of human WNV cases and human populations by county were attained in order to calculate a WNV rate for each county in 2012. Additionally, a binary value (high/low was calculated for each county based on whether the county WNV rate was above or below the rate for the region it fell in. Global Moran’s I and Anselin Local Moran’s I statistics of spatial association were used per region to examine and visualize clustering of the WNV rate and the high/low rating. Spatial data on landscape, demographic and climatic variables were compiled and derived from a variety of sources and then investigated in relation to human WNV using both Spearman rho correlation coefficients and Poisson regression models. Findings demonstrated significant spatial clustering of WNV and substantial inter-regional differences in relationships between WNV occurrence and landscape, demographic and climatically related variables. The regional associations were consistent with the ecologies of the dominant vectors for those regions. The large outbreak in the Southeast region was preceded by higher than normal winter and spring precipitation followed by dry and hot conditions in the summer.

  14. Landscape, demographic and climatic associations with human West Nile virus occurrence regionally in 2012 in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGroote, John P; Sugumaran, Ramanathan; Ecker, Mark

    2014-11-01

    After several years of low West Nile virus (WNV) occurrence in the United States of America (USA), 2012 witnessed large outbreaks in several parts of the country. In order to understand the outbreak dynamics, spatial clustering and landscape, demographic and climatic associations with WNV occurrence were investigated at a regional level in the USA. Previous research has demonstrated that there are a handful of prominent WNV mosquito vectors with varying ecological requirements responsible for WNV transmission in the USA. Published range maps of these important vectors were georeferenced and used to define eight functional ecological regions in the coterminous USA. The number of human WNV cases and human populations by county were attained in order to calculate a WNV rate for each county in 2012. Additionally, a binary value (high/low) was calculated for each county based on whether the county WNV rate was above or below the rate for the region it fell in. Global Moran's I and Anselin Local Moran's I statistics of spatial association were used per region to examine and visualize clustering of the WNV rate and the high/low rating. Spatial data on landscape, demographic and climatic variables were compiled and derived from a variety of sources and then investigated in relation to human WNV using both Spearman rho correlation coefficients and Poisson regression models. Findings demonstrated significant spatial clustering of WNV and substantial inter-regional differences in relationships between WNV occurrence and landscape, demographic and climatically related variables. The regional associations were consistent with the ecologies of the dominant vectors for those regions. The large outbreak in the Southeast region was preceded by higher than normal winter and spring precipitation followed by dry and hot conditions in the summer.

  15. United States security strategy for the East Asia-Pacific region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The three years since release of the last East Asia Strategy Report (EASR) have produced important development in the security environment of the Asia-Pacific region. The 1998 EASR outlines a multifaceted regional security strategy, including: maintenance of comprehensive US engagement, including not only the presence of approximately 100,000 US military personnel in Asia but also a variety of other public and private interaction with the region; continued enhancement of the alliance relationships with Japan, Korea, Australia, Thailand and the Philippines; comprehensive engagement with China to build the foundation for a long-term relationship based on cooperation and mutual interest; broadening of cooperation with the nations of Southeast Asia on security and confidence building; expansion of regional cooperation with Russia; support for the development of security pluralism, including expansion of multilateral, minilateral and bilateral dialogue in the region; promotion of democracy; stemming and countering proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD): and increased attention to terrorism, environmental degradation, emerging infectious diseases, drug trafficking and other transnational challenges as critical elements of `comprehensive security.`

  16. Communal spaces: aggregation and integration in the Mogollon Region of the United States Southwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisengard, Jennifer E.

    2006-12-01

    Aggregation and integration are processes that occur in human societies throughout the globe. An informative example of population aggregation and social integration can be observed in the North American desert borderlands from A.D. 250 to 1450 in the area known as the Mogollon region. In fact, Mogollon communities oscillated from smaller social groups into larger ones and dispersed into smaller groups only to form larger ones again. For this reason, examining the groups of people living in the Mogollon region provides a magnified view of social change over a substantial period. Understanding patterns of aggregation and integration provides researchers with the promise for research into the nature of these phenomena. In general, the Mogollon region is characterized by limited water supplies and low average annual precipitation. However, pockets of the Mogollon area, including the Mimbres valley and the Gila River valley, represent oases, where permanent rivers and their associated tributaries allowed for the pursuit of agricultural endeavors and access to a wide variety of wild plant and animal resources. The areas with these kinds of potential became population centers for previously dispersed groups of people living in the region. These people exploited natural resources and practiced agriculture in areas surrounding their communities. Over time, more organized aggregated and socially integrated communities were established throughout the region. Using ancient Mogollon communal architecture, commonly called kivas, this study examines issues of, and evidence for, population aggregation and social integration.

  17. Ecohydrology of dry regions of the United States: Precipitation pulses and intraseasonal drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    William K. Lauenroth; John B. Bradford

    2009-01-01

    Distribution of precipitation event sizes and interval lengths between events are important characteristics of arid and semi-arid climates. Understanding their importance will contribute to our ability to understand ecosystem dynamics in these regions. Our objective for this paper was to present a comprehensive analysis of the daily precipitation regimes of arid and...

  18. Gas emissions from dairy cows fed typical diets of Midwest, South, and West regions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zifei; Powers, Wendy; Oldick, Bradley; Davidson, Jill; Meyer, Deanne

    2012-01-01

    Gas emissions were determined for dairy cows fed three diets formulated to represent feed ingredients typical of the Midwest, South, or West regions of the United States. Dairy cows were housed and monitored in 12 environmentally controlled rooms (4 cows diet). Two experiments were performed, representing two lactation stages (initial days in milk were 115 ± 39 d in Stage 1 and 216 ± 48 d in Stage 2). The results demonstrated that the combination of different dietary ingredients resulted in different gas emissions while maintaining similar dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield (MY). Diet effect on ammonia (NH) emissions was more prominent in Stage 1. During Stage 1, cows fed the Midwest diet had the highest daily NH emission, corresponding to the highest crude protein (CP) concentration among the three regions. The differences in NH emissions (39.0%) were much larger than the percent difference in CP concentrations between diets (6.8%). Differences in N intake, N excretion, or milk urea N alone may not serve as a strong indicator of the potential to reduce NH emissions. Lower emissions of methane (CH) per unit DMI or per unit MY were observed for cows offered the South diet during Stage 1 as compared with that from cows offered the Midwest or West diets. No diet effect was observed for hydrogen sulfide (HS) emission per unit S intake, nor for nitrous oxide (NO) emission. The measured NH and CH emissions were comparable, but the NO emissions were much higher than those reported for tie-stall dairy barns in the literature.

  19. Temporal and spatial variability of ammonia in urban and agricultural regions of northern Colorado, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Thompson, Tammy M.; Van Damme, Martin; Chen, Xi; Benedict, Katherine B.; Shao, Yixing; Day, Derek; Boris, Alexandra; Sullivan, Amy P.; Ham, Jay; Whitburn, Simon; Clarisse, Lieven; Coheur, Pierre-François; Collett, Jeffrey L., Jr.

    2017-05-01

    Concentrated agricultural activities and animal feeding operations in the northeastern plains of Colorado represent an important source of atmospheric ammonia (NH3). The NH3 from these sources contributes to regional fine particle formation and to nitrogen deposition to sensitive ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), located ˜ 80 km to the west. In order to better understand temporal and spatial differences in NH3 concentrations in this source region, weekly concentrations of NH3 were measured at 14 locations during the summers of 2010 to 2015 using Radiello passive NH3 samplers. Weekly (biweekly in 2015) average NH3 concentrations ranged from 2.66 to 42.7 µg m-3, with the highest concentrations near large concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The annual summertime mean NH3 concentrations were stable in this region from 2010 to 2015, providing a baseline against which concentration changes associated with future changes in regional NH3 emissions can be assessed. Vertical profiles of NH3 were also measured on the 300 m Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) tower throughout 2012. The highest NH3 concentration along the vertical profile was always observed at the 10 m height (annual average concentration of 4.63 µg m-3), decreasing toward the surface (4.35 µg m-3) and toward higher altitudes (1.93 µg m-3). The NH3 spatial distributions measured using the passive samplers are compared with NH3 columns retrieved by the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) satellite and concentrations simulated by the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). The satellite comparison adds to a growing body of evidence that IASI column retrievals of NH3 provide very useful insight into regional variability in atmospheric NH3, in this case even in a region with strong local sources and sharp spatial gradients. The CAMx comparison indicates that the model does a reasonable job simulating NH3 concentrations near sources but tends to

  20. Central American Refugees: Regional Conditions and Prospects and Potential Impact on the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-20

    we met with U.S. Embassy and AID officials and reviewed reports on the Salvadoran refugee camp at Ciudad Romero. Fieldwork was conducted in Costa...underdeveloped, sparsely inhabited, and disputed northeastern province of Gracias a Dios . While the government has not officially stated that they will be

  1. The effects of global changes upon regional ozone pollution in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, NE

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical modeling framework was developed to estimate the effects of collective global changes upon ozone pollution in the US in 2050. The framework consists of the global climate and chemistry models, PCM (Parallel Climate Model) and MOZART-2 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers v.2), coupled with regional meteorology and chemistry models, MM5 (Mesoscale Meteorological model) and CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality model). The modeling system was applied for two...

  2. Water resources and land use and cover in a humid region: the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, R Chelsea; Lockaby, B Graeme; Helms, Brian; Kalin, Latif; Stoeckel, Denise

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that forest and water resources are intricately linked. Globally, changes in forest cover to accommodate agriculture and urban development introduce additional challenges for water management. The U.S. Southeast typifies this global trend as predictions of land-use change and population growth suggest increased pressure on water resources in coming years. Close attention has long been paid to interactions between people and water in arid regions; however, based on information from regions such as the Southeast, it is evident that much greater focus is required to sustain a high-quality water supply in humid areas as well. To that end, we review hydrological, physicochemical, biological, and human and environmental health responses to conversion of forests to agriculture and urban land uses in the Southeast. Commonly, forest removal leads to increased stream sediment and nutrients, more variable flow, altered habitat and stream and riparian communities, and increased risk of human health effects. Although indicators such as the percentage of impervious cover signify overall watershed alteration, the threshold to disturbance, or the point at which effects can been observed in stream and riparian parameters, can be quite low and often varies with physiographic conditions. In addition to current land use, historical practices can greatly influence current water quality. General inferences of this study may extend to many humid regions concerning climate, environmental thresholds, and the causes and nature of effects.

  3. Fortified Regions: What is the Operational Significance of the Employment of Fortified Regions for NATO and the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-03

    regions for NATO and the US Army? To answer the problem statement a methology based on history, theory, and contemporary issues is used. Conventional...campaign. A corps of observation (econony of force) was necessary to achieve the strategic maneuver for massing of forces. The corps of observation would...hold the enemy in check and not seriously engage. Jomini also cautioned against the use of the corps of observation --extending in excess or too great

  4. Recent trends in racial and regional disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangmi

    2017-01-01

    Background Although black women experienced greater cervical cancer incidence and mortality rate reduction in recent years, they continue to have higher incidence rates than whites. Great variations also exist among geographic regions of the US, with the South having both the highest incidence and mortality rates compared to other regions. The present study explores the question of whether living in the South is associated with greater racial disparity in cervical cancer incidence and mortality by examining race- and region-specific rates and the trend between 2000 and 2012. Methods The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 Program data was used. Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates, annual percent changes, and disparity ratios were calculated using SEER*Stat software and Joinpoint regression for four groups: US14-Non-Hispanic White (NHW), US14-Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), South-NHW, and South-NHB, where South included 4 registries from Georgia and Louisiana and US14 were 14 US registries except the four South registries. Results The average age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence rate was the highest among South-NHBs (11.1) and mortality rate was the highest among US14-NHBs (5.4). In 2012, the degree of racial disparities between South-NHBs and South-NHWs was greater in terms of mortality rates (NHB:NHW = 1.80:1.35) than incidence rates (NHB:NHW = 1.45:1.15). While mortality disparity ratios decreased from 2000–2012 for US14-NHB (APC: -1.9(-2.3,-1.4), mortality disparity ratios for South-NHWs (although lower than NHBs) increased compared to US14-NHW. Incidence rates for NHBs continued to increase with increasing age, whereas rates for NHWs decreased after age 40. Mortality rates for NHBs dramatically increased at age 65 compared to a relatively stable trend for NHWs. The increasing racial disparity with increasing age in terms of cervical cancer incidence rates became more pronounced when corrected for hysterectomy prevalence. Conclusions

  5. Regional monitoring programs in the United States: Synthesis of four case studies from Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Schiff, K.; Trowbridge, P.R.; Sherwood, E.T.; Batiuk, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is a cornerstone of environmental protection and ambient monitoring provides managers with the critical data they need to take informed action. Unlike site-specific monitoring that is at the heart of regulatory permit compliance, regional monitoring can provide an integrated, holistic view of the environment, allowing managers to obtain a more complete picture of natural variability and cumulative impacts, and more effectively prioritize management actions. By reviewing four long-standing regional monitoring programs that cover portions of all three coasts in the United States – Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Southern California Bight, and San Francisco Bay – important insights can be gleaned about the benefits that regional monitoring provides to managers. These insights include the underlying reasons that make regional monitoring programs successful, the challenges to maintain relevance and viability in the face of ever-changing technology, competing demands and shifting management priorities. The lessons learned can help other managers achieve similar successes as they seek to establish and reinvigorate their own monitoring programs.

  6. A hierarchical Bayesian model for regionalized seasonal forecasts: Application to low flows in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kuk-Hyun; Palmer, Richard; Steinschneider, Scott

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a regional, probabilistic framework for seasonal forecasts of extreme low summer flows in the northeastern United States conditioned on antecedent climate and hydrologic conditions. The model is developed to explore three innovations in hierarchical modeling for seasonal forecasting at ungaged sites: (1) predictive climate teleconnections are inferred directly from ocean fields instead of predefined climate indices, (2) a parsimonious modeling structure is introduced to allow climate teleconnections to vary spatially across streamflow gages, and (3) climate teleconnections and antecedent hydrologic conditions are considered jointly for regional forecast development. The proposed model is developed and calibrated in a hierarchical Bayesian framework to pool regional information across sites and enhance regionalization skill. The model is validated in a cross-validation framework along with five simpler nested formulations to test specific hypotheses embedded in the full model structure. Results indicate that each of the three innovations improve out-of-sample summer low-flow forecasts, with the greatest benefits derived from the spatially heterogeneous effect of climate teleconnections. We conclude with a discussion of possible model improvements from a better representation of antecedent hydrologic conditions at ungaged sites.

  7. Regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States. Volume 2: Detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, E. I. H.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the regional applicability and potential of salt-gradient solar ponds in the United States is provided. The assessment is focused on the general characteristics of twelve defined geographic regions. Natural resources essential to solar ponds are surveyed. Meteorological and hydrogeological conditions affecting pond performance are examined. Potentially favorable pond sites are identified. Regional thermal and electrical energy output from solar ponds is calculated. Selected pond design cases are studied. Five major potential market sectors are evaluated in terms of technical and energy-consumption characteristics, and solar-pond applicability and potential. Relevant pond system data and financial factors are analyzed. Solar-pond energy costs are compared with conventional energy costs. The assessment concludes that, excepting Alaska, ponds are applicable in all regions for at least two market sectors. Total solar pond energy supply potential in the five market sectors examined is estimated to be 8.94 quads/yr by the year 2000, approximately 7.2% of the projected total national energy demand.

  8. The United States Department of Homeland Security Concept of Regionalization - Will It Survive the Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    intergovernmental relations by using network theory means that the system should be based on linkages and interrelationships, rather than...terrorist attack. Didn’t New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg exhibit big city egoism over a reduction in homeland security funding? Some... theory tells us that every relay doubles the noise and cuts the message in half. Also, change leadership requires the willingness and ability to change

  9. The Cuban Interventionary Forces: The Growing Strategic and Regional Threat to the United States and NATO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    Intelligence (DGI--Direccion General de Inteligencia ), the Department of State Security (DSE-- Departmento de Sequridad del Estado), and the Directorate of...light aircraft, hundreds of artillery pieces and multiple rocket launchers, and thousands of light infantry weapons. Unlike the relatively...much integrated into the Soviet system as Cuba, not only would there be a multiplication of Soviet influence and oppor- tunities, but presumably of

  10. Does hospital ownership influence hospital referral region health rankings in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadi, Hanadi; Apatu, Emma; Spaulding, Aaron

    2017-07-21

    Extensive evidence demonstrates that a hospital's organizational ownership structure impacts its overall performance, but little is known concerning the influence of hospital structure on the health of its community. This paper explores the association between US hospital referral region (HRR) health rankings and hospital ownership and performance. Data from the 2016 Commonwealth Fund Scorecard on Local Health System Performance, the American Hospital Association dataset, and the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing dataset are utilized to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of 36 quality measures across 306 HRRs. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the association among hospital ownership, system performance measures-access and affordability, prevention and treatment, avoidable hospital use and cost, and healthy lives-and performance as measured by value-based purchasing total performance scores. We found that indicators of access and affordability, as well as prevention and treatment, were significantly associated across all 3 hospitals' organizational structures. Hospital referral regions with a greater number of not-for-profit hospitals demonstrated greater indications of access and affordability, as well as better prevention and treatment rankings than for-profit and government hospitals. Hospital referral regions with a greater number of government, nonfederal hospitals had worse scores for healthy lives. Furthermore, the greater the total performance scores score, the better the HRR score on prevention and treatment rankings. The greater the per capita income, the better the score across all 4 dimensions. As such, this inquiry supports the assertion that performance of a local health system is dependent on its community's resources of health care delivery entities and their structure. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Geographic region and racial variations in polypharmacy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashion, Winn; McClellan, William; Howard, George; Goyal, Abhinav; Kleinbaum, David; Goodman, Michael; Prince, Valerie; Muntner, Paul; McClure, Leslie A; McClellan, Ann; Judd, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Medications can have unintended effects. High medication use populations may benefit from increased regimen oversight. Limited knowledge exists concerning racial and regional polypharmacy variation. We estimated total medication distributions (excluding supplements) of American black and white adults and assessed racial and regional polypharmacy variation. REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort data (n = 30,239 U.S. blacks and whites aged ≥45 years) were analyzed. Home pill bottle inspections assessed the last two weeks' medications. Polypharmacy (≥8 medications) was determined by summing prescription and/or over-the-counter ingredients. Population-weighted logistic regression assessed polypharmacy's association with census region, race, and sex. The mean ingredient number was 4.12 (standard error = 0.039), with 15.7% of REGARDS using 8 ingredients or more. In crude comparisons, women used more medications than men, and blacks and whites reported similar mean ingredients. A cross-sectional, logistic model adjusting for demographics, socioeconomics, and comorbidities showed increased polypharmacy prevalence in whites versus blacks (OR [95% CI]: 0.63, [0.55-0.72]), women (1.94 [1.68-2.23]), and Southerners (broadly Southeasterners and Texans; 1.48 [1.17-1.87]) versus Northeasterners (broadly New England and upper Mid-Atlantic). Possible limitations include polypharmacy misclassification and model misspecification. Polypharmacy is common. Race and geography are associated with polypharmacy variation. Further study of underlying factors explaining these differences is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  13. SIMULATION FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL GEOLOGIC CO{sub 2} STORAGE ALONG ARCHES PROVINCE OF MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sminchak, Joel

    2012-09-30

    This report presents final technical results for the project Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Infrastructure along Arches Province of the Midwest United States. The Arches Simulation project was a three year effort designed to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage infrastructure along the Arches Province through development of a geologic model and advanced reservoir simulations of large-scale CO{sub 2} storage. The project included five major technical tasks: (1) compilation of geologic, hydraulic and injection data on Mount Simon, (2) development of model framework and parameters, (3) preliminary variable density flow simulations, (4) multi-phase model runs of regional storage scenarios, and (5) implications for regional storage feasibility. The Arches Province is an informal region in northeastern Indiana, northern Kentucky, western Ohio, and southern Michigan where sedimentary rock formations form broad arch and platform structures. In the province, the Mount Simon sandstone is an appealing deep saline formation for CO{sub 2} storage because of the intersection of reservoir thickness and permeability. Many CO{sub 2} sources are located in proximity to the Arches Province, and the area is adjacent to coal fired power plants along the Ohio River Valley corridor. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, and geotechnical tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km{sup 2} study area centered on the Arches Province. Hydraulic parameters and historical operational information was also compiled from Mount Simon wastewater injection wells in the region. This information was integrated into a geocellular model that depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection. Permeability data

  14. The effects of global changes upon regional ozone pollution in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive numerical modeling framework was developed to estimate the effects of collective global changes upon ozone pollution in the US in 2050. The framework consists of the global climate and chemistry models, PCM (Parallel Climate Model and MOZART-2 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers v.2, coupled with regional meteorology and chemistry models, MM5 (Mesoscale Meteorological model and CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. The modeling system was applied for two 10-year simulations: 1990–1999 as a present-day base case and 2045–2054 as a future case. The regional simulations employed 36-km grid cells covering the continental US with boundary conditions taken from the global models. For the current decade, the distributions of summer daily maxima 8-h (DM8H ozone showed good agreement with observed distributions throughout the US. The future case simulation followed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC A2 scenario together with business-as-usual US emission projections and projected alterations in land use, land cover (LULC due to urban expansion and changes in vegetation. For these projections, US anthropogenic NOx (NO + NO2 and VOC (volatile organic carbon emissions increased by approximately 8% and 50%, respectively, while biogenic VOC emissions decreased, in spite of warmer temperatures, due to decreases in forested lands and expansion of croplands, grasslands and urban areas. A stochastic model for wildfire emissions was applied that projected 25% higher VOC emissions in the future. For the global and US emission projection used here, regional ozone pollution becomes worse in the 2045–2054 period for all months. Annually, the mean DM8H ozone was projected to increase by 9.6 ppbv (22%. The changes were higher in the spring and winter (25% and smaller in the summer (17%. The area affected by elevated ozone within the US continent was projected to increase; areas with levels

  15. Characterizing Land-cover Changes Since 1650 in the Southeastern United States for Application to Regional Climate Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, R. R.; Loveland, T. R.; Bernhardt, C. E.; Hostetler, S. W.; Sundquist, E. T.; Thompson, R. S.; Willard, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Land-cover change is a fundamental contributor to changes in climate, hydrology, and carbon cycling. European settlers introduced a series of widespread land-cover changes in eastern North America beginning in the early 17th century. These changes varied both temporally and spatially, and were related to population growth, emerging technology, and land-use. To examine the potential influence of historical land-cover changes on local to regional climate, we adapted reconstructed fractional land cover from 1650, 1850, and 1920 as well as land cover interpreted from Landsat imagery circa 1992 (Steyaert and Knox, 2008) as input for regional climate model experiments. Observed changes included: deforestation and conversion to agriculture in the mid-Atlantic region from 1650 to 1850, region-wide expansion of agriculture from 1850 to 1920, and wetland drainage, reforestation, and increased urbanization from 1920 to 1992. We translated the land cover datasets to the BATS (Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme) thematic classification on a 20 km2 grid for ingestion into the RegCM4 regional climate model. In BATS, land-cover classifications determine biophysical parameters such as the seasonal albedo cycle, fractional vegetation condition, stomatal resistance, leaf area index (LAI), and rooting depth. By defining and characterizing land cover in a consistent manner across the four time slices, we are able to explore interactions and feedbacks between land cover and regional climate in late prehistoric and historic times. Steyaert, L. T., & Knox, R. G. (2008). Reconstructed historical land cover and biophysical parameters for studies of land-atmosphere interactions within the eastern United States. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 113(D2).

  16. Mitigating Community Impacts of Energy Development: Some Examples for Coal and Nuclear Generating Plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelle, Elizabeth

    The Hartsville, Tennessee nuclear reactor site, the coal plant at Wheatland, Wyoming, and the nuclear plant at Skagit, Washington have mitigation plans developed in response to a federal, state, and local regulatory agency, respectively; the three mitigation plans aim at internalizing community-level social costs and benefits during the…

  17. Patterns and drivers for wetland connections in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Christensen, Jay R.; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem function in rivers, lakes and coastal waters depends on the functioning of upstream aquatic ecosystems, necessitating an improved understanding of watershed-scale interactions including variable surface-water flows between wetlands and streams. As surface water in the Prairie Pothole Region expands in wet years, surface-water connections occur between many depressional wetlands and streams. Minimal research has explored the spatial patterns and drivers for the abundance of these connections, despite their potential to inform resource management and regulatory programs including the U.S. Clean Water Act. In this study, wetlands were identified that did not intersect the stream network, but were shown with Landsat images (1990–2011) to become merged with the stream network as surface water expanded. Wetlands were found to spill into or consolidate with other wetlands within both small (2–10 wetlands) and large (>100 wetlands) wetland clusters, eventually intersecting a stream channel, most often via a riparian wetland. These surface-water connections occurred over a wide range of wetland distances from streams (averaging 90–1400 m in different ecoregions). Differences in the spatial abundance of wetlands that show a variable surface-water connection to a stream were best explained by smaller wetland-to-wetland distances, greater wetland abundance, and maximum surface-water extent. This analysis demonstrated that wetland arrangement and surface water expansion are important mechanisms for depressional wetlands to connect to streams and provides a first step to understanding the frequency and abundance of these surface-water connections across the Prairie Pothole Region.

  18. Amino acid digestibility in soybean meal sourced from different regions of the United States and fed to pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotak-Peper, K M; González-Vega, J C; Stein, H H

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) by growing pigs of AA in soybean meal (SBM) produced in different regions of the United States. Twenty-two growing barrows (25.5 ± 1.73 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula near the distal ileum and allotted to a 22 × 8 Youden square design. Twenty-two sources of SBM were procured from soybean crushing plants located throughout the United States. For analysis, the crushing plant locations were separated into the following 3 zones: 1) Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota ( = 4); 2) Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio ( = 11); and 3) Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska ( = 7). Dietary treatments included 22 diets based on a mixture of cornstarch, sucrose, and each source of SBM as the sole source of CP. Results indicated that the concentration of most indispensable and dispensable AA in SBM were not different among zones. However, SBM from zone 2 had a greater ( zone 3 and a greater ( zone 1. The concentration of Tyr in SBM from zone 2 was also greater ( zones 1 and 3. However, if concentrations of AA were calculated as a percent of CP, there were no differences in the concentrations of indispensable and dispensable AA among SBM from the 3 zones. Likewise, the AID of CP and the AID of indispensable and dispensable AA were not different among SBM from the 3 zones. The SID of CP and most AA was also not different among SBM from the 3 zones. However, SBM from zone 3 had a greater ( zone 2, and SBM from zone 1 had a greater ( zone 2. There was also a tendency ( zone 3 to have a greater SID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, and Tyr than SBM from zone 2. If the concentrations of SID CP and AA were calculated as grams per kilogram, SBM among the 3 zones were not different with the exception that there was a tendency ( = 0.07) for SBM from zone 2 to contain more SID Thr and SID Tyr than SBM from zone 3. In conclusion, only a few differences in concentrations and

  19. The effects of global changes upon regional ozone pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Avise, J.; Lamb, B.; Salathé, E.; Mass, C.; Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lamarque, J.-F.; O'Neill, S.; McKenzie, D.; Larkin, N.

