WorldWideScience

Sample records for united states welfare

  1. Corporate Welfare: The Third Stage of Welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    1986-01-01

    Corporate involvement in social welfare represents a third stage in the evolution of welfare institutions in the United States, following the voluntary sector and the welfare state. Examining health and welfare corporations reveals rapid growth and consolidation in nursing homes, hospital management, health maintenance organizations, child care,…

  2. Public and farmer perceptions of dairy cattle welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A; Tonsor, G T; McKendree, M G S; Thomson, D U; Swanson, J C

    2016-07-01

    This research used surveys of the public and dairy farmers in the United States to assess perceptions and attitudes related to dairy cattle welfare. Sixty-three percent of public respondents indicated that they were concerned about dairy cattle welfare. Most public respondents agreed that animal welfare was more important than low milk prices but that the average American did not necessarily agree. Most public respondents had not viewed media stories related to dairy cattle welfare. Respondents who had viewed these stories did so on television or Internet. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) was viewed as the most accurate source of information related to dairy cattle welfare, followed by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS) and the American Veterinary Medicine Association (AVMA). Both public and dairy farmer respondents viewed farmers as having the most influence on dairy cattle welfare. However, there was a general pattern of public respondents indicating that groups including USDA, HSUS, and AVMA had a relatively larger influence on dairy cattle welfare than did farmer respondents. In contrast, dairy farmers indicated that individual actors-farmers, veterinarians, consumers-had more influence than the public indicated. When asked about production practices, most public respondents indicated that they would vote for a ban on antibiotic use outside of disease treatment or for the mandated use of pain control in castration. However, a minority indicated they would vote to ban the use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) or to pay a premium for milk produced without rbST. With respect to explaining public support for the production practice bans and limits, respondents were more likely to vote for the restrictions if they were older, female, had higher income, or had viewed animal welfare stories in the media.

  3. The Welfare to Work Transition in the United States: Implications for Work-Related Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James C.; Martin, Larry G.

    2000-11-01

    This paper summarizes the legislation upon which the current welfare-to-work transition in the United States is based and describes characteristics of the former welfare population from which various tiers of employment options have emerged: unsubsidized-employed workers, subsidized-employed workers, subsidized-unemployed recipients, and unsubsidized-unemployed individuals. It also discusses current program emphases, and presents a format for directions for future program development which includes academic programs, situated cognition programs, integrated literacy/occupational skills programs, and integrated literacy/soft skills training.

  4. Internal Environmental Displacement: A Growing Challenge to the United States Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While the greatest potential for environmental displacement occurs in poorer nations, internal displacement has resulted from environmental change and disasters in the United States; and climate change will likely amplify this movement. I describe how environmental displacement is a policy drift that reduces the effectiveness of current welfare state policies to protect US populations from the risk of impoverishment. Evidence from previous disasters indicates environmental displacees have particular assistance needs. I identify the four main assistance needs in my Environmental Displacement and Resilience Model then use this model to evaluate whether current policies address housing, finances, health, and discrimination needs of those displaced. My analysis highlights a gap between the country’s response to disasters and the current welfare state social safety nets. Without disaster and welfare policy changes environmental displacement will continue to be a policy drift that leave displacees vulnerable to social and economic marginalization. Mientras que el mayor potencial de desplazamientos por causas medioambientales se da en los países más pobres, en los Estados Unidos se ha producido un desplazamiento interno como resultado de cambios ambientales y desastres; y es probable que el cambio climático aumente estos movimientos. Se describe cómo los desplazamientos por causas ambientales suponen un fallo político que reduce la eficacia de las actuales políticas del estado de bienestar que se deben desarrollar para proteger a la población de Estados Unidos contra el riesgo de empobrecimiento. Evidencias de desastres anteriores indican que los desplazados por causas medioambientales tienen necesidades de asistencia especiales. Se identifican las cuatro necesidades de asistencia principales que recoge Modelo de Desplazamiento Medioambiental y Resiliciencia de la autora, para después usar este modelo para evaluar si las políticas actuales

  5. The Scandinavian Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    1987-01-01

    that the Scandinavian welfare states are the most advanced in relation to women and dicusses both the potentialities and the dangers in the Scandinavian welfare states in relation to women. The paper points to the need to integrate gender relations in the theoretical model for an analysis of the welfare state...... and emphasises the need to explore the relationship between the family and the state ( and the family and the economy) in difefrent wefare states. The paper emphasises that the qualitative difference in the organization of care work are important for understanding the institutional differences for between...... the welfare states, and especially the Scandinavian welfare states, where motherhood and care work has to day bef´come part of social citizenship The auther argues that even though women have in important ways been empowered in the Scandinavian woefare states as mothers, workers and citizens, they have...

  6. The Danish Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  7. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  8. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  9. ASAS centennial paper: Farm animal welfare science in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A K

    2009-06-01

    Compared with the more traditional sciences of nutrition, physiology, and reproduction, the acceptance of animal welfare science in its own right is still relatively new. Seven colleagues, who had an average of 10 yr experience with beef (n = 5), swine (n = 5), dairy (n = 2), poultry (n = 1), and sheep (n = 1) were asked several questions on the opportunities and challenges facing the field. The information collected was pooled for anonymity. General challenges identified by the group were (1) are we making progress and how can this be defined, (2) demand for information has outpaced the science, and (3) pressures from stakeholders. Solutions were (1) to continue providing sound science that has been validated, measured objectively, and is reliable; and (2) to continue to have animal science and veterinary medicine departments employ faculty trained in farm animal welfare. Highlights for the future were willingness for animal welfare scientists to work across disciplines and across departments, within the same institution, and enthusiastically across state lines, and expansion of new teaching models. In conclusion, new and innovative tools, personalities, and dedication to the field of animal welfare will continue to provide scientific information and direction for farm animal welfare science.

  10. Fundamental causes of health disparities: stratification, the welfare state, and health in the United States and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsdottir, Sigrun

    2007-09-01

    Research has established that those with higher social status have better health. Less is known about whether this relationship differs cross-nationally and whether it operates similarly across different institutional arrangements. To examine the relationship between stratification and health, two Western, industrialized societies at opposite ends of an equal/unequal continuum are compared: the United States and Iceland. Using data from the 1998 General Social Survey and the 1998 Health and Living Standards of Adult Icelanders survey, I draw from two theoretical perspectives. First, I explore the notion of fundamental causes of disease by examining whether stratification has similar effects on health. Second, I examine whether the organization of welfare states affects this relationship. The results show that education, employment, and relative poverty have similar effects on health in both nations, thus supporting the notion of a fundamental cause. However in Iceland relative affluence has a weaker relationship with health. Further, being a parent, regardless of marital status, has a stronger positive relationship with good health in Iceland. Welfare state intervention may be most successful in equalizing health outcomes by supporting families and by removing advantages traditionally accumulated by the wealthy in capitalist societies.

  11. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...

  12. Perspectives on animal welfare legislation and study considerations for field-oriented studies of raptors in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, C.W.; Wallace, M.C.; Strobel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Concern for the welfare of animals used in research and teaching has increased over the last 50 yr. Animal welfare legislation has resulted in guidelines for the use of animals in research, but the guidelines can be problematic because they focus on animals used in laboratory and agriculture research. Raptor biologists can be constrained by guidelines, restrictions, and oversight that were not intended for field research methods or wild animals in the wild or captivity. Field researchers can be further hampered by not understanding animal welfare legislation, who is subject to oversight, or that oversight is often provided by a committee consisting primarily of scientists who work with laboratory animals. Raptor researchers in particular may experience difficulty obtaining approval due to use of various species-specific trapping and handling methods. We provide a brief review of animal welfare legislation and describe the basic components and responsibilities of an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) in the United States. We identify topics in raptor research that are especially problematic to obtaining IACUC approval, and we provide insight on how to address these issues. Finally, we suggest that all raptor researchers, regardless of legal requirements, abide by the spirit of the animal welfare principles. Failure to do so may bring about further regulatory and permitting restrictions. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  13. Reconsidering Schools and the American Welfare State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miriam

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses her comparative study of the history of the welfare state in the United States, England, and France, she studies some of the usual features of the welfare state, which include important entitlement programs, such as social insurance, and protective labor legislation, but she also focuses on the development of…

  14. Rents in a welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes rents in Denmark, a developed welfare state in which the private sector is sharply delimitated and kept efficient by secure property rights and markets including free trade. In the public sector, rents in the form of excess costs that provide benefits are difficult to measure......, but in a number of cases as described in this chapter, the rents are revealed. The implicit welfare coalition, defined as voters receiving their income from the public budget, is the majority, placing the median voter within the welfare coalition. Rents are created and protected by the welfare coalition. Non...

  15. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    After the golden age of welfare state development in Europe, the glorious thirty years from 1945 to 1974, perceptions changed and the welfare state was interpreted to be in crisis. One solution to the crisis was a neo-liberal approach emphasizing privatization and retrenchment. And at least...... rhetorically this perspective gained ground during the 1980s in Northwestern Europe and during the 1990s in the newly emerging market economies of Central and Eastern Europe. However, on the whole, social science literature has been more concerned about trying to explain welfare state resilience to change than...... identifying retrenchment even if parts of the literature do argue for such a perspective. This seeming contradiction within the scholarly community calls for a more precise definition of all three import concepts: What should be understood by neo-liberal reform or a neo-liberal approach? Which welfare...

  16. Healthcare inequality issues among immigrant elders after neoliberal welfare reform: empirical findings from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Younsook

    2016-06-03

    Even with the increasing importance being placed on research into immigrant elders' healthcare use as countries change their policies to reflect their increasing immigrant and aging populations, little research has examined changes in healthcare use disparities between immigrant and native elders in relation to these policy changes. To fill this gap in the literature, this study examined healthcare disparities in relation to the welfare reform that the US implemented in 1996 and then compared significant indicators of immigrants' healthcare use during the pre- and post-reform periods. The difference-in-difference (DD) analyses and post hoc probing of the DD analyses were used in multivariate logistic regression of the National Health Information Survey data that were pooled for the pre- and post-reform periods. The results revealed that while inequalities in healthcare existed before the reform, they significantly increased after the reform. A further test showed that the changes in the inequalities were significant among relatively long-stay immigrants, but not significant among immigrants who entered the US before the reform and thus were exempted from the reform restrictions. During the pre-reform period, insurance, employment, sex, and race/ethnicity were related to healthcare use; however, the enabling factors (i.e., insurance, income, and education) and social structural factors (i.e., marital status, family structure, length of US residency, race/ethnicity, and geographical region) explained the post-reform immigrants' healthcare use, while controlling for healthcare needs factors. These findings suggest that welfare reform may be the driving force of inequalities in healthcare.

  17. European welfare states beyond neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    to order European welfare states. Hence, I agree with Francis Castles and Herbert Obinger (2008: 321) when they write: “Our main conclusions are that country clustering is, if anything, more pronounced than in the past, that it is, in large part, structurally determined and that the EU now contains a quite...... distinct post-Communist family of nations.” A superficial overview of spending on social protection in both relative and absolute terms from 1980 (1990 in Eastern Europe) to 2005 reveals no signs of retrenchment in any regime. But such summary indicators may mask a different distributional profile...... of benefits and an increase in risks and coverage. Therefore, the remainder of the paper discusses in more detail particular welfare reforms within each of the five welfare regimes. It is concluded that problems of welfare state development differ within the different regimes, but a strong commitment...

  18. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...... and Wacquant’s concept of state, with the key concept being ‘state-crafting’. The article contributes knowledge about the imaginaries, and the manufacturing and managing of ‘the public good’ – understood as a referent for modern governing – of the English welfare state. The article concludes...

  19. Images of welfare in law and society: the British welfare state in comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincott, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Designed by Beveridge and built by Attlee's post-war Labour government, the welfare state was created during the 1940s. Britain has been seen – in domestic debates and internationally – as a world first: the place where both the idea and the practice of the welfare state were invented. I draw together comparative welfare state analysis with law and society scholarship (previously largely developed in isolation from one another) – as well as using British political cartoons as a source – to develop a revisionist historical critique of this conventional wisdom. First, the British welfare state has always been comparatively parsimonious. Second, the idea of the welfare state seems to have its origins outside the United Kingdom and this terminology was adopted relatively late and with some ambivalence in public debate and scholarly analysis. Third, a large body of socio-legal scholarship shows that robust ‘welfare rights’ were never embedded in the British ‘welfare state’.

  20. Political Parties’ Welfare Image, Electoral Punishment and Welfare State Retrenchment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumacher, Gijs; Vis, Barbara; van Kersbergen, Kees

    2013-01-01

    Will voters punish the government for cutting back welfare state entitlements? The comparative literature on the welfare state suggests that the answer is yes. Unless governments are effectively employing strategies of blame avoidance, retrenchment leads to vote loss. Because a large majority...... of voters supports the welfare state, the usual assumption is that retrenchment backfires equally on all political parties. This study contributes to an emerging body of research that demonstrates that this assumption is incorrect. On the basis of a regression analysis of the electoral fate of the governing...... parties of 14 OECD countries between 1970 and 2002, we show that most parties with a positive welfare image lose after they implemented cutbacks, whereas most parties with a negative welfare image do not. In addition, we show that positive welfare image parties in opposition gain votes, at the expense...

  1. Crafting the English Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    administrators in England during the constitutive years of English welfare state formation. Using Birmingham local education administration as an empirical and historical case, the influential Children Acts of 1948 and 1963 serve to demarcate the period treated. The theoretical framework is drawn from Bourdieu...

  2. Faces of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2012-01-01

    the welfare State and other realms of life, such as their family and neighborhood, threatening to take away their children (to crime, to prison, to foster families or to the divorced partner, etc). The paper conceptualizes immobility and confinement as embedded in the contrary; a continuous spatial placement...

  3. Beyond welfare reform: reframing undocumented immigrants' entitlement to health care in the United States, a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viladrich, Anahí

    2012-03-01

    This article addresses the main scholarly frames that supported the deservingness of unauthorized immigrants to health benefits in the United States (U.S.) following the passage of the Personal Responsibility Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), known as the Welfare Reform bill, in 1996. Based on a critical literature review, conducted between January 1997 and March 2011, this article begins with an analysis of the public health rhetorics that endorsed immigrants' inclusion into the U.S. health safety net. In this vein, the "cost-saving" and "the effortful immigrant" frames underscore immigrants' contributions to society vis-à-vis their low utilization of health services. These are complemented by a "surveillance" account that claims to protect the American public from communicable diseases. A "maternalistic" frame is also discussed as a tool to safeguard families, and particularly immigrant mothers, in their roles as bearers and caretakers of their American-born children. The analyses of the "chilling" and the "injustice" frames are then introduced to underscore major anthropological contributions to the formulation of counter-mainstream discourses on immigrants' selective inclusion into the U.S. health care system. First, the "chilling effect," defined as the voluntary withdrawal from health benefits, is examined in light of unauthorized immigrants' internalized feelings of undeservingness. Second, an "injustice" narrative highlights both the contributions and the limitations of a social justice paradigm, which advocated for the restoration of government benefits to elderly immigrants and refugees after the passage of PRWORA. By analyzing the contradictions among all these diverse frames, this paper finally reflects on the conceptual challenges faced by medical anthropology, and the social sciences at large, in advancing health equity and human rights paradigms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Future of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    This book challenges the common beliefs that the European welfare states are already in or are heading towards crisis and that the process of globalisation necessarily takes away any hopes of eventual worldwide welfare.......This book challenges the common beliefs that the European welfare states are already in or are heading towards crisis and that the process of globalisation necessarily takes away any hopes of eventual worldwide welfare....

  5. Welfare State Changes and Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    . The conclusion of this article is that income inequality has been steadily increasing in Danish society; while in Portugal, despite improvements in many social domains (healthcare, poverty alleviation, unemployment protection), problems of inequality remain deeply embedded in the country’s social......It is well known that welfare states ensure a certain level of social protection affecting levels of well-being and the extent of inequalities in society. Changes within crucial domains of social policy, such as education, health, or social protection, have, therefore, a major effect upon...

  6. Rawlsian justice and welfare-state capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Ho-yin; 袁浩然

    2014-01-01

    Rawls emphasizes in his later writings that his theory of justice as fairness is not a defense of welfare-state capitalism. He argues that welfare-state capitalism cannot be an acceptable regime for justice as fairness because its ideal institutional description fails to satisfy the two principles of justice in various ways. Against Rawls, I argue in this thesis that his rejection of welfare-state capitalism is not justified. I begin by clarifying an ambiguity regarding what arrangements...

  7. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    . Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...... conclude that while trust facilitates welfare state policies that may reduce net inequality, this decrease in inequality does not increase trust....

  8. Popular Support for Welfare State Reforms: On Welfare State Preferences and Welfare State Reforms in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Raven (Judith)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this research is to better understand what is meant by general support for the welfare state. At the start of this study, I observed an alleged discrepancy between people’s preferences and welfare state policies. Whereas on the one hand various studies demonstrate that public

  9. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bent Greve

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states. These include, for example, full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and a high level of public spending on welfare. The article further presents data, which enables the reader to a comparison with welfare states in Europe and to analyse whether we are witnessing convergence in Europe and/or the withering away of the Nordic Model. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model is here t...

  10. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Policy and Strategy for Social Work Action in Child Welfare in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international…

  11. Three worlds of educational welfare states? A comparative study of higher education systems across welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Willemse; P. de Beer

    2012-01-01

    Although education is generally considered to be an important part of the welfare state, it is largely absent in the comparative welfare state literature. This article tries to fill this void by applying the central concepts of welfare state analysis of decommodification and stratification, as propo

  12. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate.

  13. Rights, solidarity and the animal welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that aspects of the animal rights view can be constructively modulated through a communitarian approach and come to promote animal welfare through the social contexts of expanded caring communities. The Nordic welfare state is presented as a conceivable caring community within...... which animals could be viewed and treated appropriately as co-citizens with solidarity based rights and duties....

  14. Welfare States and Labour Market Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2017-01-01

    between being on the labour market, access to a variety of welfare benefits and the ability to finance welfare states. It uses concepts such as under-employment and new forms of jobs as indicators of change. These changes implying, more than ever, that having a job does not necessarily entail...

  15. Flexible Employment, Risk and the Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P.S. Dekker (Fabian)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In most developed countries, the welfare state provides some form of protection for its citizens. The provision of social arrangements differs substantially between countries but, on the basis of institutional characteristics such as the level of spending on welfare pro

  16. Rights, solidarity and the animal welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harfeld, Jes

    2016-01-01

    This article argues that aspects of the animal rights view can be constructively modulated through a communitarian approach and come to promote animal welfare through the social contexts of expanded caring communities. The Nordic welfare state is presented as a conceivable caring community within...... which animals could be viewed and treated appropriately as co-citizens with solidarity based rights and duties....

  17. Flexible Employment, Risk and the Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P.S. Dekker (Fabian)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In most developed countries, the welfare state provides some form of protection for its citizens. The provision of social arrangements differs substantially between countries but, on the basis of institutional characteristics such as the level of spending on welfare pro

  18. Explaining convergence of oecd welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, C.; Starke, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies have found only limited empirical evidence of welfare state convergence. Moreover, although there are good theoretical reasons both for and against welfare state convergence, there are virtually no studies that have explicitly tested the assumed effects. We argue that the concept....... First, we show that there is very strong evidence of convergence across all categories of social expenditure when conditional factors are taken into account. Second, we demonstrate that the speed of convergence is highly driven by globalization and European Union membership and shaped by existing...... welfare state structures. © The Author(s) 2011....

  19. Ethnicization in Welfare State Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    , but also why it is more likely for some issues (such as European integration or crime) than others (such as welfare). The dissertation includes four stand-alone articles illustrating the influence of group identities in political cognition. Compared to the existing literature, they suggest...

  20. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, John Storm; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2014-01-01

    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is, ...

  1. Liberalism, Multiculturalism, and the Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Selamé G.

    Full Text Available This article examines whether the politics of difference is consistent with the politics of redistribution that characterizes the welfare state. The paper also explains why Brian Barry’s version of multiculturalism is a caricature, and inquires whether the dichotomy between liberalism and multiculturalism allows for any conciliation. Finally, it revises the pertinence and relevance of the thesis that upholds the compatibility between multiculturalism and the welfare state.

  2. The European Welfare Model. Is Romania a Welfare State?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Radu, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the various interpretations of the social model and welfare regime concepts. In order to observe Romania’s position within the European welfare regimes, the paper presents a short analysis of the main characteristics of the welfare regimes identified in Europe – i.e. the corporatist welfare regime, the liberal welfare regime and the social democratic/Scandinavian welfare system. We analyze the dynamics of several indicators relevant for establishing the performance of the Romanian welfare regime. Using the results of this study, the current research might offer a new approach on proving that Romania’s case is a particular one among the CEE countries and its sustainability could become a model for other countries.

  3. Market Behavior in the Welfare State:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; christensen, bjarke

    2017-01-01

    The “consumerist citizen” is a type of citizen who develops his or her public and political commitments on the basis of market-like principles. For this citizen the important thing is the possibility to make individual choices in public contexts. In this article the implications of the consumerist...... of the consumerist citizen, and finally we suggest its implications for the welfare state. The dissemination of consumerist identity represents a serious change in the relationship between citizens and the welfare state. The rise of a public acting on the basis of market-logic is a serious change taking place...... in relation to citizenship. Regardless of whether this development is perceived as positive or negative, it will inevitably influence the ways in which the public sector is perceived. The rise of the consumerist citizen can be seen as a factor erosive of the basic solidary principles of the welfare state...

  4. Market Behavior in the Welfare State:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard; christensen, bjarke

    2017-01-01

    The “consumerist citizen” is a type of citizen who develops his or her public and political commitments on the basis of market-like principles. For this citizen the important thing is the possibility to make individual choices in public contexts. In this article the implications of the consumerist...... of the consumerist citizen, and finally we suggest its implications for the welfare state. The dissemination of consumerist identity represents a serious change in the relationship between citizens and the welfare state. The rise of a public acting on the basis of market-logic is a serious change taking place...... in relation to citizenship. Regardless of whether this development is perceived as positive or negative, it will inevitably influence the ways in which the public sector is perceived. The rise of the consumerist citizen can be seen as a factor erosive of the basic solidary principles of the welfare state...

  5. Social capital, migration and the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

      The full potential of migrants from non-western countries has not yet been realized in the modern welfare state. Rather, parallel societies have risen, as often counteracting integration. It is however crucial to integrate migrants from non-western countries more successfully - also simply to r...... welfare state and based on data from our ongoing SoCap project, we suggest how more bridging social capital can be established between parallel societies and the rest of society. Our ‘institutions matter' model is tentative and needs to be tested rigorously in future empirical research....

  6. What Characterise the Nordic Welfare State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2007-01-01

    The main distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare states are presented. These include full employment, high degree of equality, a high level of taxes and public sector spending. The Nordic countries are compared to other European countries. The conclusion being that the Nordic Model...

  7. Social capital, migration and the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

      The full potential of migrants from non-western countries has not yet been realized in the modern welfare state. Rather, parallel societies have risen, as often counteracting integration. It is however crucial to integrate migrants from non-western countries more successfully - also simply to r...

  8. Postcolonial perspectives on the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on law and regulations within loopholes of exception; that is, sovereign power in the dialectics between law and moral disorder in the realm of a liberal, democratic welfare state. The analysis is based on one year of ethnographic fieldwork in the largest suburban immigrant nei...... and imbuing particular democratic standards to society at large. That is, in order to impose certain democratic values, the state makes exceptions from its own democratic rights and rules....

  9. Religious Education research in welfare state Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette

    2017-01-01

    The article deals with forms of knowledge and types of research interests in scholarly work on Religious Education at the primary and lower secondary levels in Denmark throughout the heyday of the welfare state from the 1960s and up until the 2000s, when the welfare state model not least...... and thus in a changed institutional field. Drawing on the conceptual understanding of the field of educational sciences deriving from Hofstetter and Schneuwly (2002), the article analyzes ways of doing research in and related to Religious Education and the scholarly disciplines involved. Focus...... with regard to education was in transition. The point of departure is the work and oeuvre of K.E. Bugge, for many years – and remaining until now – the last professor of Religious Education in Denmark, namely at the Royal Danish School of Education (Danmarks Lærerhøjskole) which reorganized as Danish...

  10. Social Polarisation and the Danish Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove Valborg

    2007-01-01

    Globalisation and the information society tend - according to leading theories - to increase social polarisation and create dual cities. Studies have shown that the tendencies are more complicated in several of the European cities and the welfare state seems to have an impact on the development. ...... a preliminary picture of Aarhus looking at the distribution of poverty and wealth showing some indicators towards inequality. Furthermore we discuss central theories, concepts and measured indicators...

  11. Romanian welfare state between excess and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ciuraru-Andrica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely or not, our issue can bring back to life some prolific discussions, sometimes diametrical. We strike the social assistance, where, at this moment, is still uncertain if, once unleashed the excess, the failure will come inevitably or there is a “Salvation Ark”. However, the difference between the excess and the failure of the welfare state is almost intangible, the reason of his potential failure being actually the abuses made until the start of depression.

  12. Factors affecting welfare attitudes in different types of welfare states: personal interests and values

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Gryaznova

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of personal interests and basic human values on the degree of support for a welfare state. Data from the European Social Survey, round 4 (2008) for 29 European countries (total n = 56,752) was used for the study. Results show that values such as collectivism and altruism promote demand for state intervention in welfare, while values like individualism and egoism negatively affect it. Income has the strongest negative effect on support for a welfare state among a...

