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Sample records for united states prisons

  1. Transgendered Prisoners in the United States: A Progression of Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolph Alexander

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1976, prisoners acquired the right to medical treatment from the U.S. Supreme Court through the Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which forbade, in part, cruel and unusual punishment. The following year, a Fourth Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that medical treatment included psychiatric or mental health treatment. These rulings applied to general prisoners, but not initially prisoners who suffered from gender identity disorder. Courts ruled then that gender identity disorder was not a serious mental disorder—a critical component of the right to medical care and mental health treatment. Later, a few appeals courts ruled that gender identity disorder was a serious mental disorder, triggering a prisoner’s right to medical care and mental health treatment for this disorder. Prisoners with gender identity disorder have litigated for sex realignment surgery as part of their treatment, which prison administrators have balked. The latest ruling unequivocally ordered the Massachusetts Department of Corrections to give a prisoner suffering from gender identity disorder sex reassignment surgery, but the prison system has appealed. This ruling, and previous rulings, has furthered policy towards transsexual prisoners.

  2. Tuberculosis in Jails and Prisons: United States, 2002-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Lauren A; Armstrong, Lori R; Lobato, Mark N; Ho, Christine; France, Anne Marie; Haddad, Maryam B

    2016-12-01

    To describe cases and estimate the annual incidence of tuberculosis in correctional facilities. We analyzed 2002 to 2013 National Tuberculosis Surveillance System case reports to characterize individuals who were employed or incarcerated in correctional facilities at time they were diagnosed with tuberculosis. Incidence was estimated with Bureau of Justice Statistics denominators. Among 299 correctional employees with tuberculosis, 171 (57%) were US-born and 82 (27%) were female. Among 5579 persons incarcerated at the time of their tuberculosis diagnosis, 2520 (45%) were US-born and 495 (9%) were female. Median estimated annual tuberculosis incidence rates were 29 cases per 100 000 local jail inmates, 8 per 100 000 state prisoners, and 25 per 100 000 federal prisoners. The foreign-born proportion of incarcerated men 18 to 64 years old increased steadily from 33% in 2002 to 56% in 2013. Between 2009 and 2013, tuberculosis screenings were reported as leading to 10% of diagnoses among correctional employees, 47% among female inmates, and 42% among male inmates. Systematic screening and treatment of tuberculosis infection and disease among correctional employees and incarcerated individuals remain essential to tuberculosis prevention and control.

  3. Converging Streams of Opportunity for Prison Nursery Programs in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Goshin, Lorie Smith; Byrne, Mary Woods

    2009-01-01

    Prison nursery programs allow departments of correction to positively intervene in the lives of both incarcerated mothers and their infant children. The number of prison nurseries in the United States has risen dramatically in the past decade, yet there remains a significant gap between predominant correctional policy in this area and what is known about parenting and infant development. Using Kingdon’s streams metaphor, this article examines the recent convergence of problem, policy, and pol...

  4. An Application of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide to Prison Suicide Rates in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2005-01-01

    E. Durkheim (1897) suggested that the societal rate of suicide might be explained by societal factors, such as marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The current study examined male prison suicide rates and suicide rates for men in the total population in the United States and found that variables based on Durkheim's theory of suicide explained…

  5. An Application of Durkheim's Theory of Suicide to Prison Suicide Rates in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaro, Christine; Lester, David

    2005-01-01

    E. Durkheim (1897) suggested that the societal rate of suicide might be explained by societal factors, such as marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The current study examined male prison suicide rates and suicide rates for men in the total population in the United States and found that variables based on Durkheim's theory of suicide explained…

  6. Coccidioides exposure and coccidioidomycosis among prison employees, California, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Perio, Marie A; Niemeier, R Todd; Burr, Gregory A

    2015-06-01

    Responding to a request by corrections agency management, we investigated coccidioidomycosis in prison employees in central California, a coccidioidomycosis-endemic area. We identified 103 cases of coccidioidomycosis that occurred over 4.5 years. As a result, we recommended training and other steps to reduce dust exposure among employees and thus potential exposure to Coccidioides.

  7. [Prisoners in units for difficult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Brulin-Solignac, Diane; Lodetti, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Prisoners, on remand or convicted, can be placed for a variable amount of time in a unit for difficult patients if their pathological mental state so requires. For the most part, their therapeutic care does not depend on their status as prisoner. The treatments provided are those indicated for their psychological pathologies and their potential or known dangerousness. However, some administrative measures make a distinction between their treatment and that of non-prisoner patients placed in these secure psychiatric units. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Changes in Depression and Stress after Release from a Tobacco-Free Prison in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J. van den Berg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has found high levels of depression and stress among persons who are incarcerated in the United States (U.S.. However, little is known about changes in depression and stress levels among inmates post-incarceration. The aim of this study was to examine changes in levels of depression and stress during and after incarceration in a tobacco-free facility. Questionnaires that included valid and reliable measures of depression and stress were completed by 208 male and female inmates approximately eight weeks before and three weeks after release from a northeastern U.S. prison. Although most inmates improved after prison, 30.8% had a worsening in levels of depression between baseline and the three-week follow-up. In addition, 29.8% had a worsening in levels of stress after release than during incarceration. While it is not surprising that the majority of inmates reported lower levels of depression and stress post-incarceration, a sizable minority had an increase in symptoms, suggesting that environmental stressors may be worse in the community than in prison for some inmates. Further research is needed to address depression and stress levels during and after incarceration in order for inmates to have a healthier transition back into the community and to prevent repeat incarcerations.

  9. Changes in Depression and Stress after Release from a Tobacco-Free Prison in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Jacob J.; Roberts, Mary B.; Bock, Beth C.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Stein, L.A.R.; Parker, Donna R.; McGovern, Arthur R.; Shuford, Sarah Hart; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has found high levels of depression and stress among persons who are incarcerated in the United States (U.S.). However, little is known about changes in depression and stress levels among inmates post-incarceration. The aim of this study was to examine changes in levels of depression and stress during and after incarceration in a tobacco-free facility. Questionnaires that included valid and reliable measures of depression and stress were completed by 208 male and female inmates approximately eight weeks before and three weeks after release from a northeastern U.S. prison. Although most inmates improved after prison, 30.8% had a worsening in levels of depression between baseline and the three-week follow-up. In addition, 29.8% had a worsening in levels of stress after release than during incarceration. While it is not surprising that the majority of inmates reported lower levels of depression and stress post-incarceration, a sizable minority had an increase in symptoms, suggesting that environmental stressors may be worse in the community than in prison for some inmates. Further research is needed to address depression and stress levels during and after incarceration in order for inmates to have a healthier transition back into the community and to prevent repeat incarcerations. PMID:26771622

  10. Changes in Depression and Stress after Release from a Tobacco-Free Prison in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Jacob J; Roberts, Mary B; Bock, Beth C; Martin, Rosemarie A; Stein, L A R; Parker, Donna R; McGovern, Arthur R; Shuford, Sarah Hart; Clarke, Jennifer G

    2016-01-12

    Prior research has found high levels of depression and stress among persons who are incarcerated in the United States (U.S.). However, little is known about changes in depression and stress levels among inmates post-incarceration. The aim of this study was to examine changes in levels of depression and stress during and after incarceration in a tobacco-free facility. Questionnaires that included valid and reliable measures of depression and stress were completed by 208 male and female inmates approximately eight weeks before and three weeks after release from a northeastern U.S. prison. Although most inmates improved after prison, 30.8% had a worsening in levels of depression between baseline and the three-week follow-up. In addition, 29.8% had a worsening in levels of stress after release than during incarceration. While it is not surprising that the majority of inmates reported lower levels of depression and stress post-incarceration, a sizable minority had an increase in symptoms, suggesting that environmental stressors may be worse in the community than in prison for some inmates. Further research is needed to address depression and stress levels during and after incarceration in order for inmates to have a healthier transition back into the community and to prevent repeat incarcerations.

  11. 28 CFR 2.16 - Parole of prisoner in state, local, or territorial institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parole of prisoner in state, local, or..., SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.16 Parole of prisoner in state, local, or territorial institution. (a) Any person...

  12. Career and Technical Education in United States Prisons: What Have We Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Shakoor A.

    2009-01-01

    This essay examines the effects of Career and Technical Education (CTE) in U.S. prisons by looking at research that has conflicting results and inferences. Although the opposing positions are mainly represented by two studies, this essay includes literature review of historical studies representing opposing views regarding the effects of CTE in…

  13. 美国监狱私营化的关注点--以王廷惠教授的《美国监狱私有化研究》为基点%The Focus of Privatization of Prisons in the United States---Based on Professor Wang Tinghui's"Study of American Prison Privatization"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连春亮

    2016-01-01

    The property of modern prison presents a diversified state and completely subverts the traditional concept of the prison. New public management theory states that the prison serves as public goods and belongs to the public service sector of the community. The origin of the United States prison privatization movement derives from the motivation to solve the problem of prison overcrowding. It is expected to lower the operating costs and improve the efficiency of prison management through privatization. Prisons in the United States are mainly in the form of “nominal privatization” prison including non-core prison business contract outsourcing, contract leasing and operating prison, cooperative management prison. The contract signed by the government and the private sector is the core of the privatization of prisons in the United States and the system design and institutional arrangements are in accordance with the contract.%现代监狱属性呈现多元化样态,彻底颠覆了传统的监狱观念。新公共管理理论认为监狱是公共物品,是社会的公共服务部门。美国监狱私营化运动缘起解决监狱拥挤问题,通过私营化降低监狱运营成本和提高监狱管理效率。美国监狱私营化的形式主要有:“名义上的私营化”监狱;监狱非核心业务签约外包;签约租赁和经营监狱;合作经营监狱。美国监狱私营化都是以政府和私人部门所签订的契约为核心,依照合同的约定而进行制度设计和制度安排。

  14. HIV transmission in a state prison system, 1988-2005.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Jafa

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HIV prevalence among state prison inmates in the United States is more than five times higher than among nonincarcerated persons, but HIV transmission within U.S. prisons is sparsely documented. We investigated 88 HIV seroconversions reported from 1988-2005 among male Georgia prison inmates. METHODS: We analyzed medical and administrative data to describe seroconverters' HIV testing histories and performed a case-crossover analysis of their risks before and after HIV diagnosis. We sequenced the gag, env, and pol genes of seroconverters' HIV strains to identify genetically-related HIV transmission clusters and antiretroviral resistance. We combined risk, genetic, and administrative data to describe prison HIV transmission networks. RESULTS: Forty-one (47% seroconverters were diagnosed with HIV from July 2003-June 2005 when voluntary annual testing was offered. Seroconverters were less likely to report sex (OR [odds ratio] = 0.02, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 0-0.10 and tattooing (OR = 0.03, 95% CI: <0.01-0.20 in prison after their HIV diagnosis than before. Of 67 seroconverters' specimens tested, 33 (49% fell into one of 10 genetically-related clusters; of these, 25 (76% reported sex in prison before their HIV diagnosis. The HIV strains of 8 (61% of 13 antiretroviral-naïve and 21 (40% of 52 antiretroviral-treated seroconverters were antiretroviral-resistant. DISCUSSION: Half of all HIV seroconversions were identified when routine voluntary testing was offered, and seroconverters reduced their risks following their diagnosis. Most genetically-related seroconverters reported sex in prison, suggesting HIV transmission through sexual networks. Resistance testing before initiating antiretroviral therapy is important for newly-diagnosed inmates.

  15. Teaching Geology at San Quentin State Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, M. A.; Pehl, J.; Ferrier, K. L.; Pehl, C. W.

    2004-12-01

    The students enrolled in our Geology 215 class are about as on-traditional as it gets. They range in age from about 20 - 50 years old, they are all male, all from under-represented ethnic groups, and they are all serving time in one of the country's most notorious prisons. We teach in a degree-granting community college program inside California's San Quentin State Prison. The program is run entirely by volunteers, and students who participate in educational programs like ours are about 5 times less likely to return to prison than the general inmate population in California. The prison population of California is ethnically diverse, though minorities are present in higher proportion than in the general population. Last semester, our geology class happened to be composed entirely of minorities even though the college program serves the full spectrum of the prison population. While some trends in geoscience education encourage the use of technology in the classroom, security restrictions prevent us from using even some of the simplest visual aids. Faced with these challenges, we have developed an inquiry-based syllabus for an introductory Geology class at the community college level. We find that kinaesthetic learning activities such as urban geologic mapping and acting out plate tectonic motions from ridge to trench (complete with magnetic pole polarity shifts) are not only possible in restricted learning environments, but they promote student learning in unexpected ways.

