WorldWideScience

Sample records for united states waters

  1. Development of Water Quality Modeling in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes historical trends in water quality model development in the United States, reviews current efforts, and projects promising future directions. Water quality modeling has a relatively long history in the United States. While its origins lie in the work...

  2. 33 CFR 2.36 - Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navigable waters of the United States, navigable waters, and territorial waters. 2.36 Section 2.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.36 Navigable waters...

  3. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  4. Future United States Domestic Water Demand

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population projections, estimated per capita consumption rate, and estimated total annual water demand to 2100 for four future projections based off the IPCC SRES...

  5. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wickham; Timothy Wade; Kurt Riitters

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States...

  6. Monitoring water for radioactive releases in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, C.R.; Broadway, J.A.; Kahn, B.

    1990-01-01

    The major radiological environmental monitoring programs for water in the United States are described. The applications of these programs for monitoring radioactive fallout, routine discharges from nuclear facilities, and releases due to accidents at such facilities are discussed, and some examples of measurements are presented. The programs monitor rainfall, surface water, and water supplies. Samples are usually collected and analyzed on a monthly or quarterly schedule, but the frequency is increased in response to emergencies. (author)

  7. Water Savings of Crop Redistribution in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Frankel Davis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic growth, changes in diet, and reliance on first-generation biofuels are increasing the human demand for agricultural products, thereby enhancing the human pressure on global freshwater resources. Recent research on the food-water nexus has highlighted how some major agricultural regions of the world lack the water resources required to sustain current growth trends in crop production. To meet the increasing need for agricultural commodities with limited water resources, the water use efficiency of the agricultural sector must be improved. In this regard, recent work indicates that the often overlooked strategy of changing the crop distribution within presently cultivated areas offers promise. Here we investigate the extent to which water in the United States could be saved while improving yields simply by replacing the existing crops with more suitable ones. We propose crop replacement criteria that achieve this goal while preserving crop diversity, economic value, nitrogen fixation, and food protein production. We find that in the United States, these criteria would greatly improve calorie (+46% and protein (+34% production and economic value (+208%, with 5% water savings with respect to the present crop distribution. Interestingly, greater water savings could be achieved in water-stressed agricultural regions of the US such as California (56% water savings, and other western states.

  8. Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2009-09-01

    Produced water volume generation and management in the United States are not well characterized at a national level. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory to compile data on produced water associated with oil and gas production to better understand the production volumes and management of this water. The purpose of this report is to improve understanding of produced water by providing detailed information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the ways in which produced water is disposed or reused. As the demand for fresh water resources increases, with no concomitant increase in surface or ground water supplies, alternate water sources, like produced water, may play an important role. Produced water is water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil or gas production. Because the water has been in contact with hydrocarbon-bearing formations, it contains some of the chemical characteristics of the formations and the hydrocarbons. It may include water from the reservoir, water previously injected into the formation, and any chemicals added during the production processes. The physical and chemical properties of produced water vary considerably depending on the geographic location of the field, the geologic formation, and the type of hydrocarbon product being produced. Produced water properties and volume also vary throughout the lifetime of a reservoir. Produced water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. Previous national produced water volume estimates are in the range of 15 to 20 billion barrels (bbl; 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gallons) generated each year in the United States (API 1988, 2000; Veil et al. 2004). However, the details on generation and management of produced water are not well understood on a national scale. Argonne National Laboratory developed detailed national-level information on the volume of produced

  9. High resolution production water footprints of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, L.; Yufei, A.; Konar, M.; Mekonnen, M.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The United States is the largest producer and consumer of goods and services in the world. Rainfall, surface water supplies, and groundwater aquifers represent a fundamental input to this economic production. Despite the importance of water resources to economic activity, we do not have consistent information on water use for specific locations and economic sectors. A national, high-resolution database of water use by sector would provide insight into US utilization and dependence on water resources for economic production. To this end, we calculate the water footprint of over 500 food, energy, mining, services, and manufacturing industries and goods produced in the US. To do this, we employ a data intensive approach that integrates water footprint and input-output techniques into a novel methodological framework. This approach enables us to present the most detailed and comprehensive water footprint analysis of any country to date. This study broadly contributes to our understanding of water in the US economy, enables supply chain managers to assess direct and indirect water dependencies, and provides opportunities to reduce water use through benchmarking.

  10. Estimated use of water in the United States, 1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKichan, K.A.; Kammerer, J.C.

    1961-01-01

    The estimated overage withdrawal use of water in the United States during 1960 was almost 270,000 mgd (million gallons per day), exclusive of water used to develop water power. This estimated use amounts to about 1,500 gpd (galIons per day) per capita. An additional 2,000,000 mgd were used to develop waterpower.Withdrawal use of water requires that the water be removed from the ground or diverted from a stream or lake. In this report the use is divided into five types: public supplies, rural, irrigation, self-supplied industrial, and waterpower. Consumptive use of water is the quantity discharged to the atmosphere or incorporated in the products of the process in which it was used. Only 61,000 mgd of the 270,000 mgd withdrawn was consumed.Of the water withdrawn in 1960, 220,000 mgd (including irrigation conveyance losses) was taken from surface sources and 47,000 from underground sources. Withdrawal of water for uses other than waterpower has increased 12 percent since 1955. The amount of water used for generation of waterpower has! increased 33 percent since 1955. The use of saline water was almost twice as great in 1960 as in 1955.The upper limit of our water supply is the average annual runoff, nearly 1,200,000 mgd. The supply in 1960 was depleted by 61,000 mgd, the amount of water consumed. However, a large part of the water withdrawn but not consumed was deteriorated in quality.

  11. 33 CFR 2.38 - Waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States; waters over which the United States has...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waters subject to the jurisdiction of the United States; waters over which the United States has jurisdiction. 2.38 Section 2.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL JURISDICTION...

  12. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Team More Information Arsenic in groundwater of the United States Arsenic in groundwater is largely the result of ... Gronberg (2011) for updated arsenic map. Featured publications United States Effects of human-induced alteration of groundwater flow ...

  13. Estimating irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate accounting of irrigation water use is an important part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program and the WaterSMART initiative to help maintain sustainable water resources in the Nation. Irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States is not well characterized because of inadequate reporting and wide variability associated with climate, soils, crops, and farming practices. To better understand irrigation water use in the eastern United States, two types of predictive models were developed and compared by using metered irrigation water-use data for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops in Georgia and turf farms in Rhode Island. Reliable metered irrigation data were limited to these areas. The first predictive model that was developed uses logistic regression to predict the occurrence of irrigation on the basis of antecedent climate conditions. Logistic regression equations were developed for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops by using weekly irrigation water-use data from 36 metered sites in Georgia in 2009 and 2010 and turf farms in Rhode Island from 2000 to 2004. For the weeks when irrigation was predicted to take place, the irrigation water-use volume was estimated by multiplying the average metered irrigation application rate by the irrigated acreage for a given crop. The second predictive model that was developed is a crop-water-demand model that uses a daily soil water balance to estimate the water needs of a crop on a given day based on climate, soil, and plant properties. Crop-water-demand models were developed independently of reported irrigation water-use practices and relied on knowledge of plant properties that are available in the literature. Both modeling approaches require accurate accounting of irrigated area and crop type to estimate total irrigation water use. Water-use estimates from both modeling methods were compared to the metered irrigation data from Rhode Island and Georgia that were used to

  14. Estimated use of water in the United States in 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Charles Richard; Reeves, E. Bodette

    1972-01-01

    Estimates of water use in the United States in 1970 indicate that an average of about 370 bgd (billion gallons per day)about 1,800 gallons per capita per day--was withdrawn for the four principal off-channel uses which are (1) public-supply (for domestic, commercial, and industrial uses), (2) rural (domestic and livestock), (3) irrigation, and (4) self-supplied industrial (including thermoelectric power). In 1970, withdrawals for these uses exceeded by 19 percent the 310 bgd estimated for 1965. Increases in the various categories of off-channel water use since 1965 were: approximately 25 percent for self-supplied industry (mainly in electric-utility thermoelectric plants), 13 percent for public supplies, 13 percent for rural supplies, and 8 percent for irrigation. Industrial water withdrawals included 54 bgd of saline water, a 20 percent increase in 5 years. The fifth principal withdrawal use, hydroelectric power (an in-channel use), amounted to 2,800 bgd, a 5-year increase of 22 percent. In computing total withdrawals, recycling within a plant (reuse) is not counted, but withdrawal of the same water by a downstream user (cumulative withdrawals) is counted. The quantity of fresh water consumed--that is, water made unavailable for further possible withdrawal because of evaporation, incorporation in crops and manufactured products, and other causes--was estimated to average 87 bgd for 1970, an increase of about 12 percent since 1965.

  15. Identifying future electricity-water tradeoffs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Sovacool, Kelly E.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers for the electricity industry, national laboratories, and state and federal agencies have begun to argue that the country could face water shortages resulting from the addition of thermoelectric power plants, but have not attempted to depict more precisely where or how severe those shortages will be. Using county-level data on rates of population growth collected from the US Census Bureau, utility estimates of future planned capacity additions in the contiguous United States reported to the US Energy Information Administration, and scientific estimates of anticipated water shortages provided from the US Geologic Survey and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, this paper highlights the most likely locations of severe shortages in 22 counties brought about by thermoelectric capacity additions. Within these areas are some 20 major metropolitan regions where millions of people live. After exploring the electricity-water nexus and explaining the study's methodology, the article then focuses on four of these metropolitan areas - Houston, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; Las Vegas, Nevada; New York, New York - to deepen an understanding of the water and electricity challenges they may soon be facing. It concludes by identifying an assortment of technologies and policies that could respond to these electricity-water tradeoffs.

  16. Identifying future electricity-water tradeoffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sovacool, Kelly E. [Department of Geography, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Researchers for the electricity industry, national laboratories, and state and federal agencies have begun to argue that the country could face water shortages resulting from the addition of thermoelectric power plants, but have not attempted to depict more precisely where or how severe those shortages will be. Using county-level data on rates of population growth collected from the US Census Bureau, utility estimates of future planned capacity additions in the contiguous United States reported to the US Energy Information Administration, and scientific estimates of anticipated water shortages provided from the US Geologic Survey and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, this paper highlights the most likely locations of severe shortages in 22 counties brought about by thermoelectric capacity additions. Within these areas are some 20 major metropolitan regions where millions of people live. After exploring the electricity-water nexus and explaining the study's methodology, the article then focuses on four of these metropolitan areas - Houston, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; Las Vegas, Nevada; New York, New York - to deepen an understanding of the water and electricity challenges they may soon be facing. It concludes by identifying an assortment of technologies and policies that could respond to these electricity-water tradeoffs. (author)

  17. The water needs for LDV transportation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Carey W.; Webber, Michael E.; Duncan, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    Concern over increased demand for petroleum, reliable fuel supply, and global climate change has resulted in the US government passing new Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards and a Renewable Fuels Standard. Consequently, the fuel mix for light duty vehicle (LDV) travel in the United States will change over the coming years. This paper explores the embodied water consumption and withdrawal associated with two projections for future fuel use in the US LDV sector. This analysis encompasses conventional and unconventional fossil fuels, corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, soy biodiesel, electricity, and hydrogen. The existing mandate in the US to blend ethanol into gasoline had effectively committed 3300 billion liters of irrigation water in 2005 (approximately 2.4% of US 2005 fresh water consumption) for producing fuel for LDVs. With current irrigation practices, fuel processing, and electricity generation, it is estimated that by 2030, approximately 14,000 billion liters of water per year will be consumed and 23,000-27,000 billion liters withdrawn to produce fuels used in LDVs. Irrigation for biofuels dominates projected water usage for LDV travel, but other fuels (coal to liquids, oil shale, and electricity via plug-in hybrid vehicles) will also contribute appreciably to future water consumption and withdrawal, especially on a regional basis. (author)

  18. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Maupin, Molly A.; Caldwell, Rodney R.; Harris, Melissa A.; Ivahnenko, Tamara I.; Lovelace, John K.; Barber, Nancy L.; Linsey, Kristin S.

    2018-06-19

    Water use in the United States in 2015 was estimated to be about 322 billion gallons per day (Bgal/d), which was 9 percent less than in 2010. The 2015 estimates put total withdrawals at the lowest level since before 1970, following the same overall trend of decreasing total withdrawals observed from 2005 to 2010. Freshwater withdrawals were 281 Bgal/d, or 87 percent of total withdrawals, and saline-water withdrawals were 41.0 Bgal/d, or 13 percent of total withdrawals. Fresh surface-water withdrawals (198 Bgal/d) were 14 percent less than in 2010, and fresh groundwater withdrawals (82.3 Bgal/day) were about 8 percent greater than in 2010. Saline surface-water withdrawals were 38.6 Bgal/d, or 14 percent less than in 2010. Total saline groundwater withdrawals in 2015 were 2.34 Bgal/d, mostly for mining use.Thermoelectric power and irrigation remained the two largest uses of water in 2015, and total withdrawals decreased for thermoelectric power but increased for irrigation. With­drawals in 2015 for thermoelectric power were 18 percent less and withdrawals for irrigation were 2 percent greater than in 2010. Similarly, other uses showed reductions compared to 2010, specifically public supply (–7 percent), self-supplied domestic (–8 percent), self-supplied industrial (–9 percent), and aquaculture (–16 percent). In addition to irrigation (2 percent), mining (1 percent) reported larger withdrawals in 2015 than in 2010. Livestock withdrawals remained essentially the same in 2015 compared to 2010 (0 percent change). Thermoelectric power, irrigation, and public-supply withdrawals accounted for 90 percent of total withdrawals in 2015.Withdrawals for thermoelectric power were 133 Bgal/d in 2015 and represented the lowest levels since before 1970. Surface-water withdrawals accounted for more than 99 percent of total thermoelectric-power withdrawals, and 72 percent of those surface-water withdrawals were from freshwater sources. Saline surface-water withdrawals for

  19. 33 CFR 328.5 - Changes in limits of waters of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DEFINITION OF WATERS OF THE UNITED STATES § 328.5 Changes in... drainage may remove an area from waters of the United States. Man-made changes may affect the limits of...

  20. The United States advanced light water reactor (USALWR) development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlkopf, K.E.; Noble, D.M.; Devine, J.C. Jr.; Sugnet, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    For the United States Nuclear Power industry to remain viable, it must be prepared to meet the expected need for a new generation capacity in the late 90s with an improved reactor system. The best hope of meeting this requirement is with revolutionary changes to current LWR systems through simplification and re-evaluation of safety and operational design margins. In addition, the grid characteristics and the difficulty in raising capital for large projects indicate the smaller light water reactors (600 MWe) may play an important role in the next generation. A cooperative and coordinated program between EPRI, U.S. DOE, the major architect engineers, nuclear steam supply vendors, and the NRC in the U.S. has been undertaken with four major goals in mind

  1. The United States Advanced Light Water reactor (USALWR) development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahlkopf, K.E.; Noble, D.M.; Devine, Jr.J.C.; Sugnet, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    For the United States Nuclear power industry to remain viable, it must be prepared to meet the expected need for a new generation capacity in the late 90s with an improved reactor system. The best hope of meeting this requirement is with revolutionary changes to current LWR systems through simplification and re-evaluation of safety and operational design margins. In addition, the grid characteristics and the difficulty in raising capital for large projects indicate the smaller light water reactors (600 MWe) may play an important role in the next generation. A cooperative and coordinated program between EPRI, U.S. DOE, the major architect engineers, nuclear steam supply vendors, and the NRC in the U.S. has been undertaken with four major goals in mind. (author)

  2. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solley, Wayne B.; Merk, Charles F.; Pierce, Robert R.

    1988-01-01

    Water withdrawals in the United States during 1985 were estimated to average 399,000 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of freshwater and saline water for offstream uses--10 percent less than the 1980 estimate. Average per-capita use for all offstream uses was 1,650 gallons per day (gal/d) of freshwater and saline water combined and 1,400 gal/d of freshwater alone. Offstream water-use categories are classified in this report as public supply, domestic, commercial, irrigation, livestock, industrial, mining, and thermoelectric power. During 1985, public-supply withdrawals were estimated to be 36,500 Mgal/d, and self-supplied withdrawals were estimated as follows: domestic, 3,320 Mgal/d: commercial, 1,230 Mgal/d; irrigation, 137,000 Mgal/d: livestock, 4,470 Mgal/d; industrial, 25,800 Mgal/d; mining, 3,440 Mgal/d; and thermoelectric power, 187,000 Mgal/d. Water use for hydroelectric power generation, the only instream use compiled in this report, was estimated to be 3,050,000 Mgal/d during 1985, or 7 percent less than during 1980. This is in contrast to an increasing trend that persisted from 1950 to 1980. Estimates of withdrawals by source indicate that, during 1985, total surface-water withdrawals were 325,000 Mgal/d, or 10 percent less than during 1980, and total ground-water withdrawals were 74,000 Mgal/d, or 12 percent less than during 1980. Total saline-water withdrawals during 1985 were 60,300 Mgal/d, or 16 percent less than during 1980; most was saline surface water. Reclaimed sewage averaged about 579 Mgal/d during 1985, or 22 percent more than during 1980. Total freshwater consumptive use was estimated to be 92,300 Mgal/d during 1985, or 9 percent less than during 1980. Consumptive use by irrigation accounted for the largest part of consumptive use during 1985 and was estimated to be 73,800 Mgal/d. A comparison of total withdrawals (fresh and saline) by State indicates that 37 States and Puerto Rico had less water withdrawn for offstream uses during 1985 than

  3. 3 CFR - Designation of Officers of the United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designation of Officers of the United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico To Act as the Commissioner of the United... States and Mexico To Act as the Commissioner of the United States Section Memorandum for the Commissioner...

  4. Water-temperature data acquisition activities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauszek, F.H.

    1972-01-01

    Water Data Coordination, U.S. Geological Survey, and published in the "Catalog of Information on Water Data, Index to Water Quality Section, Edition 1970." This is one of four indexes, each of which is a separate section of the Catalog. Three of the indexes, "Index to Water-Quality Section," "Index to Surface-Water Section," and "Index to Ground-.Water Stations," contain information on data acquired on a recurrent basis at specific locations for a period of 3 years or more. The fourth section, "Index to Areal Investigations and Miscellaneous Activities," is concerned with specific projects or shorter-term data activities that involve field or laboratory measurements or observations not included in any other section of the Catalog. The Catalog is a record of activities throughout the country (and in some places along the international border between the United States and Canada) conducted by Federal and non-Federal agencies engaged in the acquisition of water data and who furnish such information for presentation in the Catalog. The Catalog itself is an outgrowth of an assignment to the Department of the Interior and in turn to the Geological Survey, by the Office of Management and Budget, through the medium of OMB Circular A-67. This Circular states in part that one of the assigned responsibilities will be maintenance of a "central catalog of information on...water data and on Federal activities being planned or conducted to acquire such data." As an extension of this activity, non-Federal agencies are solicited to participate in the program. In this report, information is presented by means of tables and illustrations preceded by brief explanations. It includes the agencies collecting the data, the number of stations located on surface and ground waters where temperature measurements are made, the distribution of stations by States and by the 21 regions of the Water Resources Council (WRC) (a Federal agency created in accordance with the Water Resources Planning Act of

  5. An Overview of Marine Biodiversity in United States Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautin, Daphne; Dalton, Penelope; Incze, Lewis S.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Pautzke, Clarence; Rosenberg, Andrew; Sandifer, Paul; Sedberry, George; Tunnell, John W.; Abbott, Isabella; Brainard, Russell E.; Brodeur, Melissa; Eldredge, Lucius G.; Feldman, Michael; Moretzsohn, Fabio; Vroom, Peter S.; Wainstein, Michelle; Wolff, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S.) is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics), but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise. PMID:20689852

  6. An overview of marine biodiversity in United States waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Delton, Penelope; Incze, Lewis S.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Pautzke, Clarence; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sandifer, Paul; Sedberry, George R.; Tunnell, John W.; Abbott, Isabella; Brainard, Russell E.; Brodeur, Melissa; Eldredge, Lucius G.; Feldman, Michael; Moretzsohn, Fabio; Vroom, Peter S.; Wainstein, Michelle; Wolff, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S.) is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics), but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise.

  7. Contribution of Nutrient Pollution to Water Scarcity in the Water-Rich Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. L.; Lopez, C.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of water stress focus on water-scarce regions such as drylands. Yet, even water-rich regions can be water stressed due to local water withdrawals that exceed supply or due to water pollution that makes water unusable. The northeastern United States (NE) is a water-rich region relative to the rest of the country, as it concentrates about 50% of total renewable water of the country. Yes the NE features relatively high water withdrawals, ~50 km3/yr, for thermo-power generation, agriculture, and industry, as well as to support a human population of about 70 million. At the same time, rivers and streams in the NE suffer from nutrient pollution, largely from agricultural and urban land uses. We asked: to what extent is the NE water stressed, and how do water withdrawals and water quality each contribute to water scarcity across the NE? We used information on county-level water withdrawals and runoff to calculate a water scarcity index (WSI) for 200 hydrologic units across the NE from 1987 to 2002. We used data on surface water concentrations of nitrogen to calculate the additional water necessary to dilute surface water pollution to weak, moderate, and strong water quality standards derived from the literature. Only considering withdrawals, we found that approximately 10% of the NE was water stressed. Incorporating a moderate water quality standard, 25% of the NE was water stressed. We calculated a dilution burden by sectors of water users and found that public utilities faced 41% of the total dilution burden for the region, followed by irrigation users at 21%. Our results illustrate that even water rich regions can experience water stress and even scarcity, where withdrawals exceed surface water supplies. Water quality contributes to water stress and can change the spatial patterns of water stress across a region. The common approach to address scarcity has required the use of inter-basin water transfers, or in the case of water quality-caused scarcity

  8. Water Use in the United States Energy System: A National Assessment and Unit Process Inventory of Water Consumption and Withdrawals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, Emily; Sanders, Kelly T

    2018-06-05

    The United States (US) energy system is a large water user, but the nature of that use is poorly understood. To support resource comanagement and fill this noted gap in the literature, this work presents detailed estimates for US-based water consumption and withdrawals for the US energy system as of 2014, including both intensity values and the first known estimate of total water consumption and withdrawal by the US energy system. We address 126 unit processes, many of which are new additions to the literature, differentiated among 17 fuel cycles, five life cycle stages, three water source categories, and four levels of water quality. Overall coverage is about 99% of commercially traded US primary energy consumption with detailed energy flows by unit process. Energy-related water consumption, or water removed from its source and not directly returned, accounts for about 10% of both total and freshwater US water consumption. Major consumers include biofuels (via irrigation), oil (via deep well injection, usually of nonfreshwater), and hydropower (via evaporation and seepage). The US energy system also accounts for about 40% of both total and freshwater US water withdrawals, i.e., water removed from its source regardless of fate. About 70% of withdrawals are associated with the once-through cooling systems of approximately 300 steam cycle power plants that produce about 25% of US electricity.

  9. Ground-Water Availability in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Thomas E.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; Alley, William M.; Cunningham, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water is among the Nation's most important natural resources. It provides half our drinking water and is essential to the vitality of agriculture and industry, as well as to the health of rivers, wetlands, and estuaries throughout the country. Large-scale development of ground-water resources with accompanying declines in ground-water levels and other effects of pumping has led to concerns about the future availability of ground water to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, and environmental needs. The challenges in determining ground-water availability are many. This report examines what is known about the Nation's ground-water availability and outlines a program of study by the U.S. Geological Survey Ground-Water Resources Program to improve our understanding of ground-water availability in major aquifers across the Nation. The approach is designed to provide useful regional information for State and local agencies who manage ground-water resources, while providing the building blocks for a national assessment. The report is written for a wide audience interested or involved in the management, protection, and sustainable use of the Nation's water resources.

  10. Spatial distribution of water supply in the coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Michael T. Hobbins; Jorge A. Ramirez

    2008-01-01

    Available water supply across the contiguous 48 states was estimated as precipitation minus evapotranspiration using data for the period 1953-1994. Precipitation estimates were taken from the Parameter- Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Evapotranspiration was estimated using two models, the Advection-Aridity model and the Zhang model. The...

  11. EnviroAtlas - Agricultural Water Demand by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national agricultural water demand metric provides insight into the amount of water currently used for agricultural irrigation in the contiguous United States....

  12. EnviroAtlas - Watershed Index Online Water Mask for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents all surface water features in the United States. This grid was created by combining water features identified in two sources, the Cropland...

  13. Potential Implications of Approaches to Climate Change on the Clean Water Rule Definition of "Waters of the United States".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Derek R; Moore, Matthew T; Emison, Gerald Andrews; Rush, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    The 1972 Clean Water Act was passed to protect chemical, physical, and biological integrity of United States' waters. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers codified a new "waters of the United States" rule on June 29, 2015, because several Supreme Court case decisions caused confusion with the existing rule. Climate change could affect this rule through connectivity between groundwater and surface waters; floodplain waters and the 100-year floodplain; changes in jurisdictional status; and sea level rise on coastal ecosystems. Four approaches are discussed for handling these implications: (1) "Wait and see"; (2) changes to the rule; (3) use guidance documents; (4) Congress statutorily defining "waters of the United States." The approach chosen should be legally defensible and achieved in a timely fashion to provide protection to "waters of the United States" in proactive consideration of scientifically documented effects of climate change on aquatic ecosystems.

  14. Rapanos v. United States & Carabell v. United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents associated with guidance for implementing the definition of waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act following the Rapanos v. United States, and Carabell v. United States Supreme Court decision.

  15. Trends in Drinking Water Nitrate Violations Across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water maximum contaminant levels (MCL) are established by the U.S. EPA in order to protect human health. Since 1975, public water suppliers across the U.S. have reported violations of the MCL to the national Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS). Nitrate is on...

  16. Impacts of multiple stresses on water demand and supply across the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Jennifer A. Moore Myers; Erika C. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of long-term impacts of projected changes in climate, population, and land use and land cover on regional water resource is critical to the sustainable development of the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to fully budget annual water availability for water supply (precipitation ) evapotranspiration + groundwater supply + return flow...

  17. Water quality status and trends in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Werkheiser, William H.; Ahuja, Satinder

    2013-01-01

    Information about water quality is vital to ensure long-term availability and sustainability of water that is safe for drinking and recreation and suitable for industry, irrigation, fish, and wildlife. Protecting and enhancing water quality is a national priority, requiring information on water-quality status and trends, progress toward clean water standards, continuing problems, and emerging challenges. In this brief review, we discuss U.S. Geological Survey assessments of nutrient pollution, pesticides, mixtures of organic wastewater compounds (known as emerging contaminants), sediment-bound contaminants (like lead and DDT), and mercury, among other contaminants. Additionally, aspects of land use and current and emerging challenges associated with climate change are presented. Climate change must be considered, as water managers continue their efforts to maintain sufficient water of good quality for humans and for the ecosystem.

  18. Water reuse practices in the United States and abroad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikh, B.

    1998-07-01

    Reuse of water reclaimed from waste takes various adaptations in different parts of the globe to accommodate the economic forces underlying water supply constraints and local public health and sanitation conditions. The more developed regions have adopted and enforced the most rigorous water reuse regulations. The strong environmental safeguards adopted and the immense investments made in these countries in wastewater treatment provide for a very high quality of discharged effluent. Unfortunately, high (even adequate) levels of investment in sanitation and environmental protection have been lacking in most of the rest of the world. In the developing nations of the world a de facto brand of water reuse is practiced, generally without the benefit of protective standards of acceptable public health practice. Between the extremes of high standards of public health protection on the one hand, and the unsanitary use of raw sewage on the other, there are wide varieties of uses and treatment levels dictated by and evolved to accommodate the local economy.

  19. Appropriation System: water rights in the western United States; water pollution problems peculiar to the uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worcester, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    The legal framework surrounding water rights acquisition and usage in the western United States and the steps which should be taken in analyzing potential sources of water are dealt with. Some of the applicable water pollution control laws and regulations are discussed briefly

  20. Forests, Water and People: Drinking water supply and forest lands in the Northeast and Midwest United States, June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina Barnes; Albert Todd; Rebecca Whitney Lilja; Paul Barten

    2009-01-01

    Forests are critically important to the supply of clean drinking water in the Northeast and Midwest portion of the United States. In this part of the country more than 52 million people depend on surface water supplies that are protected in large part by forested lands. The public is generally unaware of the threats to their water supplies or the connection between...

  1. EPA and the Army Corps’ Rule to Define Waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    ponds as defined in 40 C.F.R. 423.11(m) which also meet the criteria of this definition) are not waters of the United States.d (1) Waste ...treatment systems, including treatment ponds or lagoons, designed to meet the requirements of the Clean Water Act. (1) Waste treatment systems, including...4) Floodplain: The term floodplain means an area bordering inland or coastal waters that was formed by sediment deposition from such water under

  2. Water Quality Assessment of the Buffalo River, Arkansas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, K. L.; Ruhl, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Buffalo River was established as a National River by the U.S. Congress in 1972, and runs approximately 150 miles from Newton County, Arkansas to Baxter County where it joins the White River. The Buffalo National River is the one of the last free flowing rivers in the continental U.S. with a rich cultural and political history surrounding it. The geology surrounding the river can be characterized by its karst environment, which has led to the many caves, depressions, and sinkholes found along the river. Karst environments are more susceptible to groundwater pollution so drainage from septic systems is a major concern for towns along the river. There are also numerous abandoned mines in the Buffalo River watershed, especially in the Rush area, which was mined for lead and zinc. Additionally, an increase in livestock production in the area is also a concern for increased nitrate and phosphate, along with fertilizer runoff from agricultural areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the water quality changes along the Buffalo River from human and environmental influences. Samples at six different locations along the river were collected along with parameters such as pH, conductivity, salinity, and temperature during several trips in the summer of 2017. Water samples were analyzed for cations and anions by IC, trace metals by ICPMS, and Escherichia coli with agar plate colony counts. The results were used to map geochemical changes in the Buffalo River watershed, and calculate enrichment factors of constituents (like nitrate, phosphate, and trace elements) as the water flowed downstream.

  3. Weekend Warriors for Water: Combating Water Scarcity in West Africa with United States Army National Guard and Reserve Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    vulnerable to “conflict and instability from political, social, economic , and environmental challenges” (United States Africa Command 2017). The...improve regional stability , which in turn increases economic , political, and social development. RC deployments to support water scarcity missions can...Capacity DOD Department of Defense DOS Department of State ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States FHA Foreign Humanitarian Assistance

  4. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  5. High-Resolution Water Footprints of Production of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Landon; Ao, Yufei; Konar, Megan; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2018-03-01

    The United States is the largest producer of goods and services in the world. Rainfall, surface water supplies, and groundwater aquifers represent a fundamental input to economic production. Despite the importance of water resources to economic activity, we do not have consistent information on water use for specific locations and economic sectors. A national, spatially detailed database of water use by sector would provide insight into U.S. utilization and dependence on water resources for economic production. To this end, we calculate the water footprint of over 500 food, energy, mining, services, and manufacturing industries and goods produced in the United States. To do this, we employ a data intensive approach that integrates water footprint and input-output techniques into a novel methodological framework. This approach enables us to present the most detailed and comprehensive water footprint analysis of any country to date. This study broadly contributes to our understanding of water in the U.S. economy, enables supply chain managers to assess direct and indirect water dependencies, and provides opportunities to reduce water use through benchmarking. In fact, we find that 94% of U.S. industries could reduce their total water footprint more by sourcing from more water-efficient suppliers in their supply chain than they could by converting their own operations to be more water-efficient.

  6. Water stress and social vulnerability in the southern United States, 2010-2040

    Science.gov (United States)

    cassandra Johnson-Gaither; John Schelhas; Wayne Zipperer; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Neelam Poudyal

    2014-01-01

    Water scarcities are striking in semiarid, subregions of the Southern United States such as Oklahoma and western Texas (Glennon 2009, Sabo et al. 2010). In Texas, water stress has been a constant concern since the 1950s when the state experienced severe drought conditions (Moore 2005). The nearly 2000-mile Rio Grande River, which forms part of the Texas–Mexico border,...

  7. National Water Model assessment for water management needs over the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterbo, F.; Thorstensen, A.; Cifelli, R.; Hughes, M.; Johnson, L.; Gochis, D.; Wood, A.; Nowak, K.; Dahm, K.

    2017-12-01

    The NOAA National Water Model (NWM) became operational in August 2016, providing the first ever, real-time distributed high-resolution forecasts for the continental United States. Since the model predictions occur at the CONUS scale, there is a need to evaluate the NWM in different regions to assess the wide variety and heterogeneity of hydrological processes that are included (e.g., snow melting, ice freezing, flash flooding events). In particular, to address water management needs in the western U.S., a collaborative project between the Bureau of Reclamation, NOAA, and NCAR is ongoing to assess the NWM performance for reservoir inflow forecasting needs and water management operations. In this work, the NWM is evaluated using different forecast ranges (short to medium) and retrospective historical runs forced by North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) analysis to assess the NWM skills over key headwaters watersheds in the western U.S. that are of interest to the Bureau of Reclamation. The streamflow results are analyzed and compared with the available observations at the gauge sites, evaluating different NWM operational versions together with the already existing local River Forecast Center forecasts. The NWM uncertainty is also considered, evaluating the propagation of the precipitation forcing uncertainties in the resulting hydrograph. In addition, the possible advantages of high-resolution distributed output variables (such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration fluxes) are investigated, to determine the utility of such information for water managers in terms of watershed characteristics in areas that traditionally have not had any forecast information. The results highlight the NWM's ability to provide high-resolution forecast information in space and time. As anticipated, the performance is best in regions that are dominated by natural flows and where the model has benefited from efforts toward parameter calibration. In highly regulated basins, the

  8. Study of water quality improvements during riverbank filtration at three midwestern United States drinking water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Bouwer, E.; Ball, W.; O'Melia, C.; Lechevallier, M.; Arora, H.; Aboytes, R.; Speth, T.

    2003-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) is a process during which surface water is subjected to subsurface flow prior to extraction from wells. During infiltration and soil passage, surface water is subjected to a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes such as filtration, dilution, sorption, and biodegradation that can significantly improve the raw water quality (Tufenkji et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Kivimaki et al, 1998; Stuyfzand, 1998). Transport through alluvial aquifers is associated with a number of water quality benefits, including removal of microbes, pesticides, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC), nitrate, and other contaminants (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002; Tufenkji et al., 2002; Ray et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Doussan et al, 1997; Cosovic et al, 1996; Juttner, 1995; Miettinen et al, 1994). In comparison to most groundwater sources, alluvial aquifers that are hydraulically connected to rivers are typically easier to exploit (shallow) and more highly productive for drinking water supplies (Doussan et al, 1997). Increased applications of RBF are anticipated as drinking water utilities strive to meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations, especially with regard to the provision of multiple barriers for protection against microbial pathogens, and with regard to tighter regulations for disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). In the above context, research was conducted to document the water quality benefits during RBF at three major river sources in the mid-western United States, specifically with regard to DBP precursor organic matter and microbial pathogens. Specific objectives were to: 1. Evaluate the merits of RBF for removing/controlling DBP precursors and certain other drinking water contaminants (e.g. microorganisms). 2. Evaluate whether RBF can improve finished drinking water quality by removing and/or altering natural organic matter (NOM) in a

  9. Water use for electricity in the United States: an analysis of reported and calculated water use information for 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyt, K; Meldrum, J; Macknick, J; Newmark, R; Rogers, J; Madden, N; Fisher, J

    2013-01-01

    Water use by the electricity sector represents a significant portion of the United States water budget (41% of total freshwater withdrawals; 3% consumed). Sustainable management of water resources necessitates an accurate accounting of all water demands, including water use for generation of electricity. Since 1985, the Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) has collected self-reported data on water consumption and withdrawals from individual power generators. These data represent the only annual collection of water consumption and withdrawals by the electricity sector. Here, we compile publically available information into a comprehensive database and then calculate water withdrawals and consumptive use for power plants in the US. In effect, we evaluate the quality of water use data reported by EIA for the year 2008. Significant differences between reported and calculated water data are evident, yet no consistent reason for the discrepancies emerges. (letter)

  10. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this study, gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the United States, installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many pre-existing models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work. In each case modeled, the whole house was simulated along with the water heater to capture any interactions between the water heater and the space conditioning equipment.

  11. How Much Water Can We Save by Achieving Renewable Portfolio Standards in the Southwest United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Electricity in the Southwestern United States is primarily generated with water intensive steam turbines. If energy demand continues to rise this will lead to a further rise in water demand. A comprehensive understanding of water consumption and withdrawal for utility scale generation of electricity is necessary before any improvements in the water efficiency of such systems in arid environments can be made. This study estimated and compared the water usage associated with thermoelectric generation (i.e., natural gas, coal, and solar energy, in the five driest Colorado River Basin states: Utah, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and California. This study also examined and compared each state’s Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS and how this might impact water savings. Results showed that each state’s current RPS goals would reduce the water that is consumed by the generation of electricity. However, the amount of water savings will vary on a state by state basis. In order to reduce water consumption, replacing thermal electric generation with photovoltaic (PV solar can be significant and should be encouraged. The amount of water saved will vary, however, depending on the state’s choice of coal or natural gas.

  12. Water and Wastewater Annual Price Escalation Rates for Selected Cities across the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-10-27

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted this study for the Federal Energy Management Program to identify trends in annual water and wastewater price escalation rates across the United States. This study can be used to inform the selection of an appropriate escalation rates for inclusion in LCCA.

  13. 1944 Water Treaty Between Mexico and the United States: Present Situation and Future Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anabel Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically and culturally, water has always been considered to be a critical issue in Mexico- USA agenda. Along the 3 140-km border between Mexico and the United States, there is intense competition over the adequate availability of water. Water uses in urban border areas have continued to increase exponentially due to steadily increasing levels of population growth. Rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have resulted in more intensive patterns of water consumption and use. Agricultural water demands continue to be high. Mexico and the United States have established institutions and agreements to manage and protect rivers in the border region. The Treaty between Mexico and the United States for the Utilisation of Waters of the Colorado and Tijuana Rivers and of the Rio Grande was signed in 1944. With the turn of the century, the growing urban centers along the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo, where the river becomes the international boundary, started increasingly to depend on groundwater. This situation was not specifically addressed in the 1944 Treaty, especially as groundwater use at that time was not so significant.

  14. Occurrence and in vitro bioactivity of estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid compounds in a nationwide screen of United States stream waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro bioactivity concentrations and chemical concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and glucocorticoids from a nationwide screen of United States stream water...

  15. Benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation on the supply, management, and use of water resources in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Strzepek, Kenneth; Neumann, J.; SMith, J.; Martinich, J.; Boehlert, B.; Hejazi, M.; Henderson, J.; Wobus, C.; Jones, R.; Calvin, K.; Johnson, D.; Monier, Erwan; Strzepek, J.; Yoon, J.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the United States are likely to be far-reaching and substantial because the water is integral to climate, and the water sector spans many parts of the economy. This paper estimates impacts and damages from five water resource-related models addressing runoff, drought risk, economics of water supply/demand, water stress, and flooding damages. The models differ in the water system assessed, spatial scale, and unit of assessment, but together provide ...

  16. Method for Estimating Water Withdrawals for Livestock in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Livestock water use includes ground water and surface water associated with livestock watering, feedlots, dairy operations, and other on-farm needs. The water may be used for drinking, cooling, sanitation, waste disposal, and other needs related to the animals. Estimates of water withdrawals for livestock are needed for water planning and management. This report documents a method used to estimate withdrawals of fresh ground water and surface water for livestock in 2005 for each county and county equivalent in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Categories of livestock included dairy cattle, beef and other cattle, hogs and pigs, laying hens, broilers and other chickens, turkeys, sheep and lambs, all goats, and horses (including ponies, mules, burros, and donkeys). Use of the method described in this report could result in more consistent water-withdrawal estimates for livestock that can be used by water managers and planners to determine water needs and trends across the United States. Water withdrawals for livestock in 2005 were estimated by using water-use coefficients, in gallons per head per day for each animal type, and livestock-population data. Coefficients for various livestock for most States were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey water-use program personnel or U.S. Geological Survey water-use publications. When no coefficient was available for an animal type in a State, the median value of reported coefficients for that animal was used. Livestock-population data were provided by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. County estimates were further divided into ground-water and surface-water withdrawals for each county and county equivalent. County totals from 2005 were compared to county totals from 1995 and 2000. Large deviations from 1995 or 2000 livestock withdrawal estimates were investigated and generally were due to comparison with reported withdrawals, differences in estimation techniques, differences in livestock

  17. A spatially detailed blue water footprint of the United States economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, Richard R.; Ruddell, Benjamin L.

    2018-05-01

    This paper quantifies and maps a spatially detailed and economically complete blue water footprint for the United States, utilizing the National Water Economy Database version 1.1 (NWED). NWED utilizes multiple mesoscale (county-level) federal data resources from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the US Energy Information Administration (EIA), the US Department of Transportation (USDOT), the US Department of Energy (USDOE), and the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) to quantify water use, economic trade, and commodity flows to construct this water footprint. Results corroborate previous studies in both the magnitude of the US water footprint (F) and in the observed pattern of virtual water flows. Four virtual water accounting scenarios were developed with minimum (Min), median (Med), and maximum (Max) consumptive use scenarios and a withdrawal-based scenario. The median water footprint (FCUMed) of the US is 181 966 Mm3 (FWithdrawal: 400 844 Mm3; FCUMax: 222 144 Mm3; FCUMin: 61 117 Mm3) and the median per capita water footprint (F'CUMed) of the US is 589 m3 per capita (F'Withdrawal: 1298 m3 per capita; F'CUMax: 720 m3 per capita; F'CUMin: 198 m3 per capita). The US hydroeconomic network is centered on cities. Approximately 58 % of US water consumption is for direct and indirect use by cities. Further, the water footprint of agriculture and livestock is 93 % of the total US blue water footprint, and is dominated by irrigated agriculture in the western US. The water footprint of the industrial, domestic, and power economic sectors is centered on population centers, while the water footprint of the mining sector is highly dependent on the location of mineral resources. Owing to uncertainty in consumptive use coefficients alone, the mesoscale blue water footprint uncertainty ranges from 63 to over 99 % depending on location. Harmonized region-specific, economic-sector-specific consumption coefficients are

  18. Methods for Estimating Water Withdrawals for Mining in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The mining water-use category includes groundwater and surface water that is withdrawn and used for nonfuels and fuels mining. Nonfuels mining includes the extraction of ores, stone, sand, and gravel. Fuels mining includes the extraction of coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Water is used for mineral extraction, quarrying, milling, and other operations directly associated with mining activities. For petroleum and natural gas extraction, water often is injected for secondary oil or gas recovery. Estimates of water withdrawals for mining are needed for water planning and management. This report documents methods used to estimate withdrawals of fresh and saline groundwater and surface water for mining during 2005 for each county and county equivalent in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Fresh and saline groundwater and surface-water withdrawals during 2005 for nonfuels- and coal-mining operations in each county or county equivalent in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands were estimated. Fresh and saline groundwater withdrawals for oil and gas operations in counties of six states also were estimated. Water withdrawals for nonfuels and coal mining were estimated by using mine-production data and water-use coefficients. Production data for nonfuels mining included the mine location and weight (in metric tons) of crude ore, rock, or mineral produced at each mine in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands during 2004. Production data for coal mining included the weight, in metric tons, of coal produced in each county or county equivalent during 2004. Water-use coefficients for mined commodities were compiled from various sources including published reports and written communications from U.S. Geological Survey National Water-use Information Program (NWUIP) personnel in several states. Water withdrawals for oil and gas extraction were estimated for six States including California, Colorado, Louisiana, New

  19. Enhancing Groundwater Cost Estimation with the Interpolation of Water Tables across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, A. U. M.; Lall, U.; Josset, L.; Rising, J. A.; Russo, T. A.; Eisenhart, T.