    2009-02-01

    A comprehensive numerical modeling framework was developed to estimate the effects of collective global changes upon ozone pollution in the US in 2050. The framework consists of the global climate and chemistry models, PCM (Parallel Climate Model) and MOZART-2 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers v.2), coupled with regional meteorology and chemistry models, MM5 (Mesoscale Meteorological model) and CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality model). The modeling system was applied for two 10-year simulations: 1990-1999 as a present-day base case and 2045-2054 as a future case. For the current decade, the daily maximum 8-h moving average (DM8H) ozone mixing ratio distributions for spring, summer and fall showed good agreement with observations. The future case simulation followed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) A2 scenario together with business-as-usual US emission projections and projected alterations in land use, land cover (LULC) due to urban expansion and changes in vegetation. For these projections, US anthropogenic NOx (NO+NO2) and VOC (volatile organic carbon) emissions increased by approximately 6% and 50%, respectively, while biogenic VOC emissions decreased, in spite of warmer temperatures, due to decreases in forested lands and expansion of croplands, grasslands and urban areas. A stochastic model for wildfire emissions was applied that projected 25% higher VOC emissions in the future. For the global and US emission projection used here, regional ozone pollution becomes worse in the 2045-2054 period for all months. Annually, the mean DM8H ozone was projected to increase by 9.6 ppbv (22%). The changes were higher in the spring and winter (25%) and smaller in the summer (17%). The area affected by elevated ozone within the US continent was projected to increase; areas with levels exceeding the 75 ppbv ozone standard at least once a year increased by 38%. In addition, the length of the ozone season was projected to increase with

  20. The effects of global changes upon regional ozone pollution in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive numerical modeling framework was developed to estimate the effects of collective global changes upon ozone pollution in the US in 2050. The framework consists of the global climate and chemistry models, PCM (Parallel Climate Model and MOZART-2 (Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers v.2, coupled with regional meteorology and chemistry models, MM5 (Mesoscale Meteorological model and CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. The modeling system was applied for two 10-year simulations: 1990–1999 as a present-day base case and 2045–2054 as a future case. For the current decade, the daily maximum 8-h moving average (DM8H ozone mixing ratio distributions for spring, summer and fall showed good agreement with observations. The future case simulation followed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC A2 scenario together with business-as-usual US emission projections and projected alterations in land use, land cover (LULC due to urban expansion and changes in vegetation. For these projections, US anthropogenic NOx (NO+NO2 and VOC (volatile organic carbon emissions increased by approximately 6% and 50%, respectively, while biogenic VOC emissions decreased, in spite of warmer temperatures, due to decreases in forested lands and expansion of croplands, grasslands and urban areas. A stochastic model for wildfire emissions was applied that projected 25% higher VOC emissions in the future. For the global and US emission projection used here, regional ozone pollution becomes worse in the 2045–2054 period for all months. Annually, the mean DM8H ozone was projected to increase by 9.6 ppbv (22%. The changes were higher in the spring and winter (25% and smaller in the summer (17%. The area affected by elevated ozone within the US continent was projected to increase; areas with levels exceeding the 75 ppbv ozone standard at least once a year increased by 38%. In addition, the length of the ozone

  1. Baseline and projected future carbon storage and greenhouse-gas fluxes in the Great Plains region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Michelle; Butman, David; Hawbaker, Todd; Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Jinxun; Liu, Shu-Guang; McDonald, Cory; Reker, Ryan; Sayler, Kristi; Sleeter, Benjamin; Sohl, Terry; Stackpoole, Sarah; Wein, Anne; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2011-01-01

    This assessment was conducted to fulfill the requirements of section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 and to improve understanding of carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in the Great Plains region in the central part of the United States. The assessment examined carbon storage, carbon fluxes, and other GHG fluxes (methane and nitrous oxide) in all major terrestrial ecosystems (forests, grasslands/shrublands, agricultural lands, and wetlands) and freshwater aquatic systems (rivers, streams, lakes, and impoundments) in two time periods: baseline (generally in the first half of the 2010s) and future (projections from baseline to 2050). The assessment was based on measured and observed data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and many other agencies and organizations and used remote sensing, statistical methods, and simulation models.

  2. Moisture Flux Convergence in Regional and Global Climate Models: Implications for Droughts in the Southwestern United States Under Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yanhong; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Salathe, E.; Dominguez, Francina; Nijssen, Bart; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-05-10

    The water cycle of the southwestern United States (SW) is dominated by winter storms that maintain a positive annual net precipitation. Analysis of the control and future climate from four pairs of regional and global climate models (RCMs and GCMs) shows that the RCMs simulate a higher fraction of transient eddy moisture fluxes because the hydrodynamic instabilities associated with flow over complex terrain are better resolved. Under global warming, this enables the RCMs to capture the response of transient eddies to increased atmospheric stability that allows more moisture to converge on the windward side of the mountains by blocking. As a result, RCMs simulate enhanced transient eddy moisture convergence in the SW compared to GCMs, although both robustly simulate drying due to enhanced moisture divergence by the divergent mean flow in a warmer climate. This enhanced convergence leads to reduced susceptibility to hydrological change in the RCMs compared to GCMs.

  3. Light Absorption by Soil Dust in Regional Haze over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, W. H.; Trzepla, K.; Hyslop, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    The IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) monitors regional haze at about 170 sites throughout the U.S. About 20,000 samples of fine particulate matter (Dp atmosphere, and is not easily reproduced in controlled laboratory settings. Absorption by a collected sample depends additionally on the filter, sample loading, and heterogeneity of the particle population. Absorption by a filter deposit is thus likely to differ quantitatively from that of the suspended particles in the air column from which it was sampled. This is a recognized limitation of any filter-based absorption measurement, but is widely tolerated in return for the huge increase that filtration provides in sample concentration. Tailoring the absorption measurement to the samples routinely analyzed by XRF does allow us to observe aspects of the absorption-composition relationship in the real world. Newly calibrated measurements from the HIPS system yield a consistent record of light absorption throughout the IMPROVE monitoring network since 2003. Comparisons with IMPROVE chemical data identify both carbon soot and iron-bearing dust as significant contributors to light absorption by particulate matter.

  4. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  5. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  6. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  7. Airborne observations of regional variation in fluorescent aerosol across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perring, A. E.; Schwarz, J. P.; Baumgardner, D.; Hernandez, M. T.; Spracklen, D. V.; Heald, C. L.; Gao, R. S.; Kok, G.; McMeeking, G. R.; McQuaid, J. B.; Fahey, D. W.

    2015-02-01

    Airborne observations of fluorescent aerosol were made aboard an airship during CloudLab, a series of flights that took place in September and October of 2013 and covered a wideband of longitude across the continental U.S. between Florida and California and between 28 and 37 N latitudes. Sampling occurred from near the surface to 1000 m above the ground. A Wideband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor (WIBS-4) measured average concentrations of supermicron fluorescent particles aloft (1 µm to 10 µm), revealing number concentrations ranging from 2.1 ± 0.8 to 8.7 ± 2.2 × 104 particles m-3 and representing up to 24% of total supermicron particle number. We observed distinct variations in size distributions and fluorescent characteristics in different regions, and attribute these to geographically diverse bioaerosol. Fluorescent aerosol detected in the east is largely consistent with mold spores observed in a laboratory setting, while a shift to larger sizes associated with different fluorescent patterns is observed in the west. Fluorescent bioaerosol loadings in the desert west were as high as those near the Gulf of Mexico, suggesting that bioaerosol is a substantial component of supermicron aerosol both in humid and arid environments. The observations are compared to model fungal and bacterial loading predictions, and good agreement in both particle size and concentrations is observed in the east. In the west, the model underestimated observed concentrations by a factor between 2 and 4 and the prescribed particle sizes are smaller than the observed fluorescent aerosol. A classification scheme for use with WIBS data is also presented.

  8. Changes in Intense Rainfall Events over the Central United States in AOGCM-Driven Regional Climate Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, A. R.; Arritt, R. W.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We have evaluated trends in extreme precipitation frequency for the central United States (Groisman et al. 2012) using atmosphere-ocean global climate model (AOGCM) driven regional climate simulations. Nested regional climate model simulations were conducted using RegCM4.4 over the CORDEX-North America domain with 50 km grid spacing. Initial and lateral boundary conditions are taken from the HadGEM2-ES and GFDL-ESM2M AOGCMs (for RCP8.5 emissions scenario) to simulate present and future climate (1951-2098). For each run, RegCM4 uses three different convection schemes: Emanuel scheme, Grell scheme, and Mixed scheme which uses the Emanuel scheme over water and Grell over land.Current findings show the regional climate simulations are of the same magnitude of average frequency for heavy ( 25.4-76.2 mm/day), and extreme (154.9+ mm/day) precipitation events while very heavy events (76.2+ mm/day) were less frequent by an order of magnitude. For current and recent past climate (1951-2005), frequency of precipitation events is similar in both HadGEM2-ES and GFDL-ESM2M AOGCM-driven regional climate simulations with most variation due to the convection scheme being used. Initial results seem to exhibit similar trends in the increase of frequency for each precipitation event as is seen in observations. In accordance with Groisman et al. (2012), preliminary findings also show months during the cold season had more frequent heavy events in comparison to very heavy and extreme events while months during the warm season had more frequent very heavy and extreme events in comparison to heavy events. Further analysis will better determine the correlation and accuracy of these regional climate simulations.

  9. Constructing a State Policy To Promote Regionalism in School Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukowsky, Jerome; And Others.

    This paper defines regionalism, sets some tentative directions for the concept, and raises difficult questions related to its application in New York State. Regionalism, which offers an alternative to a State-local school governing system, is used to decentralize the planning and management of public services. A regional unit permits district…

  10. Deserts of the southwestern United States, for the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system study, Nevada and California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This digital data set defines the boundaries of the deserts of the southwestern United States. Those deserts include the Great Basin, Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran...

  11. Journal publications by pharmacy practice faculty evaluated by institution and region of the United States (2001-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman CI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the quantity of manuscripts published in journals by departments of pharmacy practice at schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States for the years 2001-2003.Methods: We utilized the Web of Science bibliographic database to identify publication citations for the years 2001 to 2003 which were then evaluated in a number of different ways. Faculty were identified via American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy rosters for 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and 2002-2003 academic years. Results: Rankings were done based on the number of publications per institution and average number of publications per faculty member at an institution. Upon linear regression analysis, a relationship exists between an institution’s faculty size and the total number of publications but not for tenure/nontenure-track faculty ratio. Rating highest in overall publication number did not guarantee high rankings in the average number of publications per faculty member at an institution assessment. Midwestern schools were responsible for more publications per institution than other regions. Many schools only generated minimal scholarship over this evaluative period.Conclusion: While many schools have pharmacy practice faculty that strongly contributed to the biomedical literature, other schools have not. Pharmacy practice faculty in the Midwest publish more journal manuscripts than faculty in other regions of the country. More pharmacy schools need to engage their faculty in scholarly endeavors by providing support and incentives.

  12. Relict nebkhas (pimple mounds) record prolonged late Holocene drought in the forested region of south-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Christopher L.; Cox, Randel Tom; Forman, Steven L.; Foti, Tom L.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.; McColgan, Andrew T.

    2009-05-01

    The origin and significance of pimple mounds (low, elliptical to circular dune-like features found across much of the south-central United States) have been debated for nearly two centuries. We cored pimple mounds at four sites spanning the Ozark Plateau, Arkansas River Valley, and Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and found that these mounds have a regionally consistent textural asymmetry such that there is a significant excess of coarse-grained sediment within their northwest flanks. We interpret this asymmetry as evidence of an eolian depositional origin of these mounds and conclude they are relict nebkhas (coppice dunes) deposited during protracted middle to late Holocene droughts. These four mounds yield optically stimulated luminescence ages between 2400 and 700 yr that correlate with well-documented periods of eolian activity and droughts on the southern Great Plains, including the Medieval Climate Anomaly. We conclude vegetation loss during extended droughts led to local eolian deflation and pimple mound deposition. These mounds reflect landscape response to multi-decadal droughts for the south-central U.S. The spatial extent of pimple mounds across this region further underscores the severity and duration of late Holocene droughts, which were significantly greater than historic droughts.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of China and the United States in the Southeast Asia Region under the Obama Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With China’s rapid rise and the implementation of the Obama Administration’s ”Return to the Asia Pacific” strategy, both China and the United States have significantly changed their relations with Southeast Asia in recent years. Also, the influence of China and the United States in this region has changed too. Both China and the United States have strengthened relations with the Southeast Asia region in terms of political, economic, military, cultural and other aspects, and their influence has also risen in varying degrees. In comparison, China has a greater impact on the economy of Southeast Asia, while the US has more influence on its military and security. China vigorously implements the neighborhood diplomacy featuring amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness. The United States actively promotes the Asia-Pacific rebalancing strategy. The Southeast Asian countries continue to choose the balance of power strategy, relying on China regarding the economy, relying on the United States regarding the security. This has resulted in the continuous game between China and the United States in the Southeast Asian region.

  14. Regional hydrologic response to climate change in the conterminous United States using high-resolution hydroclimate simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Bibi S.; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Rastogi, Deeksha; Mei, Rui; Bowling, Laura C.

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that Global Climate Model (GCM) outputs have been used to project hydrologic impacts of climate change using off-line hydrologic models for two decades, many of these efforts have been disjointed - applications or at least calibrations have been focused on individual river basins and using a few of the available GCMs. This study improves upon earlier attempts by systematically projecting hydrologic impacts for the entire conterminous United States (US), using outputs from ten GCMs from the latest Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) archive, with seamless hydrologic model calibration and validation techniques to produce a spatially and temporally consistent set of current hydrologic projections. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was forced with ten-member ensemble projections of precipitation and air temperature that were dynamically downscaled using a regional climate model (RegCM4) and bias-corrected to 1/24° (~ 4 km) grid resolution for the baseline (1966-2005) and future (2011-2050) periods under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5. Based on regional analysis, the VIC model projections indicate an increase in winter and spring total runoff due to increases in winter precipitation of up to 20% in most regions of the US. However, decreases in snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow-covered days will lead to significant decreases in summer runoff with more pronounced shifts in the time of occurrence of annual peak runoff projected over the eastern and western US. In contrast, the central US will experience year-round increases in total runoff, mostly associated with increases in both extreme high and low runoff. The projected hydrological changes described in this study have implications for various aspects of future water resource management, including water supply, flood and drought preparation, and reservoir operation.

  15. Estimating a-priori kinematic wave model parameters based on regionalization for flash flood forecasting in the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Humberto; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Flamig, Zachary L.; Hong, Yang; Arthur, Ami; Kolar, Randall

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the estimation of a-priori parameters of the widely used kinematic wave approximation to the unsteady, 1-D Saint-Venant equations for hydrologic flow routing. The approach is based on a multi-dimensional statistical modeling of the macro scale spatial variability of rating curve parameters using a set of geophysical factors including geomorphology, hydro-climatology and land cover/land use over the Conterminous United States. The main goal of this study was to enable prediction at ungauged locations through regionalization of model parameters. The results highlight the importance of regional and local geophysical factors in uniquely defining characteristics of each stream reach conforming to physical theory of fluvial hydraulics. The application of the estimates is demonstrated through a hydrologic modeling evaluation of a deterministic forecasting system performed on 1672 gauged basins and 47,563 events extracted from a 10-year simulation. Considering the mean concentration time of the basins of the study and the target application on flash flood forecasting, the skill of the flow routing simulations is significantly high for peakflow and timing of peakflow estimation, and shows consistency as indicated by the large sample verification. The resulting a-priori estimates can be used in any hydrologic model that employs the kinematic wave model for flow routing. Furthermore, probabilistic estimates of kinematic wave parameters are enabled based on uncertainty information that is generated during the multi-dimensional statistical modeling. More importantly, the methodology presented in this study enables the estimation of the kinematic wave model parameters anywhere over the globe, thus allowing flood modeling in ungauged basins at regional to global scales.

  16. Applying IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) land-use projections in a regional assessment of land-use change in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherba, J.; Sleeter, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) include global land-use change projections for four global emissions scenarios. These projections are potentially useful for driving regional-scale models needed for informing land-use and management interactions. Here, we applied global gridded RCP land-use projections within a regional-scale state-and-transition simulation model (STSM) projecting land-use change in the conterminous United States. First, we cross-walked RCP land-use transition classes to land-use classes more relevant for modeling at the regional scale. Coarse grid RCP land-use transition values were then downscaled to EPA Level III ecoregion boundaries using historical land-use transition data from the USGS Land Cover Trends (LCT) dataset. Downscaled transitions were aggregated to the ecoregion level. Ecoregions were chosen because they represent areas with consistent land-use patterns that have proven useful for studying land-use and management interactions. Ecoregion-level RCP projections were applied in a state-and-transition simulation model (STSM) projecting land-use change between 2005 and 2100 at the 1-km scale. Resulting RCP-based STSM projections were compared to STSM projections created using scenario projections from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) and the USGS LCT dataset. While most land-use trajectories appear plausible, some transitions such as forest harvest are unreasonable in the context of historical land-use patterns and the socio-economic drivers of change outlined for each scenario. This effort provides a method for using the RCP land-use projections in a wide range of regional scale models. However, further investigation is needed into the performance of RCP land-use projections at the regional scale.

  17. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Turner

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m−2 yr−1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr−1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr−1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002

  18. Scaling net ecosystem production and net biome production over a heterogeneous region in the western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Turner

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Bottom-up scaling of net ecosystem production (NEP and net biome production (NBP was used to generate a carbon budget for a large heterogeneous region (the state of Oregon, 2.5×105 km2 in the western United States. Landsat resolution (30 m remote sensing provided the basis for mapping land cover and disturbance history, thus allowing us to account for all major fire and logging events over the last 30 years. For NEP, a 23-year record (1980–2002 of distributed meteorology (1 km resolution at the daily time step was used to drive a process-based carbon cycle model (Biome-BGC. For NBP, fire emissions were computed from remote sensing based estimates of area burned and our mapped biomass estimates. Our estimates for the contribution of logging and crop harvest removals to NBP were from the model simulations and were checked against public records of forest and crop harvesting. The predominately forested ecoregions within our study region had the highest NEP sinks, with ecoregion averages up to 197 gC m−2 yr−1. Agricultural ecoregions were also NEP sinks, reflecting the imbalance of NPP and decomposition of crop residues. For the period 1996–2000, mean NEP for the study area was 17.0 TgC yr−1, with strong interannual variation (SD of 10.6. The sum of forest harvest removals, crop removals, and direct fire emissions amounted to 63% of NEP, leaving a mean NBP of 6.1 TgC yr−1. Carbon sequestration was predominantly on public forestland, where the harvest rate has fallen dramatically in the recent years. Comparison of simulation results with estimates of carbon stocks, and changes in carbon stocks, based on forest inventory data showed generally good agreement. The carbon sequestered as NBP, plus accumulation of forest products in slow turnover pools, offset 51% of the annual emissions of fossil fuel CO2 for the state. State-level NBP dropped below zero in 2002

  19. Asthma prevalence associated with geographical latitude and regional insolation in the United States of America and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, Goran

    2011-04-08

    It has been proposed that vitamin D deficiency may be responsible for an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases and asthma worldwide. Human ability to generate physiologically required quantities of vitamin D through sun exposure is decreasing with increasing geographical latitude. Considering that vitamin D deficiency is usually due to lack of outdoor sun exposure, this study is designed to test the hypothesis that a higher prevalence of asthma should be expected at high relative to low geographical latitudes. Linear regression analyses are performed on asthma prevalence in the U.S. adult population vs. geographical latitude, insolation, air temperature, and air pollution (PM(2.5)) for 97 major metropolitan/micropolitan statistical areas of the continental United States of America and on general population asthma prevalence vs. geographical latitude in eight metropolitan areas of Australia. A 10° change in geographical latitude from southern to northern regions of the Eastern Seaboard is associated with a 2% increase in adult asthma prevalence (pinsolation in winter months is almost as strong as latitude in its ability to explain the observed spatial variation in the prevalence of asthma (r(2) = 0.43; pinsolation and asthma prevalence worldwide. The results of this study suggest that, as a known modulator of the immune response closely linked with the geographical latitude and erythemal UV irradiation, vitamin D may play an important role in the development/exacerbation of asthma.

  20. Teaching Methods and Tools Used In Food Safety Extension Education Programs in the North Central Region of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways to ensure food safety is to educate thepublic. Of the organizations providing food safety educationin the United States (U.S., the Cooperative Extension System(CES is one of the most reliable. The effectiveness CESprograms depends not only on what is being taught but also onhow it is taught. Both a needs-based curriculum and how thatcurriculum is delivered are equally important. This descriptivecross-sectional study using a disproportional stratified randomsample identified the teaching methods and tools being used byfood safety extension educators of the CES of North CentralRegion (NCR. A Likert-type scale administered to extensioneducators revealed that they were adopting a balanced use ofteaching methods and tools, and using learner-centered teachingmethods in their programs. However, distance education, casestudies and podcasts, which are commonly used in educationprograms, were not being used extensively. We recommend thatfood safety extension educators of NCR should increase the useof these two teaching methods and tool while continuing to usethe current ones. This study has implications for improving foodsafety education delivery to clients in the NCR and for designinginservice education for food safety extension educators

  1. SBAR Panel: Phase I Federal Implementation Plans (FIPs) To Reduce the Regional Transport of Ozone in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBAR panel on regional reductions of nitrogen oxides, with focus on the windborne transport of ozone smog and nitrogen oxides from NOx-producing sources in 22 eastern states and the District of Columbia

  2. Hydraulic Conductivity Functions in Relation to Some Chemical Properties in a Cultivated Oxisols of a Humid Region, Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbuchua, C. N.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate hydraulic conductivity functions in relation to some soil chemical properties in an oxisols of the tropics. Field and laboratory studies were carried out and data collected, subjected to statistical analytical procedure for computing coefficient of variability and correlation among soil properties. Results of the study showed that hydraulic conductivity functions varied spatially and temporarily across the experimental points with a moderate mean value of 0.0026 cm/h and a coefficient o variation of 31.45% soil chemical properties showed that the soils were acidic with a mean pH value of 5.12. Organic carbon, total nitrogen and available phosphorus were low with mean values of 1.29%, 0.68% and 4.43 mgkg-1. Coefficient of variability among soil properties indicated less to moderately variable. Soil pH had negative correlation with all the soil properties evaluated.

  3. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Berceda, 572 F.2d 630 (9th Cir. 1978).. A mere request, such as that made by the defendant, is not sufficient; United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d...a mere request and more than mere speculation that disclosure will be helpful. United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1978), eect. dt...both known and unknown to the Grand Jury, including Lane Boudreau, Scott Willard Holland, James Allen Halperin, Maria Ximena Erlandsen, Derek Adrian

  4. Black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from vehicles in the United States-Mexico border region: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kerry; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn; Quintero Núñez, Margarito; Vazquez, F Adrian; Collins, Kimberly; Barud-Zubillaga, Alberto

    2006-03-01

    The investigators developed a system to measure black carbon (BC) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission factors during roadside sampling in four cities along the United States-Mexico border, Calexico/Mexicali and El Paso/Juarez. The measurement system included a photoacoustic analyzer for BC, a photoelectric aerosol sensor for particle-bound PAHs, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer. When a vehicle with measurable emissions passed the system probe, corresponding BC, PAH, and CO2 peaks were evident, and a fuel-based emission factor was estimated. A picture of each vehicle was also recorded with a digital camera. The advantage of this system, compared with other roadside methods, is the direct measurement of particulate matter components and limited interference from roadside dust. The study revealed some interesting trends: Mexican buses and all medium-duty trucks were more frequently identified as high emitters of BC and PAH than heavy-duty trucks or passenger vehicles. In addition, because of the high daily mileage of buses, they are good candidates for additional study. Mexican trucks and buses had higher average emission factors compared with U.S. trucks and buses, but the differences were not statistically significant. Few passenger vehicles had measurable BC and PAH emissions, although the highest emission factor came from an older model passenger vehicle licensed in Baja California.

  5. A model–data intercomparison of simulated runoff in the contiguous United States: results from the North America Carbon Regional and Continental Interim-Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Schwalm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant changes in the water cycle are expected under current global environmental change. Robust assessment of these changes at global scales is confounded by shortcomings in the observed record. Modeled assessments yield conflicting results which are linked to differences in model structure and simulation protocol. Here we compare simulated runoff from six terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs, five reanalysis products, and one gridded surface station product with observations from a network of stream gauges in the contiguous United States (CONUS from 2001 to 2005. We evaluate the consistency of simulated runoff with stream gauge data at the CONUS and water resource region scale, as well as examining similarity across TBMs and reanalysis products at the grid cell scale. Mean runoff across all simulated products and regions varies widely (range: 71–356 mm yr-1 relative to observed continental-scale runoff (209 mm yr-1. Across all 12 products only two are within 10% of the observed value and only four exhibit Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency values in excess of 0.8. Region-level mismatch exhibits a weak pattern of overestimation in western and underestimation in eastern regions; although two products are systematically biased across all regions. In contrast, bias in a temporal sense, within region by water year, is highly consistent. Although gridded composite TBM and reanalysis runoff show some regional similarities for 2001–2005 with CONUS means, individual product values are highly variable. To further constrain simulated runoff and to link model-observation mismatch to model structural characteristics would require watershed-level simulation studies coupled with river routing schemes, standardized forcing data, and explicit consideration of water cycle management.

  6. Agricultural Water Pricing: United States

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In summary, irrigation costs and prices are rising in most regions of the United States, due to a combination of increasing scarcity, changes in public preferences regarding water allocation among competing uses, increasing budget scrutiny in the national and state legislatures, rising energy prices, and increasing awareness of climate change and the potential implications for rainfall and the availability of surface water resources. These issues likely will continue encouraging public offici...