  16. Equine-Facilitated Prison-Based Programs within the Context of Prison-Based Animal Programs: State of the Science Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachi, Keren

    2013-01-01

    Equine-facilitated prison programs have become more prevalent and operate in correctional facilities in 13 states throughout the United States. However, there is a deficit of empirical knowledge to guide them. This article reviews 19 studies of prison-based animal programs and centers on patterns in the literature. It reveals how previous studies…

  17. Traumatic brain injury among Indiana state prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Bradley; Sapp, Dona; Kincaid, Ashley

    2014-09-01

    Research on traumatic brain injury among inmates has focused on comparing the rate of traumatic brain injury among offenders to the general population, but also how best to screen for traumatic brain injury among this population. This study administered the short version of the Ohio State University Traumatic Brain Injury Identification Method to all male inmates admitted into Indiana state prisons were screened for a month (N = 831). Results indicate that 35.7% of the inmates reported experiencing a traumatic brain injury during their lifetime and that these inmates were more likely to have a psychiatric disorder and a prior period of incarceration than those without. Logistic regression analysis finds that a traumatic brain injury predicts the likelihood of prior incarceration net of age, race, education, and psychiatric disorder. This study suggests that brief instruments can be successfully implemented into prison screenings to help divert inmates into needed treatment.

  18. Private prisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimovski Darko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author, based on the circumstances that contributed to the creation of private prisons, has explained the historical development of private prisons in the United States and Great Britain. After that, the author has analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of the prison run by private companies. Namely, the author has, stating the benefits of private prisons (reduced overcrowding penitencijarnih institution, cheaper accommodation cost per prisoner, provide better services, the possibility of applying a new philosophy in the manner of execution of sentence, with modern Penitentiary program, with the aim of re-socialization and the reduction of recidivism and weaknesses of the private prisons (the question of legitimac, a chronic lack of space in the Penitentiary system is not solved, business-oriented policies of private prisons, less salaries, poor performance of the security service, worst food, weak enforcement of parole, lack of appropriate penitentiary program, wanted to draw attention to the professional public about controversy of the introduction private companies in the management structure of penitentiary institutions . As the Republic of Serbia is, constantly in the last twenty years, faced with the increasing number of inmates, as well as the chronic shortage of money, which affects on the situation in industrial areas of prisons, there are options to give licenses to private companies to manage prisons. Therefore, the author has paid special attention to potential problems of introducing private prisons in the penitentiary system in Serbia.

  19. Medicaid policies and practices in US state prison systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David L; Dumont, Dora M; Cislo, Andrew M; Brockmann, Bradley W; Traver, Amy; Rich, Josiah D

    2014-03-01

    Medicaid is an important source of health care coverage for prison-involved populations. From 2011 to 2012, we surveyed state prison system (SPS) policies affecting Medicaid enrollment during incarceration and upon release; 42 of 50 SPSs participated. Upon incarceration, Medicaid benefits were suspended in 9 (21.4%) SPSs and terminated in 28 (66.7%); 27 (64.3%) SPSs screened prisoners for potential Medicaid eligibility. Although many states supported Medicaid enrollment upon release, several did not. We have considered implications for Medicaid expansion.

  20. Tuberculosis case detection in a state prison system.

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, N N; Reeves, M; LaMarre, M; DeVoe, B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to describe the epidemiology of tuberculosis ((TB) among inmates in the Georgia state prison system; to evaluate the effectiveness of the TB case detection methods used; to evaluate the use of contact tracing for inmate TB cases; and to determine rates of completion of therapy. METHODS: Using a standardized form, the authors abstracted data from reports to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, prison hospital medical charts, and county health depar...

  1. Medical Support to Failed States: Start with the Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    population can be significant. In Russia overcrowded prisons have bred new drug-resistant strains of tuberculosis that have proliferated virulently...among the general public.26 Similarly in the early 1990‟s the Los Angeles Jail experienced an outbreak of cerebral meningitis that spread to the local...community.27 In the Failed States of Africa, the spread of drug resistant Tuberculosis and HIV in the prisons now pose a grave threat to the region

  2. Programs for Strengthening Families of State Prison Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes "Training for Strong Families," a family strengthening program for officers working in the state prison system. The program was offered once per week on the same day and at the same time, and the sessions lasted 15-20 minutes. The new program included topics such as Budgeting 101, Relationships, and Stress Management.…

  3. Penal harm medicine: state tort remedies for delaying and denying health care to prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, M S

    1999-01-01

    In prison and jail subcultures, custodial personnel are committed to the penal harm movement, which seeks to inflict pain on prisoners. Conversely, correctional medical personnel are sworn to the Hippocratic Oath and are committed to alleviating prisoners' suffering. The Hippocratic Oath is violated when correctional medical workers adopt penal harm mandates and inflict pain on prisoners. By analyzing lawsuits filed by prisoners under state tort law, this article shows how the penal harm movement co-opts some correctional medical employees into abandoning their treatment and healing mission, thus causing denial or delay of medical treatment to prisoners.

  4. Creating a Curriculum and Accommodating Teaching Methods at a Federal Prison's Special Housing Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskas, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    The federal prison system provides a number of opportunities for inmates to further their education. These prospects can be made available at the prison and can include, college correspondence, the formal classroom, or at the inmate's cell in the special housing unit (SHU). While it is common for inmates to receive a more appropriate education at…

  5. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  6. Reducing the use of seclusion for mental disorder in a prison: implementing a high support unit in a prison using participant action research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giblin Yvette

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vulnerable prisoners and mentally disordered offenders who present with risk of harm to self or others were accommodated in Special Observation Cells (SOCs isolated from others for considerable periods of time. This practice has been criticised by the Council of Europe Committee for the Prevention of Torture. The objective of this initiative was to reduce the use of seclusion within the prison and to improve the care of vulnerable and mentally ill prisoners within the prison. Results The prison studied is a committal centre for sentenced prisoners with an official bed capacity of 630. The forensic mental health in-reach team, in co-operation with the prison health service followed the 'spiral' of planning, action and fact finding about the results of the action. In December 2010 a 10 bed High Support Unit (HSU was established within the prison. During the first year, 96 prisoners were admitted. A third (35% reported psychotic symptoms, 28% were referred due to the immediate risk of self-harm, 17% were accommodated for medical treatments and increased observation, 13% received specialised treatment by the Addiction Psychiatry team, 6% presented with emotional distress. One prisoner was accommodated on the HSU due to the acute risk he posed to others. A major mental illness was diagnosed in 29%, 20% required short-term increased support for crisis intervention and were found not to have a mental illness. A further 10% were deemed to be feigning symptoms of mental illness to seek refuge in the HSU. 7% had personality disorder as their primary diagnosis and 4% had a learning disability. Stratifying risk within the prison population through the provision of the HSU decreased the total episodes of seclusion in the prison by 59% (p Conclusions The next step is to further stratify risk by establishing a low support unit to serve as a step-down from the high support unit.

  7. Reducing the use of seclusion for mental disorder in a prison: implementing a high support unit in a prison using participant action research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Yvette; Kelly, Andy; Kelly, Enda; Kennedy, Harry G; Mohan, Damian

    2012-04-09

    Vulnerable prisoners and mentally disordered offenders who present with risk of harm to self or others were accommodated in Special Observation Cells (SOCs) isolated from others for considerable periods of time. This practice has been criticised by the Council of Europe Committee for the Prevention of Torture. The objective of this initiative was to reduce the use of seclusion within the prison and to improve the care of vulnerable and mentally ill prisoners within the prison. The prison studied is a committal centre for sentenced prisoners with an official bed capacity of 630. The forensic mental health in-reach team, in co-operation with the prison health service followed the 'spiral' of planning, action and fact finding about the results of the action. In December 2010 a 10 bed High Support Unit (HSU) was established within the prison. During the first year, 96 prisoners were admitted. A third (35%) reported psychotic symptoms, 28% were referred due to the immediate risk of self-harm, 17% were accommodated for medical treatments and increased observation, 13% received specialised treatment by the Addiction Psychiatry team, 6% presented with emotional distress. One prisoner was accommodated on the HSU due to the acute risk he posed to others. A major mental illness was diagnosed in 29%, 20% required short-term increased support for crisis intervention and were found not to have a mental illness. A further 10% were deemed to be feigning symptoms of mental illness to seek refuge in the HSU. 7% had personality disorder as their primary diagnosis and 4% had a learning disability. Stratifying risk within the prison population through the provision of the HSU decreased the total episodes of seclusion in the prison by 59% (p < 0.001) in addition to providing a more effective psychiatric in-reach service to the prison. Pathways between the prison and the forensic psychiatric hospital saw no change in activity but improved continuity of care. The next step is to further

  8. Material Matters - The Social Choreography of the State Prison of Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Trine

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the state prison of eastern Jutland, which is a closed prison in denmark inaugurated in october 2006 and designed by the archi- tectural firm friis & Moltke. The relationship between the built structure and penal policies is revealed, and the extent to which...... a prison structure can be viewed as a 'social choreography' is discussed. social choreography is understood as certain pre- ferred patterns of action inscribed in the structure and interiors of the building. The model for the state prison of eastern Jutland represents a break with earlier mod- els...... for prison buildings and an ambition to realize a new, modern kind of prison service. The study draws primarily on a body of theory on architecture, space and discipline in the tradition of structuralism and post-structuralism. it demonstrates how physical structures, understood both as architecture...

  9. Profile of State Prisoners under Age 18, 1985-97. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, Kevin J.

    This report presents data on all individuals under age 18 in state prisons, whether under the original jurisdiction of the juvenile or adult criminal system. Most of the data are from the National Corrections Reporting Program. On December 31, 1997, less than 1% of inmates in state prisons were under age 18, a proportion that has remained stable…

  10. Assessment of the Reproductive Health Status of Adult Prison Inmates in Osun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Olugbenga-Bello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. All over the world, numbers of prisoners have being increasing with majority in the sexually active age group; hence diseases such as HIV, Tuberculosis and Hepatitis are more prevalent in prisons than in the community. This study thus aims to provide an overview of the reproductive health status of adult prison inmates in Osun State. Methodology. This is a cross-sectional study among adult inmates in Osun State prison. Data was obtained from 209 selected respondents using pre-tested semi structured questionnaire. Result. Majority of the respondents were in the age group 20–39 years with mean age of 30.9+7.5. 73.2% are aware of STIs, 93.3% HIV/AIDS and 81.3% contraception. 54.6% had multiple sexual partners before incarceration and 23.3% of them used condom always. 89.5% were not involved in any sexual practice inside the prison, 9.1% masturbated and 1.4% had homosexual partners. Less than 6% had access to male condoms gotten from prison staffs and prison clinics. Conclusion and recommendation. No comprehensive reproductive health care system to address reproductive health services in prisons. Respondents’ knowledge about STIs, HIV/AIDS and contraception is good, but their condom usage is low compared with the knowledge. Government should put in place specific reproductive health programmes in prisons.

  11. Material Matters - The Social Choreography of the State Prison of Eastern Jutland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Trine

    2013-01-01

    a prison structure can be viewed as a 'social choreography' is discussed. social choreography is understood as certain pre- ferred patterns of action inscribed in the structure and interiors of the building. The model for the state prison of eastern Jutland represents a break with earlier mod- els...

  12. Professional School Counselors Using Choice Theory to Meet the Needs of Children of Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford, M. Ann; Edwards, Oliver W.

    2008-01-01

    The prison population in the United States has increased significantly. Children of prisoners experience academic and social challenges. Professional school counselors are in an ideal position to provide theory-based interventions to support children of prisoners. This article (a) describes challenges experienced by children of prisoners, (b)…

  13. An Appraisal of Prison Services in Edo State Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhabekhai, Clement Imoudu

    2002-01-01

    A review of rehabilitation, job training, and educational programs available to inmates in Nigerian prisons finds that they are inadequate to prepare prisoners for postprison life. Recommendations include more part-time instructors, diversification of vocational education, establishment of library services, and focus on lifelong learning. (SK)

  14. The Transcendental Meditation Program and Rehabilitation at Folsom State Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Allan I.; Siegel, Larry M.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program in a maximum security prison were studied via cross-validation design. Meditation and control groups indicated reduction in anxiety, neuroticism, hostility, and insomnia as a function of the treatment. (Author)

  15. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  16. Parenting from Prison: Staying Connected while Apart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Angela; Pickholtz, Naomi; Green, Allison; Rumble, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The United States has more people in prison than any other country, and more than half of those incarcerated are parents. This article reviews the challenges to parenting while in prison and considers how parental attachment experiences and difficult life trajectories have an impact on parent-child relationships. The authors provide examples of…

  17. Perceptions and influences of a state prison smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Laura; Seal, David W; Jorenby, Douglas E; Corcoran, Kerri; Sosman, James M

    2012-10-01

    Prison smoking bans are increasingly common. It is important to consider how those who are incarcerated respond to these bans and to the subsequent development of contraband tobacco markets. Since there are high rates of smoking in individuals who become incarcerated, along with high rates of chronic illnesses that are exacerbated by smoking, it is critical to examine whether there are health promoting changes in perceptions of and intentions toward smoking and other health behaviors that can be maintained on release to the community. Interviews with incarcerated men experiencing a prison smoking ban revealed their responses to being smoke-free, reactions to the presence of contraband smoking, and the influences of this experience on their intentions to smoke following release.