    2017-12-01

    Analyzing the trends in water use and supply across the United States is fundamental to efforts in ensuring water sustainability. As part of this, estimating the costs of producing or obtaining water (water extraction) and the correlation with water use is an important aspect in understanding the underlying trends. This study estimates groundwater costs by interpolating the depth to water level across the US in each county. We use Ordinary and Universal Kriging, accounting for the differences between aquifers. Kriging generates a best linear unbiased estimate at each location and has been widely used to map ground-water surfaces (Alley, 1993).The spatial covariates included in the universal Kriging were land-surface elevation as well as aquifer information. The average water table is computed for each county using block kriging to obtain a national map of groundwater cost, which we compare with survey estimates of depth to the water table performed by the USDA. Groundwater extraction costs were then assumed to be proportional to water table depth. Beyond estimating the water cost, the approach can provide an indication of groundwater-stress by exploring the historical evolution of depth to the water table using time series information between 1960 and 2015. Despite data limitations, we hope to enable a more compelling and meaningful national-level analysis through the quantification of cost and stress for more economically efficient water management.

  20. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  1. Sectoral contributions to surface water stress in the coterminous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyt, K; Meldrum, J; Caldwell, P; Sun, G; McNulty, S; Huber-Lee, A; Madden, N

    2013-01-01

    Here, we assess current stress in the freshwater system based on the best available data in order to understand possible risks and vulnerabilities to regional water resources and the sectors dependent on freshwater. We present watershed-scale measures of surface water supply stress for the coterminous United States (US) using the water supply stress index (WaSSI) model which considers regional trends in both water supply and demand. A snapshot of contemporary annual water demand is compared against different water supply regimes, including current average supplies, current extreme-year supplies, and projected future average surface water flows under a changing climate. In addition, we investigate the contributions of different water demand sectors to current water stress. On average, water supplies are stressed, meaning that demands for water outstrip natural supplies in over 9% of the 2103 watersheds examined. These watersheds rely on reservoir storage, conveyance systems, and groundwater to meet current water demands. Overall, agriculture is the major demand-side driver of water stress in the US, whereas municipal stress is isolated to southern California. Water stress introduced by cooling water demands for power plants is punctuated across the US, indicating that a single power plant has the potential to stress water supplies at the watershed scale. On the supply side, watersheds in the western US are particularly sensitive to low flow events and projected long-term shifts in flow driven by climate change. The WaSSI results imply that not only are water resources in the southwest in particular at risk, but that there are also potential vulnerabilities to specific sectors, even in the ‘water-rich’ southeast. (letter)

  2. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  3. The importance of lake-specific characteristics for water quality across the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Emily K; Patil, Vijay P; Oliver, Samantha K; Hetherington, Amy L; Brentrup, Jennifer A; Zwart, Jacob A; Winters, Kirsten M; Corman, Jessica R; Nodine, Emily R; Woolway, R Iestyn; Dugan, Hilary A; Jaimes, Aline; Santoso, Arianto B; Hong, Grace S; Winslow, Luke A; Hanson, Paul C; Weathers, Kathleen C

    2015-06-01

    Lake water quality is affected by local and regional drivers, including lake physical characteristics, hydrology, landscape position, land cover, land use, geology, and climate. Here, we demonstrate the utility of hypothesis testing within the landscape limnology framework using a random forest algorithm on a national-scale, spatially explicit data set, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's 2007 National Lakes Assessment. For 1026 lakes, we tested the relative importance of water quality drivers across spatial scales, the importance of hydrologic connectivity in mediating water quality drivers, and how the importance of both spatial scale and connectivity differ across response variables for five important in-lake water quality metrics (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, turbidity, and conductivity). By modeling the effect of water quality predictors at different spatial scales, we found that lake-specific characteristics (e.g., depth, sediment area-to-volume ratio) were important for explaining water quality (54-60% variance explained), and that regionalization schemes were much less effective than lake specific metrics (28-39% variance explained). Basin-scale land use and land cover explained between 45-62% of variance, and forest cover and agricultural land uses were among the most important basin-scale predictors. Water quality drivers did not operate independently; in some cases, hydrologic connectivity (the presence of upstream surface water features) mediated the effect of regional-scale drivers. For example, for water quality in lakes with upstream lakes, regional classification schemes were much less effective predictors than lake-specific variables, in contrast to lakes with no upstream lakes or with no surface inflows. At the scale of the continental United States, conductivity was explained by drivers operating at larger spatial scales than for other water quality responses. The current regulatory practice of using

  4. NOAA Water Level Predictions Stations for the Coastal United States and Other Non-U.S. Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Ocean Service (NOS) maintains a long-term database containing water level measurements and derived tidal data for coastal waters of the United States...

  5. Withdrawal and consumption of water by thermoelectric power plants in the United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of water use at thermoelectric plants were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey based on linked heat and water budgets, and complement reported thermoelectric water withdrawals and consumption. The heat- and water-budget models produced withdrawal and consumption estimates, including thermodynamically plausible ranges of minimum and maximum withdrawal and consumption, for 1,290 water-using plants in the United States for 2010. Total estimated withdrawal for 2010 was about 129 billion gallons per day (Bgal/d), and total estimated consumption was about 3.5 Bgal/d. In contrast, total withdrawal reported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), was about 24 percent higher than the modeled estimates, and total EIA-reported consumption was about 8 percent lower. Most thermoelectric generation in 2010 was not associated with thermodynamically plausible EIA-reported values of both withdrawal and consumption.

  6. The Role of Overshooting Convection in Elevated Stratospheric Water Vapor over the Summertime Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, R. L.; Ray, E. A.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Bedka, K. M.; Schwartz, M. J.; Read, W. G.; Troy, R. F.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA ER-2 aircraft sampled the UTLS region over North America during the NASA Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) field mission. On four flights targeting convectively-influenced air parcels, in situ measurements of enhanced water vapor in the lower stratosphere over the summertime continental United States were made using the JPL Laser Hygrometer (JLH Mark2). Water vapor mixing ratios greater than 10 ppmv, twice the stratospheric background levels, were measured at pressure levels between 80 and 160 hPa. Through satellite observations and analysis, we make the connection between these in situ water measurements and overshooting cloud tops. The overshooting tops (OT) are identified from a SEAC4RS OT detection product based on satellite infrared window channel brightness temperature gradients. Back-trajectory analysis ties enhanced water to OT one to seven days prior to the intercept by the aircraft. The trajectory paths are dominated by the North American Monsoon (NAM) anticyclonic circulation. This connection suggests that ice is convectively transported to the overworld stratosphere in OT events and subsequently sublimated; such events may irreversibly enhance stratospheric water vapor in the summer over Mexico and the United States. Regional context is provided by water observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS).

  7. Enhanced stratospheric water vapor over the summertime continental United States and the role of overshooting convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robert L.; Ray, Eric A.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Read, William G.; Troy, Robert F.; Chin, Keith; Christensen, Lance E.; Fu, Dejian; Stachnik, Robert A.; Bui, T. Paul; Dean-Day, Jonathan M.

    2017-05-01

    The NASA ER-2 aircraft sampled the lower stratosphere over North America during the field mission for the NASA Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS). This study reports observations of convectively influenced air parcels with enhanced water vapor in the overworld stratosphere over the summertime continental United States and investigates three case studies in detail. Water vapor mixing ratios greater than 10 ppmv, which is much higher than the background 4 to 6 ppmv of the overworld stratosphere, were measured by the JPL Laser Hygrometer (JLH Mark2) at altitudes between 16.0 and 17.5 km (potential temperatures of approximately 380 to 410 K). Overshooting cloud tops (OTs) are identified from a SEAC4RS OT detection product based on satellite infrared window channel brightness temperature gradients. Through trajectory analysis, we make the connection between these in situ water measurements and OT. Back trajectory analysis ties enhanced water to OT 1 to 7 days prior to the intercept by the aircraft. The trajectory paths are dominated by the North American monsoon (NAM) anticyclonic circulation. This connection suggests that ice is convectively transported to the overworld stratosphere in OT events and subsequently sublimated; such events may irreversibly enhance stratospheric water vapor in the summer over Mexico and the United States. A regional context is provided by water observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS).

  8. Challenges with secondary use of multi-source water-quality data in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.; Argue, Denise M.

    2017-01-01

    Combining water-quality data from multiple sources can help counterbalance diminishing resources for stream monitoring in the United States and lead to important regional and national insights that would not otherwise be possible. Individual monitoring organizations understand their own data very well, but issues can arise when their data are combined with data from other organizations that have used different methods for reporting the same common metadata elements. Such use of multi-source data is termed “secondary use”—the use of data beyond the original intent determined by the organization that collected the data. In this study, we surveyed more than 25 million nutrient records collected by 488 organizations in the United States since 1899 to identify major inconsistencies in metadata elements that limit the secondary use of multi-source data. Nearly 14.5 million of these records had missing or ambiguous information for one or more key metadata elements, including (in decreasing order of records affected) sample fraction, chemical form, parameter name, units of measurement, precise numerical value, and remark codes. As a result, metadata harmonization to make secondary use of these multi-source data will be time consuming, expensive, and inexact. Different data users may make different assumptions about the same ambiguous data, potentially resulting in different conclusions about important environmental issues. The value of these ambiguous data is estimated at \\$US12 billion, a substantial collective investment by water-resource organizations in the United States. By comparison, the value of unambiguous data is estimated at \\$US8.2 billion. The ambiguous data could be preserved for uses beyond the original intent by developing and implementing standardized metadata practices for future and legacy water-quality data throughout the United States.

  9. Simulating the Water Use of Thermoelectric Power Plants in the United States: Model Development and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrie, G.; Yan, E.; Clark, C.

    2016-12-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use the highest amount of freshwater second to the agriculture sector. However, there is scarcity of information that characterizes the freshwater use of these plants in the United States. This could be attributed to the lack of model and data that are required to conduct analysis and gain insights. The competition for freshwater among sectors will increase in the future as the amount of freshwater gets limited due climate change and population growth. A model that makes use of less data is urgently needed to conduct analysis and identify adaptation strategies. The objectives of this study are to develop a model and simulate the water use of thermoelectric power plants in the United States. The developed model has heat-balance, climate, cooling system, and optimization modules. It computes the amount of heat rejected to the environment, estimates the quantity of heat exchanged through latent and sensible heat to the environment, and computes the amount of water required per unit generation of electricity. To verify the model, we simulated a total of 876 fossil-fired, nuclear and gas-turbine power plants with different cooling systems (CS) using 2010-2014 data obtained from Energy Information Administration. The CS includes once-through with cooling pond, once-through without cooling ponds, recirculating with induced draft and recirculating with induced draft natural draft. The results show that the model reproduced the observed water use per unit generation of electricity for the most of the power plants. It is also noticed that the model slightly overestimates the water use during the summer period when the input water temperatures are higher. We are investigating the possible reasons for the overestimation and address it in the future work. The model could be used individually or coupled to regional models to analyze various adaptation strategies and improve the water use efficiency of thermoelectric power plants.

  10. Water uptake in woody riparian phreatophytes of the southwestern United States: a stable isotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, D.E.; Ingraham, N.L.; Smith, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Alluvial forest associations are often dominated by woody phreatophytes, plants that are tightly linked to aquifers for water uptake. Anthropogenic hydrological alterations (e.g., water impoundment or diversion) are of clear importance to riparian ecosystem function. Because decreased frequency of flooding and depression of water tables may, in effect, sever riparian plants from their natural water sources, research was undertaken to determine water uptake patterns for the dominant native and introduced woody taxa of riparian plant communities of the southwestern United States. At floodplain study sites along the Bill Williams and lower Colorado Rivers (Arizona, USA), naturally occurring D and 18 O were used to distinguish among potential water sources. Isotopic ratios from potential uptake locations were compared to water extracted from the dominant woody taxa of the study area (Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii, and Tamarix ramosissima) to elucidate patterns of water absorption. Isotopic composition of water obtained from sapwood cores did not differ significantly from heartwood or branch water, suggesting that heartwood water exchange, stem capacitance, and phloem sap mixing may be inconsequential in actively transpiring Salix and Populus. There was evidence for close hydrologic linkage of river, ground, and soil water during the early part of the growing season. Surface soils exhibited D enrichment due to cumulative exposure to evaporation as the growing season progressed. Isotopic ratios of water extracted from Populus and Salix did not exhibit isotopic enrichment and were not significantly different from groundwater or saturated soil water sources, indicating a phreatophytic uptake pattern. Associations of isotopic ratios with water relations parameters indicated high levels of canopy evaporation and possible use of moisture from unsaturated alluvial soils in addition to groundwater in Tamarix. (author)

  11. Heterogeneous distribution of water in the mantle transition zone beneath United States inferred from seismic observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Pavlis, G. L.; Li, M.

    2017-12-01

    The amount of water in the Earth's deep mantle is critical for the evolution of the solid Earth and the atmosphere. Mineral physics studies have revealed that Wadsleyite and Ringwoodite in the mantle transition zone could store several times the volume of water in the ocean. However, the water content and its distribution in the transition zone remain enigmatic due to lack of direct observations. Here we use seismic data from the full deployment of the Earthscope Transportable Array to produce 3D image of P to S scattering of the mantle transition zone beneath the United States. We compute the image volume from 141,080 pairs of high quality receiver functions defined by the Earthscope Automated Receiver Survey, reprocessed by the generalized iterative deconvolution method and imaged by the plane wave migration method. We find that the transition zone is filled with previously unrecognized small-scale heterogeneities that produce pervasive, negative polarity P to S conversions. Seismic synthetic modeling using a point source simulation method suggests two possible structures for these objects: 1) a set of randomly distributed blobs of slight difference in size, and 2) near vertical diapir structures from small scale convections. Combining with geodynamic simulations, we interpret the observation as compositional heterogeneity from small-scale, low-velocity bodies that are water enriched. Our results indicate there is a heterogeneous distribution of water through the entire mantle transition zone beneath the contiguous United States.

  12. Summary of estimated water use in the United States in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.

    2018-06-19

    A total of 322 Bgal/d of water withdrawals was reported for eight categories of use in the United States in 2015, which was 9 percent less than in 2010 (354 Bgal/d), and continued a declining trend since 2005. The decline in total withdrawals in 2015 primarily was caused by significant decreases (28.8 Bgal/d) in thermoelectric power, which accounted for 89 percent of the decrease in total withdrawals. Between 2010 and 2015, withdrawals decreased in all categories except irrigation (2 percent increase), mining (1 percent increase), and livestock (no change). Fresh surface-water withdrawals (198 Bgal/d) were 14 percent less than in 2010, and fresh groundwater withdrawals (82.3 Bgal/d) were about 8 percent more than in 2010. Saline surface-water withdrawals (38.6 Bgal/d) were 14 percent less than in 2010, and saline groundwater withdrawals (2.34 Bgal/d) were 5 percent more than in 2010. Total population in the United States in 2015 (325 million) increased by 4 percent (12.4 million) from 2010, which was similar to the increase between 2005 and 2010. For the first time since 1995, consumptive use for irrigation and thermoelectric power were reported. Consumptive use accounted for 62 percent (73.2 Bgal/d) of water used for irrigation, and 3 percent (4.31 Bgal/d) of water used for thermoelectric power in 2015.

  13. Public supply and domestic water use in the United States, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieter, Cheryl A.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2017-10-30

    IntroductionThe U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Use Science Project (NWUSP), part of the USGS Water Availability and Use Science Program (WAUSP), has estimated water use in the United States every 5 years since 1950. This report provides an overview of total population, public-supply use, including the population that is served by public-supply systems and the domestic deliveries to those users, and self-supplied domestic water use in the United States for 2015, continuing the task of estimating water use in the United States every 5 years. In this report, estimates for the United States include the 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands (hereafter referred to as “states” for brevity).County-level data for total population, public-supply withdrawals and the population served by public-supply systems, and domestic withdrawals for 2015 were published in a data release in an effort to provide data to the public in a timely manner. Data in the current version (1.0) of Dieter and others (2017) contains county-level total withdrawals from groundwater and surface-water sources (both fresh and saline) for public-water supply, the deliveries from those suppliers to domestic users, and the quantities of water from groundwater and surface-water sources for self-supplied domestic users, and total population. Methods used to estimate the various data elements for the public-supply and domestic use categories at the county level are described by Bradley (2017).This Open-File Report is an interim report summarizing the data published in Dieter and others (2017) at the state and national level. This report includes discussions on the total population, totals for public-supply withdrawals and population served, total domestic withdrawals, and provides comparisons of the 2015 estimates to 2010 estimates (Maupin and others, 2014). Total domestic water use, as described in this report, represents the summation of deliveries from

  14. Quality of Source Water from Public-Supply Wells in the United States, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Hitt, Kerie J.

    2010-01-01

    More than one-third of the Nation's population receives their drinking water from public water systems that use groundwater as their source. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled untreated source water from 932 public-supply wells, hereafter referred to as public wells, as part of multiple groundwater assessments conducted across the Nation during 1993-2007. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) contaminant occurrence in source water from public wells and the potential significance of contaminant concentrations to human health, (2) national and regional distributions of groundwater quality, and (3) the occurrence and characteristics of contaminant mixtures. Treated finished water was not sampled. The 932 public wells are widely distributed nationally and include wells in selected parts of 41 states and withdraw water from parts of 30 regionally extensive aquifers used for public water supply. These wells are distributed among 629 unique public water systems-less than 1 percent of all groundwater-supplied public water systems in the United States-but the wells were randomly selected within the sampled hydrogeologic settings to represent typical aquifer conditions. Samples from the 629 systems represent source water used by one-quarter of the U.S. population served by groundwater-supplied public water systems, or about 9 percent of the entire U.S. population in 2008. One groundwater sample was collected prior to treatment or blending from each of the 932 public wells and analyzed for as many as six water-quality properties and 215 contaminants. Consistent with the terminology used in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), all constituents analyzed in water samples in this study are referred to as 'contaminants'. More contaminant groups were assessed in this study than in any previous national study of public wells and included major ions, nutrients, radionuclides, trace elements, pesticide compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and fecal

  15. Causes of Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water in the United States from 1971 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Gunther F.; Brunkard, Joan M.; Yoder, Jonathan S.; Roberts, Virginia A.; Carpenter, Joe; Wade, Tim; Calderon, Rebecca L.; Roberts, Jacquelin M.; Beach, Michael J.; Roy, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Since 1971, the CDC, EPA, and Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) have maintained the collaborative national Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) to document waterborne disease outbreaks (WBDOs) reported by local, state, and territorial health departments. WBDOs were recently reclassified to better characterize water system deficiencies and risk factors; data were analyzed for trends in outbreak occurrence, etiologies, and deficiencies during 1971 to 2006. A total of 833 WBDOs, 577,991 cases of illness, and 106 deaths were reported during 1971 to 2006. Trends of public health significance include (i) a decrease in the number of reported outbreaks over time and in the annual proportion of outbreaks reported in public water systems, (ii) an increase in the annual proportion of outbreaks reported in individual water systems and in the proportion of outbreaks associated with premise plumbing deficiencies in public water systems, (iii) no change in the annual proportion of outbreaks associated with distribution system deficiencies or the use of untreated and improperly treated groundwater in public water systems, and (iv) the increasing importance of Legionella since its inclusion in WBDOSS in 2001. Data from WBDOSS have helped inform public health and regulatory responses. Additional resources for waterborne disease surveillance and outbreak detection are essential to improve our ability to monitor, detect, and prevent waterborne disease in the United States. PMID:20610821

  16. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  17. High Resolution Map of Water Supply and Demand for North East United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, N.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Fekete, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate estimates of water supply and demand are crucial elements in water resources management and modeling. As part of our NSF-funded EaSM effort to build a Northeast Regional Earth System Model (NE-RESM) as a framework to improve our understanding and capacity to forecast the implications of planning decisions on the region's environment, ecosystem services, energy and economic systems through the 21st century, we are producing a high resolution map (3' x 3' lat/long) of estimated water supply and use for the north east region of United States. Focusing on water demand, results from this study enables us to quantify how demand sources affect the hydrology and thermal-chemical water pollution across the region. In an attempt to generate this 3-minute resolution map in which each grid cell has a specific estimated monthly domestic, agriculture, thermoelectric and industrial water use. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2005 (Kenny et al., 2009) is being coupled to high resolution land cover and land use, irrigation, power plant and population data sets. In addition to water demands, we tried to improve estimates of water supply from the WBM model by improving the way it controls discharge from reservoirs. Reservoirs are key characteristics of the modern hydrologic system, with a particular impact on altering the natural stream flow, thermal characteristics, and biogeochemical fluxes of rivers. Depending on dam characteristics, watershed characteristics and the purpose of building a dam, each reservoir has a specific optimum operating rule. It means that literally 84,000 dams in the National Inventory of Dams potentially follow 84,000 different sets of rules for storing and releasing water which must somehow be accounted for in our modeling exercise. In reality, there is no comprehensive observational dataset depicting these operating rules. Thus, we will simulate these rules. Our perspective is not to find the optimum operating rule per se but to find

  18. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Stream Water Temperatures Across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, N.; Knouft, J.; Ficklin, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Analyses of long-term observation data have revealed significant changes in several components of climate and the hydrological cycle over the contiguous United States during the twentieth and early twenty-first century. Mean surface air temperatures have significantly increased in most areas of the country. In addition, water temperatures are increasing in many watersheds across the United States. While there are numerous studies assessing the impact of climate change on air temperatures at regional and global scales, fewer studies have investigated the impacts of climate change on stream water temperatures. Projecting increases in water temperature are particularly important to the conservation of freshwater ecosystems. To achieve better insights into attributes regulating population and community dynamics of aquatic biota at large spatial and temporal scales, we need to establish relationships between environmental heterogeneity and critical biological processes of stream ecosystems at these scales. Increases in stream temperatures caused by the doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide may result in a significant loss of fish habitat in the United States. Utilization of physically based hydrological-water temperature models is computationally demanding and can be onerous to many researchers who specialize in other disciplines. Using statistical techniques to analyze observational data from 1760 USGS stream temperature gages, our goal is to develop a simple yet accurate method to quantify the impacts of climate warming on stream water temperatures in a way that is practical for aquatic biologists, water and environmental management purposes, and conservation practitioners and policy-makers. Using an ensemble of five global climate models (GCMs), we estimate the potential impacts of climate change on stream temperatures within the contiguous United States based on recent trends. Stream temperatures are projected to increase across the US, but the magnitude of the

  19. Statistical Analysis of Terrestrial Water Storage Change Over Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibedingil, I. G.; Mubako, S. T.; Hargrove, W. L.; Espino, A. C.

    2017-12-01

    A warming trend over recent decades has aggravated water resource challenges in the arid southwestern region of the United States (U.S.). An increase in temperature, coupled with decreasing snowpack and rainfall have impacted the region's cities, ecosystems, and agriculture. The region is the largest contributor of agricultural products to the U.S. market resulting from irrigation. Water use through irrigation is stressing already limited terrestrial water resources. Population growth in recent decades has also led to increased water demand. This study utilizes products of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) twin satellites experiment in MATLAB and ArcGIS to examine terrestrial water storage changes in the southwestern region of the U.S., comprised of the eight states of Texas, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Linear trend analysis was applied to the equivalent water-height data of terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC), precipitation, and air temperature. Correlation analysis was performed on couplings of TWSC - precipitation and TWSC - air temperature to examine the impact of temperature and precipitation on the region's water resources. Our preliminary results show a decreasing trend of TWSC from April 2002 to July 2016 in almost all parts of the region. Precipitation shows a decreasing trend from March 2000 to March 2017 for most of the region, except for sparse areas of increased precipitation near the northwestern coast of California, and a belt running from Oklahoma through the middle of Texas to the El Paso/New Mexico border. From April 2002 to December 2014, air temperature exhibited a negative trend for most of the region, except a larger part of California and a small location in central Texas. Correlation between TWSC and precipitation was mostly positive, but a negative trend was observed when TWSC and air temperature were correlated. The study contributes to the understanding of terrestrial water

  20. Improved evaluation of the blue water footprint from hydropower in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G.; Gao, H.

    2017-12-01

    As the world's largest source of renewable energy, hydropower contributes 16.6% of the electricity production in the world. Even though it produces no waste, hydropower exhausts a considerable amount of water mostly through evaporation from the extended surface areas of the manmade lakes. The water footprint of hydropower becomes even larger with rising temperatures. To assist with the precise management of both water resources and energy production in the Contiguous United States (CONUS), 82 major dams—all with a primary purpose of producing hydroelectric power—were evaluated in terms of their blue water footprints. These dams account for 21% of the entire hydropower generation in the CONUS. Reservoir evaporation is calculated using state-of-the-art reservoir surface area and evaporation rate information. Instead of using fixed surface areas for the reservoirs—a practice which is adopted by virtually all other studies (and generally leads to over-or-under estimations)—time-variant surface areas were generated from Landsat imageries archived on Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. Additionally, evaporation rates were calculated using an equilibrium method that incorporates the heat storage effects of the reservoirs. Results show that water consumption from hydropower is large and non-negligible. Furthermore, the differences of the blue water footprints among the dams studied are also significant. The results of this study can benefit the evaluation of existing dams (e.g. recommendation for dam removal) and the planning of future hydroelectric dams.

  1. Surveillance for waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water---United States, 2007--2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkard, Joan M; Ailes, Elizabeth; Roberts, Virginia A; Hill, Vincent; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Craun, Gunther F; Rajasingham, Anu; Kahler, Amy; Garrison, Laurel; Hicks, Lauri; Carpenter, Joe; Wade, Timothy J; Beach, Michael J; Yoder Msw, Jonathan S

    2011-09-23

    Since 1971, CDC, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaborated on the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to occurrences and causes of waterborne disease outbreaks associated with drinking water. This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and health effects of waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Data presented summarize 48 outbreaks that occurred during January 2007--December 2008 and 70 previously unreported outbreaks. WBDOSS includes data on outbreaks associated with drinking water, recreational water, water not intended for drinking (WNID) (excluding recreational water), and water use of unknown intent (WUI). Public health agencies in the states, U.S. territories, localities, and Freely Associated States are primarily responsible for detecting and investigating outbreaks and reporting them voluntarily to CDC by a standard form. Only data on outbreaks associated with drinking water, WNID (excluding recreational water), and WUI are summarized in this report. Outbreaks associated with recreational water are reported separately. A total of 24 states and Puerto Rico reported 48 outbreaks that occurred during 2007--2008. Of these 48 outbreaks, 36 were associated with drinking water, eight with WNID, and four with WUI. The 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks caused illness among at least 4,128 persons and were linked to three deaths. Etiologic agents were identified in 32 (88.9%) of the 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks; 21 (58.3%) outbreaks were associated with bacteria, five (13.9%) with viruses, three (8.3%) with parasites, one (2.8%) with a chemical, one (2.8%) with both bacteria and viruses, and one (2.8%) with both bacteria and parasites. Four outbreaks (11.1%) had unidentified etiologies. Of the 36 drinking water--associated outbreaks, 22 (61.1%) were outbreaks of

  2. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water--United States, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuban, Eric J; Liang, Jennifer L; Craun, Gunther F; Hill, Vincent; Yu, Patricia A; Painter, John; Moore, Matthew R; Calderon, Rebecca L; Roy, Sharon L; Beach, Michael J

    2006-12-22

    Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaboratively maintained the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System for collecting and reporting waterborne disease and outbreak (WBDO)-related data. In 1978, WBDOs associated with recreational water (natural and treated water) were added. This system is the primary source of data regarding the scope and effects of WBDOs in the United States. Data presented summarize WBDOs associated with recreational water that occurred during January 2003-December 2004 and one previously unreported outbreak from 2002. Public health departments in the states, territories, localities, and the Freely Associated States (i.e., the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau, formerly parts of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) have primary responsibility for detecting, investigating, and voluntarily reporting WBDOs to CDC. Although the surveillance system includes data for WBDOs associated with drinking water, recreational water, and water not intended for drinking, only cases and outbreaks associated with recreational water are summarized in this report. During 2003-2004, a total 62 WBDOs associated with recreational water were reported by 26 states and Guam. Illness occurred in 2,698 persons, resulting in 58 hospitalizations and one death. The median outbreak size was 14 persons (range: 1-617 persons). Of the 62 WBDOs, 30 (48.4%) were outbreaks of gastroenteritis that resulted from infectious agents, chemicals, or toxins; 13 (21.0%) were outbreaks of dermatitis; and seven (11.3%) were outbreaks of acute respiratory illness (ARI). The remaining 12 WBDOs resulted in primary amebic meningoencephalitis (n = one), meningitis (n = one), leptospirosis (n = one), otitis externa (n = one), and mixed illnesses (n = eight). WBDOs associated with gastroenteritis resulted in 1,945 (72

  3. Water availability and vulnerability of 225 large cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Jawitz, James W.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a quantitative national assessment of urban water availability and vulnerability for 225 U.S. cities with population greater than 100,000. Here, the urban assessments account for not only renewable water flows, but also the extracted, imported, and stored water that urban systems access through constructed infrastructure. These sources represent important hydraulic components of the urban water supply, yet are typically excluded from water scarcity assessments. Results from this hydraulic-based assessment were compared to those obtained using a more conventional method that estimates scarcity solely based on local renewable flows. The inclusion of hydraulic components increased the mean availability to cities, leading to a significantly lower portion of the total U.S. population considered "at risk" for water scarcity (17%) than that obtained from the runoff method (47%). Water vulnerability was determined based on low-flow conditions, and smaller differences were found for this metric between at-risk populations using the runoff (66%) and hydraulic-based (54%) methods. The large increase in the susceptible population between the scarcity measures evaluated using the hydraulic method may better reconcile the seeming contradiction in the United States between perceptions of natural water abundance and widespread water scarcity. Additionally, urban vulnerability measures developed here were validated using a media text analysis. Vulnerability assessments that included hydraulic components were found to correlate with the frequency of urban water scarcity reports in the popular press while runoff-based measures showed no significant correlation, suggesting that hydraulic-based assessments provide better context for understanding the nature and severity of urban water scarcity issues.

  4. Mortality from selected diseases that can be transmitted by water - United States, 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, J W; Adam, E A; Collier, S A; Fullerton, K E; Feinman, S J; Beach, M J

    2017-06-01

    Diseases spread by water are caused by fecal-oral, contact, inhalation, or other routes, resulting in illnesses affecting multiple body systems. We selected 13 pathogens or syndromes implicated in waterborne disease outbreaks or other well-documented waterborne transmission (acute otitis externa, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli (E. coli), free-living ameba, Giardia, Hepatitis A virus, Legionella (Legionnaires' disease), nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), Pseudomonas-related pneumonia or septicemia, Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio). We documented annual numbers of deaths in the United States associated with these infections using a combination of death certificate data, nationally representative hospital discharge data, and disease-specific surveillance systems (2003-2009). We documented 6,939 annual total deaths associated with the 13 infections; of these, 493 (7%) were caused by seven pathogens transmitted by the fecal-oral route. A total of 6,301 deaths (91%) were associated with infections from Pseudomonas, NTM, and Legionella, environmental pathogens that grow in water system biofilms. Biofilm-associated pathogens can cause illness following inhalation of aerosols or contact with contaminated water. These findings suggest that most mortality from these 13 selected infections in the United States does not result from classical fecal-oral transmission but rather from other transmission routes.

  5. Modelling the potential role of forest thinning in maintaining water supplies under a changing climate across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Steven G. McNulty

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the sensitivity of water yield to forest thinning and other forest management/disturbances and climate across the conterminous United States (CONUS). Leaf area index (LAI) was selected as a key parameter linking changes in forest ecosystem structure and functions. We used the Water Supply Stress Index model to examine water yield...

  6. Channel water balance and exchange with subsurface flow along a mountain headwater stream in Montana, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Payn; M.N. Gooseff; B.L. McGlynn; K.E. Bencala; S.M. Wondzell

    2009-01-01

    Channel water balances of contiguous reaches along streams represent a poorly understood scale of stream-subsurface interaction. We measured reach water balances along a headwater stream in Montana, United States, during summer base flow recessions. Reach water balances were estimated from series of tracer tests in 13 consecutive reaches delineated evenly along a 2.6-...

  7. Risk-informed Management of Water Infrastructure in the United States: History, Development, and Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfhope, J.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will focus on the history, development, and best practices for evaluating the risks associated with the portfolio of water infrastructure in the United States. These practices have evolved from the early development of the Federal Guidelines for Dam Safety and the establishment of the National Dam Safety Program, to the most recent update of the Best Practices for Dam and Levee Risk Analysis jointly published by the U.S. Department of Interior Bureau of Reclamation and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Since President Obama signed the Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation Act (WIIN) Act, on December 16, 2016, adding a new grant program under FEMA's National Dam Safety Program, the focus has been on establishing a risk-based priority system for use in identifying eligible high hazard potential dams for which grants may be made. Finally, the presentation provides thoughts on the future direction and priorities for managing the risk of dams and levees in the United States.

  8. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in ground water, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems (CWSs) in the United States. As used for SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well prior to water treatment (for ground water) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that is treated and ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished water is collected before entering the distribution system. SWQA studies are conducted in two phases, and the objectives of SWQA studies are twofold: (1) to determine the occurrence and, for rivers, seasonal changes in concentrations of a broad list of anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) in aquifers and rivers that have some of the largest withdrawals for drinking-water supply (phase 1), and (2) for those AOCs found to occur most frequently in source water, characterize the extent to which these compounds are present in finished water (phase 2). These objectives were met for SWQA studies by collecting ground-water and surface-water (source) samples and analyzing these samples for 258 AOCs during phase 1. Samples from a subset of wells and surface-water sites located in areas with substantial agricultural production in the watershed were analyzed for 19 additional AOCs, for a total of 277 compounds analyzed for SWQA studies. The 277 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and

  9. The Northeastern United States Energy-Water Nexus: Climate Change Impacts and Alternative Water Management Strategies for the Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, A.; Macknick, J.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Cohen, S. M.; Rosenzweig, B.

    2014-12-01

    The Northeastern United States (NE) relies heavily on thermoelectric power plants (90% of total capacity) to provide electricity to more than 70 million people. This region's power plants require consistent, large volumes of water at sufficiently cold temperatures to generate electricity efficiently, and withdraw approximately 10.5 trillion gallons of water annually. Previous findings indicate that assessments of future electricity pathways must account for water availability, water temperature and the changing climate, as changes in these conditions may limit operational efficiency in the future. To account for such electric system vulnerabilities, we have created a link between an electricity system capacity expansion model (ReEDS) and a hydrologic model that is coupled to a power plant simulation model (FrAMES-TP2M) that allows for a new approach to analyze electricity system development, performance, and environmental impacts. Together, these coupled tools allow us to estimate electricity development and operations in the context of a changing climate and impacts on the seasonal spatial and temporal variability of water resources, downstream thermal effluents that cause plant-to-plant interferences and harm aquatic habitat, economic costs of water conservation methods and associated carbon emissions. In this study, we test and compare a business-as-usual strategy with three alternative water management scenarios that include changes in cooling technologies and water sources utilized for the years 2014-2050. Results of these experiments can provide useful insight into the feasibility of the electricity expansion scenarios in terms of associated water use and thermal impacts, carbon emissions, the cost of generating electricity, and also highlight the importance of accounting for water resources in future power sector planning and performance assessments.

  10. A national perspective on paleoclimate streamflow and water storage infrastructure in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Michelle; Lall, Upmanu; Sun, Xun; Cook, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale water storage infrastructure in the Conterminous United States (CONUS) provides a means of regulating the temporal variability in water supply with storage capacities ranging from seasonal storage in the wetter east to multi-annual and decadal-scale storage in the drier west. Regional differences in water availability across the CONUS provides opportunities for optimizing water dependent economic activities, such as food and energy production, through storage and transportation. However, the ability to sufficiently regulate water supplies into the future is compromised by inadequate monitoring of non-federally-owned dams that make up around 97% of all dams. Furthermore, many of these dams are reaching or have exceeded their economic design life. Understanding the role of dams in the current and future landscape of water requirements in the CONUS is needed to prioritize dam safety remediation or identify where redundant dams may be removed. A national water assessment and planning process is needed for addressing water requirements, accounting for regional differences in water supply and demand, and the role of dams in such a landscape. Most dams in the CONUS were designed without knowledge of devastating floods and prolonged droughts detected in multi-centennial paleoclimate records, consideration of projected climate change, nor consideration of optimal operation across large-scale regions. As a step towards informing water supply across the CONUS we present a paleoclimate reconstruction of annual streamflow across the CONUS over the past 555 years using a spatially and temporally complete paleoclimate record of summer drought across the CONUS targeting a set of US Geological Survey streamflow sites. The spatial and temporal structures of national streamflow variability are analyzed using hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and wavelet analyses. The reconstructions show signals of contemporary droughts such as the Dust Bowl (1930s

  11. Improved Sustainability through Novel Water Management Strategies for Strawberry Transplant Establishment in Florida, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing bare-root transplants in Florida, United States, is an inefficient water-consuming activity. Between 3500 and 5500 m3/ha are applied with sprinkler irrigation to lower temperatures around the transplant crown and aid early root development, but more than 97% of the water volume runs off the polyethylene-covered beds. Research has been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of producing containerized (plug short-day cultivar transplants under Florida conditions, the effect of continuous and intermittent low-volume sprinklers on transplant establishment and the use of kaolin clay to reduce stress on young transplants. Research results demonstrated that growers may have alternatives to reduce water use and pumping costs during strawberry transplant establishment by the following: (a plug transplants can be produced from mother plants from Florida’s subtropical weather without chilling conditioning and still be competitive in the winter market; (b using continuous and intermittent low-volume sprinkler irrigation saves between 16% and 33% of the water volumes for strawberry establishment; and (c using kaolin clay showed to be a low-cost (US$63/ha plus application costs investment to reduce irrigation volumes by at least 30%.

  12. Assessing the adequacy of water storage infrastructure capacity under hydroclimatic variability and water demands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M. W.; Devineni, N.; Cook, E. R.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    As populations and associated economic activity in the US evolve, regional demands for water likewise change. For regions dependent on surface water, dams and reservoirs are critical to storing and managing releases of water and regulating the temporal and spatial availability of water in order to meet these demands. Storage capacities typically range from seasonal storage in the east to multi-annual and decadal-scale storage in the drier west. However, most dams in the US were designed with limited knowledge regarding the range, frequency, and persistence of hydroclimatic extremes. Demands for water supplied by these dams have likewise changed. Furthermore, many dams in the US are now reaching or have already exceeded their economic design life. The converging issues of aging dams, improved knowledge of hydroclimatic variability, and evolving demands for dam services result in a pressing need to evaluate existing reservoir capacities with respect to contemporary water demands, long term hydroclimatic variability, and service reliability into the future. Such an effort is possible given the recent development of two datasets that respectively address hydroclimatic variability in the conterminous United States over the past 555 years and human water demand related water stress over the same region. The first data set is a paleoclimate reconstruction of streamflow variability across the CONUS region based on a tree-ring informed reconstruction of the Palmer Drought Severity Index. This streamflow reconstruction suggested that wet spells with shorter drier spells were a key feature of 20th century streamflow compared with the preceding 450 years. The second data set in an annual cumulative drought index that is a measure of water balance based on water supplied through precipitation and water demands based on evaporative demands, agricultural, urban, and industrial demands. This index identified urban and regional hotspots that were particularly dependent on water

  13. Traveling Uncharted Waters: The Exchange of Government Information between the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui

    1998-01-01

    Describes a program established between the United States and China for exchange of government publications through their national libraries, the Library of Congress and the National Library of China. Challenges to the program, including the shift to electronic formats in the United States and government Internet censorship in China, are…

  14. Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States results from the complex interplay of climate, geology, and vegetation across widely ranging spatial and temporal scales. Present-day recharge tends to be narrowly focused in time and space. Widespread water-table declines accompanied agricultural development during the twentieth century, demonstrating that sustainable ground-water supplies are not guaranteed when part of the extracted resource represents paleorecharge. Climatic controls on ground-water recharge range from seasonal cycles of summer monsoonal and winter frontal storms to multimillennial cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. Precipitation patterns reflect global-scale interactions among the oceans, atmosphere, and continents. Large-scale climatic influences associated with El Niño and Pacific Decadal Oscillations strongly, but irregularly, control weather in the study area, so that year-to-year variations in precipitation and ground-water recharge are large and difficult to predict. Proxy data indicate geologically recent periods of naturally occurring multidecadal droughts unlike any in the modern instrumental record. Any anthropogenically induced climate change will likely reduce ground-water recharge through diminished snowpack at higher elevations. Future changes in El Niño and monsoonal patterns, both crucial to precipitation in the study area, are highly uncertain in current models. Current land-use modifications influence ground-water recharge through vegetation, irrigation, and impermeable area. High mountain ranges bounding the study area—the San Bernadino Mountains and Sierra Nevada to the west, and the Wasatch and southern Colorado Rocky Mountains to the east—provide external geologic controls on ground-water recharge. Internal geologic controls stem from tectonic processes that led to numerous, variably connected alluvial-filled basins, exposure of extensive Paleozoic aquifers in mountainous recharge

  15. The Pattern Across the Continental United States of Evapotranspiration Variability Associated with Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Randal D.; Salvucci, Guido D.; Rigden, Angela J.; Jung, Martin; Collatz, G. James; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pattern across the continental United States of the interannual variance of warm season water-dependent evapotranspiration, a pattern of relevance to land-atmosphere feedback, cannot be measured directly. Alternative and indirect approaches to estimating the pattern, however, do exist, and given the uncertainty of each, we use several such approaches here. We first quantify the water dependent evapotranspiration variance pattern inherent in two derived evapotranspiration datasets available from the literature. We then search for the pattern in proxy geophysical variables (air temperature, stream flow, and NDVI) known to have strong ties to evapotranspiration. The variances inherent in all of the different (and mostly independent) data sources show some differences but are generally strongly consistent they all show a large variance signal down the center of the U.S., with lower variances toward the east and (for the most part) toward the west. The robustness of the pattern across the datasets suggests that it indeed represents the pattern operating in nature. Using Budykos hydroclimatic framework, we show that the pattern can largely be explained by the relative strength of water and energy controls on evapotranspiration across the continent.

  16. A comparison of three federal datasets for thermoelectric water withdrawals in the United States for 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Melissa A.; Diehl, Timothy H.

    2017-01-01

    Historically, thermoelectric water withdrawal has been estimated by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) water-use compilations. Recently, the USGS developed models for estimating withdrawal at thermoelectric plants to provide estimates independent from plant operator-reported withdrawal data. This article compares three federal datasets of thermoelectric withdrawals for the United States in 2010: one based on the USGS water-use compilation, another based on EIA data, and the third based on USGS model-estimated data. The withdrawal data varied widely. Many plants had three different withdrawal values, and for approximately 54% of the plants the largest withdrawal value was twice the smallest, or larger. The causes of discrepancies among withdrawal estimates included definitional differences, definitional noise, and various nondefinitional causes. The uncertainty in national totals can be characterized by the range among the three datasets, from 5,640 m3/s (129 billion gallons per day [bgd]) to 6,954 m3/s (158 bgd), or by the aggregate difference between the smallest and largest values at each plant, from 4,014 m3/s (92 bgd) to 8,590 m3/s (196 bgd). When used to assess the accuracy of reported values, the USGS model estimates identify plants that need to be reviewed.

  17. Surface-water nutrient conditions and sources in the United States Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, D.R.; Johnson, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    The SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model was used to perform an assessment of surface-water nutrient conditions and to identify important nutrient sources in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest region of the United States (U.S.) for the year 2002. Our models included variables representing nutrient sources as well as landscape characteristics that affect nutrient delivery to streams. Annual nutrient yields were higher in watersheds on the wetter, west side of the Cascade Range compared to watersheds on the drier, east side. High nutrient enrichment (relative to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended nutrient criteria) was estimated in watersheds throughout the region. Forest land was generally the largest source of total nitrogen stream load and geologic material was generally the largest source of total phosphorus stream load generated within the 12,039 modeled watersheds. These results reflected the prevalence of these two natural sources and the low input from other nutrient sources across the region. However, the combined input from agriculture, point sources, and developed land, rather than natural nutrient sources, was responsible for most of the nutrient load discharged from many of the largest watersheds. Our results provided an understanding of the regional patterns in surface-water nutrient conditions and should be useful to environmental managers in future water-quality planning efforts.