  13. Southern european model welfare state and economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoutsiou S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has affected the exercise of social policy and has shrunk welfare states in southern Europe. The welfare state, a structure that is a pillar and constant goal of Greek ideology and culture seems to accept strong tremors that threaten the social cohesion of Greek society. This literature review presents the characteristics of the applied social policy and the different models of welfare states, focusing on South model welfare state. Additionally presented benefits of the welfare state such as pension and insurance system and the degree of their contribution to the economic crisis in Greece in recent years.

  14. Return to sender - American Images of the Nordic Welfare States and Nordic Welfare State Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, C.; Petersen, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    argues that these American images, narratives, and stereotypes did not only fulfill a function in the American debate, but were also relayed back to Norden, and affected debate, nation-branding strategies, and self-understandings there. During the Cold War, furthermore, the Nordic welfare state image...... gained a new currency which reached well beyond national borders, far into transnational space....

  15. Comparing Tax Routes to Welfare in Denmark and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon; Sinfield, Adrian

    Substantial benefits are being routed through the tax system separately and much less publicly than in the welfare state. This study analyses how the tax benefits in Denmark and the United Kingdom are operating, raising questions of equity and privilege, and of cost and value for money. One major...... conclusion is that tax routes to welfare deserves much closer and more public examination than they currently receive in either country....

  16. Comparing Tax Routes to Welfare in Denmark and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon; Sinfield, Adrian

    Substantial benefits are being routed through the tax system separately and much less publicly than in the welfare state. This study analyses how the tax benefits in Denmark and the United Kingdom are operating, raising questions of equity and privilege, and of cost and value for money. One major...... conclusion is that tax routes to welfare deserves much closer and more public examination than they currently receive in either country....

  17. Health inequalities and the welfare state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Karin Grøholt

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Norwegian Journal of Epidemiology is based on the research conference Health Inequalities and the Welfare State at the Soria Moria Conference Center in Oslo, Norway, October 10-11 2006. The main purpose of the conference was to support, stimulate, disseminate and contribute to research in Norway on social inequalities in health. Nine papers are included in this issue, in addition to this introduction. One paper is based on one of the keynote lectures, while the other eight papers demonstrate some of the themes and approaches in current Norwegian research on socioeconomic health inequalities. Most of the articles have been authored by researchers who are working on a doctoral thesis or have recently attained their doctoral degree. The papers cluster into four groups. One cluster has a common denominator in intervention and policies to reduce health inequalities. A second focuses on marginalised groups, whereas a third cluster draws attention to the possible impact of the social context on individual health. The last paper addresses health inequalities among adolescents. The main focus of the Soria Moria conference was how and why social health inequalities continue to exist in the Norwegian society with a long tradition of a social democratic welfare model. We are pleased to note that health inequalities are becoming a prioritised health policy issue in Norway, and hope this issue of the Norwegian Journal of Epidemiology will contribute to a sharper focus on monitoring of, research on, and interventions to reduce social inequalities in health.

  18. Health inequalities and the welfare state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Karin Grøholt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This issue of the Norwegian Journal of Epidemiology is based on the research conference Health Inequalities and the Welfare State at the Soria Moria Conference Center in Oslo, Norway, October 10-11 2006. The main purpose of the conference was to support, stimulate, disseminate and contribute to research in Norway on social inequalities in health. Nine papers are included in this issue, in addition to this introduction. One paper is based on one of the keynote lectures, while the other eight papers demonstrate some of the themes and approaches in current Norwegian research on socioeconomic health inequalities. Most of the articles have been authored by researchers who are working on a doctoral thesis or have recently attained their doctoral degree. The papers cluster into four groups. One cluster has a common denominator in intervention and policies to reduce health inequalities. A second focuses on marginalised groups, whereas a third cluster draws attention to the possible impact of the social context on individual health. The last paper addresses health inequalities among adolescents. The main focus of the Soria Moria conference was how and why social health inequalities continue to exist in the Norwegian society with a long tradition of a social democratic welfare model. We are pleased to note that health inequalities are becoming a prioritised health policy issue in Norway, and hope this issue of the Norwegian Journal of Epidemiology will contribute to a sharper focus on monitoring of, research on, and interventions to reduce social inequalities in health.

  19. Free Movement as a Threat for Universal Welfare States?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2014-01-01

    states in Europe. It focuses especially on the pressures brought to bear on the universality of the Danish welfare state, thereby moving it away from one of the distinctive characteristics of the Nordic welfare state model: the universal access to benefits. It also raises the question of whether...

  20. Nordic society, welfare state and the Nordic brand

    OpenAIRE

    ВАСИЛЬЕВ ВАСИЛИЙ ВАСИЛЬЕВИЧ

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the essential features of Nordic welfare state and its current state. Considered also are the factors that have contributed or are related to Nordic welfare state, such as political and economic path, religion and immigration. In the concluding section author discusses the phenomenon of Nordic brand and the contribution of abovementioned factors and features to the construction of the Nordic brand.

  1. "Welfare queens" and "teen moms": how the social construction of fertile women impacts unintended pregnancy prevention policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, E Angel; Rashid, Moira

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, unintended pregnancy is a serious health, social, and economic concern. However, the existing prevention policies have proven ineffective at decreasing the rate of unintended pregnancy at a national level. This lack of effective national prevention policy is better understood when viewed through the lens of a policy theory that incorporates an understanding of social construction and its effects on policy development. Through the application of one such policy theory, this article explores how the social construction of fertile women in the United States affects previous and recently enacted unintended pregnancy prevention policies.

  2. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  3. Indian Child Welfare Act. Hearing on Oversight Hearings on the Indian Child Welfare Act, before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (November 10, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    This Senate hearing produced testimony on how the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) has been administered by government agencies and the courts. Three members of the Select Committee on Indian Affairs presented background information on the act's intent to confirm the tribe as the primary authority in matters involving an Indian child's…

  4. Earned Citizenship: Labour Migrants’ Views on the Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, M.

    2016-01-01

    In policy and research, migration and the welfare state are often seen as being at odds. When ‘strangers’ enter the welfare state, the financial and social foundations of solidarity are said to crumble. A prominent question, therefore, is whether immigrants should have the same rights as the autocht

  5. Earned Citizenship: Labour Migrants’ Views on the Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, M.

    2016-01-01

    In policy and research, migration and the welfare state are often seen as being at odds. When ‘strangers’ enter the welfare state, the financial and social foundations of solidarity are said to crumble. A prominent question, therefore, is whether immigrants should have the same rights as the autocht

  6. Earned Citizenship: Labour Migrants’ Views on the Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, M.

    2016-01-01

    In policy and research, migration and the welfare state are often seen as being at odds. When ‘strangers’ enter the welfare state, the financial and social foundations of solidarity are said to crumble. A prominent question, therefore, is whether immigrants should have the same rights as the

  7. The welfare state: a glossary for public health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Eikemo (Terje); C. Bambra (Clare)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractRecently, there has been a surge in comparative social epidemiology, and a sizeable amount of this has examined the relation between different aspects of the welfare state and population health. Such research draws strongly, though usually implicitly, on welfare state theories and concep

  8. How welfare states care : Culture, gender and citizenship in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Women's employment patterns changed drastically the last decades. But they are still different across Europe. Welfare state scholars often presume that diversity and change in women's employment across Europe is based on financial (dis) incentive structures embedded in welfare states (Esping-Anderse

  9. Migrants and Health in the Nordic welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2016-01-01

    This article probes into the health of migrants with a focus on the situation in the Nordic universal welfare states. The Nordic welfare states are further compared to each other with a comparison to the EU28 if possible, including investigation of the differences among the four Nordic countries...

  10. The Ruins of the British Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahl Kaminer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of Owen Hatherley’s A Guide to the New Ruins of Great Britain are architecture and urban development. The book addresses also some broader cultural, political and economic references, as well as personal anecdotes and memories. It includes many encounters with the remnants of the British welfare state.As an extension to his blog postings and a sequel of sorts to his previous Militant Modernism, Hatherley’s antagonist here is the semi-official architecture of New Labour, which he terms ‘pseudomodernism’: an unimaginative, inferior, and, in its own specific way, also tacky architecture of white stucco, steel and glass. He attacks the Faustian bargain of Richard Rogers and his allies with neoliberalism, a pact that produces a modernism devoid of social content, reflected by the unimaginative, speculation-driven architectural design. While Hatherley produces the promised indictment of recent British architecture, the book is, at the end of the day, primarily a eulogy to the disappearing postwar architecture he so evidently loves.

  11. Corrective Ad Valorem and Unit Taxes: A Welfare Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Dröge, Susanne

    The ad valorem versus unit taxes debate has traditionally emphasized tax yield. For this criterion, ad valorem taxes outperform unit taxes in terms of welfare for a wide range of imperfect competition settings, including Dixit-Stiglitz monopolistic competition. Yet, in a number of policy fields......, such as environmental, health or trade economics, policy makers apply taxes to target the production/consumption volume in an industry, i.e. aim at a certain corrective effect rather than tax yield. This paper compares the two tax instruments with respect to equal corrective-effect in a Dixit-Stiglitz setting with love...... of variety, entry, exit, and redistribution of tax revenues. We find that unit taxes lead to more firms in the industry, less output per firm, less tax revenue, but higher welfare compared to ad valorem taxes....

  12. What wins public support? Communicating or obfuscating welfare state retrenchment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Elmelund-Præstekær; M. Baggesen Klitgaard; G. Schumacher

    2015-01-01

    Conventional wisdom holds that in order to evade electoral punishment governments obfuscate welfare state retrenchment. However, governments do not uniformly lose votes in elections after they cut back on welfare benefits or services. Recent evidence indicates that some of these unpopular reforms ar

  13. The Role of European Welfare States in Explaining Resources Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffels, Ruud; Fouarge, Didier

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper in this journal (Headey et al., 2000) a comparison was made between three so-called 'best cases' of welfare regime types, the 'Liberal' US, 'the 'Corporatist' Germany and the 'Social-Democratic' Netherlands. The main conclusion was that the Social-Democratic welfare state performed best on nearly all social and economic…

  14. Business Interests and the Development of the German Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    the core of the model of the ‘Bismarckian welfare state’, for which Germany became the prototype. After giving a brief overview of the main characteristics of the German welfare state and its historical origins, the chapter analyses the attitudes of German employers towards the adoption of these four...

  15. Immigration and welfare state cash benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to summarize existing evidence on welfare dependence among immigrants in Denmark and to produce new evidence with focus on the most recent years. Design/methodology/approach – The paper combines a broad descriptive/analytical approach with multivariate...

  16. Welfare state: Convergence: Downward versus upward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute, in the theoretical and empirical sense, to better understanding the challenges of the EU welfare regimes and how particular regimes react on them. Despite significant differences among the EU welfare regimes, it is real to expect that they will converge because of the common challenges confronting them. In this paper, using the model of sigma and beta convergence, we are trying to predict the possible direction of convergence in the sense that Europe will go toward to more or less generosity or in other words it will converge downward or upward. The downward convergence means the strengthen competition among existing welfare regimes, in order to maintain and/or attract capital, that could reduce the social spending generosity. On the other hand, the upward convergence above involves the strengthening of coordination among existing welfare regimes according to the values of solidarity and social justice, which characterise not only the most developed EU countries but also the supranational European social model. .

  17. The Impact of Total Liberalization of Domestic Air Transport on the Social Welfare and on the Dynamic of Competition: Comparison Between the United States and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbidi, Karim

    2003-01-01

    Since the lst of April 1997 date of the implementation of the third package of the liberalization, air transport, within the european Union has become totally liberalized. In the United States the deregulation of domestic air traffic was earlier and faster since it took place in October 1978 after the adoption of the only act of deregulation. This paper, in its first part, deals with the liberalization of the industry of air traffic in the european union. After a comparison with US system based on market demand, fare policy and network restrictions, we present our descriptive results coming from treatments on the OAG data. These results present several aspects such as the evolution of the competitive structure of the intra-european routes, the level of airport dominance and the growth of hub structure. The second part of the paper presents models of entry in the airline industry. As profitability" of route flown explains correctly decisions taken by airlines to serve or not a route, the paper focuses on the specification and the estimation of the determinants of city, pair profitability in the european union. Treatments done on the OAG data show a rapid development of leasing space agreement (partial and total) and code sharing practices between 1995 and 2000 in Europe that's why we differentiate first between the two type of competitive strategy of entry(direct entry and leasing space agreement) and second between the competitive strategy of entry and the alliance strategy of code sharing. So the estimation of model will be able to answer the question if the european air transport market is contestable and in case not to see if the decision of entry is more directed by the level of airport dominance (as in the domestic United States market)or essentially by the competitive structure of the routes. We try to explain the nature of entry(directleasing or code sharing) by the different levels of these two determinants.

  18. Welfare state: Milestones of development and the current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D A Zakharyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the evolution of ideas about the social state as a fair state based on the concept of the social contract. L. von Stein argues that the purpose of the welfare state was not changing the class structure of society and the elimination of the contradictions between the classes, but rather balancing and minimizing conflicts with the help of property transformations allowing a person to change one’s class affiliation. The main condition for the existence of the welfare state is its policies compliance with the interests of citizens, which provides political stability and social security. The central idea of the welfare constitutional state is that the rights of citizens are guaranteed by the state. The functions of the state and its social responsibilities were transforming over time mainly due to the erosion of state, private and corporate responsibility for providing social services. In most cases, the social programs are developed by the state, but they can also be provided by commercial organizations in the “consumer society”, in which all things and services have a material value and benefit. The welfare state is based on the principle of social justice in the distribution of wealth among the population, thus, every democratic state seeks to become a welfare state, which implies a high level of confidence in the government.

  19. How welfare states care : Culture, gender and citizenship in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kremer, M.

    2005-01-01

    Women's employment patterns changed drastically the last decades. But they are still different across Europe. Welfare state scholars often presume that diversity and change in women's employment across Europe is based on financial (dis) incentive structures embedded in welfare states (Esping-Andersen 1990, 1999, 2002; Sainsbury 1996, 1990; O'Connor et al. 1999; Lewis 1992, 1997). In other words: if childcare is available and affordable. Most mothers will work. If tax and benefit schemes have ...

  20. Migrants and Health in the Nordic welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent

    2016-01-01

    This article probes into the health of migrants with a focus on the situation in the Nordic universal welfare states. The Nordic welfare states are further compared to each other with a comparison to the EU28 if possible, including investigation of the differences among the four Nordic countries...... socioeconomic factors, such as the impact of economic inequality. Moreover, the healthy migrant paradox cannot be confirmed....

  1. Welfare state and voluntarism. Or why 'changing the welfare mix' means different things in different contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Boje, Thomas; Ibsen, Bjarne

    general and popular ‘civil society talk’ leaves too little room for taking into consideration the specific ‘division of labour’ between state, market and voluntary sector that characterize different welfare systems; a fact that, as we shall demonstrate, is highly consequential for not only the capacity...

  2. Welfare state and voluntarism. Or why 'changing the welfare mix' means different things in different contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lars Skov; Boje, Thomas; Ibsen, Bjarne

    general and popular ‘civil society talk’ leaves too little room for taking into consideration the specific ‘division of labour’ between state, market and voluntary sector that characterize different welfare systems; a fact that, as we shall demonstrate, is highly consequential for not only the capacity...

  3. Ideational leadership and structural policy change: comparing German welfare state reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiller, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter aims to explain significant policy change in the context of highly change-resistant welfare states. Dominant institutional theories of welfare state politics predict that welfare states are extremely stable constructs. Despite such claims, the German welfare state, being the prototype

  4. Business and Welfare State Development: Why Did Employers Accept Social Reforms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    of social programs (the business interests thesis). This article presents a novel explanation of differences in business support for welfare state expansion based on a diachronic analysis of the German case and shadow case studies of Sweden and the United States. The article suggests that when looking......In recent years, employer-centered explanations of welfare state development have begun to challenge conventional labor-centered and state-centered explanations. These new explanations suggest that sector-specific business interests and cross-class alliances propelled the adoption and expansion...... at changes in employers’ positions across time rather than across sectors, political constraints turn out to be the central factor explaining variation in employers’ support for social reforms (the political accommodation thesis). The article identifies two goals of business intervention in welfare state...

  5. “A fine balance”—how child welfare workers manage organizational changes within the Norwegian Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Brottveit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Child Welfare Reform (CWR was introduced in Norway. One of the most important goals of the reform was to strengthen State level authority in public child welfare and establish equal child welfare services across the country. The aim of this article is to study how this new reform affected the work of municipal child welfare professionals and led to the development of a regional project called New Child Welfare (NCW. Based on qualitative interviews with central actors in NCW, regarding the interaction between state and local child welfare professionals, the article shows how professionals within local child welfare reacted on the CWR. The NCW was established as a consequence of the professionals’ reaction on state governance and represent a new type of network. Inspired by Michel Foucaults’ concepts of governmentality and self-work, the article focuses on the development of the NCW as a result of child welfare workers’ confrontation with state governance and their fight for innovative solutions, knowing that the reform had direct impact on vulnerable children, youths, and their families. The local and collective self-work in NCW is an expression of a new form of productive power based on equality and cooperation, as well as a particular form of dependency between municipal and state levels of governance. The article highlights the importance of studying how reforms introduced by the state actually influence local child welfare work, policy, and professionalism within municipal child welfare.

  6. Welfare State and globalisation of the economic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José João ABRANTES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A “welfare State” is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The general term may cover a variety of forms of economic and social organization. This article examines the concept of welfare state in the context of legislation adopted in recent years in Portugal that wants to "provide greater flexibility" of the labour market. This article discusses the crisis and the future of the Social State that is also, according to my view, an act of citizenship, a way of expressing our concern with the actual status of the welfare State.

  7. Animal emotions, behaviour and the promotion of positive welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a rationale that may significantly boost the drive to promote positive welfare states in animals. The rationale is based largely, but not exclusively, on an experimentally supported neuropsychological understanding of relationships between emotions and behaviour, an understanding that has not yet been incorporated into animal welfare science thinking. Reference is made to major elements of the neural/cognitive foundations of motivational drives that energise and direct particular behaviours and their related subjective or emotional experiences. These experiences are generated in part by sensory inputs that reflect the animal's internal functional state and by neural processing linked to the animal's perception of its external circumstances. The integrated subjective or emotional outcome of these inputs corresponds to the animal's welfare status. The internally generated subjective experiences represent motivational urges or drives that are predominantly negative and include breathlessness, thirst, hunger and pain. They are generated by, and elicit specific behaviours designed to correct, imbalances in the animal's internal functional state. Externally generated subjective experiences are said to be integral to the operation of interacting 'action-orientated systems' that give rise to particular behaviours and their negative or positive emotional contents. These action-orientated systems, described in neuropsychological terms, give rise to negative emotions that include fear, anger and panic, and positive emotions that include comfort, vitality, euphoria and playfulness. It is argued that early thinking about animal welfare management focused mainly on minimising disturbances to the internal functional states that generate associated unpleasant motivational urges or drives. This strategy produced animal welfare benefits, but at best it could only lift a poor net welfare status to a neutral one. In contrast, strategies designed to manipulate the

  8. State Flexibility: The Minimum Wage and Welfare Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst., Washington, DC.

    In 1999, Congress for the first time, is debating a federal minimum wage hike that will affect low-skilled people who have dramatically fewer options if they cannot find work. This public policy debate has been occasioned by the new state focus on welfare reform that, to some, suggests that a state flexibility approach be applied to the minimum…

  9. Baumol's cost disease and the sustainability of the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2017-01-01

    If productivity increases more slowly for services than for manufactured goods, then services suffer from Baumol's cost disease and tend to become relatively more costly over time. Since the welfare state in all countries is an important supplier of tax financed services, this translates into a f......If productivity increases more slowly for services than for manufactured goods, then services suffer from Baumol's cost disease and tend to become relatively more costly over time. Since the welfare state in all countries is an important supplier of tax financed services, this translates...... into a financial pressure that seems to leave policymakers with a trilemma: increase tax distortions, cut spending or redistribute less. Under the assumptions underlying Baumol's cost disease, we show that these dismal implications are not warranted. The welfare state is sustainable, and there is even scope...

  10. 45 CFR 212.7 - Repayment to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repayment to the United States. 212.7 Section 212... UNITED STATES CITIZENS RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 212.7 Repayment to the United States. (a) An..., any or all of the cost of such assistance to the United States, except insofar as it is...

  11. Inequality and poverty in the Danish Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild

    2010-01-01

    , unemployment again increases and the redistributive welfare state would appear to be becoming less redistributive. Policy developments concerning taxation are reducing the significance of marginal taxes, and social benefits are compensating less. The use of incentive strategies has been applied to groups...... such as young people and ethnic minorities, and the social assistance system has been especially addressed for this purpose. Despite these developments, the emphasis of the Danish welfare state on universalism, progressive taxation and extensive social benefits still appears to prevent poverty problems...

  12. The problem of dependency: immigration, gender, and the welfare state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggebø, Helga

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the regulation of marriage migration to Norway through an analysis of the subsistence requirement rule which entails that a person who wants to bring a spouse to Norway must achieve a certain level of income. Policy-makers present two main arguments for this regulation. First, the subsistence requirement is a means to prevent forced marriage. Second, its aim is to prevent family immigrants from becoming a burden on welfare budgets. The major concern of both these arguments is that of dependency, either on the family or on the welfare state. The article investigates the representations of the “problems” underpinning this specific policy proposal and argues that the rule in question, and immigration policy more generally, needs to be analyzed with reference to the broader concerns and aims of welfare state policy and gender equality policy.

  13. Eastern migrations vs western welfare states - (unbiased fears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josifidis Kosta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This inquiry considers some effects of migration on the labour markets and the welfare systems found in the EU-15, and from the perspectives of sustainability of the current welfare state regimes. Our inquiry aims to determine whether and to what extent different approaches in regulation of migration flows between the new and old member states are compatible with related economic and demographic findings. Within this context, our research considers regulations affecting migration flows. Our findings suggest that some effects of migration from the EU8+2 on the labour markets and social protection systems found in the EU-15, both with respect to level and structure, do indeed generate effects on migration, especially considering whether migration is based upon economic or welfare decisions. In addition, our inquiry considers perspectives upon restrictive versus liberal migration policies.

  14. Religious Groups as Interest Groups: The United States Catholic Bishops in the Welfare Reform Debate of 1995–1996 and the Health Care Reform Debate of 2009–20101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Cammisa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States has a long history of religious influence on public policy: the anti-slavery movement, progressivism, prohibition, civil rights, abortion, school vouchers, school prayer and nuclear disarmament are all issues that have involved religion and religious groups in policymaking. In recent decades, the number of religious interest groups (as well as interest groups in general has greatly expanded, but the role that the religious organizations play as interest groups in the policy arena has received relatively little attention. How are they similar to and different from other interest groups? What tactics do they use? How successful are they? Under what conditions is success or failure more likely? This article examines Roman Catholic religious groups as interest groups in the congressional policymaking process. First, it places Catholic interest groups in the context of the interest group literature, and second, it examines Catholic interest groups’ activity in the passage of welfare reform in 1996 and in the passage of health care reform in 2010. In both cases, they played a greater role in context-setting than in actually changing provisions.

  15. Is globalization undermining the welfare state? The evolution of the welfare state in developed capitalist countries during the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente; Schmitt, John; Astudillo, Javier

    2004-01-01

    The authors analyze the evolution of macro-indicators of social and economic well-being during the 1990s in the majority of developed capitalist countries, grouped according to their dominant political traditions since the end of World War II. Their analysis shows that, despite the economic globalization of commerce and finance, "politics still matters" in explaining the evolution of the welfare states and labor markets in these countries; the impact of the globalization of financial capital in forcing reductions in the financial resources available for welfare state purposes has been exaggerated.

  16. The Survival of the Nordic Welfare State and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2010-01-01

    Why does free riding not escalate in the universal Nordic welfare state? How is it possible to maintain such a cooperative equilibrium where most people tend to cooperate? Our model suggests that the "missing link" is the accumulated stock of cooperation norms in terms of social trust. Arguably...

  17. Welfare State Transformations and Inequality in OECD Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    supply orientation in most social policy fields has further contributed to social inequality. The authors work from sociological and political science perspectives, examining all of the main branches of the welfare state, from health, education and tax policy, to labour market, pension and migration...

  18. Motivations and Earnings of Emigrants from a Rich Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutvaara, Panu; Munk, Martin D.

    2017-01-01

    little is known about individual motivations to emigrate. To bridge this gap, we organized the first-ever survey of emigrants from a welfare state. We find that migration decisions are rarely driven by taxes. For men, the main reason to emigrate is own work, for women partner and family....

  19. Historical Trust Levels Predict Current Welfare State Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    freedom. We argue that high levels of trust and trustworthiness are necessary, but not sufficient, conditions for societies to develop successful universal welfare states that would otherwise be highly vulnerable to free riding and fraudulent behavior. Our results do not exclude positive feedback from...

  20. Women and the Canadian welfare state: challenges and change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wekerle, Gerda R; Evans, Patricia M

    1997-01-01

    ... the paid labour force, provide for dependants, and leave abusive relationships. Access to political resources has helped women to form solidarities, alliances, and organizations. In Women and the Canadian Welfare State, scholars from environmental studies, law, social work, sociology, and economics explore the changing relationship between wom...

  1. The Survival of the Nordic Welfare State and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2010-01-01

    Why does free riding not escalate in the universal Nordic welfare state? How is it possible to maintain such a cooperative equilibrium where most people tend to cooperate? Our model suggests that the "missing link" is the accumulated stock of cooperation norms in terms of social trust. Arguably...

  2. The welfare state and Baumol's law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin

    The paper considers a two-sector economy with a constant population: The public sector, with stable productivity, and a private sector, with productivity growth. Baumol's law says that such an economy has no steady state. It is demonstrated what this means. Two attempts to uphold a policy...