  7. Optimal interpolation schemes to constrain pmPM2.5 in regional modeling over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousan, Sinan Dhia Jameel

    This thesis presents the use of data assimilation with optimal interpolation (OI) to develop atmospheric aerosol concentration estimates for the United States at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Concentration estimates are highly desirable for a wide range of applications, including visibility, climate, and human health. OI is a viable data assimilation method that can be used to improve Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model fine particulate matter (PM2.5) estimates. PM2.5 is the mass of solid and liquid particles with diameters less than or equal to 2.5 µm suspended in the gas phase. OI was employed by combining model estimates with satellite and surface measurements. The satellite data assimilation combined 36 x 36 km aerosol concentrations from CMAQ with aerosol optical depth (AOD) measured by MODIS and AERONET over the continental United States for 2002. Posterior model concentrations generated by the OI algorithm were compared with surface PM2.5 measurements to evaluate a number of possible data assimilation parameters, including model error, observation error, and temporal averaging assumptions. Evaluation was conducted separately for six geographic U.S. regions in 2002. Variability in model error and MODIS biases limited the effectiveness of a single data assimilation system for the entire continental domain. The best combinations of four settings and three averaging schemes led to a domain-averaged improvement in fractional error from 1.2 to 0.97 and from 0.99 to 0.89 at respective IMPROVE and STN monitoring sites. For 38% of OI results, MODIS OI degraded the forward model skill due to biases and outliers in MODIS AOD. Surface data assimilation combined 36 × 36 km aerosol concentrations from the CMAQ model with surface PM2.5 measurements over the continental United States for 2002. The model error covariance matrix was constructed by using the observational method. The observation error covariance matrix included site representation that

  8. Thermodynamic and dynamic contributions to future changes in regional precipitation variance: focus on the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Laifang; Li, Wenhong

    2015-07-01

    The frequency and severity of extreme events are tightly associated with the variance of precipitation. As climate warms, the acceleration in hydrological cycle is likely to enhance the variance of precipitation across the globe. However, due to the lack of an effective analysis method, the mechanisms responsible for the changes of precipitation variance are poorly understood, especially on regional scales. Our study fills this gap by formulating a variance partition algorithm, which explicitly quantifies the contributions of atmospheric thermodynamics (specific humidity) and dynamics (wind) to the changes in regional-scale precipitation variance. Taking Southeastern (SE) United States (US) summer precipitation as an example, the algorithm is applied to the simulations of current and future climate by phase 5 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) models. The analysis suggests that compared to observations, most CMIP5 models (~60 %) tend to underestimate the summer precipitation variance over the SE US during the 1950-1999, primarily due to the errors in the modeled dynamic processes (i.e. large-scale circulation). Among the 18 CMIP5 models analyzed in this study, six of them reasonably simulate SE US summer precipitation variance in the twentieth century and the underlying physical processes; these models are thus applied for mechanistic study of future changes in SE US summer precipitation variance. In the future, the six models collectively project an intensification of SE US summer precipitation variance, resulting from the combined effects of atmospheric thermodynamics and dynamics. Between them, the latter plays a more important role. Specifically, thermodynamics results in more frequent and intensified wet summers, but does not contribute to the projected increase in the frequency and intensity of dry summers. In contrast, atmospheric dynamics explains the projected enhancement in both wet and dry summers, indicating its importance in understanding

  9. Contribution of the North Atlantic subtropical high to regional climate model (RCM) skill in simulating southeastern United States summer precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Laifang; Li, Wenhong; Jin, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    This study assesses the skill of advanced regional climate models (RCMs) in simulating southeastern United States (SE US) summer precipitation and explores the physical mechanisms responsible for the simulation skill at a process level. Analysis of the RCM output for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program indicates that the RCM simulations of summer precipitation show the largest biases and a remarkable spread over the SE US compared to other regions in the contiguous US. The causes of such a spread are investigated by performing simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a next-generation RCM developed by the US National Center for Atmospheric Research. The results show that the simulated biases in SE US summer precipitation are due mainly to the misrepresentation of the modeled North Atlantic subtropical high (NASH) western ridge. In the WRF simulations, the NASH western ridge shifts 7° northwestward when compared to that in the reanalysis ensemble, leading to a dry bias in the simulated summer precipitation according to the relationship between the NASH western ridge and summer precipitation over the southeast. Experiments utilizing the four dimensional data assimilation technique further suggest that the improved representation of the circulation patterns (i.e., wind fields) associated with the NASH western ridge substantially reduces the bias in the simulated SE US summer precipitation. Our analysis of circulation dynamics indicates that the NASH western ridge in the WRF simulations is significantly influenced by the simulated planetary boundary layer (PBL) processes over the Gulf of Mexico. Specifically, a decrease (increase) in the simulated PBL height tends to stabilize (destabilize) the lower troposphere over the Gulf of Mexico, and thus inhibits (favors) the onset and/or development of convection. Such changes in tropical convection induce a tropical-extratropical teleconnection pattern, which modulates the

  10. Regional variability in use of a novel assessment of thoracolumbar spine fractures: United States versus international surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrop James S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable variability exists in clinical approaches to thoracolumbar fractures. Controversy in evaluation and nomenclature contribute to this confusion, with significant differences found between physicians, between different specialties, and in different geographic regions. A new classification system for thoracolumbar injuries, the Thoracolumbar Injury Severity Score (TLISS, was recently described by Vaccaro. No assessment of regional differences has been described. We report regional variability in use of the TLISS system between United States and non-US surgeons. Methods Twenty-eight spine surgeons (8 neurosurgeons and 20 orthopedic surgeons reviewed 56 clinical thoracolumbar injury case histories, which included pertinent imaging studies. Cases were classified and scored using the TLISS system. After a three month period, the case histories were re-ordered and the physicians repeated the exercise; 22 physicians completed both surveys and were used to assess intra-rater reliability. The reliability and treatment validity of the TLISS was assessed. Surgeons were grouped into US (n = 15 and non-US (n = 13 cohorts. Inter-rater (both within and between different geographic groups and intra-rater reliability was assessed by percent agreement, Cohen's kappa, kappa with linear weighting, and Spearman's rank-order correlation. Conclusion Non-US surgeons were found to have greater inter-rater reliability in injury mechanism, while agreement on neurological status and posterior ligamentous complex integrity tended to be higher among US surgeons. Inter-rater agreement on management was moderate, although it tended to be higher in US-surgeons. Inter-rater agreement between US and non-US surgeons was similar to within group inter-rater agreement for all categories. While intra-rater agreement for mechanism tended to be higher among US surgeons, intra-rater reliability for neurological status and PLC was slightly higher among non

  11. Ethos of Independence across Regions in the United States: The Production-Adoption Model of Cultural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Conway, Lucian Gideon, III; Pietromonaco, Paula R.; Park, Hyekyung; Plaut, Victoria C.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary U.S. culture has a highly individualistic ethos. Nevertheless, exactly how this ethos was historically fostered remains unanalyzed. A new model of dynamic cultural change maintains that sparsely populated, novel environments that impose major threats to survival, such as the Western frontier in the United States during the 18th and…

  12. Gate-to-Gate Life-Cycle Inventory on Hardwood Sawmills in the Northeastern Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman

    2007-01-01

    Using sustainable building materials is gaining a significant presence in the United States therefore proving sustainability claims are becoming increasingly more important. Certifying wood products as green building materials is vital for the long-term productivity of the wood building industry and for forest management. This study examined hardwood lumber...

  13. Effects of Geographic Region upon Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Results: A Hawaii-Mainland United States Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, William T.; Bratton, Joseph C.

    1977-01-01

    Investigated geographic differences in Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) results by comparing 60 Hawaiian and 60 mainland United States psychiatric outpatients. The influence of pidgin English led to expectations that Hawaiian subjects would have significantly lower WAIS Verbal scores than mainland subjects. Data verified these…

  14. Regional patterns of recession curves and their relationships with climate, soil, vegetation and topography across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S.; Li, H.; Ali, M.; Huang, M.; Leung, L.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Subsurface runoff is an important component of water balance especially in steep forested areas. It has been shown that the subsurface runoff parameterization significantly affects the partitioning of water budget, and subsequently the simulations of energy budget, carbon cycle and atmospheric cycle in land surface models such as the Community Land Model (CLM). A robust parameterization of subsurface runoff within land surface models, however, remains a grand challenge. This work is a first major step towards developing empirical relationships between the parameters of a generalized power-law form of TOPMODEL and measurable data such as climate, soil, vegetation and topographic conditions. We analyzed the flow data from over 300 MOPEX catchments across the continental United States and extracted the values of the recession curve coefficient and exponent in the form of the slope-recession curve, i.e., - dQ/dt vs Q for each catchment. By improving the estimation of soil properties within MOPEX database such as the mean and variance of saturated hydraulic conductivity and porosity based on the SSURGO dataset for 30 selected catchments across the continent covering a range of climate conditions, we examined the regional patterns of recession curve coefficient and exponent. Our results suggest that the recession curve exponent is higher in the eastern humid Appalachian forested catchments but relatively smaller in the central flat catchments. We further explored the possible linkages between the exponent and coefficient and climate and landscape properties through data analyses and numerical experiments. Results of this study will serve as the basis for improving subsurface representations in CLM.

  15. Legal aspects of transferring some state powers to municipal administration

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsov, S.

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes legal aspects of transferring some state powers to municipal administration; reveals problems arising during this process in some regions; draws conclusions on the topic concerned.

  16. Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of composite I-joists produced in the southeast region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Sevda Alanya-Rosenbaum

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to update life-cycle assessment (LCA) data on I-joist production in the southeast (SE) region of the United States. The authors collected primary mill data from I-joist production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) research guidelines. Comparative assertions were not a goal of this study.

  17. Cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of composite I-joists produced in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Sevda Alanya-Rosenbaum

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to update life-cycle assessment (LCA) data associated with I-joist production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States from cradle-to-gate mill output. The authors collected primary mill data from I-joist production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) research guidelines....

  18. Cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of laminated veneer lumber (LVL) produced in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Sevda Alanya-Rosenbaum

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) data associated with laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States from cradle-to-gate mill output. The authors collected primary (survey) mill data from LVL production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial...

  19. The Complex Life Experience of First-Generation College Students Who Are Working Adults in the Appalachian Region of the United States: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Deborah Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to describe and understand the complexity of life experiences for first-generation college students or recent graduates who are working adults in the Central and South-Central Appalachian region of the United States in light of the construct resilience and how purposefully selected…

  20. The Effects of a Parenting Program on Parenting Practices and Student Misconduct in a Low Performing Elementary School in the Northeastern Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louissaint, Guirlene

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a parent-training program on parenting practices and children's misconduct in a predominately low performing school in the Northeastern region of the United States. The study included 26 parents of children in kindergarten through third grade. The participants were predominately African…

  1. Inventories and mobilization of unsaturated zone sulfate, fluoride, and chloride related to land use change in semiarid regions, southwestern United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B.R.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Reedy, R.C.; Leaney, F.W.; Gates, J.; Cresswell, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Unsaturated zone salt reservoirs are potentially mobilized by increased groundwater recharge as semiarid lands are cultivated. This study explores the amounts of pore water sulfate and fluoride relative to chloride in unsaturated zone profiles, evaluates their sources, estimates mobilization due to past land use change, and assesses the impacts on groundwater quality. Inventories of water-extractable chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were determined from borehole samples of soils and sediments collected beneath natural ecosystems (N = 4), nonirrigated ("rain-fed") croplands (N = 18), and irrigated croplands (N = 6) in the southwestern United States and in the Murray Basin, Australia. Natural ecosystems contain generally large sulfate inventories (7800-120,000 kg/ha) and lower fluoride inventories (630-3900 kg/ha) relative to chloride inventories (6600-41,000 kg/ha). Order-of-magnitude higher chloride concentrations in precipitation and generally longer accumulation times result in much larger chloride inventories in the Murray Basin than in the southwestern United States. Atmospheric deposition during the current dry interglacial climatic regime accounts for most of the measured sulfate in both U.S. and Australian regions. Fluoride inventories are greater than can be accounted for by atmospheric deposition in most cases, suggesting that fluoride may accumulate across glacial/ interglacial climatic cycles. Chemical modeling indicates that fluorite controls fluoride mobility and suggests that water-extractable fluoride may include some fluoride from mineral dissolution. Increased groundwater drainage/recharge following land use change readily mobilized chloride. Sulfate displacement fronts matched or lagged chloride fronts by up to 4 m. In contrast, fluoride mobilization was minimal in all regions. Understanding linkages between salt inventories, increased recharge, and groundwater quality is important for quantifying impacts of anthropogenic activities on groundwater

  2. The Common Occurrence of Highly Supercooled Drizzle and Rain near the Coastal Regions of the Western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Chemke, Rei; DeMott, Paul J.; Sullivan, Ryan C.; Rasmussen, R M.; McDonough, Frank; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Jonsson, Haf; Suski, Kaitlyn; Cazorla, Alberto; Prather, Kimberly

    2013-09-05

    The formation of highly supercooled rain was documented by aircraft observations in clouds at a wide range of conditions near the coastal region of the western United States. Several case studies are described in detail using combined cloud and aerosol measurements to document both the highly super-cooled condition and the relatively pristine aerosol conditions under which it forms. The case studies include: (1) Marine convective clouds over the coastal waters of northern California, as measured by cloud physics probes flown on a Gulfstream-1 aircraft during the CALWATER campaign in February and early March 2011. The clouds had extensive drizzle in their tops, which extended downward to the 0°C isotherm as supercooled rain. Ice multiplication was observed only in mature parts of the clouds where cloud water was already depleted. (2) Orographically triggered convective clouds in marine air mass over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada to the east of Sacramento, as measured in CALWATER. Supercooled rain was observed down to -21°C. No indications for ice multiplication were evident. (3) Orographic layer clouds over Yosemite National Park, also measured in CALWATER. The clouds had extensive drizzle at -21°C, which intensified with little freezing lower in the cloud, and (4) Supercooled drizzle drops in layer clouds near Juneau, Alaska, as measured by the Wyoming King Air as part of a FAA project to study aircraft icing in this region. Low concentrations of CCN was a common observation in all these clouds, allowing for the formation of clouds with small concentration of large drops that coalesced into supercooled drizzle and raindrops. Another common observation was the absence of ice nuclei and/or ice crystals in measurable concentrations was associated with the persistent supercooled drizzle and rain. Average ice crystal concentrations were 0.007 l-1 at the top of convective clouds at -12°C and 0.03 l-1 in the case of layer clouds at -21°C. In combination these

  3. Temporal and spatial variability of frost-free seasons in the Great Lakes region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman; Jeffrey A. Andresen

    2014-01-01

    The frequency and timing of frost events and the length of the growing season are critical limiting factors in many human and natural ecosystems. This study investigates the temporal and spatial variability of the date of last spring frost (LSF), the date of first fall frost (FFF), and the length of the frost-free season (FFS) in the Great Lakes region of the United...

  4. Blood pressure control, hypertension, awareness, and treatment in adults with diabetes in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; He, Guozhong; Stoddard, Pamela; Schillinger, Dean

    2010-09-01

    To determine prevalence of blood pressure control, hypertension, hypertension awareness, and antihypertensive treatment among adults (> 18 years old) with diabetes living in the border region between the United States of America and Mexico, and to explore variation in those variables between all adults on the Mexican side of the border ("Mexicans") and three groups on the U.S. side of the border ("all U.S. adults," "U.S.-born Hispanics," and "Mexican immigrants"). Using data from Phase I (February 2001-October 2002) of the U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a prevalence study of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors, age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension-related variables was calculated for the sample (n = 682) and differences between the border groups were examined through logistic regression. Less than one-third of the sample had controlled blood pressure (hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg), and hypertension awareness and treatment were inadequate. After adjusting for demographics, body mass index, and access to health care, there were no differences in blood pressure control, hypertension, hypertension awareness, or treatment between Mexicans and both U.S. adults and Mexican immigrants. However, compared to Mexicans and Mexican immigrants, U.S.-born Hispanics, particularly younger individuals, had the lowest rates of blood pressure control (17.3%) and the highest rates of coexisting hypertension (54.8%). Compared to Mexicans, U.S.-born Hispanics had lower odds of controlled blood pressure (odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.95) and greater odds of hypertension (OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.51-9.29) and hypertension awareness (OR 6.19, 95% CI 1.46-26.15). Co-occurrence of diabetes and hypertension is a major public health problem among U.S.-Mexico border residents. The low rate of blood pressure control among various border groups, especially younger U.S.-born Hispanics, suggests that initiatives should aggressively target blood

  5. Regional and forest-level estimates of carbon stored in harvested wood products from the United States Forest Service Northern Region, 1906-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Anderson; J. Young; K. Stockmann; K. Skog; S. Healey; D. Loeffler; J.G. Jones; J. Morrison

    2013-01-01

    Global forests capture and store significant amounts of CO2 through photosynthesis. When carbon is removed from forests through harvest, a portion of the harvested carbon is stored in wood products, often for many decades. The United States Forest Service (USFS) and other agencies are interested in accurately accounting for carbon flux associated with harvested wood...

  6. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    . Less than 1.0% of patients were infected with two species. The infecting species was unreported or undetermined in 11.7% of cases. CDC provided diagnostic assistance for 14.2% of confirmed cases and tested 12.0% of P. falciparum specimens for antimalarial resistance markers. Of patients who reported purpose of travel, 57.5% were visiting friends and relatives (VFR). Among U.S. residents for whom information on chemoprophylaxis use and travel region was known, 7.8% reported that they initiated and adhered to a chemoprophylaxis drug regimen recommended by CDC for the regions to which they had traveled. Thirty-two cases were among pregnant women, none of whom had adhered to chemoprophylaxis. Among all reported cases, 17.0% were classified as severe illness, and five persons with malaria died. CDC received 137 P. falciparum-positive samples for the detection of antimalarial resistance markers (although some loci for chloroquine and mefloquine were untestable for up to nine samples). Of the 137 samples tested, 131 (95.6%) had genetic polymorphisms associated with pyrimethamine drug resistance, 96 (70.0%) with sulfadoxine resistance, 77 (57.5%) with chloroquine resistance, three (2.3%) with mefloquine drug resistance, one (https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/travelers/drugs.html). Malaria infections can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated promptly with antimalarial medications appropriate for the patient's age and medical history, likely country of malaria acquisition, and previous use of antimalarial chemoprophylaxis. Recent molecular laboratory advances have enabled CDC to identify and conduct molecular surveillance of antimalarial drug resistance markers (https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/features/ars.html) and improve the ability of CDC to track, guide treatment, and manage drug resistance in malaria parasites both domestically and globally. For this effort to be successful, specimens should be submitted for all cases diagnosed in the United States. Clinicians should consult CDC

  7. Examination of the Regional Supply and Demand Balance for Renewable Electricity in the United States through 2015: Projecting from 2009 through 2015 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Hurlbut, D.; Donohoo, P.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-06-01

    This report examines the balance between the demand and supply of new renewable electricity in the United States on a regional basis through 2015. It expands on a 2007 NREL study that assessed the supply and demand balance on a national basis. As with the earlier study, this analysis relies on estimates of renewable energy supplies compared to demand for renewable energy generation needed to meet existing state renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies in 28 states, as well as demand by consumers who voluntarily purchase renewable energy. However, it does not address demand by utilities that may procure cost-effective renewables through an integrated resource planning process or otherwise.

  8. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  9. Corima: A Bilingual Experiment in the Tarahumara Region in the State of Chihuahua, Mexico. How Does It Measure against Transitional Bilingual Programs in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Mario A.

    This report explores two bilingual educational approaches currently in use in Mexico and the United States. The study pursues a limited comparison between two modalities of bilingual instruction, as observed and reported in the consulted literature. The U.S. model featured is known as the two-way bilingual model, an additive approach to…

  10. Introduction to the special issue on observations and source attribution of ozone in rural regions of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefohn, Allen S.; Cooper, Owen R.

    2015-05-01

    We thank Dr. Mae Gustin for initiating the concept of this special issue and inviting us to serve as Atmospheric Environment Guest Editors. In the current rulemaking activities associated with the United States EPA proposing lower National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone (O3), there has been considerable attention drawn to the elevated O3 concentrations that occur in the western U.S. (EPA, 2013; Federal Register, 2014) and the possibility of exceedances at urban and rural locations resulting from background O3 at current and lower proposed standards. The subjects covered in this special issue are timely in regards to providing insight into the importance of the physical and chemical processes that affect the spatial distribution and temporal trends of surface and lower tropospheric O3 across the rural western U.S.

  11. A regional assessment of chemicals of concern in surface waters of four Midwestern United States national parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M; VanderMeulen, David D

    2017-02-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals and their potential for adverse biological effects raise concern for aquatic ecosystem health in protected areas. During 2013-15, surface waters of four Midwestern United States national parks were sampled and analyzed for wastewater indicators, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides. More chemicals and higher concentrations were detected at the two parks with greater urban influences (Mississippi National River and Recreation Area and Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore) than at the two more remote parks (Apostle Islands National Lakeshore and Isle Royale National Park). Atrazine (10-15ng/L) and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (16-120ng/L) were the only chemicals detected in inland lakes of a remote island national park (Isle Royale National Park). Bisphenol A and organophosphate flame retardants were commonly detected at the other sampled parks. Gabapentin and simazine had the highest observed concentrations (>1000ng/L) in three and two samples, respectively. At the two parks with urban influences, metolachlor and simazine concentrations were similar to those reported for other major urban rivers in the United States. Environmental concentrations of detected chemicals were often orders of magnitude less than standards or reference values with three exceptions: (1) hydrochlorothiazide exceeded a human health-based screening value in seven samples, (2) estrone exceeded a predicted critical environmental concentration for fish pharmacological effects in one sample, and (3) simazine was approaching the 4000ng/L Maximum Contaminant Level in one sample even though this concentration is not expected to reflect peak pesticide use. Although few environmental concentrations were approaching or exceeded standards or reference values, concentrations were often in ranges reported to elicit effects in aquatic biota. Data from this study will assist in establishing a baseline for chemicals of concern in Midwestern national parks and highlight

  12. A regional assessment of chemicals of concern in surface waters of four Midwestern United States national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; VanderMeulen, David

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals and their potential for adverse biological effects raise concern for aquatic ecosystem health in protected areas. During 2013–15, surface waters of four Midwestern United States national parks were sampled and analyzed for wastewater indicators, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides. More chemicals and higher concentrations were detected at the two parks with greater urban influences (Mississippi National River and Recreation Area and Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore) than at the two more remote parks (Apostle Islands National Lakeshore and Isle Royale National Park). Atrazine (10–15 ng/L) and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (16–120 ng/L) were the only chemicals detected in inland lakes of a remote island national park (Isle Royale National Park). Bisphenol A and organophosphate flame retardants were commonly detected at the other sampled parks. Gabapentin and simazine had the highest observed concentrations (> 1000 ng/L) in three and two samples, respectively. At the two parks with urban influences, metolachlor and simazine concentrations were similar to those reported for other major urban rivers in the United States. Environmental concentrations of detected chemicals were often orders of magnitude less than standards or reference values with three exceptions: (1) hydrochlorothiazide exceeded a human health-based screening value in seven samples, (2) estrone exceeded a predicted critical environmental concentration for fish pharmacological effects in one sample, and (3) simazine was approaching the 4000 ng/L Maximum Contaminant Level in one sample even though this concentration is not expected to reflect peak pesticide use. Although few environmental concentrations were approaching or exceeded standards or reference values, concentrations were often in ranges reported to elicit effects in aquatic biota. Data from this study will assist in establishing a baseline for chemicals of concern in Midwestern national parks and

  13. Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Groundwater Governance in the United States: Case Studies from Three High-Growth Regions in the Sun Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B.; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Huang, Ling-Yee; Delano, Nathaniel; Varady, Robert G.; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D.

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida. These regions have different surface water laws, groundwater allocation and management laws and regulations, demographics, economics, topographies, and climate. These cases were selected because the Sun Belt faces similar pressures on groundwater due to historical and projected population growth and limited availability of usable surface water supplies. Collectively, they demonstrate groundwater governance trends in the United States, and illustrate distinctive features of regional groundwater management strategies. Our research shows how geophysical realities and state-level legislation have enabled and/or stimulated regions to develop groundwater management plans and strategies to address the specific issues associated with their groundwater resources. We find that litigation involvement and avoidance, along with the need to finance projects, are additional drivers of regional collaboration to manage groundwater. This case study underscores the importance of regionally coordinated and sustained efforts to address serious groundwater utilization challenges faced by the regions studied and around the world.

  14. Innovative Approaches to Collaborative Groundwater Governance in the United States: Case Studies from Three High-Growth Regions in the Sun Belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megdal, Sharon B; Gerlak, Andrea K; Huang, Ling-Yee; Delano, Nathaniel; Varady, Robert G; Petersen-Perlman, Jacob D

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater is an increasingly important source of freshwater, especially where surface water resources are fully or over-allocated or becoming less reliable due to climate change. Groundwater reliance has created new challenges for sustainable management. This article examines how regional groundwater users coordinate and collaborate to manage shared groundwater resources, including attention to what drives collaboration. To identify and illustrate these facets, this article examines three geographically diverse cases of groundwater governance and management from the United States Sun Belt: Orange County Water District in southern California; Prescott Active Management Area in north-central Arizona; and the Central Florida Water Initiative in central Florida. These regions have different surface water laws, groundwater allocation and management laws and regulations, demographics, economics, topographies, and climate. These cases were selected because the Sun Belt faces similar pressures on groundwater due to historical and projected population growth and limited availability of usable surface water supplies. Collectively, they demonstrate groundwater governance trends in the United States, and illustrate distinctive features of regional groundwater management strategies. Our research shows how geophysical realities and state-level legislation have enabled and/or stimulated regions to develop groundwater management plans and strategies to address the specific issues associated with their groundwater resources. We find that litigation involvement and avoidance, along with the need to finance projects, are additional drivers of regional collaboration to manage groundwater. This case study underscores the importance of regionally coordinated and sustained efforts to address serious groundwater utilization challenges faced by the regions studied and around the world.

  15. Nonfuel mineral resources in the United States-Mexico border region; a progress report on information available from the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, G.J.; Page, N.J.; Staude, J.G.; Bolm, K.S.; Carbonaro, M.M.; Gray, Floyd; Long, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The exploitation of minerals has played a significant role in population growth and development of the U.S.Mexico border region. Recent proposed changes in regulations related to mining in the United States and changes in mining and investment regulations in Mexico have led to increased mineral exploration and development in Mexico, especially in the border region. As a preliminary step in the study of the mineral industry of this area, the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI) of the U.S. Geological Survey has compiled mine and occurrence data for nonfuel minerals in the border region. Analysis of this information indicates that a wide variety of metallic and industrial mineral commodities are present which can be used in agriculture, infrastructure, environmental improvement, and other industries. Therefore, mining will continue to play a significant role in the economy of this region.

  16. Some Megadrili Oligochaeta from the Caribbean Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righi, Gilberto

    1995-01-01

    Righi, Gilberto, 1995. Some megadrili oligochaeta of the Caribbean Region. Studies Nat. Hist. Caribbean Region 72, Amsterdam, 1993: 47-53. Numerous Caribbean samples of the Megadrili – mainly peregrine anthropochorous species – are presented; and a description of Diachaeta (D) bonairensis sp. n. is

  17. Wetland selection by breeding and foraging black terns in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Valerie A.; Powell, Abby N.

    2012-01-01

    We examined wetland selection by the Black Tern (Chlidonias niger), a species that breeds primarily in the prairie pothole region, has experienced population declines, and is difficult to manage because of low site fidelity. To characterize its selection of wetlands in this region, we surveyed 589 wetlands throughout North and South Dakota. We documented breeding at 5% and foraging at 17% of wetlands. We created predictive habitat models with a machine-learning algorithm, Random Forests, to explore the relative role of local wetland characteristics and those of the surrounding landscape and to evaluate which characteristics were important to predicting breeding versus foraging. We also examined area-dependent wetland selection while addressing the passive sampling bias by replacing occurrence of terns in the models with an index of density. Local wetland variables were more important than landscape variables in predictions of occurrence of breeding and foraging. Wetland size was more important to prediction of foraging than of breeding locations, while floating matted vegetation was more important to prediction of breeding than of foraging locations. The amount of seasonal wetland in the landscape was the only landscape variable important to prediction of both foraging and breeding. Models based on a density index indicated that wetland selection by foraging terns may be more area dependent than that by breeding terns. Our study provides some of the first evidence for differential breeding and foraging wetland selection by Black Terns and for a more limited role of landscape effects and area sensitivity than has been previously shown.

  18. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  19. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  20. Landscape keys in the shaping of some very significant national parks in the United States and Mexico, and their relationship with the Spanish national parks policies

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Mollá Ruiz-Gómez

    2017-01-01

    The United States of America was the nation’s pioneer in the creation of national parks and influenced with their decisions and laws, a process that in a few years, would spread worldwide. Decades later, in the second decade of the twentieth century, Mexico and Spain follow suit, influenced in different ways by the American conservationist policy. This paper offers the history of the origins of the national parks in the three countries, their attachment to the ideas of landscape at the time i...

  1. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix A - Assessment Results by Hydrologic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A

  2. Leveraging Regional Exploration to Develop Geologic Framework for CO2 Storage in Deep Formations in Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-09-30

    Obtaining subsurface data for developing a regional framework for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} can require drilling and characterization in a large number of deep wells, especially in areas with limited pre-existing data. One approach for achieving this objective, without the prohibitive costs of drilling costly standalone test wells, is to collaborate with the oil and gas drilling efforts in a piggyback approach that can provide substantial cost savings and help fill data gaps in areas that may not otherwise get characterized. This leveraging with oil/gas drilling also mitigates some of the risk involved in standalone wells. This collaborative approach has been used for characterizing in a number of locations in the midwestern USA between 2005 and 2009 with funding from U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE award: DE-FC26-05NT42434) and in-kind contributions from a number of oil and gas operators. The results are presented in this final technical report. In addition to data collected under current award, selected data from related projects such as the Midwestern Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (MRCSP), the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} storage project at and near the Mountaineer Plant, and the drilling of the Ohio Stratigraphic well in Eastern Ohio are discussed and used in the report. Data from this effort are also being incorporated into the MRCSP geologic mapping. The project activities were organized into tracking and evaluation of characterization opportunities; participation in the incremental drilling, basic and advanced logging in selected wells; and data analysis and reporting. Although a large number of opportunities were identified and evaluated, only a small subset was carried into the field stage. Typical selection factors included reaching an acceptable agreement with the operator, drilling and logging risks, and extent of pre-existing data near the candidate wells. The region of study is primarily along

  3. Drought in Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

  4. Benefit of regional energy balancing service on wind integration in the western interconnection of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milligan, Michael; Kirby, Brendan; King, Jack [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States); Beuning, Stephen [Xcel Energy Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Interest in various wide-area balancing schemes to help integrate wind have generated significant interest. As we have shown in past work, large balancing areas not only help with wind integration, but can also increase the efficiency of operations in systems without wind. Recent work on the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS) has found that combining balancing over the WestConnect footprint will increase the efficiency of commitment and dispatch at wind penetrations ranging from 10-30% of annual electricity demand, and will be essential for high penetrations and small balancing areas. In addition the northwest Wind Integration Action Plan recommended balancing area cooperation as a method to help integrate the large potential wind development. In this paper we investigate the potential impact of a proposed Energy Imbalance Service on the ability of the non-market portions of Western Electricity Coordinating Councils (WECC) United States footprint to integrate wind energy. We will utilize data adapted from the WWSIS for the Western Interconnection. The analysis uses time-synchronized wind and load data to evaluate the potential for ramp requirement reduction that could be achieved with combined operation. Chronological analysis and ramp duration analysis quantify the benefit in terms of not only the ramp sizes, but the frequency of the potentially avoided ramps that must be managed by the non-wind generation fleet. Multiple approaches that can be used to achieve these benefits are also suggested in the paper. We also suggest other approaches that can help achieve much of the benefit of full consolidation without requiring the physical consolidation of balancing areas. (orig.)