  18. Decadal-scale changes of pesticides in ground water of the United States, 1993-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide data for ground water sampled across the United States between 1993-1995 and 2001-2003 by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program were evaluated for trends in detection frequency and concentration. The data analysis evaluated samples collected from a total of 362 wells located in 12 local well networks characterizing shallow ground water in agricultural areas and six local well networks characterizing the drinking water resource in areas of variable land use. Each well network was sampled once during 1993-1995 and once during 2001-2003. The networks provide an overview of conditions across a wide range of hydrogeologic settings and in major agricultural areas that vary in dominant crop type and pesticide use. Of about 80 pesticide compounds analyzed, only six compounds were detected in ground water from at least 10 wells during both sampling events. These compounds were the triazine herbicides atrazine, simazine, and prometon; the acetanilide herbicide metolachlor; the urea herbicide tebuthiuron; and an atrazine degradate, deethylatrazine (DEA). Observed concentrations of these compounds generally were spikes. In wells yielding detectable concentrations of atrazine, DEA, and prometon, concentrations were significantly lower (?? = 0.1) in 2001-2003 than in 1993-1995, whereas detection frequency of these compounds did not change significantly. Trends in atrazine concentrations at shallow wells in agricultural areas were found to be consistent overall with recent atrazine use data. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  19. Toward Effective Water Pipe Tobacco Control Policy in the United States: Synthesis of Federal, State, and Local Policy Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Jason B; Ton, Jessica N; James, A Everette; Primack, Brian A

    2017-07-01

    Water pipe tobacco smoking (WTS) is growing in popularity among U.S. young adults and is associated with health risks similar to those of cigarette smoking. The purpose of this study is to examine existing tobacco control policies (TCPs) in order to investigate how they engage WTS. A systematic synthesis of content and legal interactions among federal, state, and local TCP documents. Pennsylvania, which represents a politically and demographically diverse microcosm of the United States. No human subjects. Federal and state TCPs were retrieved via public legal repositories. Local policy searches were conducted via county/municipal Web sites, inclusive of 13 localities that had autonomous health departments or existing TCPs based on a National Cancer Institute report. Full-text TCPs were double coded within a grounded theory framework for health policy analysis. Emergent codes were used to compare and contrast policy texts and to examine legal interactions among TCPs. Examination of policy categories including youth access, use restrictions, and taxation revealed WTS as largely omitted from current TCPs. WTS was sometimes addressed as an "other" tobacco product under older TCPs, though ambiguities in language led to questionable enforceability. State preemptions have rolled back or prevented well-tailored reforms at the local level. Federal preemptions have likewise constrained state TCPs. Outdated, preempted, and unclear policies limit the extent to which TCPs engage WTS. Health advocates might target these aspects of TCP reform.

  20. Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas: Impacts from the Hydraulic Fracturing Water Cycle on Drinking Water Resources in the United States (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report provides a review and synthesis of available scientific information concerning the relationship between hydraulic fracturing activities and drinking water resources in the United States. The report is organized around activities in the hydraulic...

  1. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the United States and implications for human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    An occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in the United States. Water samples were analyzed for the protozoa Giardia and Cryptosporidium (EPA Method 1623); the fungi Aspe...

  2. Diversity and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica isolates from surface water in Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baoguang; Vellidis, George; Liu, Huanli; Jay-Russell, Michele; Zhao, Shaohua; Hu, Zonglin; Wright, Anita; Elkins, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    A study of prevalence, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica in surface water in the southeastern United States was conducted. A new scheme was developed for recovery of Salmonella from irrigation pond water and compared with the FDA's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (8th ed., 2014) (BAM) method. Fifty-one isolates were recovered from 10 irrigation ponds in produce farms over a 2-year period; nine Salmonella serovars were identified by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis, and the major serovar was Salmonella enterica serovar Newport (S. Newport, n = 29), followed by S. enterica serovar Enteritidis (n = 6), S. enterica serovar Muenchen (n = 4), S. enterica serovar Javiana (n = 3), S. enterica serovar Thompson (n = 2), and other serovars. It is noteworthy that the PulseNet patterns of some of the isolates were identical to those of the strains that were associated with the S. Thompson outbreaks in 2010, 2012, and 2013, S. Enteritidis outbreaks in 2011 and 2013, and an S. Javiana outbreak in 2012. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing confirmed 16 S. Newport isolates of the multidrug resistant-AmpC (MDR-AmpC) phenotype, which exhibited resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (ACSSuT), and to the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generations of cephalosporins (cephalothin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and ceftriaxone). Moreover, the S. Newport MDR-AmpC isolates had a PFGE pattern indistinguishable from the patterns of the isolates from clinical settings. These findings suggest that the irrigation water may be a potential source of contamination of Salmonella in fresh produce. The new Salmonella isolation scheme significantly increased recovery efficiency from 21.2 (36/170) to 29.4% (50/170) (P = 0.0002) and streamlined the turnaround time from 5 to 9 days with the BAM method to 4 days and thus may facilitate microbiological analysis of environmental water. Copyright © 2014, American Society for

  3. Occurrence of human pharmaceuticals in water resources of the United States: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, M.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Furlong, E.T.

    2004-01-01

    The widespread environmental presence of some pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater compounds has been documented globally (e.g. Buser et al. 1998; Ternes 1998; Stumpf et al.1999; Heberer et al. 2001; Kümmerer 2001; Ternes et al. 2001; Scheytt et al. 2001; Golet et al. 2002; Kolpin et al. 2002; Boyd et al. 2003; Metcalf et al. 2003). Recently, there have been several literature reviews and summary studies of the occurrence, fate, transport, and treatment of targeted human pharmaceuticals in wastewater effluent and associated environmental waters across the globe (e.g. Daughton and Ternes 1999; Sedlak et al. 2000; Suter and Giger 2000; Daughton and Jones-Lepp 2001; Jones et al. 2001; Heberer 2002; and Drewes et al. 2002). The occurrence of pharmaceutical compounds in water resources is explained by their ubiquitous use, excretion of large percentages of the mass consumed, and incomplete removal during wastewater treatment (Stumpf et al.1999). The recent increase in detection of trace concentrations (typically less than a part per billion) of pharmaceuticals in water resources across the globe reflects improvements in laboratory analytical methods (Sedlak et al. 2000) and the associated increases in field surveys. The detection of pharmaceutical compounds in large rivers in Europe and in the North Sea (Buser et al. 1998; Ternes 1998; Stumpf et al. 1999) highlighted the fact that highly soluble, trace organic compounds, such as pharmaceuticals, may escape removal in wastewater treatment, and the mixing and concentration of wastewaters through conventional wastewater treatment processes could provide a means of delivering these chemicals to environmental waters in a manner that would contaminate water resources on a large scale at trace levels (Richardson and Bowron 1985). In the United States, some of the first detections of a limited number of pharmaceutically active compounds or their transformation products were found in waters associated with landfill

  4. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in groundwater, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Delzer, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used in SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well before water treatment (for groundwater) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that has been treated and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished-water samples are collected before the water enters the distribution system. The primary objective of SWQAs is to determine the occurrence of more than 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water used by community water systems, many of which currently are unregulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A secondary objective is to understand recurrence patterns in source water and determine if these patterns also occur in finished water before distribution. SWQA studies were conducted in two phases for most studies completed by 2005, and in one phase for most studies completed since 2005. Analytical results are reported for a total of 295 different anthropogenic organic compounds monitored in source-water and finished-water samples collected during 2002-10. The 295 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and combustion-derived compounds; (10) personal-care and domestic-use products; (11) plant- or animal-derived biochemicals; (12) refrigerants and

  5. Quality of Water from Domestic Wells in Principal Aquifers of the United States, 1991-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Leslie A.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), water samples were collected during 1991-2004 from domestic wells (private wells used for household drinking water) for analysis of drinking-water contaminants, where contaminants are considered, as defined by the Safe Drinking Water Act, to be all substances in water. Physical properties and the concentrations of major ions, trace elements, nutrients, radon, and organic compounds (pesticides and volatile organic compounds) were measured in as many as 2,167 wells; fecal indicator bacteria and radionuclides also were measured in some wells. The wells were located within major hydrogeologic settings of 30 regionally extensive aquifers used for water supply in the United States. One sample was collected from each well prior to any in-home treatment. Concentrations were compared to water-quality benchmarks for human health, either U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for public water supplies or USGS Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs). No individual contaminant was present in concentrations greater than available health benchmarks in more than 8 percent of the sampled wells. Collectively, however, about 23 percent of wells had at least 1 contaminant present at concentrations greater than an MCL or HBSL, based on analysis of samples from 1,389 wells in which most contaminants were measured. Radon, nitrate, several trace elements, fluoride, gross alpha- and beta-particle radioactivity, and fecal indicator bacteria were found most frequently (in one or more percent of wells) at concentrations greater than benchmarks and, thus, are of potential concern for human health. Radon concentrations were greater than the lower of two proposed MCLs (300 picocuries per liter or pCi/L) in about 65 percent of the wells and greater than the higher proposed MCL (4,000 pCi/L) in about 4 percent of wells. Nitrate, arsenic, manganese, strontium, and

  6. "Using Satellite Remote Sensing to Derive Numeric Criteria in Coastal and Inland Waters of the United States"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, T. N.; Schaeffer, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Anthropogenic nutrient pollution is a major stressor of aquatic ecosystems around the world. In the United States, states and tribes can adopt numeric water quality values (i.e. criteria) into their water quality management standards to protect aquatic life from eutrophication impacts. However, budget and resource constraints have limited the ability of many states and tribes to collect the water quality monitoring data needed to derive numeric criteria. Over the last few decades, satellite technology has provided water quality measurements on a global scale over long time periods. Water quality managers are finding the data provided by satellite technology useful in managing eutrophication impacts in coastal waters, estuaries, lakes, and reservoirs. In recent years EPA has worked with states and tribes to derive remotely sensed numeric Chl-a criteria for coastal waters with limited field-based data. This approach is now being expanded and used to derive Chl-a criteria in freshwater systems across the United States. This presentation will cover EPA's approach to derive numeric Chl-a criteria using satellite remote sensing, recommendations to improve satellite sensors to expand applications, potential areas of interest, and the challenges of using remote sensing to establish water quality management goals, as well as provide a case in which this approach has been applied.

  7. Characterizing the Breadth and Depth of Volunteer Water Monitoring Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Genskow, Kenneth D.

    2018-01-01

    A survey of 345 volunteer water monitoring programs in the United States was conducted to document their characteristics, and perceived level of support for data to inform natural resource management or policy decisions. The response rate of 86% provided information from 46 states. Programs represented a range of ages, budgets, objectives, scopes, and level of quality assurance, which influenced data uses and perceived support by sponsoring agency administrators and external decision makers. Most programs focused on rivers, streams, and lakes. Programs had not made substantial progress to develop EPA or state-approved quality assurance plans since 1998, with only 48% reporting such plans. Program coordinators reported feeling slightly more support for data to be used for management as compared to policy decisions. Programs with smaller budgets may be at particular risk of being perceived to lack credibility due to failure to develop quality assurance plans. Over half of programs identified as collaborative, in that volunteers assisted scientists in program design, data analysis and/or dissemination of results. Just under a third were contributory, in which volunteers primarily collected data in a scientist-defined program. Recommendations to improve perceived data credibility, and to augment limited budgets include developing quality assurance plans and gaining agency approval, and developing partnerships with other organizations conducting monitoring in the area to share resources and knowledge. Funding agencies should support development of quality assurance plans to help ensure data credibility. Service providers can aid in plan development by providing training to program staff over time to address high staff turnover rates.

  8. Mapping water availability, projected use and cost in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbara D.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Roberts, Barry L.; Passell, Howard D.; Jensen, Daniel; Forsgren, Christopher; Sehlke, Gerald; Cook, Margaret A.; King, Carey W.; Larsen, Sara

    2014-05-01

    New demands for water can be satisfied through a variety of source options. In some basins surface and/or groundwater may be available through permitting with the state water management agency (termed unappropriated water), alternatively water might be purchased and transferred out of its current use to another (termed appropriated water), or non-traditional water sources can be captured and treated (e.g., wastewater). The relative availability and cost of each source are key factors in the development decision. Unfortunately, these measures are location dependent with no consistent or comparable set of data available for evaluating competing water sources. With the help of western water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1200 watersheds throughout the western US. Five water sources were individually examined, including unappropriated surface water, unappropriated groundwater, appropriated water, municipal wastewater and brackish groundwater. Also mapped was projected change in consumptive water use from 2010 to 2030. Associated costs to acquire, convey and treat the water, as necessary, for each of the five sources were estimated. These metrics were developed to support regional water planning and policy analysis with initial application to electric transmission planning in the western US.

  9. Anthropogenic organic compounds in source water of select community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Price, Curtis V.; Bender, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water delivered by community water systems (CWSs) comes from one or both of two sources: surface water and groundwater. Source water is raw, untreated water used by CWSs and is usually treated before distribution to consumers. Beginning in 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program initiated Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) at select CWSs across the United States, primarily to characterize the occurrence of a large number of anthropogenic organic compounds that are predominantly unregulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Source-water samples from CWSs were collected during 2002–10 from 20 surface-water sites (river intakes) and during 2002–09 from 448 groundwater sites (supply wells). River intakes were sampled approximately 16 times during a 1-year sampling period, and supply wells were sampled once. Samples were monitored for 265 anthropogenic organic compounds. An additional 3 herbicides and 16 herbicide degradates were monitored in samples collected from 8 river intakes and 118 supply wells in areas where these compounds likely have been used. Thirty-seven compounds have an established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for drinking water, 123 have USGS Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs), and 29 are included on the EPA Contaminant Candidate List 3. All compounds detected in source water were evaluated both with and without an assessment level and were grouped into 13 categories (hereafter termed as “use groups”) based on their primary use or source. The CWS sites were characterized in a national context using an extract of the EPA Safe Drinking Water Information System to develop spatially derived and system-specific ancillary data. Community water system information is contained in the EPA Public Supply Database, which includes 2,016 active river intakes and 112,099 active supply wells. Ancillary variables including population served

  10. The fouling serpulids (Polychaeta: Serpulidae from United States coastal waters: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rolando Bastida-Zavala

    2017-08-01

    minutus from Veracruz, Mexico to Pensacola Bay, Florida. The following additional species range extensions are provisional in that they represent only one record or were not found in the most recent surveys (e.g., Hydroides elegans - east coast: H. longispinosa from Marshall Islands to Oahu, Hawaii; Protula balboensis from Florida to Texas; P. longiseta from the Mexican Caribbean to the Indian River, Florida; H. elegans from San Francisco to Humboldt Bay, northern California and on the east coast from the Indian River, Florida, to Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Among surveyed bays, Biscayne Bay, Florida and Corpus Christi, Texas (northern Gulf of Mexico had the greatest number of species (14 and 8, respectively; in contrast, almost all sites in Alaska, Washington, Oregon (northwest Pacific, Rhode Island, Virginia and South Carolina (Atlantic had only one or two species each. Hydroides dianthus was, by far, the most abundant serpulid species on fouling plates in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the east coast, while Pseudochitinopoma occidentalis was the most abundant serpulid detected on the west coast. For each species recorded herein, we include the synonyms and some key references, a material studied section, a diagnosis, and updated distributional information. A checklist and identification key to the known shallow-water serpulids sensu stricto of the United States are included.

  11. Bridging the Gap: Ideas for water sustainability in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, V. C.; Passell, H. D.; Roach, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Incremental improvements in water sustainability in the western U.S. may not be able to close the growing gap between increasing freshwater demand, climate driven variability in freshwater supply, and growing environmental consciousness. Incremental improvements include municipal conservation, improvements to irrigation technologies, desalination, water leasing, and others. These measures, as manifest today in the western U.S., are successful in themselves but limited in their ability to solve long term water scarcity issues. Examples are plainly evident and range from the steady and long term decline of important aquifers and their projected inability to provide water for future agricultural irrigation, projected declines in states' abilities to meet legal water delivery obligations between states, projected shortages of water for energy production, and others. In many cases, measures that can close the water scarcity gap have been identified, but often these solutions simply shift the gap from water to some other sector, e.g., economics. Saline, brackish or produced water purification, for example, could help solve western water shortages in some areas, but will be extremely expensive, and so shift the gap from water to economics. Transfers of water out of agriculture could help close the water scarcity gap in other areas; however, loss of agriculture will shift the gap to regional food security. All these gaps, whether in water, economics, food security, or other sectors, will have a negative impact on the western states. Narrowing these future gaps requires both technical and policy solutions as well as tools to understand the tradeoffs. Here we discuss several examples from across the western U.S. that span differing scales and decision spaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear

  12. Retrospective Snow Analysis Across the Continental United States for the National Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, L. R.; Gochis, D.; Dugger, A. L.; McCreight, J. L.; Barlage, M. J.; Fall, G. M.; Olheiser, C.

    2016-12-01

    For large portions of the United States, snow plays a vital role in hydrologic prediction. This is particularly true in the mountain west where snowmelt contributes up to 80% of total streamflow runoff. The Office of Water Prediction (OWP) will begin running the National Water Model (NWM) during the second half of 2016, which is a continental-scale implementation of the WRF-Hydro community hydrologic modeling framework. Assessing and benchmarking the performance of the snow component of the NWM is important for future research-to-operations activities and for forecasters to better understand NWM output. For this study, WRF-Hydro was ran using the same domain and physics options as the NWM (1 km LSM, 250m overland routing, and NHDPlus Version 2.1 channel network). The land surface component chosen is Noah-MP land surface model. Forcing from the National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2) was downscaled from the native 0.125 degree resolution to the 1 km modeling domain to drive the model. The model was ran over a 5-year retrospective period to gauge multi-year performance of the snow states. Output was analyzed against both in-situ observations, such as SNOTEL, and the Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS). In addition, gridded snow states and SNODAS grids were aggregated to Omernik-derived ecological regions. This was done in order to break up snow analysis by regions that share similar ecological and physiographic characteristics. Results show WRF-Hydro is able to capture peak timing across most of the mountain west fairly well. In terms of magnitudes, the model struggles across portions of the west with a low bias. This is especially true in the Cascades, which could be traced back to precipitation partitioning issues in the model. Across the central Rockies, the model exhibits a lower dry bias showing improved performance there. Previous literature suggests a dry bias in the precipitation out west may be contributing to model performance. East of the

  13. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara Denise.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  14. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  15. Modeled Sources, Transport, and Accumulation of Dissolved Solids in Water Resources of the Southwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anning, David W

    2011-10-01

    Information on important source areas for dissolved solids in streams of the southwestern United States, the relative share of deliveries of dissolved solids to streams from natural and human sources, and the potential for salt accumulation in soil or groundwater was developed using a SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes model. Predicted area-normalized reach-catchment delivery rates of dissolved solids to streams ranged from Salton Sea accounting unit.

  16. Implications of water constraints for electricity capacity expansion in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Hejazi, M. I.; Iyer, G.; Forman, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    U.S. electricity generation is vulnerable to water supply since water is required for cooling. Constraints on the availability of water will therefore necessitate adaptive planning by the power generation sector. Hence, it is important to integrate restrictions in water availability in electricity capacity planning in order to better understand the economic viability of alternative capacity planning options. The study of the implications of water constraints for the U.S. power generation system is limited in terms of scale and robustness. We extend previous studies by including physical water constraints in a state-level model of the U.S. energy system embedded within a global integrated assessment model (GCAM-USA). We focus on the implications of such constraints for the U.S. electricity capacity expansion, integrating both supply and demand effects under a consistent framework. Constraints on the availability of water have two general effects across the U.S. First, water availability constraints increase the cost of electricity generation, resulting in reduced electrification of end-use sectors. Second, water availability constraints result in forced retirements of water-intensive technologies such as thermoelectric coal- and gas- fired technologies before the end of their natural lifetimes. The demand for electricity is then met by an increase in investments in less water-dependent technologies such as wind and solar photovoltaic. Our results show that the regional patterns of the above effects are heterogeneous across the U.S. In general, the impacts of water constraints on electricity capacity expansion are more pronounced in the West than in the East. This is largely because of lower water availability in the West compared to the East due to lower precipitation in the Western states. Constraints on the availability of water might also have important implications for U.S. electricity trade. For example, under severe constraints on the availability of water

  17. Simulated water budget of a small forested watershed in the continental/maritime hydroclimatic region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang Wei; Timothy E. Link; Andrew T. Hudak; John D. Marshall; Kathleen L. Kavanagh; John T. Abatzoglou; Hang Zhou; Robert E. Pangle; Gerald N. Flerchinger

    2016-01-01

    Annual streamflows have decreased across mountain watersheds in the Pacific Northwest of the United States over the last ~70 years; however, in some watersheds, observed annual flows have increased. Physically based models are useful tools to reveal the combined effects of climate and vegetation on long-term water balances by explicitly simulating the internal...

  18. 46 CFR 24.15-5 - Canadian pleasure craft temporarily using navigable waters of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian pleasure craft temporarily using navigable... SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Equivalents § 24.15-5 Canadian pleasure craft temporarily using navigable waters of the United States. Uninspected Canadian pleasure craft (uninspected vessels...

  19. Potential implications for expansion of freeze-tolerant eucalyptus plantations on water resources in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell

    2014-01-01

    The potential expansion of freeze-tolerant (FT) Eucalyptus plantations in the United States has raised concerns about the implications for water resources. Modeling was used to examine the potential effects of expanding the distribution of FT Eucalyptus plantations in US Department of Agriculture Plant Hardiness Zones 8b and...

  20. Trends in the occurrence of MTBE in drinking water in the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Public water systems in Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, and Rhode Island sampled treated drinking water from 1993-2006 and analyzed the samples for MTBE. The US Geological Survey examined trends in the occurrence of MTBE in drinking water derived from ground water in these States for two near-decadal time steps; 1993-1999 and 2000-2006. MTBE was detected in 14% of drinking water samples collected in all States from 1993-1999 and in 19% of drinking water samples collected from the same systems from 2000-2006 and this difference was statistically significant. Trends in the occurrence of MTBE in each State by individual year indicated significant positive trends in Maryland and New Hampshire. Significant, increasing trends in MTBE concentrations were observed in Maryland and Rhode Island by individual year. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2007 Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Ground Water: Prevention, Assessment and Remediation Conference (Houston, TX 11/5-6/2007).

  1. Widespread molecular detection of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in cold water taps across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States 3,522 cases of legionellosis were reported to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009. Of these reports, it is estimated that 84% are caused by the microorganism Legionella pneumophila Serogroup (Sg) 1. Legionella spp. have been isolated and r...

  2. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States - II) Untreated drinking water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, M.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Barnes, K.K.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Barber, L.B.; Thurman, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a variety of manufactured and natural organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals, steroids, surfactants, flame retardants, fragrances, plasticizers and other chemicals often associated with wastewaters have been detected in the vicinity of municipal wastewater discharges and livestock agricultural facilities. To provide new data and insights about the environmental presence of some of these chemicals in untreated sources of drinking water in the United States targeted sites were sampled and analyzed for 100 analytes with sub-parts per billion detection capabilities. The sites included 25 ground- and 49 surface-water sources of drinking water serving populations ranging from one family to over 8 million people.

  3. Geospatial data to support analysis of water-quality conditions in basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Southwest Principal Aquifers study area consists of most of California and Nevada and parts of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado; it is about 409,000 square miles. The Basin-fill aquifers extend through about 201,000 square miles of the study area and are the primary source of water for cities and agricultural communities in basins in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Southwest). The demand on limited ground-water resources in areas in the southwestern United States has increased significantly. This increased demand underscores the importance of understanding factors that affect the water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region, which are being studied through the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. As a part of this study, spatial datasets of natural and anthropogenic factors that may affect ground-water quality of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States were developed. These data include physical characteristics of the region, such as geology, elevation, and precipitation, as well as anthropogenic factors, including population, land use, and water use. Spatial statistics for the alluvial basins in the Southwest have been calculated using the datasets. This information provides a foundation for the development of conceptual and statistical models that relate natural and anthropogenic factors to ground-water quality across the Southwest. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to determine and illustrate the spatial distribution of these basin-fill variables across the region. One hundred-meter resolution raster data layers that represent the spatial characteristics of the basins' boundaries, drainage areas, population densities, land use, and water use were developed for the entire Southwest.

  4. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  5. Impacts of urbanization on stream water quantity and quality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Peter Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1950s, the world’s urban population has grown more than 400% to 3.9 billion today. About 60% of the total population is expected to live in urban areas by the year 2025. For the United States (U.S.), 80% of the population lives in urban areas. The Earth has entered into the Anthropocene, a new geological epoch dominated by urbanization and people.

  6. Outbreaks Associated with Treated Recreational Water - United States, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavsa, Michele C; Cikesh, Bryanna L; Roberts, Virginia A; Kahler, Amy M; Vigar, Marissa; Hilborn, Elizabeth D; Wade, Timothy J; Roellig, Dawn M; Murphy, Jennifer L; Xiao, Lihua; Yates, Kirsten M; Kunz, Jasen M; Arduino, Matthew J; Reddy, Sujan C; Fullerton, Kathleen E; Cooley, Laura A; Beach, Michael J; Hill, Vincent R; Yoder, Jonathan S

    2018-05-18

    Outbreaks associated with exposure to treated recreational water can be caused by pathogens or chemicals in venues such as pools, hot tubs/spas, and interactive water play venues (i.e., water playgrounds). During 2000-2014, public health officials from 46 states and Puerto Rico reported 493 outbreaks associated with treated recreational water. These outbreaks resulted in at least 27,219 cases and eight deaths. Among the 363 outbreaks with a confirmed infectious etiology, 212 (58%) were caused by Cryptosporidium (which causes predominantly gastrointestinal illness), 57 (16%) by Legionella (which causes Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia, and Pontiac fever, a milder illness with flu-like symptoms), and 47 (13%) by Pseudomonas (which causes folliculitis ["hot tub rash"] and otitis externa ["swimmers' ear"]). Investigations of the 363 outbreaks identified 24,453 cases; 21,766 (89%) were caused by Cryptosporidium, 920 (4%) by Pseudomonas, and 624 (3%) by Legionella. At least six of the eight reported deaths occurred in persons affected by outbreaks caused by Legionella. Hotels were the leading setting, associated with 157 (32%) of the 493 outbreaks. Overall, the outbreaks had a bimodal temporal distribution: 275 (56%) outbreaks started during June-August and 46 (9%) in March. Assessment of trends in the annual counts of outbreaks caused by Cryptosporidium, Legionella, or Pseudomonas indicate mixed progress in preventing transmission. Pathogens able to evade chlorine inactivation have become leading outbreak etiologies. The consequent outbreak and case counts and mortality underscore the utility of CDC's Model Aquatic Health Code (https://www.cdc.gov/mahc) to prevent outbreaks associated with treated recreational water.

  7. Potential interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality and adjacent land cover in amphibian habitats in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, William A.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Anderson, Chauncey; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality, and adjacent land cover, we collected samples of water, sediment, and frog tissue from 21 sites in 7 States in the United States (US) representing a variety of amphibian habitats. All samples were analyzed for > 90 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and water and frogs were screened for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using molecular methods. Pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected frequently in frog breeding habitats (water and sediment) as well as in frog tissue. Fungicides occurred more frequently in water, sediment, and tissue than was expected based upon their limited use relative to herbicides or insecticides. Pesticide occurrence in water or sediment was not a strong predictor of occurrence in tissue, but pesticide concentrations in tissue were correlated positively to agricultural and urban land, and negatively to forested land in 2-km buffers around the sites. Bd was detected in water at 45% of sites, and on 34% of swabbed frogs. Bd detections in water were not associated with differences in land use around sites, but sites with detections had colder water. Frogs that tested positive for Bd were associated with sites that had higher total fungicide concentrations in water and sediment, but lower insecticide concentrations in sediments relative to frogs that were Bd negative. Bd concentrations on frog swabs were positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and negatively correlated to pH and water temperature.Data were collected from a range of locations and amphibian habitats and represent some of the first field-collected information aimed at understanding the interactions between pesticides, land use, and amphibian disease. These interactions are of particular interest to conservation efforts as many amphibians live in altered habitats and may depend on wetlands embedded in these landscapes to

  8. Potential interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality and adjacent land cover in amphibian habitats in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W A; Smalling, K L; Anderson, C; Calhoun, D; Chestnut, T; Muths, E

    2016-10-01

    To investigate interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality, and adjacent land cover, we collected samples of water, sediment, and frog tissue from 21 sites in 7 States in the United States (US) representing a variety of amphibian habitats. All samples were analyzed for >90 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and water and frogs were screened for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using molecular methods. Pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected frequently in frog breeding habitats (water and sediment) as well as in frog tissue. Fungicides occurred more frequently in water, sediment, and tissue than was expected based upon their limited use relative to herbicides or insecticides. Pesticide occurrence in water or sediment was not a strong predictor of occurrence in tissue, but pesticide concentrations in tissue were correlated positively to agricultural and urban land, and negatively to forested land in 2-km buffers around the sites. Bd was detected in water at 45% of sites, and on 34% of swabbed frogs. Bd detections in water were not associated with differences in land use around sites, but sites with detections had colder water. Frogs that tested positive for Bd were associated with sites that had higher total fungicide concentrations in water and sediment, but lower insecticide concentrations in sediments relative to frogs that were Bd negative. Bd concentrations on frog swabs were positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and negatively correlated to pH and water temperature. Data were collected from a range of locations and amphibian habitats and represent some of the first field-collected information aimed at understanding the interactions between pesticides, land use, and amphibian disease. These interactions are of particular interest to conservation efforts as many amphibians live in altered habitats and may depend on wetlands embedded in these landscapes to survive

  9. Potential Effectiveness of Point-of-Use Filtration to Address Risks to Drinking Water in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathleen Ward; Gessesse, Bemnet; Butler, Lindsey J; MacIntosh, David L

    2017-01-01

    Numerous contemporary incidents demonstrate that conventional control strategies for municipal tap water have limited ability to mitigate exposures to chemicals whose sources are within distribution systems, such as lead, and chemicals that are not removed by standard treatment technologies, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)/perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS). In these situations, point-of-use (POU) controls may be effective in mitigating exposures and managing health risks of chemicals in drinking water, but their potential utility has not been extensively examined. As an initial effort to fill this information gap, we conducted a critical review and analysis of the existing literature and data on the effectiveness of POU drinking water treatment technologies for reducing chemical contaminants commonly found in tap water in the United States. We found that many types of water treatment devices available to consumers in the United States have undergone laboratory testing and often certification for removal of chemical contaminants in tap water, but in most cases their efficacy in actual use has yet to be well characterized. In addition, the few studies of POU devices while "in use" focus on traditional contaminants regulated under the Safe Drinking Water Act, but do not generally consider nontraditional contaminants of concern, such as certain novel human carcinogens, industrial chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and flame retardants. Nevertheless, the limited information available at present suggests that POU devices can be highly effective when used prophylactically and when deployed in response to contamination incidents. Based on these findings, we identify future areas of research for assessing the ability of POU filters to reduce health-related chemical contaminants distributed through public water systems and private wells.

  10. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  11. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  12. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  13. Estimating virus occurrence using Bayesian modeling in multiple drinking water systems of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment plants rely on purification of contaminated source waters to provide communities with potable water. One group of possible contaminants are enteric viruses. Measurement of viral quantities in environmental water systems are often performed using polymeras...

  14. Tamarisk control, water salvage, and wildlife habitat restoration along rivers in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2006-01-01

    In the latter part of the 19th century, species of the nonnative shrub tamarisk (also called saltcedar; for example, Tamarix ramosissima, T. chinensis) were introduced to the United States for use as ornamental plants for erosion control. By 1877, some naturalized populations had become established, and by the 1960s, tamarisk was present along most rivers in the semi-arid and arid parts of the West and was quite abundant along downstream ranches of the major southwest rivers such as the Colorado, Rio Grande, Gila, and Pecos. The principal period of tamarisk invasion coincided with changing physical conditions along western rivers associated with the construction and operation of dams. In many cases, these altered physical conditions appear to have been more favorable for tamarisk than native riparian competitors like cottonwoods and willows (Populus and Salix; Glenn and Nagler, 2005).

  15. Climatic and physiographic controls of spatial variability in surface water balance over the contiguous United States using the Budyko relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abatzoglou, John T.; Ficklin, Darren L.

    2017-09-01

    The geographic variability in the partitioning of precipitation into surface runoff (Q) and evapotranspiration (ET) is fundamental to understanding regional water availability. The Budyko equation suggests this partitioning is strictly a function of aridity, yet observed deviations from this relationship for individual watersheds impede using the framework to model surface water balance in ungauged catchments and under future climate and land use scenarios. A set of climatic, physiographic, and vegetation metrics were used to model the spatial variability in the partitioning of precipitation for 211 watersheds across the contiguous United States (CONUS) within Budyko's framework through the free parameter ω. A generalized additive model found that four widely available variables, precipitation seasonality, the ratio of soil water holding capacity to precipitation, topographic slope, and the fraction of precipitation falling as snow, explained 81.2% of the variability in ω. The ω model applied to the Budyko equation explained 97% of the spatial variability in long-term Q for an independent set of watersheds. The ω model was also applied to estimate the long-term water balance across the CONUS for both contemporary and mid-21st century conditions. The modeled partitioning of observed precipitation to Q and ET compared favorably across the CONUS with estimates from more sophisticated land-surface modeling efforts. For mid-21st century conditions, the model simulated an increase in the fraction of precipitation used by ET across the CONUS with declines in Q for much of the eastern CONUS and mountainous watersheds across the western United States.

  16. A Methylmercury Prediction Too For Surface Waters Across The Contiguous United States (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Booth, N.; Lutz, M.; Fienen, M. N.; Saltman, T.

    2009-12-01

    About 20 years ago, researchers at a few locations across the globe discovered high levels of mercury in fish from remote settings lacking any obvious mercury source. We now know that for most locations atmospheric deposition is the dominant mercury source, and that mercury methylation is the key process that translates low mercury loading rates into relatively high levels in top predators of aquatic food webs. Presently, almost all US states have advisories for elevated levels of mercury in sport fish, and as a result there is considerable public awareness and concern for this nearly ubiquitous contaminant issue. In some states, “statewide” advisories have been issued because elevated fish mercury levels are so common, or the state has no effective way to monitor thousands of lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and streams. As such, resource managers and public health officials have limited options for informing the public on of where elevated mercury concentrations in sport fish are more likely to occur than others. This project provides, for the first time, a national map of predicted (modeled) methylmercury concentrations in surface waters, which is the most toxic and bioaccumulative form of mercury in the environment. The map is the result of over two decades of research that resulted in the formulation of conceptual models of the mercury methylation process, which is strongly governed by environmental conditions - specifically hydrologic landscapes and water quality. The resulting predictive map shows clear regional trends in the distribution of methylmercury concentrations in surface waters. East of the Mississippi, the Gulf and southeastern Atlantic coast, the northeast, the lower Mississippi valley, and Great Lakes area are predicted to have generally higher environmental methylmercury levels. Higher-elevation, well-drained areas of Appalachia are predicted to have relatively lower methylmercury abundance. Other than the prairie pothole region, in the western

  17. Distribution of oxygen-18 and deuteriun in river waters across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Carol; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2001-01-01

    Reconstruction of continental palaeoclimate and palaeohydrology is currently hampered by limited information about isotopic patterns in the modern hydrologic cycle. To remedy this situation and to provide baseline data for other isotope hydrology studies, more than 4800, depth- and width-integrated, stream samples from 391 selected sites within the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) and Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN) were analysed for δ18O and δ2H (http://water.usgs.gov/pubs/ofr/ofr00-160/pdf/ofr00-160.pdf). Each site was sampled bimonthly or quarterly for 2·5 to 3 years between 1984 and 1987. The ability of this dataset to serve as a proxy for the isotopic composition of modern precipitation in the USA is supported by the excellent agreement between the river dataset and the isotopic compositions of adjacent precipitation monitoring sites, the strong spatial coherence of the distributions of δ18O and δ2H, the good correlations of the isotopic compositions with climatic parameters, and the good agreement between the ‘national’ meteoric water line (MWL) generated from unweighted analyses of samples from the 48 contiguous states of δ2H=8·11δ18O+8·99 (r2=0·98) and the unweighted global MWL of sites from the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) of the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) of δ2H=8·17δ18O+10·35. The national MWL is composed of water samples that arise in diverse local conditions where the local meteoric water lines (LMWLs) usually have much lower slopes. Adjacent sites often have similar LMWLs, allowing the datasets to be combined into regional MWLs. The slopes of regional MWLs probably reflect the humidity of the local air mass, which imparts a distinctive evaporative isotopic signature to rainfall and hence to stream samples. Deuterium excess values range from 6 to 15‰ in the eastern half of the USA, along the northwest coast and on the Colorado

  18. Planning for community resilience to future United States domestic water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costs of repairing and expanding aging infrastructure and competing demands for water from other sectors such as industry and agriculture are stretching water managers’ abilities to meet essential domestic drinking water needs for future generations. Using Bayesian statistical mo...

  19. International Space Station United States Laboratory Module Water Recovery Management Subsystem Verification from Flight 5A to Stage ULF2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.; Labuda, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system comprises of seven subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), Vacuum System (VS), Water Recovery and Management (WRM), and Waste Management (WM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the United States (U.S.) Laboratory Module WRM design and detailed element methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase of the U.S. Laboratory Module prior to launch and the Qualification of all of the modification kits added to it from Flight 5A up and including Stage ULF2.

  20. Occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether and gasoline hydrocarbons in ground water and source water in the United States and in drinking water in 12 Northeast and Mid-Atlantic States, 1993-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Squillace, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and implications of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and gasoline hydrocarbons were examined in three surveys of water quality conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey?one national-scale survey of ground water, one national-scale survey of source water from ground water, and one regional-scale survey of drinking water from ground water. The overall detection frequency of MTBE in all three surveys was similar to the detection frequencies of some other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that have much longer production and use histories in the United States. The detection frequency of MTBE was higher in drinking water and lower in source water and ground water. However, when the data for ground water and source water were limited to the same geographic extent as drinking-water data, the detection frequencies of MTBE were comparable to the detection frequency of MTBE in drinking water. In all three surveys, the detection frequency of any gasoline hydrocarbon was less than the detection frequency of MTBE. No concentration of MTBE in source water exceeded the lower limit of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Drinking-Water Advisory of 20 ?g/L (micrograms per liter). One concentration of MTBE in ground water exceeded 20 ?g/L, and 0.9 percent of drinking-water samples exceeded 20 ?g/L. The overall detection frequency of MTBE relative to other widely used VOCs indicates that MTBE is an important concern with respect to ground-water management. The probability of detecting MTBE was strongly associated with population density, use of MTBE in gasoline, and recharge, and weakly associated with density of leaking underground storage tanks, soil permeability, and aquifer consolidation. Only concentrations of MTBE above 0.5 ?g/L were associated with dissolved oxygen. Ground water underlying areas with high population density, ground water underlying areas where MTBE is used as a gasoline oxygenate, and ground water underlying areas with high recharge has a greater

  1. Methods for estimating water consumption for thermoelectric power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hutson, Susan S.; Ladd, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Water consumption at thermoelectric power plants represents a small but substantial share of total water consumption in the U.S. However, currently available thermoelectric water consumption data are inconsistent and incomplete, and coefficients used to estimate consumption are contradictory. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has resumed the estimation of thermoelectric water consumption, last done in 1995, based on the use of linked heat and water budgets to complement reported water consumption. This report presents the methods used to estimate freshwater consumption at a study set of 1,284 power plants based on 2010 plant characteristics and operations data.

  2. EnviroAtlas - Domestic Water Demand by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes domestic water demand attributes which provide insight into the amount of water currently used for indoor and outdoor residential...

  3. Water: Essential Element of United States Security Policy in the Middle East

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, Lars E

    1991-01-01

    .... Traditional sources of water have been taxed by the growth of populations in the area and their accompanying problems of pollution, waste, improper operation of water facilities, and poor cooperation...

  4. EnviroAtlas - Industrial Water Demand (2010) by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes industrial water demand attributes which provide insight into the amount of water currently used for manufacturing and production...

  5. The Western States Water Mission: A Hyper-Resolution Hydrological Model and Data Integration Platform for the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiglietti, J. S.; David, C. H.; Reager, J. T., II; Oaida, C.; Stampoulis, D.; Levoe, S.; Liu, P. W.; Trangsrud, A.; Basilio, R. R.; Allen, G. H.; Crichton, D. J.; Emery, C. M.; Farr, T.; Granger, S. L.; Hobbs, J.; Malhotra, S.; Osterman, G. B.; Rueckert, M.; Turmon, M.

    2017-12-01

    The Western States Water Mission (WSWM) is a high-resolution (3 km2), hydrological model and data integration platform under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the last 2 years. Distinctive features of the WSWM are its explicit representations of river networks and deep groundwater, an emphasis on uncertainty quantification, a major visualization and data distribution effort, and its focus on multivariate data assimilation, including GRACE/FO, SMAP, SWOT and MODSCAG fractional snow covered area. Importantly, the WSWM is actively managed as a flight project, i.e. with the rigor of a satellite mission. In this presentation we give an overview of the WSWM, including past accomplishments status, and future plans. In particular, results from recent 30-year simulations with GRACE and MODSCAG assimilation will be presented.

  6. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2009-01-01

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment....

  7. Implications of Upstream Flow Availability for Watershed Surface Water Supply Across the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai Duan; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Steven G. McNulty; Yang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Although it is well established that the availability of upstream flow (AUF) affects downstream water supply, its significance has not been rigorously categorized and quantified at fine resolutions. This study aims to fill this gap by providing a nationwide inventory of AUF and local water resource, and assessing their roles in securing water supply across the 2,099 8-...

  8. Water stress projections for the northeastern and Midwestern United States in 2060: anthropogenic and ecological consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian G. Tavernia; Mark D. Nelson; Peter Caldwell; Ge Sun

    2013-01-01

    Future climate and land-use changes and growing human populations may reduce the abundance of water resources relative to anthropogenic and ecological needs in the Northeast and Midwest (U.S.). We used output from WaSSI, a water accounting model, to assess potential changes between 2010 and 2060 in (1) anthropogenic water stress for watersheds throughout the Northeast...

  9. Memorandum of Understanding on Surface Coal Mining Operations Resulting in Placement of Excess Spoil Fills in the Waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOU on Surface Coal Mining Operations establishes a process for improving coordination in the review of permit applications required for surface coal mining and reclamation in waters of the United States

  10. Pharmaceuticals in the Built and Natural Water Environment of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir P. Deo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The known occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, including in drinking water supplies, continues to raise concerns over inadvertent exposures and associated potential health risks in humans and aquatic organisms. At the same time, the number and concentrations of new and existing pharmaceuticals in the water environment are destined to increase further in the future as a result of increased consumption of pharmaceuticals by a growing and aging population and ongoing measures to decrease per-capita water consumption. This review examines the occurrence and movement of pharmaceuticals in the built and natural water environment, with special emphasis on contamination of the drinking water supply, and opportunities for sustainable pollution control. We surveyed peer-reviewed publications dealing with quantitative measurements of pharmaceuticals in U.S. drinking water, surface water, groundwater, raw and treated wastewater as well as municipal biosolids. Pharmaceuticals have been observed to reenter the built water environment contained in raw drinking water, and they remain detectable in finished drinking water at concentrations in the ng/L to μg/L range. The greatest promises for minimizing pharmaceutical contamination include source control (for example, inputs from intentional flushing of medications for safe disposal, and sewer overflows, and improving efficiency of treatment facilities.

  11. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  12. Water withdrawals and trends from the Floridan aquifer system in the southeastern United States, 1950-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marella, Richard L.; Berndt, Marian P.

    2005-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system in the southeastern United States is one of the most productive aquifers in the world (Miller, 1990). This aquifer system underlies an area of about 100,000 square miles in southern Alabama, eastern and southern Georgia, southeastern Mississippi, southern South Carolina, and all of Florida. The Floridan aquifer system is the primary source of water for nearly 10 million people and supports agriculture, industry, and tourism throughout most of the region. In most areas, water from this aquifer is potable and needs very little treatment before use. However, in southern Florida (south of Lake Okeechobee), northwestern Florida and southern Alabama and Mississippi (Pensacola and westward), and eastern South Carolina, water in the aquifer system generally is not potable. The purpose of this report is to: Provide a general description of the Floridan aquifer system; Discuss water withdrawals by category for 2000; Highlight trends in water withdrawals between 1950 and 2000; and Provide a brief summary on the effects that human impacts have on the Floridan aquifer system.