  18. Predictors of retention in a drug-free unit/substance abuse treatment in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares-López, María José; González-Menéndez, Ana; Festinger, David S; Fernández-García, Paula; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Secades, Roberto; Matejkowski, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The high rate of dropout from treatment programs is a recurring problem in the field of drug dependence. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of retention in a prison-based drug-free unit (DFU). The relationships among subscales of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) as well as motivation and personality profiles and length of stay in a DFU, of 57 prisoners admitted for the first time to the program were analyzed. The mean dropout rates were 52.9% at six months and 67.8% at one year. The mean length of stay was 195.05 days. Predictors of retention at six months included the ASI Family Composite Score, the motivation subscale Taking Steps, and Narcissistic personality trait score. Predictors of retention at one year included lower ASI Psychological Composite Score, higher scores on the motivation subscale Ambivalence, and higher number of charges pending at the time of admission to the program. Identification of these predictor variables may be useful for developing strategies to increase retention in the context of in-prison substance abuse treatment.

  19. Predictors of general and violent recidivism among SMI prisoners returning to communities in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Donna L; Miraglia, Richard P; Lee, Li-Wen G; Chard-Wierschem, Deborah; Sawyer, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Correctional and forensic mental health systems throughout the country are routinely called on to manage and provide treatment for mentally ill prison inmates. This study identifies criminal justice and mental health predictors of general re-arrest and re-arrest for violence in seriously mentally ill (SMI) persons leaving prison in New York State. Both length and diversity of criminal history predicted general re-arrest, as did substance abuse diagnoses, participation in community mental health treatment, parole supervision, and coordinated parole and mental health services. Only demographics and criminal justice measures were predictive of re-arrest for violence. The rate of re-arrest for violence in this SMI sample was lower than that of general prison release populations.

  20. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  1. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  2. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  3. The Effects of Crowding on Mood States in a Prison Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Garvin; And Others

    This paper discusses two studies undertaken to investigate the effects of population concentrating on the behavior of human subjects. Particular attention was paid to the space and interpersonal contact dimensions, over time, within a prison setting. Mood state self-reports and the rate of psychosomatic illness complaints were used to determine if…

  4. Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illnesses and Substance Abuse Disorders as Predictors of State Prison Inmate Assaults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Steven R.; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Using hierarchical logistic regression with a nationally representative sample of state prisoners ("n" = 12,504), we found inmates with dual severe psychiatric and substance abuse disorders to be at higher risk of being assaulted and to assault others in prison than nonmentally ill inmates. Dually disordered inmates may be "importing"…

  5. Filicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Phillip J

    2016-12-01

    In the United States the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education determines the curriculum required for fellows in forensic psychiatry to become board certified as a subspecialist. Areas that must be covered during the one year fellowship include criminal issues, such as insanity; civil issues, such as tort law and Workers' Compensation; legal regulation of psychiatry, such as confidentiality and involuntary hospitalization; and correctional psychiatry issues, such as dual agency and prisoner's rights. Fellows are also expected to have knowledge about juvenile courts, the structure of the legal system, and child custody issues. In addition, fellows are required to analyze complex cases and write forensic reports which are well reasoned. Teaching methods include lectures, storytelling, use of video vignettes, and mock trials. Additional teaching methodologies include group supervision of fellows in their report writing and direct observation of giving testimony. During the year we see fellows evolve and shift their orientation from being an advocate for patients to perceiving their role as serving justice.

  6. Endogeneity in prison risk classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shermer, Lauren O'Neill; Bierie, David M; Stock, Amber

    2013-10-01

    Security designation tools are a key feature of all prisons in the United States, intended as objective measures of risk that funnel inmates into security levels-to prison environments varying in degree of intrusiveness, restriction, dangerousness, and cost. These tools are mostly (if not all) validated by measuring inmates on a set of characteristics, using scores from summations of that information to assign inmates to prisons of varying security level, and then observing whether inmates assumed more risky did in fact offend more. That approach leaves open the possibility of endogeneity--that the harsher prisons are themselves bringing about higher misconduct and thus biasing coefficients assessing individual risk. The current study assesses this potential bias by following an entry cohort of inmates to more than 100 facilities in the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP) and exploiting the substantial variation in classification scores within a given prison that derive from systematic overrides of security-level designations for reasons not associated with risk of misconduct. By estimating pooled models of misconduct along with prison-fixed effects specifications, the data show that a portion of the predictive accuracy thought associated with the risk-designation tool used in BOP was a function of facility-level contamination (endogeneity).

  7. Health-state utilities in a prisoner population: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Michael H

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health-state utilities for prisoners have not been described. Methods We used data from a 1996 cross-sectional survey of Australian prisoners (n = 734. Respondent-level SF-36 data was transformed into utility scores by both the SF-6D and Nichol's method. Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of SF-6D utility were assessed in univariate analyses and a multivariate general linear model. Results The overall mean SF-6D utility was 0.725 (SD 0.119. When subdivided by various medical conditions, prisoner SF-6D utilities ranged from 0.620 for angina to 0.764 for those with none/mild depressive symptoms. Utilities derived by the Nichol's method were higher than SF-6D scores, often by more than 0.1. In multivariate analysis, significant independent predictors of worse utility included female gender, increasing age, increasing number of comorbidities and more severe depressive symptoms. Conclusion The utilities presented may prove useful for future economic and decision models evaluating prison-based health programs.

  8. The Transformative Power of Sankofa: Teaching African History inside San Quentin State Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nathaniel B. D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the author's experience teaching ethnic studies inside a unique California prison, and calls for college-in-prison educators to engage culturally appropriate curricula to realize the full transformative potential of the prison classroom.

  9. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Berceda, 572 F.2d 630 (9th Cir. 1978).. A mere request, such as that made by the defendant, is not sufficient; United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d...a mere request and more than mere speculation that disclosure will be helpful. United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1978), eect. dt...both known and unknown to the Grand Jury, including Lane Boudreau, Scott Willard Holland, James Allen Halperin, Maria Ximena Erlandsen, Derek Adrian

  10. AIDS in Mexican prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, J M; Roberts, J B

    1995-01-01

    The human rights organization Americas Watch, which toured Mexican prisons, reported in 1991 that all prisoners with HIV infection in the Mexico City area were housed in a single AIDS ward in Santa Marta Prison. In 1991, the 16-bed facility had 15 patients; in 1993, this number had increased by 5. In Mexico City, with 3 prisons holding over 2000 male adults each, there were only 20 known infected prisoners in the AIDS ward at Santa Marta. In 1991, authorities at Matamoros, in the state of Tamaulipas, insisted that none of their inmates had ever been diagnosed as infected with HIV. The prison physician at Reynosa indicated that only 2 inmates since 1985 had ever been diagnosed as infected. In 1992, the prison in Saltillo, in the state of Coahuila, reported that here had yet to be a single positive test for HIV. The prison at Reynosa held 1500 people and only 2 inmates were diagnosed as having AIDS between 1985 and 1991. Prisons at Matamoros and Saltillo held similar numbers but had no experience of infected inmates. A survey of 2 prisons in the state of Tamaulipas indicates that around 12% of the population may use IV drugs, and 9% indicate sharing needles. It is possible for prisoners to die of diseases like pneumonia, associated with AIDS, without the connection to AIDS being diagnosed. Each state, and possibly each prison in Mexico, has its own particular AIDS policies. Santa Marta was the single facility in Mexico City used to house AIDS-infected prisoners, who were segregated. Finally, the prison at Saltillo required all women entering the facility to have a medical examination, including a test for HIV. High-level prison personnel have demonstrated ignorance and fear of AIDS and intolerance of infected prisoners. Mexico must reassess the need to provide adequate medical care to offenders who are sick and dying behind bars.

  11. Infection prevention and control in dental surgeries in the Pará state prison system in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Clelia Maria A; Smith, Andrew J; Fonseca Silva, Almenara S; Flório, Flávia M; Zanin, Luciane

    2016-11-01

    Prison populations have higher levels of bloodborne viruses with consequently higher risks of cross-infection. This study assessed infection prevention and occupational hazards in prison dental surgeries in the Brazilian state of Pará. Investigations were undertaken by a single examiner in 11 prison clinics. Manual washing of instruments with no detergents and dry heat sterilization were the main instrument decontamination methods used. Most surgeries had insufficient instruments for daily clinical work requirements. Half of dentists interviewed worked single-handed with no documented policies or health and safety procedures. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Establishing a Deradicalization/Disengagement Model for America’s Correctional Facilities: Recommendations for Countering Prison Radicalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    DERADICALIZATION /DISENGAGEMENT MODEL FOR AMERICA’S CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COUNTERING PRISON RADICALIZATION by Tony C... DERADICALIZATION /DISENGAGEMENT MODEL FOR AMERICA’S CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES: RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COUNTERING PRISON RADICALIZATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...becomes evident. Currently, the United States has no prison deradicalization program. This thesis provides a comparative analysis of two

  13. Prison Literacy: Implications for Program and Assessment Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Anabel P.; And Others

    The United States confronts the problem of a large and growing prison population, the majority of which is insufficiently literate. Added to the general effects of educational disability are the marginalizing factors of ethnicity, class, socioeconomic deprivation, and other handicaps. Historically, the situation in prison literacy is 150 years of…

  14. Reducing the use of seclusion for mental disorder in a prison: implementing a high support unit in a prison using participant action research.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Giblin, Yvette

    2012-01-01

    Vulnerable prisoners and mentally disordered offenders who present with risk of harm to self or others were accommodated in Special Observation Cells (SOCs) isolated from others for considerable periods of time. This practice has been criticised by the Council of Europe Committee for the Prevention of Torture. The objective of this initiative was to reduce the use of seclusion within the prison and to improve the care of vulnerable and mentally ill prisoners within the prison.

  15. Benefits and costs of substance abuse treatment programs for state prison inmates: results from a lifetime simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkin, Gary A; Cowell, Alexander J; Hicks, Katherine A; Mills, Michael J; Belenko, Steven; Dunlap, Laura J; Houser, Kimberly A; Keyes, Vince

    2012-06-01

    Reflecting drug use patterns and criminal justice policies throughout the 1990s and 2000s, prisons hold a disproportionate number of society's drug abusers. Approximately 50% of state prisoners meet the criteria for a diagnosis of drug abuse or dependence, but only 10% receive medically based drug treatment. Because of the link between substance abuse and crime, treating substance abusing and dependent state prisoners while incarcerated has the potential to yield substantial economic benefits. In this paper, we simulate the lifetime costs and benefits of improving prison-based substance abuse treatment and post-release aftercare for a cohort of state prisoners. Our model captures the dynamics of substance abuse as a chronic disease; estimates the benefits of substance abuse treatment over individuals' lifetimes; and tracks the costs of crime and criminal justice costs related to policing, adjudication, and incarceration. We estimate net societal benefits and cost savings to the criminal justice system of the current treatment system and five policy scenarios. We find that four of the five policy scenarios provide positive net societal benefits and cost savings to the criminal justice system relative to the current treatment system. Our study demonstrates the societal gains to improving the drug treatment system for state prisoners.

  16. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Methadone Maintenance for Prisoners: Prediction of Treatment Entry and Completion in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Couvillion, Kathryn A.; Schwartz, Robert P.; O'Grady, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The present report is an intent-to-treat analysis involving secondary data drawn from the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated methadone in the United States. This study examined predictors of treatment entry and completion in prison. A sample of 211 adult male prerelease inmates with preincarceration heroin dependence were randomly…

  17. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Methadone Maintenance for Prisoners: Prediction of Treatment Entry and Completion in Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Couvillion, Kathryn A.; Schwartz, Robert P.; O'Grady, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The present report is an intent-to-treat analysis involving secondary data drawn from the first randomized clinical trial of prison-initiated methadone in the United States. This study examined predictors of treatment entry and completion in prison. A sample of 211 adult male prerelease inmates with preincarceration heroin dependence were randomly…

  18. Involuntary inter-prison transfer of prisoners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    Involuntary inter prison transfer are for most prisoners very intrusive. In Denmark official record shows in average 669 incidences of involuntary inter prison transfers for disciplinary reasons in the period 2006-2013. Involuntary transfers because of prison capacity are not registered statistic....... A rule in Danish administrative law states that prisoners can be involuntary transferred from one prison to the other without prior notice, statement of reasons or hearing. In a legal protective perspective it is problematic that prisoners can be transferred without apparent reasons....