  3. The fiscal impact of EU immigration on the tax-financed welfare state: Testing the ‘welfare burden’ thesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    2017-01-01

    of administrative data, consisting of repeated cross sections of 100% of the EU population residing in Denmark. We find that EU immigrants made a significant positive net contribution to the Danish welfare state over the long time span examined and thus reject the ‘welfare burden’ thesis for the crucial case...

  4. O mito do declíneo do Welfare State (The myth of the decline of the Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóvis Roberto Zimmermann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Os impactos do atual processo de globalização nas políticas sociais e no futuro do Estado de Bem-Estar Social são motivos de grande controvérsia no meio acadêmico, especialmente no Brasil. Um grupo de autores afi rma que teria havido uma “crise” e que, consequentemente, o projeto do Welfare State teria chegado ao “esfacelamento”. (DEMO, 2002. Por outro lado, há autores que defendem posição contrária, argumentando que o Estado de Bem-Estar teria se mantido, apesar de tudo, surpreendentemente bem, se revelando uma instituição “sólida” (THERBORN, 1995 em todas as sociedades avançadas e modernas. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste artigo é discutir o conceito do Estado de Bem-Estar Social e das políticas sociais e tecer indagações em que medida tal modelo ainda é existente.Abstract: The impacts of the process of globalization on the social politics and on the future of the Welfare State is a matter of great controversy in the academic environment, especially in Brazil. A group of authors affirm that a “crisis” took place, which consequently “ruined” the project of the Welfare State. (DEMO, 2002. On the other hand, some authors defend an opposite position, arguing that against all expectations the Welfare State resisted surprisingly well, revealing itself a “solid” institution (THERBORN, 1995 in all of the advanced and modern societies. Therefore, the aim of this article is to discuss the concept of the Welfare State and of social politics and to investigate in what extent this model still exists.

  5. Reforming European Universities and Reforming European Welfare States: Parallel Drivers of Change?

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiek, Marek

    2013-01-01

    We are discussing here links between reform agendas and their rationales in higher education and in the welfare state. Lessons learnt from welfare state reforms can be useful in understanding higher education reforms, and we see the links between the two under-­‐researched. Assuming that higher education services have traditionally been state-­‐funded welfare state services in postwar Continental Europe, welfare state reforms debates as a background to higher education reforms debates are ...

  6. The Open Method of Coordination - Effectively preventing welfare state retrenchment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Büchs

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article re-examines the division between 'optimists' and 'pessimists' within the literature on the Open Method of Coordination’s (OMC effectiveness. Each of those 'camps' tends to focus on a different question. 'Optimists' are more concerned with the question of whether the OMC exerts an influence on the national level and through which mechanisms, whilst 'pessimists' concentrate on the question of whether the OMC can 'strengthen' EU social policy and therefore European welfare states. This article combines these two perspectives and argues that the OMC is indeed capable of influencing national policies through the dissemination of ideas and 'learning' as the 'optimists' stress. However, policy 'learning' at the member state level is shaped and constrained by a variety of internal and external pressures. Against the hopes of most of the OMC 'optimists', this makes the OMC largely ineffective in preventing welfare state retrenchment.

  7. Production and the welfare state: the political context of reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1991-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the political context of reforms in the production process and in the welfare state. The theories of legitimation and Fordism are criticized for considering the capitalist class the main force behind the reforms. The working class and the process of class struggle are primarily responsible for changes in production and for the establishment of the welfare state. The author then shows that the changes in production and in the state that occurred after World War II were a response to political events triggered by labor's rebellions and capital's need to respond to those rebellions. Post-Fordism and the political practice that derives from it are criticized for their hasty dismissal of class and class practices by the dominated forces in society. The article ends by offering an alternative strategy for change.

  8. Welfare State Development in Central and Eastern Europe: A State of the Art Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Adascalitei

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The welfare states in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE have undergone massive changes since the beginning of the 1990s. This paper reviews the literature on welfare state development in CEE in light of the theories that have been used to study advanced capitalist democracies. Its purpose is to critically assess the extent to which different theories can explain changes in the welfare state during and after transition. It argues that until now two strands of literature have crystallised: institutionalism and actor-centred explanations. Institutionalists agree that welfare reforms are limited by the path dependence of the national welfare state structures though this framework is biased towards explaining stability. Recent literature seeks to overcome this bias by adding variables that traditionally belong to the actor-centred paradigm. This essay will argue that the gains from such an approach are exceeded by losses in the accuracy and parsimony of explanations. Further, in the actor-centred camp the welfare state is seen as a product of bargaining between various national and international actors. Yet the debate about who is responsible for the present welfare state arrangements is far from over. Unanswered questions revolve around the impact of political parties and ideologies on welfare reforms, the role of bureaucracies, the efficiency of international financial institutions in advocating retrenchment and the precise mechanisms through which all the above actors defend their interests.

  9. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  10. A Planning Palimpsest: Neoliberal Planning in a Welfare State Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Carter; Henrik Gutzon Larsen; Kristian Olesen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the evolution and transformation of Danish spatial planning from its tentative origins in liberalist politics, through its rise as a central feature of the welfare state project, to its more recent entrepreneurial forms in a context of neoliberalisation. The article demonstrates how transformations of Danish spatial planning discourses and practices must be understood in context of previous discourses and practices sedimented as layers of meaning and materiality th...

  11. Innovative agents versus immovable objects : the role of ideational leadership in German welfare state reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiller, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    During the 1990's, despite growing pressures for change, the prominent tendency of welfare state scholars was to explain the persistence of welfare state institutions. Among the approaches that identified the mechanisms responsible for the welfare states' resistance to change, historical

  12. European Welfare State in a Historical Perspective. A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marian ŞTEFAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the historical evolution of the European welfare state, especially after the second half of the nineteenth century. Even if one considers that social protection systems have their origins in the period of German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, various social problems have been treated in European countries before the Bismarck’s social legislation, beginning with the sixteenth century. In this article we presented mainly (i the origins of social policy systems in Europe, as shown in the literature covered, (ii the conceptual evolution of the so-called “welfare state” and (iii the development of social security schemes based on International Labour Organization typology.

  13. Wellbeing in the Welfare State: level not higher, distribution not more equitable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2000-01-01

    textabstract'Wellbeing' and 'welfare' are often bracketed together, in particular wellbeing and state-welfare. The level of wellbeing is believed to be higher in welfare states, and its distribution more equitable. This theory is tested in a comparative study of 40 nations 1980-1990. The size of

  14. Women's Political Representation and Welfare State Spending in 12 Capitalist Democracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzendahl, Catherine; Brooks, Clem

    2007-01-01

    One of the sharpest criticisms of welfare state research is insufficient attention to factors relating to gender relations and inequalities. Recent scholarship has begun to address welfare state effects on gender-related outcomes, but the evaluation of theories of welfare development with respect to gender factors is somewhat less developed,…

  15. Lutheranism and Welfare State Expertise. The Example of Heikki Waris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindberg Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the role of Christianity in the work of Heikki Waris (1901-1989, Professor of Social Policy at the University of Helsinki from 1948 to 1968. In studies on the historical foundations of different models of welfare, Lutheranism is often mentioned as a characteristic feature of the Nordic model. Previous research has, however, not to any larger extent examined the role of religion when analysing the work of so-called welfare experts. The article draws attention to importance of Christianity and the Lutheran Church, when analysing the work of a central architect of the Finnish welfare state. The article examines how Waris’ background within the Settlement movement influenced his later academic and social political work. Furthermore, it looks at how Waris dealt with religion, Christianity, the Lutheran Church and faith in his work on social policy and social change. The connection between social policy and Christianity is analysed more closely, both in Waris’ academic texts and the reports he wrote for the Lutheran Church on the challenges of the modern world.

  16. Across the Great Divide. From a Welfare State to a New Market State: The Case of VET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the crucial period following the Arab oil boycott of 1973, when the welfare state in the UK finally collapsed along with the heavy industrial base upon which it rested. Unlike the post-war welfare-state "settlement", the new post-welfare market state was imposed by Margaret Thatcher's governments. It was marked for…

  17. Across the Great Divide. From a Welfare State to a New Market State: The Case of VET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the crucial period following the Arab oil boycott of 1973, when the welfare state in the UK finally collapsed along with the heavy industrial base upon which it rested. Unlike the post-war welfare-state "settlement", the new post-welfare market state was imposed by Margaret Thatcher's governments. It was marked for vocational…

  18. Neoliberalism, "globalization," unemployment, inequalities, and the welfare state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of "neoliberalism" and its economic and social consequences is presented in six sections. Section I begins by describing the impact of neoliberal public policies on economic growth and inflation, on business profits and business investments, on productivity, on business credit, on unemployment and social inequalities, on social expenditures, and on poverty and family debt. The author shows that, except in the area of business profits and control of inflation, neoliberal policies have not proved superior to those they replaced. Section II deals with unemployment and social polarization in the developed capitalist countries. The author criticizes some of the theories put forward to explain these social problems, such as the introduction of new technologies and globalization of the economy, and suggests that a primary reason for these problems is the implementation of neoliberal policies. Section III challenges the widely held neoliberal perception that the U.S. economy is highly efficient and the E.U. economies are "sclerotic" due to their "excessive" welfare states and "rigid" labor markets. The author shows that the U.S. economy is not so dynamic, nor the E.U. economies so sclerotic. Some developed countries with greater social protection and more regulated labor markets are shown to be more successful than the United States in producing jobs and lowering unemployment. The reasons for the growing polarization in developed capitalist countries, rooted in political rather than economic causes, are discussed in section IV--especially the enormous power of the financial markets and their influence on international agencies and national governments, and the weakness of the labor movements, both nationally and internationally. Section V questions the major theses of globalization. The author shows that rather than globalization of commerce and investments, we are witnessing a regionalization of economic relations stimulated by political considerations. He

  19. Family policy and inequalities in health in different welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, Elisabeth; Bull, Torill; Burström, Bo; Fritzell, Sara

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on differences in health and welfare outcomes for families with children in three European countries, discussed in relation to national policies for child and family welfare. Data consist of policy documents and cross-national surveys. The document analysis was based on policy documents that described government policies. The statistical analyses utilize data from the European Social Survey. For the analyses in this article, a sub-sample of child families was selected from the countries Slovenia, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Data showed that England's policy has mainly addressed socially disadvantaged groups and areas. Sweden and Slovenia are mainly developing universal policies. The United Kingdom has high scores for subjective general health, but a steep income gradient in the population. Parents in England experience the highest level of at-risk-of-poverty. Sweden generally scores well on health outcomes and on level of at-risk-of-poverty, and the gradient in self-rated general health is the mildest. Slovenia has the weakest economy, but low levels of inequality and low child at-risk-for-poverty scores. The Slovenian example suggests that not only the level of economic wealth, but also its distribution in the population, has bearings on health and life satisfaction, not least on the health of children.

  20. Testing the Culturally Deviant of the Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchardt, Mette; Ydesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs a comparative methodological design to investigate the testing and assessment of different children and families deemed as deviant by the established Danish welfare state society in general and the national public school system [Folkeskole] in particular. The analysis contains...... two empirical cases of testing and assessment of deviant children by educational authorities. The first case is the handling of Greenlandic minority children within the Danish commonwealth between 1961 and 1971. The second case is the testing of labour migrant children in the city of Aarhus...

  1. Analysing changes of health inequalities in the Nordic welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahelma, Eero; Kivelä, Katariina; Roos, Eva

    2002-01-01

    a period of deep economic recession and a large increase in unemployment, particularly in Finland and Sweden, health inequalities by employment status and education remained broadly unchanged in all Nordic countries. Thus, during this fairly short period health inequalities in these countries were...... not strongly influenced by changes in other structural inequalities, in particular labour market inequalities. Institutional arrangements in the Nordic welfare states, including social benefits and services, were cut during the recession but nevertheless broadly remained, and are likely to have buffered...

  2. [Welfare State and public health: the role of occupational health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; Delclós, Jordi; Serra, Consol

    2017-09-20

    In the context of the current crisis of the Welfare State, occupational health can contribute significantly to its sustainability by facilitating decent and healthy employment throughout the working life. To this end, occupational health must take on the challenge of promoting health, preventing and managing injuries, illnesses and disability, based on better coordination of prevention services, mutual insurance companies, and health services, as well as by empowering the leadership in prevention of companies and the active participation of those who work. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. SWEDEN AND TURKEY: TWO MODELS OF WELFARE STATE IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea - Emanuela Dragoi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Our paper analyzes two models of economic development: Sweden and Turkey. The main objective of this analysis is to highlight in which way two countries with different development strategies, economic geography, mentality and culture have managed to maintain growth before and during the global economic crisis, becoming gradually genuine models of welfare state. The analysis undertaken in this paper is, consequently, divided into two parts. The first shows the Swedish model of welfare state, that was an inspirational one in the ’70 and ’80, and its specific strengths and vulnerabilities. The second part summarizes Turkey's economic development over the past decade,emphasizing comparative advantages that have made it the 16th largest economy of the world and its strategy in terms of managing the international economic crisis. The final part of our comparative approach aims to respond to the following question: may those two economic models be considered proper economic lessons for the other states that are confronted with economic vulnerabilities?

  4. 45 CFR 205.45 - Federal financial participation in relation to State emergency welfare preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND... emergency welfare situations resulting from natural disasters, civil disorders, and enemy caused disasters, as prescribed in “Guidelines for the Preparation of State Emergency Welfare Services Plan” issued by...

  5. Making precarious immigrant families and weaving the Danish welfare nation-state fabric 1970-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padovan-Özdemir, Marta; Moldenhawer, Bolette

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the making of immigrant families as precarious elements in the governing of the population’s welfare within the Danish welfare nation- state since the 1970s. The emphasis is on how immigrant families became a problem of welfare governing, and what knowledge practices and wel...

  6. 45 CFR 1357.30 - State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State fiscal requirements (title IV-B, subpart 1, child welfare services). 1357.30 Section 1357.30 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare..., subpart 1, child welfare services). (a) Scope. The requirements of this section shall apply to all...

  7. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  8. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  9. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  10. Welfare policymaking and intersections of race, ethnicity, and gender in U.S. state legislatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reingold, Beth; Smith, Adrienne R

    2012-01-01

    Welfare policy in the American states has been shaped profoundly by race, ethnicity, and representation. Does gender matter as well? Focusing on state welfare reform in the mid-1990s, we test hypotheses derived from two alternative approaches to incorporating gender into the study of representation and welfare policymaking. An additive approach, which assumes gender and race/ethnicity are distinct and independent, suggests that female state legislators—regardless of race/ethnicity—will mitigate the more restrictive and punitive aspects of welfare reform, much like their African American and Latino counterparts do. In contrast, an intersectional approach, which highlights the overlapping and interdependent nature of gender and race/ethnicity, suggests that legislative women of color will have the strongest countervailing effect on state welfare reform—stronger than that of other women or men of color. Our empirical analyses suggest an intersectional approach yields a more accurate understanding of gender, race/ethnicity, and welfare politics in the states.

  11. Pro-Elderly Welfare States within Child-Oriented Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Robert Ivan; Vanhuysse, Pieter; Vargha, Lili

    Households and policies are the main vehicles of intergenerational transfers. Working-age people are net contributors; children and older persons net beneficiaries. However, there is an asymmetry in socialization. Working-age people pay taxes and social security contributions to institutionalize ......). Europe is a continent of pro-elderly welfare states and strongly child-oriented parents. Since children are public goods, why has investment in them not been socialized more?......Households and policies are the main vehicles of intergenerational transfers. Working-age people are net contributors; children and older persons net beneficiaries. However, there is an asymmetry in socialization. Working-age people pay taxes and social security contributions to institutionalize...... care for older persons as a generation, but invest private resources to raise their own children, often with large social returns. This results in asymmetric statistical visibility. Elderly transfers are near-fully observed in National Accounts; those to children much less. Analysing ten European...

  12. Analysing changes of health inequalities in the Nordic welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahelma, Eero; Kivelä, Katariina; Roos, Eva

    2002-01-01

    This study examined changes over time in relative health inequalities among men and women in four Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. A serious economic recession burst out in the early 1990s particularly in Finland and Sweden. We ask whether this adverse social structural...... not strongly influenced by changes in other structural inequalities, in particular labour market inequalities. Institutional arrangements in the Nordic welfare states, including social benefits and services, were cut during the recession but nevertheless broadly remained, and are likely to have buffered......'development influenced health inequalities by employment status and educational attainment, i.e. whether the trends in health inequalities were similar or dissimilar between the Nordic countries. The data derived from comparable interview surveys carried out in 1986/87 and 1994/95 in the four countries. Limiting long...

  13. A Planning Palimpsest: Neoliberal Planning in a Welfare State Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Carter

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyse the evolution and transformation of Danish spatial planning from its tentative origins in liberalist politics, through its rise as a central feature of the welfare state project, to its more recent entrepreneurial forms in a context of neoliberalisation. The article demonstrates how transformations of Danish spatial planning discourses and practices must be understood in context of previous discourses and practices sedimented as layers of meaning and materiality through time and over space. These layers do not completely overlay one another, but present a palimpsest saturated with contradictions as well as possibilities. We propose the notion of the ‘planning palimpsest’ as a helpful metaphor for drawing attention to the historical-geographical characteristics of planning discourses and practices.

  14. The Fiscal Impact of EU Immigration on the Universalistic Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg; Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    Are inclusive welfare states compatible with free movement of people? For long the nexus between immigration and the welfare state has been perceived as fragile or even unsustainable. In this paper, we examine the fiscal impact of European Union (EU) immigration on the universalistic, tax...... on the December 31st of each year between 2002 and 2013, we analyse EU citizens’ contribution to and consumption of welfare benefits, in order to research the evolution of net fiscal contribution to the welfare state over a long time span. We find that EU immigrants made a significant positive net contribution...

  15. Work, health, and welfare: the association between working conditions, welfare states, and self-reported general health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambra, Clare; Lunau, Thorsten; Van der Wel, Kjetil A; Eikemo, Terje A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first to examine the association between self-reported general health and a wide range of working conditions at the European level and by type of welfare state regime. Data for 21,705 men and women ages 16 to 60 from 27 European countries were obtained from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey. The influence of individual-level sociodemographic, physical, and psychosocial working conditions and of the organization of work were assessed in multilevel logistic regression analyses, with additional stratification by welfare state regime type (Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Eastern European, Scandinavian, and Southern). At the European level, we found that "not good" general health was more likely to be reported by workers more exposed to hazardous working conditions. Most notably, tiring working positions, job strain, and temporary job contracts were strongly associated with a higher likelihood of reporting "not good" health. Analysis by welfare state regime found that only tiring or painful working conditions were consistently associated with worse self-reported health in all regimes. There was no evidence that the Scandinavian welfare regime protected against the adverse health effects of poor working conditions. The article concludes by examining the implications for comparative occupational health research.

  16. Care work in changing welfare states: Nordic care workers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trydegård, Gun-Britt

    2012-06-01

    This article focuses on Nordic eldercare workers and their experiences of working conditions in times of change and reorganisation. In recent years New Public Management-inspired ideas have been introduced to increase efficiency and productivity in welfare services. These reforms have also had an impact on day-to-day care work, which has become increasingly standardized and set out in detailed contracts, leading to time-pressure and an undermining of care workers' professional discretion and autonomy. The empirical data comes from a survey of unionised eldercare workers in home care and residential care in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden (N = 2583) and was analysed by bi- and multi-variate methods. The care workers reported that they found their working conditions physically and mentally arduous. They had to a great extent experienced changes for the worse in terms of working conditions and in their opportunity to provide good quality care. In addition, the majority felt they did not receive support from their managers. An alarming finding was that one out of three care workers declared that they had seriously considered quitting their jobs. Care workers with multiple problems at work were much more likely to consider quitting, and the likelihood was increasing with the number of problems reported. Furthermore, care workers lacking support from their managers had double odds of wanting to quit. The Nordic welfare states with growing older populations are facing challenges in retaining care staff in the eldercare services and ensuring they have good working conditions and support in their demanding work.

  17. Financial structures, firms, and the welfare states in South Korea and Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, S.

    South Korea and Singapore display distinctive patterns of social provision. The Singaporean welfare state has served as the primary provider of social infrastructure and services, whereas the South Korean welfare state has developed its primary role in supporting income maintenance. These

  18. Fiscal Costs and Benefits of High Skilled Immigration to a Generous Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    We consider the fiscal impact of work related high skilled immigration to a generous welfare state. In a simple theoretical model, we show that, even though a generous welfare state tends to attract immigrants with a high demand for public services, the high skilled immigrants may still be selected...

  19. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Berceda, 572 F.2d 630 (9th Cir. 1978).. A mere request, such as that made by the defendant, is not sufficient; United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d...a mere request and more than mere speculation that disclosure will be helpful. United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1978), eect. dt...both known and unknown to the Grand Jury, including Lane Boudreau, Scott Willard Holland, James Allen Halperin, Maria Ximena Erlandsen, Derek Adrian

  20. Majority and Minority Nationalism in the Danish Post-Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2015-01-01

    The future of the nation and the Danish welfare state is one of the most important political issues today. The transition in neoliberal governance from welfare state to security state, the ongoing securitization of global and European mobility, the restructuring of public services and the re......-scaling of political and economic power has made the debate around the welfare state central. In this article I take an approach to the welfare nation state that is based on the practices and narratives of everyday life. The argument is that narrative practices in everyday life constitute a central sphere inviting...... studies of the struggle over the welfare community and meaning. The empirical material draws on two recent research projects that include narratives and perspectives from minority and majority population in Denmark. By analysing different perspectives on the nation the article intends to open up for both...

  1. The Multidimensionality of Welfare State Attitudes: A European Cross-National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosma, Femke; Gelissen, John; van Oorschot, Wim

    2013-08-01

    When evaluating the various aspects of the welfare state, people assess some aspects more positively than others. Following a multidimensional approach, this study systematically argues for a framework composed of seven dimensions of the welfare state, which are subject to the opinions of the public. Using confirmatory factor analyses, this conceptual framework of multidimensional welfare attitudes was tested on cross-national data from 22 countries participating in the 2008 European Social Survey. According to our empirical analysis, attitudes towards the welfare state are multidimensional; in general, people are very positive about the welfare state's goals and range, while simultaneously being critical of its efficiency, effectiveness and policy outcomes. We found that these dimensions relate to each other differently in different countries. Eastern/Southern Europeans combine a positive attitude towards the goals and role of government with a more critical attitude towards the welfare state's efficiency and policy outcomes. In contrast, Western/Northern Europeans' attitudes towards the various welfare state dimensions are based partly on a fundamentally positive or negative stance towards the welfare state.

  2. Children of divorce in a Scandinavian welfare state: are they less affected than US children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Kyrre; Olweus, Dan

    2006-02-01

    A fairly common view holds that children's risks of negative outcomes associated with family dissolution are generally small or even nonexistent in Scandinavia, and clearly smaller than what is usually found in the United States. This view was empirically examined in a recent large-scale study of 4,127 12-15-year-old children in Norway, of whom 623 had experienced parental divorce and lived in a single-mother family. The somewhat paradoxical pattern of findings was as follows: (a) The negative associations between parental divorce and various outcomes were found to be generally very similar in Norway and the United States in spite of the great differences in family policy and welfare benefits for single mothers (at the macro level); and (b) Mediational effects of family economic resources were in both countries most marked for the academic achievement area, and the predictive power of such variables was quite similar, again in spite of the great differences in absolute level of the economic resources available to single-mother families in the two countries. The results cast some doubt on the value of the absolute economic deprivation perspective in explaining the results, and the many Norwegian welfare benefits do not seem to mitigate the association between divorce and negative outcomes for the children involved. Also policy implications derived from the economic deprivation perspective are questioned. Alternative interpretations of the findings involving relative deprivation and economic resources as a partial proxy for other non-economic factors are briefly discussed.

  3. An Analysis of Education Expenditures in the Welfare State in the Post 1980 Period in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Düriye Toprak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available  The welfare state that had become stronger gradually in the post-2nd World War has been in the process of restructuring after the 1980 period as a result of globalisation and neo-liberal policies. Social welfare state has had responsibilities in different fields ranging from health to education and from social security to poverty reduction. In Turkey, the education expenditures may be accepted as social expenditures contributing to general social welfare of the society. The goal of this study is to explain the social welfare state briefly, to review the methodological approaches to social expenditures in the context of the social welfare state, and to examine and compare the level of education expenditures in Turkey and some other countries. 

  4. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Grabois Gadelha

    Full Text Available Abstract: The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS. The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC. They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil.

  5. Reforming the Welfare State: Camden 1965-73

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Swenarton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The housing projects built by the London Borough of Camden in the years 1965-73 belong arguably to the most substantial investigations into the architecture of social housing undertaken in the past half-century. Under borough architect Sydney Cook, Camden aimed to establish a new kind of housing architecture based, not on the Corbusian tabula rasa, but on a radical reinterpretation of traditional English urbanism.The outcome was a series of projects, including Fleet Road, Alexandra Road, Highgate New Town, Branch Hill and Maiden Lane, designed by members of Cook’s team, including Neave Brown, Peter Tábori and Gordon Benson and Alan Forsyth, as well as projects designed by up-and-coming private architects like Colquhoun & Miller, Edward Cullinan and Farrell Grimshaw.While it began in what Hobsbawm called the ‘golden age’ of postwar capitalism, the Cook years (1965-73 saw the onset of the crisis of the 1970s and with it the rise of the New Right and the Hard Left, both of which viewed the Camden housing projects as a legitimate target for attack. Based on archival research and interviews, the paper explores the ways in which the Cook projects both mediated and articulated the emergence of these fissures within the British welfare state.