  13. Risk of waterborne illness via drinking water in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Kelly A; Mena, Kristina D; Gerba, Charles P

    2008-01-01

    Outbreaks of disease attributable to drinking water are not common in the U.S., but they do still occur and can lead to serious acute, chronic, or sometimes fatal health consequences, particularly in sensitive and immunocompromised populations. From 1971 to 2002, there were 764 documented waterborne outbreaks associated with drinking water, resulting in 575,457 cases of illness and 79 deaths (Blackburn et al. 2004; Calderon 2004); however, the true impact of disease is estimated to be much higher. If properly applied, current protocols in municipal water treatment are effective at eliminating pathogens from water. However, inadequate, interrupted, or intermittent treatment has repeatedly been associated with waterborne disease outbreaks. Contamination is not evenly distributed but rather affected by the number of pathogens in the source water, the age of the distribution system, the quality of the delivered water, and climatic events that can tax treatment plant operations. Private water supplies are not regulated by the USEPA and are generally not treated or monitored, although very few of the municipal systems involved in documented outbreaks exceeded the USEPA's total coliform standard in the preceding 12 mon (Craun et al. 2002). We provide here estimates of waterborne infection and illness risks in the U.S. based on the total number of water systems, source water type, and total populations exposed. Furthermore, we evaluated all possible illnesses associated with the microbial infection and not just gastroenteritis. Our results indicate that 10.7 M infections/yr and 5.4 M illnesses/yr occur in populations served by community groundwater systems; 2.2 M infections/yr and 1.1 M illnesses/yr occur in noncommunity groundwater systems; and 26.0 M infections/yr and 13.0 M illnesses/yr occur in municipal surface water systems. The total estimated number of waterborne illnesses/yr in the U.S. is therefore estimated to be 19.5 M/yr. Others have recently estimated

  14. Risks to Water Resources from Shale Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.; Warner, Nathaniel; Darrah, Thomas H.; Kondash, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    The rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded oil and gas exploration in the USA. The rapid rate of shale gas exploration has triggered an intense public debate regarding the potential environmental and human health effects. A review of the updated literature has identified four potential risks for impacts on water resources: (1) stray gas contamination of shallow aquifers near shale gas sites; (2) contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater from spills, leaks, and disposal of inadequately treated wastewater or hydraulic fracturing fluids; (3) accumulation of toxic and radioactive residues in soil or stream sediments near disposal or spill sites; and (4) over-extraction of water resources for drilling and hydraulic fracturing that could induce water shortages and conflicts with other water users, particularly in water-scarce areas. As part of a long-term research on the potential water contamination associated with shale gas development, new geochemical and isotopic techniques have been developed for delineating the origin of gases and contaminants in water resource. In particular, multiple geochemical and isotopic (carbon isotopes in hydrocarbons, noble gas, strontium, boron, radium isotopes) tracers have been utilized to distinguish between naturally occurring dissolved gas and salts in water and contamination directly induced from shale gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations.

  15. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  16. Methods used to characterize the chemical composition and biological activity of environmental waters throughout the United States, 2012-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Barber, Larry B.; Boone, J. Scott; Buxton, Herbert T.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Hladik, Michelle; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Journey, Celeste A.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Loftin, Keith A.; Mills, Marc A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2017-03-22

    A vast array of chemical compounds are in wide commercial use in the United States, and the potential ecological and human-health effect of exposure to chemical mixtures has been identified as a high priority in environment health science. Awareness of the potential effects of low-level chemical exposures is rising. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted a study in which samples were collected from 38 streams in 25 States to provide an overview of contaminants found in stream water across the Nation. Additionally, biological screening assays were used to help determine any potential ecological and human-health effects of these chemical mixtures and to prioritize target chemicals for future toxicological studies. This report describes the site locations and the sampling and analytical methods and quality-assurance procedures used in the study.

  17. An integrated assessment of energy-water nexus at the state level in the United States: Projections and analyses under different scenarios through 2095

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Patel, P. L.; Hejazi, M. I.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, L.; Edmonds, J.

    2013-12-01

    Water withdrawals for thermoelectric power plants account for approximately half of the total water use in the United States. With growing electricity demands in the future and limited water supplies in many water-scarce states in the U.S., grasping the trade-off between energy and water requires an integrated modeling approach that can capture the interactions among energy, water availability, climate, technology, and economic factors at various scales. In this study, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a technologically-detailed integrated model of the economy, energy, agriculture and land use, water, and climate systems, with 14 geopolitical regions that are further dissaggregated into up to 18 agro-ecological zones, was extended to model the electricity and water systems at the state level in the U.S. More specifically, GCAM was employed to estimate future state-level electricity generation and demands, and the associated water withdrawals and consumptions under a set of six scenarios with extensive levels of details on generation fuel portfolio, cooling technology mix, and water use intensities. The state-level estimates were compared against available inventories where good agreement was achieved on national and regional levels. We then explored the electric-sector water use up to 2095, focusing on implications from: 1) socioeconomics and growing demands, 2) the adoption of climate mitigation policy (e.g., RCP4.5 W/m2 vs. a reference scenario), 3) the transition of cooling systems, 4) constraints on electricity trading across states (full trading vs. limited trading), and 5) the adoption of water saving technologies. Overall, the fast retirement of once-through cooling, together with the gradual transition from fossil fuels dominant to a mixture of different fuels, accelerate the decline of water withdrawals and correspondingly compensate consumptive water use. Results reveal that U.S. electricity generation expands significantly as population grows

  18. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Fang, X.; Wilson, E.

    2013-05-01

    Gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the US installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many preexisting models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work.

  19. Water Pollution Control Training: The Educational Role of the United States Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frederick D.

    Presented are the results of a study to determine the perceived needs of environmental control education programs as seen by students, instructors, deans or program directors, and field-related employers in the field of water pollution control. Data were collected utilizing three approaches: survey instruments, information from Water Quality…

  20. Water conservation and hydrological transitions in cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, George M.; Hess, David J.; Gilligan, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Cities across the world have had to diversify and expand their water supply systems in response to demand growth, groundwater depletion and pollution, and instability and inadequacy of regional surface freshwater sources. In the U.S., these problems plague not only the arid Western cities but increasingly also cities in the Eastern portions of the country. Although cities continue to seek out new sources of water via Promethean projects of long-distance supply systems, desalinization plants, and the recharge of aquifers with surface water, they also pursue water conservation because of its low cost and other benefits. We examine water conservation as a complex sociotechnical system comprising interactions of political, sociodemographic, economic, and hydroclimatological factors. We provide quantitative data on the factors that affect more and less advanced transitions in water conservation regimes, and we show that water stress and other hydrological data can only partially predict the transition. We also provide qualitative case studies to identify institutional and political barriers to more advanced water conservation regimes. This interdisciplinary, mixed methods approach typifies the need for knowledge that informs hydrologists about how their research may or may not be adopted by decision-makers.

  1. Management of ground water and evolving hydrogeologic studies in New Jersey : a heavily urbanized and industrialized state in the northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, P. Patrick

    1985-01-01

    New Jersey is the most densely populated and one of the most industrialized states in the United States. An abundance of freshwater and proximity to major northeastern metropolitan centers has facilitated this development. Pumpage of freshwater from all aquifers in the State in 1980 was 730 million gallons per day (2.76 million cubic meters per day).Management and efficient development of the ground-water resources of the State are the responsibility of the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. Laws have been enacted and updated by the State legislature to manage water allocation and to control the disposal of hazardous wastes. Present resource management is guided by the New Jersey Water-Supply Master Plan of 1981. Funding for management activities is partially derived from the sale of state-approved bonds.Effective planning and regional management require accurate and up-to-date hydrologic information and analyses. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Jersey Geological Survey, is conducting three intensive ground-water studies involving the collection and interpretation of hydrologic data to meet the urgent water-management needs of New Jersey. These studies are part of a long-term cooperative program and are funded through the Water-Supply Bond Act of 1981. They began in 1983 and are scheduled to be completed in 1988.The project areas are situated in the New Jersey part of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in and near Atlantic City, Camden, and South River. They range in size from 400 to 1,200 mil (1,040 to 3,120 km2). The studies are designed to define the geology, hydrology, and geochemistry of the local ground-water systems. The results of these studies will enable the State to address more effectively major problems in these areas such as declining water levels, overpumping, saltwater intrusion, and ground-water contamination resulting from the improper disposal of hazardous wastes.Specific objectives of these studies by the U

  2. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    property of CocaCola Bottling Company, Fayetteville, North Carolina, of a value in excess of $100.00, in violation of Title 18 United States Code, Section...another, to-wit: a Cocacola soft drink machine, the amount of damage to said personal property being more than $200.00, in violation of North Carolina

  3. EnviroAtlas - Thermoelectric Water Use by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of the thermoelectric water consumption based on the December 2016 US Energy Information Administration (EIA) monthly electric...

  4. Drivers of Variability in Public-Supply Water Use Across the Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worland, Scott C.; Steinschneider, Scott; Hornberger, George M.

    2018-03-01

    This study explores the relationship between municipal water use and an array of climate, economic, behavioral, and policy variables across the contiguous U.S. The relationship is explored using Bayesian-hierarchical regression models for over 2,500 counties, 18 covariates, and three higher-level grouping variables. Additionally, a second analysis is included for 83 cities where water price and water conservation policy information is available. A hierarchical model using the nine climate regions (product of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) as the higher-level groups results in the best out-of-sample performance, as estimated by the Widely Available Information Criterion, compared to counties grouped by urban continuum classification or primary economic activity. The regression coefficients indicate that the controls on water use are not uniform across the nation: e.g., counties in the Northeast and Northwest climate regions are more sensitive to social variables, whereas counties in the Southwest and East North Central climate regions are more sensitive to environmental variables. For the national city-level model, it appears that arid cities with a high cost of living and relatively low water bills sell more water per customer, but as with the county-level model, the effect of each variable depends heavily on where a city is located.

  5. High-resolution Continental Scale Land Surface Model incorporating Land-water Management in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S.; Pokhrel, Y. N.

    2016-12-01

    Land surface models have been used to assess water resources sustainability under changing Earth environment and increasing human water needs. Overwhelming observational records indicate that human activities have ubiquitous and pertinent effects on the hydrologic cycle; however, they have been crudely represented in large scale land surface models. In this study, we enhance an integrated continental-scale land hydrology model named Leaf-Hydro-Flood to better represent land-water management. The model is implemented at high resolution (5km grids) over the continental US. Surface water and groundwater are withdrawn based on actual practices. Newly added irrigation, water diversion, and dam operation schemes allow better simulations of stream flows, evapotranspiration, and infiltration. Results of various hydrologic fluxes and stores from two sets of simulation (one with and the other without human activities) are compared over a range of river basin and aquifer scales. The improved simulations of land hydrology have potential to build consistent modeling framework for human-water-climate interactions.

  6. A Retrospective Analysis on the Occurrence of Arsenic in Ground-Water Resources of the United States and Limitations in Drinking-Water-Supply Characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, Michael J.; Welch, Alan H.; Watkins, Sharon A.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Horn, Marilee A.

    2000-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1996, requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to review current drinking-water standards for arsenic, propose a maximum contaminant level for arsenic by January 1, 2000, and issue a final regulation by January, 2001. Quantification of the national occurrence of targeted ranges in arsenic concentration in ground water used for public drinking-water supplies is an important component of USEPA's regulatory process. Data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Information System (NWIS) were used in a retrospective analysis of arsenic in the ground-water resources of the United States. The analysis augments other existing sources of data on the occurrence of arsenic collected in ground water at public water-supply systems.The USGS, through its District offices and national programs, has been compiling data for many years on arsenic concentrations collected from wells used for public water supply, research, agriculture, industry, and domestic water supply throughout the United States. These data have been collected for a variety of purposes ranging from simple descriptions of the occurrence of arsenic in local or regional ground-water resources to detailed studies on arsenic geochemistry associated with contamination sites. A total of 18,864 sample locations were selected from the USGS NWIS data base regardless of well type, of which 2,262 were taken from public water-supply sources. Samples with non-potable water (dissolved-solids concentration greater than 2,000 milligrams per liter and water temperature greater than 50o Celsius) were not selected for the retrospective analysis and other criteria for selection included the amount and type of ancillary data available for each sample. The 1,528 counties with sufficient data included 76 percent of all large public water-supply systems (serving more than 10,000 people) and 61 percent of all small public water-supply systems (serving more than 1

  7. Vulnerability of shallow groundwater and drinking-water wells to nitrate in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Hitt, Kerie J.

    2006-01-01

    Two nonlinear models were developed at the national scale to (1) predict contamination of shallow ground water (typically drinking. The new models have several advantages over previous national-scale approaches. First, they predict nitrate concentration (rather than probability of occurrence), which can be directly compared with water-quality criteria. Second, the models share a mechanistic structure that segregates nitrogen (N) sources and physical factors that enhance or restrict nitrate transport and accumulation in ground water. Finally, data were spatially averaged to minimize small-scale variability so that the large-scale influences of N loading, climate, and aquifer characteristics could more readily be identified. Results indicate that areas with high N application, high water input, well-drained soils, fractured rocks or those with high effective porosity, and lack of attenuation processes have the highest predicted nitrate concentration. The shallow groundwater model (mean square error or MSE = 2.96) yielded a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.801, indicating that much of the variation in nitrate concentration is explained by the model. Moderate to severe nitrate contamination is predicted to occur in the High Plains, northern Midwest, and selected other areas. The drinking-water model performed comparably (MSE = 2.00, R2 = 0.767) and predicts that the number of users on private wells and residing in moderately contaminated areas (>5 to ≤10 mg/L nitrate) decreases by 12% when simulation depth increases from 10 to 50 m.

  8. Sup(239,240)Pu in estuarine and shelf waters of the north-eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholkovitz, E.R.; Mann, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of sup(239,240)Pu between dissolved and particulate forms has been measured in four estuaries on the north-east coast of the United States (Connecticut River, Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay, and Mullica River). The data cover the whole salinity range from freshwater input to shelf waters at 3.5% and includes one profile from a nearly anoxic basin in the Chesapeake Bay. In the organic-rich Mullica River estuary, large-scale removal of riverine dissolved sup(239,240)Pu occurs at low salinities due to salt-induced coagulation, a mechanism analogous to that for iron and humic acids. Within the 0 to 2.5-3.5% zone in the other three estuaries, the activity of dissolved sup(239,240)Pu increases almost conservatively. The activities of particulate sup(239,240)Pu are highest in the more turbid waters of low salinity regime (0-1.5%), but become increasingly insignificant with respect to dissolved sup(239,240)Pu as salinities increase. At higher salinities corresponding to shelf water, there is a sharp increase in dissolved sup(239,240)Pu activity. The dissolved sup(239,240)Pu activity within each estuary appears to be inversely related to the flushing time of water. The sharp decrease in dissolved sup(239,240)Pu activities between shelf and estuarine waters appears to be driven by removal within the estuaries themselves rather than on the shelf. Dissolved sup(239,240)Pu activities are lower in the nearly-anoxic bottom waters of Chesapeake Bay indicating enhanced removal by redox transformation of Pu [i.e., Pu(V) to Pu(IV)]. (author)

  9. Occurrence of sulfonylurea, sulfonamide, imidazolinone, and other herbicides in rivers, reservoirs and ground water in the Midwestern United States, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglin, W.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Peter, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    Sulfonylurea (SU), sulfonamide (SA), and imidazolinone (IMI) herbicides are relatively new classes of chemical compounds that function by inhibiting the action of a plant enzyme, stopping plant growth, and eventually killing the plant. These compounds generally have low mammalian toxicity, but plants demonstrate a wide range in sensitivity to SUs, SAs, and IMIs with over a 10000-fold difference in observed toxicity levels for some compounds. SUs, SAs, and IMIs are applied either pre- or post-emergence to crops commonly at 1/50th or less of the rate of other herbicides. Little is known about their occurrence, fate, or transport in surface water or ground water in the USA. To obtain information on the occurrence of SU, SA, and IMI herbicides in the Midwestern United States, 212 water samples were collected from 75 surface-water and 25 ground-water sites in 1998. These samples were analyzed for 16 SU, SA and IMI herbicides by USGS Methods Research and Development Program staff using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Samples were also analyzed for 47 pesticides or pesticide degradation products. At least one of the 16 SUs, SAs or IMIs was detected above the method reporting limit (MRL) of 0.01 ??g/l in 83% of 130 stream samples. Imazethapyr was detected most frequently (71% of samples) followed by flumetsulam (63% of samples) and nicosulfuron (52% of samples). The sum of SU, SA and IMI concentrations exceeded 0.5 ??g/l in less than 10% of stream samples. Acetochlor, alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine and metolachlor were all detected in 90% or more of 129 stream samples. The sum of the concentration of these five herbicides exceeded 50 ??g/l in approximately 10% of stream samples. At least one SU, SA, or IMI herbicide was detected above the MRL in 24% of 25 ground-water samples and 86% of seven reservoir samples. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Quantifying Organic Matter in Surface Waters of the United States and Delivery to the Coastal Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Alexander, R. B.; Smith, R. A.; Shih, J.

    2012-12-01

    Organic carbon (OC) is a critical water quality characteristic in surface waters. It is an important component of the energy balance and food chains in freshwater and estuarine aquatic ecosystems, is significant in the mobilization and transport of contaminants along flow paths, and is associated with the formation of known carcinogens in drinking water supplies. The importance of OC dynamics on water quality has been recognized, but challenges remain in quantitatively addressing processes controlling OC fluxes over broad spatial scales in a hydrological context, and considering upstream-downstream linkages along flow paths. Here, we: 1) quantified lateral OC fluxes in rivers, streams, and reservoirs across the nation from headwaters to the coasts; 2) partitioned how much organic carbon that is stored in lakes, rivers and streams comes from allochthonous sources (produced in the terrestrial landscape) versus autochthonous sources (produced in-stream by primary production); 3) estimated the delivery of dissolved and total forms of organic carbon to coastal estuaries and embayments; and 4) considered seasonal factors affecting the temporal variation in OC responses. To accomplish this, we developed national-scale models of organic carbon in U.S. surface waters using the spatially referenced regression on watersheds (SPARROW) technique. The modeling approach uses mechanistic formulations, imposes mass balance constraints, and provides a formal parameter estimation structure to statistically estimate sources and fate of OC in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We calibrated and evaluated the model with statistical estimates of OC loads that were observed at a network of monitoring stations across the nation, and further explored factors controlling seasonal dynamics of OC based on these long term monitoring data. Our results illustrate spatial patterns and magnitudes OC loadings in rivers, highlighting hot spots and suggesting origins of the OC to each location

  11. Development of the heavy-water organic-cooled reactor. Status report from the United States of America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trilling, C A [Atomics International, Division of North American Aviation, Inc., Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1967-01-01

    In late 1964 the United States Atomic Energy Commission decided to undertake the development of the heavy-water-moderated nuclear power reactor as part of its overall programme for the development of advanced converter reactors. The inclusion of the heavy-water reactor concept was based on its indicated potential for achieving: efficient utilization of available fuel resources; generation of low cost electric power; feasibility of scale-up to very large single unit plant sizes for the dual purpose of generating power and desalting sea water. The excellent neutron economy inherent in heavy-water moderation allows a significant increase in the amount of power which can be generated from a given amount of ore. If one takes into account the amount of uranium required not only for burn-up but also to inventory new reactors in a rapidly expanding nuclear economy, heavy-water reactors show the potential of extracting one and a half to two times more power from the ore mined than light-water reactors. Such an improvement in dynamic fuel utilization will postpone the depletion of low cost uranium ore reserves, providing more time for the discovery of new ore resources and the development of economic fast breeder reactors. The excellent neutron economy of the heavy-water reactor also allows the achievement of appreciable burn-up with low enrichment fuel, with consequent low fuel cycle costs and therefore low energy generation costs. These low fuel cycle costs make the economics of this type of reactor rather insensitive to rising ore costs. They also make the concept well suited for the most economic production of the large quantities of heat required for water desalination. The use of individual pressure tubes for circulating the coolant through the reactor vessel lends itself to the development of a modular type design, which can be scaled up to very large single unit plant sizes by simply increasing the number of identical pressure tube modules and the number of coolant

  12. Use of LiDAR to Assist in Delineating Waters of the United States, Including Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    components: a mounting platform, a laser and scanning mirror, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a global positioning system (GPS) antenna and...including but not limited to TIFF, ASC , IMG, and KML files or compressed as a KMZ file. These files are quickly imported and viewed using GIS such as...sediment transport processes and hydraulics. Sedimentology 56:2024–2043. Hogg, A., and J. Holland. 2008. An evaluation of DEMs derived from LiDAR

  13. Hydrochemical Regions of the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States, and Their Environmental and Water-Quality Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Warner, Kelly L.; Groschen, George E.; Caldwell, James P.; Kalkhoff, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The glacial aquifer system in the United States is a large (953,000 square miles) regional aquifer system of heterogeneous composition. As described in this report, the glacial aquifer system includes all unconsolidated geologic material above bedrock that lies on or north of the line of maximum glacial advance within the United States. Examining ground-water quality on a regional scale indicates that variations in the concentrations of major and minor ions and some trace elements most likely are the result of natural variations in the geologic and physical environment. Study of the glacial aquifer system was designed around a regional framework based on the assumption that two primary characteristics of the aquifer system can affect water quality: intrinsic susceptibility (hydraulic properties) and vulnerability (geochemical properties). The hydrochemical regions described in this report were developed to identify and explain regional spatial variations in ground-water quality in the glacial aquifer system within the hypothetical framework context. Data analyzed for this study were collected from 1991 to 2003 at 1,716 wells open to the glacial aquifer system. Cluster analysis was used to group wells with similar ground-water concentrations of calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulfate, and bicarbonate into five unique groups. Maximum Likelihood Classification was used to make the extrapolation from clustered groups of wells, defined by points, to areas of similar water quality (hydrochemical regions) defined in a geospatial model. Spatial data that represented average annual precipitation, average annual temperature, land use, land-surface slope, vertical soil permeability, average soil clay content, texture of surficial deposits, type of surficial deposit, and potential for ground-water recharge were used in the Maximum Likelihood Classification to classify the areas so the characteristics of the hydrochemical regions would resemble the

  14. Projections of Declining Surface-Water Availability for the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Richard; Ting, Mingfang; Li, Cuihua; Naik, Naomi; Cook, Benjamin; Nakamura, Jennifer; Liu, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    16 of the CMIP5 models had all the data needed for this work for at least one simulation that was continuous from 1950 to 2040. Details of the models analyzed here are provided in Table S1. The model data analyzed here are available at http://strega.ldeo.columbia.edu:81/expert/home/.naomi/.AR5/.v2/.historical:rcp85/.mmm16/ a. Assessing the climatology of the models Despite increases in horizontal resolution of many models compared to their CMIP3 counterparts none of these models can adequately resolve the topography of the south west United States, such as the Sierra Nevada and Rocky Mountains and the associated orographic precipitation. This requires that caution be used when interpreting the results presented here. To assess the ability of the models to simulate the current hydroclimate, in Figure S1 we show the observed (from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre gridded rain gauge data, (1)) monthly climatology of precipitation and the same for all the models and the multimodel mean for the California-Nevada, Colorado headwaters and Texas regions. The GPCC data uses rain gauges only and interpolates to regular grids of which we used the 1? by 1? one. Details of the data set can be found in (2). While the models apparently overestimate precipitation in California and Nevada the seasonal cycle with wet winters and dry summers is very well represented. It is also possible that the rain gauge observations are biased low by inadequately sampling the higher mountain regions. How ever the models might also be expected to underestimate orographic precipitation due to inadequate horizontal resolution. The 25 models are also too wet in the Colorado headwaters region but correctly represent the quite even distribution though the year. The bimodal distribution of precipitation in Texas, with peaks in May and September, and the absolute amounts, are well modeled but with the September peak too weak. The positive precipitation bias translates into a positive runoff

  15. Hydrologic consistency as a basis for assessing complexity of monthly water balance models for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Guillermo F.; Gupta, Hoshin V.

    2011-12-01

    Methods to select parsimonious and hydrologically consistent model structures are useful for evaluating dominance of hydrologic processes and representativeness of data. While information criteria (appropriately constrained to obey underlying statistical assumptions) can provide a basis for evaluating appropriate model complexity, it is not sufficient to rely upon the principle of maximum likelihood (ML) alone. We suggest that one must also call upon a "principle of hydrologic consistency," meaning that selected ML structures and parameter estimates must be constrained (as well as possible) to reproduce desired hydrological characteristics of the processes under investigation. This argument is demonstrated in the context of evaluating the suitability of candidate model structures for lumped water balance modeling across the continental United States, using data from 307 snow-free catchments. The models are constrained to satisfy several tests of hydrologic consistency, a flow space transformation is used to ensure better consistency with underlying statistical assumptions, and information criteria are used to evaluate model complexity relative to the data. The results clearly demonstrate that the principle of consistency provides a sensible basis for guiding selection of model structures and indicate strong spatial persistence of certain model structures across the continental United States. Further work to untangle reasons for model structure predominance can help to relate conceptual model structures to physical characteristics of the catchments, facilitating the task of prediction in ungaged basins.

  16. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume II. Inland waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, R.F. III; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 33 power plants located on inland waters other than the Great Lakes has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  17. Open hydrology courseware using the United States Geological Survey’s National Water Census Data Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jake; Ames, Daniel P.; Blodgett, David L.

    2018-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is the primary U.S. Government agency for water data collection and dissemination. In this role, the USGS has recently created and deployed a National Water Census Data Portal (NWC-DP) which provides access to streamflow, evapotransporation, precipitation, aquatic biology and other data at the national level. Recognizing the value of these data sets for hydrologic science education, this paper presents an effort to bridge the gap between pencil–and-paper-based hydrology curriculum and the USGS NWC-DP resource. Specifically, we have developed an R package, National Water Census Education (NWCEd), and five associated laboratory exercises that integrate R- and web-services-based access to the NWC-DP data sets. Using custom functions built into the NWCEd, students are able to access unprecedented amounts of hydrologic data from the NWC-DP, which can be applied to current hydrology curriculum and analyzed using NWCEd and a number of other open-source R tools.

  18. Light water reactor (LWR) innovation needs in the United States: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology LWR innovation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    A major effort under way within the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Engineering School is focused on the contributions that technology innovation can make in revitalizing nuclear power in the United States. A principal component of this effort is a project to improve the designs of the next generation of light water reactors (LWRs) with emphasis on achieving improved capacity factors and safety, and reducing the construction duration. The motivation for this overall effort is to prevent the nuclear option from being unnecessarily lost by being available only in uneconomic configurations. In considering how to advance this effort, the authors focused on refining the designs of new reactors because this is the area where the greatest opportunities for improvements exist

  19. United States rejoin ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    2003-01-01

    Upon pressure from the United States Congress, the US Department of Energy had to withdraw from further American participation in the ITER Engineering Design Activities after the end of its commitment to the EDA in July 1998. In the years since that time, changes have taken place in both the ITER activity and the US fusion community's position on burning plasma physics. Reflecting the interest in the United States in pursuing burning plasma physics, the DOE's Office of Science commissioned three studies as part of its examination of the option of entering the Negotiations on the Agreement on the Establishment of the International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. These were a National Academy Review Panel Report supporting the burning plasma mission; a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) report confirming the role of ITER in achieving fusion power production, and The Lehman Review of the ITER project costing and project management processes (for the latter one, see ITER CTA Newsletter, no. 15, December 2002). All three studies have endorsed the US return to the ITER activities. This historical decision was announced by DOE Secretary Abraham during his remarks to employees of the Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The United States will be working with the other Participants in the ITER Negotiations on the Agreement and is preparing to participate in the ITA

  20. United States advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, the advanced technologies have been applied to uranium enrichment as a means by which it can be assured that nuclear fuel cost will remain competitive in the future. The United States is strongly committed to the development of advanced enrichment technology, and has brought both advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) programs to a point of significant technical refinement. The ability to deploy advanced technologies is the basis for the confidence in competitive future price. Unfortunately, the development of advanced technologies is capital intensive. The year 1985 is the key year for advanced technology development in the United States, since the decision on the primary enrichment technology for the future, AGC or AVLIS, will be made shortly. The background on the technology selection process, the highlights of AGC and AVLIS programs and the way to proceed after the process selection are described. The key objective is to maximize the sales volume and minimize the operating cost. This will help the utilities in other countries supply low cost energy on a reliable, long term basis. (Kako, I.)

  1. Combining remote sensing and water-balance evapotranspiration estimates for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Meredith; Senay, Gabriel; Sanford, Ward E.

    2017-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of the hydrologic cycle, accounting for ~70% of precipitation in the conterminous U.S. (CONUS), but it has been a challenge to predict accurately across different spatio-temporal scales. The increasing availability of remotely sensed data has led to significant advances in the frequency and spatial resolution of ET estimates, derived from energy balance principles with variables such as temperature used to estimate surface latent heat flux. Although remote sensing methods excel at depicting spatial and temporal variability, estimation of ET independently of other water budget components can lead to inconsistency with other budget terms. Methods that rely on ground-based data better constrain long-term ET, but are unable to provide the same temporal resolution. Here we combine long-term ET estimates from a water-balance approach with the SSEBop (operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance) remote sensing-based ET product for 2000–2015. We test the new combined method, the original SSEBop product, and another remote sensing ET product (MOD16) against monthly measurements from 119 flux towers. The new product showed advantages especially in non-irrigated areas where the new method showed a coefficient of determination R2 of 0.44, compared to 0.41 for SSEBop or 0.35 for MOD16. The resulting monthly data set will be a useful, unique contribution to ET estimation, due to its combination of remote sensing-based variability and ground-based long-term water balance constraints.

  2. Environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' effort to manage its environment including air, water nature, and biodiversity to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking--United States, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jonathan; Roberts, Virginia; Craun, Gunther F; Hill, Vincent; Hicks, Lauri A; Alexander, Nicole T; Radke, Vince; Calderon, Rebecca L; Hlavsa, Michele C; Beach, Michael J; Roy, Sharon L

    2008-09-12

    Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) for collecting and reporting data related to occurrences and causes of waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs) and cases of waterborne disease. This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and effects of waterborne disease in the United States. Data presented summarize 28 WBDOs that occurred during January 2005--December 2006 and four previously unreported WBDOs that occurred during 1979--2002. The surveillance system includes data on WBDOs associated with recreational water, drinking water, water not intended for drinking (WNID) (excluding recreational water), and water use of unknown intent. Public health departments in the states, territories, localities, and Freely Associated States (FAS) (i.e., the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau, formerly parts of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) are primarily responsible for detecting and investigating WBDOs and voluntarily reporting them to CDC by a standard form. Only cases and outbreaks associated with drinking water, WNID (excluding recreational water), and water of unknown intent (WUI) are summarized in this report. Cases and outbreaks associated with recreational water are reported in a separate Surveillance Summary. Fourteen states reported 28 WBDOs that occurred during 2005--2006: a total of 20 were associated with drinking water, six were associated with WNID, and two were associated with WUI. The 20 drinking water-associated WBDOs caused illness among an estimated 612 persons and were linked to four deaths. Etiologic agents were identified in 18 (90.0%) of the drinking water-associated WBDOs. Among the 18 WBDOs with identified pathogens, 12 (66.7%) were associated with bacteria, three

  4. Environmentally relevant chemical mixtures of concern in waters of United States tributaries to the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Brigham, Mark E.; Kiesling, Richard L.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.

    2018-01-01

    The North American Great Lakes are a vital natural resource that provide fish and wildlife habitat, as well as drinking water and waste assimilation services for millions of people. Tributaries to the Great Lakes receive chemical inputs from various point and nonpoint sources, and thus are expected to have complex mixtures of chemicals. However, our understanding of the co‐occurrence of specific chemicals in complex mixtures is limited. To better understand the occurrence of specific chemical mixtures in the US Great Lakes Basin, surface water from 24 US tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes was collected and analyzed for diverse suites of organic chemicals, primarily focused on chemicals of concern (e.g., pharmaceuticals, personal care products, fragrances). A total of 181 samples and 21 chemical classes were assessed for mixture compositions. Basin wide, 1664 mixtures occurred in at least 25% of sites. The most complex mixtures identified comprised 9 chemical classes and occurred in 58% of sampled tributaries. Pharmaceuticals typically occurred in complex mixtures, reflecting pharmaceutical‐use patterns and wastewater facility outfall influences. Fewer mixtures were identified at lake or lake‐influenced sites than at riverine sites. As mixture complexity increased, the probability of a specific mixture occurring more often than by chance greatly increased, highlighting the importance of understanding source contributions to the environment. This empirically based analysis of mixture composition and occurrence may be used to focus future sampling efforts or mixture toxicity assessments. 

  5. United States streamflow probabilities and uncertainties based on anticipated El Niño, water year 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, M.; Cayan, D.; Redmond, K.

    2002-01-01

    During the course of spring and summer 2002, tropical sea-surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific Ocean have warmed and the wind and pressure fields have shifted, so that by August, there was considerable confidence that water year (October–September) 2003 will be characterized by a weak to mild El Niño climate (http://iri.columbia.edu/climate/ENSO/currentinfo/archive/200208/QuickLook.html). At the same time, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation pattern of sea-surface temperatures in the North Pacific (Mantua et al., 1997) has shifted towards a more neutral state than in the past several years and will not be considered in detail here. Previous studies of the connections between El Niños and streamflow in the United States by the authors (e.g., Redmond and Koch, 1991; Cayan and Webb, 1992; Cayan et al., 1999; Dettinger et al., 2001) indicate that El Niño conditions influence historical streamflow distributions to varying extents. These conclusions, along with those of other researchers, suggest that foreknowledge of El Niño conditions can inform seasonal outlooks for streamflows throughout the Americas and elsewhere. For example, Dettinger et al. (2001), as distilled here into Fig. 1, showed that historical annual streamflow totals have correlated negatively with the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI, which is negatively associated with El Niños) in the U.S. Southwest as well as in the subtropics of South America, and correlate positively in the U.S. Northwest, in much of tropical South America, and, perhaps, in southernmost South America. These interhemispheric bands of El Niño influence are a matter of considerable concern for water- and land-managers throughout the Americas, and expand upon results from previous studies in the western United States (e.g., Redmond and Koch, 1991; Cayan and Webb, 1992), including a recent analysis by Pizarro and Lall (2002), where water availability and hydrologic extremes are particularly pressing issues.

  6. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with drinking water and water not intended for drinking--United States, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer L; Dziuban, Eric J; Craun, Gunther F; Hill, Vincent; Moore, Matthew R; Gelting, Richard J; Calderon, Rebecca L; Beach, Michael J; Roy, Sharon L

    2006-12-22

    Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative Waterborne Disease and Outbreaks Surveillance System for collecting and reporting data related to occurrences and causes of waterborne disease and outbreaks (WBDOs). This surveillance system is the primary source of data concerning the scope and effects of WBDOs in the United States. Data presented summarize 36 WBDOs that occurred during January 2003-December 2004 and nine previously unreported WBDOs that occurred during 1982-2002. The surveillance system includes data on WBDOs associated with drinking water, water not intended for drinking (excluding recreational water), and water of unknown intent. Public health departments in the states, territories, localities, and Freely Associated States (i.e., the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau, formerly parts of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) are primarily responsible for detecting and investigating WBDOs and voluntarily reporting them to CDC by using a standard form. During 2003-2004, a total of 36 WBDOs were reported by 19 states; 30 were associated with drinking water, three were associated with water not intended for drinking, and three were associated with water of unknown intent. The 30 drinking water-associated WBDOs caused illness among an estimated 2,760 persons and were linked to four deaths. Etiologic agents were identified in 25 (83.3%) of these WBDOs: 17 (68.0%) involved pathogens (i.e., 13 bacterial, one parasitic, one viral, one mixed bacterial/parasitic, and one mixed bacterial/parasitic/viral), and eight (32.0%) involved chemical/toxin poisonings. Gastroenteritis represented 67.7% of the illness related to drinking water-associated WBDOs; acute respiratory illness represented 25.8%, and dermatitis represented 6.5%. The classification of deficiencies contributing

  7. The water implications of generating electricity: water use across the United States based on different electricity pathways through 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macknick, J; Sattler, S; Clemmer, S; Rogers, J; Averyt, K

    2012-01-01

    The power sector withdraws more freshwater annually than any other sector in the US. The current portfolio of electricity generating technologies in the US has highly regionalized and technology-specific requirements for water. Water availability differs widely throughout the nation. As a result, assessments of water impacts from the power sector must have a high geographic resolution and consider regional, basin-level differences. The US electricity portfolio is expected to evolve in coming years, shaped by various policy and economic drivers on the international, national and regional level; that evolution will impact power sector water demands. Analysis of future electricity scenarios that incorporate technology options and constraints can provide useful insights about water impacts related to changes to the technology mix. Utilizing outputs from the regional energy deployment system (ReEDS) model, a national electricity sector capacity expansion model with high geographical resolution, we explore potential changes in water use by the US electric sector over the next four decades under various low carbon energy scenarios, nationally and regionally. (letter)

  8. Data report: western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.

    1982-04-01

    This abbreviated summary data report, presents results of ground water and stream surface sediment reconnaissance in the western United States. Surface sediment samples were collected at 67,741 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 13,979 sites, and surface water samples were collected at 2,958 sites. Neutron activaton analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in waters. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground waters. Supplemental analyses of the sediments for extractable uranium and 22 other elements are given where they are available. Supplemental analyses of water samples for 33 additional elements are also reported where they are available. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables on microfiche. Data from ground water sites (on microfiche in pocket) include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V by neutron activation and Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Sc, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Zn, and Zr by spectrophotometry). Helium analyses are given for ground water

  9. Long-term water chemistry database, Little River Experimental Watershed, southeast Coastal Plain, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyereisen, G. W.; Lowrance, R.; Strickland, T. C.; Sheridan, J. M.; Hubbard, R. K.; Bosch, D. D.

    2007-09-01

    A water quality sampling program was initiated in 1974 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service on the 334 km2 Little River Experimental Watershed (LREW) near Tifton in south Georgia to monitor the effects of changing land use and agricultural practices over time and to support development of simulation models capable of predicting future impacts of agricultural land use and management changes. Stream samples were taken on a weekly or more frequent basis and were analyzed for chloride, ammonium nitrogen, nitrate plus nitrite nitrogen, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, and dissolved molybdate reactive phosphorus. Monitoring began in 1974 on the entire watershed and four nested subwatersheds, ranging in size from 16.7 to 114.9 km2, and continues until present. Partial records of 7, 10, and 19 years exist for three additional subwatersheds. Suspended solids data are available for all eight subwatersheds for 1974-1978 and 1979-1981, three subwatersheds for 1982-1986, and all eight subwatersheds again beginning in the year 2000. The concentration and associated load data are being published on the LREW database anonymous ftp site (ftp://www.tiftonars.org/).

  10. Some stream waters of the Western United States, with chapters on sediment carried by the Rio Grande and the industrial application of water analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabler, Herman

    1911-01-01

    A systematic study of the waters likely to be utilized on the Reclamation Service projects was made in order to determine the influence of the salinity of the waters on the growth of vegetation and the effect of suspended matter in silting canals and reservoirs. The work was begun early in 1905, under the direction of Thomas H. Means, engineer, and was continued during 1906 and until May, 1907, under the direction of W. H. Heileman, engineer. The analyses were made in a laboratory established at quarters provided by the University of California at Berkeley, Cal., by C. H. Stone, P. L. McCreary, F. M. Eaton, O. J. Hawley, W. C. Riddell, F. T. Berry, H. A. Burns, J. H. Hampson, J. A. Pearce, and M. Vaygouny, the greater part of the work being that of the first five named. C. H. Stone was chemist in charge at the beginning of the investigations and is chiefly responsible for the plan of the analytical work and the methods of analysis.The results of the investigations were prepared for publication under instructions from F. H. Newell, Director of the United States Reclamation Service, by Herman Stabler, assistant engineer, who assembled and checked- the analyses, compiled the accompanying stream-flow data from records of the United States Geological Survey, and computed daily discharge of suspended matter and dissolved solids, under the supervision of D. W. Murphy, engineer in charge of Washington office engineering.

  11. Creating potentiometric surfaces from combined water well and oil well data in the midcontinent of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoutsos, Nicholas J.; Nelson, Philip H.

    2013-01-01

    ) the land surface elevation of the region. Examples from the midcontinent of the United States, specifically Kansas, Oklahoma, and parts of adjacent states illustrate the process.

  12. Deep-water chaunacid and lophiid anglerfishes (Pisces: Lophiiformes) off the south-eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John H.; Ross, Steve W.; Sulak, K.J.; Sedberry, G.R.

    2007-01-01

    were noted. In particular, L. beroe displayed a characteristic pattern of white patches in life that were not apparent after death. The first photographic documentation of the colour pattern in life and of the pharyngeal pigmentation of Lophiodes reticulatus is provided. The third known specimen of Sladenia shaefersi, and the first to be taken in U.S. waters was collected from coral rubble near the base of a steep 200 m scarp on the Blake Plateau. ?? 2007 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Deep-water chaunacid and lophiid anglerfishes (Pisces: Lophiiformes) off the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John H.; Ross, Steve W.; Sulak, Kenneth J.; Sedberry, George R.

    2007-01-01

    patterns of both species were noted. In particular, L. beroe displayed a characteristic pattern of white patches in life that were not apparent after death. The first photographic documentation of the colour pattern in life and of the pharyngeal pigmentation of Lophiodes reticulatus is provided. The third known specimen of Sladenia shaefersi, and the first to be taken in U.S. waters was collected from coral rubble near the base of a steep 200 m scarp on the Blake Plateau.

  14. Waste Water Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

  15. Modeling complex dispersed energy and clean water systems for the United States/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Hugo Francisco Lopez

    and distribution of it in El Paso/Juarez region. More precisely, the goals were the conversion of brines and waste-waters to hydrogen via electrolysis, and the generation of electricity through fuel cells. Thereafter, the specific objectives were to (1) design a simulation model for hydrogen generation, (2) design and simulate a model of photovoltaic (PV) array capable to generate the required energy for the process, (3) simulate fuel cells in order to be used as electricity power supply in remote houses, and (4) simulate a complete remote house hybrid system. The results of this research gave us information about the feasibility of high-volume hydrogen generation with the diverse resources of the region. On the other hand, this research has shown the alternatives of local energy generation, and efficiency of a remote house hybrid system located in El Paso/Juarez area. Experiences obtained from this research will also provide information for future investigations in the field of alternate energy sources, in order to get a clean environment through sustainable development.