  19. Involuntary inter-prison transfer of prisoners in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    Involuntary inter prison transfer are for most prisoners very intrusive. In Denmark official record shows in average 669 incidences of involuntary inter prison transfers for disciplinary reasons in the period 2006-2013. Involuntary transfers because of prison capacity are not registered statistic....... A rule in Danish administrative law states that prisoners can be involuntary transferred from one prison to the other without prior notice, statement of reasons or hearing. In a legal protective perspective it is problematic that prisoners can be transferred without apparent reasons....

  20. [Management of tobacco smoking in the prison service units - The effects of the health promotion program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elżbieta

    In 2014 the health promotion program aimed at managing personnel smoking was implemented in the Polish prison service (PS) in cooperation with the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (NIOM). It combined education of managers, encouraging them to implement good practices, with employees' education. This paper describes the process of implementation and its effects in 159 units of PS, against the data on the management of smoking in medium and large companies in Poland gathered in 2010. Situations concerning smoking management in PS units before and after a half-year program implementation were compared. Data were gathered using self-diagnosis questionnaires (initial and final assessments) collectively filled in by representatives of management and employees. Due to the program implementation there was an increase in the percentage of PS units with known number of smoking employees (19% vs. 61%), consultions on formal smoking regulations with personnel (14% vs. 57%), minimal antismoking medical interventions (46% vs. 59%), and assessments of effects of antismoking activities (14% vs. 55%). There was also increase in the number of PS units with personnel totally obeying smoking regulations (28% vs. 41%) and decrease in those where such rules are not completely met (9% vs. 7%). In 3/4 PS units there was an increase in employees' interest in quitting smoking and in 40% of them employees smoke less at work. Almost every second unit has set up a health promotion team. In many aspects the program has brought along satisfying effects and allowed for depicting areas of improvement. Its scheme and tools can be used, after adaptation, in interventions concerning other health problems in workplaces. Med Pr 2016;67(5):605-621.

  1. Prisons as Panacea or Pariah? The Countervailing Consequences of the Prison Boom on the Political Economy of Rural Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Eason

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nascent literature on prison proliferation in the United States typically reveals negative impacts for communities of color. Given that Southern rural communities were the most likely to build during the prison boom (1970–2010, however, a more nuanced understanding of prison impact is warranted. Using a dataset matching and geocoding all 1663 U.S. prisons with their Census-appointed place, this study explores the countervailing consequences of the prison boom on rural towns across multiple periods. For example, locales that adopted prisons at earlier stages of the prison boom era received a short-term boom compared to those that did not, but these effects were not lasting. Furthermore, later in the boom, prison-building protected towns against additional economic decline. Thus, neither entirely pariah nor panacea, the prison functions as a state-sponsored public works program for disadvantaged rural communities but also supports perverse economic incentives for prison proliferation. Methodological, substantive, theoretical, and policy implications regarding the intersection of race and punishment are explored.

  2. Prevalence and epidemiology of chronic hepatitis C among prisoners of Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Pompilio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, the number of prisoners has increased in the recent years and the control of hepatitis C virus (HCV has become more complex. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence and identify the genotypes of HCV in prisoners as well as the factors associated with this infectious disease. Thereby, 443 men and 243 women from prisons were interviewed and subjected to blood collection. Anti-HCV reactive samples were analyzed by RT-PCR and genotyped. The overall seroprevalence of HCV infection was 4.8% (95%CI: 3.4 to 6.8%. Furthermore, the prevalence was higher in: men, injecting drug users, tattooed persons, those who were more than 50 years old, individuals who have been arrested multiple times, people with previous history of sexually transmitted disease (STD, persons who received blood transfusions or those with HIV/AIDS. The prevalence of RNA HCV by PCR was 3.0% (95%CI: 1.7 to 4.2%. Moreover, the coinfection of HIV and HCV was 33.3%. In addition, genotype 1 was the most frequent (85% followed by genotype 3 (15%. The screening strategy for HCV and other infectious diseases in inmates is important as it establishes an early diagnosis, opportunity for treatment and allows the breaking of the transmission chain.

  3. Medical Parole and Aging Prisoners: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pro, George; Marzell, Miesha

    2017-04-01

    The population of geriatric prisoners in the United States will reach unprecedented levels in the coming decades. Geriatric prisoners are at increased risk for deteriorating health and experience the onset of disease earlier than the aging population at large. Medical parole is an underutilized program that allows aging prisoners to transition to community-based health care. This article presents original key informant interview data and analysis of the perceptions of medical parole. Three dominant themes emerged: (1) drugs and nonviolent crimes; (2) politics, costs, and consequences; and (3) quality of health care and sense of security in prison. Participants rejected the possibility that medical care provided is below the clinical standard or is the cause of geriatric prisoners' deteriorating health and consistently implied that medical care at this prison is better than most Americans receive. Participants perceived their careers more as contributions to public health than criminal justice.

  4. Prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Baxter Andreoli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression, the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations.

  5. On humour in prison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molding, Malene

    2011-01-01

    This paper unravels the presence of humour in prison as an institutionalized aspect of prison life. The analysis shows how officers use humour to manage their relationships with prisoners and other staff, and how they make use of humour to establish a collective understanding of the officer job...... and an opportunity to articulate hostility where staff solidarity is required. As a communication device with ambiguous qualities, humour unites the real and the unreal, shapes social structure, interaction and positioning and is suitable for identity work in prison....

  6. Burnout in officers of the prison service units. The role of personality and selected professional characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sygit-Kowalkowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The researchers involved in the studies of burnout indicate its 3 sources: the structure of the personality, the specificity of interpersonal relationships, and the organizational factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of burnout and personality characteristics of prison officers, as well as to determine predictors of burnout in this occupational group. Material and Methods: The study was conducted among prison officers, who were divided into 2 groups, the officers working in direct contact with prisoners (group I and those employed in the prison administration (group II. The study used 2 tools: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI and Link Burnout Questionnaire (LBQ. Results: Analysis of personality traits in the study group showed high severity traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. However, the best results were obtained in terms of extraversion and the lowest in the range of conscientiousness. The level of burnout in both groups was found to be within the upper limit of the average results, without statistically significant differences between the groups. The results showed that people working in direct contact with prisoners experience greater disappointments and psychophysical exhaustion at work. The analyses showed that the level of exhaustion and disappointment of the employees surveyed increases with increasing seniority. It was also shown that the level of neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness is the predictor of effectiveness. Conclusions: The level of burnout in the study group falls within the upper limit of the average results. Personality traits are an important determinant for the development of symptoms of burnout in the penitentiary officers, and their role changes over the years of continuous prison service. The position at work diversifies the degree of experiencing symptoms of burnout. Med Pr 2017;68(1:85–94

  7. [Burnout in officers of the prison service units. The role of personality and selected professional characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sygit-Kowalkowska, Ewa; Weber-Rajek, Magdalena; Herkt, Martyna; Ossowski, Roman

    2017-02-28

    The researchers involved in the studies of burnout indicate its 3 sources: the structure of the personality, the specificity of interpersonal relationships, and the organizational factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of burnout and personality characteristics of prison officers, as well as to determine predictors of burnout in this occupational group. The study was conducted among prison officers, who were divided into 2 groups, the officers working in direct contact with prisoners (group I) and those employed in the prison administration (group II). The study used 2 tools: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and Link Burnout Questionnaire (LBQ). Analysis of personality traits in the study group showed high severity traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. However, the best results were obtained in terms of extraversion and the lowest in the range of conscientiousness. The level of burnout in both groups was found to be within the upper limit of the average results, without statistically significant differences between the groups. The results showed that people working in direct contact with prisoners experience greater disappointments and psychophysical exhaustion at work. The analyses showed that the level of exhaustion and disappointment of the employees surveyed increases with increasing seniority. It was also shown that the level of neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness is the predictor of effectiveness. The level of burnout in the study group falls within the upper limit of the average results. Personality traits are an important determinant for the development of symptoms of burnout in the penitentiary officers, and their role changes over the years of continuous prison service. The position at work diversifies the degree of experiencing symptoms of burnout. Med Pr 2017;68(1):85-94.

  8. Prison medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, R W

    1992-01-01

    Recently the delivery of health care in prisons has been attacked by prisoners and public alike. Committees are appointed to study conditions inside the prison wall, and recommendations have been made. As long as the prison system itself is not changed, hope to achieve even a minimum level and quality of care is slim.

  9. Relativistic and noise effects on multiplayer Prisoners' dilemma with entangling initial states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, H.; Rashidi, S. S.

    2017-06-01

    Three-players Prisoners' dilemma (Alice, Bob and Colin) is studied in the presence of a single collective environment effect as a noise. The environmental effect is coupled with final states by a particular form of Kraus operators K_0 and K_1 through amplitude damping channel. We introduce the decoherence parameter 0≤ p≤ 1 to the corresponding noise matrices, in order to controling the rate of environment influence on payoff of each players. Also, we consider the Unruh effect on the payoff of player, who is located at a noninertial frame. We suppose that two players (Bob and Colin) are in Rindler region I from Minkowski space-time, and move with same uniform acceleration (r_b=r_c ) and frequency mode. The game is begun with the classical strategies cooperation (C) and defection (D) accessible to each player. Furthermore, the players are allowed to access the quantum strategic space (Q and M). The quantum entanglement is coupled with initial classical states by the parameter γ \\in [0,π /2] . Using entangled initial states by exerting an unitary operator \\hat{J} as entangling gate, the quantum game (competition between Prisoners, as a three-qubit system) is started by choosing the strategies from classical or quantum strategic space. Arbitrarily chosen strategy by each player can lead to achieving profiles, which can be considered as Nash equilibrium or Pareto optimal. It is shown that in the presence of noise effect, choosing quantum strategy Q results in a winning payoff against the classical strategy D and, for example, the strategy profile (Q, D, C) is Pareto optimal. We find that the unfair miracle move of Eisert from quantum strategic space is an effective strategy for accelerated players in decoherence mode (p=1 ) of the game.

  10. Research and Experimentation in Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, L. Alex

    1979-01-01

    The author argues that the prison system is inherently coercive, and that social and behavioral scientists have been used by state agents to facilitate control of prisoners. He urges that the major objective of research in prisons be to promote the principle of human liberation. (Author/RLV)

  11. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United......

  12. Economic Impacts of Prison Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    for FY2010. California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger has suggested amending that state’s constitution to ensure that spending on prisons cannot exceed...and design capacity. 92 Ibid. 93 Coleman v. Schwarzenegger , No. CIV S-90-0520 LKK JFM P, Three-Judge Court and Plata v. Schwarzenegger , No. C01...1351 TEH, Three-Judge Court, United States District Court for the Eastern District of California, August 4, 2009. See also: Plata v. Schwarzenegger

  13. The U.S. correctional system and the older prisoner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyer, Tish; Burbank, Patricia M

    2009-12-01

    Although older prisoners may seem an unlikely article topic, the reality is that the likelihood of health care providers encountering a prisoner who has been released is high. In addition, men age 50 and older are the fastest growing age cohort in prisons. Older prisoners consume disproportional health care resources of correctional institutions. Long histories of no medical care, alcohol and substance abuse, and poor diet contribute to a 10- to 11.5-year addition to chronological age and contribute to the risk for chronic conditions, which are prevalent, often lead to functional impairments, and require careful and deliberate management strategies. This is, however, not that different from the "free world," where chronic illnesses account for the greatest cost burden and disability in the United States. Consequently, health care providers need an understanding of the challenges faced by this vulnerable population, as well as issues related to the graying of American prisoners.

  14. Understanding the needs of vulnerable prisoners: the role of social and emotional wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Yvonne; Day, Andrew; Casey, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Social and emotional wellbeing (SEWB) is a term used to refer to the state of an individual's overall wellbeing. This review aims to consider the importance of understanding and assessing SEWB in prisoner populations, and identify potentially important differences between groups of prisoners, including those who identify as from minority cultural backgrounds (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander in Australia), protective custody prisoners, remand prisoners, prisoners identified with an intellectual disability, and prisoners with an acquired brain injury. The paper is a general review of the published literature, with a specific focus on work conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in Australia. Eight domains of SEWB are identified across which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander prisoners, along with those in protection units, remandees, and prisoners with intellectual disabilities or acquired brain injuries are likely to experience particularly low levels of functioning. Few programs have been developed to address these needs, although attending to low levels of SEWB has the potential to make a positive contribution to prisoner health, prison management, and offender rehabilitation. Relatively little literature has considered this topic previously and, as a result, the paper is necessarily descriptive. Nonetheless, issues of SEWB appear to warrant further consideration, particularly in relation to those prisoners who identify with minority cultural groups.