  5. Contrasting regional and national mechanisms for predicting elevated arsenic in private wells across the United States using classification and regression trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Logan; VanDerslice, James; Taddie, Marissa; Malecki, Kristen; Gregg, Josh; Faust, Nicholas; Johnson, William P

    2016-03-15

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater is a public health and environmental concern in the United States (U.S.) particularly where monitoring is not required under the Safe Water Drinking Act. Previous studies suggest the influence of regional mechanisms for arsenic mobilization into groundwater; however, no study has examined how influencing parameters change at a continental scale spanning multiple regions. We herein examine covariates for groundwater in the western, central and eastern U.S. regions representing mechanisms associated with arsenic concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contamination level (MCL) of 10 parts per billion (ppb). Statistically significant covariates were identified via classification and regression tree (CART) analysis, and included hydrometeorological and groundwater chemical parameters. The CART analyses were performed at two scales: national and regional; for which three physiographic regions located in the western (Payette Section and the Snake River Plain), central (Osage Plains of the Central Lowlands), and eastern (Embayed Section of the Coastal Plains) U.S. were examined. Validity of each of the three regional CART models was indicated by values >85% for the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve. Aridity (precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration) was identified as the primary covariate associated with elevated arsenic at the national scale. At the regional scale, aridity and pH were the major covariates in the arid to semi-arid (western) region; whereas dissolved iron (taken to represent chemically reducing conditions) and pH were major covariates in the temperate (eastern) region, although additional important covariates emerged, including elevated phosphate. Analysis in the central U.S. region indicated that elevated arsenic concentrations were driven by a mixture of those observed in the western and eastern regions.

  6. Survey of the fatty acid composition of retail milk in the United States including regional and seasonal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell-Megaro, A M; Barbano, D M; Bauman, D E

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are increasingly aware that food components have the potential to influence human health maintenance and disease prevention, and dietary fatty acids (FA) have been of special interest. It has been 25 years since the last survey of US milk FA composition, and during this interval substantial changes in dairy rations have occurred, including increased use of total mixed rations and byproduct feeds as well as the routine use of lipid and FA supplements. Furthermore, analytical procedures have improved allowing greater detail in the routine analysis of FA, especially trans FA. Our objective was to survey US milk fat and determine its FA composition. We obtained samples of fluid milk from 56 milk processing plants across the US every 3 mo for one year to capture seasonal and geographical variations. Processing plants were selected based on the criteria that they represented 50% or more of the fluid milk produced in that area. An overall summary of the milk fat analysis indicated that saturated fatty acids comprised 63.7% of total milk FA with palmitic and stearic acids representing the majority (44.1 and 18.3% of total saturated fatty acids, respectively). Unsaturated fatty acids were 33.2% of total milk FA with oleic acid predominating (71.0% of total unsaturated fatty acids). These values are comparable to those of the previous survey in 1984, considering differences in analytical techniques. Trans FA represented 3.2% of total FA, with vaccenic acid being the major trans isomer (46.5% of total trans FA). Cis-9, trans-11 18:2 conjugated linoleic acid represented 0.55% total milk FA, and the major n-3 FA (linolenic acid, 18:3) composed 0.38%. Analyses for seasonal and regional effects indicated statistical differences for some FA, but these were minor from an overall human nutrition perspective as the FA profile for all samples were numerically similar. Overall, the present study provides a valuable database for current FA composition of US fluid milk, and

  7. Host associations and incidence of Diuraphis spp. in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States, and pictorial key for their identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterka, Gary J; Hammon, Robert W; Burd, John D; Peairs, Frank B; Randolph, Terri; Cooper, W Rodney

    2010-10-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov, is an introduced species first identified in 1986 into the United States. It has since become a major pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and other small grains in the western United States. Three other Diuraphis species, Diuraphis frequens (Walker), Diuraphis mexicana (McVicar Baker), and Diuraphis tritici (Gillette), were already endemic to the United States before the introduction of D. noxia. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence and host associations of these four Diuraphis spp. in the Rocky Mountain region that borders the western Great Plains to better understand their distribution and ecological interactions. In addition, a key to these species with photographs of live or fresh preparations of specimens is presented to aid in their identification. D. noxia was the most widely distributed species in the study area spanning the Rocky Mountain areas of Wyoming, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado. This species was most common in the cereal-producing areas of the Colorado Plateau ecoregion. D. frequens was found to be the predominant species in the Alpine/Aspen Mountain areas of the South Central Rockies and Colorado Rockies ecoregions. The other Diuraphis species were rarely encountered even though their plant hosts occurred in the ecoregions sampled. D. noxia shared common hosts and was found co-infesting grasses with other Diuraphis species. Therefore, the potential exists for D. noxia to impact the other native Diuraphis species.

  8. Landscape keys in the shaping of some very significant national parks in the United States and Mexico, and their relationship with the Spanish national parks policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Mollá Ruiz-Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States of America was the nation’s pioneer in the creation of national parks and influenced with their decisions and laws, a process that in a few years, would spread worldwide. Decades later, in the second decade of the twentieth century, Mexico and Spain follow suit, influenced in different ways by the American conservationist policy. This paper offers the history of the origins of the national parks in the three countries, their attachment to the ideas of landscape at the time imposed in the West, and the various events that took place until the figure of the national park was imposed as essential to the conservation of nature, threatened by different circumstances in the three countries and most of the planet member.

  9. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United......

  10. Regional Crustal Structures and Their Relationship to the Distribution of Ore Deposits in the Western United States, Based on Magnetic and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, T.G.; Berger, B.; Jachens, R.C.; Ludington, S.

    2000-01-01

    Upgraded gravity and magnetic databases and associated filtered-anomaly maps of western United States define regional crustal fractures or faults that may have guided the emplacement of plutonic rocks and large metallic ore deposits. Fractures, igneous intrusions, and hydrothermal circulation tend to be localized along boundaries of crustal blocks, with geophysical expressions that are enhanced here by wavelength filtering. In particular, we explore the utility of regional gravity and magnetic data to aid in understanding the distribution of large Mesozoic and Cenozoic ore deposits, primarily epithermal and porphyry precious and base metal deposits and sediment-hosted gold deposits in the western United States cordillera. On the broadest scale, most ore deposits lie within areas characterized by low magnetic properties. The Mesozoic Mother Lodge gold belt displays characteristic geophysical signatures (regional gravity high, regional low-to-moderate background magnetic field anomaly, and long curvilinear magnetic highs) that might serve as an exploration guide. Geophysical lineaments characterize the Idaho-Montana porphyry belt and the La Caridad-Mineral Park belt (from northern Mexico to western Arizona) and thus indicate a deep-seated control for these mineral belts. Large metal accumulations represented by the giant Bingham porphyry copper and the Butte polymetallic vein and porphyry copper systems lie at intersections of several geophysical lineaments. At a more local scale, geophysical data define deep-rooted faults and magmatic zones that correspond to patterns of epithermal precious metal deposits in western and northern Nevada. Of particular interest is an interpreted dense crustal block with a shape that resembles the elliptical deposit pattern partly formed by the Carlin trend and the Battle Mountain-Eureka mineral belt. We support previous studies, which on a local scale, conclude that structural elements work together to localize mineral deposits within

  11. Review of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in coastal zones of the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions of the United States with management implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, C A; Corbett, D R

    2009-01-01

    Groundwater serves as the primary drinking water source for over half of the coastal populations of the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions, two of the fastest growing regions in the United States. Increased demand for this resource has exceeded sustainable yields in many areas and induced saltwater intrusion of coastal aquifers. A process associated with coastal groundwater, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), has been documented as a source of subsurface fluids to coastal ocean environments throughout the Southeast and Gulf Coast regions and is potentially a significant contributor to nearshore water and geochemical budgets (i.e., nutrients, carbon, trace metals) in many coastal regions. The importance of groundwater as a drinking water source for coastal populations and the influences of submarine groundwater discharge to the coastal ocean warrant increased research and management of this resource. This paper highlights findings from recent SGD studies on three hydrogeologically different continental margins (Onslow Bay, NC, southern Florida, and the Louisiana margin), provides background on the common methods of assessing SGD, and suggests a regional management plan for coastal groundwater resources. Suggested strategies call for assessments of SGD in areas of potentially significant discharge, development of new monitoring networks, and the incorporation of a regional coastal groundwater resources council.

  12. Consequences of Global Warming of 1.5 °C and 2 °C for Regional Temperature and Precipitation Changes in the Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Raymond S.

    2017-01-01

    The differential warming of land and ocean leads to many continental regions in the Northern Hemisphere warming at rates higher than the global mean temperature. Adaptation and conservation efforts will, therefore, benefit from understanding regional consequences of limiting the global mean temperature increase to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, a limit agreed upon at the United Nations Climate Summit in Paris in December 2015. Here, we analyze climate model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to determine the timing and magnitude of regional temperature and precipitation changes across the contiguous United States (US) for global warming of 1.5 and 2°C and highlight consensus and uncertainties in model projections and their implications for making decisions. The regional warming rates differ considerably across the contiguous US, but all regions are projected to reach 2°C about 10-20 years before the global mean temperature. Although there is uncertainty in the timing of exactly when the 1.5 and 2°C thresholds will be crossed regionally, over 80% of the models project at least 2°C warming by 2050 for all regions for the high emissions scenario. This threshold-based approach also highlights regional variations in the rate of warming across the US. The fastest warming region in the contiguous US is the Northeast, which is projected to warm by 3°C when global warming reaches 2°C. The signal-to-noise ratio calculations indicate that the regional warming estimates remain outside the envelope of uncertainty throughout the twenty-first century, making them potentially useful to planners. The regional precipitation projections for global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C are uncertain, but the eastern US is projected to experience wetter winters and the Great Plains and the Northwest US are projected to experience drier summers in the future. The impact of different scenarios on regional precipitation projections is

  13. Consequences of Global Warming of 1.5 °C and 2 °C for Regional Temperature and Precipitation Changes in the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V; Bradley, Raymond S

    2017-01-01

    The differential warming of land and ocean leads to many continental regions in the Northern Hemisphere warming at rates higher than the global mean temperature. Adaptation and conservation efforts will, therefore, benefit from understanding regional consequences of limiting the global mean temperature increase to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, a limit agreed upon at the United Nations Climate Summit in Paris in December 2015. Here, we analyze climate model simulations from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to determine the timing and magnitude of regional temperature and precipitation changes across the contiguous United States (US) for global warming of 1.5 and 2°C and highlight consensus and uncertainties in model projections and their implications for making decisions. The regional warming rates differ considerably across the contiguous US, but all regions are projected to reach 2°C about 10-20 years before the global mean temperature. Although there is uncertainty in the timing of exactly when the 1.5 and 2°C thresholds will be crossed regionally, over 80% of the models project at least 2°C warming by 2050 for all regions for the high emissions scenario. This threshold-based approach also highlights regional variations in the rate of warming across the US. The fastest warming region in the contiguous US is the Northeast, which is projected to warm by 3°C when global warming reaches 2°C. The signal-to-noise ratio calculations indicate that the regional warming estimates remain outside the envelope of uncertainty throughout the twenty-first century, making them potentially useful to planners. The regional precipitation projections for global warming of 1.5°C and 2°C are uncertain, but the eastern US is projected to experience wetter winters and the Great Plains and the Northwest US are projected to experience drier summers in the future. The impact of different scenarios on regional precipitation projections is

  14. The Borderlands - A region of physical and cultural diversity: Chapter 2 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Woodward, Dennis G.; Durall, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    The area surrounding the United States–Mexican border is very physically and culturally diverse and cannot be generalized by any single description. To assist in an accurate appraisal and understanding of this remarkable region, the Borderlands team has divided it into eight subareas based on the watershed subareas of the U.S. Geological Survey Border Environmental Health Initiative (http://borderhealth.cr.usgs.gov) (fig. 2–1), the boundaries of which are defined primarily by surface-water drainage basins. The drainage basins directly adjacent to or crossing the international boundary were automatically included in the defined border region, as were those basins that contain unconsolidated aquifers that extend to or cross the international boundary. Also, “protected areas” adjacent to included basins were selectively added to the defined border region. Though some geographic features are entirely within the Borderlands, many features—deserts, mountain ranges, rivers, etc.— extend beyond the region boundaries but are still influential to Borderlands environments (fig. 2–2). In some cases, the authors of the following chapters have made fine adjustments to the Borderlands boundaries, and they have described those alterations where necessary. By describing and studying these subareas individually and comparing them to one another, we can emphasize the physical and cultural diversity that makes the Borderlands such an important geographic area.

  15. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  16. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  18. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 1985 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  1. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2015/2016 Regional Land Cover Data - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and land change information for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP...

  2. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  3. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  4. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 1996 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  8. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2010 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  9. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  10. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  11. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 1996 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  12. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  13. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  14. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 1996 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  15. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  16. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  18. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  1. Sm-Nd, K-Ar and petrologic study of some kimberlites from eastern United States and their implication for mantle evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, A.R.; Rubury, E.; Mehnert, H.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1984-01-01

    We provide new data on Sm-Nd systematics, K-Ar dating and the major element chemistry of kimberlites from the eastern United States (mostly from central New York State) and their constituent mineral phases of olivine, clinopyroxene, garnet, phlogopite and perovskite. In addition, we report Nd-isotopes in a few kimberlites from South Africa, Lesotho and from the eastern part of China. The major element compositions of the New York dike rocks and of their constituent minerals including a xenolith of eclogite are comparable with those from the Kimberley area in South Africa. The K-Ar age of emplacement of the New York dikes is further established to be 143 Ma. We have analyzed the Nd-isotopic composition of the following kimberlites and related rocks: Nine kimberlite pipes from South Africa and Lesotho, two from southern India; one from the U.S.S.R., fifteen kimberlite pipes and related dike rocks from eastern and central U.S. and two pipes from the Shandong Province of eastern China. The age of emplacement of these kimberlites ranges from 1300 million years to 90 million years. The initial Nd-isotopic compositions of these kimberlitic rocks expressed as e{open}NdIwith respect to a chondritic bulk-earth growth-curve show a range between 0 and +4, with the majority of the kimberlites being in the range 0 to +2. This range is not matched by any other suite of mantle-derived igneous rocks. This result strengthens our earlier conclusion that kimberlitic liquids are derived from a relatively primeval and unique mantle reservoir with a nearly chondritic Sm/Nd ratio. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of plantation forests in the United States since the 1930s: an annual and gridded data set for regional Earth system modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangsheng; Pan, Shufen; Hayes, Daniel J.; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-08-01

    Plantation forest area in the conterminous United States (CONUS) ranked second among the world's nations in the land area apportioned to forest plantation. As compared to the naturally regenerated forests, plantation forests demonstrate significant differences in biophysical characteristics, and biogeochemical and hydrological cycles as a result of more intensive management practices. Inventory data have been reported for multiple time periods on plot, state, and regional scales across the CONUS, but the requisite annual and spatially explicit plantation data set over a long-term period for analysis of the role of plantation management on regional or national scales is lacking. Through synthesis of multiple inventory data sources, this study developed methods to spatialize the time series plantation forest and tree species distribution data for the CONUS over the 1928-2012 time period. According to this new data set, plantation forest area increased from near zero in the 1930s to 268.27 thousand km2 in 2012, accounting for 8.65 % of the total forestland area in the CONUS. Regionally, the South contained the highest proportion of plantation forests, accounting for about 19.34 % of total forestland area in 2012. This time series and gridded data set developed here can be readily applied in regional Earth system modeling frameworks for assessing the impacts of plantation management practices on forest productivity, carbon and nitrogen stocks, and greenhouse gases (e.g., CO2, CH4, and N2O) and water fluxes on regional or national scales. The gridded plantation distribution and tree species maps, and the interpolated state-level annual tree planting area and plantation area during 1928-2012, are available from https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.873558.

  3. The occurrence of the rat lungworm, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, in nonindigenous snails in the Gulf of Mexico region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teem, John L.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Bishop, Henry S.; da Silva, Alexandre J.; Carter, Jacoby; White-McLean, Jodi; Smith, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Nonindigenous apple snails, Pomacea maculata (formerly Pomacea insularum), are currently spreading rapidly through the southeastern United States. This mollusk serves as an intermediate host of the rat lungworm parasite (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause eosinophilic meningitis in humans who consume infected mollusks. A PCR-based detection assay was used to test nonindigenous apple snails for the rat lungworm parasite in Louisiana, Texas, Mississippi, and Florida. Only apple snails obtained from the New Orleans, Louisiana, area tested positive for the parasite. These results provide the first evidence that Angiostrongylus cantonensis does occur in nonindigenous apple snails in the southeastern United States. Additionally, Angiostrongylus cantonensis was identified in the terrestrial species Achatina fulica in Miami, Florida, indicating that rat lungworm is now established in Florida as well as Louisiana. Although the study suggests that the rat lungworm is not widespread in the Gulf States region, the infected snail population could still pose a risk to human health and facilitate the spread of the parasite to new areas.

  4. Weather pattern climatology of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.; Davis, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    In this study the geographic domain covered the 48 conterminous states of the United States. The daily synoptic weather pattern was classified into nine types for the 10-year period January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1978. Weather pattern types were defined relative to the classical polar front model of a mid-latitude cyclonic storm system and its associated air masses. Guidelines for classifying weather patterns on an operational basis were developed. These were applied to 3652 daily surface weather maps to produce a time series of weather pattern type at 120 grid points of a 160 point, 3/sup 0/ latitude by 4/sup 0/ longitude array over the United States. Statistics on the frequency of occurrence, persistence and alternation of weather patterns were calculated for each grid point. Summary statistics for the entire grid and for six regions were also presented. Frequency of occurrence and persistence were found to depend on the size and speed of movement of the weather pattern. Large, slow moving air masses had higher frequency of occurrence and longer persistence than small (fronts) or rapidly moving (or changing) features (fronts, storm centers). Some types showed distinct regional preferences. The subtropical maritime high occurred mainly in the south central and southeast. An indeterminate weather pattern type accounted for those weather patterns that did not fit the polar front model or were too disorganized to be classified. The intermountain thermal low of the desert southwest was one such feature that dominated both frequency of occurrence and persistence in this region. Alternation from one weather pattern to another followed the polar front model of a moving cyclonic storm. The tendency for anticyclonic weather patterns to become disorganized as they weakened was seen in the high percentage of these patterns that changed to an indeterminate pattern as they aged.

  5. Regional annual water yield from forest lands and its response to potential deforestation across the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steve G. McNulty; J. Lu; Devendra M. Amatya; Y. Liang; R.K. Kolka

    2005-01-01

    Regional water yield at a meso-scale can be estimated as the difference between precipitation input and evapotranspiration output. Forest water yield from the southeastern US varies greatly both in space and time. Because of the hot climate and high evapotranspiration, less than half of the annual precipitation that falls on forest lands is available for stream flow...

  6. An assessment of the downturn in the forest products sector in the northern region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; W.G. Luppold; P.J. Ince; R.J. Piva; K.E. Skog

    2012-01-01

    The forest industry within the northern region of the U.S. has declined notably in employment, mill numbers, wood consumption, and forest harvests since 2000…a downturn exacerbated by the recession of 2007 to 2009. Longer term industrial decline (since 2000) has been evidenced by reductions in secondary products (e.g., furniture) and print paper manufacturing which can...

  7. Monitoring and assessment of regional impacts from nonnative invasive plants in forests of the Pacific Coast, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Gray

    2008-01-01

    Invasions of nonnative plants into new regions have a tremendous impact on many natural and managed ecosystems affecting their composition and function. Nonnative invasive species have a large economic impact through lost or degraded land costs, and are a primary cause of extinction of native species.

  8. Impacts of climate change on sub-regional electricity demand and distribution in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Melissa R.; Fernandez, Steven J.; Fu, Joshua S.; Olama, Mohammed M.

    2016-08-01

    High average temperatures lead to high regional electricity demand for cooling buildings, and large populations generally require more aggregate electricity than smaller ones do. Thus, future global climate and population changes will present regional infrastructure challenges regarding changing electricity demand. However, without spatially explicit representation of this demand or the ways in which it might change at the neighbourhood scale, it is difficult to determine which electricity service areas are most vulnerable and will be most affected by these changes. Here we show that detailed projections of changing local electricity demand patterns are viable and important for adaptation planning at the urban level in a changing climate. Employing high-resolution and spatially explicit tools, we find that electricity demand increases caused by temperature rise have the greatest impact over the next 40 years in areas serving small populations, and that large population influx stresses any affected service area, especially during peak demand.

  9. Rural tobacco use across the United States: How rural and urban areas differ, broken down by census regions and divisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Megan E; Doogan, Nathan J; Kurti, Allison N; Redner, Ryan; Gaalema, Diann E; Stanton, Cassandra A; White, Thomas J; Higgins, Stephen T

    2016-05-01

    This project compared urban/rural differences in tobacco use, and examined how such differences vary across regions/divisions of the U.S. Using pooled 2012-2013 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), we obtained weighted prevalence estimates for the use of cigarettes, menthol cigarettes, chewing tobacco, snuff, cigars, and pipes. NSDUH also provides information on participants' residence: rural vs. urban, and Census region and division. Overall, use of cigarettes, chew, and snuff were higher in rural, compared to urban areas. Across all tobacco products, urban/rural differences were particularly pronounced in certain divisions (e.g., the South Atlantic). Effects did not appear to be fully explained by differences in poverty. Going beyond previous research, these findings show that urban/rural differences vary across different types of tobacco products, as well as by division of the country. Results underscore the need for regulatory efforts that will reduce health disparities.

  10. Using a Genetic Algorithm to Model Broadband Regional Waveforms for Crustal Structure in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Joydeep; Sheehan, Anne F.; Tiampo, Kristy; Rundle, John

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we analyze regional seismograms to obtain the crustal structure in the eastern Great Basin and western Colorado plateau. Adopting a for- ward-modeling approach, we develop a genetic algorithm (GA) based parameter search technique to constrain the one-dimensional crustal structure in these regions. The data are broadband three-component seismograms recorded at the 1994-95 IRIS PASSCAL Colorado Plateau to Great Basin experiment (CPGB) stations and supplemented by data from U.S. National Seismic Network (USNSN) stations in Utah and Nevada. We use the southwestern Wyoming mine collapse event (M(sub b) = 5.2) that occurred on 3 February 1995 as the seismic source. We model the regional seismograms using a four-layer crustal model with constant layer parameters. Timing of teleseismic receiver functions at CPGB stations are added as an additional constraint in the modeling. GA allows us to efficiently search the model space. A carefully chosen fitness function and a windowing scheme are added to the algorithm to prevent search stagnation. The technique is tested with synthetic data, both with and without random Gaussian noise added to it. Several separate model searches are carried out to estimate the variability of the model parameters. The average Colorado plateau crustal structure is characterized by a 40-km-thick crust with velocity increases at depths of about 10 and 25 km and a fast lower crust while the Great Basin has approximately 35- km-thick crust and a 2.9-km-thick sedimentary layer.

  11. Temporal and spatial patterns of wetland extent influence variability of surface water connectivity in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Alexander, Laurie C.; Todd, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Context. Quantifying variability in landscape-scale surface water connectivity can help improve our understanding of the multiple effects of wetlands on downstream waterways. Objectives. We examined how wetland merging and the coalescence of wetlands with streams varied both spatially (among ecoregions) and interannually (from drought to deluge) across parts of the Prairie Pothole Region. Methods. Wetland extent was derived over a time series (1990-2011) using Landsat imagery. Changes in landscape-scale connectivity, generated by the physical coalescence of wetlands with other surface water features, were quantified by fusing static wetland and stream datasets with Landsat-derived wetland extent maps, and related to multiple wetness indices. The usage of Landsat allows for decadal-scale analysis, but limits the types of surface water connections that can be detected. Results. Wetland extent correlated positively with the merging of wetlands and wetlands with streams. Wetness conditions, as defined by drought indices and runoff, were positively correlated with wetland extent, but less consistently correlated with measures of surface water connectivity. The degree of wetland-wetland merging was found to depend less on total wetland area or density, and more on climate conditions, as well as the threshold for how wetland/upland was defined. In contrast, the merging of wetlands with streams was positively correlated with stream density, and inversely related to wetland density. Conclusions. Characterizing the degree of surface water connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region in North America requires consideration of 1) climate-driven variation in wetness conditions and 2) within-region variation in wetland and stream spatial arrangements.

  12. Forecasts of forest conditions in regions of the United States under future scenarios: a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2012 RPA Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Wear; Robert Huggett; Ruhong Li; Benjamin Perryman; Shan Liu

    2013-01-01

    The 626 million acres of forests in the conterminous United States represent significant reserves of biodiversity and terrestrial carbon and provide substantial flows of highly valued ecosystem services, including timber products, watershed protection benefits, and recreation. This report describes forecasts of forest conditions for the conterminous United States in...

  13. Spatial and temporal epidemiology of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) in the Midwest and Southeast regions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Julio; Goede, Dane; Morrison, Robert; Perez, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Emergence of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in the US in 2013 caused a major impact in the swine industry due to its high mortality and rapid spread through the country. Even though the role of potential sources of infection in the epidemiology of the disease at the farm level (feed, fomites) has been extensively investigated, there is a lack of knowledge about the dynamics of disease spread at the regional level. Here, we investigated the dissemination of PEDV infection in two areas located in the regions with the highest swine density in the country (Southeast and Midwest) including more than 2400 farms. Location and date of outbreaks were used to assess the spatial and temporal clustering of cases using global (Cuzick-Edwards, Knox and directional tests) and local (Bernouilli model of the spatial scan statistic) techniques in the first 10 months of the epidemic. A strong spatio-temporal pattern was detected in both areas of study, with an increased risk of disease at transmission from infected farms into neighboring PEDV-free sites is a likely explanation for a substantial proportion of the reported PEDV-positive farms and consistent with the rapid spread of a highly infectious disease in the absence of immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Non-medical use of prescription drugs and HIV risk behaviour in transgender women in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotsch, Eric G; Zimmerman, Rick S; Cathers, Laurie; Pierce, Juan; McNulty, Shawn; Heck, Ted; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    Male-to-female transgender women (TGW) experience high rates of substance use and HIV. A recent substance use trend is the use of prescription medication without a doctor's consent. No research to date has examined the associations between this non-medical use of prescription drugs and HIV risk behaviour in TGW. In the present study, TGW recruited from community venues (N = 104) in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed surveys assessing demographic information, non-medical use of prescription drugs, other substance use, injection practices and sexual risk behaviour. Twenty-four per cent of the sample reported lifetime non-medical use of prescription drugs across the following categories: analgesics (21.2%), anxiolytics (14.4%), stimulants (12.5%) and sedatives (8.7%). Participants reporting non-medical use of prescription drugs were more likely to report other substance use, needle use to inject drugs, injecting silicone and sharing needles. In multivariable analyses, non-medical use of prescription drugs was associated with unprotected sex, sex after engaging in substance use, and commercial sex work, after controlling for demographic factors. Self-esteem and social support from family served as protective factors for non-medical use of prescription drugs. HIV-prevention programmes focused on TGW in the United States may wish to expand their assessment of substance use to include the use of prescription medications without a physician's consent.