  16. People and water: Exploring the social-ecological condition of watersheds of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray W. Scown

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A recent paradigm shift from purely biophysical towards social-ecological assessment of watersheds has been proposed to understand, monitor, and manipulate the myriad interactions between human well-being and the ecosystem services that watersheds provide. However, large-scale, quantitative studies in this endeavour remain limited. We utilised two newly developed ‘big-data’ sets—the Index of Watershed Integrity (IWI and the Human Well-Being Index (HWBI—to explore the social-ecological condition of watersheds throughout the conterminous U.S., and identified environmental and socio-economic influences on watershed integrity and human well-being. Mean county IWI was highly associated with ecoregion, industry-dependence, and state, in a spatially-explicit regression model (R2 = 0.77, 'P' < 0.001, whereas HWBI was not (R2 = 0.31, 'P' < 0.001. HWBI is likely influenced by factors not explored here, such as governance structure and formal and informal organisations and institutions. ‘Win-win’ situations in which both IWI and HWBI were above the 75th percentile were observed in much of Utah, Colorado, and New Hampshire, and lessons from governance that has resulted in desirable outcomes might be learnt from here. Eastern Kentucky and West Virginia, along with large parts of the desert southwest, had intact watersheds but low HWBI, representing areas worthy of further investigation of how ecosystem services might be utilised to improve well-being. The Temperate Prairies and Central USA Plains had widespread areas of low IWI but high HWBI, likely a result of historic exploitation of watershed resources to improve well-being, particularly in farming-dependent counties. The lower Mississippi Valley had low IWI and HWBI, which is likely related to historical (temporal and upstream (spatial impacts on both watershed integrity and well-being. The results emphasise the importance of considering spatial and temporal trade-offs when utilising the

  17. A regional assessment of chemicals of concern in surface waters of four Midwestern United States national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; VanderMeulen, David

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals and their potential for adverse biological effects raise concern for aquatic ecosystem health in protected areas. During 2013–15, surface waters of four Midwestern United States national parks were sampled and analyzed for wastewater indicators, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides. More chemicals and higher concentrations were detected at the two parks with greater urban influences (Mississippi National River and Recreation Area and Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore) than at the two more remote parks (Apostle Islands National Lakeshore and Isle Royale National Park). Atrazine (10–15 ng/L) and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (16–120 ng/L) were the only chemicals detected in inland lakes of a remote island national park (Isle Royale National Park). Bisphenol A and organophosphate flame retardants were commonly detected at the other sampled parks. Gabapentin and simazine had the highest observed concentrations (> 1000 ng/L) in three and two samples, respectively. At the two parks with urban influences, metolachlor and simazine concentrations were similar to those reported for other major urban rivers in the United States. Environmental concentrations of detected chemicals were often orders of magnitude less than standards or reference values with three exceptions: (1) hydrochlorothiazide exceeded a human health-based screening value in seven samples, (2) estrone exceeded a predicted critical environmental concentration for fish pharmacological effects in one sample, and (3) simazine was approaching the 4000 ng/L Maximum Contaminant Level in one sample even though this concentration is not expected to reflect peak pesticide use. Although few environmental concentrations were approaching or exceeded standards or reference values, concentrations were often in ranges reported to elicit effects in aquatic biota. Data from this study will assist in establishing a baseline for chemicals of concern in Midwestern national parks and

  18. Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    In October 1985 the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), through the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP), began a series of field investigations at 26 areas in the Western United States to determine whether irrigation drainage has had harmful effects on fish, wildlife, and humans or has reduced beneficial uses of water. In 1992 NIWQP initiated the Data Synthesis Project to evaluate data collected during the field investigations. Geologic, climatologic, and hydrologic data were evaluated and water, sediment, and biota from the 26 areas were analyzed to identify commonalities and dominant factors that result in irrigation-induced contamination of water and biota. Data collected for the 26 area investigations have been compiled and merged into a common data base. The structure of the data base is designed to enable assessment of relations between contaminant concentrations in water, sediment, and biota. The data base is available to the scientific community through the World Wide Web at URL http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp. Analysis of the data base for the Data Synthesis included use of summary statistics, factor analysis, and logistic regression. A Geographic Information System was used to store and analyze spatially oriented digital data such as land use, geology and evaporation rates. In the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) study areas, samples of water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected for trace-element and pesticide analysis. Contaminants most commonly associated with irrigation drainage were identified by comparing concentrations in water with established criteria. For surface water, the criteria used were typically chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life. Because ground water can discharge to the surface where wildlife can be exposed to it, the criteria used for ground water were both the maximum contaminant levels (MCL's) for drinking water and the chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life

  19. Estimates of water use and trends in the Colorado River Basin, Southwestern United States, 1985–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maupin, Molly A.; Ivahnenko, Tamara I.; Bruce, Breton

    2018-06-26

    The Colorado River Basin (CRB) drains 246,000 square miles and includes parts of California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, and all of Arizona (Basin States). This report contains water-use estimates by category of use for drainage basins (Hydrologic Unit Code 8; HUC‑8) within the CRB from 1985 to 2010, at 5-year intervals. Estimates for public supply, domestic, commercial, industrial, irrigation, livestock, mining, aquaculture, hydroelectric and thermoelectric power, and wastewater returns are tabulated as (1) water withdrawals from groundwater or surface‑water sources of fresh or saline quality, (2) water delivered for domestic use, (3) wastewater returns and instream use (hydroelectric), and (4) consumptive use, or water that is consumed (USGS definition) and not available for immediate reuse. Water transported outside of the CRB (interbasin transfers) is not included as part of withdrawals and are not accounted for in any category of use within the CRB.Total withdrawals in the CRB (excluding interbasin transfers) averaged about 17 million acre-feet (maf) from 1985 to 2010, peaked at about 17.76 maf in 2000, and reached their lowest levels of 16.43 maf in 1990. Interbasin transfers to serve mostly public-supply and irrigation needs outside of the CRB are reported for 2000, 2005, and 2010 only, and averaged 5.40 maf. More surface water was used in the CRB than groundwater, averaging about 78 percent of total withdrawals, and its use increased less than 2 percent from 1985 to 2010, while groundwater withdrawals decreased about 12 percent. From 1985 to 2010, surface water averaged 98 percent of withdrawals in the upper CRB, and about 59 percent in the lower CRB. Nearly all withdrawals were freshwater, but some saline groundwater was used for mining and self-supplied industrial.Interbasin transfers have a large effect on flows in the Colorado River and are listed in this report separately with no explanation of how the water is used outside of

  20. Ground-water quality in three urban areas in the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, M.P.; Galeone, D.R.; Spruill, T.B.; Crandall, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water quality is generally good in three urban areas studied in the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States?Ocala and Tampa, Florida, and Virginia Beach, Virginia. The hydrology of these areas differs in that Ocala has many karst depressions but virtually no surface-water features, and Tampa and Virginia Beach have numerous surface-water features, including small lakes, streams, and swamps. Samples were collected in early 1995 from 15 wells in Ocala (8 in the surficial aquifer and 7 in the Upper Floridan aquifer), 17 wells in Tamps (8 in the surficial aquifer and 9 in the Upper Floridan aquifer), and in the summer of 1995 from 15 wells in Virginia Beach (all in the surficial aquifer). In the surficial aquifer in Ocala, the major ion water type was calcium bicarbonate in five samples and mixed (no dominant ions) in three samples, with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 78 to 463 milligrams per liter. In Tampa, the water type was calcium bicarbonate in one sample and mixed in seven samples, with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 38 to 397 milligrams per liter. In Virginia Beach, water types were primarily calcium and sodium bicarbonate water, with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 89 to 740 milligrams per liter. The water types and dissolved-solids concentrations reflect the presence of carbonates in the surficial aquifer materials in the Ocala and Virginia Beach areas. The major ion water type was calcium bicarbonate for all 16 samples from the upper Floridan aquifer in both Florida cities. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 210 to 551 milligrams per liter in Ocala, with a median of 287 milligrams per liter, and from 187 to 362 milligrams per liter in Tampa, with a median of 244 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of nitrate nitrogen were highest in the surficial aquifer in Ocala, and one sample exceeded 10 milligrams per liter, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for drinking

  1. Rural and Urban Differences in Air Quality, 2008-2012, and Community Drinking Water Quality, 2010-2015 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosnider, Heather; Kennedy, Caitlin; Monti, Michele; Yip, Fuyuen

    2017-06-23

    The places in which persons live, work, and play can contribute to the development of adverse health outcomes. Understanding the differences in risk factors in various environments can help to explain differences in the occurrence of these outcomes and can be used to develop public health programs, interventions, and policies. Efforts to characterize urban and rural differences have largely focused on social and demographic characteristics. A paucity of national standardized environmental data has hindered efforts to characterize differences in the physical aspects of urban and rural areas, such as air and water quality. 2008-2012 for air quality and 2010-2015 for water quality. Since 2002, CDC's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program has collaborated with federal, state, and local partners to gather standardized environmental data by creating national data standards, collecting available data, and disseminating data to be used in developing public health actions. The National Environmental Public Health Tracking Network (i.e., the tracking network) collects data provided by national, state, and local partners and includes 21 health outcomes, exposures, and environmental hazards. To assess environmental factors that affect health, CDC analyzed three air-quality measures from the tracking network for all counties in the contiguous United States during 2008-2012 and one water-quality measure for 26 states during 2010-2015. The three air-quality measures include 1) total number of days with fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) levels greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for 24-hour average PM 2.5 (PM 2.5 days); 2) mean annual average ambient concentrations of PM 2.5 in micrograms per cubic meter (mean PM 2.5 ); and 3) total number of days with maximum 8-hour average ozone concentrations greater than the NAAQS (ozone days). The water-quality measure compared the annual mean

  2. Pesticides in streams of the United States : initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steven J.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Capel, Paul D.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples from 58 rivers and streams across the United States were analyzed for pesticides as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The sampling sites represent 37 diverse agricultural basins, 11 urban basins, and 10 basins with mixed land use. Forty-six pesticides and pesticide degradation products were analyzed in approximately 2,200 samples collected from 1992 to 1995. The target compounds account for approximately 70 percent of national agricultural use in terms of the mass of pesticides applied annually. All the target compounds were detected in one or more samples. Herbicides generally were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations than insecticides. Nationally, 11 herbicides, 1 herbicide degradation product, and 3 insecticides were detected in more than 10 percent of samples. The number of target compounds detected at each site ranged from 7 to 37. The herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, prometon, and simazine were detected most frequently; among the insecticides, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon were detected the most frequently. Distinct differences in pesticide occurrence were observed in streams draining the various agricultural settings. Relatively high levels of several herbicides occurred as seasonal pulses in corn-growing areas. Several insecticides were frequently detected in areas where the dominant crops consist of orchards and vegetables. The number of pesticides detected and their concentrations were lower in wheat-growing areas than in most other agricultural areas. In most urban areas, the herbicides prometon and simazine and the insecticides carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion were commonly detected. Concentrations of pesticides rarely exceeded standards and criteria established for drinking water, but some pesticides commonly exceeded criteria established for the protection of aquatic life.

  3. Point sources of emerging contaminants along the Colorado River Basin: Source water for the arid Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Lepp, Tammy L.; Sanchez, Charles; Alvarez, David A.; Wilson, Doyle C.; Taniguchi-Fu, Randi-Laurant

    2012-01-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate point sources of ECs along the Colorado River, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf of California. At selected locations in the Colorado River Basin (sites in Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California), waste stream tributaries and receiving surface waters were sampled using either grab sampling or polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS). The grab samples were extracted using solid-phase cartridge extraction (SPE), and the POCIS sorbents were transferred into empty SPEs and eluted with methanol. All extracts were prepared for, and analyzed by, liquid chromatography–electrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-ITMS). Log DOW values were calculated for all ECs in the study and compared to the empirical data collected. POCIS extracts were screened for the presence of estrogenic chemicals using the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay. Extracts from the 2008 POCIS deployment in the Las Vegas Wash showed the second highest estrogenicity response. In the grab samples, azithromycin (an antibiotic) was detected in all but one urban waste stream, with concentrations ranging from 30 ng/L to 2800 ng/L. Concentration levels of azithromycin, methamphetamine and pseudoephedrine showed temporal variation from the Tucson WWTP. Those ECs that were detected in the main surface water channels (those that are diverted for urban use and irrigation along the Colorado River) were in the region of the limit-of-detection (e.g., 10 ng/L), but most were below detection limits.

  4. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 13, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James A.; Whitehead, R.L.; Oki, Delwyn S.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Olcott, Perry G.

    1997-01-01

    Alaska is the largest State in the Nation and has an area of about 586,400 square miles, or about one-fifth the area of the conterminous United States. The State is geologically and topographically diverse and is characterized by wild, scenic beauty. Alaska contains abundant natural resources, including ground water and surface water of chemical quality that is generally suitable for most uses.The central part of Alaska is drained by the Yukon River and its tributaries, the largest of which are the Porcupine, the Tanana, and the Koyukuk Rivers. The Yukon River originates in northwestern Canada and, like the Kuskokwim River, which drains a large part of southwestern Alaska , discharges into the Bering Sea. The Noatak River in northwestern Alaska discharges into the Chukchi Sea. Major rivers in southern Alaska include the Susitna and the Matanuska Rivers, which discharge into Cook Inlet, and the Copper River, which discharges into the Gulf of Alaska . North of the Brooks Range, the Colville and the Sagavanirktok Rivers and numerous smaller streams discharge into the Arctic Ocean.In 1990, Alaska had a population of about 552,000 and, thus , is one of the least populated States in the Nation. Most of the population is concentrated in the cities of Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau, all of which are located in lowland areas. The mountains, the frozen Arctic desert, the interior plateaus, and the areas covered with glaciers lack major population centers. Large parts of Alaska are uninhabited and much of the State is public land. Ground-water development has not occurred over most of these remote areas.The Hawaiian islands are the exposed parts of the Hawaiian Ridge, which is a large volcanic mountain range on the sea floor. Most of the Hawaiian Ridge is below sea level (fig. 31) . The State of Hawaii consists of a group of 132 islands, reefs, and shoals that extend for more than 1 ,500 miles from southeast to northwest across the central Pacific Ocean between about 155

  5. The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Art, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that at least in the national security arena, the outcomes of bureaucratic infighting and domestic political struggles are not determined wholly by what goes on with the state. Rather struggles among contending groups are greatly affected by what is perceived to be happening outside the nation. Because external conditions give greater potency to some domestic forces over other, the external environment is never neutral in its domestic impact. The decisions of the period 1950-53 discussed above illustrate the point. But so too do the decisions of 1947, 1960-61 and 1969-72. In the 1947 case, Soviet intransigence provoked US nuclear rearmament. In the 1960-61 case, extended deterrent considerations pushed the United States to preserve its again newly discovered nuclear superiority. In the 1969-72 case, a Soviet determination to remain equal forced US acceptance of nuclear equality. And perhaps the best evidence of all, the perpetuation of parity ended the US inclination to resort to nuclear brinkmanship. In each instance, concerns about relative position heavily affected nuclear choice. Finally, the events of the past three years testify to the effects of international events on domestic choice. Under the terms of the 1987 INF Treaty, the two superpowers decided to dismantle and destroy an entire class of missiles of intermediate range (500-3000 kilometers) that both had deployed in Europe in the 1970s and 1980s, and in their June 1990 joint statement on strategic nuclear weapons, President Gorbachev and Brush agreed to cut the number of Soviet and US long range nuclear forces by 30 per cent. This agreement marks a watershed in US-Soviet strategic arm negotiations because for the first time the United States and the Soviet Union agreed in principals to reduce the number of weapons aimed at one another. Between 1985 and 1990 the cold war was brought to a close

  6. Developing County-level Water Footprints of Biofuel Produced from Switchgrass and Miscanthus x Giganteus in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, May M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chiu, Yi-Wen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Perennial grass has been proposed as a potential candidate for producing cellulosic biofuel because of its promising productivity and benefits to water quality, and because it is a non-food feedstock. While extensive research focuses on selecting and developing species and conversion technologies, the impact of grass-based biofuel production on water resources remains less clear. As feedstock growth requires water and the type of water consumed may vary considerably from region to region, water use must be characterized with spatial resolution and on a fuel production basis. This report summarizes a study that assesses the impact of biofuel production on water resource use and water quality at county, state, and regional scales by developing a water footprint of biofuel produced from switchgrass and Miscanthus × giganteus via biochemical conversion.

  7. Water-quality assessment of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John T.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a regional assessment of groundwater quality of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system, based primarily on raw water samples collected by the NAWQA Program during 1995 through 2007. The NAWQA Program has published findings in local study-unit reports encompassing parts of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system. Data collected from the aquifer system were used in national synthesis reports on selected topics such as specific water-quality constituent classes, well type, or aquifer material; however, a synthesis of groundwater quality at the principal aquifer scale has not been completed and is therefore the major purpose of this report. Water samples collected by the NAWQA Program were analyzed for various classes of characteristics including physical properties, major ions, trace elements, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, radionuclides (tritium, radon, and radium), pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Subsequent sections of this report provide discussions on these classes of characteristics. The assessment objectives of this report are to (1) summarize constituent concentrations and compare them to human-health benchmarks and non-health guidelines; (2) determine the geographic distribution of constituent concentrations and relate them to various factors such as confining conditions, well type, land use, and groundwater age; and (3) evaluate near-decadal-scale changes in nitrate concentrations and pesticide detections. The most recent sample collected from each well by the NAWQA Program was used for most analyses. Near-decadal-scale changes in nitrate concentrations and pesticide detections were evaluated for selected well networks by using the most recent sample from each well and comparing it to the results from a sample collected 7 or 11 years earlier. Because some of the NAWQA well networks provide a limited areal coverage of the aquifer system, data for raw water samples from other USGS sources and state agencies were included

  8. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  9. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  10. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  11. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  12. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  13. Mapping water availability, cost and projected consumptive use in the eastern United States with comparisons to the west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Vincent C.; Moreland, Barbie D.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.; Kobos, Peter

    2018-01-01

    The availability of freshwater supplies to meet future demand is a growing concern. Water availability metrics are needed to inform future water development decisions. With the help of water managers, water availability was mapped for over 1300 watersheds throughout the 31 contiguous states in the eastern US complimenting a prior study of the west. The compiled set of water availability data is unique in that it considers multiple sources of water (fresh surface and groundwater, wastewater and brackish groundwater); accommodates institutional controls placed on water use; is accompanied by cost estimates to access, treat and convey each unique source of water; and is compared to projected future growth in consumptive water use to 2030. Although few administrative limits have been set on water availability in the east, water managers have identified 315 fresh surface water and 398 fresh groundwater basins (with 151 overlapping basins) as areas of concern (AOCs) where water supply challenges exist due to drought related concerns, environmental flows, groundwater overdraft, or salt water intrusion. This highlights a difference in management where AOCs are identified in the east which simply require additional permitting, while in the west strict administrative limits are established. Although the east is generally considered ‘water rich’ roughly a quarter of the basins were identified as AOCs; however, this is still in strong contrast to the west where 78% of the surface water basins are operating at or near their administrative limit. Little effort was noted on the part of eastern or western water managers to quantify non-fresh water resources.

  14. Integrating Forage, Wildlife, Water, and Fish Projections with Timber Projections at the Regional Level: A Case Study in Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda A. Joyce; Curtis H. Flather; Patricia A. Flebbe; Thomas W. Hoekstra; Stan J. Ursic

    1990-01-01

    The impact of timber management and land-use change on forage production, turkey and deer abundance, red-cockaded woodpecker colonies, water yield, and trout abundance was projected as part of a policy study focusing on the southern United States. The multiresource modeling framework used in this study linked extant timber management and land-area policy models with...

  15. Definition of Greater Gulf Basin Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous Lower Cenomanian Shale Gas Assessment Unit, United States Gulf of Mexico Basin Onshore and State Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Hackley, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    An assessment unit (AU) for undiscovered continuous “shale” gas in Lower Cretaceous (Aptian and Albian) and basal Upper Cretaceous (lower Cenomanian) rocks in the USA onshore Gulf of Mexico coastal plain recently was defined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). The AU is part of the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the Gulf of Mexico Basin. Definition of the AU was conducted as part of the 2010 USGS assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in Gulf Coast Mesozoic stratigraphic intervals. The purpose of defining the Greater Gulf Basin Lower Cretaceous Shale Gas AU was to propose a hypothetical AU in the Cretaceous part of the Gulf Coast TPS in which there might be continuous “shale” gas, but the AU was not quantitatively assessed by the USGS in 2010.

  16. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  17. Convergence of agricultural intensification and climate change in the midwestern United States: Implications for soil and water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society faces substantial challenges to expand food production while adapting to climatic changes and ensuring ecosystem services are maintained. A convergence of these issues is occurring in the Midwestern United States, i.e., the ‘cornbelt’ region that provides substantial grain supplies to world ...

  18. An ecoregional approach to the economic valuation of land- and water-based recreation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajana Bhat; John Bergsrom; R. Jeff. Teasley

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a framework for estimating the economic value of outdoor recreation across different ecoregions. Ten ecoregions in the continental United States were defined based on similarly functioning ecosystem characters. The individual travel cost method was employed to estimate recreation demand functions for activities such...

  19. 33 CFR 125.53 - Requirements for credentials; certain vessels operating on navigable waters of the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... master, person in charge, or member of the crew thereof, shall be required to be in possession of one of... United States other than the Great Lakes and Western Rivers. (b) The term “master, person in charge, or... Guard Port Security Card (Form CG 2514) is to be used as the identification required by paragraph (a) of...

  20. Ground-Water Flow Model of the Sierra Vista Subwatershed and Sonoran Portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona, United States, and Northern Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, D.R.; Dickinson, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    A numerical ground-water model was developed to simulate seasonal and long-term variations in ground-water flow in the Sierra Vista subwatershed, Arizona, United States, and Sonora, Mexico, portions of the Upper San Pedro Basin. This model includes the simulation of details of the groundwater flow system that were not simulated by previous models, such as ground-water flow in the sedimentary rocks that surround and underlie the alluvial basin deposits, withdrawals for dewatering purposes at the Tombstone mine, discharge to springs in the Huachuca Mountains, thick low-permeability intervals of silt and clay that separate the ground-water flow system into deep-confined and shallow-unconfined systems, ephemeral-channel recharge, and seasonal variations in ground-water discharge by wells and evapotranspiration. Steady-state and transient conditions during 1902-2003 were simulated by using a five-layer numerical ground- water flow model representing multiple hydrogeologic units. Hydraulic properties of model layers, streamflow, and evapotranspiration rates were estimated as part of the calibration process by using observed water levels, vertical hydraulic gradients, streamflow, and estimated evapotranspiration rates as constraints. Simulations approximate observed water-level trends throughout most of the model area and streamflow trends at the Charleston streamflow-gaging station on the San Pedro River. Differences in observed and simulated water levels, streamflow, and evapotranspiration could be reduced through simulation of climate-related variations in recharge rates and recharge from flood-flow infiltration.

  1. Evaluating the energy and CO2 emissions impacts of shifts in residential water heating in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Kelly T.; Webber, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Water heating represented nearly 13% of 2010 residential energy consumption making it an important target for energy conservation efforts. The objective of this work is to identify spatially-resolved strategies for energy conservation, since little analysis has been done to identify how regional characteristics affect the energy consumed for water heating. We present a first-order thermodynamic analysis, utilizing ab initio calculations and regression methods, to quantify primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions with regional specificity by considering by considering local electricity mixes, heat rates, solar radiation profiles, heating degrees days, and water heating unit sales for 27 regions of the US. Results suggest that shifting from electric towards natural gas or solar water heating offered primary energy and CO 2 emission reductions in most US regions, but these reductions varied considerably according to regional electricity mix and solar resources. We find that regions that would benefit most from technology transitions, are often least likely to switch due to limited economic incentives. Our results suggest that federal energy factor metrics, which ignore upstream losses in power generation, are insufficient in informing consumers about the energy performance of residential end use appliances. - Highlights: • US energy factor ratings for water heaters ignore upstream losses. • Switching from electric storage water heating reduces CO 2 emissions in most US regions. • Regions with greatest potential for CO 2 avoidance are least likely to shift technologies. • Benefits vary significantly according to climate and regional electricity fuel mix

  2. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United States...

  3. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    650 of the U.S. Bureau of Mines) ; indeed, we regard that book and the present volume as being complementary. In the examination of the geologic possibilities for finding new deposits-in many respects the principal innovative contributions of this volume-we asked the authors to frankly apply the limits of their ingenuity and not only to summarize current theories but also to express their own intuitive ideas, however speculative and unconventional they may seem, that have come from years of study devoted to the origin of mineral deposits. Readers will see that some authors have speculated more courageously than others. In any case, we believe readers will find all the chapters interesting, and many stimulating; and a few we believe can be frankly characterized as intellectually exciting. Most chapters include a section on prospecting techniques, and a summary of geologic or related problems on which the authors believe research might be most fruitful in the continuing efforts to find new resources. An integral part of the book is the bibliographic material cited at the conclusion of each chapter, in lieu of repetition of detailed descriptions already in print. Index and "spot" maps are not included in most chapters because they are available elsewhere, and in many cases with more detail than could possibly be included here. Maps showing the distribution of known deposits of many commodities in the United States are available in the Mineral Resource (MR) map series of the U.S. Geological Survey and in the National Atlas of the United States. The first three chapters deal not with resources of specific commodities but with general information that is pertinent to the study of mineral resources. In the introductory chapter we discuss the purposes of the book, the distinctions between reserves and various categories of resources, and some general conclusions drawn from our view of the book in its entirety. In the second chapter V. E. McKelvey discusses the problems of

  4. Adapt or Drown - Can the United States Chart a Safe Course Through the Troubled Waters of Energy Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    the cost of meat and dairy products. One solution, algae, has been discussed for decreasing the dependency of biodiesel production on crops—a...and maize/corn (United States). Ethanol is produced by fermenting sugars. Corn grain is processed to remove the sugar in wet and dry mills (by...crushing, soaking, and/or chemical treatment), the sugar is fermented , and the resulting mix is distilled and purified to obtain anhydrous ethanol. Major

  5. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  6. Factors affecting the fate and transport of glyphosate and AMPA into surface waters of agricultural watersheds in the United States and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, R.; Kalkhoff, S.; Capel, P.; Gregoire, C.

    2012-04-01

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a herbicide used extensively in almost all agricultural and urban areas of the United States and Europe. Although, glyphosate is used widely throughout the world in the production of many crops, it is predominately used in the United States on soybeans, corn, potatoes, and cotton that have been genetically modified to be tolerant to glyphosate. From 1992 to 2007, the agricultural use of glyphosate has increased from less than 10,000 Mg to more than 80,000 Mg, respectively. The greatest areal use is in the midwestern United States where glyphosate is applied on transgenic corn and soybeans. Because of the difficulty and expense in analyzing for glyphosate and AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid, a primary glyphosate degradate) in water, there have been only small scale studies on the fate and transport of glyphosate. The characterization of the transport of glyphosate and AMPA on a watershed scale is lacking. Glyphosate and AMPA were frequently detected in the surface waters of 4 agricultural watersheds in studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the United States and at the Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg. Two of these basins were located in the midwestern United States where the major crops are corn and soybean, the third is located the lower Mississippi River Basin where the major crops are soybean, corn, rice, and cotton, and the fourth was located near Strasbourg, France where the use of glyphosate was on a vineyard. The load as a percent of use ranged from 0.009 to 0.86 percent and could be related to 3 factors: source strength, hydrology, and flowpath. Glyphosate use in a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water at the part per billion level; however, those watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff, and a flowpath that does not include transport through the soil.

  7. United States panel presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyea, J.

    1990-01-01

    Before I begin I have to make a disclaimer. That is that I am going to be talking about public perception because I think that is very important. But I do not want to give the impression that I think the public is wrong. I happen to agree with the public's perception of nuclear power, and I want to make that clear. I do not like the current generation of nuclear plants as I have made clear in many statements that I have made. On the other hand, in the long term, I feel that we have only two choices on the supply side, and that is nuclear power and solar electricity. And although I think solar electricity has the best chance, I am realistic enough to know that technologies do not always work the way I want. And so I think it is necessary to have at least some kind of nuclear option available. On the other hand, I do not think just any kind of nuclear technology will do. I want to talk to you about the conditions that I think you have to take into account when you try to design reactors that are publicly acceptable. I look at this as an insurance policy. Again, I do not want to be misquoted: I think nuclear power should be considered as an insurance policy, not as our first line of defense. Having made those disclaimers, what we need to do is set out a problem statement. The problem statement I set out is, 'How could one design and demonstrate a nuclear reactor that would regain public confidence in the United States, if one chose to do that?' By regaining confidence, I mean regaining sufficient confidence to site reactors at a number of locations. It is a pretty heavy task because the public cannot judge the technical issues. They have to judge the players by their characters and their histories, just as the way we calibrate anyone that knows things that we do not. I have three theses that I think are crucial. The first is that people do not believe in the claims of advocates, of any point of view, not just nuclear power, once the advocates have been proved wrong on

  8. Fracking in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, advances in technology have made it profitable to extract natural gas from shale, leading to a boom in shale gas development in the United States. Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, the controversial method for extracting natural gas, offers numerous benefits: relatively cheap energy, enhanced energy security, job creation, tax revenues and decreased dependence on dirty coal. Fracking, however, can also increase greenhouse gas emissions, pollute the air and result in health effects, consume huge quantities of water, and cause earthquakes. While some areas welcome fracking for the economic benefits it brings, other communities are attempting to ban fracking altogether. This article examines the benefits and risks of fracking in the U.S

  9. Modeling the potential impacts of climate change on the water table level of selected forested wetlands in the southeastern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jie; Sun, Ge; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Yu; Miao, Guofang; Noormets, Asko; McNulty, Steve G.; King, John S.; Kumar, Mukesh; Wang, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    The southeastern United States hosts extensive forested wetlands, providing ecosystem services including carbon sequestration, water quality improvement, groundwater recharge, and wildlife habitat. However, these wetland ecosystems are dependent on local climate and hydrology, and are therefore at risk due to climate and land use change. This study develops site-specific empirical hydrologic models for five forested wetlands with different characteristics by analyzing long-t...

  10. Control of Tamarix in the western United States: Implications for water salvage, wildlife use, and riparian restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, P.B.; Cleverly, J.R.; Dudley, T.L.; Taylor, J.P.; van Riper, Charles; Weeks, E.P.; Stuart, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    Non-native shrub species in the genus Tamarix (saltcedar, tamarisk) have colonized hundreds of thousands of hectares of floodplains, reservoir margins, and other wetlands in western North America. Many resource managers seek to reduce saltcedar abundance and control its spread to increase the flow of water in streams that might otherwise be lost to evapotranspiration, to restore native riparian (streamside) vegetation, and to improve wildlife habitat. However, increased water yield might not always occur and has been substantially lower than expected in water salvage experiments, the potential for successful revegetation is variable, and not all wildlife taxa clearly prefer native plant habitats over saltcedar. As a result, there is considerable debate surrounding saltcedar control efforts. We review the literature on saltcedar control, water use, wildlife use, and riparian restoration to provide resource managers, researchers, and policy-makers with a balanced summary of the state of the science. To best ensure that the desired outcomes of removal programs are met, scientists and resource managers should use existing information and methodologies to carefully select and prioritize sites for removal, apply the most appropriate and cost-effective control methods, and then rigorously monitor control efficacy, revegetation success, water yield changes, and wildlife use.

  11. RESEARCH: An Ecoregional Approach to the Economic Valuation of Land- and Water-Based Recreation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat; Bergstrom; Teasley; Bowker; Cordell

    1998-01-01

    / This paper describes a framework for estimating the economic value of outdoor recreation across different ecoregions. Ten ecoregions in the continental United States were defined based on similarly functioning ecosystem characters. The individual travel cost method was employed to estimate recreation demand functions for activities such as motor boating and waterskiing, developed and primitive camping, coldwater fishing, sightseeing and pleasure driving, and big game hunting for each ecoregion. While our ecoregional approach differs conceptually from previous work, our results appear consistent with the previous travel cost method valuation studies.KEY WORDS: Recreation; Ecoregion; Travel cost method; Truncated Poisson model

  12. Water quality studied in areas of unconventional oil and gas development, including areas where hydraulic fracturing techniques are used, in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susong, David D.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.

    2012-01-01

    Domestic oil and gas production and clean water are critical for economic growth, public health, and national security of the United States. As domestic oil and gas production increases in new areas and old fields are enhanced, there is increasing public concern about the effects of energy production on surface-water and groundwater quality. To a great extent, this concern arises from the improved hydraulic fracturing techniques being used today, including horizontal drilling, for producing unconventional oil and gas in low-permeability formations.

  13. Methods for evaluating potential sources of chloride in surface waters and groundwaters of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Jeznach, Lillian C.

    2015-09-04

    Chloride exists as a major ion in most natural waters, but many anthropogenic sources are increasing concentrations of chloride in many receiving waters. Although natural concentrations in continental waters can be as high as 200,000 milligrams per liter, chloride concentrations that are suitable for freshwater ecology, human consumption, and agricultural and industrial water uses commonly are on the order of 10 to 1,000 milligrams per liter. “Road salt” frequently is identified as the sole source of anthropogenic chloride, but only about 30 percent of the salt consumed and released to the environment is used for deicing. Furthermore, several studies in Southern States where the use of deicing salt is minimal also show anthropogenic chloride in rising concentrations and in strong correlation to imperviousness and road density. This is because imperviousness and road density also are strongly correlated to population density. The term “road salt” is a misnomer because deicers applied to parking lots, sidewalks, and driveways can be a substantial source of chloride in some catchments because these land covers are comparable to roadways as a percentage of the total impervious area and commonly receive higher salt application rates than some roadways. Other sources of anthropogenic chloride include wastewater, dust control on unpaved roads, fertilizer, animal waste, irrigation, aquaculture, energy production wastes, and landfill leachates. The assumption that rising chloride concentrations in surface water or groundwater is indicative of contamination by deicing chemicals rather than one or more other potential sources may preclude the identification of toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or endocrine-disrupting contaminants that are associated with many sources of elevated chloride concentrations. Once the sources of anthropogenic chloride in an area of interest have been identified and measured, water and solute budgets can be estimated to guide decisionmakers to

  14. Occurrence of pesticides in water and sediment collected from amphibian habitats located throughout the United States, 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Orlando, James L.; Calhoun, Daniel; Battaglin, William A.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Water and bed-sediment samples were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2009 and 2010 from 11 sites within California and 18 sites total in Colorado, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Maine, and Oregon, and were analyzed for a suite of pesticides by the USGS. Water samples and bed-sediment samples were collected from perennial or seasonal ponds located in amphibian habitats in conjunction with research conducted by the USGS Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative and the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. Sites selected for this study in three of the states (California, Colorado, and Orgeon) have no direct pesticide application and are considered undeveloped and remote. Sites selected in Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, and Maine were in close proximity to either agricultural or suburban areas. Water and sediment samples were collected once in 2009 during amphibian breeding seasons. In 2010, water samples were collected twice. The first sampling event coincided with the beginning of the frog breeding season for the species of interest, and the second event occurred 10-12 weeks later when pesticides were being applied to the surrounding areas. Additionally, water was collected during each sampling event to measure dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and the fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which has been linked to amphibian declines worldwide. Bed-sediment samples were collected once during the beginning of the frog breeding season, when the amphibians are thought to be most at risk to pesticides. Results of this study are reported for the following two geographic scales: (1) for a national scale, by using data from the 29 sites that were sampled from seven states, and (2) for California, by using data from the 11 sampled sites in that state. Water samples were analyzed for 96 pesticides by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A total of 24 pesticides were detected in one or more of the 54 water samples, including 7 fungicides, 10

  15. Legislative update: United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The US Senate consented to the ratification of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) on 4 August 2006. The entry into force of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation will substantially change the face of the international nuclear liability regime. The CSC is a free-standing instrument, open to all states. This means that countries can become party to a new global regime providing for liability and compensation for victims of a nuclear incident, without also having to become a contracting party to the Paris Convention or the Vienna Convention. This is certainly a major step forward given that at the present time, over half of the world's reactors in operation or under construction are not covered by any of the international nuclear third party liability conventions. The CSC creates an instrument by which states can ensure that more money will be made available to compensate more victims for a broader range of damage than ever before. The CSC provides for two tiers of compensation. The first tier, fixed at 300 million Special Drawing Rights, is to be provided by the liable operator. This tier is to be distributed on a non-discriminatory basis to victims both inside and outside of the Installation State. If 300 million SDRs are insufficient to compensate all damage, then contracting parties will be required to contribute to the second tier (the international fund). The amount of this second tier is not fixed, but rather will depend on the number of operating nuclear power plants in contracting parties, and is designed to increase as the number of such plants increases

  16. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  17. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... litigation.'' United States v. Armour and Co., 402 U.S. 673, 681 (1971). Section 5 of the Clayton Act... relief in consent judgment that contained recitals in which defendants asserted their innocence); Armour...

  18. United States Strategy for Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Centner, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    The security and stability of Mexico is of national interest to the United States, and a strong, effective alliance between the two countries is pivotal to our national defense strategy and economic prosperity...

  19. United States panel presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, B.

    1990-01-01

    According to studies by the Department of Energy, toward the latter part of this decade, we will have to add five or six baseload plants, and in the period from 2000 to 205, we are going to need some sixty additional baseload plants. So in the next fifteen years we will need some sixty-five or seventy baseload plants. One can argue over the accuracy of those numbers, but tens of new baseload plants are going to be needed, and that means we are going to have to start the design of these plants in the next few years to get them online by the end of the century. I think there is going to be a change in attitude towards new plants. My view is that when the American public is faced with the decision of what kind of new energy source they need versus 'do I let the lights dim?', that nuclear power will be one of their choices. We will see as a result the revival of nuclear power - the water reactors in the near term, and I will leave for later discussion the question of whether we will use breeders and gas-cooled reactors for the longer term

  20. Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on water- and foodborne diseases caused by microbiologic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J B; Epstein, P R; Lipp, E K; Sherman, B H; Bernard, S M; Patz, J A

    2001-05-01

    Exposure to waterborne and foodborne pathogens can occur via drinking water (associated with fecal contamination), seafood (due to natural microbial hazards, toxins, or wastewater disposal) or fresh produce (irrigated or processed with contaminated water). Weather influences the transport and dissemination of these microbial agents via rainfall and runoff and the survival and/or growth through such factors as temperature. Federal and state laws and regulatory programs protect much of the U.S. population from waterborne disease; however, if climate variability increases, current and future deficiencies in areas such as watershed protection, infrastructure, and storm drainage systems will probably increase the risk of contamination events. Knowledge about transport processes and the fate of microbial pollutants associated with rainfall and snowmelt is key to predicting risks from a change in weather variability. Although recent studies identified links between climate variability and occurrence of microbial agents in water, the relationships need further quantification in the context of other stresses. In the marine environment as well, there are few studies that adequately address the potential health effects of climate variability in combination with other stresses such as overfishing, introduced species, and rise in sea level. Advances in monitoring are necessary to enhance early-warning and prevention capabilities. Application of existing technologies, such as molecular fingerprinting to track contaminant sources or satellite remote sensing to detect coastal algal blooms, could be expanded. This assessment recommends incorporating a range of future scenarios of improvement plans for current deficiencies in the public health infrastructure to achieve more realistic risk assessments.

  1. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth...

  2. Occurrence and in vitro bioactivity of estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid compounds in a nationwide screen of United States stream waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Justin M.; Evans, Nicola; Cardon, Mary C.; Rosenblum, Laura; Iwanowicz, Luke; Hartig, Phillip C.; Schenck, Kathleen M.; Bradley, Paul M.; Wilson, Vickie S.

    2017-01-01

    In vitro bioassays are sensitive, effect-based tools used to quantitatively screen for chemicals with nuclear receptor activity in environmental samples. We measured in vitro estrogen (ER), androgen (AR), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activity, along with a broad suite of chemical analytes, in streamwater from 35 well-characterized sites (3 reference and 32 impacted) across 24 states and Puerto Rico. ER agonism was the most frequently detected with nearly all sites (34/35) displaying activity (range, 0.054–116 ng E2Eq L–1). There was a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.917) between in vitro ER activity and concentrations of steroidal estrogens after correcting for the in vitro potency of each compound. AR agonism was detected in 5/35 samples (range, 1.6–4.8 ng DHTEq L–1) but concentrations of androgenic compounds were largely unable to account for the in vitro activity. Similarly, GR agonism was detected in 9/35 samples (range, 6.0–43 ng DexEq L–1); however, none of the recognized GR-active compounds on the target-chemical analyte list were detected. The utility of in vitro assays in water quality monitoring was evident from both the quantitative agreement between ER activity and estrogen concentrations, as well as the detection of AR and GR activity for which there were limited or no corresponding target-chemical detections to explain the bioactivity. Incorporation of in vitro bioassays as complements to chemical analyses in standard water quality monitoring efforts would allow for more complete assessment of the chemical mixtures present in many surface waters.

  3. A Systematic Review of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Small Non-Community Drinking Water Systems in Canada and the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Pons

    Full Text Available Reports of outbreaks in Canada and the United States (U.S. indicate that approximately 50% of all waterborne diseases occur in small non-community drinking water systems (SDWSs. Summarizing these investigations to identify the factors and conditions contributing to outbreaks is needed in order to help prevent future outbreaks.The objectives of this study were to: 1 identify published reports of waterborne disease outbreaks involving SDWSs in Canada and the U.S. since 1970; 2 summarize reported factors contributing to outbreaks, including water system characteristics and events surrounding the outbreaks; and 3 identify terminology used to describe SDWSs in outbreak reports.Three electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched for outbreak reports involving SDWSs throughout Canada and the U.S. from 1970 to 2014. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data related to water system characteristics and outbreak events. The data were analyzed descriptively with 'outbreak' as the unit of analysis.From a total of 1,995 citations, we identified 50 relevant articles reporting 293 unique outbreaks. Failure of an existing water treatment system (22.7% and lack of water treatment (20.2% were the leading causes of waterborne outbreaks in SDWSs. A seasonal trend was observed with 51% of outbreaks occurring in summer months (p<0.001. There was large variation in terminology used to describe SDWSs, and a large number of variables were not reported, including water source and whether water treatment was used (missing in 31% and 66% of reports, respectively.More consistent reporting and descriptions of SDWSs in future outbreak reports are needed to understand the epidemiology of these outbreaks and to inform the development of targeted interventions for SDWSs. Additional monitoring of water systems that are used on a seasonal or infrequent basis would be worthwhile to inform future protection efforts.

  4. Hydrogeologic controls on the transport and fate of nitrate in ground water beneath riparian buffer zones: Results from thirteen studies across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades there has been growing interest in the capacity of riparian buffer zones to remove nitrate from ground waters moving through them. Riparian zone sediments often contain organic carbon, which favors formation of reducing conditions that can lead to removal of nitrate through denitrification. Over the past decade the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has investigated the transport and fate of nitrate in ground and surface waters in study areas across the United States. In these studies riparian zone efficiency in removing nitrate varied widely as a result of variations in hydrogeologic factors. These factors include (1) denitrification in the up-gradient aquifer due to the presence of organic carbon or other electron donors, (2) long residence times (>50 years) along ground-water flow paths allowing even slow reactions to completely remove nitrate, (3) dilution of nitrate enriched waters with older water having little nitrate, (4) bypassing of riparian zones due to extensive use of drains and ditches, and (5) movement of ground water along deep flow paths below reducing zones. By developing a better understanding of the hydrogeologic settings in which riparian buffer zones are likely to be inefficient we can develop improved nutrient management plans. ?? US Government 2004.

  5. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of Columbia...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District...

  7. State nuclear initiatives in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.; Stoiber, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with State nuclear initiatives regarding the role of nuclear power in the energy future of the United States. The question of whether and under what circumstances nuclear facilities should be used to generate electricity was put to the popular vote in several States in 1976. Some general principles of Federal-State relations are discussed with specific reference to nuclear regulations. The initiative mechanism itself is described as well as its legal form and background. The parallel developments in the State and Federal legislative consideration of nuclear issues is reviewed and the suggested reasons for the defeat of the proposals in the seven States concerned are discussed. Finally, the author draws some conclusions on the effects of the 1976 initiatives on future decision-making in the US on energy policy in general and nuclear power in particular. (NEA) [fr

  8. Quantifying the role of National Forest system lands in providing surface drinking water supply for the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Caldwell; Corinne Muldoon; Chelcy Ford-Miniat; Erika Cohen; Suzanne Krieger; Ge Sun; Steven McNulty; Paul V. Bolstad

    2014-01-01

    Forests and water are inextricably linked, and people are dependent on forested lands to provide clean, reliable water supplies for drinking and to support local economies. These water supplies are at risk of degradation from a growing population, continued conversion of forests to other land uses, and climate change. Given the variety of threats to surface water, it...