  15. Inmates' Rights Protection in China's Prisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG JIANCANG

    2011-01-01

    Ⅰ.Introduction to the Chinese Prison System Prisons are the State's organ for carrying out criminal punishment.Chinese laws require that criminals sentenced to a fixed-term sentence,a life sentence,or to the death penalty with a two-year reprieve should serve their terms in prisons.China's highest judicial administrative organ is the Ministry of Justice whose Bureau of Prison Administration manages the country's prisons.According to the levels of prison administration,prisons are divided into three categories.Currently,there is only one prison in category Ⅰ,directly under the Ministry of Justice.Provincial prisons,namely,those under the direction of the prison administrative organs of provinces (autonomous regions or municipalities),belong to category Ⅱ.The majority of Chinese prisons fall in this category.

  16. Work after Prison: One-Year Findings from the Transitional Jobs Reentry Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcross, Cindy; Bloom, Dan; Jacobs, Erin; Manno, Michelle; Muller-Ravett, Sara; Seefeldt, Kristin; Yahner, Jennifer; Young, Alford A., Jr.; Zweig, Janine

    2010-01-01

    More than 2 million people are incarcerated in the United States, and around 700,000 are released from prison each year. Those who are released face daunting obstacles as they seek to reenter their communities, and rates of recidivism are high. Many experts believe that stable employment is critical to a successful transition from prison to the…

  17. Work after Prison: One-Year Findings from the Transitional Jobs Reentry Demonstration. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcross, Cindy; Bloom, Dan; Jacobs, Erin; Manno, Michelle; Muller-Ravett, Sara; Seefeldt, Kristin; Yahner, Jennifer; Young, Alford A., Jr.; Zweig, Janine

    2010-01-01

    More than 2 million people are incarcerated in the United States, and around 700,000 are released from prison each year. Those who are released face daunting obstacles as they seek to reenter their communities, and rates of recidivism are high. Many experts believe that stable employment is critical to a successful transition from prison to the…

  18. Voyage to the Dark Side: The Tortured Path of United States’ Detainee Interrogation Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-13

    the Enron scandal that was nominated for an Oscar in 2005. His Taxi to the Dark Side tells the story of an Afghani taxi cab driver who died while in...legislation would help the United States repair an image damaged by detainee abuse scandals .264 Senator McCain’s proposed amendment to the 2006 Defense...who dishonored our country and disregarded our values.”344 With its improvident selection followed by its own prisoner abuse scandal , the United

  19. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  20. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the...

  1. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of...

  2. 75 FR 5373 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Pricing for 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. \\TM\\ SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. The 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set, featuring $1...

  3. Suicidal ideation among inmate-patients in state prison: prevalence, reluctance to report, and treatment preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Bruce B; Kaufman, Andrew R; Knoll, James L; Chlebowski, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence, willingness to report, and treatment preferences for suicidal ideation among state prison inmates. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSS) and a novel questionnaire were completed by 67 inmate-patients. The BSS score was in the high range for 15% of general population (GP) and 40% of Intermediate Care Program (ICP) patients, with 19% of ICP inmates reporting a "moderate to strong" desire to commit suicide. A majority (64% GP, 86% ICP) had prior suicide attempt(s). Forty-two percent of GP and 31% of ICP inmate-patients were unlikely to tell mental health staff about suicidal thoughts. Family contact and talking with mental health staff were preferred interventions. ICP inmates preferred staff visits and observation in their own cells, but GP inmates did not. Only a small minority (14% GP, 21% ICP) favored transfer to a crisis observation cell, but the least desired option was talking to a corrections officer. While many inmate-patients reported experiencing suicidal thoughts, they preferred not to inform staff. Almost 80% did not favor the current primary intervention: the observation cell. Alternative or supplementary options should be considered. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. HUMAN RIGHTS AND NIGERIAN PRISONERS--ARE PRISONERS NOT HUMANS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, I A; Dangata, Y Y; Audu, O; Nmadu, A G; Omole, N V

    2014-12-01

    In Nigeria, just like in many other parts of the world, one of the most extensively discussed issues on the public agenda today is the increase in prison population. The aims of imprisonment are protection, retribution, deterrence, reformation and vindication. Investigations revealed that the prison services have been,neglected more than any other criminal justice agency in Nigeria. For example, most of the prisons were built during the colonial era for the purpose of accommodating a small number of inmates. Human Rights are the basic guarantees for human beings to be able to achieve happiness and self-respect; consequently, in most jurisdictions, the Human Rights Act confirms that these Rights do not stop at the prison gates. However, most States fail to meet the Human Rights obligations of their prisoners. As regards to health, for example, every prison should have proper health facilities and medical staff to provide dental and psychiatric care among others. This article discusses the Nigerian Prison System and challenges, trends and the related Human Rights and Ethical issues in Nigerian prisons. Some of the unmet needs of Nigerian prisoners which include, inter alia, living in unwholesome cells, delayed trial of inmates, lack of voting rights, access to information, lack of conjugal facilities for married prisoners, poor and inadequate nutrition, poor medical care, torture, inhumane treatment and the need to protect prisoners in a changing world. The present report has policy implications for reforming prison services in Nigeria, and countries that sing from the same song sheet with Nigeria on prison services, to conform to the Fundamental Human Rights of prisoners in the 21St century.

  5. Agricultural Water Pricing: United States

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In summary, irrigation costs and prices are rising in most regions of the United States, due to a combination of increasing scarcity, changes in public preferences regarding water allocation among competing uses, increasing budget scrutiny in the national and state legislatures, rising energy prices, and increasing awareness of climate change and the potential implications for rainfall and the availability of surface water resources. These issues likely will continue encouraging public offici...

  6. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  7. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States....

  8. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  10. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia,...

  11. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District...

  12. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States....

  13. Education in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱富奎

    2009-01-01

    As might be expected,educational institutions in the United States reflect the nation's basic values,especially the ideal of equality of opportunity.From elementary school through college,Americans believe that everyone deserves an equal opportunity to get a good education.

  14. United States Navy DL Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  15. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  16. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  17. Correspondence analysis to evaluate the transmission of Staphylococcus aureus strains in two New York State maximum-security prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Befus, M; Mukherjee, D V; Herzig, C T A; Lowy, F D; Larson, E

    2017-07-01

    Prisons/jails are thought to amplify the transmission of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) particularly methicillin-resistant SA infection and colonisation. Two independently pooled cross-sectional samples of detainees being admitted or discharged from two New York State maximum-security prisons were used to explore this concept. Private interviews of participants were conducted, during which the anterior nares and oropharynx were sampled and assessed for SA colonisation. Log-binomial regression and correspondence analysis (CA) were used to evaluate the prevalence of colonisation at entry as compared with discharge. Approximately 51% of admitted (N = 404) and 41% of discharged (N = 439) female detainees were colonised with SA. Among males, 59% of those admitted (N = 427) and 49% of those discharged (N = 393) were colonised. Females had a statistically significant higher prevalence (1·26: P = 0·003) whereas males showed no significant difference (1·06; P = 0·003) in SA prevalence between entry and discharge. CA demonstrated that some strains, such as spa types t571 and t002, might have an affinity for certain mucosal sites. Contrary to our hypothesis, the prison setting did not amplify SA transmission, and CA proved to be a useful tool in describing the population structure of strains according to time and/or mucosal site.

  18. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States...

  19. Management of tobacco smoking in the prison service units – The effects of the health promotion program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Puchalski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2014 the health promotion program aimed at managing personnel smoking was implemented in the Polish prison service (PS in cooperation with the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (NIOM. It combined education of managers, encouraging them to implement good practices, with employees’ education. This paper describes the process of implementation and its effects in 159 units of PS, against the data on the management of smoking in medium and large companies in Poland gathered in 2010. Material and Methods: Situations concerning smoking management in PS units before and after a half-year program implementation were compared. Data were gathered using self-diagnosis questionnaires (initial and final assessments collectively filled in by representatives of management and employees. Results: Due to the program implementation there was an increase in the percentage of PS units with known number of smoking employees (19% vs. 61%, consultions on formal smoking regulations with personnel (14% vs. 57%, minimal antismoking medical interventions (46% vs. 59%, and assessments of effects of antismoking activities (14% vs. 55%. There was also increase in the number of PS units with personnel totally obeying smoking regulations (28% vs. 41% and decrease in those where such rules are not completely met (9% vs. 7%. In 3/4 PS units there was an increase in employees’ interest in quitting smoking and in 40% of them employees smoke less at work. Almost every second unit has set up a health promotion team. Conclusions: In many aspects the program has brought along satisfying effects and allowed for depicting areas of improvement. Its scheme and tools can be used, after adaptation, in interventions concerning other health problems in workplaces. Med Pr 2016;67(5:605–621

  20. A Study of Prisonization among Danish Prisoners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that imprisonment implies socialization to prison culture. This particular kind of socialization to prison culture is defined as prisonization. This article shed lights on how this process of prisonization occur and in which way does it affect the prisoner and if anything...... could be done to avoid prisonization....

  1. Prison Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The prisons polygon dataset is composed of selected facilities that fall under the following NAICS descriptions* Jails (Except Private Operation of) * Correctional...

  2. Effects of Crowding in Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Paul B.; And Others

    Research on crowding in prisons is reviewed. Studies have shown that crowding in prisons can increase blood pressure, palmar sweat, illness complaints, and aggression. The number of people per housing unit appears to be more important than space per person. Tolerance for crowding was found to decrease with the experience of crowding. Research on…

  3. Personality Disorders in Substance Abusers: A Comparison of Patients Treated in a Prison Unit and Patients Treated in Inpatient Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Ragnar; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    A large body of literature has shown a high prevalence of personality disorders in substance abusers. We compared a sample of substance abusers treated in a prison setting with substance abusers treated in a non-prison inpatient setting rated with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Base-rate scores indicated a prevalence of 95% of…

  4. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint...: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801...

  5. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories...

  6. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  7. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  8. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  9. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... territories and possessions of the United States....

  10. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  11. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  12. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  13. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  14. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  15. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  16. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  17. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  18. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  19. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including...

  20. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  1. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  2. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  3. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  4. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  5. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  6. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  7. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States....

  8. 31 CFR 536.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 536.315 Section 536.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.315 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  9. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  10. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  11. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  12. Complex Sentences: Searching for the Purpose of Education inside a Massachusetts State Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Clint

    2017-01-01

    While policy makers and scholars often measure the success of prison education programs by quantitative outcomes such as recidivism and post-release employment, there is a gap in the literature with regard to how these programs facilitate community building, identity development, and agency. For the 159,000 people serving life sentences in the…

  13. Characteristics of Prison Hospice Patients: Medical History, Hospice Care, and End-of-Life Symptom Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyes, Kristin G; Berry, Patricia H; Martz, Kim; Supiano, Katherine

    2015-07-01

    Increasing numbers of prisoners in the United States are dying from age-related and chronic illnesses while incarcerated. This study is among the first to document characteristics of a population of prison hospice patients. Retrospective review of medical records for all patients admitted to the Louisiana State Penitentiary prison hospice program between January 1, 2004, and May 31, 2012 (N = 79) examined demographics, medical history, hospice diagnosis, length of stay, and end-of-life symptom prevalence on admission and during final 72 hours before death. Resulting data were contrasted with community-based end-of-life care study data, demonstrating a unique clinical profile of this group. As prisons consider adopting programs to meet the growing need for inmate end-of-life care, more research concerning the particular characteristics and unique needs of prison hospice patients will inform these efforts.

  14. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  15. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... outside of the `reaches of the public interest'''); see generally United States v. SBC Commc'ns, Inc., 489... judicial power.'' SBC ] Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d at 14-15 (citing Microsoft, 56 F.3d at 1462). With... effect of proposed remedies. See, e.g., KeySpan, 763 F. Supp. 2d at 642; SBC Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d...

  16. President of the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东丽

    2005-01-01

    President of the United States is the chief executive officer of the federal government, the leader of the executive branch1, and the corn man der-in-chief of the armed forces2. The president has the power to make treaties with other nations, with the advice and consent of two-thirds of the Senate3. The president also appoints4, with Senate's consent, diplomatic representatives ,Supreme Court judges5, and many other officials.

  17. Environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' effort to manage its environment including air, water nature, and biodiversity to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  18. Enhanced chlamydia surveillance in New South Wales (Australia) prisons, 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Garry; Boonwaat, Leng; Douglas, Jenny; Awofeso, Niyi

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia is currently the most frequently notified infectious disease in New South Wales (NSW). Published articles relating to chlamydia prevalence in Australian prison settings are sparse, but studies from the United Kingdom and the United States indicate relatively high chlamydia prevalence among young incarcerated individuals. This article reports on findings from an enhanced chlamydia surveillance programme in NSW prisons between 2005 and 2007. The authors report a relatively low chlamydia prevalence among the general population of NSW prisoners (compared with figures from the United Kingdom and United States), which by the end of 2007 was 4%. The average crude chlamydia notification rate for the NSW prison population during the review period was about four times that of the general NSW community - 716/100,000 during the review period compared with 175/100,000 in the NSW general community. The average crude chlamydia notification rate for Aboriginal prisoners during the review period was 1262/100,000, compared with 1470/100,000 in the general Australian Aboriginal population. The authors grapple with the dilemma of expanding chlamydia screening and treatment services for the sexual health benefits of prison populations with static prison health budgets on one hand, and limited evidence of cost-effectiveness of such an expensive intervention on the other.