  15. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  16. Trans-Pacific and regional atmospheric transport of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primbs, Toby

    The atmospheric transport of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from Asian sources to the Western U.S. was investigated. In addition, the SOC extraction method was optimized. Hansen solubility parameter plots were used to aid in the pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) solvent selection of air sampling media in order to minimize polymeric matrix interferences. To estimate the emissions of anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) from East Asia and to identify unique SOC molecular markers in Asian air masses, air samples were collected on the island of Okinawa, Japan in Spring 2004. Elevated concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and particulate-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were attributed to air masses from China. A large proportion of the variation in the current use pesticides, gas-phase PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations was explained by meteorology. Using measured PAH, carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon concentrations and estimated CO and black carbon emission inventories, the emission of 6 carcinogenic particulate-phase PAHs were estimated to be 1518-4179 metric tons/year for all of Asia and 778-1728 metric tons/year for only China. Atmospheric measurements of anthropogenic SOCs were made at Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO), located in Oregon's Cascade Range. PAH concentrations at MBO increased with the percentage of air mass time in Asia and, in conjunction with other data, provided strong evidence that particulate-phase PAHs are emitted from Asia and undergo trans-Pacific atmospheric transport to North America. Enhanced HCB, alpha-HCH, and gamma-HCH concentrations also occurred during trans-Pacific atmospheric transport, compared with regional (Western U.S.) air masses during similar time periods. Gas-phase PAH and fluorotelomer alcohol (FTOH) concentrations significantly increased with the percentage of air mass time

  17. Monitoring Groundwater Variations from Satellite Gravimetry and Hydrological Models: A Comparison with in-situ Measurements in the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruya Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at mapping time variations in the Earth’s gravity field, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE satellite mission is applicable to access terrestrial water storage (TWS, which mainly includes groundwater, soil moisture (SM, and snow. In this study, SM and accumulated snow water equivalent (SWE are simulated by the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS land surface models (LSMs and then used to isolate groundwater anomalies from GRACE-derived TWS in Pennsylvania and New York States of the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. The monitoring well water-level records from the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Climate Response Network from January 2005 to December 2011 are used for validation. The groundwater results from different combinations of GRACE products (from three institutions, CSR, GFZ and JPL and GLDAS LSMs (CLM, NOAH and VIC are compared and evaluated with in-situ measurements. The intercomparison analysis shows that the solution obtained through removing averaged simulated SM and SWE of the three LSMs from the averaged GRACE-derived TWS of the three centers would be the most robust to reduce the noises, and increase the confidence consequently. Although discrepancy exists, the GRACE-GLDAS estimated groundwater variations generally agree with in-situ observations. For monthly scales, their correlation coefficient reaches 0.70 at 95% confidence level with the RMSE of the differences of 2.6 cm. Two-tailed Mann-Kendall trend test results show that there is no significant groundwater gain or loss in this region over the study period. The GRACE time-variable field solutions and GLDAS simulations provide precise and reliable data sets in illustrating the regional groundwater storage variations, and the application will be meaningful and invaluable when applied to the data-poor regions.

  18. The Pinto shear zone; a Laramide synconvergent extensional shear zone in the Mojave Desert region of the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Michael L.; Beyene, Mengesha A.; Spell, Terry L.; Kula, Joseph L.; Miller, David M.; Zanetti, Kathleen A.

    2005-09-01

    The Pinto shear zone is one of several Late Cretaceous shear zones within the eastern fringe of the Mesozoic magmatic arc of the southwest Cordilleran orogen that developed synchronous with continued plate convergence and backarc shortening. We demonstrate an extensional origin for the shear zone by describing the shear-zone geometry and kinematics, hanging wall deformation style, progressive changes in deformation temperature, and differences in hanging wall and footwall thermal histories. Deformation is constrained between ˜74 and 68 Ma by 40Ar/ 39Ar thermochronology of the exhumed footwall, including multi-diffusion domain modeling of K-feldspar. We discount the interpretations, applied in other areas of the Mojave Desert region, that widespread Late Cretaceous cooling results from refrigeration due to subduction of a shallowly dipping Laramide slab or to erosional denudation, and suggest alternatively that post-intrusion cooling and exhumation by extensional structures are recorded. Widespread crustal melting and magmatism followed by extension and cooling in the Late Cretaceous are most consistent with production of a low-viscosity lower crust during anatexis and/or delamination of mantle lithosphere at the onset of Laramide shallow subduction.

  19. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  20. Geospatial compilation and digital map of centerpivot irrigated areas in the mid-Atlantic region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Jason S.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate water availability within the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the University of Delaware Agricultural Extension, created a dataset that maps the number of acres under center-pivot irrigation in the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain study area. For this study, the extent of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain falls within areas of the States of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The irrigation dataset maps about 271,900 acres operated primarily under center-pivot irrigation in 57 counties. Manual digitizing was performed against aerial imagery in a process where operators used observable center-pivot irrigation signatures—such as irrigation arms, concentric wheel paths through cropped areas, and differential colors—to identify and map irrigated areas. The aerial imagery used for digitizing came from a variety of sources and seasons. The imagery contained a variety of spatial resolutions and included online imagery from the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Imagery Program, Microsoft Bing Maps, and the Google Maps mapping service. The dates of the source images ranged from 2010 to 2012 for the U.S. Department of Agriculture imagery, whereas maps from the other mapping services were from 2013.

  1. Improving retrospective characterization of the food environment for a large region in the United States during a historic time period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchincloss, Amy H; Moore, Kari A B; Moore, Latetia V; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2012-11-01

    Access to healthy foods has received increasing attention due to growing prevalence of obesity and diet-related health conditions yet there are major obstacles in characterizing the local food environment. This study developed a method to retrospectively characterize supermarkets for a single historic year, 2005, in 19 counties in 6 states in the USA using a supermarket chain-name list and two business databases. Data preparation, merging, overlaps, added-value amongst various approaches and differences by census tract area-level socio-demographic characteristics are described. Agreement between two food store databases was modest: 63%. Only 55% of the final list of supermarkets were identified by a single business database and selection criteria that included industry classification codes and sales revenue ≥$2 million. The added-value of using a supermarket chain-name list and second business database was identification of an additional 14% and 30% of supermarkets, respectively. These methods are particularly useful to retrospectively characterize access to supermarkets during a historic period and when field observations are not feasible and business databases are used.

  2. Regional Algal Biofuel Production Potential in the Coterminous United States as Affected by Resource Availability Trade-offs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Skaggs, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wigmosta, Mark S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coleman, Andre M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-03-15

    The warm sunny climate and unoccupied arid lands in the American southwest are favorable factors for algae cultivation. However, additional resources affect the overall viability of specific sites and regions. We investigated the tradeoffs between growth rate, water, and CO2 availability and costs for two strains: N. salina and Chlorella sp. We conducted site selection exercises (~88,000 US sites) to produce 21 billion gallons yr-1 (BGY) of renewable diesel (RD). Experimental trials from the National Alliance for Advanced Biofuels and Bio-Products (NAABB) team informed the growth model of our Biomass Assessment Tool (BAT). We simulated RD production by both lipid extraction and hydrothermal liquefaction. Sites were prioritized by the net value of biofuel minus water and flue gas costs. Water cost models for N. salina were based on seawater and high salinity groundwater and for Chlorella, fresh and brackish groundwater. CO2 costs were based on a flue gas delivery model. Selections constrained by production and water were concentrated along the Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts due to high growth rates and low water costs. Adding flue gas constraints increased the spatial distribution, but the majority of sites remained in the southeast. The 21 BGY target required ~3.8 million hectares of mainly forest (41.3%) and pasture (35.7%). Exclusion in favor of barren and scrub lands forced most production to the southwestern US, but with increased water consumption (5.7 times) and decreased economic efficiency (-38%).

  3. Utah Southwest Regional Geothermal Development Operations Research Project. Appendix 10 of regional operations research program for development of geothermal energy in the Southeast United States. Final technical report, June 1977--August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Stanley; Wagstaff, Lyle W.

    1979-01-01

    The Southwest Regional Geothermal Operations/Research project was initiated to investigate geothermal development in the five states within the region: Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. Although the region changed during the first year to include Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming, the project objectives and procedures remained unchanged. The project was funded by the DOE/DGE and the Four Corners Regional Commission with participation by the New Mexico Energy Resources Board. The study was coordinated by the New Mexico Energy Institute at New Mexico State University, acting through a 'Core Team'. A 'state' team, assigned by the states, conducted the project within each state. This report details most of the findings of the first year's efforts by the Utah Operations/Research team. It is a conscientious effort to report the findings and activities of the Utah team, either explicitly or by reference. The results are neither comprehensive nor final, and should be regarded as preliminary efforts to much of what the Operations/Research project was envisioned to accomplish. In some cases the report is probably too detailed, in other cases too vague; hopefully, however, the material in the report, combined with the Appendices, will be able to serve as source material for others interested in geothermal development in Utah.

  4. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of...

  6. 75 FR 5373 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Pricing for 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. \\TM\\ SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. The 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set, featuring $1...

  7. Predicting Outcomes on the Liver Transplant Waiting List in the United States: Accounting for Large Regional Variation in Organ Availability and Priority Allocation Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Allyson; Schladt, David P; Zeglin, Jessica; Pyke, Joshua; Kim, W Ray; Lake, John R; Roberts, John P; Hirose, Ryutaro; Mulligan, David C; Kasiske, Bertram L; Snyder, Jon J; Israni, Ajay K

    2016-10-01

    The probability of liver transplant and death on the waiting list in the United States varies greatly by donation service area (DSA) due to geographic differences in availability of organs and allocation of priority points, making it difficult for providers to predict likely outcomes after listing. We aimed to develop an online calculator to report outcomes by region and patient characteristics. Using the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients database, we included all prevalent US adults aged 18 years or older waitlisted for liver transplant, examined on 24 days at least 30 days apart over a 2-year period. Outcomes were determined at intervals of 30 to 365 days. Outcomes are reported by transplant program, DSA, region, and the nation for comparison, and can be shown by allocation or by laboratory model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (6-14, 15-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-40), age, and blood type. Outcomes varied greatly by DSA; for candidates with allocation MELD 25-29, the 25th and 75th percentiles of liver transplant probability were 30% and 67%, respectively, at 90 days. Corresponding percentiles for death or becoming too sick to undergo transplant were 5% and 9%. Outcomes also varied greatly for candidates with and without MELD exception points. The waitlist outcome calculator highlights ongoing disparities in access to liver transplant and may assist providers in understanding and counseling their patients about likely outcomes on the waiting list.

  8. Trends in Deaths Involving Heroin and Synthetic Opioids Excluding Methadone, and Law Enforcement Drug Product Reports, by Census Region - United States, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Julie K; Gladden, R Matthew; Seth, Puja

    2017-09-01

    Opioid overdose deaths quadrupled from 8,050 in 1999 to 33,091 in 2015 and accounted for 63% of drug overdose deaths in the United States in 2015. During 2010-2015, heroin overdose deaths quadrupled from 3,036 to 12,989 (1). Sharp increases in the supply of heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) are likely contributing to increased deaths (2-6). CDC examined trends in unintentional and undetermined deaths involving heroin or synthetic opioids excluding methadone (i.e., synthetic opioids)* by the four U.S. Census regions during 2006-2015. Drug exhibits (i.e., drug products) obtained by law enforcement and reported to the Drug Enforcement Administration's (DEA's) National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS) that tested positive for heroin or fentanyl (i.e., drug reports) also were examined. All U.S. Census regions experienced substantial increases in deaths involving heroin from 2006 to 2015. Since 2010, the South and West experienced increases in heroin drug reports, whereas the Northeast and Midwest experienced steady increases during 2006-2015.(†) In the Northeast, Midwest, and South, deaths involving synthetic opioids and fentanyl drug reports increased considerably after 2013. These broad changes in the U.S. illicit drug market highlight the urgent need to track illicit drugs and enhance public health interventions targeting persons using or at high risk for using heroin or IMF.

  9. Development of a solid-state sodium Doppler lidar using an all-fiber-coupled injection seeding unit for simultaneous temperature and wind measurements in the mesopause region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guotao; Xia, Yuan; Cheng, Xuewu; Du, Lifang; Wang, Jihong; Xun, Yuchang

    2017-04-01

    We present a solid-state sodium (Na) Doppler lidar developed at YanQing Station, Beijing, China (40°N, 116°E) to achieve simultaneous wind and temperature measurements of mesopause region. The 589nm pulse laser is produced by two injection seeded 1064nm and 1319nm Nd:YAG pulse lasers using the sum-frequency generation (SFG) technique. An all-fiber-coupled seeding laser unit was designed to enable absolute laser frequency locking and cycling the measurements among three different operating frequencies. Experimental observations were carried out using this Na lidar system and the preliminary results were described and compared with the temperature of the Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) and the horizontal wind of the meteor Radar, demonstrating the reliability and good performance of this lidar system. The all-fiber-coupled injection seeding configuration together with the solid-state Nd:YAG lasers make the Na Doppler lidar more compact and greatly reduce the system maintenance, which is conducive to transportable and unattended operation.

  10. The quality of our nation's waters: water quality in the Principal Aquifers of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge regions, eastern United States, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    The aquifers of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge regions underlie an area with a population of more than 40 million people in 10 states. The suburban and rural population is large, growing rapidly, and increasingly dependent on groundwater as a source of supply, with more than 550 million gallons per day withdrawn from domestic wells for household use. Water from some of these aquifers does not meet human-health benchmarks for drinking water for contaminants with geologic or human sources. Water from samples in crystalline- and siliciclastic-rock aquifers frequently exceeded standards for contaminants with geologic sources, and samples in carbonate-rock aquifers frequently exceeded standards for contaminants with human sources, most often nitrate and bacteria.

  11. Managing nuclear weapons in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.

    1993-03-16

    This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

  12. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  13. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States....

  14. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  16. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia,...

  17. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District...

  18. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States....

  19. Education in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱富奎

    2009-01-01

    As might be expected,educational institutions in the United States reflect the nation's basic values,especially the ideal of equality of opportunity.From elementary school through college,Americans believe that everyone deserves an equal opportunity to get a good education.

  20. United States Navy DL Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  1. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  2. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  3. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States...

  4. Variable Density Flow Modeling for Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO{sub 2} Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Sminchak

    2011-09-30

    The Arches Province in the Midwestern U.S. has been identified as a major area for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage applications because of the intersection of Mt. Simon sandstone reservoir thickness and permeability. To better understand large-scale CO{sub 2} storage infrastructure requirements in the Arches Province, variable density scoping level modeling was completed. Three main tasks were completed for the variable density modeling: Single-phase, variable density groundwater flow modeling; Scoping level multi-phase simulations; and Preliminary basin-scale multi-phase simulations. The variable density modeling task was successful in evaluating appropriate input data for the Arches Province numerical simulations. Data from the geocellular model developed earlier in the project were translated into preliminary numerical models. These models were calibrated to observed conditions in the Mt. Simon, suggesting a suitable geologic depiction of the system. The initial models were used to assess boundary conditions, calibrate to reservoir conditions, examine grid dimensions, evaluate upscaling items, and develop regional storage field scenarios. The task also provided practical information on items related to CO{sub 2} storage applications in the Arches Province such as pressure buildup estimates, well spacing limitations, and injection field arrangements. The Arches Simulation project is a three-year effort and part of the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE)/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) program on innovative and advanced technologies and protocols for monitoring/verification/accounting (MVA), simulation, and risk assessment of CO{sub 2} sequestration in geologic formations. The overall objective of the project is to develop a simulation framework for regional geologic CO{sub 2} storage infrastructure along the Arches Province of the Midwestern U.S.

  5. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint...: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801...

  6. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories...

  7. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  8. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  9. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  10. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... territories and possessions of the United States....

  11. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  12. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  13. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  14. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  15. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  16. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  17. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  18. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  19. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  20. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including...

  1. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  2. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  3. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  4. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  5. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  6. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  7. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  8. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States....

  9. 31 CFR 536.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 536.315 Section 536.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.315 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  10. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  11. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  12. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  13. Dynamic downscaling of 22-year CFS winter seasonal hindcasts with the UCLA-ETA regional climate model over the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sales, Fernando; Xue, Yongkang

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluates the UCLA-ETA regional model's dynamic downscaling ability to improve the National Center for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System (NCEP CFS), winter season predictions over the contiguous United States (US). Spatial distributions and temporal variations of seasonal and monthly precipitation are the main focus. A multi-member ensemble means of 22 winters from 1982 through 2004 are included in the study. CFS over-predicts the precipitation in eastern and western US by as much as 45 and 90 % on average compared to observations, respectively. Dynamic downscaling improves the precipitation hindcasts across the domain, except in the southern States, by substantially reducing the excessive precipitation produced by the CFS. Average precipitation root-mean-square error for CFS and UCLA-ETA are 1.5 and 0.9 mm day-1, respectively. In addition, downscaling improves the simulation of spatial distribution of snow water equivalent and land surface heat fluxes. Despite these large improvements, the UCLA-ETA's ability to improve the inter-annual and intra-seasonal precipitation variability is not clear, probably because of the imposed CFS' lateral boundary conditions. Preliminary analysis of the cause for the large precipitation differences between the models reveals that the CFS appears to underestimate the moisture flux convergence despite producing excessive precipitation amounts. Additionally, the comparison of modeled monthly surface sensible and latent heat fluxes with Global Land Data Assimilation System land data set shows that the CFS incorrectly partitioned most of surface energy into evaporation, unlike the UCLA-ETA. These findings suggest that the downscaling improvements are mostly due to a better representation of land-surface processes by the UCLA-ETA. Sensitivity tests also reveal that higher-resolution topography only played a secondary role in the dynamic downscaling improvement.

  14. NO2 columns in the western United States observed from space and simulated by a regional chemistry model and their implications for NOx emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.-W.; Heckel, A.; Frost, G. J.; Richter, A.; Gleason, J.; Burrows, J. P.; McKeen, S.; Hsie, E.-Y.; Granier, C.; Trainer, M.

    2009-06-01

    There are many isolated sources of NOx emissions across the western United States, including electrical power generation plants and urban areas. In this manuscript, two satellite instruments measuring NO2 vertical columns over these sources and an atmospheric chemical-transport model are used to evaluate bottom-up NOx emission inventories, model assumptions, and satellite retrieval algorithms. We carried out simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model for the western U.S. domain during the summer of 2005 using measured power plant NOx emissions. Model NO2 vertical columns are compared with a retrieval of the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) satellite instrument data by the University of Bremen and retrievals of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) data by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and a modified version of the NASA OMI retrieval produced by the University of Bremen. For areas dominated by power plant NOx emissions, the model NO2 columns serve as a comparison standard for satellite retrievals because emissions are continuously monitored at all large U.S. power plants. An extensive series of sensitivity tests of the assumptions in both the satellite retrievals and the model are carried out over the Four Corners and San Juan power plants, two adjacent facilities in the northwest corner of New Mexico that together represent the largest NOx point source in the United States. Overall, the SCIAMACHY and OMI NO2 columns over western U.S. power plants agree well with model NO2 columns, with differences between the two being within the variability of the model and satellite. In contrast to regions dominated by power plant emissions, model NO2 columns over large urban areas along the U.S. west coast are approximately twice as large as satellite NO2 columns from SCIAMACHY and OMI retrievals. The discrepancies in urban areas are beyond the sensitivity

  15. A Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Outbreak in One Geographic Region of the United States: Descriptive Epidemiology and Investigation of the Possibility of Airborne Virus Spread.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Beam

    Full Text Available This study describes a spring 2013 outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv, using data from 222 swine sites in 14 counties area in 4 contiguous states in the United States. During the outbreak, the premises-level incidence of PEDv was 40.5 percent (90/222 sites. One of the three companies from which data were collected had a lower incidence (19.5 percent than the other two companies (41.1 and 47.2 percent. Sow sites had the highest incidence of PEDv during the outbreak (80.0 percent. Spatial analysis showed that PEDv was clustered rather than randomly distributed, which suggested that sites near a positive site had increased risk of acquiring PEDv infection. Meteorological data were used to investigate the hypothesis that PEDv was spread by air. If airborne dissemination played a role in this outbreak, we would expect the direction of disease spread to correlate with the predominant wind direction. Two methods were used to determine the direction of disease spread--linear direction mean analysis in ArcGIS and the direction test in ClusterSeer. The former method indicated PEDv spread was south to slightly southwest, and the latter indicated spread was to the southeast. The predominant wind direction during the month of the outbreak was toward the south, with some southeast and southwest winds; the strongest wind gusts were toward the southwest. These findings support the hypothesis that PEDv was spread by air. The results, however, should be interpreted cautiously because we did not have information on direct and indirect contacts between sites, such as movement of trucks, feed, pigs or people. These types of contacts should be evaluated before pathogen spread is attributed to airborne mechanisms. Although this study did not provide a definitive assessment of airborne spread of PEDv, we believe the findings justify additional research to investigate this potential mechanism of transmission.

  16. A Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Outbreak in One Geographic Region of the United States: Descriptive Epidemiology and Investigation of the Possibility of Airborne Virus Spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Andrea; Goede, Dane; Fox, Andrew; McCool, Mary Jane; Wall, Goldlin; Haley, Charles; Morrison, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a spring 2013 outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv), using data from 222 swine sites in 14 counties area in 4 contiguous states in the United States. During the outbreak, the premises-level incidence of PEDv was 40.5 percent (90/222 sites). One of the three companies from which data were collected had a lower incidence (19.5 percent) than the other two companies (41.1 and 47.2 percent). Sow sites had the highest incidence of PEDv during the outbreak (80.0 percent). Spatial analysis showed that PEDv was clustered rather than randomly distributed, which suggested that sites near a positive site had increased risk of acquiring PEDv infection. Meteorological data were used to investigate the hypothesis that PEDv was spread by air. If airborne dissemination played a role in this outbreak, we would expect the direction of disease spread to correlate with the predominant wind direction. Two methods were used to determine the direction of disease spread—linear direction mean analysis in ArcGIS and the direction test in ClusterSeer. The former method indicated PEDv spread was south to slightly southwest, and the latter indicated spread was to the southeast. The predominant wind direction during the month of the outbreak was toward the south, with some southeast and southwest winds; the strongest wind gusts were toward the southwest. These findings support the hypothesis that PEDv was spread by air. The results, however, should be interpreted cautiously because we did not have information on direct and indirect contacts between sites, such as movement of trucks, feed, pigs or people. These types of contacts should be evaluated before pathogen spread is attributed to airborne mechanisms. Although this study did not provide a definitive assessment of airborne spread of PEDv, we believe the findings justify additional research to investigate this potential mechanism of transmission. PMID:26709512

  17. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  18. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... outside of the `reaches of the public interest'''); see generally United States v. SBC Commc'ns, Inc., 489... judicial power.'' SBC ] Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d at 14-15 (citing Microsoft, 56 F.3d at 1462). With... effect of proposed remedies. See, e.g., KeySpan, 763 F. Supp. 2d at 642; SBC Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d...

  19. President of the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东丽

    2005-01-01

    President of the United States is the chief executive officer of the federal government, the leader of the executive branch1, and the corn man der-in-chief of the armed forces2. The president has the power to make treaties with other nations, with the advice and consent of two-thirds of the Senate3. The president also appoints4, with Senate's consent, diplomatic representatives ,Supreme Court judges5, and many other officials.

  20. Environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' effort to manage its environment including air, water nature, and biodiversity to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  1. Regionalization of the Pohorsko Podravje - some dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gams

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Dilemmas of the regionalisation of the mountainous part of the basin of the Drava( Pohorsko Podravje. In the planned new geographical monograph of Slovenia, also the Pohorsko Podravje shoud be represented in frame of mezoregions as a complex of actual regional factors, and in frame of submacroregions the genesis of the regional elements mostlv.

  2. HIV Testing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS HIV Testing in the United States HIV Testing in the United States Jun 23, 2017 ... States or for refugees. 27 Insurance Coverage of HIV Testing HIV testing that is “medically necessary” – recommended ...

  3. Geochemistry of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest, United States: D in Regional aquifer-system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D.I.

    1989-01-01

    Distributions of solutes in aquifers of Cambrian and Ordovician age were studied in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, northwestern Indiana, and northern Missouri to determine the sources of solutes and the probable chemical mechanisms that control regional variations in water quality. This work is part of the Northern Midwest Regional Aquifer-System Analysis project, whose objective is to describe and model the regional hydrogeology of the Cambrian- Ordovician aquifer system in the study region. The data base used included more than 3,000 ground-water-quality analyses from all major aquifers, but especially from the St. Peter, Jordan, and Mount Simon Sandstones and their equivalents. Regional variations in the water chemistry of glacial drift and other sedimentary units that overlie the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in recharge areas in Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois were also studied, but to a lesser degree.

  4. A review of the siricid woodwasps and their Ibaliid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Siricidae, Ibaliidae) in the Eastern United States, with emphasis on the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Smith; Nathan M. Schiff

    2002-01-01

    Keys are presented for the five genera and 15 species of adult Siricidae and one genus and two species of their parasitoids of the family Ibaliidae that occur in or may be adventive in the Eastern United States. Sircid larvae are wood borers in conifers and broadleafed trees. Notes on their biology, fungal symbionts, distributions, and host associations are given. Data...

  5. Multi-hazard Non-regulatory Risk Maps for Resilient Coastal Communities of Washington State in Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, R.; Walsh, T. J.; Zou, Y.; Gufler, T.; Norman, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Washington Department of Natural Resources - Division of Geology and Earth Resources (WADNR-DGER) partnered with FEMA through the FEMA Cooperating Technical Partners (CTP) program to assess annualized losses from flood and other hazards and prepare supportive risk related data for FEMA's coastal RiskMAP projects. We used HAZUS-MH analysis to assess losses from earthquake, flood and other potential hazards such as landslide and tsunami in the project areas; on shorelines of the Pacific Ocean and Puget Sound of Washington Grays Harbor, Pacific, Skagit, Whatcom, Island, Mason, Clallam, Jefferson and San Juan counties. The FEMA's Hazus-MH tool was applied to estimate losses and damages for each building due to floods and earthquakes. User-defined facilities (UDF) inventory data were prepared and used for individual building damage estimations and updating general building stocks. Flood depth grids were used to determine which properties are most impacted by flooding. For example, the HAZUS-MH (flood model) run based on the 1% annual chance event (or 100 year flood) for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 161 million in losses to buildings including residential, commercial properties, and other building and occupancy types. A likely M9 megathrust Cascadia earthquake scenario USGS-ShakeMap was used for the HAZUS-MH earthquake model. For example, the HAZUS-MH (earthquake model) run based on the Cascadia M9 earthquake for Grays Harbor County, resulted in a total of 1.15 billion in losses to building inventory. We produced GIS-based overlay maps of properties exposed to tsunami, landslide, and liquefaction hazards within the communities. This multi-hazard approach is an essential component to produce non-regulatory maps for FEMA's RiskMAP project, and they help further improve local and regional mitigation efforts and emergency response plans, and overall resiliency plan of the communities in and around the coastal communities in western Washington.

  6. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States....

  7. Distribution and Fate of Black Carbon Nanoparticles from Regional Urban Pollution and Wildfire at a Large Subalpine Lake in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisiaux, M. M.; Heyvaert, A. C.; Edwards, R.