  9. A Systematic Review of Waterborne Disease Outbreaks Associated with Small Non-Community Drinking Water Systems in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Wendy; Young, Ian; Truong, Jenifer; Jones-Bitton, Andria; McEwen, Scott; Pintar, Katarina; Papadopoulos, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Reports of outbreaks in Canada and the United States (U.S.) indicate that approximately 50% of all waterborne diseases occur in small non-community drinking water systems (SDWSs). Summarizing these investigations to identify the factors and conditions contributing to outbreaks is needed in order to help prevent future outbreaks. The objectives of this study were to: 1) identify published reports of waterborne disease outbreaks involving SDWSs in Canada and the U.S. since 1970; 2) summarize reported factors contributing to outbreaks, including water system characteristics and events surrounding the outbreaks; and 3) identify terminology used to describe SDWSs in outbreak reports. Three electronic databases and grey literature sources were searched for outbreak reports involving SDWSs throughout Canada and the U.S. from 1970 to 2014. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data related to water system characteristics and outbreak events. The data were analyzed descriptively with 'outbreak' as the unit of analysis. From a total of 1,995 citations, we identified 50 relevant articles reporting 293 unique outbreaks. Failure of an existing water treatment system (22.7%) and lack of water treatment (20.2%) were the leading causes of waterborne outbreaks in SDWSs. A seasonal trend was observed with 51% of outbreaks occurring in summer months (pwater source and whether water treatment was used (missing in 31% and 66% of reports, respectively). More consistent reporting and descriptions of SDWSs in future outbreak reports are needed to understand the epidemiology of these outbreaks and to inform the development of targeted interventions for SDWSs. Additional monitoring of water systems that are used on a seasonal or infrequent basis would be worthwhile to inform future protection efforts.

  10. Adaptation by Stealth: Understanding climate information use across scales and decision spaces in water management in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, C.; Vang Rasmussen, L.; Lemos, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    While there has been considerable focus on understanding how factors related to the creation of climate knowledge affect its uptake and use, less attention has been paid to the actors, decisions, and processes through which climate information supports, or fails to support, action. This is particularly the case concerning how different scales of decision-making influence information uptake. In this study, we seek to understand how water and resource managers' decision space influences climate information use in two Great Lakes watersheds. We find that despite the availability of tailored climate information, actual use of information in decision making remains low. Reasons include: a) lack of willingness to place climate on agendas because local managers perceive climate change as politically risky and a difficult and intangible problem; b) lack of formal mandate or authority at the city and county scale to translate climate information into on-the-ground action, c) problems with the information itself, and d) perceived lack of demand for climate information by those managers who have the mandate and authority (e.g. at the state level) to use (or help others use) climate information. Our findings suggest that 1) climate scientists and information brokers should produce information that meets a range of decision needs and reserve intensive tailoring efforts for decision makers who have authority and willingness to employ climate information, 2) without support from higher levels of decision-making (e.g. state) it is unlikely that climate information use for adaptation decisions will accelerate significantly in the next few years, and 3) the trend towards adopting more sustainability and resilience practices over climate-specific actions should be supported as an important component of the climate adaptation repertoire.

  11. Water stress from high-volume hydraulic fracturing potentially threatens aquatic biodiversity and ecosystem services in Arkansas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally; Trainor, Anne; Saiers, James; Patterson, Lauren; Maloney, Kelly O.; Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Konschnik, Katherine E.; Wiseman, Hannah; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2018-01-01

    Demand for high-volume, short duration water withdrawals could create water stress to aquatic organisms in Fayetteville Shale streams sourced for hydraulic fracturing fluids. We estimated potential water stress using permitted water withdrawal volumes and actual water withdrawals compared to monthly median, low, and high streamflows. Risk for biological stress was considered at 20% of long-term median and 10% of high- and low-flow thresholds. Future well build-out projections estimated potential for continued stress. Most water was permitted from small, free-flowing streams and “frack” ponds (dammed streams). Permitted 12-h pumping volumes exceeded median streamflow at 50% of withdrawal sites in June, when flows were low. Daily water usage, from operator disclosures, compared to median streamflow showed possible water stress in 7–51% of catchments from June–November, respectively. If 100% of produced water was recycled, per-well water use declined by 25%, reducing threshold exceedance by 10%. Future water stress was predicted to occur in fewer catchments important for drinking water and species of conservation concern due to the decline in new well installations and increased use of recycled water. Accessible and precise withdrawal and streamflow data are critical moving forward to assess and mitigate water stress in streams that experience high-volume withdrawals.

  12. Water Stress from High-Volume Hydraulic Fracturing Potentially Threatens Aquatic Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Arkansas, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally; Trainor, Anne; Saiers, James; Patterson, Lauren; Maloney, Kelly; Fargione, Joseph; Kiesecker, Joseph; Baruch-Mordo, Sharon; Konschnik, Katherine; Wiseman, Hannah; Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Ryan, Joseph N

    2018-02-20

    Demand for high-volume, short duration water withdrawals could create water stress to aquatic organisms in Fayetteville Shale streams sourced for hydraulic fracturing fluids. We estimated potential water stress using permitted water withdrawal volumes and actual water withdrawals compared to monthly median, low, and high streamflows. Risk for biological stress was considered at 20% of long-term median and 10% of high- and low-flow thresholds. Future well build-out projections estimated potential for continued stress. Most water was permitted from small, free-flowing streams and "frack" ponds (dammed streams). Permitted 12-h pumping volumes exceeded median streamflow at 50% of withdrawal sites in June, when flows were low. Daily water usage, from operator disclosures, compared to median streamflow showed possible water stress in 7-51% of catchments from June-November, respectively. If 100% of produced water was recycled, per-well water use declined by 25%, reducing threshold exceedance by 10%. Future water stress was predicted to occur in fewer catchments important for drinking water and species of conservation concern due to the decline in new well installations and increased use of recycled water. Accessible and precise withdrawal and streamflow data are critical moving forward to assess and mitigate water stress in streams that experience high-volume withdrawals.

  13. AREVA in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    nuclear. The trend in favor of 'green energies' could accelerate and become a major source of economic growth in the coming years. In 2007, the United States have 104 nuclear reactors with a total installed capacity of 100,3 GWe. The technology was split as follows: 34 boiling water reactors (BWR) with a capacity of 32 GWe and 70 pressurized water reactors (PWR) with a capacity of 68 GWe. Nuclear reactors are located in 31 of the 50 states, mainly in the eastern half of the country. On December 31, 2006 nuclear power generated 810 TWh, or 19% of total electrical production. Installed nuclear capacity represented 9% of the country's total electrical capacity. In 2006, 103 nuclear reactors were connected to the grid, compared to 104 nuclear reactors in 2007: after a long shutdown, Browns Ferry 1 reactor (PWR, 1 065 MWe) has been re-connected to the grid on June, 2, 2007. The nuclear power plants in the United States' fleet have an average age of 26 years. The oldest power plants that are still in service are Nine Mile Point 1 and Oyster Creek (both use BWR technology), which began operations in December 1969. Watts Bar 1 (PWR technology) is the newest nuclear power plant, having commenced operations in 1996. Although energy consumption has continued to grow, the contribution of nuclear power to the energy mix has remained steady despite the lack of new construction. This is mainly due to continuous performance improvements in reactor safety and availability. These performance improvements are, to a great extent, due to the deregulation of the U.S. electricity market in the 1990's and subsequent mergers and acquisitions, which led to a consolidation in the number of operators. The economies of scale achieved and the major investments made possible by the pooling of resources promoted the continuous improvement of reactor operations while reducing reactor operating and maintenance costs. In June 2005, George W. Bush sent a public message about his determination to revive the

  14. AREVA in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    , but also hydrogen and nuclear. The trend in favor of 'green energies' could accelerate and become a major source of economic growth in the coming years. In 2007, the United States have 104 nuclear reactors with a total installed capacity of 100,3 GWe. The technology was split as follows: 34 boiling water reactors (BWR) with a capacity of 32 GWe and 70 pressurized water reactors (PWR) with a capacity of 68 GWe. Nuclear reactors are located in 31 of the 50 states, mainly in the eastern half of the country. On December 31, 2006 nuclear power generated 810 TWh, or 19% of total electrical production. Installed nuclear capacity represented 9% of the country's total electrical capacity. In 2006, 103 nuclear reactors were connected to the grid, compared to 104 nuclear reactors in 2007: after a long shutdown, Browns Ferry 1 reactor (PWR, 1 065 MWe) has been re-connected to the grid on June, 2, 2007. The nuclear power plants in the United States' fleet have an average age of 26 years. The oldest power plants that are still in service are Nine Mile Point 1 and Oyster Creek (both use BWR technology), which began operations in December 1969. Watts Bar 1 (PWR technology) is the newest nuclear power plant, having commenced operations in 1996. Although energy consumption has continued to grow, the contribution of nuclear power to the energy mix has remained steady despite the lack of new construction. This is mainly due to continuous performance improvements in reactor safety and availability. These performance improvements are, to a great extent, due to the deregulation of the U.S. electricity market in the 1990's and subsequent mergers and acquisitions, which led to a consolidation in the number of operators. The economies of scale achieved and the major investments made possible by the pooling of resources promoted the continuous improvement of reactor operations while reducing reactor operating and maintenance costs. In June 2005, George W. Bush sent a

  15. At the crossroads: Hazard assessment and reduction of health risks from arsenic in private well waters of the northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Ayotte, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This special issue contains 12 papers that report on new understanding of arsenic (As) hydrogeochemistry, performance of household well water treatment systems, and testing and treatment behaviors of well users in several states of the northeastern region of the United States and Nova Scotia, Canada. The responsibility to ensure water safety of private wells falls on well owners. In the U.S., 43 million Americans, mostly from rural areas, use private wells. In order to reduce As exposure in rural populations that rely on private wells for drinking water, risk assessment, which includes estimation of population at risk of exposure to As above the EPA Maximum Contaminant Level, is helpful but insufficient because it does not identify individual households at risk. Persistent optimistic bias among well owners against testing and barriers such as cost of treatment mean that a large percentage of the population will not act to reduce their exposure to harmful substances such as As. If households are in areas with known As occurrence, a potentially large percentage of well owners will remain unaware of their exposure. To ensure that everyone, including vulnerable populations such as low income families with children and pregnant women, is not exposed to arsenic in their drinking water, alternative action will be required and warrants further research.

  16. A Strategy for Federal Science and Technology to Support Water Availability and Quality in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    delivery systems, and crop management. Advances in biotechnology and nanotechnology and creative uses of low-quality water increase water management...transport; remote sensing of quantity and quality (cur- rently effective at regional or continental scales); and nanotechnology for use in a variety of...nologies include desalination , water treatment and reuse, and more efficient methods of water use in the agriculture, energy, buildings, and

  17. THE UNITED STATES EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    David Suriñach Fernández

    2017-01-01

    The United States educational system is very complex. Due to the fact a big number of agents take play of its regulation, the differences between the education from one State compared to the education from another, or even between school districts, might be considerable. The last two largest federal education initiatives, No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top, have had a huge impact on the American education system. The escalation of the standardized test throughout the whole country as a ...

  18. The International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM): The United States' Contribution to UNESCO IHP's Global Network of Water Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of a "category 2 center"—i.e., one that is closely affiliated with UNESCO, but not legally part of UNESCO—dates back many decades. However, only in the last decade has the concept been fully developed. Within UNESCO, the International Hydrological Programme (IHP) has led the way in creating a network of regional and global water-related centers.ICIWaRM—the International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management—is one member of this network. Approved by UNESCO's General Conference, the center has been operating since 2009. It was designed to fill a niche in the system for a center that was backed by an institution with on-the-ground water management experience, but that also had strong connections to academia, NGOs and other governmental agencies. Thus, ICIWaRM is hosted by the US Army Corps of Engineers' Institute for Water Resources (IWR), but established with an internal network of partner institutions. Three main factors have contributed to any success that ICIWaRM has achieved in its global work: A focus on practical science and technology which can be readily transferred. This includes the Corps' own methodologies and models for planning and water management, and those of our university and government partners. Collaboration with other UNESCO Centers on joint applied research, capacity-building and training. A network of centers needs to function as a network, and ICIWaRM has worked together with UNESCO-affiliated centers in Chile, Brazil, Paraguay, the Dominican Republic, Japan, China, and elsewhere. Partnering with and supporting existing UNESCO-IHP programs. ICIWaRM serves as the Global Technical Secretariat for IHP's Global Network on Water and Development Information in Arid Lands (G-WADI). In addition to directly supporting IHP, work through G-WADI helps the center to frame, prioritize and integrate its activities. With the recent release of the United Nation's 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, it is clear that

  19. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  20. United States Navy DL Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  1. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  2. Shale gas vs. coal: Policy implications from environmental impact comparisons of shale gas, conventional gas, and coal on air, water, and land in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenner, Steffen; Lamadrid, Alberto J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the major environmental impacts of shale gas, conventional gas and coal on air, water, and land in the United States. These factors decisively affect the quality of life (public health and safety) as well as local and global environmental protection. Comparing various lifecycle assessments, this paper will suggest that a shift from coal to shale gas would benefit public health, the safety of workers, local environmental protection, water consumption, and the land surface. Most likely, shale gas also comes with a smaller GHG footprint than coal. However, shale gas extraction can affect water safety. This paper also discusses related aspects that exemplify how shale gas can be more beneficial in the short and long term. First, there are technical solutions readily available to fix the most crucial problems of shale gas extraction, such as methane leakages and other geo-hazards. Second, shale gas is best equipped to smoothen the transition to an age of renewable energy. Finally, this paper will recommend hybrid policy regulations. - Highlights: ► We examine the impacts of (un)conventional gas and coal on air, water, and land. ► A shift from coal to shale gas would benefit public health. ► Shale gas extraction can affect water safety. ► We discuss technical solutions to fix the most crucial problems of shale gas extraction. ► We recommend hybrid regulations.

  3. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ...

  4. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. ...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ...

  6. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories, states, commonwealths, districts, and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  7. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States. ...

  8. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District of...

  9. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia, the...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America. [31 FR 16758, Dec. 31, 1966. Redesignated at 56 FR 64472, Dec. 10, 1991] ...

  11. Spatially-explicit modeling of multi-scale drivers of aboveground forest biomass and water yield in watersheds of the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaz Ahmed, Mukhtar Ahmed; Abd-Elrahman, Amr; Escobedo, Francisco J; Cropper, Wendell P; Martin, Timothy A; Timilsina, Nilesh

    2017-09-01

    Understanding ecosystem processes and the influence of regional scale drivers can provide useful information for managing forest ecosystems. Examining more local scale drivers of forest biomass and water yield can also provide insights for identifying and better understanding the effects of climate change and management on forests. We used diverse multi-scale datasets, functional models and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to model ecosystem processes at the watershed scale and to interpret the influence of ecological drivers across the Southeastern United States (SE US). Aboveground forest biomass (AGB) was determined from available geospatial datasets and water yield was estimated using the Water Supply and Stress Index (WaSSI) model at the watershed level. Our geostatistical model examined the spatial variation in these relationships between ecosystem processes, climate, biophysical, and forest management variables at the watershed level across the SE US. Ecological and management drivers at the watershed level were analyzed locally to identify whether drivers contribute positively or negatively to aboveground forest biomass and water yield ecosystem processes and thus identifying potential synergies and tradeoffs across the SE US region. Although AGB and water yield drivers varied geographically across the study area, they were generally significantly influenced by climate (rainfall and temperature), land-cover factor1 (Water and barren), land-cover factor2 (wetland and forest), organic matter content high, rock depth, available water content, stand age, elevation, and LAI drivers. These drivers were positively or negatively associated with biomass or water yield which significantly contributes to ecosystem interactions or tradeoff/synergies. Our study introduced a spatially-explicit modelling framework to analyze the effect of ecosystem drivers on forest ecosystem structure, function and provision of services. This integrated model approach facilitates

  12. Science informed water resources decision-making: Examples using remote sensing observations in East Africa, the Lower Mekong Basin and the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, S. L.; Andreadis, K.; Das, N.; Farr, T. G.; Ines, A. V. M.; Jayasinghe, S.; Jones, C. E.; Melton, F. S.; Ndungu, L. W.; Lai-Norling, J.; Painter, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Across the globe, planners and decision makers are often hampered by organizational and data silos and/or a lack of historic data or scant in situ observations on which to base policy and action plans. The end result is a complex interaction of responsibilities, legal frameworks, and stakeholder needs guided by uncertain information that is essentially bounded by how climate extremes are defined and characterized. Because of the importance of water, considerable resources in the developing and developed world are invested in data and tools for managing water. However, the existing paradigm of water management around the world faces significant challenges including inadequate funding to install, maintain or upgrade monitoring networks, lack of resources to integrate new science and data sources into existing tools, and demands for improved spatial coverage of observations. Add to this, a changing hydrology that is so complex it requires measurements and analyses that have never been done before. Interest in applying remote sensing science and observations into the decision making process is growing the world over, but in order to succeed, it is essential to form partnerships with stakeholder organizations and decision makers at the outset. In this talk, we describe examples of succesful decision-maker and science partnering based on projects that apply remote sensing science and observations in East Africa and the Lower Mekong Basin supported by the SERVIR Initiative, a joint United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) program, and projects in the western United States supported by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Western Water Applications Office (WWAO). All of these examples have benefitted from strong, committed partnerships with end user agencies. Best practices and lessons learned in connecting science to decision making amongst these examples are explored.

  13. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States of...

  14. Ecohydrology of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) in the western United States and implications of water balance following a biocontrol agent introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.

    2012-12-01

    With increased demand on water sources for human use and likely diminished supplies due to climate change, it is important to understand the variation in evapotranspiration (ET) and vegetation water use by transpiration (T) in arid and semi-arid zone riparian areas in the western U.S. Understanding riparian plant water use is critical for accuracy of climate models, predictions used in water resources management, and assessment of land use change impacts on the water balance of ecosystems. Moore and Heilman (2011) suggested the following three principles for predicting when vegetation changes will impact the local or regional water budget: (i) variation will result if energy balance partitioning has been altered, (ii) if deeper or shallower active rooting depth has changed the amount of soil moisture accessible to plants, or (iii) if temporary changes in water use add up over longer time scales. They note that large changes in vegetation types do not necessarily result in changes in water discharge. We will use these principles to consider the case of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) on western U.S. rivers. Once considered a high-water-use plant that out-competed native trees, research over the past two decades has shown that saltcedar water use is low to moderate, and less than native trees. Consequently, the prospects of salvaging water for human use by replacing saltcedar with native trees, once thought to be bright, now appear questionable. Furthermore, saltcedar has come to occupy ecohydrological niches on altered river systems that are no longer available to native plants. However, with the widespread introduction and spread of saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata) on western rivers, introduced in part to reduce riparian water use through reduction of saltcedar abundance, saltcedar ecology has now entered a new phase. The talk will present a synthesis of the recent literature on saltcedar water use and provide an overview of saltcedar ecohydrology in terms of

  15. Interactions of water quality and integrated groundwater management: Examples from the United States and Europe: Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kelly L.; Barataud, Fabienne; Hunt, Randall J.; Benoit, Marc; Anglade, Juliette; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater is available in many parts of the world, but the quality of the water may limit its use. Contaminants can limit the use of groundwater through concerns associated with human health, aquatic health, economic costs, or even societal perception. Given this broad range of concerns, this chapter focuses on examples of how water quality issues influence integrated groundwater management. One example evaluates the importance of a naturally occurring contaminant Arsenic (As) for drinking water supply, one explores issues resulting from agricultural activities on the land surface and factors that influence related groundwater management, and the last examines unique issues that result from human-introduced viral pathogens for groundwater-derived drinking water vulnerability. The examples underscore how integrated groundwater management lies at the intersections of environmental characterization, engineering constraints, societal needs, and human perception of acceptable water quality. As such, water quality factors can be a key driver for societal decision making.

  16. Regional annual water yield from forest lands and its response to potential deforestation across the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steve G. McNulty; J. Lu; Devendra M. Amatya; Y. Liang; R.K. Kolka

    2005-01-01

    Regional water yield at a meso-scale can be estimated as the difference between precipitation input and evapotranspiration output. Forest water yield from the southeastern US varies greatly both in space and time. Because of the hot climate and high evapotranspiration, less than half of the annual precipitation that falls on forest lands is available for stream flow...

  17. Preliminary investigations of the chemical speciation of plutonium in natural waters of the northeastern and southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberts, J. J.; Wahlgren, M. A.; Nelson, D. M.; Rowland, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary investigation indicated that the concentration of fallout /sup 240/Pu in lake water from the northeast differs from that in the southeast or from snowmelt and that the submicron size distribution and charge distributions appear different for the various water samples.

  18. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 11, Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Henry; Horn, Marilee A.

    1997-01-01

    Segment 11 consists of the States of Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, West Virginia, and the Commonwealths of Pennsylvania and Virginia. All but West Virginia border on the Atlantic Ocean or tidewater. Pennsylvania also borders on Lake Erie. Small parts of northwestern and north-central Pennsylvania drain to Lake Erie and Lake Ontario; the rest of the segment drains either to the Atlantic Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico. Major rivers include the Hudson, the Delaware, the Susquehanna, the Potomac, the Rappahannock, the James, the Chowan, the Neuse, the Tar, the Cape Fear, and the Yadkin-Peedee, all of which drain into the Atlantic Ocean, and the Ohio and its tributaries, which drain to the Gulf of Mexico. Although rivers are important sources of water supply for many cities, such as Trenton, N.J.; Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, Pa.; Baltimore, Md.; Washington, D.C.; Richmond, Va.; and Raleigh, N.C., one-fourth of the population, particularly the people who live on the Coastal Plain, depends on ground water for supply. Such cities as Camden, N.J.; Dover, Del.; Salisbury and Annapolis, Md.; Parkersburg and Weirton, W.Va.; Norfolk, Va.; and New Bern and Kinston, N.C., use ground water as a source of public supply. All the water in Segment 11 originates as precipitation. Average annual precipitation ranges from less than 36 inches in parts of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia to more than 80 inches in parts of southwestern North Carolina (fig. 1). In general, precipitation is greatest in mountainous areas (because water tends to condense from moisture-laden air masses as the air passes over the higher altitudes) and near the coast, where water vapor that has been evaporated from the ocean is picked up by onshore winds and falls as precipitation when it reaches the shoreline. Some of the precipitation returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration (evaporation plus transpiration by plants), but much of it either flows overland into streams as

  19. Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water use and other aquatic facility-associated health events--United States, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jonathan S; Hlavsa, Michele C; Craun, Gunther F; Hill, Vincent; Roberts, Virginia; Yu, Patricia A; Hicks, Lauri A; Alexander, Nicole T; Calderon, Rebecca L; Roy, Sharon L; Beach, Michael J

    2008-09-12

    Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have collaboratively maintained the Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System for collecting and reporting data related to waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs) associated with drinking water. In 1978, WBDOs associated with recreational water (natural and treated water) were added. This system is the primary source of data regarding the scope and effects of disease associated with recreational water in the United States. In addition, data are collected on individual cases of recreational water-associated illnesses and infections and health events occurring at aquatic facilities but not directly related to water exposure. Data presented summarize WBDOs and case reports associated with recreational water use that occurred during January 2005--December 2006 and previously unreported disease reports and outbreaks during 1978--2004. Public health departments in the states, territories, localities, and the Freely Associated States (i.e., the Republic of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of Palau, formerly parts of the U.S.-administered Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands) have primary responsibility for detecting, investigating, and voluntarily reporting WBDOs to CDC. Although the surveillance system includes data for WBDOs and cases associated with drinking water, recreational water, and water not intended for drinking, only cases and outbreaks associated with recreational water and health events at aquatic facilities are summarized in this report. During 2005--2006, a total of 78 WBDOs associated with recreational water were reported by 31 states. Illness occurred in 4,412 persons, resulting in 116 hospitalizations and five deaths. The median outbreak size was 13 persons (range: 2--2,307 persons). Of the 78 WBDOs, 48 (61.5%) were outbreaks of gastroenteritis that resulted from infectious agents or

  20. Soil-water flux in the southern Great Basin, United States: temporal and spatial variations over the last 120,000 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyler, S.W.; Chapman, J.B.; Conrad, S.H.; Hammermeister, D.P.; Blout, D.O.; Miller, J.J.; Sully, M.J.; Ginanni, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The disposal of hazardous and radioactive waste in arid regions requires a thorough understanding of the occurrence of soil-water flux and recharge. Soil-water chemistry and isotopic data are presented from three deep vadose zone boreholes (> 230 m) at the Nevada Test Site, located in the Great Basin geographic province of the southwestern United States, to quantify soil-water flux and its relation to climate. The low water contents found in the soils significantly reduce the mixing of tracers in the subsurface and provide a unique opportunity to examine the role of climate variation on recharge in arid climates. Tracing techniques and core data are examined in this work to reconstruct the paleohydrologic conditions existing in the vadose zone well beyond the timescales typically investigated. Stable chloride and chlorine 36 profiles indicate that the soil waters deep in the vadose zone range in age from approximately 20,000 to 120,000 years. Secondary chloride bulges that are present in two of the three profiles support the concept of recharge occurring at or near the last two glacial maxima, when the climate of the area was considerably wetter and cooler. The stable isotopic composition of the soil water in the profiles is significantly more depleted in heavy isotopes than is modern precipitation, suggesting that recharge under the current climate is not occurring at this arid site. Past and present recharge appears to have been strongly controlled by surface topography, with increased incidence of recharge where runoff from the surrounding mountains may have been concentrated. The data obtained from this detailed drilling and sampling program shed new light on the behavior of water in thick vadose zones and, in particular, show the sensitivity of arid regions to the extreme variations in climate experienced by the region over the last two glacial maxima

  1. A PRELIMINARY EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT OF MICROCYSTINS FROM CONSUMPTION OF DRINKING WATER IN THE UNITED STATES (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyanotoxins can cause adverse human and ecological health effects. Large quantities of cyanotoxins can be released into water bodies during or immediately following freshwater cyanobacteria blooms, also known as harmful algal blooms (HABs). HABs exhibit complicated temporal and...

  2. Coral reef health response to chronic and acute changes in water quality in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Rosmin S; Brandt, Marilyn E; Wilson Grimes, Kristin R; Smith, Tyler B

    2016-10-15

    It is suspected that land cover alteration on the southern coast of St. Thomas, USVI has increased runoff, degrading nearshore water quality and coral reef health. Chronic and acute changes in water quality, sediment deposition, and coral health metrics were assessed in three zones based upon perceived degree of human influence. Chlorophyll (pturbidity (p=0.0113) were significantly higher in nearshore zones and in the high impact zone during heavy precipitation. Net sediment deposition and terrigenous content increased in nearshore zones during periods of greater precipitation and port activity. Macroalgae overgrowth significantly increased along a gradient of decreasing water quality (p<0.0001). Coral bleaching in all zones peaked in November with a regional thermal stress event (p<0.0001). However, mean bleaching prevalence was significantly greater in the most impacted zone compared to the offshore zone (p=0.0396), suggesting a link between declining water quality and bleaching severity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Does the Presense of Water Fluoridation Alter the Use of Dental Preventive Services on United States Air Force Bases?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bober-Moken, Irene

    1999-01-01

    ... application of fluorides, oral hygiene counseling, diet planning and dental prophylaxis. Are these procedures employed at different rates relative to the presence or absence of fluoride in the community water supply...

  4. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  5. Occurrence of boscalid and other selected fungicides in surface water and groundwater in three targeted use areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Timothy J; Smalling, Kelly L; Orlando, James L; Kuivila, Kathryn M

    2012-09-01

    To provide an assessment of the occurrence of fungicides in water resources, the US Geological Survey used a newly developed analytical method to measure 33 fungicides and an additional 57 current-use pesticides in water samples from streams, ponds, and shallow groundwater in areas of intense fungicide use within three geographic areas across the United States. Sampling sites were selected near or within farms using prophylactic fungicides at rates and types typical of their geographic location. At least one fungicide was detected in 75% of the surface waters and 58% of the groundwater wells sampled. Twelve fungicides were detected including boscalid (72%), azoxystrobin (51%), pyraclostrobin (40%), chlorothalonil (38%) and pyrimethanil (28%). Boscalid, a carboxamide fungicide registered for use in the US in 2003, was detected more frequently than atrazine and metolachlor, two herbicides that are typically the most frequently occurring pesticides in many large-scale water quality studies. Fungicide concentrations ranged from less than the method detection limit to approximately 2000 ngL(-1). Currently, limited toxicological data for non-target species exists and the environmental impacts are largely unknown. The results of this study indicate the importance of including fungicides in pesticide monitoring programs, particularly in areas where crops are grown that require frequent treatments to prevent fungal diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  7. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its...

  8. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  9. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  10. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  11. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  12. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States. ...

  13. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  14. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  15. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  16. 31 CFR 536.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 536.315 Section 536.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.315 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  17. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  18. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  19. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  20. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority...

  1. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  2. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories and...

  3. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  4. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  5. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  6. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  7. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  8. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  9. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority...

  10. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  11. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  12. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  13. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  14. A COMPARISON OF WAKEBOARD-, WATER SKIING-, AND TUBING-RELATED INJURIES IN THE UNITED STATES, 2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Baker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare tubing-related injuries to wakeboarding- and water skiing-related injuries. Data was collected from the 2000-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance Survey for 1,761 individuals seeking care at an emergency department due to a tubing-, wakeboarding, or water skiing-related injury. Data included patient age and sex, as well as injury characteristics including body region injured (i.e., head and neck, trunk, shoulder and upper extremity, and hip and lower extremity and diagnosis of injury (e.g., contusion, laceration, or fracture. Case narratives were reviewed to ensure that a tubing-, wakeboarding-, or water skiing-related injury occurred while the individual was being towed behind a boat. Severe injury (defined as an injury resulting in the individual being hospitalized, transferred, held for observation was compared among the groups using logistic regression. Wakeboard- and tubing-related injuries more commonly involved the head and neck, while water skiing- related injuries were likely to involve the hip and lower extremity. Tubing-related injuries, compared to water skiing-related injuries, were more likely to be severe (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.23-4. 33. Like wakeboarding and water skiing, tubing has inherent risks that must be understood by the participant. While tubing is generally considered a safer alternative to wakeboarding and water skiing, the results of the current study suggest otherwise. Both the number and severity of tubing- related injuries could be prevented through means such as advocating the use of protective wear such as helmets while riding a tube or having recommended safe towing speeds prominently placed on inner tubes

  15. A comparison of wakeboard-, water skiing-, and tubing-related injuries in the United States, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John I; Griffin, Russell; Brauneis, Paul F; Rue, Loring W; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare tubing-related injuries to wakeboarding- and water skiing-related injuries. Data was collected from the 2000-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance Survey for 1,761 individuals seeking care at an emergency department due to a tubing-, wakeboarding, or water skiing-related injury. Data included patient age and sex, as well as injury characteristics including body region injured (i.e., head and neck, trunk, shoulder and upper extremity, and hip and lower extremity) and diagnosis of injury (e.g., contusion, laceration, or fracture). Case narratives were reviewed to ensure that a tubing-, wakeboarding-, or water skiing-related injury occurred while the individual was being towed behind a boat. Severe injury (defined as an injury resulting in the individual being hospitalized, transferred, held for observation) was compared among the groups using logistic regression. Wakeboard- and tubing-related injuries more commonly involved the head and neck, while water skiing- related injuries were likely to involve the hip and lower extremity. Tubing-related injuries, compared to water skiing-related injuries, were more likely to be severe (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.23-4. 33). Like wakeboarding and water skiing, tubing has inherent risks that must be understood by the participant. While tubing is generally considered a safer alternative to wakeboarding and water skiing, the results of the current study suggest otherwise. Both the number and severity of tubing- related injuries could be prevented through means such as advocating the use of protective wear such as helmets while riding a tube or having recommended safe towing speeds prominently placed on inner tubes. Key pointsIncrease annual injury rate trend in wakeboard injuries.Wakeboard- and tubing-related injuries more often to head and neck, waterskiing-related injuries more often to hip and lower extremity.Tubing-related injuries over 2-times as likely to be severe compared to

  16. Urolithiasis, Urinary Cancer, and Home Drinking Water Source in the United States Territory of Guam, 2006–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Haddock

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed patient records with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis—also known as urinary tract or kidney stone disease, nephrolithiasis—upon discharge from Guam’s sole civilian hospital during 2006 to 2010 and urinary cancer mortality records from the Guam Cancer Registry for 1970 to 2009 to determine the source of municipal water supplied to the patients’ residence. The objective was to investigate a possible relationship between the sources of municipal water supplied to Guam villages and the incidence of urolithiasis and urinary cancer. We analyzed hospital discharge diagnoses of urolithiasis or renal calculi by calculating the incidence of first-mentioned discharge for urolithiasis or renal calculi and comparing rates across demographic or geographic categories while adjusting by age, sex, and ethnicity/race. We reviewed cancer registry records of urinary cancer deaths by patient residence. The annual incidence of hospitalization for urolithiasis was 5.22 per 10,000. Rates adjusted for sex or age exhibited almost no change. The rate of 9.83 per 10,000 among Chamorros was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than the rates among any other ethnic group or race. When villages were grouped by water source, rates of patients discharged with a first-listed diagnosis of urolithiasis, adjusted for ethnicity/race, were similar for villages using either well water (5.44 per 10,000 or mixed source water (5.39 per 10,000, and significantly greater than the rate for villages using exclusively reservoir water (1.35 per 10,000. No statistically significant differences were found between the water source or village of residence and urinary cancer mortality. Some Guam residents living in villages served completely or partly by deep well water high in calcium carbonate may be at increased risk for urolithiasis compared with residents living in villages served by surface waters. Although the risk appears to be highest in villagers of Chamorro

  17. The interactive effects of excess reactive nitrogen and climate change on aquatic ecosystems and water resources of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Hall, E.K.; Nolan, B.T.; Finlay, J.C.; Bernhardt, E.S.; Harrison, J.A.; Chan, F.; Boyer, E.W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly all freshwaters and coastal zones of the US are degraded from inputs of excess reactive nitrogen (Nr), sources of which are runoff, atmospheric N deposition, and imported food and feed. Some major adverse effects include harmful algal blooms, hypoxia of fresh and coastal waters, ocean acidification, long-term harm to human health, and increased emissions of greenhouse gases. Nitrogen fluxes to coastal areas and emissions of nitrous oxide from waters have increased in response to N inputs. Denitrification and sedimentation of organic N to sediments are important processes that divert N from downstream transport. Aquatic ecosystems are particularly important denitrification hotspots. Carbon storage in sediments is enhanced by Nr, but whether carbon is permanently buried is unknown. The effect of climate change on N transport and processing in fresh and coastal waters will be felt most strongly through changes to the hydrologic cycle, whereas N loading is mostly climate-independent. Alterations in precipitation amount and dynamics will alter runoff, thereby influencing both rates of Nr inputs to aquatic ecosystems and groundwater and the water residence times that affect Nr removal within aquatic systems. Both infrastructure and climate change alter the landscape connectivity and hydrologic residence time that are essential to denitrification. While Nr inputs to and removal rates from aquatic systems are influenced by climate and management, reduction of N inputs from their source will be the most effective means to prevent or to minimize environmental and economic impacts of excess Nr to the nation’s water resources.

  18. United States National Seismographic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN's) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105 degree W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN)

  19. OECD environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' efforts to manage its environment including air, water, nature, and biodiversity; to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 47 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. United States Energy Policy: Security Not Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    on leased land, ensuring fracking is done responsibly, and getting more natural gas and hybrid systems into U.S. mass transit. Internationally, the...fewer environ disturbances -Can store underground -Environ impacts of fracking unknown -uses large amount of water -potential for saline...from shale continues to rise as the United States determines how to drill safely. However, the impact of fracking on the environment is still

  1. The δ2H and δ18O of tap water from 349 sites in the United States and selected territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Landwehr, Jurate M.; Qi, Haiping; Lorenz, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Because the stable isotopic compositions of hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) of animal (including human) tissues, such as hair, nail, and urine, reflect the δ2H and δ18O of water and food ingested by an animal or a human and because the δ2H and δ18O of environmental waters vary geographically, δ2H and δ18O values of tap water samples collected in 2007-2008 from 349 sites in the United States and three selected U.S. territories have been measured in support of forensic science applications, creating one of the largest databases of tap water δ2H and δ18O values to date. The results of replicate isotopic measurements for these tap water samples confirm that the expanded uncertainties (U = 2μc) obtained over a period of years by the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory from δ2H and δ18O dual-inlet mass spectrometric measurements are conservative, at ±2‰ and ±0.2 ‰, respectively. These uncertainties are important because U.S. Geological Survey data may be needed for forensic science applications, including providing evidence in court cases. Half way through the investigation, an isotope-laser spectrometer was acquired, enabling comparison of dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometric results with isotope-laser spectrometric results. The uncertainty of the laser-based δ2H measurement results for these tap water samples is comparable to the uncertainty of the mass spectrometric method, with the laser-based method having a slightly lower uncertainty. However, the δ18O uncertainty of the laser-based method is more than a factor of ten higher than that of the dual-inlet isotoperatio mass spectrometric method.

  2. Nationwide reconnaissance of contaminants of emerging concern in source and treated drinking waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    When chemical or microbial contaminants are assessed for potential effect or possible regulation in ambient and drinking waters, a critical first step is determining if the contaminants occur and if they are at concentrations that may cause human or ecological health concerns. To...

  3. The effects of climate change on agriculture, land resources, water resources, and biodiversity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This report provides an assessment of the effects of climate change on U.S. agriculture, land resources, water resources, and biodiversity. It is one of a series of 21 Synthesis and Assessment Products (SAP) that are being produced under the auspices...

  4. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: implications for aquifer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Spruill, Timothy B.; Eimers, Jo L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O 2 ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O 2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (p 3 - found in this setting. Herbicides and their transformation products were frequently detected (36% of wells sampled), however concentrations were typically low (<0.1 μg/L). Shallow water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone

  5. Occurrence and biogeography of hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from deep-water coral habitats off the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Lea-Anne; Nizinski, Martha S.; Ross, Steve W.

    2008-06-01

    Deep-water coral habitats off the southeastern USA (SEUS) support diverse fish and invertebrate assemblages, but are poorly explored. This study is the first to report on the hydroids collected from these habitats in this area. Thirty-five species, including two species that are likely new to science, were identified from samples collected primarily by manned submersible during 2001-2005 from deep-water coral habitats off North Carolina to east-central Florida. Eleven of the species had not been reported since the 19th to mid-20th century. Ten species, and one family, the Rosalindidae, are documented for the first time in the SEUS. Latitudinal ranges of 15 species are extended, and the deepest records in the western North Atlantic for 10 species are reported. A species accumulation curve illustrated that we continue to add to our knowledge of hydroid diversity in these habitats. Sexually mature individuals were collected for 19 species during the summer to early autumn months. Most of the observed species (89%) liberate planula larvae as part of their life cycles, suggesting that these species exhibit a reproductive strategy that reduces the risk of dispersal to sub-optimal habitats. Hydroids occurred across various substrata including coral rubble, live corals, rock and other animal hosts including hydroids themselves. All observed species were regionally widespread with typically deep-neritic to bathyal sub-tropical/tropical distributions. Hydroid assemblages from deep-water SEUS coral habitats were most similar to those from adjacent deep-water habitats off the SEUS (17 shared species), and those in the Straits of Florida/Bahamas and Caribbean/West Indian regions (14 and 8 shared species, respectively). The similarity to sub-tropical and tropical assemblages and the richness of plumularioids in the SEUS deep-water coral habitats support the idea of a Pleistocene intrusion of tropical species northwards following an intensification of the Gulf Stream from the

  6. Temporal and spatial patterns of wetland extent influence variability of surface water connectivity in the Prairie Pothole Region, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Alexander, Laurie C.; Todd, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Context. Quantifying variability in landscape-scale surface water connectivity can help improve our understanding of the multiple effects of wetlands on downstream waterways. Objectives. We examined how wetland merging and the coalescence of wetlands with streams varied both spatially (among ecoregions) and interannually (from drought to deluge) across parts of the Prairie Pothole Region. Methods. Wetland extent was derived over a time series (1990-2011) using Landsat imagery. Changes in landscape-scale connectivity, generated by the physical coalescence of wetlands with other surface water features, were quantified by fusing static wetland and stream datasets with Landsat-derived wetland extent maps, and related to multiple wetness indices. The usage of Landsat allows for decadal-scale analysis, but limits the types of surface water connections that can be detected. Results. Wetland extent correlated positively with the merging of wetlands and wetlands with streams. Wetness conditions, as defined by drought indices and runoff, were positively correlated with wetland extent, but less consistently correlated with measures of surface water connectivity. The degree of wetland-wetland merging was found to depend less on total wetland area or density, and more on climate conditions, as well as the threshold for how wetland/upland was defined. In contrast, the merging of wetlands with streams was positively correlated with stream density, and inversely related to wetland density. Conclusions. Characterizing the degree of surface water connectivity within the Prairie Pothole Region in North America requires consideration of 1) climate-driven variation in wetness conditions and 2) within-region variation in wetland and stream spatial arrangements.

  7. Factors Affecting Water Quality in Domestic Wells in the Upper Floridan Aquifer, Southeastern United States, 1998-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Marian P.; Crandall, Christy A.; Deacon, Michael; Embry, Teresa L.; Howard, Rhonda S.

    2009-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system is a highly productive carbonate aquifer that provides drinking water to about 10 million people in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. Approximately 1.6 million people rely on domestic wells (privately owned household wells) for drinking water. Withdrawals of water from the Floridan aquifer system have increased by more than 500 percent from 630 million gallons per day (2.38 cubic meters per day) in 1950 to 4,020 million gallons per day (15.2 cubic meters per day) in 2000, largely due to increases in population, tourism, and agriculture production. Water samples were collected from 148 domestic wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and Alabama during 1998-2005 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The wells were located in different hydrogeologic settings based on confinement of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Five networks of wells were sampled con-sisting of 28 to 30 wells each: two networks were in unconfined areas, two networks were in semiconfined areas, and one network was in the confined area. Physical properties and concentrations of major ions, trace elements, nutrients, radon, and organic compounds (volatile organic compounds and pesticides) were measured in water samples. Concentrations were compared to water-quality benchmarks for human health, either U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for public water supplies or USGS Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs). The MCL for fluoride of 4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) was exceeded for two samples (about 1 percent of samples). A proposed MCL for radon of 300 picocuries per liter was exceeded in about 40 percent of samples. Nitrate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer ranged from less than the laboratory reporting level of 0.06 to 8 mg/L, with a median nitrate concentration less than 0.06 mg/L (as nitrogen). Nitrate concentrations did not exceed the

  8. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume III. Estuaries and coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupka, R.C.; Sharma, R.K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 32 power plants, located on estuaries and coastal waters has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV

  9. Survey of fish impingement at power plants in the United States. Volume III. Estuaries and coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupka, Richard C.; Sharma, Rajendra K.

    1977-03-01

    Impingement of fish at cooling-water intakes of 32 power plants, located on estuaries and coastal waters has been surveyed and data are presented. Descriptions of site, plant, and intake design and operation are provided. Reports in this volume summarize impingement data for individual plants in tabular and histogram formats. Information was available from differing sources such as the utilities themselves, public documents, regulatory agencies, and others. Thus, the extent of detail in the reports varies greatly from plant to plant. Histogram preparation involved an extrapolation procedure that has inadequacies. The reader is cautioned in the use of information presented in this volume to determine intake-design acceptability or intensity of impacts on ecosystems. No conclusions are presented herein; data comparisons are made in Volume IV.

  10. Periodic swarms of the salp Salpa aspera in the Slope Water off the NE United States: Biovolume, vertical migration, grazing, and vertical flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madin, L. P.; Kremer, P.; Wiebe, P. H.; Purcell, J. E.; Horgan, E. H.; Nemazie, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    Sampling during four summers over a twenty-seven year period has documented dense populations of Salpa aspera in the Slope Water south of New England, northeastern United States. The salps demonstrated a strong pattern of diel vertical migration, moving to depth (mostly 600-800 m) during the day and aggregating in the epipelagic (salps measured were 5.7lm-2 in 1986 and 1.6lm-2 in 1993. Depending on the year, the sampled salp populations were calculated to clear between 8 and 74% of the upper 50 m during each 8 h night. Total fecal output for the same populations was estimated to be between 5 and 91mgCm-2night-1. These results, and other observations, suggest this region is a salp "hot spot", with swarms of S. aspera developing seasonally on a frequent basis.

  11. A water-leach procedure for estimating bioaccessibility of elements in soils from transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Robert G.; Hall, G.E.M.; Vaive, J.E.; Pelchat, P.