  19. HIV Testing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS HIV Testing in the United States HIV Testing in the United States Jun 23, 2017 ... States or for refugees. 27 Insurance Coverage of HIV Testing HIV testing that is “medically necessary” – recommended ...

  20. Risk factors for prevalent hepatitis C virus-infection among inmates in a state prison system in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo F; Mosqueda-Gomez, Juan L; Macias-Hernandez, Alejando; Sierra-Madero, Juan G; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Beyrer, Chris

    2017-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of HCV-infection and identify associated factors among inmates in the State Prison System of Guanajuato in Mexico (Sep-2011 to Feb-2012). Cross-sectional, observational study in 10 prisons in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico (2011-2012). We offered HCV-testing and applied audio computer-assisted self-interviews to all adults imprisoned in the State Prison System. We used a complex survey analysis to estimate the distribution of variables and its corresponding 95% confidence intervals, taking into consideration the expected cluster effect by common characteristics within prisons. Inverse probability weights were applied to correct potential biased estimates arising from non-participation in accrual activities and non-response rates. We fitted multivariate logistic regression models to identify risk-behaviors associated to HCV-infection. We included data of 2,519 participating inmates. Prevalence of HCV-infection was 4.9 (95%CI = 3.6-5.9). Most HCV-infected inmates were male (99%). Before being incarcerated, inmates with HCV-infection were more frequently tattooed, used and injected drugs more frequently, and were more likely to share materials for injecting, when compared with those non-infected. During incarceration, HCV-infected inmates got tattoos and used drugs more often than non-infected, including injecting-drugs and sharing materials. Injecting-drug use (OR = 7.6, 95%CI, 2.5-23.4), sharing materials for injecting-drugs (OR = 19.6, 95%CI, 4.7-81.7) and being tattooed at least once before incarceration (OR = 2.1, 95%CI, 1.1-3.9), but not during incarceration, were independently associated to HCV-infection. The prevalence of HCV-infection among inmates in the State of Guanajuato in Mexico is considerably higher than in the general population. The most important risk factors for HCV in this inmate population were injecting-drugs and sharing materials for injections before incarceration. High-risk behaviors during imprisonment are very

  1. Drought in Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

  2. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States....

  3. Procedural justice in prison: the importance of staff characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijersbergen, Karin A; Dirkzwager, Anja J E; Molleman, Toon; van der Laan, Peter H; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2015-04-01

    A humane and fair treatment of prisoners is of intrinsic value in itself, and is generally acclaimed to reduce prisoners' psychological distress and misconduct in prison, and their criminal behavior after release from prison. To create a more just prison climate, scholars have emphasized the importance of correctional staff. However, there is a lack of empirical research on the relationship between correctional officers' characteristics and prisoners' perceptions of a just treatment in prison. Our study fills this gap in knowledge. Data were used from (a) the Prison Project, a large-scale study in which prisoners held in all Dutch remand centers were surveyed (n = 1,610) and (b) the Dutch Correctional Staff Survey 2011 (n = 690). Multilevel analyses showed that prisoners perceived their treatment in prison as more procedurally just in units where there are more female officers, where officers held more positive attitudes toward rehabilitation, and where there is a higher officer-to-inmate ratio.

  4. Effectiveness of a voluntary nutrition education workshop in a state prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curd, Philip; Ohlmann, Kathleen; Bush, Heather

    2013-04-01

    Improved nutrition has implications for both prisoners and the penal system. This study evaluated a pilot intervention to improve nutrition in prisoners. Residents of a correctional substance abuse program (SAP) completed a health risk appraisal (HRA) upon entering the SAP and at completion. Nineteen participants in a pilot nutrition workshop were matched with 37 nonparticipant controls. Analysis of changes in HRA responses relating to nutrition, general health, and social ties found that a significantly greater proportion of participants than controls reported improved nutrition practices (23.5% vs. 3.2%, p = .047). Participants were 4 times more likely to report improved general health than controls (52.6% vs. 13.9%, p = .002). A smaller proportion of participants than controls reported improved social ties (10.5% vs. 30.6%, p = .18). This study suggests that inmate participants and the penal system may benefit from nutrition workshops. Further investigation should involve a larger study population.

  5. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  6. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  7. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  8. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  9. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  10. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth...

  11. Parents in Prison: Justice Literacy and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Laura; Baille, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    With the highest incarceration rate in the world, the United States has set an inauspicious precedent. More than 1.7 million American children--one in every 43--have a parent in jail or prison. The generational effects of incarceration are deep and lasting and include vastly increased risks of criminal justice involvement among the children of…

  12. Creating Activating Events for Transformative Learning in a Prison Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Cheryl H.; Woods, Robert

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we interpreted, in light of Mezirow's theory of transformative learning, interviews with 13 educators regarding their work with marginalized adult learners in prisons in the northeastern United States. Transformative learning may have been aided by the educators' response to unplanned activating events, humor, and respect, and…

  13. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States...

  14. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  15. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  16. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  17. "I Don't Find Any Privacy around Here": Ethnographic Encounters with Local Practices of Literacy in the State Prison of Oaxaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Angeles; Higgins, Michael James; Sughrua, William Michael

    2011-01-01

    In his poem entitled "Privacy", Alberto, an inmate in the state prison of Oaxaca, Mexico, vividly evokes the conflictive dynamics of space and time within his living quarters. This is his way of dealing with the sadness, trauma, and mundanity of his incarceration. Alberto's poem has emerged from our ongoing ethnographic project based on…

  18. State-ing the Facts: Exploring the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Jennifer M.; Bledsoe, Ann M.; Reys, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on estimation, scaling, area of nonstandard shapes, algebraic thinking, and real-life situations using the United States of America. These activities make it possible to integrate mathematics and social studies. Uses technology by employing geometry software packages such as The Geometer's Sketchpad, Cabri, and Geometric…

  19. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  20. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  1. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  2. Parlaying the Prison Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Katti

    2010-01-01

    At the close of almost 25 years of winding through New York state's prisons, former Black Panther Eddie Ellis walked away in 1994 with four college degrees he earned while incarcerated and kept treading his singular path as an activist on the issues of police, courts, crime and punishment. He then established the Center for NuLeadership on Urban…

  3. United States Policy on Detainees Captured During the Global War on Terror in Light of the United States Supreme Court Decisions in Rasul v. Bush, Rumsfeld v. Padilla, and Hamdi v. Rumsfeld

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    enemy combatants, John Walker Lindh , Yaser Esam Hamdi, and Jose Padilla. Only Jose Padilla’s case remains unresolved. Trying Padilla and future U.S...heard in the United States District Court for the District of South Carolina, may resolve the issue. 111 John Walker Lindh , the “American Taliban,” was...sentenced to 20 years in federal prison. See Susan Candiotti, “Walker Lindh sentenced to 20 years,” 4 October 2002; available from <http

  4. United States Department of State Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    targets for worldwide reduction or elimination of the cultiva- tion, production, and commercial-scale import of cocaine, opium, heroin, mari- juana ...international sanctions against state sponsors of terrorism and urges their strict enforcement. State presses state spon- sors to abandon their support for

  5. The United States in the 1980's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Conradie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of optimism which prevailed in the United States since the Korean War, came to an abrupt end after the debacle in Vietnam. By the end of the Seventies the United States was no longer the dominant military power. American foreign policy lacked consistence, coherence and a strategic sense. The United States became indecisive. Under these circumstances the Soviet Union successfully enforced its imperialistic designs upon countries far from its shores.

  6. Transitions to Care in the Community for Prison Releasees with HIV: a Qualitative Study of Facilitators and Challenges in Two States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Theodore M; Donahue, Sara; LeRoy, Lisa; Montague, Brian T; Rosen, David L; Solomon, Liza; Costa, Michael; Wohl, David; Rich, Josiah D

    2015-08-01

    One in seven people living with HIV in the USA passes through a prison or jail each year, and almost all will return to the community. Discharge planning and transitional programs are critical but challenging elements in ensuring continuity of care, maintaining treatment outcomes achieved in prison, and preventing further viral transmission. This paper describes facilitators and challenges of in-prison care, transitional interventions, and access to and continuity of care in the community in Rhode Island and North Carolina based on qualitative data gathered as part of the mixed-methods Link Into Care Study of prisoners and releasees with HIV. We conducted 65 interviews with correctional and community-based providers and administrators and analyzed the transcripts using NVivo 10 to identify major themes. Facilitators of effective transitional systems in both states included the following: health providers affiliated with academic institutions or other entities independent of the corrections department; organizational philosophy emphasizing a patient-centered, personal, and holistic approach; strong leadership with effective "champions"; a team approach with coordination, collaboration and integration throughout the system, mutual respect and learning between corrections and health providers, staff dedicated to transitional services, and effective communication and information sharing among providers; comprehensive transitional activities and services including HIV, mental health and substance use services in prisons, timely and comprehensive discharge planning with specific linkages/appointments, supplies of medications on release, access to benefits and entitlements, case management and proactive follow-up on missed appointments; and releasees' commitment to transitional plans. These elements were generally present in both study states but their absence, which also sometimes occurred, represent ongoing challenges to success. The qualitative findings on the

  7. Social Factors Related to the Utilization of Health Care Among Prison Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Kathryn M

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the demographic and social factors related to health care utilization in prisons using the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State Correctional Facilities. The findings show that education and employment, strong predictors of health care in the community, are not associated with health care in prisons. Although female inmates have a higher disease burden than male inmates, there are no sex differences in health care usage. The factors associated with health care, however, vary for women and men. Notably, Black men are significantly more likely to utilize health care compared to White and Latino men. The findings suggest that, given the constitutionally mandated health care for inmates, prisons can potentially minimize racial disparities in care and that prisons, in general, are an important context for health care delivery in the United States.

  8. Homelessness and Housing Insecurity Among Former Prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire W. Herbert

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The United States has experienced dramatic increases in both incarceration rates and the population of insecurely housed or homeless persons since the 1980s. These marginalized populations have strong overlaps, with many people being poor, minority, and from an urban area. That a relationship between homelessness, housing insecurity, and incarceration exists is clear, but the extent and nature of this relationship is not yet adequately understood. We use longitudinal, administrative data on Michigan parolees released in 2003 to examine returning prisoners’ experiences with housing insecurity and homelessness. Our analysis finds relatively low rates of outright homelessness among former prisoners, but very high rates of housing insecurity, much of which is linked to features of community supervision, such as intermediate sanctions, returns to prison, and absconding. We identify risk factors for housing insecurity, including mental illness, substance use, prior incarceration, and homelessness, as well as protective “buffers” against insecurity and homelessness, including earnings and social supports.

  9. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Ewing, Alexander; Mandel, Michele G; Simmons, Katharine B; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen

    2016-11-25

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2013. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2013, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2004-2013. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 664,435 abortions were reported to CDC for 2013. Of these abortions, 98.2% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2004-2013. Among these 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2013 was 12.5 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2012 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 5%. From 2004 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 20%, 21%, and 17%, respectively. In 2013, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2004-2013). In 2013 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2013, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 25.9% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.8 and 18.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.8%, 9.2%, and 3.6% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 11.8, 7.0, and 2

  10. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-11-27

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2012. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2012, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2003-2012. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 699,202 abortions were reported to CDC for 2012. Of these abortions, 98.4% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2003-2012. Among these same 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2012 was 13.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 210 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2011 to 2012, the total number and ratio of reported abortions decreased 4% and the abortion rate decreased 5%. From 2003 to 2012, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 17%, 18%, and 14%, respectively, and reached their lowest level in 2012 for the entire period of analysis (2003-2012). In 2012 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2012, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.8% and 25.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 23.3 and 18.9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.4%, 9.1%, and 3.7% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of

  11. Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    current government approach to the economy , then examining the current projections for United States’ spending from 2009 through 2019 and examining...manner and thereby strengthen the economy of the United States, this paper concludes with three examples that are predicated on the synergistic benefits associated with small reforms.

  12. United States Strategy for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    17 March 2005. 2 Homero Aridjis, "Survival of Indigenous Cultures in Mexico," 9 April 1998; available from <http://www.klys.se/worldconference/papers...HomeroAridjis.htm>;Internet; accessed 21 November 2004. 3Tania Carrasco, "Indigenous Peoples in the States of Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca ," 2005...analysis by the State representatives from Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca (3 Southern States). The plan reviewed possible options to reduce poverty and

  13. State Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the State boundaries of the United States, and the boundaries of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by...