    2012-04-01

    Emitted to the atmosphere through fire and fossil fuel combustion, refractory black carbon nanoparticles (rBC) impact human health, climate, atmospheric chemistry, and the carbon cycle. Eventually these particles enter aquatic environments, where their distribution, fate and association with other pollutants are still poorly characterized. This study presents results from an evaluation of rBC in the waters of oligotrophic Lake Tahoe and its watershed in the western United States. The study period included a large wildfire within the Tahoe basin, seasonal snowmelt, and a number of storm events that resulted in pulsed urban runoff into the lake with rBC concentrations up to four orders of magnitude higher than mid-lake concentrations. The results show that elevated rBC concentrations from wildfire and urban runoff were rapidly attenuated in the lake, suggesting unexpected aggregation or degradation of the particles that prevent rBC concentrations from building up in the water of this lake, renowned for its clarity. The rBC concentrations were also measured in sediment cores from Lake Tahoe to evaluate the sediment archive as a potential combustion record. The evidence suggests that rBC is efficiently transferred to these sediments, which preserve a local-to-regional scale history of rBC emissions, as revealed by comparison with other pollutant records in the sediment. Rapid removal of rBC soon after entry into the lake has implications for transport of rBC in the global aquatic environment and flux of rBC from continents to the global ocean.

  8. Land use and climate affect Black Tern, Northern Harrier, and Marsh Wren abundance in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcey, Greg M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Linz, George M.; McKann, Patrick C.

    2014-01-01

    Bird populations are influenced by many environmental factors at both large and small scales. Our study evaluated the influences of regional climate and land-use variables on the Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus), Black Tern (Childonias niger), and Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris) in the prairie potholes of the upper Midwest of the United States. These species were chosen because their diverse habitat preference represent the spectrum of habitat conditions present in the Prairie Potholes, ranging from open prairies to dense cattail marshes. We evaluated land-use covariates at three logarithmic spatial scales (1,000 ha, 10,000 ha, and 100,000 ha) and constructed models a priori using information from published habitat associations and climatic influences. The strongest influences on the abundance of each of the three species were the percentage of wetland area across all three spatial scales and precipitation in the year preceding that when bird surveys were conducted. Even among scales ranging over three orders of magnitude the influence of spatial scale was small, as models with the same variables expressed at different scales were often in the best model subset. Examination of the effects of large-scale environmental variables on wetland birds elucidated relationships overlooked in many smaller-scale studies, such as the influences of climate and habitat variables at landscape scales. Given the spatial variation in the abundance of our focal species within the prairie potholes, our model predictions are especially useful for targeting locations, such as northeastern South Dakota and central North Dakota, where management and conservation efforts would be optimally beneficial. This modeling approach can also be applied to other species and geographic areas to focus landscape conservation efforts and subsequent small-scale studies, especially in constrained economic climates.

  9. Individual biomass facility reports. Supplement to some employment and earnings implications of regional biomass energy utilization: New England and the Cornbelt States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, J. R.; Bell, S. E.; Blair, L. M.; Gove, R. M.; Stevenson, W.; Tamura, R. F.

    1981-08-01

    Research was conducted to determine the direct employment and earnings implications of regional biomass energy utilization. Details of the primary data collected during the course of the investigation are provided. A case studies approach was used to observe and analyze various biomass energy systems. Visits were made to existing biomass facilities and data on their operation and employment requirements were collected. Information on planned or potential future facilities was also obtained. When this information was analyzed, a fairly accurate picture of the current situation as well as the rate and direction of future development in biomass was attained. Separate descriptions are included for each facility visited or for each interview obtained. The facility reports are organized according to fuel cycle (wood-fuel, alcohol-fuel, municipal solid waste facilities, others).

  10. Inclusive Education in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    C. Kenneth Tanner; Deborah Jan Vaughn Linscott; Susan Allan Galis

    1996-01-01

    School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States) study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive ed...

  11. Transient regional climate change: analysis of the summer climate response in a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble experiment over the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Scherer, Martin

    2011-12-27

    Integrating the potential for climate change impacts into policy and planning decisions requires quantification of the emergence of sub-regional climate changes that could occur in response to transient changes in global radiative forcing. Here we report results from a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble simulation of climate in the United States, forced by atmospheric constituent concentrations from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. We find that 21(st) century summer warming permanently emerges beyond the baseline decadal-scale variability prior to 2020 over most areas of the continental U.S. Permanent emergence beyond the baseline annual-scale variability shows much greater spatial heterogeneity, with emergence occurring prior to 2030 over areas of the southwestern U.S., but not prior to the end of the 21(st) century over much of the southcentral and southeastern U.S. The pattern of emergence of robust summer warming contrasts with the pattern of summer warming magnitude, which is greatest over the central U.S. and smallest over the western U.S. In addition to stronger warming, the central U.S. also exhibits stronger coupling of changes in surface air temperature, precipitation, and moisture and energy fluxes, along with changes in atmospheric circulation towards increased anticylonic anomalies in the mid-troposphere and a poleward shift in the mid-latitude jet aloft. However, as a fraction of the baseline variability, the transient warming over the central U.S. is smaller than the warming over the southwestern or northeastern U.S., delaying the emergence of the warming signal over the central U.S. Our comparisons with observations and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble of global climate model experiments suggest that near-term global warming is likely to cause robust sub-regional-scale warming over areas that exhibit relatively little baseline variability. In contrast, where there is greater

  12. Transient regional climate change: analysis of the summer climate response in a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble experiment over the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Ashfaq, Moetasim; Scherer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Integrating the potential for climate change impacts into policy and planning decisions requires quantification of the emergence of sub-regional climate changes that could occur in response to transient changes in global radiative forcing. Here we report results from a high-resolution, century-scale, ensemble simulation of climate in the United States, forced by atmospheric constituent concentrations from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario. We find that 21st century summer warming permanently emerges beyond the baseline decadal-scale variability prior to 2020 over most areas of the continental U.S. Permanent emergence beyond the baseline annual-scale variability shows much greater spatial heterogeneity, with emergence occurring prior to 2030 over areas of the southwestern U.S., but not prior to the end of the 21st century over much of the southcentral and southeastern U.S. The pattern of emergence of robust summer warming contrasts with the pattern of summer warming magnitude, which is greatest over the central U.S. and smallest over the western U.S. In addition to stronger warming, the central U.S. also exhibits stronger coupling of changes in surface air temperature, precipitation, and moisture and energy fluxes, along with changes in atmospheric circulation towards increased anticylonic anomalies in the mid-troposphere and a poleward shift in the mid-latitude jet aloft. However, as a fraction of the baseline variability, the transient warming over the central U.S. is smaller than the warming over the southwestern or northeastern U.S., delaying the emergence of the warming signal over the central U.S. Our comparisons with observations and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 3 (CMIP3) ensemble of global climate model experiments suggest that near-term global warming is likely to cause robust sub-regional-scale warming over areas that exhibit relatively little baseline variability. In contrast, where there is greater

  13. Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.

    1977-01-01

    Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.

  14. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  15. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  16. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  17. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  18. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  19. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth...

  20. Anopheline species, some of their habits and relation to malaria in endemic areas of Rondônia State, Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço-de-Oliveira, R; Guimarães, A E; Arlé, M; da Silva, T F; Castro, M G; Motta, M A; Deane, L M

    1989-01-01

    In view of recent studies incriminating several species of anophelines, besides Anopheles darlingi, as malaria vectors in the Brazilian Amazon, we performed an anopheline survey in four localities--Ariquemes, Cujubim, Machadinho and Itapoã do Oeste--in Rondônia, the most malarious State in the Country. Twenty species were found. An. darlingi was, by far, the dominant species and the only one whose density coincided with that of malaria. On human baits it was more numerous in the immediate vicinity of houses than indoors where, however, it was almost the only species encountered. On both situations it fed mostly at sunset and during the first half of the night. It was less numerous far from houses and scarce inside the forest. Other species (An. triannulatus, An. evansae, An. albitarsis, An. strodei) appeared in appreciable numbers only in Ariquemes, both in areas with and without malaria. The remaining species were scanty. An. darlingi was confirmed as the primary local vector.

  1. Andreev bound states. Some quasiclassical reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Y., E-mail: yiriolin@illinois.edu; Leggett, A. J. [University of Illinois at Urhana-Champaign, Dept. of Physics (United States)

    2014-12-15

    We discuss a very simple and essentially exactly solvable model problem which illustrates some nice features of Andreev bound states, namely, the trapping of a single Bogoliubov quasiparticle in a neutral s-wave BCS superfluid by a wide and shallow Zeeman trap. In the quasiclassical limit, the ground state is a doublet with a splitting which is proportional to the exponentially small amplitude for “normal” reflection by the edges of the trap. We comment briefly on a prima facie paradox concerning the continuity equation and conjecture a resolution to it.

  2. Growth of regional acute stroke systems of care in the United States in the first decade of the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sarah; Saver, Jeffrey

    2012-07-01

    States and counties in the US began implementing regional systems of acute stroke care in the first decade of the 21st century, whereby emergency medical services systems preferentially route acute stroke patients directly to primary stroke centers. The pace, geographic range, and population reach of regional stroke system implementation has not been previously delineated. We performed a review of legislative archives, internet and media reports, consultation with American Heart Association/American Stroke Association and Centers for Disease Control staff, and phone interviews with state public health and emergency medical service officials from each of the 50 states. The first counties to adopt regional regulations supporting routing of acute stroke patients to primary stroke centers were in Alabama and Texas in 2000; the first states were Florida and Massachusetts in 2004. By 2010, 16 states had state-level legislation or regulations to enable emergency medical service routing to primary stroke centers, as did counties in 3 additional states. The US population covered by routing protocols increased substantially in the latter half of the decade, from 1.5% in 2000 to 53% of the US population by the end of 2010. The first decade of the 21st century witnessed a remarkable structural transformation in acute stroke care: by the end of 2010, over half of all Americans were living in states/counties with emergency medical service routing protocols supporting the direct transport of acute stroke patients to primary stroke centers. Additional efforts are needed to extend regional stroke systems of care to the rest of the US.

  3. [Undocumented migrant labor in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinand, J

    1985-09-01

    The author identifies two factors contributing to the increase in the number of illegal migrant workers in the United States. The first is the complex system of legal immigration, which contributes to massive evasion. The second is the preference by many employers for hiring illegal aliens. The author concludes that the proposed changes in U.S. immigration laws, even though they include employer sanctions, are likely to prove as ineffective as previous measures adopted in several states some 10 years ago that also penalized employers hiring illegal aliens. It is suggested that the economic pressures leading to large-scale labor immigration will prove stronger than political pressures to control such immigration

  4. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States...

  5. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  6. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  7. Pine Engraver, Ips pini, in the Western United States (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra J. Kegley; R. Ladd Livingston; Kenneth E. Gibson

    1997-01-01

    The pine engraver, Ips pini (Say), is one of the most common and widely distributed bark beetles in North America. It occurs from southern Appalachia north to Maine and Quebec, westward across the northern United States and Canada, into the interior of Alaska, throughout the Pacific Coast States and the Rocky Mountain region, to northern Mexico. In the western United...

  8. PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Nemeth

    2002-09-01

    In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need

  9. 国有地勘单位分类改革若干问题思考%Pondering on Some Issues in State-owned Geological Units Classified Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田国华; 颜洪鸣

    2013-01-01

    Going through more than 20 years, the state-owned geological exploration units have experienced stages of structural readjustment, unit business transferring and localization, realized diversified economy with one main industry, and diversified industrial structure management mode of enterprise, but are still public institutions. By virtue of "the Central Committee of the CPC, the State Council guidelines on classified institutional reform promotion", the classified reform of state-owned geological exploration units is imperative. Although the internal and external environments of the units have provided with sustainable development conditions, but common problems long-term accumulated still the choke point of the institution-enterprise reform, such as industrial scale small and scattered, long in "wage economy" position; human, financial and material resources limited, difficult to form new economic growth points; the ties of social problems of pension insurance system etc. Thus the units should take the initiative in the reform, to control conditions of classification, positioning with reason. On the basis of investigation and study, the government should consider regional differences promote the classified reform in classification, business segregation, gradation and step by step mode, phased and orderly manner. On the precondition of supporting policies, carry out industrial integration; ensure geological exploration industry sustainable development.%国有地勘单位的改革,历经20余年,先后经历了结构调整,成建制转产,属地化等阶段,实现了一业为主、多种经营、产业结构多元化的企业化管理模式,但仍保持着事业单位的身份.根据《中共中央、国务院关于分类推进事业单位改革的指导意见》,国有地勘单位分类改革势在必行.地勘单位虽然在内外部环境方面都具有可持续发展的条件,但长期积累下来的共性问题仍将成为事企改革的瓶颈,如产业规

  10. United States Anti-Drug Policy in Colombia: Consolidation of the La Macarena Region as a Lesson derived from Plan Colombia?

    OpenAIRE

    Koutenská, Kristýna

    2016-01-01

    The United States officially declared war on drugs in the early 1970s with the aim to stop the flow of illegal narcotics coming into the country. Not only did Washington enhance the domestic anti-drug policy, but it also strengthened the foreign anti-drug policy and launched an extensive campaign in Latin America, one of the major producers of drugs in the world. Chemical eradication and interdiction of drug-trafficking routes in Mexico, Peru and Bolivia led to a relocation of the cultivation...

  11. The United States Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    Black and white maps, graphs and tables that may be reproduced are presented in this volume focusing on the United States. Some of the features of the United States depicted are: size, population, agriculture and resources, manufactures, trade, citizenship, employment, income, poverty, the federal budget, energy, health, education, crime, and the…

  12. State-ing the Facts: Exploring the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Jennifer M.; Bledsoe, Ann M.; Reys, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on estimation, scaling, area of nonstandard shapes, algebraic thinking, and real-life situations using the United States of America. These activities make it possible to integrate mathematics and social studies. Uses technology by employing geometry software packages such as The Geometer's Sketchpad, Cabri, and Geometric…

  13. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  14. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  15. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  16. State of stress in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, Mary Lou; Zoback, Mark

    1980-11-01

    Inferring principal stress directions from geologic data, focal mechanisms, and in situ stress measurements, we have prepared a map of principal horizontal stress orientations for the conterminous United States. Stress provinces with linear dimensions which range between 100 and 2000 km were defined on the basis of the directions and relative magnitude of principal stresses. Within a given province, stress orientations appear quite uniform (usually within the estimated range of accuracy of the different methods used to determine stress). Available data on the transition in stress direction between the different stress provinces indicate that these transitions can be abrupt, occurring over characterized by high levels of seismicity and generally high heat flow, the stress pattern is complex, but numerous stress provinces can be well delineated. Despite relative tectonic quiescence in the eastern and central United States, a major variation in principal stress orientation is apparent between the Atlantic Coast and midcontinent areas. Most of the eastern United States is marked by predominantly compressional tectonism (combined thrust and strike slip faulting), whereas much of the region west of the southern Great Plains is characterized by predominantly extensional tectonism (combined normal and strike slip faulting). Deformation along the San Andreas fault and in parts of the Sierra Nevada is nearly pure strike slip. Exceptions to this general pattern include areas of compressional tectonics in the western United States (the Pacific Northwest, the Colorado Plateau interior, and the Big Bend segment of the San Andreas fault) and the normal growth faulting along the Gulf Coastal Plain. Sources of stress are constrained not only by the orientation and relative magnitude of the stresses within a given province but also by the manner of transition of the stress field from one province to another. Much of the modern pattern of stress in the western United States can be

  17. United States/Canada electricity exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

  18. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  19. Drought in Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    May 2007 was a record-setting month in Georgia. Typically a dry month in this southern state, May 2007 was exceptionally so, with many locations setting record-low rainfall records and some receiving no rain at all, said state climatologist David Emory Stooksbury on GeorgiaDrought.org. The lack of rain slowed plant growth, as shown in this vegetation index image. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite collected the data used to make this image between May 9 and May 24, 2007. The image shows vegetation conditions compared to average conditions observed from 2000 through 2006. Areas in which plants are more sparse or are growing more slowly than average are brown, while better-than-average growth is green. Georgia and its neighbors (South Carolina, Alabama, and Florida) are all brown, an indication that the lack of rainfall is suppressing plant growth. The gray area in southern Georgia and northern Florida shows where MODIS could not collect valid vegetation measurements, either because of clouds or smoke. In this case, the area corresponds with land that burned during this period and was probably masked by smoke. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided by Inbal Reshef, Global Agricultural Monitoring Project.

  20. Demand for resident hunting in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam Poudyal; Seong Hoon Cho; J. Michael Bowker

    2008-01-01

    We modeled hunting demand among resident hunters in the Southeastern United States. Our model revealed that future hunting demand will likely decline in this region. Population growth in the region will increase demand but structural change in the region's demography (e.g., "browning" and "aging "), along with declining forestland access will...

  1. Filicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Phillip J

    2016-12-01

    In the United States the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education determines the curriculum required for fellows in forensic psychiatry to become board certified as a subspecialist. Areas that must be covered during the one year fellowship include criminal issues, such as insanity; civil issues, such as tort law and Workers' Compensation; legal regulation of psychiatry, such as confidentiality and involuntary hospitalization; and correctional psychiatry issues, such as dual agency and prisoner's rights. Fellows are also expected to have knowledge about juvenile courts, the structure of the legal system, and child custody issues. In addition, fellows are required to analyze complex cases and write forensic reports which are well reasoned. Teaching methods include lectures, storytelling, use of video vignettes, and mock trials. Additional teaching methodologies include group supervision of fellows in their report writing and direct observation of giving testimony. During the year we see fellows evolve and shift their orientation from being an advocate for patients to perceiving their role as serving justice.

  2. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States Recommend on ... reported smoking every day or some days. Current Smoking Among Adults in 2015 (Nation) By Gender 2 ...

  3. Current Developments in Communications Law in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadl, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Article reviews some of the major developments in communications law in the United States in the past year (1972). Significant events are covered in the areas of cable television, television programming and domestic satelites. (Author)

  4. 美国和西欧巨型城市区区域合作对比研究%Regional Cooperation in the Mega-city Regions of the United States and Western Europe: A Comparative Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    琳达·麦卡锡; 陈梦燚

    2009-01-01

    本文根据2008年8月5日香港大学召开的“巨型城市区管治与规划创新”国际专题讨论会上的发言“Regional Cooperation in the Mega-city Regions of the United States and Western Europe:A Comparative Perspective”译出.文章回顾了美国、西欧在大都市区合作的经济发展和公共政策方面的著作文献.大都市区合作包括整个大都市区的各地方政府以及相关更高级别的政府机构,作为网络的一部分相互协作,这个网络通常包含私营部门和非盈利机构,他们关注其为经济发展所做的努力可以使得大都市区整体受益.本文研究的对象是伦敦、巴黎、纽约、洛杉矶一类拥有千万以上人口的巨型城市区(mega-city regions,MCRs).由此提出了一系列问题:首先,对于大都市区域合作的理论研究处于什么状态,以及建立概念框架通过比较来考察巨型城市区的合作到底有怎样的用处?其次,伦敦、巴黎、纽约和洛杉矶巨型城市区的主要合作努力和制度安排是什么?第三,有什么用以指导政府管治和战略规划的理论见解及相关的公共政策?不仅能用于发达国家的巨型城市区,还能用于世界其他地区正在形成的众多巨型城市区,尽管它们在政治、经济及其他方面存在着显著差异.

  5. United States Department of State Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    targets for worldwide reduction or elimination of the cultiva- tion, production, and commercial-scale import of cocaine, opium, heroin, mari- juana ...international sanctions against state sponsors of terrorism and urges their strict enforcement. State presses state spon- sors to abandon their support for

  6. Water Savings of Crop Redistribution in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Frankel Davis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic growth, changes in diet, and reliance on first-generation biofuels are increasing the human demand for agricultural products, thereby enhancing the human pressure on global freshwater resources. Recent research on the food-water nexus has highlighted how some major agricultural regions of the world lack the water resources required to sustain current growth trends in crop production. To meet the increasing need for agricultural commodities with limited water resources, the water use efficiency of the agricultural sector must be improved. In this regard, recent work indicates that the often overlooked strategy of changing the crop distribution within presently cultivated areas offers promise. Here we investigate the extent to which water in the United States could be saved while improving yields simply by replacing the existing crops with more suitable ones. We propose crop replacement criteria that achieve this goal while preserving crop diversity, economic value, nitrogen fixation, and food protein production. We find that in the United States, these criteria would greatly improve calorie (+46% and protein (+34% production and economic value (+208%, with 5% water savings with respect to the present crop distribution. Interestingly, greater water savings could be achieved in water-stressed agricultural regions of the US such as California (56% water savings, and other western states.

  7. The United States in the 1980's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Conradie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of optimism which prevailed in the United States since the Korean War, came to an abrupt end after the debacle in Vietnam. By the end of the Seventies the United States was no longer the dominant military power. American foreign policy lacked consistence, coherence and a strategic sense. The United States became indecisive. Under these circumstances the Soviet Union successfully enforced its imperialistic designs upon countries far from its shores.

  8. Entanglement Witnesses and Characterizing Entanglement Properties of Some PPT States

    CERN Document Server

    Jafarizadeh, M A; Akbari, Y

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of linear programming, new sets of entanglement witnesses (EWs) for 3x3 and 4x4 systems are constructed. In both cases, the constructed EWs correspond to the hyperplanes contacting, without intersecting, the related feasible regions at line segments and restricted planes respectively. Due to the special property of the contacting area between the hyper-planes and the feasible regions, the corresponding hyper-planes can be turned around the contacting area throughout a bounded interval and hence create an infinite number of EWs. As these EWs are able to detect entanglement of some PPT states, they are non-decomposable (nd-EWs).

  9. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Ewing, Alexander; Mandel, Michele G; Simmons, Katharine B; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen

    2016-11-25

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2013. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2013, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2004-2013. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 664,435 abortions were reported to CDC for 2013. Of these abortions, 98.2% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2004-2013. Among these 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2013 was 12.5 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2012 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 5%. From 2004 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 20%, 21%, and 17%, respectively. In 2013, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2004-2013). In 2013 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2013, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 25.9% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.8 and 18.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.8%, 9.2%, and 3.6% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 11.8, 7.0, and 2

  10. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-11-27

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2012. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2012, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2003-2012. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 699,202 abortions were reported to CDC for 2012. Of these abortions, 98.4% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2003-2012. Among these same 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2012 was 13.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 210 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2011 to 2012, the total number and ratio of reported abortions decreased 4% and the abortion rate decreased 5%. From 2003 to 2012, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 17%, 18%, and 14%, respectively, and reached their lowest level in 2012 for the entire period of analysis (2003-2012). In 2012 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2012, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.8% and 25.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 23.3 and 18.9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.4%, 9.1%, and 3.7% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of

  11. The private forest-land owners of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Douglas G. Lewis; H. Fred Kaiser

    1982-01-01

    A report on a 1978 survey of private forest-land owners, based on 11,076 questionnaires. About 7.8 million ownership units hold 333 million acres of privately owned forest land in the United States. Regional and subregional breakdowns are included for such important variables as form of ownership; owner's occupation, age, sex, race, residence, and education; size...

  12. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  13. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  14. The paradox of cooling streams in a warming world: regional climate trends do not parallel variable local trends in stream temperature in the Pacific continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, Ivan; Johnson, Sherri; Dunham, Jason B.; Haggerty, Roy; Hockman-Wert, David

    2012-01-01

    Temperature is a fundamentally important driver of ecosystem processes in streams. Recent warming of terrestrial climates around the globe has motivated concern about consequent increases in stream temperature. More specifically, observed trends of increasing air temperature and declining stream flow are widely believed to result in corresponding increases in stream temperature. Here, we examined the evidence for this using long-term stream temperature data from minimally and highly human-impacted sites located across the Pacific continental United States. Based on hypothesized climate impacts, we predicted that we should find warming trends in the maximum, mean and minimum temperatures, as well as increasing variability over time. These predictions were not fully realized. Warming trends were most prevalent in a small subset of locations with longer time series beginning in the 1950s. More recent series of observations (1987-2009) exhibited fewer warming trends and more cooling trends in both minimally and highly human-influenced systems. Trends in variability were much less evident, regardless of the length of time series. Based on these findings, we conclude that our perspective of climate impacts on stream temperatures is clouded considerably by a lack of long-termdata on minimally impacted streams, and biased spatio-temporal representation of existing time series. Overall our results highlight the need to develop more mechanistic, process-based understanding of linkages between climate change, other human impacts and stream temperature, and to deploy sensor networks that will provide better information on trends in stream temperatures in the future.

  15. Soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in El Paso, Texas: analysis of a potential problem in the United States/Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto J; Lee, Wen-Yee; Campos-Díaz, Sandra I

    2009-04-30

    Ultrasonic extraction followed by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption inline coupled with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) was used to perform a comprehensive determination of soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in El Paso, Texas. The method provided good sensitivity and faster processing time for the analysis. The total PAHs in El Paso soil ranged from 0.1 to 2225.5 microg kg(-1). Although the majority of PAH concentrations did not exceed the soil screening levels regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the existence of PAHs in this ecosystem is ubiquitous. Naphthalene were found in 100% of the soil samples; while the heavy PAHs (five- and six-ring) were not often detected and mostly remained in closer proximity to industrial areas and major traffic points. The results ruled out the possibility of petroleum refining as the significant source of local soil-borne PAH contamination, but they suggested that the PAHs found in El Paso soil were closely linked to human activities and possible other industrial processes.

  16. Sequence diversity of the nucleoprotein gene of iris yellow spot virus (genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) isolates from the western region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappu, H R; du Toit, L J; Schwartz, H F; Mohan, S K

    2006-05-01

    Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV), a tentative virus species in the genus Tospovirus and family Bunyaviridae, is considered a rapidly emerging threat to onion production in the western United States (US). The present study was undertaken to determine the sequence diversity of IYSV isolates from infected onion plants grown in California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, Utah and Washington. Using primers derived from the small RNA of IYSV, the complete sequence of the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of each isolate was determined and the sequences compared. In addition, a shallot isolate of IYSV from Washington was included in the study. The US isolates of IYSV shared a high degree of sequence identity (95 to 99%) with one another and to previously reported isolates. Phylogenetic analyses showed that with the exception of one isolate from central Oregon and one isolate from California, all the onion and shallot isolates from the western US clustered together. This cluster also included onion and lisianthus isolates from Japan. A second distinct cluster consisted of isolates from Australia (onion), Brazil (onion), Israel (lisianthus), Japan (alstroemeria), The Netherlands (iris) and Slovenia (leek). The IYSV isolates evaluated in this study appear to represent two distinct groups, one of which largely represents isolates from the western US. Understanding of the population structure of IYSV would potentially provide insights into the molecular epidemiology of this virus.

  17. Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    current government approach to the economy , then examining the current projections for United States’ spending from 2009 through 2019 and examining...manner and thereby strengthen the economy of the United States, this paper concludes with three examples that are predicated on the synergistic benefits associated with small reforms.

  18. United States Strategy for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    17 March 2005. 2 Homero Aridjis, "Survival of Indigenous Cultures in Mexico," 9 April 1998; available from <http://www.klys.se/worldconference/papers...HomeroAridjis.htm>;Internet; accessed 21 November 2004. 3Tania Carrasco, "Indigenous Peoples in the States of Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca ," 2005...analysis by the State representatives from Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca (3 Southern States). The plan reviewed possible options to reduce poverty and

  19. Western United States beyond the Four Corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The breathtaking beauty of the western United States is apparent in this image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data from 16 different swaths acquired between April 2000 and September 2001by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were used to create this cloud-free natural-color image mosaic. The image is draped over a 100-meter (328-foot)shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.Among the prominent features are the snow-capped Rocky Mountains traversing Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. In the northern portion of the image, the Columbia Plateau stretches across Washington, Oregon and Idaho. Many major rivers originate in this region, including the Missouri to the east of the Continental Divide, the Snake to the west, and the Colorado which wends across Utah and Arizona. The Colorado Plateau and vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert extend south from Utah into Arizona. In the southwestern portion of the image, California's San Joaquin Valley and the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada give way to the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.The Terra spacecraft is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

  20. Estimating Climate Trends: Application to United States Plant Hardiness Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y. Krakauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States Department of Agriculture classifies plant hardiness zones based on mean annual minimum temperatures over some past period (currently 1976–2005. Since temperatures are changing, these values may benefit from updating. I outline a multistep methodology involving imputation of missing station values, geostatistical interpolation, and time series smoothing to update a climate variable’s expected value compared to a climatology period and apply it to estimating annual minimum temperature change over the coterminous United States. I show using hindcast experiments that trend estimation gives more accurate predictions of minimum temperatures 1-2 years in advance compared to the previous 30 years’ mean alone. I find that annual minimum temperature increased roughly 2.5 times faster than mean temperature (~2.0 K versus ~0.8 K since 1970, and is already an average of 1.2  0.5 K (regionally up to ~2 K above the 1976–2005 mean, so that much of the country belongs to warmer hardiness zones compared to the current map. The methods developed may also be applied to estimate changes in other climate variables and geographic regions.