    2009-01-01

    An objective of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project is to provide relevant data concerning bioaccessible concentrations of elements in soil to government and other institutions undertaking environmental studies. A protocol was developed that employs a 1-g soil sample agitated overnight with 40 mL of reverse-osmosis de-ionized water for 20 h, and determination of 63 elements following three steps of centrifugation by inductively coupled plasma–atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry the following day. Statistical summaries are presented for those 48 elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, Re, S, Sb, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn, Zr, and pH) for which Ca, Cu, and Pb) along the two transects is discussed in this paper both as absolute amounts liberated by the leach and expressed as a percentage of the total, or near-total, amounts determined for the elements. The Ca data reflect broad trends in soil parent materials, their weathering, and subsequent soil development. Calcium concentrations are generally found to be lower in the older soils of the eastern USA. The Cu data are higher in the eastern half of the USA, correlating with soil organic C, with which it is sequestered. The Pb data exhibit little regional variability due to natural sources, but are influenced by anthropogenic sources. Based on the Pb results, the percentage water-extractable data demonstrate promise as a tool for identifying anthropogenic components. The soil–water partition (distribution) coefficients, Kds (L/kg), were determined and their relevance to estimating bioaccessible amounts of elements to soil fauna and flora is discussed. Finally, a possible link between W concentrations in human urine and water-extractable W levels in Nevada soils is discussed.

  12. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  13. Role of lignin in reducing life-cycle carbon emissions, water use, and cost for United States cellulosic biofuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scown, Corinne D; Gokhale, Amit A; Willems, Paul A; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cellulosic ethanol can achieve estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions greater than 80% relative to gasoline, largely as a result of the combustion of lignin for process heat and electricity in biorefineries. Most studies assume lignin is combusted onsite, but exporting lignin to be cofired at coal power plants has the potential to substantially reduce biorefinery capital costs. We assess the life-cycle GHG emissions, water use, and capital costs associated with four representative biorefinery test cases. Each case is evaluated in the context of a U.S. national scenario in which corn stover, wheat straw, and Miscanthus are converted to 1.4 EJ (60 billion liters) of ethanol annually. Life-cycle GHG emissions range from 4.7 to 61 g CO2e/MJ of ethanol (compared with ∼ 95 g CO2e/MJ of gasoline), depending on biorefinery configurations and marginal electricity sources. Exporting lignin can achieve GHG emission reductions comparable to onsite combustion in some cases, reduce life-cycle water consumption by up to 40%, and reduce combined heat and power-related capital costs by up to 63%. However, nearly 50% of current U.S. coal-fired power generating capacity is expected to be retired by 2050, which will limit the capacity for lignin cofiring and may double transportation distances between biorefineries and coal power plants.

  14. A water-leach procedure for estimating bioaccessibility of elements in soils from transects across the United States and Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, Robert G.; Hall, G.E.M.; Vaive, J.E.; Pelchat, P.

    2009-01-01

    An objective of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project is to provide relevant data concerning bioaccessible concentrations of elements in soil to government and other institutions undertaking environmental studies. A protocol was developed that employs a 1-g soil sample agitated overnight with 40 mL of reverse-osmosis de-ionized water for 20 h, and determination of 63 elements following three steps of centrifugation by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry the following day. Statistical summaries are presented for those 48 elements (Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, I, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Nd, Ni, P, Pb, Pr, Rb, Re, S, Sb, Si, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Ti, Tl, Tm, U, V, W, Y, Yb, Zn, Zr, and pH) for which d s (L/kg), were determined and their relevance to estimating bioaccessible amounts of elements to soil fauna and flora is discussed. Finally, a possible link between W concentrations in human urine and water-extractable W levels in Nevada soils is discussed.

  15. Using GRACE Amplitude Data in Conjunction with the Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Recharge to Estimate the Components of the Terrestrial Water Storage Anomaly across the Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, W. E.; Reitz, M.; Zell, W.

    2017-12-01

    The GRACE satellite project by NASA has been mapping the terrestrial water storage anomaly (TWSA) across the globe since 2002. To date most of the studies using this data have focused on estimating long-term storage declines in groundwater aquifers or the cryosphere. In this study we are focusing on using the amplitude of the seasonal storage signal to estimate the sources and values of the different water components that are contributing to the TWSA signal across the contiguous United States (CONUS). Across the CONUS the TWSA seasonal amplitude observed by GRACE varies by a factor of ten or more (from 1 to 10+ cm of liquid water equivalent). For a seasonal sinusoidal recharge rate, the change in storage in either the soil (unsaturated zone beneath the root zone) or groundwater (by water-table fluctuation) is limited to the amplitude of the recharge rate divided by π or 2π, respectively. We compiled the GRACE signal for the 18 major HUC watersheds across the CONUS and compared them to estimates of seasonal recharge-rate amplitudes based on a recent map of recharge rates generated by the USGS. The ratios of the recharge to GRACE amplitudes suggest that all but two of the HUCs must have other substantial sources of storage change in addition to soil or groundwater. The most likely additional sources are (1) winter snowpack, (2) seasonal irrigation withdrawals, and/or (3) surface water (rivers or reservoirs). Estimates of the seasonal amplitudes of these three signals across the CONUS suggest they can explain the remaining GRACE seasonal signal that cannot be explained by soil or groundwater fluctuations. Each of these signals has its own unique spatial distribution, with snowpack limited to the northern states, surface water limited to large rivers or reservoirs, and irrigation as a dominant signal limited to arid to semi-arid agricultural regions. Use of the GRACE seasonal signal shows promise in constraining the hydraulic diffusivities of surficial aquifer

  16. Water Energy Resources of the United States with Emphasis on Low Head/Low Power Resources: Appendix A - Assessment Results by Hydrologic Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)

    2004-04-01

    Analytical assessments of the water energy resources in the 20 hydrologic regions of the United States were performed using state-of-the-art digital elevation models and geographic information system tools. The principal focus of the study was on low head (less than 30 ft)/low power (less than 1 MW) resources in each region. The assessments were made by estimating the power potential of all the stream segments in a region, which averaged 2 miles in length. These calculations were performed using hydrography and hydraulic heads that were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Elevation Derivatives for National Applications dataset and stream flow predictions from a regression equation or equations developed specifically for the region. Stream segments excluded from development and developed hydropower were accounted for to produce an estimate of total available power potential. The total available power potential was subdivided into high power (1 MW or more), high head (30 ft or more)/low power, and low head/low power total potentials. The low head/low power potential was further divided to obtain the fractions of this potential corresponding to the operating envelopes of three classes of hydropower technologies: conventional turbines, unconventional systems, and microhydro (less than 100 kW). Summing information for all the regions provided total power potential in various power classes for the entire United States. Distribution maps show the location and concentrations of the various classes of low power potential. No aspect of the feasibility of developing these potential resources was evaluated. Results for each of the 20 hydrologic regions are presented in Appendix A

  17. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board ...

  18. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and the...

  19. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia. ...

  20. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. [60 FR 10797, Feb. 28, 1995] National...

  1. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of...

  2. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  3. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  4. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M; Tan, Kathrine R

    2018-05-04

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to provide information on its occurrence (e.g., temporal, geographic, and demographic), guide prevention and treatment recommendations for travelers and patients, and facilitate transmission control measures if locally acquired cases are identified. This report summarizes confirmed malaria cases in persons with onset of illness in 2015 and summarizes trends in previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff members. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS), the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), or direct CDC consultations. CDC reference laboratories provide diagnostic assistance and conduct antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. This report summarizes data from the integration of all NMSS and NNDSS cases, CDC reference laboratory reports, and CDC clinical consultations. CDC received reports of 1,517 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case, with an onset of symptoms in 2015 among persons who received their diagnoses in the United States. Although the number of

  5. Enhanced hydrological extremes in the western United States under global warming through the lens of water vapor wave activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jian; Xue, Daokai; Gao, Yang; Chen, Gang; Leung, Lai-Yung; Staten, Paul W.

    2018-04-23

    Understanding how regional hydrological extremes would respond to warming is a grand challenge to the community of climate change research. To address this challenge, we construct an analysis framework based on column integrated water vapor (CWV) wave activity to diagnose the wave component of the hydrological cycle that contributes to hydrological extremes. By applying the analysis to the historical and future climate projections from the CMIP5 models, we found that the wet-versus-dry disparity of daily net precipitation along a zonal band can increase at a super Clausius-Clapeyron rate due to the enhanced stirring length of wave activity at the poleward flank of the mean storm track. The local variant of CWV wave activity reveals the unique characteristics of atmospheric rivers (ARs) in terms of their transport function, enhanced mixing and hydrological cycling rate (HC). Under RCP8.5, the local moist wave activity increases by ~40% over the northeastern Pacific by the end of the 21st century, indicating more ARs hitting the west coast, giving rise to a ~20% increase in the related hydrological extremes − $ despite a weakening of the local HC.

  6. Linking Environmental Research and Practice: Lessons From The Integration of Climate Science and Water Management in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Rice, J.; Woodhouse, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts to better connect scientific research with people and organizations involved in environmental decision making are receiving increased interest and attention. Some of the challenges we currently face, however—including complex questions associated with climate change—present unique challenges because of their scale and scope. Focused research on the intersections between environment and society has provided substantial insight into dynamics of large-scale environmental change and the related impacts on people, natural resources, and ecosystems, yet our ability to connect this research to real-world decision making remains limited. Addressing these complex environmental problems requires broad cooperation between scientists and those who may apply research results in decision making, but there are few templates for guiding the growing number of scientists and practitioners now engaging in this kind of cooperative work. This presentation will offer a set of heuristics for carrying out collaborative work between scientists and practitioners. These heuristics were derived from research that examined the direct experiences of water resources professionals and climate researchers who have been working to integrate science and practice.

  7. Modeling the potential impacts of climate change on the water table level of selected forested wetlands in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The southeastern United States hosts extensive forested wetlands, providing ecosystem services including carbon sequestration, water quality improvement, groundwater recharge, and wildlife habitat. However, these wetland ecosystems are dependent on local climate and hydrology, and are therefore at risk due to climate and land use change. This study develops site-specific empirical hydrologic models for five forested wetlands with different characteristics by analyzing long-term observed meteorological and hydrological data. These wetlands represent typical cypress ponds/swamps, Carolina bays, pine flatwoods, drained pocosins, and natural bottomland hardwood ecosystems. The validated empirical models are then applied at each wetland to predict future water table changes using climate projections from 20 general circulation models (GCMs participating in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5 under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. We show that combined future changes in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration would significantly alter wetland hydrology including groundwater dynamics by the end of the 21st century. Compared to the historical period, all five wetlands are predicted to become drier over time. The mean water table depth is predicted to drop by 4 to 22 cm in response to the decrease in water availability (i.e., precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration by the year 2100. Among the five examined wetlands, the depressional wetland in hot and humid Florida appears to be most vulnerable to future climate change. This study provides quantitative information on the potential magnitude of wetland hydrological response to future climate change in typical forested wetlands in the southeastern US.

  8. Modeling the potential impacts of climate change on the water table level of selected forested wetlands in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie; Sun, Ge; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Yu; Miao, Guofang; Noormets, Asko; McNulty, Steve G.; King, John S.; Kumar, Mukesh; Wang, Xuan

    2017-12-01

    The southeastern United States hosts extensive forested wetlands, providing ecosystem services including carbon sequestration, water quality improvement, groundwater recharge, and wildlife habitat. However, these wetland ecosystems are dependent on local climate and hydrology, and are therefore at risk due to climate and land use change. This study develops site-specific empirical hydrologic models for five forested wetlands with different characteristics by analyzing long-term observed meteorological and hydrological data. These wetlands represent typical cypress ponds/swamps, Carolina bays, pine flatwoods, drained pocosins, and natural bottomland hardwood ecosystems. The validated empirical models are then applied at each wetland to predict future water table changes using climate projections from 20 general circulation models (GCMs) participating in Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project 5 (CMIP5) under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. We show that combined future changes in precipitation and potential evapotranspiration would significantly alter wetland hydrology including groundwater dynamics by the end of the 21st century. Compared to the historical period, all five wetlands are predicted to become drier over time. The mean water table depth is predicted to drop by 4 to 22 cm in response to the decrease in water availability (i.e., precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration) by the year 2100. Among the five examined wetlands, the depressional wetland in hot and humid Florida appears to be most vulnerable to future climate change. This study provides quantitative information on the potential magnitude of wetland hydrological response to future climate change in typical forested wetlands in the southeastern US.

  9. Factors affecting temporal variability of arsenic in groundwater used for drinking water supply in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Joseph D; Belaval, Marcel; Olson, Scott A; Burow, Karen R; Flanagan, Sarah M; Hinkle, Stephen R; Lindsey, Bruce D

    2015-02-01

    The occurrence of arsenic in groundwater is a recognized environmental hazard with worldwide importance and much effort has been focused on surveying and predicting where arsenic occurs. Temporal variability is one aspect of this environmental hazard that has until recently received less attention than other aspects. For this study, we analyzed 1245 wells with two samples per well. We suggest that temporal variability, often reported as affecting very few wells, is perhaps a larger issue than it appears and has been overshadowed by datasets with large numbers of non-detect data. Although there was only a slight difference in arsenic concentration variability among samples from public and private wells (p=0.0452), the range of variability was larger for public than for private wells. Further, we relate the variability we see to geochemical factors-primarily variability in redox-but also variability in major-ion chemistry. We also show that in New England there is a weak but statistically significant indication that seasonality may have an effect on concentrations, whereby concentrations in the first two quarters of the year (January-June) are significantly lower than in the second two quarters (July-December) (pgroundwater levels. It is possible that this difference in arsenic concentrations is related to groundwater level changes, pumping stresses, evapotranspiration effects, or perhaps mixing of more oxidizing, lower pH recharge water in wetter months. Focusing on the understanding the geochemical conditions in aquifers where arsenic concentrations are concerns and causes of geochemical changes in the groundwater environment may lead to a better understanding of where and by how much arsenic will vary over time. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The Association of Arsenic With Redox Conditions, Depth, and Ground-Water Age in the Glacial Aquifer System of the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mary Ann

    2007-01-01

    More than 800 wells in the glacial aquifer system of the Northern United States were sampled for arsenic as part of U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) studies during 1991-2003. Elevated arsenic concentrations (greater than or equal to 10 micrograms per liter) were detected in 9 percent of samples. Elevated arsenic concentrations were associated with strongly reducing conditions. Of the samples classified as iron reducing or sulfate reducing, arsenic concentrations were elevated in 19 percent. Of the methanogenic samples, arsenic concentrations were elevated in 45 percent. In contrast, concentrations of arsenic were elevated in only 1 percent of oxic samples. Arsenic concentrations were also related to ground-water age. Elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in 34 percent of old waters (recharged before 1953) as compared to 4 percent of young waters (recharged since 1953). For samples classified as both old and methanogenic, elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in 62 percent of samples, as compared to 1 percent for samples classified as young and oxic. Arsenic concentrations were also correlated with well depth and concentrations of several chemical constituents, including (1) constituents linked to redox processes and (2) anions or oxyanions that sorb to iron oxides. Observations from the glacial aquifer system are consistent with the idea that the predominant source of arsenic is iron oxides and the predominant mechanism for releasing arsenic to the ground water is reductive desorption or reductive dissolution. Arsenic is also released from iron oxides under oxic conditions, but on a more limited basis and at lower concentrations. Logistic regression was used to investigate the relative significance of redox, ground-water age, depth, and other water-quality constituents as indicators of elevated arsenic concentrations in the glacial aquifer system. The single variable that explained the greatest amount of variation in

  11. Giardiasis in the United States - an epidemiologic and geospatial analysis of county-level drinking water and sanitation data, 1993-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Kerry; Collier, Sarah; Derado, Gordana; Yoder, Jonathan; Gargano, Julia Warner

    2016-04-01

    Giardiasis is the most commonly reported intestinal parasitic infection in the United States. Outbreak investigations have implicated poorly maintained private wells, and hypothesized a role for wastewater systems in giardiasis transmission. Surveillance data consistently show geographic variability in reported giardiasis incidence. We explored county-level associations between giardiasis cases, household water and sanitation (1990 census), and US Census division. Using 368,847 reported giardiasis cases (1993-2010), we mapped county-level giardiasis incidence rates, private well reliance, and septic system reliance, and assessed spatiotemporal clustering of giardiasis. We used negative binomial regression to evaluate county-level associations between giardiasis rates, region, and well and septic reliance, adjusted for demographics. Adjusted giardiasis incidence rate ratios (aIRRs) were highest (aIRR 1.3; 95% confidence interval 1.2-1.5) in counties with higher private well reliance. There was no significant association between giardiasis and septic system reliance in adjusted models. Consistent with visual geographic distributions, the aIRR of giardiasis was highest in New England (aIRR 3.3; 95% CI 2.9-3.9; reference West South Central region). Our results suggest that, in the USA, private wells are relevant to giardiasis transmission; giardiasis risk factors might vary regionally; and up-to-date, location-specific national data on water sources and sanitation methods are needed.

  12. The quality of our Nation's waters: water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer and overlying surficial aquifers, southeastern United States, 1993-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Marian P.; Katz, Brian G.; Kingsbury, James A.; Crandall, Christy A.

    2015-01-01

    About 10 million people rely on groundwater from the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers for drinking water. The Upper Floridan aquifer also is of primary importance to the region as a source of water for irrigation and as a source of crystal clear water that discharges to springs and streams providing recreational and tourist destinations and unique aquatic habitats. The reliance of the region on the Upper Floridan aquifer for drinking water and for the tourism and agricultural economies highlights the importance of long-term management to sustain the availability and quality of these resources.

  13. Teen Pregnancy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States: the contribution of abstinence and improved contraceptive use. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(1):150-6. Lindberg LD, Santelli JS, Desai, S. Understanding the Decline in Adolescent Fertility in the United States, 2007–2012. J ...

  14. Stable isotope estimates of evaporation: inflow and water residence time for lakes across the United States as a tool for national lake water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope ratios of water (delta18O and delta2H) can be very useful in large-scale monitoring programs because water samples are easy to collect and isotope ratios integrate information about basic hydrologic processes such as evaporation as a percentage of inflow (E/I) and ...

  15. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  16. Energy, water and fish: biodiversity impacts of energy-sector water demand in the United States depend on efficiency and policy measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Robert I; Olden, Julian D; Opperman, Jeffrey J; Miller, William M; Fargione, Joseph; Revenga, Carmen; Higgins, Jonathan V; Powell, Jimmie

    2012-01-01

    Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18-24%, going from 1,993,000-2,628,000 Mm(3) in 2010 to 2,359,000-3,271,000 Mm(3) in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700-46,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2010 to 21,000-58,400 Mm(3) consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27-36 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.1-0.5 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption), while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4-0.7 m(3)GJ(-1) (0.2-0.3 m(3)GJ(-1) consumption). The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm(3) (20,300 Mm(3) consumption). The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur

  17. Energy, water and fish: biodiversity impacts of energy-sector water demand in the United States depend on efficiency and policy measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert I McDonald

    Full Text Available Rising energy consumption in coming decades, combined with a changing energy mix, have the potential to increase the impact of energy sector water use on freshwater biodiversity. We forecast changes in future water use based on various energy scenarios and examine implications for freshwater ecosystems. Annual water withdrawn/manipulated would increase by 18-24%, going from 1,993,000-2,628,000 Mm(3 in 2010 to 2,359,000-3,271,000 Mm(3 in 2035 under the Reference Case of the Energy Information Administration (EIA. Water consumption would more rapidly increase by 26% due to increased biofuel production, going from 16,700-46,400 Mm(3 consumption in 2010 to 21,000-58,400 Mm(3 consumption in 2035. Regionally, water use in the Southwest and Southeast may increase, with anticipated decreases in water use in some areas of the Midwest and Northeast. Policies that promote energy efficiency or conservation in the electric sector would reduce water withdrawn/manipulated by 27-36 m(3GJ(-1 (0.1-0.5 m(3GJ(-1 consumption, while such policies in the liquid fuel sector would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 0.4-0.7 m(3GJ(-1 (0.2-0.3 m(3GJ(-1 consumption. The greatest energy sector withdrawal/manipulation are for hydropower and thermoelectric cooling, although potential new EPA rules that would require recirculating cooling for thermoelectric plants would reduce withdrawal/manipulation by 441,000 Mm(3 (20,300 Mm(3 consumption. The greatest consumptive energy sector use is evaporation from hydroelectric reservoirs, followed by irrigation water for biofuel feedstocks and water used for electricity generation from coal. Historical water use by the energy sector is related to patterns of fish species endangerment, where water resource regions with a greater fraction of available surface water withdrawn by hydropower or consumed by the energy sector correlated with higher probabilities of imperilment. Since future increases in energy-sector surface water use will occur

  18. Documentation for the U.S. Geological Survey Public-Supply Database (PSDB): A database of permitted public-supply wells, surface-water intakes, and systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Curtis V.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a database containing information about wells, surface-water intakes, and distribution systems that are part of public water systems across the United States, its territories, and possessions. Programs of the USGS such as the National Water Census, the National Water Use Information Program, and the National Water-Quality Assessment Program all require a complete and current inventory of public water systems, the sources of water used by those systems, and the size of populations served by the systems across the Nation. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) database already exists as the primary national Federal database for information on public water systems, the Public-Supply Database (PSDB) was developed to add value to SDWIS data with enhanced location and ancillary information, and to provide links to other databases, including the USGS’s National Water Information System (NWIS) database.

  19. Contamination profiles, mass loadings, and sewage epidemiology of neuropsychiatric and illicit drugs in wastewater and river waters from a community in the Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skees, Allie J; Foppe, Katelyn S; Loganathan, Bommanna; Subedi, Bikram

    2018-08-01

    In this study, residues of the neuropsychiatric and illicit drugs including stimulants, opioids, hallucinogens, antischizophrenics, sedatives, and antidepressants were determined in influent and effluent samples from a small wastewater treatment plant, a receiving creek, and river waters in the Four Rivers region of the Midwestern United States. Nineteen neuropsychiatric drugs, eight illicit drugs, and three metabolites of illicit drugs were detected and quantitated in the water samples using HPLC-MS/MS. Residual concentrations of the drugs varied from below the detection limit to sub-μg/L levels. The source of residual cocaine and benzoylecgonine in wastewater is primarily from human consumption of cocaine rather than direct disposal. Wastewater based epidemiology is utilized to estimate the community usage of drugs based on the concentration of drug residues in wastewater, wastewater inflow, and the population served by the centralized wastewater treatment plant. The per-capita consumption rate of methamphetamine (1740 mg/d/1000 people) and amphetamine (970 mg/d/1000 people) found in this study were the highest reported per-capita consumption rates in the USA. Antidepressant venlafaxine found to have the highest environmental emission from the WWTP (333 ± 160 mg/d/1000 people) followed by citalopram (132 ± 60.2 mg/d/1000 people), methamphetamine (111 ± 43.6 mg/d/1000 people), and hydrocodone (108 ± 90.1 mg/d/1000 people). Bee Creek, an immediate receiving water body, is found to be a source of several neuropsychiatric and illicit drugs including methamphetamine, methadone, alprazolam, oxazepam, temazepam, carbamazepine, venlafaxine, citalopram, sertraline, oxycodone, and hydrocodone (p < 0.036) in the Clarks River. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. United States uranium enrichment policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's uranium enrichment program policies governing the manner in which ERDA's enrichment complex is being operated and expanded to meet customer requirements for separative work, research and development activities directed at providing technology alternatives for future enrichment capacity, and establishing the framework for additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity to meet the domestic and foreign nuclear industry's growing demand for enrichment services are considered. The ERDA enrichment complex consists of three gaseous diffusion plants located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Today, these plants provide uranium enrichment services for commercial nuclear power generation. These enrichment services are provided under contracts between the Government and the utility customers. ERDA's program involves a major pilot plant cascade, and pursues an advanced isotope separation technique for the late 1980's. That the United States must develop additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity is discussed

  1. Oil Vulnerabilities and United States Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-08

    Mazda, Mercedes - Benz , Ford, Mercury, and Nissan offer flexible fuel vehicles in the United States. Ethanol is currently produced in the United States...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT OIL VULNERABILITIES AND UNITED STATES STRATEGY by Colonel Shawn P. Walsh...Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting

  2. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  3. Challenge theme 2: assuring water availability and quality in the 21st century: Chapter 4 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegary, James; Langeman, Jeff; Leenhouts, Jim; Martin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Along the United States–Mexican border, the health of communities, economies, and ecosystems is inextricably intertwined with the availability and quality of water, but effective water management in the Borderlands is complicated. Water users compete for resources, and their needs are increasing. Managers are faced with issues such as finding a balance between agriculture and rapidly growing cities or maintaining public supplies while ensuring sufficient resources for aquatic ecosystems. In addition to human factors, the dry climate of the Borderlands, as compared to more temperate regions, also increases the challenge of balancing water supplies between humans and ecosystems. Warmer, drier, and more variable conditions across the southwestern United States—the projected results of climate change (Seager and others, 2007)—would further stress water supplies.

  4. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the United States and implications for human health

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Bacteria and fungi in source and treated drinking water. This dataset is associated with the following publication: King , D., S. Pfaller , M. Donohue , S. Vesper ,...

  5. Advanced Reactor Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giessing, D. F.; Griffith, J. D.; McGoff, D. J.; Rosen, Sol [U. S. Department of Energy, Texas (United States)

    1990-04-15

    In the United States, three technologies are employed for the new generation of advanced reactors. These technologies are Advanced Light Water Reactors (A LWRs) for the 1990s and beyond, the Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (M HTGR) for commercial use after the turn of the century, and Liquid Metal Reactors (LWRs) to provide energy production and to convert reactor fission waste to a more manageable waste product. Each technology contributes to the energy solution. Light Water Reactors For The 1990s And Beyond--The U. S. Program The economic and national security of the United States requires a diversified energy supply base built primarily upon adequate, domestic resources that are relatively free from international pressures. Nuclear energy is a vital component of this supply and is essential to meet current and future national energy demands. It is a safe, economically continues to contribute to national energy stability, and strength. The Light Water Reactor (LWR) has been a major and successful contributor to the electrical generating needs of many nations throughout the world. It is being counted upon in the United States as a key to revitalizing nuclear energy option in the 1990s. In recent years, DOE joined with the industry to ensure the availability and future viability of the LWR option. This national program has the participation of the Nation's utility industry, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and several of the major reactor manufacturers and architect-engineers. Separate but coordinated parts of this program are managed by EPRI and DOE.

  6. A comprehensive evaluation of two MODIS evapotranspiration products over the conterminous United States: using point and gridded FLUXNET and water balance ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, Naga M.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Bohms, Stefanie; Verdin, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Remote sensing datasets are increasingly being used to provide spatially explicit large scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates. Extensive evaluation of such large scale estimates is necessary before they can be used in various applications. In this study, two monthly MODIS 1 km ET products, MODIS global ET (MOD16) and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) ET, are validated over the conterminous United States at both point and basin scales. Point scale validation was performed using eddy covariance FLUXNET ET (FLET) data (2001–2007) aggregated by year, land cover, elevation and climate zone. Basin scale validation was performed using annual gridded FLUXNET ET (GFET) and annual basin water balance ET (WBET) data aggregated by various hydrologic unit code (HUC) levels. Point scale validation using monthly data aggregated by years revealed that the MOD16 ET and SSEBop ET products showed overall comparable annual accuracies. For most land cover types, both ET products showed comparable results. However, SSEBop showed higher performance for Grassland and Forest classes; MOD16 showed improved performance in the Woody Savanna class. Accuracy of both the ET products was also found to be comparable over different climate zones. However, SSEBop data showed higher skill score across the climate zones covering the western United States. Validation results at different HUC levels over 2000–2011 using GFET as a reference indicate higher accuracies for MOD16 ET data. MOD16, SSEBop and GFET data were validated against WBET (2000–2009), and results indicate that both MOD16 and SSEBop ET matched the accuracies of the global GFET dataset at different HUC levels. Our results indicate that both MODIS ET products effectively reproduced basin scale ET response (up to 25% uncertainty) compared to CONUS-wide point-based ET response (up to 50–60% uncertainty) illustrating the reliability of MODIS ET products for basin-scale ET estimation. Results from this research

  7. TRAINING OF THE STATE PRESIDENT'S UNIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary function of the State President's Unit is to protect the head of state - not his person as is generally believed, but his authority over the state. Ironically, the ceremonial performances of the State President's Unit lead people to believe that they are only capable of doing drill exer- cises. However, upon investigating.

  8. Occurrence of fungicides and other pesticides in surface water, groundwater, and sediment from three targeted-use areas in the United States, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, James L.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Boehlke, Adam; Meyer, Michael T.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Surface-water, groundwater, and suspended- and bedsediment samples were collected in three targeted-use areas in the United States where potatoes were grown during 2009 and analyzed for an extensive suite of fungicides and other pesticides by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Fungicides were detected in all environmental matrices sampled during the study. The most frequently detected fungicides were azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, and pyraclostrobin. Other pesticides that were detected frequently included amino phosphonic acid (AMPA), atrazine, metolaclor, and the organochlorine insecticide p,p’-DDT and its degradates p,p’-DDD and p,p’-DDE. A greater number of pesticides were detected in surface water relative to the other environmental matrices sampled, and at least one pesticide was detected in 62 of the 63 surfacewater samples. The greatest numbers of pesticides and the maximum observed concentrations for most pesticides were measured in surface-water samples from Idaho. In eight surface- water samples (six from Idaho and two from Wisconsin), concentrations of bifenthrin, metolachlor, or malathion exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency freshwater aquatic-life benchmarks for chronic toxicity to invertebrates. Thirteen pesticides, including seven fungicides, were detected in groundwater samples. Shallow groundwater samples collected beneath recently harvested potato fields contained more pesticides and had higher concentrations of pesticides than samples collected from other groundwater sources sampled during the study. Generally, pesticide concentrations were lower in groundwater samples than in surfacewater or sediment samples, with the exception of the fungicide boscalid, which was found to have its highest concentration in a shallow groundwater sample collected in Wisconsin. Thirteen pesticides, including four fungicides, were detected in suspended-sediment samples. The most

  9. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  10. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  11. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  12. Comparison of Standard Light Water Reactor Cross-Section Libraries using the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Boiling Water Reactor Benchmark Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesza Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of contemporary and historical light water reactor shielding and pressure vessel dosimetry cross-section libraries for a boiling water reactor calculational benchmark problem. The calculational benchmark problem was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the request of the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The benchmark problem was originally evaluated by Brookhaven National Laboratory using the Oak Ridge National Laboratory discrete ordinates code DORT and the BUGLE-93 cross-section library. In this paper, the Westinghouse RAPTOR-M3G three-dimensional discrete ordinates code was used. A variety of cross-section libraries were used with RAPTOR-M3G including the BUGLE93, BUGLE-96, and BUGLE-B7 cross-section libraries developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and ALPAN-VII.0 developed at Westinghouse. In comparing the calculated fast reaction rates using the four aforementioned cross-section libraries in the pressure vessel capsule, for six dosimetry reaction rates, a maximum relative difference of 8% was observed. As such, it is concluded that the results calculated by RAPTOR-M3G are consistent with the benchmark and further that the different vintage BUGLE cross-section libraries investigated are largely self-consistent.

  13. Geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources—Lower Cretaceous Albian to Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian carbonate rocks of the Fredericksburg and Washita Groups, United States Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and State Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Enomoto, Catherine B.; Dennen, Kristin O.; Valentine, Brett J.; Cahan, Steven M.

    2017-02-10

    In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessed Lower Cretaceous Albian to Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian carbonate rocks of the Fredericksburg and Washita Groups and their equivalent units for technically recoverable, undiscovered hydrocarbon resources underlying onshore lands and State Waters of the Gulf Coast region of the United States. This assessment was based on a geologic model that incorporates the Upper Jurassic-Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System (TPS) of the Gulf of Mexico basin; the TPS was defined previously by the USGS assessment team in the assessment of undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in Tertiary strata of the Gulf Coast region in 2007. One conventional assessment unit (AU), which extends from south Texas to the Florida panhandle, was defined: the Fredericksburg-Buda Carbonate Platform-Reef Gas and Oil AU. The assessed stratigraphic interval includes the Edwards Limestone of the Fredericksburg Group and the Georgetown and Buda Limestones of the Washita Group. The following factors were evaluated to define the AU and estimate oil and gas resources: potential source rocks, hydrocarbon migration, reservoir porosity and permeability, traps and seals, structural features, paleoenvironments (back-reef lagoon, reef, and fore-reef environments), and the potential for water washing of hydrocarbons near outcrop areas.In Texas and Louisiana, the downdip boundary of the AU was defined as a line that extends 10 miles downdip of the Lower Cretaceous shelf margin to include potential reef-talus hydrocarbon reservoirs. In Mississippi, Alabama, and the panhandle area of Florida, where the Lower Cretaceous shelf margin extends offshore, the downdip boundary was defined by the offshore boundary of State Waters. Updip boundaries of the AU were drawn based on the updip extent of carbonate rocks within the assessed interval, the presence of basin-margin fault zones, and the presence of producing wells. Other factors evaluated were the middle

  14. Solar power water distillation unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, Kamran; Khan, Muhammad Muzammil; Ateeq, Ijlal Shahrukh; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  15. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  16. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  17. Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  18. The United Kingdom: Issues for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    ...; and more recently, from the UK's strong support in countering terrorism and confronting Iraq. The United States and Britain also share a mutually beneficial trade and economic relationship, and are each other's biggest foreign direct investors...

  19. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  20. Global Entrepreneurship and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Global Entrepreneurship and the United States by Zoltan J. Acs Laszlo Szerb Ruxton, MD 21204 for under contract number SBAHQ-09...SUBTITLE Global Entrepreneurship and the United States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...3 2.1. Assessing Entrepreneurship ..................................................................................4 2.2. Stages of Development

  1. Immigration Enforcement Within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-06

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Policy Issues...Remained in the United States, (Washington: Center for Immigration Studies, May 2002). Immigration Enforcement Within the United States Introduction ...interior enforcement lack a border component. For example, fugitive taskforces, investigations of alien slavery and sweatshops , and employer sanctions do

  2. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8... scheduled for May 25, 2010. Date: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801 9th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20220. Subject: Review and discuss obverse and...

  3. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  4. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  5. Documentation of methods and inventory of irrigation data collected for the 2000 and 2005 U.S. Geological Survey Estimated use of water in the United States, comparison of USGS-compiled irrigation data to other sources, and recommendations for future compilations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Jade M.; Forbes, Brandon T.; Cobean, Dylan S.; Tadayon, Saeid

    2011-01-01

    Every five years since 1950, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Use Information Program (NWUIP) has compiled water-use information in the United States and published a circular report titled "Estimated use of water in the United States," which includes estimates of water withdrawals by State, sources of water withdrawals (groundwater or surface water), and water-use category (irrigation, public supply, industrial, thermoelectric, and so forth). This report discusses the impact of important considerations when estimating irrigated acreage and irrigation withdrawals, including estimates of conveyance loss, irrigation-system efficiencies, pasture, horticulture, golf courses, and double cropping.

  6. Nuclear development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, S.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the nuclear development in the United States has been one of international cooperation relations so far. The United States is to offer the technical information on atomic energy utilization to foreign countries in exchange for the guarantee that they never attempt to have or develop nuclear weapons. Actually, the United States has supplied the technologies on nuclear fuel cycle and other related fields to enable other countries to achieve economical and social progress. The Department of Energy clarified the public promise of the United States regarding the idea of international energy community. The ratio of nuclear power generation to total electric power supply in the United States exceeded 12%, and will exceed 20% by 1990. Since 1978, new nuclear power station has not been ordered, and some of the contracted power stations were canceled. The atomic energy industry in the United States prospered at the beginning of 1970s, but lost the spirit now, mainly due to the institutional problems rather than the technical ones. As the policy of the government to eliminate the obstacles, the improvement of the procedure for the permission and approval, the establishment of waste disposal capability, the verification of fast breeder reactor technology and the promotion of commercial fuel reprocessing were proposed. The re-establishment of the United States as the reliable supplier of atomic energy service is the final aim. (Kako, I.)

  7. Household pesticide usage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, E P; Keefe, T J; Wheeler, H W; Mounce, L; Helwic, L; Applehans, F; Goes, E; Goes, T; Mihlan, G; Rench, J; Taylor, D K

    1981-01-01

    A total of 10,000 U.S. households in 25 standard metropolitan statistical areas and 25 counties were included in the United States. More than 8,200 households granted an interview. Nine of every ten households in the United States used some types of pesticide in their house, garden, or yard. Households in the southeastern United States used the most pesticides. Although more than 500 different pesticide formulations were used by the sampled households, 15 pesticides accounted for 65.5% of all pesticides reported in this study. Thirteen of these 15 pesticides were insecticides, one was a herbicide, and one was a rodenticide.

  8. Portable field water sample filtration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, A.J.; Young, G.G.

    1977-01-01

    A lightweight back-packable field-tested filtration unit is described. The unit is easily cleaned without cross contamination at the part-per-billion level and allows rapid filtration of boiling hot and sometimes muddy water. The filtration results in samples that are free of bacteria and particulates and which resist algae growth even after storage for months. 3 figures

  9. Drinking Water State Revolving Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF) National Information Management System collects information that provide a record of progress and accountability for...

  10. Trends in hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010: data analysis and comparison to the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is presently the primary stimulation technique for oil and gas production in low-permeability, unconventional reservoirs. Comprehensive, published, and publicly available information regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States is scarce. This national spatial and temporal analysis of data on nearly 1 million hydraulically fractured wells and 1.8 million fracturing treatment records from 1947 through 2010 (aggregated in Data Series 868) is used to identify hydraulic fracturing trends in drilling methods and use of proppants, treatment fluids, additives, and water in the United States. These trends are compared to the literature in an effort to establish a common understanding of the differences in drilling methods, treatment fluids, and chemical additives and of how the newer technology has affected the water use volumes and areal distribution of hydraulic fracturing. Historically, Texas has had the highest number of records of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells in the United States documented in the datasets described herein. Water-intensive horizontal/directional drilling has also increased from 6 percent of new hydraulically fractured wells drilled in the United States in 2000 to 42 percent of new wells drilled in 2010. Increases in horizontal drilling also coincided with the emergence of water-based “slick water” fracturing fluids. As such, the most current hydraulic fracturing materials and methods are notably different from those used in previous decades and have contributed to the development of previously inaccessible unconventional oil and gas production target areas, namely in shale and tight-sand reservoirs. Publicly available derivative datasets and locations developed from these analyses are described.

  11. Monthly hydroclimatology of the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Thomas; Devineni, Naresh; Sankarasubramanian, A.

    2018-04-01

    Physical/semi-empirical models that do not require any calibration are of paramount need for estimating hydrological fluxes for ungauged sites. We develop semi-empirical models for estimating the mean and variance of the monthly streamflow based on Taylor Series approximation of a lumped physically based water balance model. The proposed models require mean and variance of monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, co-variability of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and regionally calibrated catchment retention sensitivity, atmospheric moisture uptake sensitivity, groundwater-partitioning factor, and the maximum soil moisture holding capacity parameters. Estimates of mean and variance of monthly streamflow using the semi-empirical equations are compared with the observed estimates for 1373 catchments in the continental United States. Analyses show that the proposed models explain the spatial variability in monthly moments for basins in lower elevations. A regionalization of parameters for each water resources region show good agreement between observed moments and model estimated moments during January, February, March and April for mean and all months except May and June for variance. Thus, the proposed relationships could be employed for understanding and estimating the monthly hydroclimatology of ungauged basins using regional parameters.

  12. The United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The development of nuclear power in the USA is recounted. Starting with the making of the nuclear bomb during the Second World War, the next phase (1947-1954) was the development of the peaceful atom. The commercial origins of the nuclear electric power demonstration programme during 1954-1961 are recalled. The years 1961-1968 saw the building of Westinghouse pressurized water reactors both in the USA and overseas. 1968-1975 saw the construction and operation of more nuclear power plants and the development of a regulatory framework. However, problems also began to emerge in this period; licensing changes and delays, construction delays, equipment modifications, escalating costs, public hearing and legal delays and reliability issues. These led in 1975-1979 to a cessation of growth and increased public opposition. The accidents at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in 1979 and Chernobyl in 1986 and their impacts are discussed. (U.K.)

  13. A functional intranet for the United States Coast Guard Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, Robert Todd.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis describes the complete development process of a friendly functional Intranet for an operational United States Coast Guard (USCG) electronic Support Unit (ESU) in Alameda, California. The final product is suitable for immediate use. It may also be used as a prototype for future Intranet development efforts. The methodology used to develop a finished, working product provides the core subject matter for this thesis. The disc...

  14. Analysis of United States' Broadband Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uzarski, Joel S

    2007-01-01

    .... With every month that passes, the United States fails to close the gap in the digital divide both inside its borders as well as among the other countries that lead the world in broadband penetration...

  15. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mailing List Previous Reports Suggested Citation Related Sites Purchase Health, United States Behavioral Health Report Children’s ... with Internet Explorer may experience difficulties in directly accessing links to Excel files ...

  16. Improving the United States' Strategic Communication Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risberg, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    ...? Much of the answer to this question is the failure of the United States Government to effectively use strategic communication to inform and influence populations to recognize the value of American...

  17. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  18. NCHS - Leading Causes of Death: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset presents the age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States beginning in 1999. Data are based on information from all...

  19. The United States and Europe: Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin; Morelli, Vince L

    2006-01-01

    The United States and Europe share a long and intertwined history. Both sides of the Atlantic face a common set of international concerns, have few other comparable partners, and share a deep economic relationship...

  20. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.

  1. Climate change indicators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published this report, Climate Change Indicators in the United States, to help readers interpret a set of important indicators to better understand climate change. The report presents 24 indicators, ...

  2. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  3. United States housing, first quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing under construction, and housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated regularly.

  4. Regulatory practices - United States example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, M.

    1976-01-01

    In 1954, the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 was revised to do away with the federal state monopoly in this field and to enable private industry to develop nuclear power. This evolution led the federal authorities to give the Atomic Energy Commission the powers to control the design, licensing and operation of nuclear reactors. These powers were constantly strengthened and are now exercised by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Since its creation in 1975, the Commission has amended the regulations on licensing of nuclear reactors in the light of experience acquired so as to shorten the duration of this procedure. These amendments concern the standardization of nuclear power plants, limited work authorizations, the methods for issuing licenses. The objective of the Commission aim to make the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants simpler and more efficient and hence, less costly, while ensuring that a very high level for safety standards and environmental protection is maintained. (NEA) [fr

  5. Energy problems of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2006-01-01

    The united states are the third world producer of oil which accounts for 440% of world production and 20 million barrels/day of which 60% are imported. That dependence on imports is likely to increase in the next decades. Such supplies and their security are therefore a fundamental factor of the United States foreign policy in combination with their political, economic and strategic objectives in a world both unsure and dangerous

  6. Trial by jury in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochhead Robert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e Republic of Moldova is considering the adoption of trial by jury in select criminal cases. Th e following article is intended to contribute to the discussion of that proposal. Th e article will briefl y describe the history of juries under the English common law and as adopted by the United States. It will then outline some of the basic procedures in trials by jury as currently practiced in the United States federal court system.

  7. USGS assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources for the Oligocene Frio and Anahuac formations, U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal plain and state waters: Review of assessment units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Karlsen, Alexander W.; Warwick, Peter D.; Kennan, Lorcan; Pindell, James; Rosen, Norman C.

    2007-01-01

    The Oligocene Frio and Anahuac formations were examined by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of an assessment of technically recoverable undiscovered conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon resources in Paleogene and Neogene strata underlying the U.S. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and state waters. Work included the identification of structural, stratigraphic, and tectonic relations between petroleum source rocks and migration pathways to Frio and Anahuac reservoirs; preliminary evaluation of the potential for shallow (less than 3,000 ft) biogenic gas accumulations; and evaluation of the potential for deep, undiscovered gas and oil accumulations in slope and basin floor areas. All assessments were conducted using USGS methodology (http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/oilgas/noga/methodology.html). Final products from the USGS assessment of the Paleogene and Neogene were reported in USGS fact sheets (Dubiel et al., 2007; Warwick et al., 2007).Five assessment units for the Frio Formation were defined, and three of these were based on the character of the reservoirs in relation to growth faults and other related factors: (1) the Frio stable shelf oil and gas assessment unit, which contains thin (average thickness of 34 ft) and shallow reservoirs (average depth of 4,834 ft); (2) the Frio expanded fault zone oil and gas assessment unit, which contains thick (average thickness of 56 ft) and deep reservoirs (average depth of 9,050 ft) in over-pressured intervals; and (3) the Frio slope and basin floor gas assessment unit, which has potential for deep gas (greater than 15,000 ft) and extends from the downdip boundary of the expanded fault zone to the offshore State/Federal water boundary. The fourth Frio assessment unit is the Hackberry oil and gas assessment unit. The Hackberry embayment of southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana consists of a slope facies in the middle part of the Frio Formation. The fifth unit, the Frio basin margin assessment unit, extends from the

  8. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  9. 76 FR 38700 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... prices in advertisements, in-store displays, and online. Consumer World believes these rules should be... has ruled on that motion. I. Procedural History The United States and seven Plaintiff States filed the... Restraints result in higher merchant costs, and merchants generally pass costs on to consumers, retail prices...