  6. THE JUST DRUG DISTRIBUTION IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF WELFARE STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aktieva Tri Tjitrawati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available States have obligations to improve equitability of welfare and prosperity of the community. Pharmaceutical is one of the important and strategic industries because of its vital role to support the development of health sector. Lack of regulation on pricing-products, and diversion of social aspects in the drugs trade, either by government or industry, are associated with the paradigm that underlies regulation of the distributions. Prospective policy analysis and functional approach of law are used to find a level of balance of various interest related to the subject, and to find concepts as a basis to construct new paradigm on drugs distribution. Negara berkewajiban untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan dan kemakmuran masyarakat secara berkeadilan. Industri farmasi merupakan salah satu industri penting dan strategis karena perannya yang vital menunjang pembangunan bidang kesehatan.Terdapat kecenderungan kurangnya peran Pemerintah dalam pricing policy obat, serta diabaikannya aspek sosial dalam perdagangan produk farmasi, baik oleh Pemerintah maupun industri farmasi. Carut marut ini berkaitan dengan ketidakjelasan paradigma yang berujung pada ketidakjelasan kebijakan yang melandasi tatanan distribusi obat. Makalah ini menggunakan analisis kebijakan prospektif dan pendekatan fungsional hukum untuk mengkaji kebijakan distribusi obat yang bersifat multi disiplin dan menemukan konsep baru untuk menemukan titik keseimbangan dari berbagai kepentingan terkait.

  7. 45 CFR 261.36 - Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Do welfare reform waivers affect the calculation of a State's participation rates? 261.36 Section 261.36 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE (ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND...

  8. Challenges to promoting health in the modern welfare state: the case of the Nordic nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis

    2014-02-01

    Finland, Norway, and Sweden are leaders in promoting health through public policy action. Much of this has to do with the close correspondence between key health promotion concepts and elements of the Nordic welfare state that promote equity through universalist strategies and programs that provide citizens with economic and social security. The purpose of this article is to identify the threats to the Nordic welfare states related to immigration, economic globalization, and welfare state fatigue. Through a critical analysis of relevant literature and data this article provides evidence of the state of the Nordic welfare state and some of these challenges to the Nordic welfare state and its health promotion efforts. There is evidence of declining support for the unconditional Nordic welfare state, increases in income inequality and poverty, and a weakening of the programs and supports that have associated with the excellent health profile of the Nordic nations. This is especially the case for Sweden. It is argued that the Nordic welfare states' accomplishments must be celebrated and used as a basis for maintaining the public policies shown to be successful in promoting the health of its citizens.

  9. The electoral feedback effects of welfare reform in mature European welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    democracy’s core constituency. Using survey data and election studies, the empirical analysis shows that the reforms have been particularly unpopular among social democracy’s core constituency and that these voters now align with competitors that defend core welfare schemes in a credible manner...... electorates as unity. This paper analysis the feedback effects of social policy retrenchment under Third Way social democracy since 1994. The paper argues that Third Way reforms resulted in lasting electoral setback for social democracy since these reforms went against the social policy preferences of social...

  10. Collective Protection for New Social Risks : Childcare and the Dutch Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yerkes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Issues such as caring and family policy have received increased attention within the sociological literature on the welfare state during the past decades. At the same time, there has been much debate about the protection of social risks. In particular, scholars have questioned the ability of welfare

  11. Collective Protection for New Social Risks : Childcare and the Dutch Welfare State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yerkes, M.

    2014-01-01

    Issues such as caring and family policy have received increased attention within the sociological literature on the welfare state during the past decades. At the same time, there has been much debate about the protection of social risks. In particular, scholars have questioned the ability of welfare

  12. Does the welfare state affect individual attitudes toward immigrants? Evidence across countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Facchini (Giovanni); A.M. Mayda (Anna Maria)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes welfare-state determinants of individual attitudes toward immigrants-within and across countries-and their interaction with labor market drivers of preferences. We consider two mechanisms through which a redistributive welfare system might adjust as a result of immigr

  13. Still Social and Democratic? Inclusive Education Policies in the Nordic Welfare States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, Anne-Lise; Lundahl, Lisbeth

    2006-01-01

    In this article, education policy is analyzed from a welfare state perspective. The aim is to Analise the significance attributed to social-inclusive aspects of education in contemporary education policies of the Nordic countries, and the extent to which education is regarded as an element in welfare policies. Four aspects are addressed: (1)…

  14. Welfare state regimes and income-related health inequalities: A comparison of 23 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Eikemo (Terje); C. Bambra (Clare); K. Joyce; E. Dahl

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of income-related health inequalities varies between welfare regimes (Scandinavian, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian, Southern and Eastern). Specifically, it examined whether the Scandinavian welfare state regime has s

  15. The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    welfare states, over a 40-year period, the book reveals the ways in which expansion and retrenchment are shaped by domestic politics and existing welfare state institutions. Moreover, the study addresses the kind of policy change triggered by economic crisis. In contrast to conventional wisdom......Written during an ongoing period of global economic crisis, The Welfare State as a Crisis Manager examines the practice and potential of using social policy to cope with crises. Through an in-depth analysis of social policy reactions in the wake of international economic shocks in four different...

  16. The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; van Hooren, Franca

    Written during an ongoing period of global economic crisis, The Welfare State as a Crisis Manager examines the practice and potential of using social policy to cope with crises. Through an in-depth analysis of social policy reactions in the wake of international economic shocks in four different...... welfare states, over a 40-year period, the book reveals the ways in which expansion and retrenchment are shaped by domestic politics and existing welfare state institutions. Moreover, the study addresses the kind of policy change triggered by economic crisis. In contrast to conventional wisdom...

  17. The welfare comparison of corrective ad valorem and unit taxes under monopolistic competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dröge, Susanne; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ad valorem versus unit tax debate has traditionally emphasized tax yield. On this criterion, ad valorem taxes outperform unit taxes in terms of welfare for a wide range of imperfect competition settings including Dixit--Stiglitz monopolistic competition. However, in a number of policy fields...... such as environmental, health, and trade economics, policy makers use taxes to reduce the production/consumption volume in an industry, i.e., to correct an externality rather than to improve tax yield. This paper compares the two tax instruments with respect to equal corrective effect in a Dixit--Stiglitz setting...... with love of variety, entry, exit, and redistribution of tax revenues. We find that unit taxes lead to more firms in the industry, less output per firm, less tax revenue, but higher welfare compared to ad valorem taxes....

  18. Fish welfare: the state of science by scientometrical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nédia de Castilhos Ghisi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, Brazil produced 474.33 thousand tons of captive-bred fish. In addition, regulatory agencies of animal ethics and welfare have recently encouraged experiments to be done using simpler vertebrates, such as fish. The aim of this article was to perform a scientometric analysis of scientific production that deals with fish welfare, in an attempt to find trends and gaps in this line of research. Our analyses showed a growing concern about fish welfare, although several questions remained inadequately covered. The most studied species was the Atlantic salmon, with Norway having the most publications on this theme. There are controversies among scientists about fish capacity for suffering and enjoyment (sentience. As regards slaughter or euthanasia, some studies showed that some methods are more endorsed than others, because they effectively reduce suffering and improve the appearance of the meat. In respect of animals used for experimentation, the most recommended substances were benzocaine and MS222. Thus, despite the importance of this subject, few studies are decisive and there is still no consensus on how to improve fish welfare or even on how to reduce suffering at the moment of slaughter.

  19. Europe and the Welfare State – Friends, Foes, or…?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Europe’s relationship with its Member States’ national welfare systems attracts the headlines nowadays. In particular, the negotiations regarding a new settlement for the UK in a reformed European Union and the referendum to follow, which may result in a UK exit from the EU (‘Brexit’), seem to have...

  20. Who Should Govern the Welfare State 2.0?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2013-01-01

    their biological condition beyond evolutionary determination. Others, however, will be trapped in Humanity 1.0 with no hope of getting access to expensive biomedical products or genetic services. Fuller emphasizes the “proactionary principle” as a new welfare model in which the benefits from risky experiments...

  1. Europe and the Welfare State – Friends, Foes, or…?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Europe’s relationship with its Member States’ national welfare systems attracts the headlines nowadays. In particular, the negotiations regarding a new settlement for the UK in a reformed European Union and the referendum to follow, which may result in a UK exit from the EU (‘Brexit’), seem to have...

  2. The Puzzle of the Scandinavian Welfare State and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    The Scandinavian welfare model is a puzzle to economists: It works economically, even though free-riding should prevail with its explosive cocktail of high taxation and high social benefits. One overlooked solution to the puzzle could be the unique stock of social trust present in Scandinavia. Here...

  3. Welfare Reform at 15 and the State of Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and…

  4. Expansion and retrenchment of the Swedish welfare state: a long-term approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendía, Luis

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will undertake a long-term analysis of the evolution of the Swedish welfare state, seeking to explain that evolution through the use of a systemic approach. That is, our approach will consider the interrelations between economic growth (EG), the sociopolitical institutional framework (IF), and the welfare state (WS)-understood as a set of institutions embracing the labor market and its regulation, the tax system, and the so-called social wage-in order to find the main variables that elucidate its evolution. We will show that the expansive phase of the Swedish welfare state can be explained by the symbiotic relationships developed in the WS-EG-IF interaction, whereas the period of welfare state retrenchment is one result of changes operating within the sociopolitical IF and EG bases.

  5. Explaining the Survival of the Swedish Welfare State: Maintaining Political Support Through Incremental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bergh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite challenges and doomsday predictions, the Nordic welfare states with high taxes and public expenditure are still with us. This paper describes strategic choices for policy makers of the welfare state and uses the case of Sweden to argue that the high tax welfare state has survived several challenges through a process of incremental change, where the welfare state is modified in order to maintain political support from voters who would otherwise favor cutbacks. This gradual adaptation leads to heterogeneous universality characterized by flexibility, freedom of choice, and financial solutions that involve both public and private funding. While such policies may increase inequality, they play a crucial role in maintaining political support for high taxes and expenditures. Compared to likely counterfactual scenarios, this gradual adaptation may be the political strategy that minimizes inequality in the long run.

  6. Retirement income policies and welfare state retrenchment: A comparative study of Canada, Sweden and the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bouma, Lisa

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of welfare state retrenchment on the retirement income system in Canada during the years 1980-2000. In order to provide perspective on the Canadian experience, this study also examined the effects of retrenchment on the pension systems in the Netherlands and Sweden. The theoretical foundation for this study was supported by Esping-Andersen's (1990) welfare-state regime typology (liberal, conservative and social-democratic). To address retre...

  7. Globalization, Child Welfare Policy, and the Economics of Social Uplift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Ronnie

    2002-01-01

    Explores both the development of child welfare in the United States and the impact of international declarations of human and child rights from a global perspective, focusing on: child welfare and the visiting teacher profession in the United States; research on the well-being of children; child welfare policy in an international context; the…

  8. The reoccurance of pre-welfare state poverty profiles in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild

    2011-01-01

    . However immigrants and descendants are facing a pre-welfare state poverty risk profile with very high poverty rates among children, families and old age. In context the economical crisis has several consequences. One is regarding the possibilities to prevent poverty through increased public spending. Most......This abstract is addressing the conference theme “Welfare and professionalism in Turbulent Times – where are we now and where are we heading” focusing on the development of poverty and inequality exemplified by the development in a larger city in Denmark. The Danish welfare state with emphasis...... on universalism, progressive taxation and extensive social benefits is often regarded to perform well at preventing poverty problems and inequality (Goul Andersen 2003). Comparative research shows Denmark and the Nordic welfare states as countries with low levels of poverty and inequality (OECD 2008, Fritzell...

  9. Ethics and social welfare : the state of play.

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    This extended editorial takes stock of the first volume of the journal Ethics and Social Welfare, offering an overview of the types of contributions in the first four issues and suggesting future themes. A critical summary is given of the contributions so far, which have included: moral philosophical theorizing; analysis of key ethical concepts; exploration of contested areas of policy and practice; empirical studies of living conditions, perceptions, attitudes and professional interventions;...

  10. Contemporary Welfare Regimes in Baltic States: Adapting Post-Communist Conditions to Post-Modern Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Toots

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article revises the conventional approach to welfare state development in the post-communist world, according to which the main challenge for the Eastern European states is to catch up with Western European welfare regimes. The article argues that adjustment to the new social risks and volatile markets is more important today than the catching-up scenario. Based on social and labour market statistics for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, the article analyses how the Baltic States are coping with this adjustment challenge. Adaptation to the post-modern conditions can be regarded as successful if the stability of welfare spending is accompanied by the expanding and flexible employment and by the stable or decreasing level of poverty. The findings suggest that the opportunities to increase the flexibility and equality of the labour market provided by the breakdown of the communist regime were not used. Instead, the Baltic welfare states continue to focus on protecting against the old social risks by combining neoliberal and post-communist principles. Poor performance in meeting new social risks poses a greater challenge for the post-communist welfare states than their lag in terms of gross welfare expenditure.

  11. 45 CFR 79.45 - Deposit in Treasury of United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deposit in Treasury of United States. 79.45... CIVIL REMEDIES § 79.45 Deposit in Treasury of United States. All amounts collected pursuant to this part shall be deposited as miscellaneous receipts in the Treasury of the United States, except as provided...

  12. Evaluation of four tax reforms in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eissa, Nada; Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen; Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    2008-01-01

    framework. We apply the framework to examine the welfare effects on single mothers in the United States following four tax acts passed in 1986, 1990, 1993, and 2001. We propose a simulation method combining features of fully structural microsimulation studies and simple deadweight loss calculations. Our...

  13. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Braga, Patrícia Seixas da Costa

    2016-11-03

    The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC). They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil. Resumo: A efetivação da saúde como um direito fundamental exige importante esforço, teórico e político, de articulação das dimensões econômicas e sociais, por vezes contraditórias, do desenvolvimento. Este trabalho indica a necessidade de um olhar sistêmico das políticas relacionadas à base produtiva e de inovação em saúde e à construção do Sistema Único de Sa

  14. Institutions, culture and migrants' preference for state-provided welfare. Longitudinal evidence from Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Catran, Alexander; Careja, Romana

    2017-01-01

    Using the difference-in-differences estimator and data provided by the German Socio-Economic Panel, this article explores migrants’ preferences for state-provided welfare. The study finds evidence that over time, the preferences of immigrants and natives become more similar. We interpret this fin...... this finding as evidence that the culture of home countries does not have a time-invariant effect, and that immigrants’ welfare preferences are subject to a socializing effect of the host countries’ welfare regime.......Using the difference-in-differences estimator and data provided by the German Socio-Economic Panel, this article explores migrants’ preferences for state-provided welfare. The study finds evidence that over time, the preferences of immigrants and natives become more similar. We interpret...

  15. University-State Child Welfare Training Partnerships: The Challenge of Matching Dollar Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Wells

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Universities are uniquely positioned to provide the very best training opportunities to public child welfare workers. However, university–child welfare agency training partnerships require a significant commitment of time and resources by university personnel at a time of extensive state cuts to public higher education. This national survey of university partnership administrators found significant differences among university respondents involving length of the contractual relationship, matching dollar requirements, and overall satisfaction with the training partnership.

  16. Are Aging OECD Welfare States on the Path to Gerontocracy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter; Tepe, Markus

    2009-01-01

    pensions in 18 OECD countries. Population aging appears to lead to the cutting of smaller slices out of larger cakes: it increases overall pension program spending but decreases the generosity of individual benefits. Controlling for political, institutional and time-period effects, we find that public...... pension efforts are significantly mediated by welfare regime type and have more fully adopted a retrenchment logic since the late 1980s. It is the politics of double fiscal and electoral straitjackets, not gerontocracy, which reigns supreme in public pension spending today. Population aging is undoubtedly...

  17. Who Should Govern the Welfare State 2.0?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2013-01-01

    their biological condition beyond evolutionary determination. Others, however, will be trapped in Humanity 1.0 with no hope of getting access to expensive biomedical products or genetic services. Fuller emphasizes the “proactionary principle” as a new welfare model in which the benefits from risky experiments...... are redistributed to the wider society through taxation and compensation. Still, the basic philosophical question remains: what is the basis of solidarity between Humans 1.0 and Humans 2.0 in a world where citizens no longer will share a common biological condition. Distributive justice is key to Fuller...

  18. The welfare state and its distributive effects: part of the problem or part of the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1987-01-01

    In the first part of this article, the author presents (1) a discussion of some of the major arguments against the welfare state put forward by neoliberal forces on both sides of the Atlantic, and (2) empirical information that shows the ideological rather than scientific nature of those arguments. The author also questions the widely held belief among European neoliberal (and even on occasion progressive) forces that the Reagan Administration policies have been (1) very successful in stimulating employment and economic growth, and (2) neoliberal rather than Keynesian. The empirical information presented in this article shows that these Reagan Administration policies have followed a military Keynesianism rather than social Keynesianism, which is responsible for a rather poor economic and social performance. In the second part, the author presents alternatives to the austerity policies advocated by the anti-welfare state forces, policies based on an expansion of the universalist character of the welfare state and its democratization, with active participation of the municipalities in the administration of the welfare state services and in the development of reflationary policies aimed at guiding production and stimulating consumption. The author also shows that the full development of the welfare state is a precondition for the needed restructuring of the economy, labor mobility, and technological innovation. The welfare state, rather than being the cause of the economic crisis, is part of the resolution of this crisis. The article ends with a discussion of the political conditions for the expansion of the welfare state and for the resolution of the economic crisis.

  19. The state of animal welfare in the context of refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurlo, Joanne; Hutchinson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The ultimate goal of the Three Rs is the full replacement of animals used in biomedical research and testing. However, replacement is unlikely to occur in the near future; therefore the scientific community as a whole must continue to devote considerable effort to ensure optimal animal welfare for the benefit of the science and the animals, i.e., the R of refinement. Laws governing the care and use of laboratory animals have recently been revised in Europe and the US and these place greater emphasis on promoting the well-being of the animals in addition to minimizing pain and distress. Social housing for social species is now the default condition, which can present a challenge in certain experimental settings and for certain species. The practice of positive reinforcement training of laboratory animals, particularly non-human primates, is gathering momentum but is not yet universally employed. Enhanced consideration of refinement extends to rodents, particularly mice, whose use is still increasing as more genetically modified models are generated. The wastage of extraneous mice and the method of their euthanasia are refinement issues that still need to be addressed. An international, concerted effort into defining the needs of laboratory animals is still necessary to improve the quality of the animal models used as well as their welfare.

  20. Generational equity and the politics of the welfare state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadagno, J

    1990-01-01

    The concept of generational equity--that the nation is squandering its wealth on entitlements to the elderly while children remain impoverished--has received considerable media attention. The author traces the source of that message to an organization, Americans for Generational Equity, which is dedicated to restructuring the Social Security system along the lines of a social assistance program: reduced benefits available at later ages only to those who qualify through means tests. The impact of this agenda would be to increase the labor force participation of older people, particularly women and minorities, those presently without private pension coverage and already heavily represented in that sector of the economy where labor shortage is developing. Defining national spending priorities in terms of intergenerational conflict obscures the fact that Social Security is the only U.S. welfare program that has been successful in reducing poverty levels.

  1. Comparative social policy and political conflict in advanced welfare states: Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esping-Andersen, G

    1979-01-01

    There has developed an abundant literature on the social and political determinants of social policies, but few have addressed the question of how state policies, once implemented, affect the system of stratification in civil society. This article examines the political consequences of social policy in Denmark and Sweden, countries in which a social democratic labor movement has predominated for decades. Superficially, these two highly developed welfare states appear very similar. Yet the political and social contexts in which their social policies have evolved differ substantially. I shall demonstrate the argument that the traditional welfare state approach may be conducive to a new and powerful political conflict, which directly questions the legitimacy of the welfare state itself, unless government is successful in subordinating private capitalist growth to effective public regulation. In Denmark, where social democratic governments have failed to match welfare state growth with more control of private capital, social policy has tended to undermine the political unity of the working class. Consequently, the Social Democratic Party has been weakened. Social welfare programs, in effect, have helped create new forms of stratification within the working class. In Sweden, social democratic governments have been quite successful in shifting a decisive degree of power over the private market to the state. This has helped avert a crisis of the welfare state, and has also been an important condition for continued social democratic hegemony and working-class unity. I conclude that social reform politics tend to be problematic from the point of view of the future power of social democratic movements.

  2. Welfare State Regimes and Attitudes Towards Redistribution in 15 Western European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads

    In this paper we analyse how different welfare state regimes affect popular support for redistribution across 15 Western European countries. We suggest that the main reasons why previous studies have not been able to connect welfare state regimes and popular attitudes towards the welfare state...... Social Survey and the third wave of the European Values Study, and by means of an ordered mixed probit model with concomitant variables, we find strong evidence that structural characteristics affect mass opinion in a manner consistent with regime theory. For example, public support for redistribution...... at: http://www.sfi.dk/s%c3%b8geresultat-10668.aspx?Action=1&NewsId=248&PID=32427#sthash.ISdYS6vF.dpuf...

  3. The role of globalization in the evolution of welfare state functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Vasiliev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a set of problems of evolution of the modern state. Tendencies modification of the territorial state in the context of globalization. Explore the possibility of going to the institutions of the new world order, marked their shortcomings, not to effectively solve the accumulated social problems. It is shown that the crisis of the modern welfare state is not predetermined by the state as a social institution of society; the causes are genetic properties of a market economy.

  4. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United......

  5. Child Support Enforcement: Effects of Declining Welfare Caseloads Are Beginning To Emerge. United States General Accounting Office Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Human Resources, Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembra, Richard L.

    As a condition of receiving federal Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) funds, states are required to operate Child Support Enforcement (CSE) programs. Families receiving TANF are required to participate in the CSE program; families not receiving TANF may also request CSE services. However, since 1994, an increasing number of states…

  6. Multidimensional Welfare Comparisons of EU Member States Before, During, and After the Financial Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, M. Azhar; Siersbæk, Nikolaj; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    How did the financial crisis affect population welfare in EU member states in key dimensions such as income, health, and education? Using EU-SILC data, we seek to answer this question by way of first order dominance comparisons between countries and over time. The novel feature of our study...

  7. How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas; Shalev, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying…

  8. The return of the family? Welfare state retrenchment and client autonomy in long-term care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Grootegoed; D. van Dijk

    2012-01-01

    European welfare states are cutting back their responsibilities for long-term care, emphasising ‘self-reliance’ and replacing care as an entitlement of citizenship with targeted services. But we do not know how former long-term care recipients cope with retrenchment and if they are able to negotiate

  9. How Welfare States Shape the Gender Pay Gap: A Theoretical and Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Hadas; Shalev, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We assess the impact of the welfare state on cross-national variation in the gender wage gap. Earnings inequality between men and women is conceptualized as resulting from their different locations in the class hierarchy, combined with the severity of wage differentials between and within classes. This decomposition contributes to identifying…

  10. When social security fails to provide emotional security: single parent households and the contractual welfare state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonkens, E.; Verplanke, L.

    2013-01-01

    The provision of services in the contractual welfare state is conditional. If one wants to receive a service, one has to comply with the demands of the provider. If one fails to do so, the organisation threatens to terminate its services, and indeed often does so. There are, however, people who brea

  11. The Welfare State's making of cosmopolitan Europe: individualization of social rights as European Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gerven-Haanpää, Minna Marja-Leena; Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to analyze the extent of welfare state tendencies towards individualization of social citizenship rights from the perspective of Cosmopolitan Europe (Beck and Grande 2007, Cosmopolitan Europe). Empirical study of legislated reforms to national insurance benefit schemes in three

  12. Participation of Elderly Women in Community Welfare Activities in Akinyele Local Government, Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odebode, Stella O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper assessed the participation of elderly women in community welfare activities in Oyo State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 120 elderly women from six out of the twelve political wards in the study area. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection were used to elicit information from the…

  13. Sports policy systems in regulated Rhineland welfare states : Differences in financial structures of sports clubs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Steven; Wicker, Pamela; Breuer, Christoph; Scheerder, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the resource dependencies of voluntary sports club in two Rhineland welfare states with differences in their organizational arrangements of sports (e.g. the centralization of the Sport for All policy). On the basis of the VOCASPORT typology of sports policy systems and the res

  14. Participation, responsibility and choice: summoning the active citizen in Western European welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Newman, J.; Tonkens, E.

    2011-01-01

    Responsibility, participation and choice are key policy framings of active citizenship, summoning the citizen to take on new roles in welfare state reform. This volume traces the emergence of new discourses and the ways in which they take up and rework struggles of social movements for greater indep

  15. Welfare States, Solidarity and Justice Principles : Does the Type Really Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Wil; Gelissen, John

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we investigate whether and, if so, to what extent, people’s notions of solidarity and their choices of justice principles are related to the type of welfare state regime they live under, as well as to individual socio-demographic and ideological factors. We analyse data from the Int

  16. Welfare States, Solidarity and Justice Principles : Does the Type Really Matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, Wil; Gelissen, John

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we investigate whether and, if so, to what extent, people’s notions of solidarity and their choices of justice principles are related to the type of welfare state regime they live under, as well as to individual socio-demographic and ideological factors. We analyse data from the

  17. Giving in the Netherlands: A strong welfare state with a vibrant nonprofit sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiepking, P.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has a rich philanthropic history. However, since the introduction of the welfare state during the first half of the twentieth century, the Dutch government took over responsibility for the provision of most public goods and services. In 2007, the Dutch government spent 20 per cent of

  18. To What Extent Did the Financial Crisis Intensify the Pressure to Reform the Welfare State?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vis, Barbara; Kersbergen, Kees van; Hylands, Tom

    2011-01-01

    expect varying responses across welfare state regime types. Rather than retrenchment, we observe a first phase of emergency capital injections in the banking sector and a second of Keynesian demand management and labour market protection, including the (temporary) expansion of social programmes......, the question of who pays what, when, and how will likely give rise to increasingly sharp distributional conflicts...