  1. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  2. Some early astronomical sites in the Kashmir region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naseer; Vahia, M. N.; Masood, Tabasum; Ahmad, Aijaz

    2009-03-01

    We discuss a number of early rock art sites in the Kashmir Valley in northern India and neighbouring Pakistan, and suggest that some of these contain depictions of astronomical objects or events. The sites are in the Srinagar and Sopore regions and in or near the Ladakh region, and date to Neolithic or Upper Paleolithic times. Our studies suggest that during this period some of the ancient astronomers recorded supernovae, meteorite impacts, the Sun, the Moon and the seasons in their rock art.

  3. An Introduction to Retail Electricity Choice in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Retail electricity choice in the United States allows end-use customers (including industrial, commercial, and residential customers) to buy electricity from competitive retail suppliers. This brochure offers an overview of retail electricity choice in the United States, and its impact on prices and renewable energy procurement. It concludes with three lessons learned from the U.S. retail market experience that may serve as a reference for other countries and regions taking steps towards retail electricity market liberalization.

  4. State Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the State boundaries of the United States, and the boundaries of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by...

  5. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  6. Electronic States of Some Semiconductor Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Potential surfaces and equilibrium geometries of InAs2, In2As, InAs2+ and In2As+ were studied using the complete active space multi-configuration self-consistent field (CASMCSCF) technique. Two electronic states, namely 2B2 and 2B1, were found to prevail as the ground states for the InAs2 and In2As trimers, respectively. The corresponding adiabatic ionization energies were computed and the leading configurations of the ground states were analyzed according to the wavefunctions.

  7. Long-term aridity changes in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Edward R; Woodhouse, Connie A; Eakin, C Mark; Meko, David M; Stahle, David W

    2004-11-01

    The western United States is experiencing a severe multiyear drought that is unprecedented in some hydroclimatic records. Using gridded drought reconstructions that cover most of the western United States over the past 1200 years, we show that this drought pales in comparison to an earlier period of elevated aridity and epic drought in AD 900 to 1300, an interval broadly consistent with the Medieval Warm Period. If elevated aridity in the western United States is a natural response to climate warming, then any trend toward warmer temperatures in the future could lead to a serious long-term increase in aridity over western North America.

  8. Inclusive Education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kenneth Tanner

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive education and collaborative strategies. For example, principals and special education teachers were more positive about inclusive education than regular education teachers. Collaboration as an instructional strategy for "included" students was viewed as a high priority item. Responders who had taken two or more courses in school law rated the identified barriers to inclusive education higher than those with less formal training in the subject.

  9. State Fairgrounds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This shapefile is a point shapefile that displays the locations of the major state/regional agricultural fairs held throughout the United States. Some states (e.g.,...

  10. Regional operations research program for development of geothermal energy in the southwest United States. Final technical report, June 1977-August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlin, J.M.; Christ, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O' Dea, P.; Rao, C.R.; Swanberg, C.

    1979-01-01

    The efforts by the Core and State Teams in data acquisition, electric and non-electric economic studies, development of computer support functions and operations, and preparation of geothermal development scenarios are described. Team reports for the states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah are included in the appendices along with a summary of the state scenarios. (MHR)

  11. Excited-state relaxation of some aminoquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The absorption and fluorescence spectra, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetimes, and fluorescence rate constants ( k f of 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzoxazolylquinoline (I, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylquinoline (II, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -methoxybenzothiazolyl-quinoline (III, 2-amino-3-( 2 ′ -benzothiazolylbenzoquinoline (IV at different temperatures have been measured. The shortwavelength shift of fluorescence spectra of compounds studied (23–49 nm in ethanol as the temperature decreases (the solvent viscosity increases points out that the excited-state relaxation process takes place. The rate of this process depends essentially on the solvent viscosity, but not the solvent polarity. The essential increasing of fluorescence rate constant k f (up to about 7 times as the solvent viscosity increases proves the existence of excited-state structural relaxation consisting in the mutual internal rotation of molecular fragments of aminoquinolines studied, followed by the solvent orientational relaxation.

  12. Some Relationships among Unit Subsystem Characteristics, Unit Task Characteristics, and Unit Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    C.J. (1980) The behavoiral antd affective consequences of performance- relevant situational variables. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance...cies, practices, and procedures facilitate and/or inhibit organizational work unit effectiveness. This dissertation introduces an additional variable...people in an organizational work unit perform rather than a person. Roberts, lulin, and Rousseau (1978) provided an adaptation of Lewin’s work that

  13. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  14. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  15. CNPC Exports Drilling Equipment to United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Petroleum Machinery Plant(BPM) of CNPC and Rowan Drilling Company Inc, one of the most powerful drilling service and driller manufacturing companies in the United States signed a petroleum equipment contract on December 9 in Beijing.

  16. Rest Areas in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rest areas in the western United States. Data was collected from various data sources including georeferenced locations obtained from other agencies, digitizied...

  17. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  18. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Report Healthy People Older Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook NCHS Health, United States, 2015 - Men's Health ... Disparities Report Healthy People Older Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  19. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  20. The Grand Strategy of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    United States both militarily and by setting the terms of trade. While cultural and ideological affinities with European democra- cies played...military establishments (Japan, Russia, India, South Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, Indonesia , Malaysia, Singapore) can check possible military expansion when

  1. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Children Treatment Vaccines Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under ... person with infectious TB disease. Testing for TB in Children In the absence of symptoms, usually the ...

  2. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  3. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  4. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  5. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  6. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) modeled the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems for the contiguous United States using a standardized, deductive approach to...

  7. Anthropogenic Fragmentation in the western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We evaluated the fragmentation of the western United States by anthropogenic features. The addition of roads, railroads, and power lines to wildlands, and the...

  8. Social Studies: United States. Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E. G.

    This teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of the United States through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are five units: 1) Natural Setting --location, climate, terrain, water, soil, and economic and esthetic value, and conservation; 2) Historial Development --North American Indian cultures,…

  9. Characterization of floods in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharia, Manabendra; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vergara, Humberto; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Floods have gained increasing global significance in the recent past due to their devastating nature and potential for causing significant economic and human losses. Until now, flood characterization studies in the United States have been limited due to the lack of a comprehensive database matching flood characteristics such as peak discharges and flood duration with geospatial and geomorphologic information. The availability of a representative and long archive of flooding events spanning 78 years over a variety of hydroclimatic regions results in a spatially and temporally comprehensive flood characterization over the continental U.S. This study, for the first time, employs a large-event database that is based on actual National Weather Service (NWS) definitions of floods instead of the frequently-adopted case study or frequentist approach, allowing us to base our findings on real definitions of floods. It examines flooding characteristics to identify how space and time scales of floods vary with climatic regimes and geomorphology. Flood events were characterized by linking flood response variables in gauged basins to spatially distributed variables describing climatology, geomorphology, and topography. The primary findings of this study are that the magnitude of flooding is highest is regions such as West Coast and southeastern U.S. which experience the most extraordinary precipitation. The seasonality of flooding varies greatly from maxima during the cool season on the West Coast, warm season in the desert Southwest, and early spring in the Southeast. The fastest responding events tend to be in steep basins of the arid Southwest caused by intense monsoon thunderstorms and steep terrain. The envelope curves of unit peak discharge are consistent with those reported for Europe and worldwide. But significant seasonal variability was observed in floods of the U.S. compared to Europe that is attributed to the diversity of causative rainfall ranging from synoptic

  10. Party Formation in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is about how political parties formed in the world's first mass democracy, the United States. I trace the process of party formation from the bottom up. First, I ask: How do individuals become engaged in politics and develop political affiliations? In most states, throughout the antebellum era, the county was the primary unit of political administration and electoral representation. Owing to their small size, contiguity, and economic homogeneity, I expect that each county's ...

  11. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 596.313 Section... General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States... States, or any person in the United States....

  12. Forest Resources of the United States, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; Patrick D. Miles; John S. Vissage; Scott A. Pugh

    2004-01-01

    Forest resource growth, harvests, and land use conversion can change inventories within States, among regions, and even among countries, and can significantly influence the future performance of resources. This could affect the State, regional, and national economies that depend on the affected resources, as well as the resource environments. Periodic surveys provide...

  13. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Hydrologic Landscape Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This tabular data set represents the area of Hydrologic Landscape Regions (HLR) compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and...

  14. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States (NODC Accession 0121254)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  15. Increasing state market share through regional positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffer Uysal; Joseph S. Chen; Daniel R. Williams

    2000-01-01

    State tourism officials need to know more about the nature of in-state and out-of-state visitor characteristics and how actual and potential visitors perceive local destinations. The main objective of this study was to understand Virginia's image as a travel destination versus competitive states in the Mid-Atlantic region of the USA. The regional competitiveness...

  16. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  17. United States Counterterrorism on ISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTON MYNARDY

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. counter terrorism on ISIS had implemented with various strategies including degrading ISIS’s capability, shaping global coalition to defeat ISIS, and using trained military armed men for Iraq army forces, Kurdi army, Arabian army, and moderate opposition groups to fight against Bassar. In early 2015, U.S. government described the group as “losing this fight” and reported that anti- ISIS operations had killed more than 8,500 fighters, destroyed hundreds of vehicles and heavy weapons systems, and significantly degraded IS command and control capabilities. Unfortunately, ISIS still exists with their weapons. Moreover, the fear against ISIS and the worst conditions it brings are not exclusive in Syria, Iraq and Libya as the conflict has already spread to many countries in Europe. These countries are in dilemma because despite being affected by the conflict, still they intend to give asylum to the refugees, but their concern is that with refugees coming in, there might be exporting of ISIS’s ideologies which leads to bigger and more serious concerns than the possibility of economic instability. Inevitably, there have been questions regarding the existence of ISIS today: How can groups such as ISIS still exists despite being attacked for 3 years by the U.S? The reality is that the U.S. initiated the establishment of new and democratic governments in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Libya few years ago bothers some experts on the continuing existence of ISIS.

  18. Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.

  19. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Tamayao, Mili-Ann M.; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M. L.; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2016-04-01

    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally.

  20. The consequences of landscape change on ecological resources: An assessment of the United States Mid-Atlantic region, 1973-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Bruce Jones; Anne C. Neale; Timothy G. Wade; James D. Wickham; Chad L. Cross; Curtis M. Edmonds; Thomas R. Loveland; Maliha S. Nash; Kurt H. Riitters; Elizabeth R. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Spatially explicit identification of changes in ecological conditions over large areas is key to targeting and prioitizing areas for environmental protection and restoration by managers at watershed, basin, and regional scales. A critical limitation to this point has been the development of methods to conduct such broad-scale assessments. Field-based methods have...

  1. Occurrence and Distribution of Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) Indicators in Non-Perennial Streams in the Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    ORIGINATOR . ERDC/CRREL TR-14-11 iii Contents Abstract...mountain ranges where the vegetation is dominated mainly by coniferous forests at lower eleva- tions and alpine tundra at the highest elevations...other coniferous forests. 2.2 Sampling locations 150 non-perennial stream systems were sampled throughout the WMVC Region (Figure 2) during late

  2. Development of a generic auto-calibration package for regional ecological modeling and application in the Central Plains of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Li, Zhengpeng; Dahal, Devendra; Young, Claudia J.; Schmidt, Gail L.; Liu, Jinxun; Davis, Brian; Sohl, Terry L.; Werner, Jeremy M.; Oeding, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Process-oriented ecological models are frequently used for predicting potential impacts of global changes such as climate and land-cover changes, which can be useful for policy making. It is critical but challenging to automatically derive optimal parameter values at different scales, especially at regional scale, and validate the model performance. In this study, we developed an automatic calibration (auto-calibration) function for a well-established biogeochemical model—the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS)-Erosion Deposition Carbon Model (EDCM)—using data assimilation technique: the Shuffled Complex Evolution algorithm and a model-inversion R package—Flexible Modeling Environment (FME). The new functionality can support multi-parameter and multi-objective auto-calibration of EDCM at the both pixel and regional levels. We also developed a post-processing procedure for GEMS to provide options to save the pixel-based or aggregated county-land cover specific parameter values for subsequent simulations. In our case study, we successfully applied the updated model (EDCM-Auto) for a single crop pixel with a corn–wheat rotation and a large ecological region (Level II)—Central USA Plains. The evaluation results indicate that EDCM-Auto is applicable at multiple scales and is capable to handle land cover changes (e.g., crop rotations). The model also performs well in capturing the spatial pattern of grain yield production for crops and net primary production (NPP) for other ecosystems across the region, which is a good example for implementing calibration and validation of ecological models with readily available survey data (grain yield) and remote sensing data (NPP) at regional and national levels. The developed platform for auto-calibration can be readily expanded to incorporate other model inversion algorithms and potential R packages, and also be applied to other ecological models.

  3. 31 CFR 560.314 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 560.314 Section... § 560.314 United States person. The term United States person means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or...

  4. Landslide overview map of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch-Hall, Dorothy H.; Colton, Roger B.; Davies, William E.; Lucchitta, Ivo; Skipp, Betty A.; Varnes, David J.

    1982-01-01

    The accompanying landslide overview map of the conterminous United States is one of a series of National Environmental Overview Maps that summarize geologic, hydrogeologic, and topographic data essential to the assessment of national environmental problems. The map delineates areas where large numbers of landslides exist and areas which are susceptible to landsliding. It was prepared by evaluating the geologic map of the United States and classifying the geologic units according to high, medium, or low landslide incidence (number) and high, medium, or low susceptibility to landsliding. Rock types, structures, topography, precipitation, landslide type, and landslide incidence are mentioned for each physical subdivision of the United States. The differences in slope stability between the Colorado Plateau, the Appalachian Highlands, the Coast Ranges of California, and the Southern Rocky Mountains are compared in detail, to illustrate the influence of various natural factors on the types of landsliding that occur in regions having different physical conditions. These four mountainous regions are among the most landslide-prone areas in the United States. The Colorado Plateau is a deformed platform where interbedded sedimentary rocks of varied lithologic properties have been gently warped and deeply eroded. The rocks are extensively fractured. Regional fracture systems, joints associated with individual geologic structures, and joints parallel to topographic surfaces, such as cliff faces, greatly influence slope stability. Detached blocks at the edges of mesas, as well as columns, arched recesses, and many natural arches on the Colorado Plateau, were formed wholly or in part by mass movement. In the Appalachian Highlands, earth flows, debris flows, and debris avalanches predominate in weathered bedrock and colluvium. Damaging debris avalanches result when persistent steady rainfall is followed by a sudden heavy downpour. Landsliding in unweathered bedrock is controlled

  5. Dynamics of land-use change and conservation in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States: environmental and economic implications with linkages to rural community well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, William; Hoag, Dana; Johnson, Rex; Koontz, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Rural America has changed dramatically over the last century, from having over half the population living in rural settings to only 20 percent residing in a rural area today, and outmigration of younger populations from rural communities remains a constant issue for local governing officials. A declining tax base and concurrent rising costs for maintenance and repair of aging infrastructure add further challenges to policy decisions. Reduced enrollment has caused school closures or mergers. Farm consolidation and technical advances reduced the demand for local labor. On the positive side, however, record-high commodity prices have amplified farm income to new heights. The increased revenues can lead to farmers spending additional money within the local region, while at the same time increased transportation of products has impacted local infrastructure such as roads and bridges. Such dynamics present challenges for municipal leaders charged with promoting economic development and balanced spending, while at the same time maintaining the way of life and rural character that are so important to area residents. The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the United States covers much of the Northern Great Plains, including parts of North and South Dakota, Minnesota, Iowa, and a small part of Montana, and extends across a broad swath of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The region is defined largely by its rural character but has experienced extensive land conversion over the last century, with agricultural areas replacing native prairie habitat. Additional pressures arise from oil and gas development, global markets for agricultural production, and increased demands for biofuel feedstocks. Record-high commodity prices increase pressure on the native prairie as farmers look for new cropland acres. The volatility of commodity prices has raised fears over the intensity of land conversion to row-crop agriculture, the economic health and resiliency of rural communities, and ultimately

  6. Assessment of Challenges and Opportunity of Basketball Developments in Some Selected Regions in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufa, Gemechu Beker

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were…

  7. Nomenclature of regional hydrogeologic units of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.A.; Renken, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Clastic sediments of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system can be divided into four regional aquifers separated by three regional confining units. The four regional aquifers have been named for major rivers that cut across their outcrop areas and expose the aquifer materials. From youngest to oldest, the aquifers are called the Chickasawhay River, Pearl River, Chattahoochee River, and Black Warrior River aquifers, and the regional confining units separating them are given the same name as the aquifer they overlie. Most of the regional hydrogeologic units are subdivided within each of the four States that comprise the study area. Correlation of regional units is good with hydrogeologic units delineated by a similar regional study to the west and southwest. Because of complexity created by a major geologic structure to the northeast of the study area and dramatic facies change from clastic to carbonate strata to the southeast, correlation of regional hydrogeologic units is poor in these directions. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Regional operation research program for development of geothermal energy in the southwest United States. Final technical report, June 1977--August 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlin, J.M; Christ, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O' Dea, P.; Rao, C.R.; Swanberg, C.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from June 1977 to August 1978. The efforts by the Core and State Teams in data acquisition, electric and non-electric economic studies, development of computer support functions and operations, and preparation of geothermal development scenarios are described.

  9. Understanding the importance of medical student clerkships in poor health outcome regions served by Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) in impoverished locations of Southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashruta

    2017-01-01

    Area Health Education Centers provide health professional students the opportunity to explore the benefits of practicing in a rural and underserved location. The status of health conditions in chronic disease patients residing in impoverished regions of the US provides the chance to understand the factors that are responsible for constant inadequate outcomes in underserved and rural communities. Many limiting barriers to positive health outcomes occur in disproportionate numbers in the Southern Black Belt. Students should consider participating in rural and underserved clerkships, and ultimately a career as a health care provider in a poor health outcome region. In addition, promising programs (e.g. telemedicine, community health workers) to help implement patient-centered evidence-based interventions can tackle current chronic disease issues commonly encountered by health professionals who work with diverse patient populations.

  10. Cradle-to-gate life-cycle assessment of laminated veneer lumber produced in the southeast region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Sevda Alanya-Rosenbaum

    2017-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to develop life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) data associated with gate-to-gate laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the southeast (SE) region of the U.S. with the ultimate aim of constructing an updated cradle-to-gate mill output life-cycle assessment (LCA). The authors collected primary (survey) mill data from LVL production...

  11. Regional variation in wood modulus of elasticity (stiffness) and modulus of rupture (strength) of planted loblolly pine in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony Finto; Lewis Jordan; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alexander Clark; Ray A. Souter; Richard F. Daniels

    2011-01-01

    Modulus of elasticity (MOE), modulus of rupture (MOR), and specific gravity (SG) are important properties for determining the end-use and value of a piece of lumber. This study addressed the variation in MOE, MOR, and SG with physiographic region, tree height, and wood type. Properties were measured from two static bending samples (dimensions 25.4 mm × 25.4 mm × 406.4...

  12. A Guide to Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) Delineation for Non-Perennial Streams in the Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    WHEN NO LONGER NEEDED. DO NOT RETURN IT TO THE ORIGINATOR . ERDC/CRREL TR-14-13 iii Contents Abstract...dominated by coniferous forests on the slopes and coniferous woodlands, hardwood riparian woodlands, shrublands, or meadows in the valleys down to the...dominated mainly by coniferous forests at lower eleva- tions and alpine tundra at the highest elevations. The region also embraces the Willamette/Puget

  13. Latinos in the United States on the HIV/AIDS care continuum by birth country/region: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Diana M; Trepka, Mary Jo; Dillon, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    Twenty percent of Latinos with HIV in the US are unaware of their HIV status, 33% are linked to care late, and 74% do not reach viral suppression. Disparities along this HIV/AIDS care continuum may be present between various ethnic groups historically categorised as Latino. To identify differences along the HIV/AIDS care continuum between US Latinos of varying birth countries/regions a systematic review of articles published in English between 2002 and 2013 was conducted using MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. Studies that reported on one or more steps of the HIV/AIDS care continuum and reported results by birth country/region for Latinos were included. Latinos born in Mexico and Central America were found to be at increased risk of late diagnosis compared with US-born Latinos. No studies were found that reported on linkage to HIV care or viral load suppression by country/region of birth. Lower survival was found among Latinos born in Puerto Rico compared with Latinos born in mainland US. Inconsistent differences in survival were found among Latinos born in Mexico, Cuba, and Central America. Socio/cultural context, immigration factors, and documentation status are discussed as partial explanations for disparities along the HIV/AIDS care continuum.

  14. Recovery Act: 'Carbonsheds' as a Framework for Optimizing United States Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Pipeline Transport on a Regional to National Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratson, Lincoln

    2012-11-30

    Carbonsheds are regions in which the estimated cost of transporting CO{sub 2} from any (plant) location in the region to the storage site it encompasses is cheaper than piping the CO{sub 2} to a storage site outside the region. We use carbonsheds to analyze the cost of transport and storage of CO{sub 2} in deploying CCS on land and offshore of the continental U.S. We find that onshore the average cost of transport and storage within carbonsheds is roughly $10/t when sources cooperate to reduce transport costs, with the costs increasing as storage options are depleted over time. Offshore transport and storage costs by comparison are found to be roughly twice as expensive but t may still be attractive because of easier access to property rights for sub-seafloor storage as well as a simpler regulatory system, and possibly lower MMV requirements, at least in the deep-ocean where pressures and temperatures would keep the CO{sub 2} negatively buoyant. Agent-based modeling of CCS deployment within carbonsheds under various policy scenarios suggests that the most cost-effective strategy at this point in time is to focus detailed geology characterization of storage potential on only the largest onshore reservoirs where the potential for mitigating emissions is greatest and the cost of storage appears that it will be among the cheapest.

  15. Portuguese Study in Higher Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milleret, Margo

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results of a national survey of Portuguese instructors that investigates enrollment growth in regions and institutions of higher education in the United States. It details the reasons why Portuguese enrollments have grown steadily since 1998, while providing data on the numbers of students enrolled in classes and the number…

  16. Wild felids as hosts for human plague, Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, S.N.; Tracey, J.A.; Franklin, S.P.; Schmit, V.L.; MacMillan, M.L.; Gage, K.L.; Schriefer, M.E.; Logan, K.A.; Sweanor, L.L.; Alldredge, M.W.; Krumm, C.; Boyce, W.M.; Vickers, W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Roelke, M.E.; Salman, M.; Crooks, K.R.; VandeWoude, S.

    2009-01-01

    Plague seroprevalence was estimated in populations pumas and bobcats in the western United States. High levels of exposure in plague-endemic regions indicate the need to consider the ecology and pathobiology of plague nondomestic felid hosts to better understand the role of these species in disease persistence and transmission.

  17. Extended megadroughts in the southwestern United States during Pleistocene interglacials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, P.J.; Werne, J.P.; Anderson, R.S.; Heikoop, J.M.; Brown, E.T.; Berke, M.A.; Smith, S.J.; Goff, F.; Donohoo-Hurley, L.; Cisneros-Dozal, L.M.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Huang, Y.S.; Toney, J.; Fessenden, J.; WoldeGabriel, G.; Atudorei, V.; Geissman, J.W.; Allen, C.D.

    2011-01-01

    The potential for increased drought frequency and severity linked to anthropogenic climate change in the semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States (US) is a serious concern(1). Multi-year droughts during the instrumental period(2) and decadal-length droughts of the past two millennia(1,3)

  18. Derecho Hazards in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Walker S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2005-11-01

    Convectively generated wind-storms occur over broad temporal and spatial scales; however, the more widespread and longer lived of these windstorms have been given the name "derecho." Utilizing an integrated derecho database, including 377 events from 1986 to 2003, this investigation reveals the amount of insured property losses, fatalities, and injuries associated with these windstorms in the United States. Individual derechos have been responsible for up to 8 fatalities, 204 injuries, forest blow-downs affecting over 3,000 km2 of timber, and estimated insured losses of nearly a $500 million. Findings illustrate that derecho fatalities occur more frequently in vehicles or while boating, while injuries are more likely to happen in vehicles or mobile homes. Both fatalities and injuries are most common outside the region with the highest derecho frequency. An underlying synthesis of both physical and social vulnerabilities is suggested as the cause of the unexpected casualty distribution. In addition, casualty statistics and damage estimates from hurricanes and tornadoes are contrasted with those from derechos to emphasize that derechos can be as hazardous as many tornadoes and hurricanes.

  19. United States and world energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, L.L.; Baird, L.M.; Varanini, E.E. III (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    This volume examines the economic, political, and social implications of the oil-dependence dilemma facing the United States. Most of the contributors are energy consultants in the public or private sector. Their analyses of the changing oil situation and its impact on other energy policies reflect either an international, national, or regional perspective with a unique combination of pragmatic insights and academic analyses of these complex issues. While examining the various aspects of the energy dependence dilemma presented here, one critical theme will probably recur to the reader. That is, given the inadequate nature of the US response to the 1973 and 1979 shortfalls in foreign oil supplies, how will we manage the projected future shortages in foreign oil supplies. The 18 papers of this volume were presented at a conference at Los Angeles in July 1980 and cosponsored by the University of Southern California and the California Energy Commission; a separate abstract was prepared for each paper. See also EAPA 7:3231 and Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) 6:18036.

  20. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  1. Analysis of United States’ Broadband Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    glass fiber. The light signals are then decoded at the end of the fiber by a special optic decoder /encoder. This allows for the light signal to be...CDMA technology while Cingular offers it through the HSDPA/ GSM technology. One quarter of the United States’ Internet users have a cell phone that...well Cingular 900 Kbps 100 Kbps $79.00 HSDPA/ GSM 1 yr contract Table 13. Unlimited Cellular Broadband Plans in the United States (From PCWorld.com

  2. Seroprevalence of select bloodborne pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users in the Paso del Norte region of the United States – Mexico border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbona Sonia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The region situated where the borders of Mexico, Texas and New Mexico meet is known as 'Paso del Norte'. The Paso del Norte Collaborative was formed to study the seroprevalence of select pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs in the region. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS was used: 459 IDU participants included 204 from Mexico; 155 from Texas; and 100 from New Mexico. Each of the three sites used a standardized questionnaire that was verbally administered and testing was performed for select bloodborne infections. Results Participants were mostly male (87.4% and Hispanic/Latino (84.7% whose median age was 38. In Mexico, Texas and New Mexico, respectively: hepatitis B virus (HBV was seen in 88.3%, 48.6% and 59.6% of participants; hepatitis C virus (HCV in 98.7%, 76.4% and 80.0%; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in 2.1%, 10.0% and 1.0%; and syphilis in 4.0%, 9.9% and 3.0%. Heroin was the drug injected most often. More IDUs in New Mexico were aware of and used needle exchange programs compared with Texas and Mexico. Conclusion There was mixed success using RDS: it was more successfully applied after establishing good working relationships with IDU populations. Study findings included similarities and distinctions between the three sites that will be used to inform prevention interventions.