  14. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  15. Declaration of Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosman, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    Education does not flourish in prisons because of prevailing notions about the punitive and retributive purposes of prisons. The United Nations is considering a Declaration of Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners that is intended to bring education to the forefront of criminal justice policy. (SK)

  16. Drug-related disorders and the criminal and clinical background of the prison population of Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Mendes dos Santos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between drug (DAD and alcohol (AAD abuse and dependency and criminal and clinical background by gender of prisoners in São Paulo, Brazil. METHOD: Cross-sectional study, random sample stratified by administrative district, from which prisons and prisoners were selected via random, multistage sampling. Psychiatric diagnoses were made with the CIDI 2.1. Lifetime prevalence and 95% CI were calculated and adjusted via analysis of complex samples. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was carried out with four categories of dependent variables: presence AAD; presence DAD; presence of another mental disorder; no mental disorders. For female alcohol and drug abuse and dependency (ADAD were combined into a single category. RESULTS: The sample was composed by 1809 interviewed prisoners (1192 men and 617 women. Prevalence of DAD and AAD was 25.2% and 15.6%, respectively, among female prisoners, and 26.5% and 18.5% among males. Male prisoners with DAD were more likely to have a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 2.17, to be a repeat offender (OR 2.85, and to have committed a property crime (OR 2.18. Prisoners with AAD were repeat offenders (OR 2.18. Among female prisoners, ADAD was associated with repeat offenses (OR 3.39, a criminal record as an adolescent (OR 9.24, a clinical or infectious condition (OR 5.09, another health problem (OR 3.04, and violent crime (OR 2.5. CONCLUSION: The study confirmed an association between drug-use disorders and the criminal and clinical background in the study population. Prisoners with such disorders were more likely to be repeat offenders and to have a criminal record as adolescents. Among female prisoners disorders were also associated with violent crime and health problems, while among males they were associated with property crime. These patterns in clinical and criminal backgrounds illustrate the need for social rehabilitation programs and specific medical treatment for

  17. A Prison/Parole System Simulation Model,

    Science.gov (United States)

    parole system on future prison and parole populations. A simulation model is presented, viewing a prison / parole system as a feedback process for...ciminal offenders . Transitions among the states in which an offender might be located, imprisoned, paroled , and discharged, are assumed to be in...accordance with a discrete time semi-Markov process. Projected prison and parole populations for sample data and applications of the model are discussed. (Author)

  18. [Psychologica well-being, perceived organizational support and job satisfaction amongst Chilean prison employees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Yáñez, C; Jiménez-Figueroa, A

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to identify the relationship between job satisfaction, psychological well-being and Perceived Organizational Support amongst prison officials. 190 officials working in one state prison and one privately-run prison were evaluated using the Job Satisfaction Questionnaire¹, Psychological Well-being Scale² and Scale of Perceived Organizational Support³. The main results show a significant positive correlation between job satisfaction, psychological well-being and perceived organizational support, so that those who are satisfied with their jobs tend to feel better psychologically and perceive that they receive support from their organizations. Furthermore the study variables showed no significant differences between officials at both prisons. As regards socio-demographic figures, gender differences were found in terms of job satisfaction and psychological well-being, while no differences were found according to unit.

  19. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Norman G

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US. The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation, a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV interview. Results Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.

  20. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  1. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  2. CNPC Exports Drilling Equipment to United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Petroleum Machinery Plant(BPM) of CNPC and Rowan Drilling Company Inc, one of the most powerful drilling service and driller manufacturing companies in the United States signed a petroleum equipment contract on December 9 in Beijing.

  3. Rest Areas in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rest areas in the western United States. Data was collected from various data sources including georeferenced locations obtained from other agencies, digitizied...

  4. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  5. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Report Healthy People Older Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook NCHS Health, United States, 2015 - Men's Health ... Disparities Report Healthy People Older Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  6. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  7. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including...

  8. The Grand Strategy of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    United States both militarily and by setting the terms of trade. While cultural and ideological affinities with European democra- cies played...military establishments (Japan, Russia, India, South Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, Indonesia , Malaysia, Singapore) can check possible military expansion when

  9. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Children Treatment Vaccines Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under ... person with infectious TB disease. Testing for TB in Children In the absence of symptoms, usually the ...

  10. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  11. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  12. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  13. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  14. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) modeled the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems for the contiguous United States using a standardized, deductive approach to...

  15. Anthropogenic Fragmentation in the western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We evaluated the fragmentation of the western United States by anthropogenic features. The addition of roads, railroads, and power lines to wildlands, and the...

  16. Social Studies: United States. Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E. G.

    This teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of the United States through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are five units: 1) Natural Setting --location, climate, terrain, water, soil, and economic and esthetic value, and conservation; 2) Historial Development --North American Indian cultures,…

  17. Party Formation in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is about how political parties formed in the world's first mass democracy, the United States. I trace the process of party formation from the bottom up. First, I ask: How do individuals become engaged in politics and develop political affiliations? In most states, throughout the antebellum era, the county was the primary unit of political administration and electoral representation. Owing to their small size, contiguity, and economic homogeneity, I expect that each county's ...

  18. Drought in Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    May 2007 was a record-setting month in Georgia. Typically a dry month in this southern state, May 2007 was exceptionally so, with many locations setting record-low rainfall records and some receiving no rain at all, said state climatologist David Emory Stooksbury on GeorgiaDrought.org. The lack of rain slowed plant growth, as shown in this vegetation index image. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite collected the data used to make this image between May 9 and May 24, 2007. The image shows vegetation conditions compared to average conditions observed from 2000 through 2006. Areas in which plants are more sparse or are growing more slowly than average are brown, while better-than-average growth is green. Georgia and its neighbors (South Carolina, Alabama, and Florida) are all brown, an indication that the lack of rainfall is suppressing plant growth. The gray area in southern Georgia and northern Florida shows where MODIS could not collect valid vegetation measurements, either because of clouds or smoke. In this case, the area corresponds with land that burned during this period and was probably masked by smoke. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided by Inbal Reshef, Global Agricultural Monitoring Project.

  19. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 596.313 Section... General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States... States, or any person in the United States....

  20. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  1. The Practice and Promise of Prison Programming. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sarah; Mears, Daniel P.; Dubin, Glenn; Travis, Jeremy

    This study focused on employment-related programs in prison, exploring what the research literature tells about the effectiveness of prison-based education, vocational training, and prison industry on postrelease outcomes. Also studied was the state of practice of such programs and strategic opportunities for improving existing employment-related…

  2. Inmate-on-Inmate Victimization Among Older Male Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerbs, John J.; Jolley, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Research on the safety and victimization of older prisoners has been limited. This study examines quantitative and qualitative victimization data gathered from face-to-face interviews with 65 male prisoners (ages 50 and above) confined in a state-level prison system. Both victimization rates and narrative descriptions of psychological, property,…

  3. Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.

  4. Prisoner Reentry Programming: Who Recidivates and when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severson, Margaret E.; Bruns, Kimberly; Veeh, Christopher; Lee, Jaehoon

    2011-01-01

    This article provides the results of a multi-year evaluation of one state's prison reentry program and its impact on the success of offender participants as measured by certain recidivism outcomes, defined here as yielding a positive urinalysis, returning to prison, and having a new conviction. Using propensity score matching, the recidivism…

  5. Prisoners' Perspectives on Strategies for Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Mika'il A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines questions regarding the perceptions of New York State prisoners (N=263), their chances of an early release, and their strategies to expedite the release process. Findings suggest that inmates view all activities thought to expedite release as important. Many prisoners wished to eliminate the "game playing" thought associated…

  6. Health Promotion in a Prison Setting: Experience in Villabona Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Pilar; Enjuanes, Jordi; Morata, Txus; Palasí, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse experiences of a health promotion intervention implemented by the Therapeutic and Educational Unit at Villabona prison in Spain, which aimed to create drug-free spaces as part of a model of social rehabilitation. Design: As part of a larger participatory evaluation study concerning the efficacy of…

  7. 31 CFR 560.314 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 560.314 Section... § 560.314 United States person. The term United States person means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or...

  8. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  9. Analysis of United States’ Broadband Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    glass fiber. The light signals are then decoded at the end of the fiber by a special optic decoder /encoder. This allows for the light signal to be...CDMA technology while Cingular offers it through the HSDPA/ GSM technology. One quarter of the United States’ Internet users have a cell phone that...well Cingular 900 Kbps 100 Kbps $79.00 HSDPA/ GSM 1 yr contract Table 13. Unlimited Cellular Broadband Plans in the United States (From PCWorld.com

  10. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  11. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  12. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ethnocentrism is a problem. Pakistan lost Bangladesh in its 1971 civil war in part because West Pakistanis viewed Bengalis, who are the dominant ethnic...137. 64 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State? in the last few years of rapid growth, consumer price inflation surged to 25

  13. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  14. A social building? Prison architecture and staff-prisoner relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K. A.; Dirkzwager, A. J. E.; van der Laan, P. H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between correctional officers and prisoners are crucial to life in prison, and affect prison order and prisoners' well-being. Research on factors influencing staff-prisoner relationships is scarce and has not included the design of prison buildings. This study examined the association

  15. A social building? Prison architecture and staff-prisoner relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K. A.; Dirkzwager, A. J. E.; van der Laan, P. H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2016-01-01

    Relationships between correctional officers and prisoners are crucial to life in prison, and affect prison order and prisoners' well-being. Research on factors influencing staff-prisoner relationships is scarce and has not included the design of prison buildings. This study examined the association

  16. A review of the regulatory and functional aspects of prison health care and nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Arribas-López

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study of prison health care staff in Prison Health Care and Nursing Units is twofold. The first one is to consider those aspects of the legal system applicable to them as government employees of the General State Administration at the service of Prisons, highlighting the peculiarities of the legal regulations that can be applied as a result of providing said service. The second, based on the general regulations on prison health contained in Organic Law 1/1979, of 26 September, General Penitentiary Law and the implementing regulations thereof, approved by Royal Decree 190/1966, of 9 February, sets out to provide a critical analysis of the obligatory and functional framework for health care and nursing staff established in the old Penitentiary Regulations of 1981, to determine from a legal perspective if it is possible to impede or brake so that the Prison Administration may develop or carry out the functions for which it is responsible in terms of planning, organization and management of activities geared towards maintaining and improving hygiene and health in the prison environment.

  17. A review of the regulatory and functional aspects of prison health care and nursing staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas-López, E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study of prison health care staff in Prison Health Care and Nursing Units is twofold. The first one is to consider those aspects of the legal system applicable to them as government employees of the General State Administration at the service of Prisons, highlighting the peculiarities of the legal regulations that can be applied as a result of providing said service. The second, based on the general regulations on prison health contained in Organic Law 1/1979, of 26 September, General Penitentiary Law and the implementing regulations thereof, approved by Royal Decree 190/1966, of 9 February, sets out to provide a critical analysis of the obligatory and functional framework for health care and nursing staff established in the old Penitentiary Regulations of 1981, to determine from a legal perspective if it is possible to impede or brake so that the Prison Administration may develop or carry out the functions for which it is responsible in terms of planning, organization and management of activities geared towards maintaining and improving hygiene and health in the prison environment.

  18. 19 CFR 12.45 - Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... products. 12.45 Section 12.45 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Or Indentured Labor § 12.45 Transportation and marketing of prison-labor products. If any apparent... from the United States attorney or the court. Counterfeit Coins, Obligations, and Other Securities...

  19. The Other Pipeline: From Prison to Diploma Community Colleges and Correctional Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spycher, Dianna M.; Shkodriani, Gina M.; Lee, John B.

    2012-01-01

    The United States has less than 5 percent of the world's population, but more than 23 percent of the world's incarcerated people, putting the U.S. first among all nations. This high rate of incarceration represents costs both for taxpayers and for the communities affected by the many lives interrupted by prison sentences. Race/ethnicity is an…

  20. United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Europe and reducing the number of military personnel by 40,000 to 60,000. According to United States Air Force General Charles Wald , there are...The Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz is quoted as saying United States presence “…may be more political than actually military” and that

  1. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  2. Eurabia: Strategic Implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    states of North Africa and the Middle East.5 Eurabia was the name of a journal published in the mid-1970s by the European Committee for...have her extradited to Switzerland so she could be prosecuted under Swiss anti- racism statute, Islamic groups successfully prevailed to have her...options. The United States can forge new relationships with emerging powers such as Brazil, Russia, India and China, the so called BRIC countries

  3. The human prison?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Mathiassen, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    In the paper we analyze a learning and culture development project in Danish prisons. The ambition of the project is to create change in a complex world. The prison officers are invited to make experiments in order to create a more ‘human’ prison. We see the project as an intervention in the prof......In the paper we analyze a learning and culture development project in Danish prisons. The ambition of the project is to create change in a complex world. The prison officers are invited to make experiments in order to create a more ‘human’ prison. We see the project as an intervention...