  19. Giving in the Netherlands: A strong welfare state with a vibrant nonprofit sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiepking, P.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands has a rich philanthropic history. However, since the introduction of the welfare state during the first half of the twentieth century, the Dutch government took over responsibility for the provision of most public goods and services. In 2007, the Dutch government spent 20 per cent of

  20. Conflito social e welfare state: Estado e desenvolvimento social no Brasil Social conflict and welfare state: state and social development in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Guedes Gomes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo argumenta que no Brasil a luta de classes não alcançou dimensões profundas que pudesse engendrar a constituição do welfare state. Ao contrário, o Estado, sobretudo sua forma mais moderna, capitalista, que emergiu a partir da década de 1930, sempre se antecipou aos movimentos sociais que representassem ameaças de rupturas. De forma repressiva, o Estado brasileiro desde o Império dissipou os conflitos com o objetivo de manter uma certa harmonia em favor do processo de expansão e reprodução capitalista e a integração dos espaços regionais. O artigo, portanto, é uma tentativa, prematura, de entender o processo de constituição dos sistemas de seguridade social, analisando as experiências de alguns países e suas respectivas características, com isso confrontando alguns estudos e realizando comparações com a dinâmica da luta de classes no Brasil e a função do Estado nesse processo.This article defends the theory that the class struggle in Brazil has not been able to engender the formation of a welfare state. On the contrary, the nation which emerged in the 1930s - above all in its more modern capitalistic form - has always prevented social movements that could pose any threat of a rupture. Since when it was a monarchy, Brazil has dealt with its conflicts in a repressive fashion, with the goal of maintaining a certain harmony in the interest of the expansion and the propagation of capitalism as well as regional integration. This text, therefore, is an attempt, albeit premature, to understand the process involving the formation of the social security system in Brazil, by analyzing the experiences of a number of countries and their respective characteristics, thus examining a few studies and making comparisons with the class struggle dynamic in Brazil and the role of the State in this process.

  1. Blurring Boundaries: From the Danish Welfare State to the European Social Model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Ulla; Nielsen, Ruth

    aspects, and 3) Services of general interest. In the Blurring Boundaries project, three aspects of the European Social Model have been particularly highlighted: the constitutionalisation of the European Social Model, its multi-level legal character, and the clash between market access justice at EU level......Abstract: This paper builds on the results obtained in the so-called Blurring Boundaries project which was undertaken at the Law Department, Copenhagen Business School, in the period from 2007 to 2009. It looks at the sustainability of the Danish welfare state in an EU law context...... and on the integration of welfare functions into EU law both from an internal market law and a constitutional law perspective. The main problem areas covered by the Blurring Boundaries project were studied in sub-projects on: 1) Internal market law and welfare services, 2) Fundamental rights and non-discrimination law...

  2. “And Now – Win the peace!”. I laburisti inglesi e il Welfare State (1945-1948

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Andrea Stazzi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Labour Party begins to put political strength in order to build the Welfare State, after the large consensus achieved in 1945 political election. The new Welfare State is based on: universality of social security, uniformity of contributions and benefits, unity in the administration of entire system.

  3. The effects of social and political openness on the welfare state in 18 OECD countries, 1970-2000

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Koster

    2007-01-01

    Studies examining the relationship between globalization and the welfare state tend to focus on the effects of economic dimensions of globalization; the extent to which a country is part of the world market. Globalization also has a social and political dimension and their effects on welfare states

  4. 45 CFR 400.209 - Claims involving family units which include refugees who have been in the United States more than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... refugees who have been in the United States more than 36 months. 400.209 Section 400.209 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Federal Funding...

  5. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  6. I «cinque giganti» e la genesi del welfare state in Europa tra le due guerre / The Five “Giant Evils" and the Genesis of the Welfare State in Europe between the Two World Wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rapini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The essay reconstructs the genesis of the welfare state during the early forties of the twentieth century. The welfare state is situated inside the European crisis caused by the Wall Street crash of 1929, by the fascisms and by the second world war. The essay focuses on the social policies of Fascism and Nazism, underlining their genetic connection with the war. The democracies decide to oppose the welfare state to warfare state of the fascisms to win not only the war, but, especially, to win the peace.

  7. Exploring the compatibility of mental health nursing, recovery-focused practice and the welfare state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, M M M; Bush, C J; Ariyaratnam, M I; Brennan, G K; Owtram, R

    2015-06-01

    Mental health nurses are expected to adhere to a range of professional values. The values of social integration that mental health nurses practise are somewhat at odds with the values of the British welfare state. Alternative systems of welfare support are demonstrated in other countries. Mental health nurses must consider models of practice, such as that described by Clifton et al. (2013b), to manage the disconnection between what is expected and what can be achieved. This discussion paper considers the implications for mental health nursing practice when working alongside individuals in receipt of state benefits. There is arguably a profound impact on an individual's recovery from mental ill health when that individual is also dependent on financial support from the government. Access to welfare benefits can have a significant impact on the recovery journey of that individual. This discussion paper will consider the practice implications for mental health nurses whose professional values include maxims such as 'challenging inequality' and 'respecting diversity', and will seek to examine the implications for practice when such values are divergent from those demonstrated in government policy. The paper will make comparisons with international welfare systems to demonstrate the way in which alternative configurations of state welfare can promote a system of social justice that is in greater equilibrium with the professional values of mental health nurses. Finally, the discussion will focus on the options for mental health nurses to either subscribe to government policy or to find compromise solutions that enable attention to remain focused and active on a strong value base of social justice and recovery-focused practice.

  8. Poverty risk among older immigrants in a Scandinavian welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Pedersen, Peder J.

    2016-01-01

    Focus in the paper is on poverty among immigrants and refugees 50 years and older coming to Denmark from countries outside the OECD, with main emphasis on immigrants coming as guest workers before 1974, as refugees and as family members and marriage partners – tied movers – relative to individuals...... where you become eligible for State pension. Poverty rates by national background are described using alternative household concepts. Next, a number of background factors of relevance for poverty are summarized. We focus on age, gender, marital status, occupational status at age 55 and duration...... of residence. We find major differences between migrant groups and between migrants and natives regarding how income is composed at different ages on market income, pensions and benefits. Next, we present a number of regressions aiming at explaining differences in the poverty risk with differences in a number...

  9. Human capital as the major financing in the welfare state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantiuk Nataliia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human capital is becoming one of the main types of capital in the global economy. But as any other capital it needs investments. The system of higher education, as well as health care and social security, represents the major investment in the development of human capital. The latter, in turn, is the basis of innovation and economic development of states, nations and intergovernmental alliances. Various research has shown that higher education greatly increases the person's and the country's income in general. Human capital produces new knowledge, which is the key for the future. As a result, the funding of the human capital development, for which the country is mostly responsible, becomes of strategic importance.

  10. Policy Diffusion and Policy Transfer in Comparative Welfare State Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Schmitt, Carina; Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    existing theoretical concepts and quantitative and qualitative methodological approaches that enable the analysis of interdependencies between countries. Moreover, we summarize the empirical findings of quantitative and qualitative studies on the diffusion and transfer of social policy, from some...... witnessing a growing interest in questions about interdependencies and policy diffusion between countries. In this article, we provide a structured overview of the state of the art in the policy diffusion and transfer literature that deals specifically with social policy. We present and critically evaluate...... pioneering studies to the latest findings. Against this background we point out what we believe to be promising avenues for future research. We focus on five areas: theoretical work on the mechanisms underlying diffusion and transfer; methodological approaches; the impact of domestic institutions and policy...

  11. The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) approach as a framework for business involvement in health promotion in the welfare state

    OpenAIRE

    Monachino, Michelle Sara

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation is to be situated in the debate about the development of the contemporary Western European welfare state, its displacement of responsibilities from state to non-state societal actors and the resulting concerns vis-à-vis the optimal distribution of responsibilities. Drawing, in interdisciplinary fashion, from the fields of political sociology, political economics, welfare studies, public health policy, and management, it focuses upon the involvement of for-profit, non-state a...

  12. I «cinque giganti» e la genesi del welfare state in Europa tra le due guerre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rapini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay reconstructs the genesis of the welfare state during the early forties of the twentieth century. The welfare state is situated inside the European crisis caused by the Wall Street crash of 1929, by the fascisms and by the second world war. The essay focuses on the social policies of Fascism and Nazism, underlining their genetic connection with the war. The democracies decide to oppose the welfare state to warfare state of the fascisms to win not only the war, but, especially, to win the peace.

  13. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of...

  15. 75 FR 5373 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Pricing for 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. \\TM\\ SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. The 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set, featuring $1...

  16. How Can Social Enterprise Really Tackle Social Exclusion? A Comparative Study of Children's Welfare in the United Kingdom and Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    Social enterprise is being increasingly encouraged as a solution to social problems concerning social exclusion, child development and family welfare within both developed and developing countries. This article considers these policy contexts and two case studies of social enterprises that provide children's services in the United Kingdom and…

  17. Nation-building in the Scandinavian Welfare State: The Immigration Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grete Brochmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scandinavia represents a particular type of welfare state, characterized by institutionalized social rights, universal access, generous benefits, a high degree of public involvement and comparatively high levels of redistribution. The basically tax-based system, which was designed to constitute a basic safety net for all citizens from cradle to grave, has been remarkably generous - and thereby also costly. It is thus vulnerable in relation to newcomers who cannot support themselves economically. In all of Scandinavia, the welfare state was from the beginning the self-evident instrument for incorporation of newcomers. Gradually, this instrument has turned more controversial, in parallel with general processes of social reform, in which the restructuring of policies has been regarded as necessary in order to avoid dependency traps and "overconsumption". This article spells out the historical background for the specific Scandinavian approach to immigration, and discusses the current dilemmas attached to this normatively complicated policy field.

  18. The Role of Business in the Development of the Welfare State and Labor Markets in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    This book assesses the role of employers in the development of welfare state and labour market institutions. Building on an in-depth analysis of Germany, a market economy known to often provide economic benefits to firms, this book explores one of the most contested issues in the comparative...... and historical literature on the welfare state. In a departure from existing employer-centered explanations, the author applies new empirical data to contend that the variation in acceptance of social reform depends more on changes in the types of political challenges faced by employers, than on changes...... in the type of institutions considered economically beneficial. Covering major reforms spanning more than a century of institutional development in unemployment insurance, accident insurance, pensions, collective bargaining, and codetermination, this book argues that employers support social policy as a means...

  19. The Mexican Sweeteners Market and Sugar Exports to the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Andino, Jose; Taylor, Richard D; Koo, Won W.

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes the effect of a potential increase in sugar imports from Mexico on the U.S. sugar price, and its consequences for producers and consumers. Additional sugar imports would cause a substantial reduction of sugar prices in the United States and consequently an increase in consumption. Due to low commodity prices, acreage and total production of beet and cane sugar in the United States are expected to fall. Under these circumstances, social welfare in the United States may incr...

  20. Overcoming reform resistance and political implementation of large-scale welfare state reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Pitlik, Hans; Heinemann, Friedrich; Schweickert, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Long-term beneficial welfare state reforms not only face opposition from powerful insiders and beneficiaries of the system in place. While potential losers from a policy change are often relatively easy to spot, ewll-designed reforms generate mostly diffuse gains, and the potential winners are much more difficult to identify. Moreover, gains from reforms regularly do not accrue immediately but only after a costly adjustment or a frictional re-organisation process. Policy change on a large sca...

  1. Overcoming reform resistance and political implementation of large-scale welfare state reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Pitlik, Hans; Heinemann, Friedrich; Schweickert, Rainer; Freytag, Andreas; Plantenga, Janneke; GALASSO, VINCENZO

    2014-01-01

    WWWforEurope Policy Brief No. 3, 14 pages Long-term beneficial welfare state reforms not only face opposition from powerful insiders and beneficiaries of the system in place. While potential losers from a policy change are often relatively easy to spot, well-designed reforms generate mostly diffuse gains, and the potential winners are much more difficult to identify. Moreover, gains from reforms regularly do not accrue immediately but only after a costly adjustment or a frictional re-orga...

  2. Who Are We Now Then? The Swedish Welfare State in Political Memory and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Sunnemark

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1980s and early 1990s the Swedish welfare state underwent a crisis which led to a transformation of society that has continued up until today. The main node of this has been an adjustment to the global ideological trend of privatization and individualism with a down-sized public sector ruled by market logic. Parallel with this Sweden has also changed from being relatively mono- cultural to becoming a more multicultural nation. Throughout these processes one constant has been how the memory of the traditional Swedish welfare state has been used and fought over by different political parties. This article deals with the struggle to appropriate this memory. The Social Democrats, in power for most of the twentieth century, are seen as the architects of the Folkhem (“The Home of the People”. But it was also the Social Democrats who – under pressure from global economy – initiated the neoliberal transformation through a series of decisions in the 1980s. Rhetorically they have treated this in two ways: one is through arguing that nothing really changed and one is through pointing out how much has changed but without acknowledging their own part in it. The ruling right-wing party The Moderates has done so through changing their rhetoric from criticizing the Social Democratic welfare state to now being the only ones representing its core values and the only ones capable of adapting them to a new situation. Furthermore, the Folkhem-metaphor has also been central for the xenophobic far-right (Sweden Democrats, claiming that the demise of the welfare state is the result of excessive immigration.

  3. Küreselleşme Kıskacındaki Refah Devletinde Sosyal Refah Harcamaları = Social Welfare Spending in the Welfare State During the Latest Globalization Upsurge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alparslan Uğur

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In many countries, employment was expanded, social rights were improved and the idea of welfare state was firmly established during the 1945 - 1975 period, so called “the golden years of the welfare state”. After the 1973 in conjunction with the first and second oil shocks, the economic, political and social pillars of the welfare state have started to evolve rapidly.Recently there have been continuous debates on the boundaries of the welfare state. What should be the state’s role? Does welfare state face fiscal crisis? Are there any socio - economic limits of the improvement of welfare state and financing need of redistribution level? In this study, we evaluate above - mentioned issues within the context of the latest rise on the globalization.

  4. Agricultural Water Pricing: United States

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In summary, irrigation costs and prices are rising in most regions of the United States, due to a combination of increasing scarcity, changes in public preferences regarding water allocation among competing uses, increasing budget scrutiny in the national and state legislatures, rising energy prices, and increasing awareness of climate change and the potential implications for rainfall and the availability of surface water resources. These issues likely will continue encouraging public offici...

  5. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  6. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States....

  7. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  9. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia,...

  10. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District...

  11. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States....

  12. STATE OF AFFAIRS WITH THE FEDERAL FRAMEWORK OF SOCIAL WELFARE IN THE POPULATION IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Igorevna Falyushina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented the survey of the Public (Federal Social Welfare framework, presented the factors entailing their low efficiency, despite the huge public investment in this institution. The reasons for this lie in the practice of a "blindly delegating" the state powers to the municipal level, that gives rise to lack of control over the budget expenditures. The paper sorted out the main tactics of budget allocations’ "withdrawal" from the target consumer and revealed the gaps in the approaches to the State budget’ allocation, and presented the author’s pattern of this procedure that makes it possible to send significant additional resources to the "challenged" regions.In addition, the study examined operation of the regional social welfare bodies, and highlighted shortcomings in their operation, with the ways to overcome them.The paper also presented the techniques of intensive development of the social welfare network in population that enable increasing significantly the network purposefulness within the current (ongoing funding, that seems to be extremely important while a tough budgetary shortfall incurred.

  13. Are there differences in birth weight between neighbourhoods in a Nordic welfare state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellström, Eva; Arnoldsson, Göran; Bremberg, Sven; Hjern, Anders

    2007-09-26

    The objective of this cohort study was to examine the effect on birth weight of living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in a Nordic welfare state. Birth weight is a health indicator known to be sensitive to political and welfare state conditions. No former studies on urban neighbourhood differences regarding mean birth weight have been carried out in a Nordic country. A register based on individual data on children's birth weight and maternal risk factors was used. A neighbourhood characteristic, i.e. an aggregated measure on income was also included. Connections between individual- and neighbourhood-level determinants and the outcome were analysed using multi-level regression technique. The study covered six hundred and ninety-six neighbourhoods in the three major cities of Sweden, Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, during 1992-2001. The majority of neighbourhoods had a population of 4 000-10 000 inhabitants. An average of 500 births per neighbourhood were analysed in this study. Differences in mean birth weight in Swedish urban neighbourhoods were minor. However, gestational length, parity and maternal smoking acted as modifiers of the neighbourhood effects. Most of the observed variation in mean birth weight was explained by individual risk factors. Welfare institutions and benefits in Sweden might buffer against negative infant outcomes due to adverse structural organisation of urban neighbourhoods.

  14. Are there differences in birth weight between neighbourhoods in a Nordic welfare state?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bremberg Sven

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this cohort study was to examine the effect on birth weight of living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in a Nordic welfare state. Birth weight is a health indicator known to be sensitive to political and welfare state conditions. No former studies on urban neighbourhood differences regarding mean birth weight have been carried out in a Nordic country. Methods A register based on individual data on children's birth weight and maternal risk factors was used. A neighbourhood characteristic, i.e. an aggregated measure on income was also included. Connections between individual- and neighbourhood-level determinants and the outcome were analysed using multi-level regression technique. The study covered six hundred and ninety-six neighbourhoods in the three major cities of Sweden, Stockholm, Göteborg and Malmö, during 1992–2001. The majority of neighbourhoods had a population of 4 000–10 000 inhabitants. An average of 500 births per neighbourhood were analysed in this study. Results Differences in mean birth weight in Swedish urban neighbourhoods were minor. However, gestational length, parity and maternal smoking acted as modifiers of the neighbourhood effects. Most of the observed variation in mean birth weight was explained by individual risk factors. Conclusion Welfare institutions and benefits in Sweden might buffer against negative infant outcomes due to adverse structural organisation of urban neighbourhoods.

  15. Education in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱富奎

    2009-01-01

    As might be expected,educational institutions in the United States reflect the nation's basic values,especially the ideal of equality of opportunity.From elementary school through college,Americans believe that everyone deserves an equal opportunity to get a good education.

  16. United States Navy DL Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  17. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  18. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  19. Effects of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on premarital childbearing among white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, S; Plotnick, R D

    1990-01-01

    This study develops an empirical model that measures the influence of state welfare, abortion and family planning policies on decisions concerning premarital pregnancy, abortion and single parenthood. Data are based on the fertility and marital experiences of white females from the three youngest cohorts of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, for 1979-1986. The results show that laws restricting contraceptive availability are associated with a higher risk of pregnancy. Restrictive policies on public funding of abortions reduce the likelihood of abortion, while greater availability of abortion services is associated with a higher likelihood that adolescents will obtain abortions. Finally, the estimates indicate that higher welfare benefits reduce the probability that pregnant adolescents will marry before bearing their children.

  20. Has the Competition among Professions in the Nordic Welfare States Intensified? A Danish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Storm Pedersen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Has the competition among professions in the Nordic welfare states intensified in recent decades? Yes, and in a manner that has resulted in predictable classic struggles and conflicts among professions. We argue that the struggles and conflicts that arise translate into insufficient provision of welfare services for taxpayers’ money. To avoid this predicament, further developing co-operation among professions is important. Public managers, as argued in this article using a Danish case, play a significant role in achieving this. The Danish case studied shows how some public managers, in their efforts to create co-operation among professions, have developed a modern, dialogue-based management technique built on dialectical refutation, similar to Socratic elenchus.

  1. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States...

  2. Good agricultural practices in broiler chicken production in the state of Paraná: focus on animal welfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Souza, Ana Paula Oliveira; Molento, Carla Forte Maiolino

    2015-01-01

    Broiler chicken welfare regulation at farm level is scarce in Brazil. This research aimed to study good agricultural practices at farm level adopted by broiler chicken companies in the state of Paraná...

  3. The effects of improved maize technology on household welfare in Buruku, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I. Audu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the welfare effects of improved maize technology in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. The study also examined the determinants of the adoption of improved maize technology. Structured questionnaires were used in collecting the primary data for the study. A multi-stage random technique was used in selecting 125 farm households for the study. The Logit and ordinary least square (OLS models were used in analyzing the data. The OLS results show that adoption of improved maize varieties is positively and significantly related to household welfare and thus has contributed to moving farm households out of poverty. Other variables found to be statistically significant in explaining household welfare are education, household size, and landholding. The Logit results show that age, household size, off-farm income, and education were found to be significant in influencing farmers’ adoption decisions. Some robustness checks were performed with different specifications of the Logit and OLS models as well as re-estimation with propensity matching score approach. Overall, the results are robust to different specifications.

  4. Welfare state regimes, gender, and depression: a multilevel analysis of middle and high income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Haejoo; Ng, Edwin; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Karlsson, Björn; Benach, Joan; Espelt, Albert; Muntaner, Carles

    2013-03-28

    Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR) = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.27) and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22-0.58) regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category), the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08-0.34) and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10-0.53) and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26-0.63) and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14-3.49) and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86-3.15) regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health.

  5. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint...: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801...

  6. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories...

  7. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  8. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  9. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  10. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... territories and possessions of the United States....

  11. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  12. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  13. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  14. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  15. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  16. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  17. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  18. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  19. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  20. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including...

  1. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  2. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  3. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  4. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  5. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  6. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  7. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  8. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States....

  9. 31 CFR 536.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 536.315 Section 536.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.315 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  10. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  11. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  12. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  13. Distinct and yet not Separate: Revisiting the Welfare Models in the EU New Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Tendera-Właszczuk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to evaluate the welfare state models in the EU countries and to start the discussion if the new member states (NMS, i.e. those EU member states that joined the EU in 2004/2007, fit the Sapir typology (Nordic model, Continental model, Anglo-Saxon model, Mediterranean model. The second objective is to examine the labour market situation, reduction of poverty and social inequalities in the EU countries. The third one is to open the issue if the public spending can be managed both justly and effectively. Research Design & Methods: The linear regression function and correlation has been used to present effectiveness of social expenditures to reduce poverty, as well as evidence that public spending can be managed both justly and effectively. Findings: This paper demonstrates more similarities can be drawn across the NMS and the EU-15 than within the NMS and EU-15, respectively. The typology of welfare state models is applied to the NMS and their effectiveness is tested. Accordingly, we classify the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Cyprus as countries of the Nordic model; Hungary, Slovakia and Malta as the Continental model; Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia as the Anglo-Saxon model and, finally, Poland, Croatia, Romania and Bulgaria as the Mediterranean model. Implications & Recommendations: Recent data suggest that the global crisis has caused an increase in the level of poverty and social spending in the EU countries. However, this is just a temporary situation and it does reflect the solutions of models. Contribution & Value Added: The NMS tend to be examined as a separate group of countries that – as the literature suggests – depict different qualities of the welfare models than those pursued in the EU-15.

  14. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  15. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... outside of the `reaches of the public interest'''); see generally United States v. SBC Commc'ns, Inc., 489... judicial power.'' SBC ] Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d at 14-15 (citing Microsoft, 56 F.3d at 1462). With... effect of proposed remedies. See, e.g., KeySpan, 763 F. Supp. 2d at 642; SBC Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d...

  16. President of the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东丽

    2005-01-01

    President of the United States is the chief executive officer of the federal government, the leader of the executive branch1, and the corn man der-in-chief of the armed forces2. The president has the power to make treaties with other nations, with the advice and consent of two-thirds of the Senate3. The president also appoints4, with Senate's consent, diplomatic representatives ,Supreme Court judges5, and many other officials.

  17. Environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' effort to manage its environment including air, water nature, and biodiversity to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  18. A balancing act? Work-life balance, health and well-being in European welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunau, Thorsten; Bambra, Clare; Eikemo, Terje A; van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dragano, Nico

    2014-06-01

    Recent analyses have shown that adverse psychosocial working conditions, such as job strain and effort-reward imbalance, vary by country and welfare state regimes. Another work-related factor with potential impact on health is a poor work-life balance. The aims of this study are to determine the association between a poor work-life balance and poor health across a variety of European countries and to explore the variation of work-life balance between European countries. Data from the 2010 European Working Conditions Survey were used with 24,096 employees in 27 European countries. Work-life balance is measured with a question on the fit between working hours and family or social commitments. The WHO-5 well-being index and self-rated general health are used as health indicators. Logistic multilevel models were calculated to assess the association between work-life balance and health indicators and to explore the between-country variation of a poor work-life balance. Employees reporting a poor work-life balance reported more health problems (Poor well-being: OR = 2.06, 95% CI = 1.83-2.31; Poor self-rated health: OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.84-2.17). The associations were very similar for men and women. A considerable part of the between-country variation of work-life balance is explained by working hours, working time regulations and welfare state regimes. The best overall work-life balance is reported by Scandinavian men and women. This study provides some evidence on the public health impact of a poor work-life balance and that working time regulations and welfare state characteristics can influence the work-life balance of employees. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  19. HIV Testing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS HIV Testing in the United States HIV Testing in the United States Jun 23, 2017 ... States or for refugees. 27 Insurance Coverage of HIV Testing HIV testing that is “medically necessary” – recommended ...

  20. Attacks upon the Romanian Welfare State and the Trade Union Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Frunzaru

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has dramatically affected the Romanian economy and consequently the Romanian labour market. The Romanian right-wing government tackled these challenges by cutting 25% of the public sector salaries and introducing new laws that radically changed the labour rights. Therefore, the economic crisis and the global economic competition are causes and justifications for the implementation of the new policies that gave less social rights to the employees and made them less protected by unions. In a broader perspective, the welfare state regime became more liberal with a lower level of decomodification.

  1. Immigration and welfare states: A survey of 15 years of research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannestad, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Much of the research on immigration and Western welfare states seems to support the conclusion that immigration flows, with the average characteristics of the last 15 to 20 years' immigration, have tended not to be to the advantage of natives while advantageous for immigrants. Theory can easily...... account for the mechanisms underlying various aspects of this asymmetric distribution of gains from immigration, but the empirical evidence is mixed in quite som instances. Thus we still face challenges for further research, possibly research giving more weight to the institutional dimensions...