  10. Exporting Rambutan to United States: One Reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Mohd Sidek Othman

    2011-01-01

    Rambutan is a one of commodity that are passed by United States of America authority to be market in that states. The main condition for the approval is the exporter must use irradiation technology as quarantine treatment to monitor the insects in there. United States of America's Agriculture Department (USDA-APHIS) has make early survey to the facilities involved in exporting process chain to overview Malaysia preparedness for this purpose. This paper work will discussed the possibility of this exporting implemented based on conditions rule by the USDA. (author)

  11. Biomass boiler conversion potential in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles D. Ray; Li Ma; Thomas Wilson; Daniel Wilson; Lew McCreery; Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. is the world's leading consumer of primary energy. A large fraction of this energy is used in boiler installations to generate steam and hot water for heating applications. It is estimated there are total 163,000 industrial and commercial boilers in use in the United States of all sizes. This paper characterizes the commercial and industrial boilers in...

  12. Forecasting the expansion of zebra mussels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossenbroek, Jonathan M; Johnson, Ladd E; Peters, Brett; Lodge, David M

    2007-06-01

    Because zebra mussels spread rapidly throughout the eastern United States in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their spread to the western United States has been expected. Overland dispersal into inland lakes and reservoirs, however, has occurred at a much slower rate than earlier spread via connected, navigable waterways. We forecasted the potential western spread of zebra mussels by predicting the overland movement of recreational boaters with a production-constrained gravity model. We also predicted the potential abundance of zebra mussels in two western reservoirs by comparing their water chemistry characteristics with those of water bodies with known abundances of zebra mussels. Most boats coming from waters infested with zebra mussels were taken to areas that already had zebra mussels, but a small proportion of such boats did travel west of the 100th meridian. If zebra mussels do establish in western U.S. water bodies, we predict that population densities could achieve similar levels to those in the Midwestern United States, where zebra mussels have caused considerable economic and ecological impacts. Our analyses suggest that the dispersal of zebra mussels to the western United States is an event of low probability but potentially high impact on native biodiversity and human infrastructure. Combining these results with economic analyses could help determine appropriate investment levels in prevention and control strategies.

  13. Radiation therapy facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballas, Leslie K.; Elkin, Elena B.; Schrag, Deborah; Minsky, Bruce D.; Bach, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: About half of all cancer patients in the United States receive radiation therapy as a part of their cancer treatment. Little is known, however, about the facilities that currently deliver external beam radiation. Our goal was to construct a comprehensive database of all radiation therapy facilities in the United States that can be used for future health services research in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: From each state's health department we obtained a list of all facilities that have a linear accelerator or provide radiation therapy. We merged these state lists with information from the American Hospital Association (AHA), as well as 2 organizations that audit the accuracy of radiation machines: the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) and Radiation Dosimetry Services (RDS). The comprehensive database included all unique facilities listed in 1 or more of the 4 sources. Results: We identified 2,246 radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States as of 2004-2005. Of these, 448 (20%) facilities were identified through state health department records alone and were not listed in any other data source. Conclusions: Determining the location of the 2,246 radiation facilities in the United States is a first step in providing important information to radiation oncologists and policymakers concerned with access to radiation therapy services, the distribution of health care resources, and the quality of cancer care

  14. Nuclear power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    All over the world except in the United States, nuclear energy is a low cost, secure, environmentally acceptable form of energy. In the United States, civilian nuclear power is dead. 112 nuclear power plants have been abandoned or cancelled in the last decade, and there has been no new order for nuclear plants since 1978. It will be fortunate to have 125 operating nuclear plants in the United States in the year 2000. There are almost 90 completed nuclear power plants and about 45 under construction in the United States, but several of those under construction will eventually be abandoned. About 20 % of the electricity in the United States will be generated by nuclear plants in 2000 as compared with 13 % supplied in the last year. Under the present regulatory and institutional arrangement, American electric utilities would not consider to order a new nuclear power plant. Post-TMI nuclear plants became very expensive, and there is also ideological opposition to nuclear power. Coal-firing plants are also in the similar situation. The uncertainty about electric power demand, the cost of money, the inflation of construction cost and regulation caused the situation. (Kako, I.)

  15. Occurrence and status of volatile organic compounds in ground water from rural, untreated, self-supplied domestic wells in the United States, 1986-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael J.; Lapham, Wayne W.; Rowe, Barbara L.; Zogorski, John S.

    2002-01-01

    Samples of untreated ground water from 1,926 rural, self-supplied domestic wells were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1986-99. This information was used to characterize the occurrence and status of VOCs in domestic well water. The samples were either collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program occurrence-assessment studies or were compiled by NAWQA from existing ambient ground-water or source-water-quality monitoring programs conducted by local, State, and other Federal agencies. Water samples were collected at the wellhead prior to treatment or storage. In most samples, 55 target VOCs were analyzed, and occurrence and status information generally was computed at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L (microgram per liter). At least one VOC was detected in 12 percent of samples (232 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. This detection frequency is relatively low compared to the 26 percent detection frequency of at least one VOC in public sup-ply wells sampled by NAWQA, and the difference may be due, in part, to the higher pumping rates, pumping stress factors, and larger contributing areas of public supply wells. Samples with detections of at least one VOC were collected from wells located in 31 of 39 States. Solvents were the most frequently detected VOC group with detections in 4.6 percent of samples (89 samples) at an assessment level of 0.2 mg/L. The geographic distribution of detections of some VOC groups, such as fumigants and oxygenates, relates to the use pattern of com-pounds in that group. With the exception of com-pounds used in organic synthesis, detection frequencies of VOCs by group are proportional to the average half-life of compounds in the group. When the organic synthesis group is excluded from the analysis, a good correlation exists between the detection frequency of VOCs by group and average half-life of compounds in the group. Individually, VOCs were not commonly

  16. Fragmentation of Continental United States Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Robert V. O' Neill; K. Bruce Jones; Elizabeth R. Smith; John W. Coulston; Timothy G. Wade; Jonathan H. Smith

    2002-01-01

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m (0.09 ha pixel-1) land- cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indexes measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes including 2.25, 7.29, 65.61, 590.49, and 5314.41 ha....

  17. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  18. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  19. Enrichment situation outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Different enrichment technologies are briefly characterized which include gaseous diffusion, which is presently the production mainstay of the United States and France; the gaseous centrifuge which is the production plant for Urenco and the technology for future United States enrichment expansion; the aero-dynamic processes which include the jet nozzle (also known as the Becker process) and the fixed-wall centrifuge (also known as the Helikon process); chemical processes; laser isotope separation processes (also referred to in the literature as LIS); and plasma technology

  20. Solar energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, D.; Slaoui, A.; Soler, R.; Bermudez, V.

    2009-01-01

    Written by a group of five French experts who visited several research centres, innovating companies and solar power stations in the United States, this report first proposes an overview of solar energy in the United States, indicating and commenting the respective shares of different renewable energies in the production, focusing on the photovoltaic energy production and its RD sector. The second part presents industrial and research activities in the solar sector, and more specifically photovoltaic technologies (silicon and thin layer technology) and solar concentrators (thermal solar concentrators, photovoltaic concentrators). The last chapter presents the academic research activities in different universities (California Tech Beckman Institute, Stanford, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines)

  1. Food irradiation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1963, some irradiated foods have been permitted for sale in the United States. Yet, at this time, commercial application has been limited to irradiation of a relatively small fraction of the spices and seasonings used as ingredients in other foods. The current situation regarding irradiated foods in the United States and how it developed is discussed. The author writes from experience gained as a Government regulator concerned primarily with ensuring safety of food and therefore this is stressed together with the crucial role played by consumers and industry. (author)

  2. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  3. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States...

  4. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  5. Obesity: A United States Strategic Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    States Department of Veterans Affairs 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dr. Thomas ...Army Ms. Karen Malebranche United States Department of Veterans Affairs Project Adviser Dr. Thomas Williams U.S. Army War...per American has increased by 57 pounds per year ( poultry representing 46 pounds).86 Surprisingly however, the percentage of calories from meat

  6. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  7. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... response from the Nigerian government. ... domestic crises that negatively impacts state stability, the US government ... Harrison C. Ajebon, Department of Political Science, University of Calabar, ..... Sweden. United Kingdom. Switzerland. Asia & far East. Japan ..... case Study of Nigeria, in Ikonnechidi and.

  8. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  9. Nuclear accidents. Three mile Island (United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the accident of Three Miles Island power plant which occurred the 28 march 1979 in the United States. The accident scenario, the consequences and the reactor core and vessel, after the accident, are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  10. Energy policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M

    1978-06-01

    Energy policy in the United States is examined with particular regard to the nuclear power industry. The advantages of nuclear power over conventional and other sources are presented and the vigorous expansion of research and development is advocated. Future energy supplies are discussed and the author stresses the necessity for continued research into breeder technology.

  11. Political initiative needed in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, K.

    1979-01-01

    The financing of nuclear power stations in the United States is in trouble mainly because of the long lead times caused by licensing. It will again become feasible when legislation reduces the construction time to eight years or less. The overriding need to protect the dollar by reducing oil imports, will lead the US Government to embrace nuclear power openly. (U.K.)

  12. Motorcycle trends in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    During the last decade there has been a significant increase in the number of motorcycle sales and registrations in the United States. At the same time there has been a shift in the demographics of motorcycle users and increased focus on motorcycle s...

  13. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  14. 76 FR 18783 - United States et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... customers based on existing supplier-customer relationships. d. Neither Supply Responses Nor Entry Would... Final Judgment, Stipulation and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the... Competitive Impact Statement have been filed with the United States District Court for the Eastern District of...

  15. Overview of United States synchrotron radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    There has been considerable activity within the past year involving the creation of new and the improvement of existing capabilities for research with synchrotron light. The purpose of this review is to summarize what has happened within the United States. Being a status report, some of the information necessarily has a date attached to it - the date, in this case, being early September 1983

  16. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  17. Friendships of Indonesian and United States Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Doran C.; Pidada, Sri; Victor, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Issues in the study of friendship across cultures were explored by reviewing a set of studies focusing on the friendships of Indonesian and United States youth. Four topics are considered: similarity of friendships across cultures, dimensions of friendships that vary across cultures, the utility of the individualism/collectivism dimension for…

  18. Woody encroachment in the Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg C. Liknes; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Kevin. Nimerfro

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of the central United States is dominated by cropland and rangeland mixed with remnants of short- and tall-grass prairies that were once prevalent. Since the last ice age, these areas had sparse tree cover due to cyclical severe droughts, intentional fires used by indigenous people as a land management tool, and natural fires caused by lightning. More...

  19. Radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, efforts to dispose of the nation's high- and low-level radioactive wastes are based on somewhat different approaches.The individual States are responsible for disposing of low-level wastes with the Federal Government providing technical and financial support to help the States in the early phases of their efforts. The Federal Government has responsibility for developing facilities for the disposal of high-level waste. However, both efforts show a common need to meet national objectives while satisfying the concerns of the public. (author)

  20. Both Europe's and the United States' electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matly, M.

    2006-01-01

    While the United States quickly had the largest electrical indus in the world, electrification in rural areas ended about thirty years after most European countries. Public intervention is a deciding factor in completing electrification, and the late involvement by the American authorities explains the gap. However it would be wrong to oppose in Europe and in the United States a motivated public sector and little involved private companies. In both continents indeed, major private and public urban distributors were almost not involved in rural electrification processes, where local players prevailed: local communities around Europe, small and medium size business in some European countries such as France, co-operative companies in the United States. Additionally, there is an essential difference between electrification in Europe and in the United States. The former does not provide much more than lighting and its success leaves few traces in popular memories; the latter includes many facilities and services, changes the lives of rural populations and is celebrated a such. Whereas the colonial venture keep European economies away from their domestic markets, while in the United States the urban market growth contents large companies, the American co-operative movement is right to believe in the existence of a large electrical equipment market among farmers then considered poor and behind. It even uses the market to complete a more profitable and less costly electrification. Electricity stories that offer food for the thoughts of Third World decision makers and power companies, when they entrust most rural electrification to their large urban companies and deny the existence of a real equipment market in their own rural world. (author)

  1. Water and beverage consumption among children age 4-13y in the United States: analyses of 2005-2010 NHANES data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D; Constant, Florence

    2013-06-19

    Few studies have examined water consumption patterns among U.S. children. Additionally, recent data on total water consumption as it relates to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are lacking. This study evaluated the consumption of plain water (tap and bottled) and other beverages among US children by age group, gender, income-to-poverty ratio, and race/ethnicity. Comparisons were made to DRI values for water consumption from all sources. Data from two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls from 3 cycles of NHANES (2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010) were used to assess water and beverage consumption among 4,766 children age 4-13y. Beverages were classified into 9 groups: water (tap and bottled), plain and flavored milk, 100% fruit juice, soda/soft drinks (regular and diet), fruit drinks, sports drinks, coffee, tea, and energy drinks. Total water intakes from plain water, beverages, and food were compared to DRIs for the U.S. Total water volume per 1,000 kcal was also examined. Water and other beverages contributed 70-75% of dietary water, with 25-30% provided by moisture in foods, depending on age. Plain water, tap and bottled, contributed 25-30% of total dietary water. In general, tap water represented 60% of drinking water volume whereas bottled water represented 40%. Non-Hispanic white children consumed the most tap water, whereas Mexican-American children consumed the most bottled water. Plain water consumption (bottled and tap) tended to be associated with higher incomes. No group of U.S. children came close to satisfying the DRIs for water. At least 75% of children 4-8y, 87% of girls 9-13y, and 85% of boys 9-13y did not meet DRIs for total water intake. Water volume per 1,000 kcal, another criterion of adequate hydration, was 0.85-0.95 L/1,000 kcal, short of the desirable levels of 1.0-1.5 L/1,000 kcal. Water intakes at below-recommended levels may be a cause for concern. Data on water and beverage intake for the population and by socio-demographic group provides

  2. Water Supply. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-9-80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on water supply is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 4-hour unit is to assist the firefighter in the proper use of water supplies and the understanding of the…

  3. Western United States Dams Challenges Faced, Options, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water management in the Western United States relies significantly upon a fleet of small to very large engineered dams to store water during times of runoff and distribute that water during times of need. Much of this infrastructure is Federally owned and/or operated, and was designed and funded during the first half of the twentieth century through a complex set of repayment contracts for Federally authorized purposes addressing water supply, recreation, and hydropower, and other water management objectives. With environmental laws, namely the Endangered Species Act, and other environmental concerns taking a more active role in water resources in the mid to latter half of the twentieth century, this infrastructure is being stressed even greater than anticipated to provide authorized purposes. Additionally, weather and climate norms being experienced are certainly near the edges, if not outside, of anticipated variability in the climate and hydrology scenarios for which the infrastructure was designed. And, finally, these dams, economically designed for a lifespan of 50 - 100 years, are experiencing maintenance challenges from routine to significant. This presentation will focus on identifying some of the history and challenges facing the water infrastructure in the Western United States. Additionally, some perspectives on future paths to meet the needs of western irrigation and hydropower production will be provided.

  4. Antiabortion violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jennefer A; Schumacher, Kristin L; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine if an association exists between the amount of harassment and violence directed against abortion providers and the restrictiveness of state laws relating to family planning. We used responses from a July 2010 survey of 357 abortion providers in 50 states to determine their experience of antiabortion harassment and violence. Their responses were grouped and analyzed in relation to a published grading of state laws in the United States (A, B, C, D and F) as they relate to restrictions on family planning services. Group by group comparison of respondents illustrates that the difference in the number of reported incidents of minor vandalism by group is statistically significant (A vs. C, p=.07; A vs. D, p=.017; A vs. F, p=.0002). Incidents of harassment follow a similar pattern. There were no differences noted overall for violence or major vandalism. Major violence, including eight murders, is a new occurrence in the last two decades. Harassment of abortion providers in the United States has an association with the restrictiveness of state abortion laws. In the last two decades, murder of abortion providers has become an unfortunate part of the violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  6. The State of Homeless Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabler, Brenda; Weinstein, Elana

    2009-01-01

    Across America, the numbers of homeless children and families are growing as a result of many factors including the recent economic crisis, home foreclosures, and natural disasters. Because of an increase in the number of homeless children throughout the United States, this population has unmet needs that can be targeted in school settings under…

  7. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    do not have female staff; the male-to-female staff ratio in the health field is 7 to 1.130 More nurses and female staff are needed, especially to...exercise was rescheduled for 2009. 9 Interview with Ninth Air Force personnel, September 12, 2008. 200 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure

  8. 45 CFR 212.7 - Repayment to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repayment to the United States. 212.7 Section 212... UNITED STATES CITIZENS RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 212.7 Repayment to the United States. (a) An..., any or all of the cost of such assistance to the United States, except insofar as it is determined...

  9. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for 30...

  10. 31 CFR 515.330 - Person within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person within the United States. 515... Definitions § 515.330 Person within the United States. (a) The term person within the United States, includes: (1) Any person, wheresoever located, who is a resident of the United States; (2) Any person actually...

  11. 39 CFR 221.1 - The United States Postal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The United States Postal Service. 221.1 Section 221.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.1 The United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service was established as an...

  12. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of First Spouse Bronze Medals and 2010 First Spouse Bronze Medal Series: Four...

  13. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers and...

  14. 37 CFR 1.412 - The United States Receiving Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information § 1.412 The United States Receiving Office. (a) The United States Patent and Trademark Office is a Receiving Office only for applicants who are residents or nationals of the United States of America. (b) The... “United States Receiving Office” or by the abbreviation “RO/US.” (c) The major functions of the Receiving...

  15. State laws on tobacco control--United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A; Allison, H; Knowles, S B; Fishburn, B A; Woollery, T A; Marx, W T; Shelton, D M; Husten, C G; Eriksen, M P

    1999-06-25

    State laws addressing tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, are summarized. Laws address smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco products, advertising of tobacco products, and excise taxes on tobacco products. Legislation effective through December 31, 1998. CDC identified laws addressing tobacco control by using an on-line legal research database. CDC's findings were verified with the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database. Since a previous surveillance summary on state tobacco-control laws published in November 1995 (covering legislation effective through June 30, 1995), several states have enacted new restrictions or strengthened existing legislation that addresses smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco, tobacco advertising, and tobacco taxes. Five states strengthened their smoke-free indoor air legislation. All states and Washington, D.C., continued to prohibit the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; however, 21 states expanded minors' access laws by designating enforcement authorities, adding license suspension or revocation for sale to minors, or requiring signage. Since the 1995 report, eight additional states (a total of 19 states and Washington, D.C.) now ban vending machines from areas accessible to minors. Thirteen states restrict advertising of tobacco products, an increase of four states since the 1995 report. Although the number of states that tax cigarettes and smokeless tobacco did not change, 13 states increased excise taxes on cigarettes, and five states increased excise taxes on smokeless tobacco products. The average state excise tax on cigarettes is 38.9 cents per pack, an increase of 7.4 cents compared with the average tax in the 1995 report. State laws addressing tobacco control vary in relation to restrictiveness, enforcement and penalties, preemptions, and exceptions. The data summarizing state tobacco-control laws are available through CDC

  16. The United States and world energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The United States, dominating the world's energy markets as a producer and consumer, is sensitive to changes in this market and intends to influence the development of global energy policy. Supply will be increased by nations such as Venezuela, Indonesia and perhaps in the future a United Yemen and the Commonwealth of Independent States, moving to freer market economies which will allow investment opportunities previously inaccessible to foreign companies. Although world energy demand will grow, little of this will be in the US where, under the National Energy Strategy, comprehensive measures are being introduced to improve energy efficiency. The US energy security will be further improved by such measures as diversification of supply, larger domestic production and increasing interdependence between suppliers, traders and consumers. (author)

  17. A critical review of the risks to water resources from unconventional shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B; Warner, Nathaniel; Darrah, Thomas H; Kondash, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The rapid rise of shale gas development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded the extraction of hydrocarbon resources in the U.S. The rise of shale gas development has triggered an intense public debate regarding the potential environmental and human health effects from hydraulic fracturing. This paper provides a critical review of the potential risks that shale gas operations pose to water resources, with an emphasis on case studies mostly from the U.S. Four potential risks for water resources are identified: (1) the contamination of shallow aquifers with fugitive hydrocarbon gases (i.e., stray gas contamination), which can also potentially lead to the salinization of shallow groundwater through leaking natural gas wells and subsurface flow; (2) the contamination of surface water and shallow groundwater from spills, leaks, and/or the disposal of inadequately treated shale gas wastewater; (3) the accumulation of toxic and radioactive elements in soil or stream sediments near disposal or spill sites; and (4) the overextraction of water resources for high-volume hydraulic fracturing that could induce water shortages or conflicts with other water users, particularly in water-scarce areas. Analysis of published data (through January 2014) reveals evidence for stray gas contamination, surface water impacts in areas of intensive shale gas development, and the accumulation of radium isotopes in some disposal and spill sites. The direct contamination of shallow groundwater from hydraulic fracturing fluids and deep formation waters by hydraulic fracturing itself, however, remains controversial.

  18. United States of America National Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The United States has produced this report as part of the preparations for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in Brazil in June 1992. It summarizes this nation's efforts to protect and enhance the quality of the human environment in concert with its efforts to provide economic well-being during the two decades since the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm. The information presented in this report is primarily and deliberately retrospective. It is an attempt to portray the many human, economic and natural resources of the United States, to describe resource use and the principal national laws and programs established to protect these resources, and to analyze key issues on the agenda of UNCED. This analysis is presented in terms of past and present conditions and trends, measures of progress made in responding to the key issues, and a summary of government activities, underway or pending, to address ongoing or newly emerging national environmental and resource management problems

  19. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American) knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and...

  20. The United States toward Energy Independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardon, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The U.S.'s exploitation of 'unconventional' domestic oil reserves is reviving its economy. It will also have effects on the country's energy independence and thus its geopolitical position. While it is unlikely that the relationship between Washington and the Middle East region will be fundamentally altered, the U.S.'s relationships with China, Russia, and Europe could be affected. The United States will have to incorporate these changes into its global strategies

  1. Low birth weight in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Robert L; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2007-02-01

    Pregnancy outcomes in the United States and other developed countries are considerably better than those in many developing countries. However, adverse pregnancy outcomes are generally more common in the United States than in other developed countries. Low-birth-weight infants, born after a preterm birth or secondary to intrauterine growth restriction, account for much of the increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Wide disparities exist in both preterm birth and growth restriction among different population groups. Poor and black women, for example, have twice the preterm birth rate and higher rates of growth restriction than do most other women. Low birth weight in general is thought to place the infant at greater risk of later adult chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Of interest, maternal thinness is a strong predictor of both preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. However, in the United States, several nutritional interventions, including high-protein diets, caloric supplementation, calcium and iron supplementation, and various other vitamin and mineral supplementations, have not generally reduced preterm birth or growth restriction. Bacterial intrauterine infections play an important role in the etiology of the earliest preterm births, but, at least to date, antibiotic treatment either before labor for risk factors such as bacterial vaginosis or during preterm labor have not consistently reduced the preterm birth rate. Most interventions have failed to reduce preterm birth or growth restriction. The substantial improvement in newborn survival in the United States over the past several decades is mostly due to better access to improved neonatal care for low-birth-weight infants.

  2. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  3. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  4. Diesel fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V.

    2003-01-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO 2 emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  5. Electric trade in the United States 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Electric Trade in the United States 1990 (ELECTRA) is the third in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data. The second report contained data for 1988. This report provides information on the industry during 1990

  6. The United States facing their petroleum dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of ''the energy crisis of 2000-2001'', the Cheney report and the petroleum dependence, this study presents a critical examination of the United States petroleum situation, its perception in the american political milieu and the public policies implementing during the last ten years. The first section is devoted to the petroleum supply. In the second section, the american petroleum policy and the energy safety are studied. (A.L.B.)

  7. ISO developments in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, William W.

    1998-01-01

    An important feature of the restructuring process in the United States is the creation of independent system operators (ISOs) to coordinate dispatch and access to transmission grids. A number of ISOs have been proposed and are summarized here. Perhaps the greatest challenge is the pricing of transmission to give proper economic signals to market participants, and the locational pricing scheme now operating in the PJM system offers the best hope for efficient pricing. (author)

  8. Burnup credit activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.; Thomas, D.A.; Doering, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers progress in burnup credit activities that have occurred in the United States of America (USA) since the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Burnup Credit was convened in October 1997. The Proceeding of the AGM were issued in April 1998 (IAEA-TECDOC-1013, April 1998). The three applications of the use of burnup credit that are discussed in this report are spent fuel storage, spent fuel transportation, and spent fuel disposal. (author)

  9. United States steps up waste isolation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedes, H W [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (USA). Office of Waste Isolation; Carbiener, W A [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (USA)

    1982-11-01

    A description is given of the United States' waste isolation programme which now involves tests of specific sites. The US Department of Energy plans to build a system of mined geological repositories for the disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste. It is hoped that the first repository will be available by 1998. Studies of the geology and hydrology of the proposed sites, the waste packaging and the repository design are reported.

  10. The United States and the Kurds: Case Studies in United States Engagement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, Peter

    1997-01-01

    ..., between 1969- 1975, and 1990-1996. Both eras saw the United States able to influence events relating to the Kurds in support of a larger regional policy, only to find no easy solution to the Kurdish quest for autonomy...

  11. United States position on severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    The United States policy on severe accidents was published in 1985 for both new plant applications and for existing plants. Implementation of this policy is in progress. This policy, aided by a related safety goal policy and by analysis capabilities emerging from improved understanding of accident phenomenology, is viewed as a logical development from the pioneering work in the WASH-1400 Reactor Safety Study published by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1975. This work provided an estimate of the probability and consequences of severe accidents which, prior to that time, had been mostly evaluated by somewhat arbitrary assumptions dating back 30 years. The early history of severe accident evaluation is briefly summarized for the period 1957-1979. Then, the galvanizing action of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) on severe accident analysis, experimentation and regulation is reviewed. Expressions of US policy in the form of rulemaking, severe accident policy, safety research, safety goal policy and court decisions (on adequacy of safety) are discussed. Finally, the NRC policy as of March 1988 is stated, along with a prospective look at the next few years. (author). 19 refs

  12. Geothermal power generation in the United States 1985 through 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rannels, J.E.; McLarty, L.

    1990-01-01

    The United States has used geothermal energy for the production of electricity since 1960 and has the largest installed capacity of any country in the world. During the 1980s, expansion at The Geysers and emergence of the hot water segment of the industry fueled explosive growth in generating capacity. In this paper geothermal development in the U.S. during the second half of the decade is reviewed, and development over the next five years is forecast

  13. Projecting water yield and ecosystem productivity across the United States by linking an ecohydrological model to WRF dynamically downscaled climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanlei Sun; Ge Sun; Erika Cohen Mack; Steve McNulty; Peter V. Caldwell; Kai Duan; Yang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the potential impacts of climatechange on water yield and ecosystem productivity is essential to developing sound watershed restoration plans, andecosystem adaptation and mitigation strategies. This study links an ecohydrological model (Water Supply and StressIndex, WaSSI) with WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) using dynamically downscaled...

  14. Interactive effects of nocturnal transpiration and climate change on the root hydraulic redistribution and carbon and water budgets of southern United States pine plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; Jérôme Ogée; Asko Noormets; Julien Jouangy; Michael Gavazzi; Emrys Treasure; Ge Sun; Steve G. McNulty; John S. King

    2012-01-01

    Deep root water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) have been shown to play a major role in forest ecosystems during drought, but little is known about the impact of climate change, fertilization and soil characteristics on HR and its consequences on water and carbon fluxes. Using data from three mid-rotation loblolly pine plantations, and simulations with the...

  15. PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken Nemeth

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need technical

  16. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  17. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  18. A Discussion of Water Pollution in the United States and Mexico; with High School Laboratory Activities for Analysis of Lead, Atrazine, and Nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Grundman, Julie; Hage, David S.; Carr, James D.; Castro-Acuna, Carlos Mauricio

    1997-01-01

    Presents discussions on sources, health impacts, methods of analysis as well as lengthy discussions of lead, nitrates, and atrazine as related to water pollution and the interdisciplinary nature of the modern chemistry curriculum. (DKM)

  19. An introduction to joint research by the USEPA and USGS on contaminants of emerging concern in source and treated drinking waters of the United States.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Paper serves as non-technical introduction to series of papers on the same drinking water study. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Kolpin,...

  20. Power systems simulations of the western United States region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Poch, L.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents a part of a broad assessment of energy-water-related issues in the western United States. The full analysis involved three Department of Energy national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. Argonne's objective in the overall project was to develop a regional power sector expansion forecast and a detailed unit-level operational (dispatch) analysis. With these two major analysis components, Argonne estimated current and future freshwater withdrawals and consumption related to the operation of U.S. thermal-electric power plants in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region for the period 2005-2025. Water is withdrawn and used primarily for cooling but also for environmental control, such as sulfur scrubbers. The current scope of the analysis included three scenarios: (1) Baseline scenario as a benchmark for assessing the adequacy and cost-effectiveness of water conservation options and strategies, (2) High nuclear scenario, and (3) High renewables scenario. Baseline projections are consistent with forecasts made by the WECC and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in its Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) (EIA 2006a). Water conservation scenarios are currently limited to two development alternatives that focus heavily on constructing new generating facilities with zero water consumption. These technologies include wind farms and nuclear power plants with dry cooling. Additional water conservation scenarios and estimates of water use associated with fuel or resource extraction and processing will be developed in follow-on analyses.

  1. Is current irrigation sustainable in the United States? An integrated assessment of climate change impact on water resources and irrigated crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Elodie; Caron, Justin; Fant, Charles; Monier, Erwan

    2017-08-01

    While climate change impacts on crop yields has been extensively studied, estimating the impact of water shortages on irrigated crop yields is challenging because the water resources management system is complex. To investigate this issue, we integrate a crop yield reduction module and a water resources model into the MIT Integrated Global System Modeling framework, an integrated assessment model linking a global economic model to an Earth system model. We assess the effects of climate and socioeconomic changes on water availability for irrigation in the U.S. as well as subsequent impacts on crop yields by 2050, while accounting for climate change projection uncertainty. We find that climate and socioeconomic changes will increase water shortages and strongly reduce irrigated yields for specific crops (i.e., cotton and forage), or in specific regions (i.e., the Southwest) where irrigation is not sustainable. Crop modeling studies that do not represent changes in irrigation availability can thus be misleading. Yet, since the most water-stressed basins represent a relatively small share of U.S. irrigated areas, the overall reduction in U.S. crop yields is small. The response of crop yields to climate change and water stress also suggests that some level of adaptation will be feasible, like relocating croplands to regions with sustainable irrigation or switching to less irrigation intensive crops. Finally, additional simulations show that greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation can alleviate the effect of water stress on irrigated crop yields, enough to offset the reduced CO2 fertilization effect compared to an unconstrained GHG emission scenario.

  2. Case law: Canada, France, Switzerland, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Canada: Appellate decision upholding nuclear regulatory licensing process and practices for consultation with aboriginal groups: Fond du Lac Denesuline First Nation v. Canada (Attorney General). France: Court of Appeal of Nimes regarding the SOCATRI incident in July 2008; Conseil d'Etat regarding the association Reseau 'Sortir du nucleaire'. Switzerland: Judgement of the Federal Administrative Court in the matter of Balmer-Schafroth a.o.v. BKW FMB Energy Ltd on the repeal of the time limitation with respect to the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. United States: Judgement of a US District Court granting a permanent injunction against the State of Vermont in order to prevent certain State laws from prohibiting Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant's continued operation

  3. Using Dynamic Time Warping and Data Forensics to Examine Tradeoffs among Land-Energy-Water Networks Across the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManamay, R.; Allen, M. R.; Piburn, J.; Sanyal, J.; Stewart, R.; Bhaduri, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Characterizing interdependencies among land-energy-water sectors, their vulnerabilities, and tipping points, is challenging, especially if all sectors are simultaneously considered. Because such holistic system behavior is uncertain, largely unmodeled, and in need of testable hypotheses of system drivers, these dynamics are conducive to exploratory analytics of spatiotemporal patterns, powered by tools, such as Dynamic Time Warping (DTW). Here, we conduct a retrospective analysis (1950 - 2010) of temporal trends in land use, energy use, and water use within US counties to identify commonalities in resource consumption and adaptation strategies to resource limitations. We combine existing and derived data from statistical downscaling to synthesize a temporally comprehensive land-energy-water dataset at the US county level and apply DTW and subsequent hierarchical clustering to examine similar temporal trends in resource typologies for land, energy, and water sectors. As expected, we observed tradeoffs among water uses (e.g., public supply vs irrigation) and land uses (e.g., urban vs ag). Strong associations between clusters amongst sectors reveal tight system interdependencies, whereas weak associations suggest unique behaviors and potential for human adaptations towards disruptive technologies and less resource-dependent population growth. Our framework is useful for exploring complex human-environmental system dynamics and generating hypotheses to guide subsequent energy-water-nexus research.

  4. Occurrence and Distribution of Ordinary High Water Mark (OHWM) Indicators in Non-Perennial Streams in the Western Mountains, Valleys, and Coast Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    this is only a generalized model and that, as with most natural systems, a wide spectrum of possible geomorphic arrangements exists in stream...1 Common hydrogeomorphic units that form in stream systems in response to spatially and temporally varying hydrologic and geomorphic processes... geomorphic , and vegetative indica- tors for use in OHWM delineations in arid streams and categorized their typical landscape positions with respect

  5. Cryptosporidium surveillance and risk factors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jonathan S; Beach, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance for Cryptosporidium in the United States indicates that the reported incidence of infection has increased dramatically since 2004. The reasons for this increase are unclear but might be caused by an actual increase in incidence, improved surveillance, improved awareness about cryptosporidiosis, and/or increases in testing practices resulting from the licensing of the first-ever treatment for cryptosporidiosis. While regional differences remain, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis appears to be increasing across the United States. Onset of illness is most common during the summer, particularly among younger children. Cryptosporidiosis case reporting also influences outbreak detection and reporting; the recent rise in cases coincides with an increase in the number of reported cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, particularly in treated recreational water venues. Risk factors include ingesting contaminated recreational or drinking water, exposure to infected animals, having close contacts with cryptosporidiosis, travel to disease-endemic areas, and ingestion of contaminated food. Advances in molecular characterization of clinical specimens have improved our understanding of the changing epidemiology and risk factors. Prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis requires continued efforts to interrupt the transmission of Cryptosporidium through water, food, and contact with infected persons or animals. Of particular importance is continued improvement and monitoring of drinking water treatment and advances in the design, operation, and management of recreational water venues coupled with behavioral changes among the swimming public. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Rio Grande transboundary integrated hydrologic model and water-availability analysis, New Mexico and Texas, United States, and Northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.; Ritchie, Andre; Boyce, Scott E.; Ferguson, Ian; Galanter, Amy; Flint, Lorraine E.; Henson, Wesley

    2018-05-31

    Changes in population, agricultural development and practices (including shifts to more water-intensive crops), and climate variability are increasing demands on available water resources, particularly groundwater, in one of the most productive agricultural regions in the Southwest—the Rincon and Mesilla Valley parts of Rio Grande Valley, Doña Ana and Sierra Counties, New Mexico, and El Paso County, Texas. The goal of this study was to produce an integrated hydrological simulation model to help evaluate water-management strategies, including conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater for historical conditions, and to support long-term planning for the Rio Grande Project. This report describes model construction and applications by the U.S. Geological Survey, working in cooperation and collaboration with the Bureau of Reclamation.This model, the Rio Grande Transboundary Integrated Hydrologic Model, simulates the most important natural and human components of the hydrologic system, including selected components related to variations in climate, thereby providing a reliable assessment of surface-water and groundwater conditions and processes that can inform water users and help improve planning for future conditions and sustained operations of the Rio Grande Project (RGP) by the Bureau of Reclamation. Model development included a revision of the conceptual model of the flow system, construction of a Transboundary Rio Grande Watershed Model (TRGWM) water-balance model using the Basin Characterization Model (BCM), and construction of an integrated hydrologic flow model with MODFLOW-One-Water Hydrologic Flow Model (referred to as One Water). The hydrologic models were developed for and calibrated to historical conditions of water and land use, and parameters were adjusted so that simulated values closely matched available measurements (calibration). The calibrated model was then used to assess the use and movement of water in the Rincon Valley, Mesilla Basin

  7. State cigarette minimum price laws - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Cigarette price increases reduce the demand for cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and youth initiation of smoking. Excise tax increases are the most effective government intervention to increase the price of cigarettes, but cigarette manufacturers use trade discounts, coupons, and other promotions to counteract the effects of these tax increases and appeal to price-sensitive smokers. State cigarette minimum price laws, initiated by states in the 1940s and 1950s to protect tobacco retailers from predatory business practices, typically require a minimum percentage markup to be added to the wholesale and/or retail price. If a statute prohibits trade discounts from the minimum price calculation, these laws have the potential to counteract discounting by cigarette manufacturers. To assess the status of cigarette minimum price laws in the United States, CDC surveyed state statutes and identified those states with minimum price laws in effect as of December 31, 2009. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which determined that 25 states had minimum price laws for cigarettes (median wholesale markup: 4.00%; median retail markup: 8.00%), and seven of those states also expressly prohibited the use of trade discounts in the minimum retail price calculation. Minimum price laws can help prevent trade discounting from eroding the positive effects of state excise tax increases and higher cigarette prices on public health.

  8. The state of amphibians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Adams, M.J.; Grant, E.H.C.; Miller, D.; Corn, P.S.; Ball, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, scientists began to identify unexplained declines in amphibian populations around the world. Much has been learned since then, but amphibian declines have not abated and the interactions among the various threats to amphibians are not clear. Amphibian decline is a problem of local, national, and international scope that can affect ecosystem function, biodiversity, and commerce. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of the state of the amphibians and introduces examples to illustrate the range of issues in the United States.

  9. 31 CFR 103.39 - Person outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person outside the United States. 103... Person outside the United States. For the purposes of this subpart, a remittance or transfer of funds, or... the United States, shall be deemed to be a remittance or transfer to a person outside the United...

  10. States of Confusion: Regulation of Surrogacy in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Some countries, including Switzerland, Germany, Spain, France, Greece, and Norway, ban commercial surrogacy (Patton 2010, 523). Others, such as India and the Ukraine, have actively tried to be seen as commercial surrogacy destinations (Mohapatra 2012, 412, 432–437, 441–448). Unlike either of these approaches, the United States (US) has no national stance on surrogacy. In fact, there are no national laws or regulations related to surrogacy in the US (Margalit 2014). Instea...

  11. Functional model of water balance variability at the catchment scale : 2. Elasticity of fast and slow runoff components to precipitation change in the continental United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harman, C.J.; Troch, P.A.; Sivapalan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the sensitivity of annual streamflow to precipitation is challenging due to the complexity of the processes that control the water balance. A low-dimensional model can be useful to interrogate data in regional assessments of a large number of catchments, and can provide insights into the

  12. [The Chinese nuclear test and 'atoms for peace' as a measure for preventing nuclear armament of Japan: the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the United States and the introduction of light water reactors into Japan, 1964-1968].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masakatsu

    2014-07-01

    Japan and the United States signed in 1968 a new atomic energy agreement through which US light-water nuclear reactors, including those of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of Tokyo Electric Power Company, were to be introduced into Japan. This paper studies the history of negotiations for the 1968 agreement using documents declassified in the 1990s in the US and Japan. After the success of the Chinese nuclear test in October 1964, the United States became seriously concerned about nuclear armament of other countries in Asia including Japan. Expecting that Japan would not have its own nuclear weapons, the US offered to help the country to demonstrate its superiority in some fields of science including peaceful nuclear energy to counter the psychological effect of the Chinese nuclear armament. Driven by his own political agenda, the newly appointed Prime Minister Eisaku Sato responded to the US expectation favorably. When he met in January 1965 with President Johnson, Sato made it clear that Japan would not pursue nuclear weapons. Although the US continued its support after this visit, it nevertheless gave priority to the control of nuclear technology in Japan through the bilateral peaceful nuclear agreement. This paper argues that the 1968 agreement implicitly meant a strategic measure to prevent Japan from going nuclear and also a tactic to persuade Japan to join the Nuclear Non -Proliferation Treaty.

  13. Hybrid Reactor designs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkenhauer, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews the current, active, interrelated Hybrid Reactor development programs in the United States, and offers a probable future course of action for the technology. The Department of Energy (DOE) program primarily emphasizes development of Hybrid Reactors that are optimized for proliferation resistance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) program concentrates on avenues for Hybrid Reactor commercialization. The history of electrical generation technology has been one of steady movement toward higher power densities and higher quality fuels. An apparent advantage of the Hybrid Reactor option is that it follows this trend

  14. United States Army Weapon Systems 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-18

    equipment, tractor, van, wrecker, 8.8-ton Load Handling System (LHS), 8.8-ton LHS trailer, and 10-ton dump truck models). Three truck variants and...NJ) hydraulic pump and motor: Vickers (Jackson, MS) 131 UnIteD StAteS Army ACqUISItIon phASe InveStment Component High Mobility Engineer Excavator...MEDEVAC and hoist configuration, the UH-72A is also being fielded in a VIP, National Guard Homeland Security (HLS) and a Combined Training Center

  15. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  16. Nuclear engineering education in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    In discussing nuclear engineering education in the United States it is shown that the most critical issue facing the nuclear engineering education community today is enrolment in a time of increasing demand for graduate engineers. Related to the issue of enrolment is support for graduate students, whether it be fellowships, traineeships, or research assistantships. Other issues are those of maintaining a vital faculty in the face of a competitive job market, of maintaining research facilities and developing new ones, and of determining the directions of educational efforts in the future. (U.K.)

  17. Early uranium mining in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium mining in the United States is closer to 100 years old than to the 200 years since the discovery of the element. Even then, for much of this time the rock was brought out of the ground for reasons other than its uranium content. The history of the US uranium industry is divided into five periods which follow roughly chronologically upon one another, although there is some overlap. The periods cover: uranium use in glass and ceramics; radium extraction; vanadium extraction; government uranium extraction and commercial extraction. (author)

  18. Uranium enrichment services in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, P.; Lenders, M.

    1994-01-01

    The United States of America is the world's largest market for uranium enrichment services. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russian uranium is entering the world market on an increasing scale. The U.S. tries to protect its market and, in this connection, also the European market from excessive price drops by taking anti-dumping measures. In order to become more competitive, American companies have adapted modern enrichment techniques from Europe. European - U.S. joint ventures are to help, also technically and economically, to integrate military uranium, accumulating as a consequence of worldwide disarmament, into the commercial fuel cycle for the peaceful use of nuclear power. (orig.) [de

  19. 75 FR 31465 - United States, State of Illinois, State of Colorado, and State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ..., and often offer full-service restaurants or in-service dining. Premiere theatres also differ from... selection is deemed not to be a suitable alternative, the United States shall in its sole discretion select... suitable alternative pursuant to Section VI(A). If AMC's selection is deemed not to be a suitable...

  20. 22 CFR 22.3 - Remittances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remittances in the United States. 22.3 Section...-DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND FOREIGN SERVICE § 22.3 Remittances in the United States. (a) Type of remittance. Remittances shall be in the form of: (1) Check or bank draft drawn on a bank in the United States; (2) money...