  3. Scaling up of Carbon Exchange Dynamics from AmeriFlux Sites to a Super-Region in the Eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Peter Schmid; Craig Wayson

    2009-05-05

    The primary objective of this project was to evaluate carbon exchange dynamics across a region of North America between the Great Plains and the East Coast. This region contains about 40 active carbon cycle research (AmeriFlux) sites in a variety of climatic and landuse settings, from upland forest to urban development. The core research involved a scaling strategy that uses measured fluxes of CO{sub 2}, energy, water, and other biophysical and biometric parameters to train and calibrate surface-vegetation-atmosphere models, in conjunction with satellite (MODIS) derived drivers. To achieve matching of measured and modeled fluxes, the ecosystem parameters of the models will be adjusted to the dynamically variable flux-tower footprints following Schmid (1997). High-resolution vegetation index variations around the flux sites have been derived from Landsat data for this purpose. The calibrated models are being used in conjunction with MODIS data, atmospheric re-analysis data, and digital land-cover databases to derive ecosystem exchange fluxes over the study domain.

  4. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  5. Quantitative bedrock geology of the conterminous United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Miller, Mark W.

    2002-10-01

    We quantitatively analyze the area-age distribution of bedrock based on data from the most recent geologic map of the conterminous United States of America [, 1974a, 1974b], made available in digital form by the United States Geologic Survey. The area-age distribution agrees surprisingly well with older data [, 1949] but provides much higher temporal resolution. The mean stratigraphic age of all sedimentary bedrock is ˜134 Myr; that of Tertiary-Cambrian sediments is ˜104 Myr. The analysis also reveals area coverage of some minor lithologies, such as ultramafic rocks that cover ˜0.15% of the conterminous United States. Area coverage of 162 lithostratigraphic units is made available as an Excel data sheet.

  6. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ethnocentrism is a problem. Pakistan lost Bangladesh in its 1971 civil war in part because West Pakistanis viewed Bengalis, who are the dominant ethnic...137. 64 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State? in the last few years of rapid growth, consumer price inflation surged to 25

  7. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  8. History and Current Status of Divorce in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Explores the remarkable shift in marriage and divorce practices that has occurred in the last third of this century in the United States. Information is presented on trends in this country and other industrialized nations, and some reasons for these changes are explored. (SLD)

  9. United States v. Microsoft: The Benefits of Settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Like every other turn in this long case, the tentative settlement to United States v. Microsoft Corporation has generated controversy. Some critics have argued that the proposed accord does not go far enough in punishing Microsoft. In this essay, I reach a different conclusion: this settlement is preferable to the alternative of additional litigation.

  10. Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrla, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    By now, most social workers are familiar with the issue of human trafficking. However, many are likely unfamiliar with research indicating that youths constitute the most vulnerable group in the United States for becoming victims of sex trafficking and that most women in prostitution actually entered as minors. Some experts are now referring to…

  11. National Curriculum for Physical Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junghwan; Graber, Kim C.

    2017-01-01

    Since the publication of "A Nation at Risk," some scholars have argued that a national curriculum and national testing are necessary to hold school personnel accountable for student achievement and, ultimately, to raise educational standards. The idea of developing a nationwide curriculum has been widely debated in the United States,…

  12. Specialized Training on Addictions for Physicians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontchev, Gramen V.; Housel, Timothy R.; Callahan, James F.; Kunz, Kevin B.; Miller, Michael M.; Blondell, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States accredited residency programs in addiction exist only for psychiatrists specializing in addiction psychiatry (ADP); nonpsychiatrists seeking training in addiction medicine (ADM) can train in nonaccredited "fellowships," or can receive training in some ADP programs, only to not be granted a certificate of completion of…

  13. Gender Sorting across K-12 Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C.; Conger, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    This article documents evidence of nonrandom gender sorting across K-12 schools in the United States. The sorting exists among coed schools and at all grade levels, and it is highest in the secondary school grades. We observe some gender sorting across school sectors and types: for instance, males are slightly underrepresented in private schools…

  14. Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrla, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    By now, most social workers are familiar with the issue of human trafficking. However, many are likely unfamiliar with research indicating that youths constitute the most vulnerable group in the United States for becoming victims of sex trafficking and that most women in prostitution actually entered as minors. Some experts are now referring to…

  15. Invasive cancer incidence - United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple; King, Jessica; Wilson, Reda; Ryerson, Blythe

    2014-03-28

    Cancer has many causes, some of which can, at least in part, be avoided through interventions known to reduce cancer risk. Healthy People 2020 objectives call for reducing colorectal cancer incidence to 38.6 per 100,000 persons, reducing late-stage breast cancer incidence to 41.0 per 100,000 women, and reducing cervical cancer incidence to 7.1 per 100,000 women. To assess progress toward reaching these Healthy People 2020 targets, CDC analyzed data from U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2010. USCS includes incidence data from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System. In 2010, a total of 1,456,496 invasive cancers were reported to cancer registries in the United States (excluding Arkansas and Minnesota), an annual incidence rate of 446 cases per 100,000 persons, compared with 459 in 2009. Cancer incidence rates were higher among men (503) than women (405), highest among blacks (455), and ranged by state from 380 to 511 per 100,000 persons. Many factors, including tobacco use, obesity, insufficient physical activity, and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, contribute to the risk for developing cancer, and differences in cancer incidence indicate differences in the prevalence of these risk factors. These differences can be reduced through policy approaches such as the Affordable Care Act, which could increase access for millions of persons to appropriate and timely cancer preventive services, including help with smoking cessation, cancer screening, and vaccination against HPV.

  16. Relative impact of previous disturbance history on the likelihood of additional disturbance in the Northern United States Forest Service USFS Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Landsat archive is increasingly being used to detect trends in the occurrence of forest disturbance. Beyond information about the amount of area affected, forest managers need to know if and how disturbance regimes change. The National Forest System (NFS) has developed a comprehensive plan for carbon monitoring that requires a detailed temporal mapping of forest disturbances across 75 million hectares. A long-term annual time series that shows the timing, extent, and type of disturbance beginning in 1990 and ending in 2011 has been prepared for several USFS Regions, including the Northern Region. Our mapping starts with an automated detection of annual disturbances using a time series of historical Landsat imagery. Automated detections are meticulously inspected, corrected and labeled using various USFS ancillary datasets. The resulting maps of verified disturbance show the timing and types are fires, harvests, insect activity, disease, and abiotic (wind, drought, avalanche) damage. Also, the magnitude of each change event is modeled in terms of the proportion of canopy cover lost. The sequence of disturbances for every pixel since 1990 has been consistently mapped and is available across the entirety of NFS. Our datasets contain sufficient information to describe the frequency of stand replacement, as well as how often disturbance results in only a partial loss of canopy. This information provides empirical insight into how an initial disturbance may predispose a stand to further disturbance, and it also show a climatic signal in the occurrence of processes such as fire and insect epidemics. Thus, we have the information to model the likelihood of occurrence of certain disturbances after a given event (i.e. if we have a fire in the past what does that do to the likelihood of occurrence of insects in the future). Here, we explore if previous disturbance history is a reliable predictor of additional disturbance in the future and we present results of applying

  17. United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Europe and reducing the number of military personnel by 40,000 to 60,000. According to United States Air Force General Charles Wald , there are...The Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz is quoted as saying United States presence “…may be more political than actually military” and that

  18. Conceptual Model Summary Report Simulation Framework for Regional Geologic CO2 Storage Along Arches Province of Midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-06-30

    A conceptual model was developed for the Arches Province that integrates geologic and hydrologic information on the Eau Claire and Mt. Simon formations into a geocellular model. The conceptual model describes the geologic setting, stratigraphy, geologic structures, hydrologic features, and distribution of key hydraulic parameters. The conceptual model is focused on the Mt. Simon sandstone and Eau Claire formations. The geocellular model depicts the parameters and conditions in a numerical array that may be imported into the numerical simulations of carbon dioxide (CO2) storage. Geophysical well logs, rock samples, drilling logs, geotechnical test results, and reservoir tests were evaluated for a 500,000 km2 study area centered on the Arches Province. The geologic and hydraulic data were integrated into a three-dimensional (3D) grid of porosity and permeability, which are key parameters regarding fluid flow and pressure buildup due to CO2 injection. Permeability data were corrected in locations where reservoir tests have been performed in Mt. Simon injection wells. The final geocellular model covers an area of 600 km by 600 km centered on the Arches Province. The geocellular model includes a total of 24,500,000 cells representing estimated porosity and permeability distribution. CO2 injection scenarios were developed for on-site and regional injection fields at rates of 70 to 140 million metric tons per year.

  19. Identifying the pollen of an extinct spruce species in the Late Quaternary sediments of the Tunica Hills region, south-eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke Mander,; Jacklyn Rodriguez,; Pietra G. Mueller,; Jackson, Stephen T.; Surangi W. Punyasena,

    2014-01-01

    Late Quaternary fluvial deposits in the Tunica Hills region of Louisiana and Mississippi are rich in spruce macrofossils of the extinct species Picea critchfieldii, the one recognized plant extinction of the Late Quaternary. However, the morphology of P. critchfieldii pollen is unknown, presenting a barrier to the interpretation of pollen spectra from the last glacial of North America. To address this issue, we undertook a morphometric study of Picea pollen from Tunica Hills. Morphometric data, together with qualitative observations of pollen morphology using Apotome fluorescence microscopy, indicate that Picea pollen from Tunica Hills is morphologically distinct from the pollen of P. glauca, P. mariana and P. rubens. Measurements of grain length, corpus width and corpus height indicate that Picea pollen from Tunica Hills is larger than the pollen of P. mariana and P. rubens, and is slightly larger than P. glauca pollen. We argue that the morphologically distinctive Tunica Hills Picea pollen was probably produced by the extinct spruce species P. critchfieldii. These morphological differences could be used to identify P. critchfieldii in existing and newly collected pollen records, which would refine its paleoecologic and biogeographic history and clarify the nature and timing of its extinction in the Late Quaternary.

  20. Directory of Library and Related Organizations. Networks, Consortia, and Other Cooperative Library Organizations; National Library and Information-Industry Associations, United States and Canada; State, Provincial, and Regional Library Associations; State and Provincial Library Agencies; State School Library Media Associations; International Library Associations; Foreign Library Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker Annual Library and Book Trade Almanac, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Presents lists of networks, consortia, and other cooperative library organizations; national library and information-industry associations in the U.S. and Canada; state, provincial, and regional library associations; state and provincial library agencies; state school library media associations; international library associations; and foreign…

  1. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  2. Regional Synthesis for State Wildlife Action Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The North Atlantic LCC and Northeast states are developing a synthesis of regional conservation information for State Wildlife Action Plan (SWAP) revisions. Compiled...

  3. Eurabia: Strategic Implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    states of North Africa and the Middle East.5 Eurabia was the name of a journal published in the mid-1970s by the European Committee for...have her extradited to Switzerland so she could be prosecuted under Swiss anti- racism statute, Islamic groups successfully prevailed to have her...options. The United States can forge new relationships with emerging powers such as Brazil, Russia, India and China, the so called BRIC countries

  4. Mapping Snow Cover Loss Patterns in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C.; Kampf, S. K.; Richer, E.; Stone, B.

    2011-12-01

    Cara Moore, Stephanie Kampf, Eric Richer, Brandon Stone Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1499 The Western United States depends on snowmelt to provide water for industrial, municipal, and agricultural needs. Some areas in this region have observed an increase in the proportion of precipitation falling as rain rather than snow in response to climate warming, a trend that can alter the timing and magnitude of runoff. Transitional snow zones, which lie between lower elevation intermittent snowpack and higher elevation persistent snowpack, may be particularly sensitive to changing climate conditions. Snow covered area is an easily obtainable measurement that can help identify the locations and elevations of these transitional snow zones. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of snowpack characteristics in the Western U.S. by mapping snow cover loss patterns using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow covered area (SCA) product. Snow cover loss patterns can be difficult to compare objectively between regions because spring snow storms lead to abrupt increases and decreases in SCA. Therefore, we develop a curve-fitting snow cover depletion model (SCoDMod) used to derive standardized snow cover loss curves. We fit the model to snow cover patterns within 100m elevation zones from January 1st until July 19th for each USGS eight digit hydrologic unit in the Western US. We use the model to identify 11 year (2000-2010) average snow cover loss patterns and compare those patterns to snow cover loss behavior in wet and dry years. Model results give maps of average SCA in the Western United States on the first of the month from January to July, as well as maps of the date of SCA loss to 75% (Q75), 50% (Q50), and 25% (Q25) SCA. Results show that the Cascade, Sierra Nevada, and Rocky mountains from Colorado northward retain >90% SCA until March, whereas most parts of lower elevation

  5. Following Zhang Wenjin to the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    In 1937,Zhang Ying studied at the Lu Xun Art Institute in Yan’an.After graduation she began working in the art world under Zhou Enlai’s direction.In 1983, she followed her husband Zhang Wenjin to the United States as wife of the ambassador.During her two-year stay in the U.S., she came into close contact with many American women while working to promote mutual understanding and friendship between the people of the two countries.After her retirement in 1991,she sponsored the production of a 10-episode documentary TV program,"Zhou Enlai and the Arts."She also wrote a book about her experience in the United States,Called,Following Zhang Wenjin to the United States—Notes of an Ambassador’s Wife.The following are extracts from the book.

  6. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  7. CTS United States experiments. A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of the United States experiments activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

  8. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  9. Characterizing Hospice Services in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maureen A.; Seplaki, Christopher; Biagtan, Mark; DuPreez, Amanda; Cleary, James

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Although caregivers desire specific information about hospice programs, there is little descriptive information available. We characterized agencies that provide formal or informal hospice care in the United States according to four types of services considered important by caregivers: medications and treatments; rehabilitative care;…

  10. United States Air Force Annual Financial Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    gains and losses NRV = Net Realizable Value O = Other Inventory, Gross Value Revaluation Allowance Inventory, Net 2002 2001 United States Air Force...losses NRV = Net Realizable Value O = Other For the most part, DMAG is using the consumption method of accounting for OM&S, since OM&S is defined in the

  11. Ports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows major ports in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. A port is a city, town, or urban area with a harbor where ships load...

  12. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  13. Major land uses in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159,...

  14. EC 92 and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    34 Rheinischer Merkur (Bonn), January 17, 1992, 5. 17. Robert J. Samuelson, "Europe’s Boom Has Come and Cone," Washington Post, February 12, 1992, A23...34 Rheinischer Merkur (Bonn), January 17, 1992, 5. Riemer, Blanca. "’United States of Europe’? Don’t Hold Your Breath." Business Week, June 17, 1991, 50

  15. Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from an extract of the Public-Use Airports...

  16. AIDS Pandemic in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Amy H.; Melendez, Barbra S.; Ball, Daniel L.; Morse, Steven T.; Phillips, Geoffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    This project is one of four that were issued to first semester sophomore undergraduates at the United States Military Academy as part of an integrated learning experience at the end of their Calculus II course work. This project was used during a short, seven lesson block of instruction that was intended to capitalize on their recent academic…

  17. Orienteering: Growth Patterns in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Charles F.

    The history of orienteering in the United States includes both military and civilian interest, with the period of greatest growth between 1970 and 1980. To investigate growth patterns in orienteering, questionnaires were mailed to 42 civilian orienteering clubs and 286 universities supporting senior Reserve Office Training Corps (ROTC)…

  18. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL...

  19. Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos Blog Get Involved Shop Ask a question right here... MHAUS On Facebook Now view more On Twitter Now view more Tweets by @ ... Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States. All rights reserved. ... advertiser and not necessarily the views or opinions of MHAUS, its staff or its ...

  20. The United States and VIetnam: 1787 - 1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    almost totally unproductive ceremony and haggling with the Cochinchinese authorities. During his stay there, White developed an appreciation of the...British and French involvement with the warring sides in the United States and with French adventures in Mexico , not with events in far-off

  1. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  2. United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Julie H.

    2004-01-01

    As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

  3. Geology of the Coterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital version of the Geologic Map of the United States, originally published at a scale of 1:2,500,000 (King and Beikman, 1974b). It excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

  4. Immigration, parasitic infection, and United States religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jaimie N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2012-04-01

    Fincher & Thornhill (F&T) present a powerful case for the relationship between parasite-stress and religiosity. We argue, however, that the United States may be more religious than can be accounted for by parasite-stress. This greater religiosity might be attributable to greater sensitivity to immigration, which may hyperactivate evolved mechanisms that motivate avoidance of potential carriers of novel parasites.

  5. Women's Music in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lont, Cynthia M.

    The purpose of this presentation was to: (1) describe the history of women's music in the United States; (2) define women's music; (3) report on the status of the large women's recording companies; and (4) focus on a recent controversy in the women's music industry involving the desire for political purity versus the need for economic security.…

  6. Nursing continuing education in the united states

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, B.

    1981-01-01

    THE discussion of nursing continuing education in the United States is approached by a consideration of the following aspects: Definition and Background Evolution of the Concept Administration of the Process Teaching Techniques Range of Subjects Evaluation of the Program Issues and Problems: Mandatory vs. Voluntary Participation Control of the Accreditation Process Responsibility for Participation Program Cost/Availability

  7. Nursing continuing education in the united states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Robert

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available THE discussion of nursing continuing education in the United States is approached by a consideration of the following aspects: Definition and Background Evolution of the Concept Administration of the Process Teaching Techniques Range of Subjects Evaluation of the Program Issues and Problems: Mandatory vs. Voluntary Participation Control of the Accreditation Process Responsibility for Participation Program Cost/Availability

  8. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  9. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  10. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to diets using grains grown in various regions of the United States with differing natural Se concentrations and fed to grower-finisher swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, D C; Azain, M; Crenshaw, T D; Cromwell, G L; Dove, C R; Kim, S W; Lindemann, M D; Miller, P S; Pettigrew, J E; Stein, H H; van Heugten, E

    2014-11-01

    Grains grown in various regions of the United States vary in their innate or natural Se contents. A regional study evaluated the effects of adding inorganic Se (sodium selenite) or organic Se (Se yeast) to diets with differing innate Se contents. A 2 × 2 + 1 factorial experiment evaluating 2 Se sources (organic or inorganic) at 2 Se levels (0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg) in 18 total replicates (n = 360 total pigs). A basal diet was fed without supplemental Se and served as the negative (basal) control. The study was conducted as a randomized complete block design in 9 states (Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, Texas, and Wisconsin) with each station conducting 2 replicates. Pigs were fed from 25 to approximately 115 kg BW. Similar dietary formulations were used at each station, incorporating a common source of trace mineral and Se premixes. Three pigs per treatment in 16 replicates (n = 240) were bled at 55, 85, and 115 kg BW and serum Se and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined. Three pigs (n = 260) from each treatment pen were killed at 115 kg BW and issues (liver, loin, and hair) were analyzed for Se. The corn Se content from the various states ranged from 0.026 to 0.283 mg Se/kg while the soybean meal Se content ranged from 0.086 to 0.798 mg Se/kg. Tissue and serum Se concentrations were greater (P supplemental organic Se was fed, whereas serum GSH-Px was greater (P dietary Se level increased within each state. There was a source × level interaction (P dietary Se level indicating that those states having greater grain natural Se contents also had greater tissue Se concentrations. These results indicate that a large difference in corn and soybean meal Se concentrations exists between states, that the addition of organic or inorganic Se to these grains increased tissue and serum Se in each state, and that organic Se was incorporated at greater concentrations in the loin, liver, and hair tissues of grower

  11. Characterization of wind power resource in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. B. Gunturu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind resource in the continental and offshore United States has been reconstructed and characterized using metrics that describe, apart from abundance, its availability, persistence and intermittency. The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA boundary layer flux data has been used to construct wind profile at 50 m, 80 m, 100 m, 120 m turbine hub heights. The wind power density (WPD estimates at 50 m are qualitatively similar to those in the US wind atlas developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, but quantitatively a class less in some regions, but are within the limits of uncertainty. The wind speeds at 80 m were quantitatively and qualitatively close to the NREL wind map. The possible reasons for overestimation by NREL have been discussed. For long tailed distributions like those of the WPD, the mean is an overestimation and median is suggested for summary representation of the wind resource.

    The impact of raising the wind turbine hub height on metrics of abundance, persistence, variability and intermittency is analyzed. There is a general increase in availability and abundance of wind resource but there is an increase in intermittency in terms of level crossing rate in low resource regions.

  12. CPAFFC Working Group Visits the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>From April 13 to 21, a CPAFFC working group led by Yao Mingyu, director general of the Department of American and Oceanian Affairs of the CPAFFC, visited the United States, attended the 18th Forum on US-China Relations sponsored by the US-China Peoples Friendship Association (USCPFA) and had talks with the USCPFA, the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace Foundation, the Richard Nixon Centre, the Sister Cities International of the U.S., the National Conference of State Legislatures, the Council of State

  13. Improving the Magnetic Anomaly Map of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIndoo, M.; Shaw, A.; Batir, J.; Ravat, D.; Milligan, P.; Kucks, R. P.; Hill, P.; Hildenbrand, T. G.

    2007-05-01

    We have improved magnetic anomaly map of the United States using National Uranium Reconnaissance & Evaluations (NURE) aeromagnetic surveys collected during the 1970s. Previous versions of these data processed using IGRF/DGRF do not mesh well at the survey boundaries because of leveling artifacts. Similarly, the U.S. component of the North American magnetic anomaly map has long wavelength errors caused by warping of hundreds of state and local aeromagnetic surveys during the merging process. The main difference in our processing that has allowed us to retain proper base levels is the use of the temporally continuous main field Comprehensive Model (CM4) by Sabaka et al. (2004, GJI, 159, 521-547). The advantage of using the NURE surveys is that most of these surveys have time information and diurnal variation observed with basestation magnetometers is removed from them. Furthermore, we have cleaned the NURE data by removing many spurious values through visual inspection. Some NURE surveys did not have total field values or time information. For these surveys, we reintroduced the IGRF for their approximate date and removed the core field determined by CM4. We compare the results of our processing and improvements with the U.S. aeromagnetic anomaly data prepared by different merging techniques. The improved map is more suitable for regional geologic and geodynamic interpretations.

  14. Identifying future electricity-water tradeoffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sovacool, Kelly E. [Department of Geography, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Researchers for the electricity industry, national laboratories, and state and federal agencies have begun to argue that the country could face water shortages resulting from the addition of thermoelectric power plants, but have not attempted to depict more precisely where or how severe those shortages will be. Using county-level data on rates of population growth collected from the US Census Bureau, utility estimates of future planned capacity additions in the contiguous United States reported to the US Energy Information Administration, and scientific estimates of anticipated water shortages provided from the US Geologic Survey and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, this paper highlights the most likely locations of severe shortages in 22 counties brought about by thermoelectric capacity additions. Within these areas are some 20 major metropolitan regions where millions of people live. After exploring the electricity-water nexus and explaining the study's methodology, the article then focuses on four of these metropolitan areas - Houston, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; Las Vegas, Nevada; New York, New York - to deepen an understanding of the water and electricity challenges they may soon be facing. It concludes by identifying an assortment of technologies and policies that could respond to these electricity-water tradeoffs. (author)

  15. Status of correlation of Quaternary stratigraphic units in the western conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, P.W.; Crandell, D.R.; Richmond, G.M.

    1971-01-01

    Deposits of Quaternary age from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Coast in the western conterminous United States represent a great variety of environments. The deposits include those of continental and alpine glaciers, glacial meltwater streams, nonglacial streams, pluvial lakes, marine environments, eolian environments, and masswasting environments. On two charts we have attempted to correlate representative sequences of deposits of many of these environments, based on published sources and recent unpublished investigations. Evidence for correlation is based mainly on stratigraphic sequence, soil characteristics, the amount of subsequent erosion and interlayered volcanic ash beds identifiable as to source. Chronologic control is based on numerous radiocarbon dates, U-series dates on marine fossils, and K-Ar dates on volcanic rocks. The Bishop volcanic ash bed and one of the Pearlette-like volcanic ash beds appear to represent significant regional key horizons, respectively about 700,000 and 600,000 years old. Rock magnetism is shown to suggest the paleomagnetic polarity at the time of rock deposition. Assigned land-mammal ages of included fossils help to put limits on the age of some units. ?? 1971.

  16. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  17. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of some regions in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrat, A.H. E-mail: akhayrat@yahoo.com; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman, X.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-06-01

    Indoor radon survey in a total of 241 dwellings, distributed in some regions of Yemen was performed, using CR-39 based radon monitors. The objective of this radon survey is to get representative indoor radon data of three regions, namely Dhamar, Taiz and Hodeidah, situated at different altitudes above sea level. The radon concentrations varied from 3 to 270 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 42 Bq m{sup -3}. It was found that the average radon concentration in the surveyed areas increases with altitudes. The highest average radon concentration of 59 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Dhamar city while the lowest average concentration of 8 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Hodeidah city.

  18. The Caspian energy game: views from the United States and United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, H

    2003-07-01

    The importance of the Caspian Sea region to energy production is increasing and the forces influencing it are changing. The attention on this region focuses on its oil and natural gas reserves. A series of interviews with Western experts mainly from the United States and United Kingdom, including those in international organizations, academia, policy institutions, and government and industry officials identified key trends and issues that are important to their future policies and the significance of the Caspian oil and gas to the world energy market. The overriding issues are: The influence of Russia on regional security, stability, and the transportation of oil and gas products in the Caspian region. The outcome of the test between the United States and Iraq and the major effects it could have on commercial interests in the region and on who will be the major actors. Tensions caused by Iran refusal to settle the international demarcation of the Caspian Sea. Turkey position as a player, the affect of its new islamic-dominated government and its energy policies. Europe need to import gas and to diversify its supply. The construction of a pipeline to China. The impact of September 11, 2001 and terrorism on the Caspian region issues. The stability of the former Soviet Republics in the region. (author)

  19. Water Availability for the Western United States - Key Scientific Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark Theodore; Woosley, Lloyd H.

    2005-01-01

    In the Western United States, the availability of water has become a serious concern for many communities and rural areas. Near population centers, surface-water supplies are fully appropriated, and many communities are dependent upon ground water drawn from storage, which is an unsustainable strategy. Water of acceptable quality is increasingly hard to find because local sources are allocated to prior uses, depleted by overpumping, or diminished by drought stress. Some of the inherent characteristics of the West add complexity to the task of securing water supplies. The Western States, including the arid Southwest, have the most rapid population growth in the United States. The climate varies widely in the West, but it is best known for its low precipitation, aridity, and drought. There is evidence that the climate is warming, which will have consequences for Western water supplies, such as increased minimum streamflow and earlier snowmelt events in snow-dominated basins. The potential for departures from average climatic conditions threatens to disrupt society and local to regional economies. The appropriative rights doctrine governs the management of water in most Western States, although some aspects of the riparian doctrine are being incorporated. The 'use it or lose it' provisions of Western water law discourage conservation and make the reallocation of water to instream environmental uses more difficult. The hydrologic sciences have defined the interconnectedness of ground water and surface water, yet these resources are still administered separately by most States. The definition of water availability has been expanded to include sustaining riparian ecosystems and individual endangered species, which are disproportionately represented in the Western States. Federal reserved rights, common in the West because of the large amount of Federal land, exist with quite senior priority dates whether or not water is currently being used. A major challenge for water

  20. SOME ASPECTS OF THE REGIONAL COOPERATION IN THE BALKANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Gospodinova Grozeva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 21st century, the political role of the state borders in the Balkans has changed. Gradually they began to transform from barriers into zones of bilateral and multilateral cooperation. The common European integration includes the creation and development of Euro-regions. Within the context of reorganization of the new European space, geopolitical importance of South-East Europe has significantly upgraded. This fact reflects on the interests of the international community in security and development of this region. Despite that the Balkans constitute an indispensable part of the European continent, their incorporation into the new European architecture has been particularly difficult and problematic. They emerge as the most volatile and least integrated European region. There are significant variations among the countries concerning their territory, number of population, as well as the rate of the economic changes. The main forms of regional cooperation should be concentrated on the domains of transport, energy and communication infrastructure, trade and economic cooperation, environment and security. From this point of view, the economic growth and increase of living standard are the most important problems for all Balkan countries.