  2. Immigration and welfare states: A survey of 15 years of research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannestad, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Much of the research on immigration and Western welfare states seems to support the conclusion that immigration flows, with the average characteristics of the last 15 to 20 years' immigration, have tended not to be to the advantage of natives while advantageous for immigrants. Theory can easily...... account for the mechanisms underlying various aspects of this asymmetric distribution of gains from immigration, but the empirical evidence is mixed in quite som instances. Thus we still face challenges for further research, possibly research giving more weight to the institutional dimensions...

  3. (Ethnically)Mixed parenting challenges in context of Danish Welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    (Ethnically)Mixed parenting challenges in context of Danish Welfare state This paper deals with phenomenon of mixed parenting processes in Denmark, which have been barely scientifically explored probably due to the dominant discourse colourblindness and the historical silencing of mixedness......-study of eight couples (Singla, 2015*), where one partner is native Danish while the other originates from South Asia (India, Pakistan). Narratives are thematically analysed within a theoretical framework, in which Cultural psychology forms the background and is foregrounded by a combination of intersectionality...

  4. Increasing Demands on the Welfare State? Trends in Behavior and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljunge, Jan Martin

    2011-01-01

    We find that younger generations in Sweden demand more social insurance compared with the older generations, although program rules have been constant for decades. The trend is strong, almost one % point higher take up per cohort, and robust across demographic groups. These trends in behavior...... are mirrored in attitudes toward benefit uptake in a broad set of countries, including Sweden. Younger generations have a more relaxed attitude toward claiming public benefits. Our findings indicate that younger generations demand more from the welfare state, and our behavioral data from Sweden quantify...

  5. Who Are We Now Then? The Swedish Welfare State in Political Memory and Identity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In the late 1980s and early 1990s the Swedish welfare state underwent a crisis which led to a transformation of society that has continued up until today. The main node of this has been an adjustment to the global ideological trend of privatization and individualism with a down-sized public sector ruled by market logic. Parallel with this Sweden has also changed from being relatively mono- cultural to becoming a more multicultural nation. Throughout these processes one constant has been how t...

  6. Drought in Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

  7. Intergenerational solidarity: the paradox of reciprocity imbalance in ageing welfare states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Peter

    2016-12-01

    In this article a new theoretical framework is applied to a research field that is somewhat fragmented, namely that of intergenerational solidarity in ageing welfare states. Inspired by utilitarian considerations many scholars tend to problematize the lack of reciprocity characterizing intergenerational exchanges. As some generations are longer old and more numerous they may receive excessive state-administered support of the younger generations, especially in a democratic setting. However, in reality there is limited empirical evidence of intergenerational conflict and theoretical explanations of this paradox are rare. An integrated and dynamical approach that incorporates Durkheim's solidarity theory, Honneth's intersubjective recognition theory, and the current work on reciprocal exchange is necessary in order to understand the survival of intergenerational solidarity in ageing welfare states. According to this model reciprocal recognition leading to the empathization of exchanges is the driving force of intergenerational solidarity in a prefigurative and democratized culture where the status of the young has risen dramatically. Hence, we come to the paradoxical conclusion that attempts to preserve intergenerational solidarity by openly denouncing excessive transfers and trying to bypass them institutionally sometimes might be counterproductive because they may erode their empathic underpinnings. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  8. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States....

  9. Animal welfare assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučinić Marijana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpreted in terms of welfare. The immediate housing environment and feeding may influence animal welfare either positively, when most of the important requirements are respected, or negatively, when animals are exposed to various stress factors and unpleasant emotions that contribute to animal disease, injuries or inappropriate behavior. Therefore, animal welfare is a unique link between housing conditions, feeding and watering on one side, and animal health status and behavior on the other side.

  10. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Federal Agencies Could Play a Stronger Role in Helping States Reduce the Number of Children Placed Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Child welfare directors in 19 states and juvenile justice officials in 30 counties estimated that in fiscal year 2001 parents placed over 12,700 children into the child welfare or juvenile justice systems so that these children could receive mental health services. Neither the child welfare nor the juvenile justice system was designed to serve…

  11. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  12. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  13. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  14. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  15. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth...

  17. Welfare state and quality of life: Nordic countries experience and Ukrainian reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Dluhopolskyi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of the welfare state formation in Europe with focuses attention to the welfare state phenomenon as a system that redistributes material goods according to the principle of social justice (means that every citizen should has decent standard of living and government need to minimize social inequality. We justified in the article that confidence among politicians and officials, common democratic values they profess, enhance the efficiency of the public sector but corruption reduces the effect of socio-economic reforms. The reasons of the corruption trap into which enter countries (including Ukraine are analyze. The main problem we discussed that excessive centralization of the political system and strict «chain of power» narrow space for civic initiatives, dramatically reducing the possibility of using social capital to improve life performance and stimulation economic growth. In example of Nordic countries we proposed the basic tools of solving the problem of Ukrainian corruption and shadow economy in the context of European integration and democratization.

  18. The Impact of Welfare State to Labour Market. European Submodels Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian SOCOL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we show the effects which the measures to implement welfare state have to labour market. All knows that the employment represents the most important component of the welfare state, as it supports the fulfillment of the objectives for the economic and social policies. The argument of the previous statement is very simple: the expenses for social protection are made on the basis of the returns from taxes and social contributions paid by the employed persons. The higher their number, the bigger the tax basis, and the budget for the social policy will become sustainable, even though measures for decreasing taxation would be applied to companies and to the employed population. The entire virtuous mechanism may disintegrate if a low rate of employment persists. In case of a high unemployment on a long-term, of an early exit from the labour market, of a lower integration on the labour market of women, of young persons, of aged persons and of poorly qualified persons, the social expenses will increase and the budget revenues will decrease, the result being the increase in the state’s debt.The crisis will prove whether the increase in employment recorded since 2000 was conjunctural (determined by the favorable macroeconomical evolutions or structural (induced by the reforms implemented on the labour markets and in the social protection systems.

  19. From Warfare to Welfare. Postwar Homelessness, Dislocation, and the Birth of the Welfare State in Europe: The Case of Berlin 1945–1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara M. Oberle

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the origins of what for years has been characterized as a European welfare consensus. It asks whether, indeed, there was a convergence of ideas, and if so, what led to it. Based on public health records from governmental, municipal, and international agencies in immediate postwar Europe, but also on sources reflecting public opinion, Allied military government discourses and policies, urban planners, medical professionals, and others, it argues that indeed there was a period in European history which generated something of a postwar convergence of ideas regarding public health and welfare. The postwar period witnessed a remarkable consensus about the importance of public planning, spending, and state involvement in the health and welfare sector. By examining the case of Berlin as one immediate postwar city and situating it in the larger European context of the time, one can point to common motivations and even actors involved. The root of this consensus was not any optimistic humanitarian ideology, nor even only a concern about public health or the spread of epidemics, though the latter was prominent. Equally important, it grew out of a shared setting marked by physical destruction and political instability. As a result, concerns about governability, social order, and political legitimacy came to the forefront, even of health and housing debates. In the case of Berlin, the public health debate was driven furthermore by a fear of the return of National Socialism.

  20. Welfare State Regimes, Gender, and Depression: A Multilevel Analysis of Middle and High Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Muntaner

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the 2002 World Health Survey, we examine the association between welfare state regimes, gender and mental health among 26 countries classified into seven distinct regimes: Conservative, Southeast Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, Liberal, Southern/Ex-dictatorship, and Social Democratic. A two-level hierarchical model found that the odds of experiencing a brief depressive episode in the last 12 months was significantly higher for Southern/Ex- dictatorship countries than for Southeast Asian (odds ratio (OR = 0.12, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.05–0.27 and Eastern European (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.22–0.58 regimes after controlling for gender, age, education, marital status, and economic development. In adjusted interaction models, compared to Southern/Ex-dictatorship males (reference category, the odds ratios of depression were significantly lower among Southeast Asian males (OR = 0.16, 95% CI 0.08–0.34 and females (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.10–0.53 and Eastern European males (OR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.26–0.63 and significantly higher among females in Liberal (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.14–3.49 and Southern (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.86–3.15 regimes. Our results highlight the importance of incorporating middle-income countries into comparative welfare regime research and testing for interactions between welfare regimes and gender on mental health.

  1. Body weight management and dilemmas of health responsibility for vulnerable groups in the changing Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Ditlevsen, Kia

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how health responsibility in relation to body weight management is institutionally enacted in three welfare institutions in the interplay between traditional ‘social interventionist’ welfare and ‘non-interfering’ neoliberal ideology. The analysis asks how citizens of non...... of individual responsibility increases, but that in all three settings health responsibility is ambiguously distributed and enacted among welfare state agencies and citizens, and that this renders children, youths and parents vulnerable in different ways. We identify how marginalised citizens are constituted by......, but also resist, neoliberal health promotion policies as welfare policy moves away from universalism and towards targeting in Denmark, which appears to increase health inequalities along socio-economic and ethnic lines....

  2. Child Welfare Services for Indigenous Populations: A Comparison of Child Welfare Histories, Policies, Practices and Laws for American Indians and Norwegian Samis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Mary Ann; Saus, Merete

    2012-01-01

    This article takes Dixon and Scheurell's framework for understanding colonisation processes within social welfare policies and applies it to child welfare for Indigenous populations in the United States and Norway. While those countries' historical child welfare policies follow Dixon and Scheurell's hypotheses regarding colonisation, each nation…

  3. Health care policies and resisting consumers in a prototypical welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Hindhede, Anette

    2011-01-01

    policies. The paper is based on qualitative methods comprising observations and interviews in two hearing clinics. The paper shows that rather than a „withdrawal‟ of the state there has been a process of reform with governing at distance. The data suggests that a distinguishing mark of the consumer role......It has been argued by researchers from the Anglo-Saxon nations that the rationality of the market has increasingly infiltrated the medical field. This paper enquires via policy analysis how these principles have affected the prototypical welfare state of Denmark in relation to Danish hearing health...... on offer in Denmark is, that along with a free hearing aid, the Danish health consumer enjoys a range of rights and reciprocal responsibilities. The paper concludes that few of the hearing impaired patients were able to embrace the consumer ethos, and those who chose not to wear their prescribed hearing...

  4. Welfare State Regimes and Attitudes Towards Redistribution in 15 Western European Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads

    state regimes, in the paper we assess countries’ degree of belonging to welfare state regimes along a range of theoretically defined characteristics: level and composition of public social spending, strength of left-wing political power, and degree of neo-corporatism. Utilising data from the European...... Social Survey and the third wave of the European Values Study, and by means of an ordered mixed probit model with concomitant variables, we find strong evidence that structural characteristics affect mass opinion in a manner consistent with regime theory. For example, public support for redistribution...... increases with total social expenditure relative to GDP, family benefits, and active labour market policies. Furthermore, we find that institutionalised left-wing political power as measured by left-wing government seats and neo-corporatism are significant predictors of support for redistribution.- See more...

  5. Health care policies and resisting consumers in a prototypical welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Hindhede, Anette

    2011-01-01

    It has been argued by researchers from the Anglo-Saxon nations that the rationality of the market has increasingly infiltrated the medical field. This paper enquires via policy analysis how these principles have affected the prototypical welfare state of Denmark in relation to Danish hearing health...... policies. The paper is based on qualitative methods comprising observations and interviews in two hearing clinics. The paper shows that rather than a „withdrawal‟ of the state there has been a process of reform with governing at distance. The data suggests that a distinguishing mark of the consumer role...... on offer in Denmark is, that along with a free hearing aid, the Danish health consumer enjoys a range of rights and reciprocal responsibilities. The paper concludes that few of the hearing impaired patients were able to embrace the consumer ethos, and those who chose not to wear their prescribed hearing...

  6. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States...

  7. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  8. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  9. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  10. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the main report of the Danish Welfare Commission and the one-hundred-and-nine proposals on the structure of the future Danish welfare state that the com-mission has put forward. Following upon a brief review of the discussion on the work of the Danish Welfare Commission...

  11. Testing Intelligence in the Early Danish Welfare State: Professional Entanglements, 1930-1960

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian; Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Hamre, Bjørn Frithiof

    2017-01-01

    Developing criteria for measuring intelligence (IQ testing) has been influenced and determined by many factors in the context from which it arises. Scholars and practitioners consider it a context-sensitive product created through practices, negotiations, and entanglements among various agents......, groups, interests, ideas, and values. This article pursues these practices, negotiations, and entanglements, and examines both the concept of IQ testing and its uses as they manifested themselves in Denmark between the 1930s and 1960s. This period represents the early years of the Danish welfare state......, a time of social upheaval during which IQ testing was introduced into the Danish school system, important developments in the field of psychology in Denmark occurred, and competing ideas about forms of government, eugenics, heredity, and social equality sparked controversy among stakeholders both within...

  12. Conspicuous Consumption in the United States and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinkins, David

    2016-01-01

    How do differences in the motive for conspicuous consumption in the United States and China affect the incidence of taxes in those countries? In this paper I develop a model of conspicuous consumption in which a consumer cares not only about the direct utility she receives from consumption, but a...... incidence. I find that the 1990–2002 American luxury tax on automobiles led to widespread but small welfare gains, and that the stronger Chinese motive for conspicuous consumption leads to fewer households harmed and larger median welfare gains from a 10% tobacco excise tax.......How do differences in the motive for conspicuous consumption in the United States and China affect the incidence of taxes in those countries? In this paper I develop a model of conspicuous consumption in which a consumer cares not only about the direct utility she receives from consumption......, but also about the way her consumption pattern affects her peer group's belief about her well-being. Estimating the model on American and Chinese data, I find that a Chinese consumer cares 20% more than an American consumer about peer beliefs. I use the estimated model in several experiments related to tax...

  13. State-ing the Facts: Exploring the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Jennifer M.; Bledsoe, Ann M.; Reys, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on estimation, scaling, area of nonstandard shapes, algebraic thinking, and real-life situations using the United States of America. These activities make it possible to integrate mathematics and social studies. Uses technology by employing geometry software packages such as The Geometer's Sketchpad, Cabri, and Geometric…

  14. Caseworkers’ discretions of eligibility to social insurance in Denmark and Sweden – signs of Neoliberalism in Scandinavian welfare states?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stensöta, Helena

    It has been argued that the Scandinavian welfare states have been resilient to trends of globalization and fiscal crises, and that the global pressure of neoliberalism has led to a partial retrenchment rather than a restructuring during last decades. This conclusion is, however, drawn without...... closer attention to the problem of implementation and the fact that many welfare state programs receive their ultimate content through street level contact between citizens and street-level bureaucrats. In this article, we address the question of whether there is an impact of neoliberal trends...... in Scandinavian social policies when paying attention to the everyday work of street level bureaucrats or whether the universal welfare regime ’protects’ against a neoliberal impact. Comparing conclusions on SLBs’ discretionary styles in sickness-benefits casework from two separate studies situated...

  15. Promoting supervisory practice change in public child welfare: lessons from university/agency collaborative research in four states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Millar, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    This article describes qualitative findings regarding lessons learned from research and demonstration projects in four states focused on the implementation of clinical supervision within their public child welfare agencies. This was part of a larger mixed methods study of the effectiveness of these new clinical supervision models on practice, organizational, and client outcomes. Themes from 15 focus groups with frontline supervisors participating in the projects are provided; they focused on the challenges experienced while participating and working to use clinical supervision techniques, recommendations regarding implementing such projects in the public child welfare environment, and those aspects of the implementation that were most effective in supporting their work. These themes provide direction for states and localities wishing to shift frontline supervision to a more clinical model within the public child welfare setting.

  16. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  17. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  18. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  19. Filicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Phillip J

    2016-12-01

    In the United States the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education determines the curriculum required for fellows in forensic psychiatry to become board certified as a subspecialist. Areas that must be covered during the one year fellowship include criminal issues, such as insanity; civil issues, such as tort law and Workers' Compensation; legal regulation of psychiatry, such as confidentiality and involuntary hospitalization; and correctional psychiatry issues, such as dual agency and prisoner's rights. Fellows are also expected to have knowledge about juvenile courts, the structure of the legal system, and child custody issues. In addition, fellows are required to analyze complex cases and write forensic reports which are well reasoned. Teaching methods include lectures, storytelling, use of video vignettes, and mock trials. Additional teaching methodologies include group supervision of fellows in their report writing and direct observation of giving testimony. During the year we see fellows evolve and shift their orientation from being an advocate for patients to perceiving their role as serving justice.

  20. Are pro-welfare state and full-employment policies possible in the era of globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    2000-01-01

    There is a widely held belief in U.S. and European economic, political, and academic circles that economic globalization has considerably diminished states' power to follow public policies identified with the social democratic tradition, such as full-employment policies, comprehensive and universal provision of welfare state services, and state regulatory interventions in labor markets and economic policies. And large sectors of the European center-left and left parties believe that European monetary integration made expansionist and full-employment policies practically impossible, except when realized at the European continental level. This article presents empirical information that questions these positions. It documents how specific governments in Europe have been able to carry out such public policies during these years of economic globalization and monetary integration. Some countries (such as Sweden and Finland) that had carried out these policies then later weakened their implementation did so in response to political changes mostly unrelated to globalization of the economy or monetary integration. The article also analyzes and documents how countries that had followed expansionist and full-employment policies have responded to the globalization of financial markets.

  1. Welfare Professions in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Annette Kamp

    2016-01-01

    Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001), and we saw the establishment of what could be called ...

  2. Bringing power back in: A review of the literature on the role of business in welfare state politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    takes a first step towards re-integrating a power-analytical perspective into the study of the role of business in welfare state politics. It shows how a focus on variation in business power can help to explain both why business interest groups accepted social protection during some periods in the past...

  3. The effect of economic change and elite framing on support for welfare state retrenchment: a survey experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Marx; G. Schumacher

    2016-01-01

    How do economic downturns affect citizens’ support for welfare state retrenchment? Existing observational studies fail to isolate the effect of economic conditions and the effect of elite framing of these conditions. We therefore designed a survey experiment to evaluate how economic change in conjun

  4. Of what cloth are the ties that bind? National identity and support for the welfare state across 29 European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Wright; T. Reeskens

    2013-01-01

    An oft-made claim is that national identity (NI) can function as social glue underpinning public support for the welfare state by encouraging the identification with co-nationals essential for redistribution. Empirical tests have largely ignored the possibility that the relationship depends on the k

  5. Corporate social responsibility investment and social objectives : An examination on social welfare investment of chinese state owned enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bo, H.; Li, T.; Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2009-01-01

    We apply the theory of corporate social responsibility to analyse social welfare investment undertaken by Chinese State Owned Enterprises (SOEs). We present a simple theoretical model to illustrate how the presence of social objectives in the firm's objective function changes its investment behaviou

  6. Corporate social responsibility investment and social objectives : An examination on social welfare investment of chinese state owned enterprises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bo, H.; Li, T.; Toolsema-Veldman, Linda

    2009-01-01

    We apply the theory of corporate social responsibility to analyse social welfare investment undertaken by Chinese State Owned Enterprises (SOEs). We present a simple theoretical model to illustrate how the presence of social objectives in the firm's objective function changes its investment behaviou

  7. The political-economic transition and the building of the welfare state in Spain (1975-1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Muñoz de Bustillo Llorente

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the economic policy in Spain during the govern- ments of the Spanish political transition from 1975 to 1986. It considers the different areas of economic policy with special emphasis on the development of welfare state issues in this period. Taking into account the difficult economic and political situation in 1975, there were some important advances in social policy and progressive taxation during the period. The transition to democracy in Spain changed the role and size of the public sector above all from 1975 to 1986. The social demands over the political system were possible improvements in the progressive and redistributive policies in education, health, and social programs. Spain’s transition to democracy and the first period of welfare state show a mutually reinforcing and its consequences were the modernization of the Spanish economy. However, from 1986 the economic develop- ment and the progress of welfare state have had a different growth.Key words: Welfare state, Economic transition, Spain.

  8. Promoting cross-sector partnerships in child welfare: qualitative results from a five-state strategic planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Armstrong, Mary I; McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about effective strategic planning for public and private child welfare agencies working together to serve families. During a professionally facilitated, strategic planning event, public and private child welfare administrators from five states explored partnership challenges and strengths with a goal of improving collaborative interactions in order to improve outcomes for children and families. Summarizing thematic results of session notes from the planning event, this article describes effective strategies for facilitation of such processes as well as factors that challenge or promote group processes. Implications for conducting strategic planning in jurisdictions seeking to improve public/private partnerships are discussed.

  9. Caseworkers’ discretions of eligibility to social insurance in Denmark and Sweden – signs of Neoliberalism in Scandinavian welfare states?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard; Stensöta, Helena

    closer attention to the problem of implementation and the fact that many welfare state programs receive their ultimate content through street level contact between citizens and street-level bureaucrats. In this article, we address the question of whether there is an impact of neoliberal trends...... in Scandinavian social policies when paying attention to the everyday work of street level bureaucrats or whether the universal welfare regime ’protects’ against a neoliberal impact. Comparing conclusions on SLBs’ discretionary styles in sickness-benefits casework from two separate studies situated...

  10. Boundaries of Welfare between the EU and Member States during the ‘Great Recession’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Porte, Caroline; Pochet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the changing boundaries of welfare between EU and national levels by developing a dynamic and actor-centred approach, where different groups of actors compete to influence the social and economic dimensions of EU social policy. The success of ideas and policies around welfar...

  11. United States Department of State Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    targets for worldwide reduction or elimination of the cultiva- tion, production, and commercial-scale import of cocaine, opium, heroin, mari- juana ...international sanctions against state sponsors of terrorism and urges their strict enforcement. State presses state spon- sors to abandon their support for

  12. Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans: An Evaluation of Specific Measures Taken by States To Comply with the Indian Child Welfare Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eddie F.; Limb, Gordon E.; Munoz, Ric; Clifford, Chey A.

    This study responds to the lack of research on Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) compliance by examining a nationwide sample of the ICWA section within state Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans (CFSP) and Annual Progress and Services Reports (APSR). These plans and reports address the administration of state child welfare systems. The…

  13. The United States in the 1980's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Conradie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of optimism which prevailed in the United States since the Korean War, came to an abrupt end after the debacle in Vietnam. By the end of the Seventies the United States was no longer the dominant military power. American foreign policy lacked consistence, coherence and a strategic sense. The United States became indecisive. Under these circumstances the Soviet Union successfully enforced its imperialistic designs upon countries far from its shores.

  14. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes...... of conditions with respect to political culture and ethnic homogeneity. The East Asian welfare regime resembles that of Southern Europe, characterized as it is by a high degree of informality regarding care for children, fragile elderly and the handicapped....

  15. Globalization and the Nation-State: Sovereignty and State Welfare in Jeopardy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotia, Agreement Lathi

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the fact that although globalization cannot be resisted by the nation-state, it is often confronted by mixed reactions from both the GN (Global North) and the GS (Global South). The essay charges that globalization has political, economic and cultural impact on the nation-state, which ultimately impacts the issue of identity…

  16. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Ewing, Alexander; Mandel, Michele G; Simmons, Katharine B; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen

    2016-11-25

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2013. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2013, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2004-2013. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 664,435 abortions were reported to CDC for 2013. Of these abortions, 98.2% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2004-2013. Among these 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2013 was 12.5 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2012 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 5%. From 2004 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 20%, 21%, and 17%, respectively. In 2013, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2004-2013). In 2013 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2013, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 25.9% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.8 and 18.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.8%, 9.2%, and 3.6% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 11.8, 7.0, and 2

  17. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-11-27

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2012. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2012, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2003-2012. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 699,202 abortions were reported to CDC for 2012. Of these abortions, 98.4% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2003-2012. Among these same 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2012 was 13.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 210 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2011 to 2012, the total number and ratio of reported abortions decreased 4% and the abortion rate decreased 5%. From 2003 to 2012, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 17%, 18%, and 14%, respectively, and reached their lowest level in 2012 for the entire period of analysis (2003-2012). In 2012 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2012, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.8% and 25.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 23.3 and 18.9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.4%, 9.1%, and 3.7% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of

  18. Changing Welfare States and the “Sandwich Generation” : Increasing Burden for the Next Generation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Künemund

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The burden placed on individuals aged 40 to 59 – especially on women – by competing demands from work and both older and younger family members is often addressed using the metaphor of the „sandwich gen-eration“. Based on a systematization of the definitions used in the litera-ture, empirical evidence on the frequency of such generational constella-tions and on their impact on the well-being of sandwiched adults will be presented. Analysing the second wave of the German Aging Survey shows that being sandwiched – defined as a generational constellation – is very common, but simultaneous care activities for both older and younger family members are rare, especially in combination with labour force participation, and that life satisfaction is not systematically related to being sandwiched. Implications for further research and future devel-opments will be discussed, especially with respect to changes in family structure (e.g. the beanpole family and changes in the amount of welfare state spending for the aged.

  19. Belgium: the paradox of persisting voluntarism in a corporatist welfare state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. De Deken

    2011-01-01

    Belgium's public-private pension mix can be considered a paradox: despite the conservative-corporatist welfare regime and rather limited Bismarckian social insurance for old age, voluntarist occupational pensions remained underdeveloped. Until recent pension reforms, the comparatively low replacemen

  20. Economic Hardship and Depression across the Life Course: The Impact of Welfare State Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecque, Katia; Van Rossem, Ronan; De Boyser, Katrien; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in the United States suggests that depression related to economic hardship decreases with age. We test whether this pattern can be generalized to other developed nations. Based on data from 23 countries in the European Social Survey (2006-2007), multilevel analyses show that the moderating role of age depends on the…

  1. Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    current government approach to the economy , then examining the current projections for United States’ spending from 2009 through 2019 and examining...manner and thereby strengthen the economy of the United States, this paper concludes with three examples that are predicated on the synergistic benefits associated with small reforms.

  2. United States Strategy for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    17 March 2005. 2 Homero Aridjis, "Survival of Indigenous Cultures in Mexico," 9 April 1998; available from <http://www.klys.se/worldconference/papers...HomeroAridjis.htm>;Internet; accessed 21 November 2004. 3Tania Carrasco, "Indigenous Peoples in the States of Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca ," 2005...analysis by the State representatives from Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca (3 Southern States). The plan reviewed possible options to reduce poverty and

  3. Welfare States, Labor Markets, Political Dynamics, and Population Health: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis Among East and Southeast Asian Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Edwin; Muntaner, Carles; Chung, Haejoo

    2016-04-01

    Recent scholarship offers different theories on how macrosocial determinants affect the population health of East and Southeast Asian nations. Dominant theories emphasize the effects of welfare regimes, welfare generosity, and labor market institutions. In this article, we conduct exploratory time-series cross-sectional analyses to generate new evidence on these theories while advancing a political explanation. Using unbalanced data of 7 East Asian countries and 11 Southeast Asian nations from 1960 to 2012, primary findings are 3-fold. First, welfare generosity measured as education and health spending has a positive impact on life expectancy, net of GDP. Second, life expectancy varies significantly by labor markets; however, these differences are explained by differences in welfare generosity. Third, as East and Southeast Asian countries become more democratic, welfare generosity increases, and population health improves. This study provides new evidence on the value of considering politics, welfare states, and labor markets within the same conceptual framework.

  4. Improving productivity and welfare among workers of small and household textile and garment units in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay RODE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Global Production System has changed remarkably over the period of time. In order to cope up with the change in the nature and type of production, the small and household garment and textile units are employing the younger and skilled labor force. The workers in these units are employed on the contract, causal and temporary basis. They are not given the different benefits as applicable to the large scale unit workers. Such workers are employed more hours and weekly holidays are not given to them. The small and household units are simply maximizing their interest and profit. Such capitalist nature of productive activities makes the labor worse. They are given less wages and classified as unskilled workers. Workers are not given proper training and security of work by these units. Their access to productive assets and standard of living is low as compare to the large unit’s workers. In order to improve the workers conditions, minimum wage should be given to all workers in small and household units. Such units must maintain their annual records of transactions. Small and household units must send their workers for compulsory training. Work place environment, minimum hours of work are required to regulate in these sectors. Immediate steps will have positive impact on workers earning and standard of living. It will help for further productivity enhancement.

  5. State Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the State boundaries of the United States, and the boundaries of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by...

  6. Indian Child Welfare Act: Existing Information on Implementation Issues Could Be Used to Target Guidance and Assistance to States. GAO-05-290

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Government Accountability Office, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA ) created important protections to prevent state child welfare agencies and courts from inappropriately separating American Indian children from their families. This report describes (1) the factors that influence placement decisions for children subject to ICWA; (2) the extent to which, if any, placements for…

  7. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  8. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  9. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  10. CNPC Exports Drilling Equipment to United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Petroleum Machinery Plant(BPM) of CNPC and Rowan Drilling Company Inc, one of the most powerful drilling service and driller manufacturing companies in the United States signed a petroleum equipment contract on December 9 in Beijing.

  11. Rest Areas in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rest areas in the western United States. Data was collected from various data sources including georeferenced locations obtained from other agencies, digitizied...

  12. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  13. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Report Healthy People Older Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook NCHS Health, United States, 2015 - Men's Health ... Disparities Report Healthy People Older Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  14. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  15. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including...

  16. The Grand Strategy of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    United States both militarily and by setting the terms of trade. While cultural and ideological affinities with European democra- cies played...military establishments (Japan, Russia, India, South Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, Indonesia , Malaysia, Singapore) can check possible military expansion when

  17. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Children Treatment Vaccines Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under ... person with infectious TB disease. Testing for TB in Children In the absence of symptoms, usually the ...

  18. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  19. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  20. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  1. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  2. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) modeled the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems for the contiguous United States using a standardized, deductive approach to...

  3. Anthropogenic Fragmentation in the western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We evaluated the fragmentation of the western United States by anthropogenic features. The addition of roads, railroads, and power lines to wildlands, and the...

  4. Social Studies: United States. Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E. G.

    This teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of the United States through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are five units: 1) Natural Setting --location, climate, terrain, water, soil, and economic and esthetic value, and conservation; 2) Historial Development --North American Indian cultures,…

  5. Party Formation in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is about how political parties formed in the world's first mass democracy, the United States. I trace the process of party formation from the bottom up. First, I ask: How do individuals become engaged in politics and develop political affiliations? In most states, throughout the antebellum era, the county was the primary unit of political administration and electoral representation. Owing to their small size, contiguity, and economic homogeneity, I expect that each county's ...

  6. Drought in Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    May 2007 was a record-setting month in Georgia. Typically a dry month in this southern state, May 2007 was exceptionally so, with many locations setting record-low rainfall records and some receiving no rain at all, said state climatologist David Emory Stooksbury on GeorgiaDrought.org. The lack of rain slowed plant growth, as shown in this vegetation index image. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite collected the data used to make this image between May 9 and May 24, 2007. The image shows vegetation conditions compared to average conditions observed from 2000 through 2006. Areas in which plants are more sparse or are growing more slowly than average are brown, while better-than-average growth is green. Georgia and its neighbors (South Carolina, Alabama, and Florida) are all brown, an indication that the lack of rainfall is suppressing plant growth. The gray area in southern Georgia and northern Florida shows where MODIS could not collect valid vegetation measurements, either because of clouds or smoke. In this case, the area corresponds with land that burned during this period and was probably masked by smoke. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided by Inbal Reshef, Global Agricultural Monitoring Project.

  7. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 596.313 Section... General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States... States, or any person in the United States....

  8. Good agricultural practices in broiler chicken production in the state of Paraná: focus on animal welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oliveira Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Broiler chicken welfare regulation at farm level is scarce in Brazil. This research aimed to study good agricultural practices at farm level adopted by broiler chicken companies in the state of Paraná, analyzing them in relation to the promotion of animal welfare. Twenty exporting companies were contacted, 15 answered the questionnaire. The participating companies were responsible for 76.3% of the State broiler production. Indicators related to the availability and the quality of food and water are being adapted by the companies, but still need to be improved. Regarding environmental indicators, companies had concerns about air and litter quality and about the implementation of emergency systems on totally enclosed broiler houses. Natural light has been replaced by low intensity artificial lighting. Footpad dermatitis was the most cited disease used as a sanitary indicator (93.3%, but little information was given about the maximum percentages allowed. Environmental enrichment is not used in poultry houses. This study identified agricultural programs with positive and negative impacts on animal welfare. Investments on research seem to be the only way to conduct changes on broiler chicken chain without reducing the quality of animals' life.

  9. God and the Welfare State - Substitutes or Complements? An Experimental Test of the Effect of Belief in God's Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Be'ery

    Full Text Available Belief in God's control of the world is common to many of the world's religions, but there are conflicting predictions regarding its role in shaping attitudes toward the welfare state. While the devout are expected to support pro-social values like helping others, and thus might be supportive of the welfare state, the possibility of taking action is undermined by the belief in God's absolute control over world affairs and in a morally perfect providence, who is responsible for the fates of individuals. As the literature provides mixed results on this question, this study examines the role of belief in God's control on welfare attitudes using three priming experiments and two priming tasks, carried out with a design that is both cross-cultural (US vs. Israel and cross-religious tradition (Judaism vs. Catholicism. We find evidence that, largely, belief in God's control increases support for income redistribution among Israeli Jews (study 1, American Jews (study 2, and American Catholics (study 3. The findings suggest that the traditional and common political gap between the economic left and the religious, based on the evaluation that religious beliefs lead to conservative economic preferences, may be overstated.

  10. The role of welfare state principles and generosity in social policy programmes for public health: an international comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Olle; Yngwe, Monica Aberg; Stjärne, Maria Kölegård

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many important social determinants of health are also the focus for social policies. Welfare states contribute to the resources available for their citizens through cash transfer programmes and subsidised services. Although all rich nations have welfare programmes, there are clear cross......-national differences with respect to their design and generosity. These differences are evident in national variations in poverty rates, especially among children and elderly people. We investigated to what extent variations in family and pension policies are linked to infant mortality and old-age excess mortality....... METHODS: Infant mortality rates and old-age excess mortality rates were analysed in relation to social policy characteristics and generosity. We did pooled cross-sectional time-series analyses of 18 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries during the period 1970...

  11. Changes in the welfare state and the ethics of early childhood educators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Ethical reflection is more relevant than ever before. As a reaction to both the trend of utilitarianism in early childhood education and the changes in the organisation of welfare sevices in the Nordic countries a professional ethics of virtue must be revitalized. However, it is not an easy path...

  12. The IMF programs that practised developing countries and welfare state perceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Çelik

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study IMF policies have examined with different aspects and policy practisies are analyzed. IMF policies putting into practise for long-term stability but in the long and short term income distribution/welfare are damaged.

  13. The role of European welfare states in intergenerational monetary transfers : a micro-level perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, N.; Dykstra, P.A.; Maas, I.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a comprehensive theoretical framework to explain why parents send money to particular children, and examines whether intergenerational solidarity is shaped by spending on various welfare domains or provisions as a percentage of gross domestic product. The theoretical model at the l

  14. The role of European welfare states in intergenerational money transfers: a micro-level perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Schenk (Niels); P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); I. Maas (Ineke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractABSTRACT This article uses a comprehensive theoretical framework to explain why parents send money to particular children, and examines whether intergenerational solidarity is shaped by spending on various welfare domains or provisions as a percentage of gross domestic product. The

  15. The role of European welfare states in intergenerational monetary transfers : a micro-level perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, N.; Dykstra, P.A.; Maas, I.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a comprehensive theoretical framework to explain why parents send money to particular children, and examines whether intergenerational solidarity is shaped by spending on various welfare domains or provisions as a percentage of gross domestic product. The theoretical model at the

  16. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  17. Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.

  18. 31 CFR 560.314 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 560.314 Section... § 560.314 United States person. The term United States person means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or...

  19. Rural poverty and the welfare state: a discursive transformation in Britain and the USA

    OpenAIRE

    Cloke, P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper some of the issues raised in researching the 'problematic' of rural life-styles are discussed. It is argued that traditional normative approaches to the study of deprivation and poverty need to be supplemented by an understanding of varying social and cultural constructions of reality, community, living standards, and welfare. The importance of such social and cultural constructs is illustrated in a discussion of the discursive transformation of previous codes, symbols, and conc...

  20. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  1. Analysis of United States’ Broadband Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    glass fiber. The light signals are then decoded at the end of the fiber by a special optic decoder /encoder. This allows for the light signal to be...CDMA technology while Cingular offers it through the HSDPA/ GSM technology. One quarter of the United States’ Internet users have a cell phone that...well Cingular 900 Kbps 100 Kbps $79.00 HSDPA/ GSM 1 yr contract Table 13. Unlimited Cellular Broadband Plans in the United States (From PCWorld.com

  2. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  3. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  4. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ethnocentrism is a problem. Pakistan lost Bangladesh in its 1971 civil war in part because West Pakistanis viewed Bengalis, who are the dominant ethnic...137. 64 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State? in the last few years of rapid growth, consumer price inflation surged to 25

  5. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  6. Child protection systems within the Danish, Finnish and Norwegian welfare states - time for a child centric approach?,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pösö, Tarja; Skivenes, Marit; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between the child protection systems and the Nordic welfare state in Denmark, Finland and Norway. Despite an ideological focus on prevention and provision of a fair amount of universal services and in-home child protection services for families and children...... protection and related services. Consequently, many principles of the present child protection systems are – and will remain – challenged by a child-centric orientation, in which valuing children's needs, rights and voice in situ are central....

  7. United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Europe and reducing the number of military personnel by 40,000 to 60,000. According to United States Air Force General Charles Wald , there are...The Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz is quoted as saying United States presence “…may be more political than actually military” and that

  8. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  9. The legal rights of LGBT youth in state custody: what child welfare and juvenile justice professionals need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Rudy; Marksamer, Jody

    2006-01-01

    Youth in state custody, regardless of their sexual orientation or gender identity, have federal and state constitutional and statutory rights. These rights guarantee a young person safety in their placement as well as freedom from deprivation of their liberty interest. Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth have these rights violated on a regular basis. Many cases in both the child welfare and juvenile justice contexts have resulted in extensive and time-consuming consent decrees as well as sizable damages awards. Knowledge of a youth's legal rights can help providers avoid legal liability while creating a safer and healthier environment for LGBT youth. This article provides a general overview of the successful federal legal claims that youth in the child welfare and juvenile justice systems have made, discussion of the rights generated as a result, particle application of these rights to the experiences of LGBT youth with hypothetical scenarios, a focus on specific rights that emanate from certain state laws, and a focus on specific concerns of transgender youth.

  10. Welfare Undominated Groves Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Apt, Krzysztof R; Guo, Mingyu; Markakis, Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    A common objective in mechanism design is to choose the outcome (for example, allocation of resources) that maximizes the sum of the agents' valuations, without introducing incentives for agents to misreport their preferences. The class of Groves mechanisms achieves this; however, these mechanisms require the agents to make payments, thereby reducing the agents' total welfare. In this paper we introduce a measure for comparing two mechanisms with respect to the final welfare they generate. This measure induces a partial order on mechanisms and we study the question of finding minimal elements with respect to this partial order. In particular, we say a non-deficit Groves mechanism is welfare undominated if there exists no other non-deficit Groves mechanism that always has a smaller or equal sum of payments. We focus on two domains: (i) auctions with multiple identical units and unit-demand bidders, and (ii) mechanisms for public project problems. In the first domain we analytically characterize all welfare und...

  11. Eurabia: Strategic Implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    states of North Africa and the Middle East.5 Eurabia was the name of a journal published in the mid-1970s by the European Committee for...have her extradited to Switzerland so she could be prosecuted under Swiss anti- racism statute, Islamic groups successfully prevailed to have her...options. The United States can forge new relationships with emerging powers such as Brazil, Russia, India and China, the so called BRIC countries

  12. Productive potentials or protected individuals? The concept of disability and mental illness in advanced welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringø, Pia; Høgsbro, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    The chapter presents historical developments in the conception of disability and services for people with disability and mental illness. It identifies the social, political and technological movements, which have led to the epistemologies that exist in this field today. The diverse understandings...... of mental problems and vulnerability have all through history motivated different guidelines for social work practice when it comes to people with cognitive and mental deficits and in the final section of the chapter, we discuss how current sociological, neurological, and psychiatric perspectives...... in research as well as clinical experiences from advanced welfare services might support a new model for understanding mental vulnerability....

  13. The reoccurrence of a pre-welfare state poverty profile in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild

    2012-01-01

    Even though poverty rates and inequality have increased somewhat recently, Denmark has remained among the countries with the lowest levels of poverty and inequality. However, under this surface of relative stability there has been a substantial social polarisation in the larger Danish cities....... This study based on register data reveals that in the city of Aarhus there has been significantly increased inequality, and fast growing poverty rates, in particular among ethnic minorities, from 1983-2007. From a policy perspective this was to be expected due to significant changes in welfare policy since...

  14. An urban Northeastern United States alligator bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Suzanne Moore; Shoff, William H

    2014-05-01

    Individuals who live and work in the Southeastern coastal range of the 3 US crocodilian carnivores, American alligators, American crocodiles, and caiman, understand the risks of reptile-human encounters. Individuals who live in other parts of the country maybe exposed through contact with exotic pets at private homes, small menageries, or petting zoos or from escaped or abandoned animals. During these encounters, individuals may be severely injured.Emergency medical services, law enforcement, and animal welfare workers in nonhabitat areas are usually not trained in the handling and safe removal of injured individuals from the scene when the reptile is present. The emergency management of large crocodilian injuries is similar to that of other major trauma; however, providers also must take into consideration the significant crush component potentially inflicted by the tremendous bite power and shaking inflicting during attacks by these large reptiles, appropriate antibiotic coverage for less common organisms that inhabit their mouths, and management of possible psychological distress, including posttraumatic stress disorder produced by such an unusual attack. Emergency physicians should support the development of a readily available national database of scientifically collect information on attacks to inform appropriate care and support efforts to explore responsible measures that the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and other appropriate local, state, and federal agencies can take to ensure ethical and biologically sustainable management of our large reptiles, which also helps to ensure the safety of the public.

  15. Nationalism, Gender and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    is associated with ‘social democratic’ perceptions of welfare and gender equality. Brochmann and Hagelund (2010) have pointed towards a specific form of Scandinavian welfare nationalism which is challenged by globalization and increased migration. We add that gender equality is a key aspect of the Scandinavian...... politics of belonging and that this has implications for our understanding of the challenges which can be recognised in the contemporary politics of gender and welfare in Scandinavia. This point is illustrated by exploring the problematic ways in which contemporary nationalist parties in Sweden, Denmark...... and Norway have linked national belongings with support for the welfare state and gender equality politics. These observations in turn raise theoretical, normative and analytical questions about understandings and conceptualizations of the nationalism, welfare and gender.The article aims to explore what...

  16. Following Zhang Wenjin to the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    In 1937,Zhang Ying studied at the Lu Xun Art Institute in Yan’an.After graduation she began working in the art world under Zhou Enlai’s direction.In 1983, she followed her husband Zhang Wenjin to the United States as wife of the ambassador.During her two-year stay in the U.S., she came into close contact with many American women while working to promote mutual understanding and friendship between the people of the two countries.After her retirement in 1991,she sponsored the production of a 10-episode documentary TV program,"Zhou Enlai and the Arts."She also wrote a book about her experience in the United States,Called,Following Zhang Wenjin to the United States—Notes of an Ambassador’s Wife.The following are extracts from the book.

  17. Managing nuclear weapons in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.

    1993-03-16

    This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

  18. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  19. CTS United States experiments. A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of the United States experiments activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

  20. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  1. Characterizing Hospice Services in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maureen A.; Seplaki, Christopher; Biagtan, Mark; DuPreez, Amanda; Cleary, James

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Although caregivers desire specific information about hospice programs, there is little descriptive information available. We characterized agencies that provide formal or informal hospice care in the United States according to four types of services considered important by caregivers: medications and treatments; rehabilitative care;…

  2. United States Air Force Annual Financial Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    gains and losses NRV = Net Realizable Value O = Other Inventory, Gross Value Revaluation Allowance Inventory, Net 2002 2001 United States Air Force...losses NRV = Net Realizable Value O = Other For the most part, DMAG is using the consumption method of accounting for OM&S, since OM&S is defined in the

  3. Ports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows major ports in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. A port is a city, town, or urban area with a harbor where ships load...

  4. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  5. Major land uses in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159,...

  6. EC 92 and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    34 Rheinischer Merkur (Bonn), January 17, 1992, 5. 17. Robert J. Samuelson, "Europe’s Boom Has Come and Cone," Washington Post, February 12, 1992, A23...34 Rheinischer Merkur (Bonn), January 17, 1992, 5. Riemer, Blanca. "’United States of Europe’? Don’t Hold Your Breath." Business Week, June 17, 1991, 50

  7. Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from an extract of the Public-Use Airports...

  8. AIDS Pandemic in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Amy H.; Melendez, Barbra S.; Ball, Daniel L.; Morse, Steven T.; Phillips, Geoffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    This project is one of four that were issued to first semester sophomore undergraduates at the United States Military Academy as part of an integrated learning experience at the end of their Calculus II course work. This project was used during a short, seven lesson block of instruction that was intended to capitalize on their recent academic…

  9. Orienteering: Growth Patterns in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Charles F.

    The history of orienteering in the United States includes both military and civilian interest, with the period of greatest growth between 1970 and 1980. To investigate growth patterns in orienteering, questionnaires were mailed to 42 civilian orienteering clubs and 286 universities supporting senior Reserve Office Training Corps (ROTC)…

  10. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL...

  11. Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos Blog Get Involved Shop Ask a question right here... MHAUS On Facebook Now view more On Twitter Now view more Tweets by @ ... Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States. All rights reserved. ... advertiser and not necessarily the views or opinions of MHAUS, its staff or its ...

  12. The United States and VIetnam: 1787 - 1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    almost totally unproductive ceremony and haggling with the Cochinchinese authorities. During his stay there, White developed an appreciation of the...British and French involvement with the warring sides in the United States and with French adventures in Mexico , not with events in far-off

  13. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  14. United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Julie H.

    2004-01-01

    As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

  15. Geology of the Coterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital version of the Geologic Map of the United States, originally published at a scale of 1:2,500,000 (King and Beikman, 1974b). It excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

  16. Immigration, parasitic infection, and United States religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jaimie N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2012-04-01

    Fincher & Thornhill (F&T) present a powerful case for the relationship between parasite-stress and religiosity. We argue, however, that the United States may be more religious than can be accounted for by parasite-stress. This greater religiosity might be attributable to greater sensitivity to immigration, which may hyperactivate evolved mechanisms that motivate avoidance of potential carriers of novel parasites.

  17. Women's Music in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lont, Cynthia M.

    The purpose of this presentation was to: (1) describe the history of women's music in the United States; (2) define women's music; (3) report on the status of the large women's recording companies; and (4) focus on a recent controversy in the women's music industry involving the desire for political purity versus the need for economic security.…

  18. Nursing continuing education in the united states

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, B.

    1981-01-01

    THE discussion of nursing continuing education in the United States is approached by a consideration of the following aspects: Definition and Background Evolution of the Concept Administration of the Process Teaching Techniques Range of Subjects Evaluation of the Program Issues and Problems: Mandatory vs. Voluntary Participation Control of the Accreditation Process Responsibility for Participation Program Cost/Availability

  19. Nursing continuing education in the united states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Robert

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available THE discussion of nursing continuing education in the United States is approached by a consideration of the following aspects: Definition and Background Evolution of the Concept Administration of the Process Teaching Techniques Range of Subjects Evaluation of the Program Issues and Problems: Mandatory vs. Voluntary Participation Control of the Accreditation Process Responsibility for Participation Program Cost/Availability

  20. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  1. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  2. CPAFFC Working Group Visits the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>From April 13 to 21, a CPAFFC working group led by Yao Mingyu, director general of the Department of American and Oceanian Affairs of the CPAFFC, visited the United States, attended the 18th Forum on US-China Relations sponsored by the US-China Peoples Friendship Association (USCPFA) and had talks with the USCPFA, the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace Foundation, the Richard Nixon Centre, the Sister Cities International of the U.S., the National Conference of State Legislatures, the Council of State

  3. Welfare State e emprego em saúde nos países avançados desde o Pós-Segunda Guerra Mundial Welfare State and employment in health activities in developed countries since the Post-Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Marcos de Oliveira Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the economic importance of the health activities in the developed countries in the last decades of the twentieth century. It takes into consideration the evolution of the weight of the employment in the health activities in European countries' and also in the United States' labour markets, which will be compared in an historical perspective. The evolution and the weight of the public expenditure in the health activities will also be taken into account so as to analyze the economic importance of the sector in the last decades of twentieth century. The role played by the political, economic and social context of the Post-Second World War in the construction of the system of social protection (Welfare State and its effects over the health activities will be also considered.

  4. Are health inequalities really not the smallest in the Nordic welfare states? A comparison of mortality inequality in 37 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popham, Frank; Dibben, Chris; Bambra, Clare

    2013-05-01

    Research comparing mortality by socioeconomic status has found that inequalities are not the smallest in the Nordic countries. This is in contrast to expectations given these countries' policy focus on equity. An alternative way of studying inequality has been little used to compare inequalities across welfare states and may yield a different conclusion. We used average life expectancy lost per death as a measure of total inequality in mortality derived from death rates from the Human Mortality Database for 37 countries in 2006 that we grouped by welfare state type. We constructed a theoretical 'lowest mortality comparator country' to study, by age, why countries were not achieving the smallest inequality and the highest life expectancy. We also studied life expectancy as there is an important correlation between it and inequality. On average, Nordic countries had the highest life expectancy and smallest inequalities for men but not women. For both men and women, Nordic countries had particularly low younger age mortality contributing to smaller inequality and higher life expectancy. Although older age mortality in the Nordic countries is not the smallest. There was variation within Nordic countries with Sweden, Iceland and Norway having higher life expectancy and smaller inequalities than Denmark and Finland (for men). Our analysis suggests that the Nordic countries do have the smallest inequalities in mortality for men and for younger age groups. However, this is not the case for women. Reducing premature mortality among older age groups would increase life expectancy and reduce inequality further in Nordic countries.

  5. Welfare Professions in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kamp

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare professions constitute one of the backbones in the development of the Nordic welfare states. Working in the public sector was for decades associated with high status; public sector employees were trusted employees. Through their work, they had important responsibilities for the welfare state and its citizens. To provide job security—through employment as officials—was a part of ensuring the stability of the state (Åkerstrøm, 2001, and we saw the establishment of what could be called a public ethos, a special morality aimed at serving the needs of the citizens and the state (Hoggett, 2005. The term welfare professions is widely used, referring to public sector employees in the field of, for example, health, education, care, and social work. So this term covers professionals who work directly in contact with patients, citizens, clients, students, etc. (Brante, 1990; Järvinen & Mik-Meyer, 2012. Along with the development and modernization of the welfare state, a number of new welfare professions, such as pedagogues, social works, physiotherapists, social care assistants, and auxiliary nurses have joined the existing ones like nurses, teachers, psychologists, and physicians. At the same time, however, the public sector has undergone dramatic changes as part of a neoliberal transformation of the welfare state. With the New Public Management (NPM wave from 1980s and onwards efforts to restructure public institutions and introduce market-like relationships between them, to outsource and privatize public services and to transform citizens to customers in a market have prevailed (Busch, 2005; Christensen & Lægreid, 2007; Greve, 2008. Within this reform strategy, welfare professionals are perceived as part of the problem that NPM is created to solve, namely an uncontrollable and wildly growing bureaucracy (Clarke & Newman, 1997 (...

  6. Antiabortion violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jennefer A; Schumacher, Kristin L; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine if an association exists between the amount of harassment and violence directed against abortion providers and the restrictiveness of state laws relating to family planning. We used responses from a July 2010 survey of 357 abortion providers in 50 states to determine their experience of antiabortion harassment and violence. Their responses were grouped and analyzed in relation to a published grading of state laws in the United States (A, B, C, D and F) as they relate to restrictions on family planning services. Group by group comparison of respondents illustrates that the difference in the number of reported incidents of minor vandalism by group is statistically significant (A vs. C, p=.07; A vs. D, p=.017; A vs. F, p=.0002). Incidents of harassment follow a similar pattern. There were no differences noted overall for violence or major vandalism. Major violence, including eight murders, is a new occurrence in the last two decades. Harassment of abortion providers in the United States has an association with the restrictiveness of state abortion laws. In the last two decades, murder of abortion providers has become an unfortunate part of the violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 31 CFR 592.305 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... General Definitions § 592.305 Importation into the United States. The term importation into the United States means the bringing of goods into the United States....

  8. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for...

  9. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Korea... ``Korea'') signed the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter ``UKFTA'' or the ``Agreement...

  10. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers...

  11. 32 CFR 575.6 - Catalogue, United States Military Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Catalogue, United States Military Academy. 575.6... ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.6 Catalogue, United States Military Academy. The latest edition of the catalogue, United States Military Academy, contains additional information...

  12. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of...

  13. 77 FR 27612 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK11 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... or clearing agency do not constitute United States property. These regulations affect United States...)) that invests certain earnings and profits in United States property (U.S. property) ``on the...

  14. The State of Homeless Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabler, Brenda; Weinstein, Elana

    2009-01-01

    Across America, the numbers of homeless children and families are growing as a result of many factors including the recent economic crisis, home foreclosures, and natural disasters. Because of an increase in the number of homeless children throughout the United States, this population has unmet needs that can be targeted in school settings under…

  15. DETERMINANTS OF MARKETING EFFICIENCY FOR PACKAGED WATER IN IMO STATE, NIGERIA: MAXIMIZING FIRMS ASSETS TO IMPROVE CONSUMER WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Ukeh OTEH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Competition is necessary for enhanced customer welfare and efficiency. This study focused on marketing efficiency of packaged water in Imo state Nigeria. It specifically examined the socio-economic profile of the respondents; levels of marketing efficiency of packaged water and its determinants. The study employed purposive and multistage sampling technique in the selection of location and respondents respectively from whom information were elicited. Analytically, descriptive statistics, schematic diagram and OLS multiple regression models were used. Results showed that the respondents were predominantly married male adults, with average household size of 7 persons. They were fairly educated and experienced in the business. The study further revealed that age, education, household size and income were the major determinants of marketing efficiency of packaged water marketing in the area. The result also showed that net income, marketing cost, and marketing margin were higher in urban area, which implies that marketer in semi-urban areas were operating below optimum efficiency levels. This study therefore suggested the need to incorporate integrated logistics management and marketing strategies as a measure to reduce unnecessary marketing costs; capacity enhancement programmes for marketers and improvement in infrastructural development as a means of addressing marketing efficiency and customer welfare.

  16. [Undocumented migrant labor in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinand, J

    1985-09-01

    The author identifies two factors contributing to the increase in the number of illegal migrant workers in the United States. The first is the complex system of legal immigration, which contributes to massive evasion. The second is the preference by many employers for hiring illegal aliens. The author concludes that the proposed changes in U.S. immigration laws, even though they include employer sanctions, are likely to prove as ineffective as previous measures adopted in several states some 10 years ago that also penalized employers hiring illegal aliens. It is suggested that the economic pressures leading to large-scale labor immigration will prove stronger than political pressures to control such immigration

  17. Inclusive Education in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    C. Kenneth Tanner; Deborah Jan Vaughn Linscott; Susan Allan Galis

    1996-01-01

    School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States) study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive ed...

  18. Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    incidence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP) strains in the United States has created an emerging public health challenge. CDC...only 1,280 cases of Legionnaires’ disease were reported through NNDSS in 1993, data from recent prospective pneumonia studies suggest that between...surveillance data from 1992 indicated that the prevalence of pneumococcal strains that are highly resistant to penicillin increased 60-fold (from 0.02% to 1.3

  19. The United States Military and Humanitarian Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    stated that, "The wave of the future will be putting together task forces that will be able to respond to crisis management or humanitarian...examine three options for the military’s role in humanitaria operations at home and abroad. Option 1: Virtually Eliminate Anv Military Role This is the...humanitarian aid in almost any crisis .36 The military resists the creation of specially designated units because such specialization reduces the

  20. Energy Security in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    increase the domestic price of those 41. Coal gasification is a process that converts solid coal—through several energy-intensive steps—into gasoline and...for switching to other fuels or reducing consumption of transportation fuels . In con- trast, electricity can be produced from several sources of...the prices of those fuels in the United States. Although the global nature of the market for oil makes U.S. consumers vulnerable to price

  1. West Coast, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This view shows the west coast of the United States and Mexico (32.5N, 118.0W) and gives an indication of the range of view from orbital altitude. The visual range of this particular scene is from Skammon's Lagoon on Baja to the northern tip of California's Central Valley and Sierra Nevada, a range of over 15 degrees of latitude. Coastal fog drapes over southern California and northern Baja California. White Sands, New Mexico is at far right center.

  2. Continental United States Military Housing Inspections Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-24

    standards. 3. Work with the privatized housing partner to ensure that fire protection inspection and maintenance plans are achieved. Deputy Assistant...Secretary stated that Hunt Military Communities and Patrick AFB civil engineers were working to correct all of the other fire protection system...create a plan for the performance of ongoing inspection and maintenance of all housing units to applicable electrical codes and standards. 3. Work

  3. United States of Europe, Dream or Possibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    center between the United States and the Soviet Union. The method chosen to examine this trend is to review three major politico-military problems...de France, pp. 3-7. ൫ Supra-nationalism must go! De Gaulle’s heir presumptive, Georges Pompidou , has given voice to de Gaulle’s thoughts on... Pompidou said: Certainly we do not believe in integration as a method of approach to European unity, precisely because we believe that there can be no

  4. OECD environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' efforts to manage its environment including air, water, nature, and biodiversity; to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 47 figs., 20 tabs.

  5. Toxic plants of the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C

    2011-07-01

    This article lists commonly encountered toxic plants that affect ruminants in the Northeastern United States. Livestock are at risk for ingestion of a large variety of toxic plants. Plant poisonings are likely to be underdiagnosed because tests for most plant toxins are not routinely available at veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Prevention of access to poisonous plants is usually more effective and economical than treatment of plant poisonings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably not dest......The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably...... not destroyed but rather accumulated in the following centuries up till the universal welfare state of the 20th century. Focusing on the case of Denmark, our tentative argument is that social trust was not destroyed through five subsequent phases of state building but rather enhanced. Long-run political...

  7. Welfare Reform Will Create More Misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the effects of welfare reform on American Indian families and college students. Contends that, under the new federal welfare program, tribes that choose to administer welfare will lose matching funds from state governments, resulting in a 30-50% loss of welfare benefits for eligible recipients. (JDI)

  8. PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Nemeth

    2002-09-01

    In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need

  9. New Social Risks and Welfare State Reforms in Norway and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  10. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  11. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  12. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably not dest......The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably...

  13. Cultural Protestantism and Nordic Religious Education: An incision in the historical layers behind the Nordic welfare state model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Buchardt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Is there a Nordic model for Religious Education? The article explores how Cultural Protestantism and Liberal Theology influenced the ways in which Religious Education developed in Sweden, Denmark and Norway from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century as part of the transformation of the relations between church and state. Situated between history of education and curriculum, church history and transnational welfare state history, the article focuses on three transnationally acting theologians, early historians and psychologists of religion and public debaters who involved themselves in the question of education, namely Nathan Söderblom (1866-1931, Edvard Lehmann (1862-1930 and Eivind Berggrav (1884-1959, who serve as prisms for the transnational historical analysis of what takes place between states and social fields. The article suggests that Nordic Cultural Protestantism contributed to a model of religious education which in complex ways combines secularization in the meaning of division of the church-state relation with sacralization of the state and its so-called culture

  14. The state of amphibians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Adams, M.J.; Grant, E.H.C.; Miller, D.; Corn, P.S.; Ball, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, scientists began to identify unexplained declines in amphibian populations around the world. Much has been learned since then, but amphibian declines have not abated and the interactions among the various threats to amphibians are not clear. Amphibian decline is a problem of local, national, and international scope that can affect ecosystem function, biodiversity, and commerce. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of the state of the amphibians and introduces examples to illustrate the range of issues in the United States.

  15. Not just maternalism: marriage and fatherhood in American welfare policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geva, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    The United States' 1996 welfare reforms are often interpreted as a historical break in transitioning from supporting motherhood to commodifiying women's labor. However, this cannot account for welfare reform's emphasis upon heterosexual marriage and fatherhood promotion. The paper traces continuities and shifts in over a century of familial regulation through American welfare policy, specifying the place of marriage promotion within welfare policy. Up until 1996, families were key sites of intervention through which the American welfare state was erected, especially through single women as mothers - not wives. However, as of the 1960s, concern with African American men's "failed" familial commitments turned policymakers toward concern over marriage promotion for women and men. While marriage "disincentives" for aid recipients were lifted in the 1960s, the 1996 reforms structured a new form of nuclear family governance actively promoting marriage rooted in, but distinct from, the previous. Given the historical absence of welfare policies available to poor men, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families' (TANF) marriage promotion policies have positioned poor women as nodes connecting the state to poor men, simultaneously structuring poor women as breadwinners, mothers, and wives. Recent welfare reform has also started to target poor men directly, especially in fatherhood and marriage promotion initiatives. The article highlights how, in addition to workfare policies, marriage promotion is a neoliberal policy shifting risk to the shoulders of the poor, aiming to produce "strong families" for the purposes of social security.

  16. Social inequalities in "sickness": does welfare state regime type make a difference? A multilevel analysis of men and women in 26 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Dahl, Espen; Thielen, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    In comparative studies of health inequalities, public health researchers have usually studied only disease and illness. Recent studies have also examined the sickness dimension of health, that is, the extent to which ill health is accompanied by joblessness, and how this association varies by education within different welfare contexts. This research has used either a limited number of countries or quantitative welfare state measures in studies of many countries. In this study, the authors expand on this knowledge by investigating whether a regime approach to the welfare state produces consistent results. They analyze data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC); health was measured by limiting longstanding illness (LLSI). Results show that for both men and women reporting LLSI in combination with low educational level, the probabilities of non-employment were particularly high in the Anglo-Saxon and Eastern welfare regimes, and lowest in the Scandinavian regime. For men, absolute and relative social inequalities in sickness were lowest in the Southern regime; for women, inequalities were lowest in the Scandinavian regime. The authors conclude that the Scandinavian welfare regime is more able than other regimes to protect against non-employment in the face of illness, especially for individuals with low educational level.

  17. 22 CFR 22.3 - Remittances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remittances in the United States. 22.3 Section...-DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND FOREIGN SERVICE § 22.3 Remittances in the United States. (a) Type of remittance. Remittances shall be in the form of: (1) Check or bank draft drawn on a bank in the United States; (2)...

  18. Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.

    1977-01-01

    Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.

  19. United States/Canada electricity exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

  20. Coordinating the United States Interagency Partnering Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    stage over the last 6 years.7 The DoD is on the cutting edge of partnering and there have been valuable lessons learned at the tactical and...global stage . “3D are the three pillars that provide the foundation for promoting and protecting U.S. national security interests abroad.”33 DoD, DoS...operations now will mean throwing 18 away hard-fought gains, and expose the United States to new risks from across the globalising

  1. Contraceptive failure in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, James

    2011-05-01

    This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception available in the United States. Estimates are provided of probabilities of failure during typical use (which includes both incorrect and inconsistent use) and during perfect use (correct and consistent use). The difference between these two probabilities reveals the consequences of imperfect use; it depends both on how unforgiving of imperfect use a method is and on how hard it is to use that method perfectly. These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use.

  2. Mobile satellite service in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

    1988-05-01

    Mobile satellite service (MSS) has been under development in the United States for more than two decades. The service will soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The development and operation of MSS in North America is being coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first AMSC satellite for MSAT-X activities and for government demonstrations.

  3. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  4. Geothermal power generation in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Gerald W.; McCluer, H. K.

    1993-03-01

    Geothermal energy is an indigenous environmentally benign heat source with the potential for 5000-10,000 GWe of power generation in the United States. Approximately 2535 MWe of installed capacity is currently operating in the U.S. with contracted power costs down to 4.6 cents/kWh. This paper summarizes: 1) types of geothermal resources; 2) power conversion systems used for geothermal power generation; 3) environmental aspects; 4) geothermal resource locations, potential, and current power plant development; 5) hurdles, bottlenecks, and risks of geothermal power production; 6) lessons learned; and 7) ongoing and future geothermal research programs.

  5. Ethnic Heterogeneity and Public Support for Welfare: Is the American Experience Replicated in Britain, Sweden and Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2011-01-01

    The link between ethnic heterogeneity and public support for welfare policy is debated. The thesis of a negative relationship is supported by much American research.Historically the race issue has blocked a number of American welfare schemes; across the United States ethnically heterogeneous states......-group/out-group mechanisms found in the United States are being replicated in Europe....... politicised. Empirically the article is based on survey data from the United Kingdom, Sweden and Denmark, in which a number of American items were directly replicated. Despite indications of American uniqueness and welfare-regime effects, the findings support the position that the in...

  6. State of stress in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, Mary Lou; Zoback, Mark

    1980-11-01

    Inferring principal stress directions from geologic data, focal mechanisms, and in situ stress measurements, we have prepared a map of principal horizontal stress orientations for the conterminous United States. Stress provinces with linear dimensions which range between 100 and 2000 km were defined on the basis of the directions and relative magnitude of principal stresses. Within a given province, stress orientations appear quite uniform (usually within the estimated range of accuracy of the different methods used to determine stress). Available data on the transition in stress direction between the different stress provinces indicate that these transitions can be abrupt, occurring over characterized by high levels of seismicity and generally high heat flow, the stress pattern is complex, but numerous stress provinces can be well delineated. Despite relative tectonic quiescence in the eastern and central United States, a major variation in principal stress orientation is apparent between the Atlantic Coast and midcontinent areas. Most of the eastern United States is marked by predominantly compressional tectonism (combined thrust and strike slip faulting), whereas much of the region west of the southern Great Plains is characterized by predominantly extensional tectonism (combined normal and strike slip faulting). Deformation along the San Andreas fault and in parts of the Sierra Nevada is nearly pure strike slip. Exceptions to this general pattern include areas of compressional tectonics in the western United States (the Pacific Northwest, the Colorado Plateau interior, and the Big Bend segment of the San Andreas fault) and the normal growth faulting along the Gulf Coastal Plain. Sources of stress are constrained not only by the orientation and relative magnitude of the stresses within a given province but also by the manner of transition of the stress field from one province to another. Much of the modern pattern of stress in the western United States can be

  7. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI 1.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950

  8. The role of welfare state principles and generosity in social policy programmes for public health: an international comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Olle; Yngwe, Monica Aberg; Stjärne, Maria Kölegård; Elstad, Jon Ivar; Ferrarini, Tommy; Kangas, Olli; Norström, Thor; Palme, Joakim; Fritzell, Johan

    2008-11-08

    Many important social determinants of health are also the focus for social policies. Welfare states contribute to the resources available for their citizens through cash transfer programmes and subsidised services. Although all rich nations have welfare programmes, there are clear cross-national differences with respect to their design and generosity. These differences are evident in national variations in poverty rates, especially among children and elderly people. We investigated to what extent variations in family and pension policies are linked to infant mortality and old-age excess mortality. Infant mortality rates and old-age excess mortality rates were analysed in relation to social policy characteristics and generosity. We did pooled cross-sectional time-series analyses of 18 OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries during the period 1970-2000 for family policies and 1950-2000 for pension policies. Increased generosity in family policies that support dual-earner families is linked with lower infant mortality rates, whereas the generosity in family policies that support more traditional families with gainfully employed men and homemaking women is not. An increase by one percentage point in dual-earner support lowers infant mortality by 0.04 deaths per 1000 births. Generosity in basic security type of pensions is linked to lower old-age excess mortality, whereas the generosity of earnings-related income security pensions is not. An increase by one percentage point in basic security pensions is associated with a decrease in the old age excess mortality by 0.02 for men as well as for women. The ways in which social policies are designed, as well as their generosity, are important for health because of the increase in resources that social policies entail. Hence, social policies are of major importance for how we can tackle the social determinants of health.

  9. Western United States beyond the Four Corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The breathtaking beauty of the western United States is apparent in this image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data from 16 different swaths acquired between April 2000 and September 2001by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were used to create this cloud-free natural-color image mosaic. The image is draped over a 100-meter (328-foot)shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.Among the prominent features are the snow-capped Rocky Mountains traversing Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. In the northern portion of the image, the Columbia Plateau stretches across Washington, Oregon and Idaho. Many major rivers originate in this region, including the Missouri to the east of the Continental Divide, the Snake to the west, and the Colorado which wends across Utah and Arizona. The Colorado Plateau and vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert extend south from Utah into Arizona. In the southwestern portion of the image, California's San Joaquin Valley and the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada give way to the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.The Terra spacecraft is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

  10. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  11. A cross-national comparison of income gradients in oral health quality of life in four welfare states: application of the Korpi and Palme typology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sanders, A E

    2009-07-01

    The extent to which welfare states may influence health outcomes has not been explored. It was hypothesised that policies which target the poor are associated with greater income inequality in oral health quality of life than those that provide earnings-related benefits to all citizens.

  12. Challenges of welfare-to-work programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precin, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Governmental expectations of placement outcomes were often high given the severity of work barriers that were present in disabled welfare recipients in the United States [11]. The purpose of this article is to identify challenges that were inherent in welfare-to-work programs and solutions to these challenges. Although rich with opportunity, welfare-to-work programs presented the challenge of employing large numbers of difficult-to-employ individuals before their public assistance benefits expired\\cite{5}. Many clients also had symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) secondary to childhood physical or sexual abuse (59%) or severe domestic violence (55%) [8]. Few funds were available for work training and education. Instead, the employment-first model was expected even though most consumers did not have a high school diploma, had not worked in years, and were fearful and resistant about returning to work [3]. Performance based payment systems presented a challenge because the program's future depended on the compliance of its consumers. There was an impetus for substance abusers to return to work even if they were still using drugs, which contradicted the teachings of many recovery models. This paper presents possible solutions to each of these problems and reports outcomes of one particular welfare-to-work program. By examining the challenges of welfare-to-work programs, by identifying solutions, and by realizing that these solutions are inherent in the basic principles of rehabilitation, this article provides therapists with tools and motivation to make unique contributions to this area of practice.

  13. United States 2030 Food Loss and Waste Reduction Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 16, 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the first ever domestic goal to reduce food loss and waste by half by the year 2030.

  14. Average annual runoff in the United States, 1951-80

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of average annual runoff in the conterminous United States, 1951-1980. Surface runoff Average runoff Surface waters United States

  15. 78 FR 61446 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United States....

  16. Coal Fields of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  17. Abortion Policy in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francome, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Compares the number of legal abortions performed in the United States and Britain. Reveals that the rate of abortion in the United States is more than twice that of Britain. Analyzes the reasons for the different rates. (Author)

  18. Satellite View of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  19. Comparison of Constitutional Spirit Between United States and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琅琅

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the differences in constitutional spirit between United States and China, and then brings out the influence of the constitutional spirit in United States to the constitutional spirit in China.

  20. Weather pattern climatology of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.; Davis, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    In this study the geographic domain covered the 48 conterminous states of the United States. The daily synoptic weather pattern was classified into nine types for the 10-year period January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1978. Weather pattern types were defined relative to the classical polar front model of a mid-latitude cyclonic storm system and its associated air masses. Guidelines for classifying weather patterns on an operational basis were developed. These were applied to 3652 daily surface weather maps to produce a time series of weather pattern type at 120 grid points of a 160 point, 3/sup 0/ latitude by 4/sup 0/ longitude array over the United States. Statistics on the frequency of occurrence, persistence and alternation of weather patterns were calculated for each grid point. Summary statistics for the entire grid and for six regions were also presented. Frequency of occurrence and persistence were found to depend on the size and speed of movement of the weather pattern. Large, slow moving air masses had higher frequency of occurrence and longer persistence than small (fronts) or rapidly moving (or changing) features (fronts, storm centers). Some types showed distinct regional preferences. The subtropical maritime high occurred mainly in the south central and southeast. An indeterminate weather pattern type accounted for those weather patterns that did not fit the polar front model or were too disorganized to be classified. The intermountain thermal low of the desert southwest was one such feature that dominated both frequency of occurrence and persistence in this region. Alternation from one weather pattern to another followed the polar front model of a moving cyclonic storm. The tendency for anticyclonic weather patterns to become disorganized as they weakened was seen in the high percentage of these patterns that changed to an indeterminate pattern as they aged.

  1. East Asian welfare regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2017-01-01

    . Political science studies tend to conclude that the region has left the old legacies behind and are now welfare states comparable to European states including them either in the conservative type (e.g. Japan), the liberal type (e.g. Korea) or even as a tendency in the Nordic type (e.g. China), while studies......The paper asks if East Asian welfare regimes are still productivist and Confucian? And, have they developed public care policies? The literature is split on the first question but (mostly) confirmative on the second. Care has to a large, but insufficient extent, been rolled out in the region...

  2. Double jeopardy: the impact of neoliberalism on care workers in the United States and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, Mimi; Zelnick, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Many researchers have explored how neoliberal restructuring of the workplace has reduced the standard of living and increased workplace stress among private sector employees. However, few have focused on how neoliberal restructuring of public policy has had similar effects on the public sector workforce. Using original case study research, the authors examine how two iconic pieces of neoliberal policy--the 1996 welfare reform bill in the United States and the GEAR macroeconomic policy in South Africa--affected public/nonprofit human service workers in New York City, United States, and public sector nurses in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The authors argue that in both situations, despite national differences, these policies created a "double jeopardy," in which patients/clients and care workers are adversely affected by neoliberal public policy. This "double jeopardy" creates significant hardship, but also the opportunity for new social movements.

  3. 27 CFR 479.89 - Transfers to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transfers to the United States. A firearm may be transferred to the United States or any department... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfers to the United States. 479.89 Section 479.89 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL,...

  4. 46 CFR 67.97 - United States built.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false United States built. 67.97 Section 67.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Build Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.97 United States built. To be considered built in the United States a vessel...

  5. 26 CFR 1.993-7 - Definition of United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of United States. 1.993-7 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-7 Definition of United States. Under section 993(g), the term “United States” includes the States, the District of Columbia,...

  6. 31 CFR 593.411 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 593.411 Importation into the United States. With respect to the prohibitions set forth in § 593.205, the term importation into the United States...

  7. 32 CFR 150.21 - Appeals by the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeals by the United States. 150.21 Section 150... the United States. (a) Restricted filing. Only a representative of the government designated by the Judge Advocate General of the respective service may file an appeal by the United States under...

  8. 31 CFR 545.304 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 545.304 Importation into the United States. (a) With respect to goods, software, or technology, the term importation into the United States means the bringing of any...

  9. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described...

  10. 31 CFR 539.307 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 539.307 Importation into the United States. The term importation into the United States means: (a) With respect to goods or technology, the bringing of any goods...

  11. 78 FR 70275 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce is currently seeking applications for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The purpose of the...

  12. 78 FR 77103 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board. SUMMARY: On November 25, 2013, the Department... 70275) soliciting applications for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...

  13. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    the Vietnam-United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership... platform for future relationship between Vietnam and the United States. Finally, this research suggests a framework for naval cooperation between Vietnam...United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership Agreement signed

  14. 31 CFR 515.334 - United States national.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States national. 515.334 Section 515.334 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... of the United States, and which has its principal place of business in the United States....

  15. 76 FR 68067 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... to trade in textile and apparel goods between Peru and the United States. The provisions within...] RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... of the United States- Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Interim rule effective November 3, 2011...

  16. 77 FR 27669 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK10 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... clearing agency do not constitute United States property. The text of the temporary regulations also serves... Federal Register establish an exception to the definition of United States property (within the meaning...

  17. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  18. Inclusive Education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kenneth Tanner

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive education and collaborative strategies. For example, principals and special education teachers were more positive about inclusive education than regular education teachers. Collaboration as an instructional strategy for "included" students was viewed as a high priority item. Responders who had taken two or more courses in school law rated the identified barriers to inclusive education higher than those with less formal training in the subject.

  19. Detailed gravimetric geoid for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, W. E.; Vincent, S. F.; Berry, R. H.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid was computed for the United States using a combination of satellite-derived spherical harmonic coefficients and 1 by 1 deg mean gravity values from surface gravimetry. Comparisons of this geoid with astrogeodetic geoid data indicate that a precision of plus or minus 2 meters has been obtained. Translations only were used to convert the NAD astrogeodetic geoid heights to geocentric astrogeodetic heights. On the basis of the agreement between the geocentric astrogeodetic geoid heights and the gravimetric geoid heights, no evidence is found for rotation in the North American datum. The value of the zero-order undulation can vary by 10 to 20 meters, depending on which investigator's station positions are used to establish it.

  20. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.