  4. Personality Disorders in Substance Abusers: A Comparison of Patients Treated in a Prison Unit and Patients Treated in Inpatient Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Stefánsson, Ragnar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract  A large body of literature has shown a high prevalence of personality disorders in substance abusers. We compared a sample of substance abusers treated in a prison setting with substance abusers treated in a non-prison inpatient setting rated with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory...

  5. The Sexual Exploitation of Girls in the United States: The Role of Female Pimps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique Eve; Gallagher, James; Risinger, Markus; Hickle, Kristine

    2015-10-01

    The role of women in the sex trafficking of minors in the United States has received limited research attention. Case study analysis of 49 female pimps from federal, state, and local cases were analyzed to explore whether there were differences in the penalties given to females when compared with their male co-defendants, and cross-case analysis was conducted to identify themes that represent female pimp typologies. Both prison sentence and probation sentences were significantly lower for female co-defendants when compared with their male co-defendants. Five discrete typologies were developed including Bottom, Madam/Business Partner, Family, Girilla, and Handler. Each of these had unique features regarding violence toward their minor victims, co-defendants, actions during the sexual exploitation of the minor, and sentencing outcomes. Implications for practice and future research were recommended. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Following Zhang Wenjin to the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    In 1937,Zhang Ying studied at the Lu Xun Art Institute in Yan’an.After graduation she began working in the art world under Zhou Enlai’s direction.In 1983, she followed her husband Zhang Wenjin to the United States as wife of the ambassador.During her two-year stay in the U.S., she came into close contact with many American women while working to promote mutual understanding and friendship between the people of the two countries.After her retirement in 1991,she sponsored the production of a 10-episode documentary TV program,"Zhou Enlai and the Arts."She also wrote a book about her experience in the United States,Called,Following Zhang Wenjin to the United States—Notes of an Ambassador’s Wife.The following are extracts from the book.

  7. Managing nuclear weapons in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.

    1993-03-16

    This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

  8. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  9. CTS United States experiments. A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of the United States experiments activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

  10. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  11. Characterizing Hospice Services in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maureen A.; Seplaki, Christopher; Biagtan, Mark; DuPreez, Amanda; Cleary, James

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Although caregivers desire specific information about hospice programs, there is little descriptive information available. We characterized agencies that provide formal or informal hospice care in the United States according to four types of services considered important by caregivers: medications and treatments; rehabilitative care;…

  12. United States Air Force Annual Financial Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    gains and losses NRV = Net Realizable Value O = Other Inventory, Gross Value Revaluation Allowance Inventory, Net 2002 2001 United States Air Force...losses NRV = Net Realizable Value O = Other For the most part, DMAG is using the consumption method of accounting for OM&S, since OM&S is defined in the

  13. Ports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows major ports in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. A port is a city, town, or urban area with a harbor where ships load...

  14. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  15. Major land uses in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159,...

  16. EC 92 and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    34 Rheinischer Merkur (Bonn), January 17, 1992, 5. 17. Robert J. Samuelson, "Europe’s Boom Has Come and Cone," Washington Post, February 12, 1992, A23...34 Rheinischer Merkur (Bonn), January 17, 1992, 5. Riemer, Blanca. "’United States of Europe’? Don’t Hold Your Breath." Business Week, June 17, 1991, 50

  17. Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from an extract of the Public-Use Airports...

  18. AIDS Pandemic in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Amy H.; Melendez, Barbra S.; Ball, Daniel L.; Morse, Steven T.; Phillips, Geoffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    This project is one of four that were issued to first semester sophomore undergraduates at the United States Military Academy as part of an integrated learning experience at the end of their Calculus II course work. This project was used during a short, seven lesson block of instruction that was intended to capitalize on their recent academic…

  19. Orienteering: Growth Patterns in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Charles F.

    The history of orienteering in the United States includes both military and civilian interest, with the period of greatest growth between 1970 and 1980. To investigate growth patterns in orienteering, questionnaires were mailed to 42 civilian orienteering clubs and 286 universities supporting senior Reserve Office Training Corps (ROTC)…

  20. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL...

  1. Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos Blog Get Involved Shop Ask a question right here... MHAUS On Facebook Now view more On Twitter Now view more Tweets by @ ... Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States. All rights reserved. ... advertiser and not necessarily the views or opinions of MHAUS, its staff or its ...

  2. The United States and VIetnam: 1787 - 1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    almost totally unproductive ceremony and haggling with the Cochinchinese authorities. During his stay there, White developed an appreciation of the...British and French involvement with the warring sides in the United States and with French adventures in Mexico , not with events in far-off

  3. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  4. United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Julie H.

    2004-01-01

    As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

  5. Geology of the Coterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital version of the Geologic Map of the United States, originally published at a scale of 1:2,500,000 (King and Beikman, 1974b). It excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

  6. Immigration, parasitic infection, and United States religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jaimie N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2012-04-01

    Fincher & Thornhill (F&T) present a powerful case for the relationship between parasite-stress and religiosity. We argue, however, that the United States may be more religious than can be accounted for by parasite-stress. This greater religiosity might be attributable to greater sensitivity to immigration, which may hyperactivate evolved mechanisms that motivate avoidance of potential carriers of novel parasites.

  7. Women's Music in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lont, Cynthia M.

    The purpose of this presentation was to: (1) describe the history of women's music in the United States; (2) define women's music; (3) report on the status of the large women's recording companies; and (4) focus on a recent controversy in the women's music industry involving the desire for political purity versus the need for economic security.…

  8. Nursing continuing education in the united states

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, B.

    1981-01-01

    THE discussion of nursing continuing education in the United States is approached by a consideration of the following aspects: Definition and Background Evolution of the Concept Administration of the Process Teaching Techniques Range of Subjects Evaluation of the Program Issues and Problems: Mandatory vs. Voluntary Participation Control of the Accreditation Process Responsibility for Participation Program Cost/Availability

  9. Nursing continuing education in the united states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Robert

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available THE discussion of nursing continuing education in the United States is approached by a consideration of the following aspects: Definition and Background Evolution of the Concept Administration of the Process Teaching Techniques Range of Subjects Evaluation of the Program Issues and Problems: Mandatory vs. Voluntary Participation Control of the Accreditation Process Responsibility for Participation Program Cost/Availability

  10. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  11. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  12. Attitudes towards prisoners, as reported by prison inmates, prison employees and college students

    OpenAIRE

    Rustad Aase-Bente; Skoglund Tom; Kjelsberg Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In...

  13. CPAFFC Working Group Visits the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>From April 13 to 21, a CPAFFC working group led by Yao Mingyu, director general of the Department of American and Oceanian Affairs of the CPAFFC, visited the United States, attended the 18th Forum on US-China Relations sponsored by the US-China Peoples Friendship Association (USCPFA) and had talks with the USCPFA, the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace Foundation, the Richard Nixon Centre, the Sister Cities International of the U.S., the National Conference of State Legislatures, the Council of State

  14. Classroom Games: A Prisoner's Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Charles A.; Capra, Monica

    2000-01-01

    Describes a classroom game called the prisoner's dilemma that illustrates the conflict between social incentives to cooperate and private incentives to defect. Explains that it is a simple card game involving a large number of students. States that the students should be introduced to the real-world applications of the game. (CMK)

  15. Antiabortion violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jennefer A; Schumacher, Kristin L; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine if an association exists between the amount of harassment and violence directed against abortion providers and the restrictiveness of state laws relating to family planning. We used responses from a July 2010 survey of 357 abortion providers in 50 states to determine their experience of antiabortion harassment and violence. Their responses were grouped and analyzed in relation to a published grading of state laws in the United States (A, B, C, D and F) as they relate to restrictions on family planning services. Group by group comparison of respondents illustrates that the difference in the number of reported incidents of minor vandalism by group is statistically significant (A vs. C, p=.07; A vs. D, p=.017; A vs. F, p=.0002). Incidents of harassment follow a similar pattern. There were no differences noted overall for violence or major vandalism. Major violence, including eight murders, is a new occurrence in the last two decades. Harassment of abortion providers in the United States has an association with the restrictiveness of state abortion laws. In the last two decades, murder of abortion providers has become an unfortunate part of the violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 45 CFR 212.7 - Repayment to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repayment to the United States. 212.7 Section 212... UNITED STATES CITIZENS RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 212.7 Repayment to the United States. (a) An..., any or all of the cost of such assistance to the United States, except insofar as it is...

  17. 31 CFR 592.305 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... General Definitions § 592.305 Importation into the United States. The term importation into the United States means the bringing of goods into the United States....

  18. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for...

  19. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Korea... ``Korea'') signed the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter ``UKFTA'' or the ``Agreement...

  20. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers...

  1. 32 CFR 575.6 - Catalogue, United States Military Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Catalogue, United States Military Academy. 575.6... ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.6 Catalogue, United States Military Academy. The latest edition of the catalogue, United States Military Academy, contains additional information...

  2. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of...

  3. 77 FR 27612 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK11 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... or clearing agency do not constitute United States property. These regulations affect United States...)) that invests certain earnings and profits in United States property (U.S. property) ``on the...

  4. The State of Homeless Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabler, Brenda; Weinstein, Elana

    2009-01-01

    Across America, the numbers of homeless children and families are growing as a result of many factors including the recent economic crisis, home foreclosures, and natural disasters. Because of an increase in the number of homeless children throughout the United States, this population has unmet needs that can be targeted in school settings under…

  5. Nursing with prisoners: the practice of caring, forensic nursing or penal harm nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeve, M K; Vaughn, M S

    2001-12-01

    The number of incarcerated persons in the United States has been increasing dramatically over the last two decades. Incarcerated men and women have increased rates of serious and chronic physical and mental illnesses and therefore require substantial health care efforts. Caring for prisoners is a difficult and often unrewarding experience for health care providers, particularly within a social climate that encourages noncaring behaviors. This article critically analyzes three philosophic stances toward nursing care with prisoners and suggests their philosophic commensurability within traditional nursing practice. Implications for nursing practice, research, and education are discussed.

  6. [Undocumented migrant labor in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinand, J

    1985-09-01

    The author identifies two factors contributing to the increase in the number of illegal migrant workers in the United States. The first is the complex system of legal immigration, which contributes to massive evasion. The second is the preference by many employers for hiring illegal aliens. The author concludes that the proposed changes in U.S. immigration laws, even though they include employer sanctions, are likely to prove as ineffective as previous measures adopted in several states some 10 years ago that also penalized employers hiring illegal aliens. It is suggested that the economic pressures leading to large-scale labor immigration will prove stronger than political pressures to control such immigration

  7. Inclusive Education in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    C. Kenneth Tanner; Deborah Jan Vaughn Linscott; Susan Allan Galis

    1996-01-01

    School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States) study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive ed...

  8. Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    incidence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP) strains in the United States has created an emerging public health challenge. CDC...only 1,280 cases of Legionnaires’ disease were reported through NNDSS in 1993, data from recent prospective pneumonia studies suggest that between...surveillance data from 1992 indicated that the prevalence of pneumococcal strains that are highly resistant to penicillin increased 60-fold (from 0.02% to 1.3

  9. The United States Military and Humanitarian Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    stated that, "The wave of the future will be putting together task forces that will be able to respond to crisis management or humanitarian...examine three options for the military’s role in humanitaria operations at home and abroad. Option 1: Virtually Eliminate Anv Military Role This is the...humanitarian aid in almost any crisis .36 The military resists the creation of specially designated units because such specialization reduces the

  10. Energy Security in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    increase the domestic price of those 41. Coal gasification is a process that converts solid coal—through several energy-intensive steps—into gasoline and...for switching to other fuels or reducing consumption of transportation fuels . In con- trast, electricity can be produced from several sources of...the prices of those fuels in the United States. Although the global nature of the market for oil makes U.S. consumers vulnerable to price

  11. West Coast, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This view shows the west coast of the United States and Mexico (32.5N, 118.0W) and gives an indication of the range of view from orbital altitude. The visual range of this particular scene is from Skammon's Lagoon on Baja to the northern tip of California's Central Valley and Sierra Nevada, a range of over 15 degrees of latitude. Coastal fog drapes over southern California and northern Baja California. White Sands, New Mexico is at far right center.

  12. Continental United States Military Housing Inspections Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-24

    standards. 3. Work with the privatized housing partner to ensure that fire protection inspection and maintenance plans are achieved. Deputy Assistant...Secretary stated that Hunt Military Communities and Patrick AFB civil engineers were working to correct all of the other fire protection system...create a plan for the performance of ongoing inspection and maintenance of all housing units to applicable electrical codes and standards. 3. Work

  13. United States of Europe, Dream or Possibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    center between the United States and the Soviet Union. The method chosen to examine this trend is to review three major politico-military problems...de France, pp. 3-7. ൫ Supra-nationalism must go! De Gaulle’s heir presumptive, Georges Pompidou , has given voice to de Gaulle’s thoughts on... Pompidou said: Certainly we do not believe in integration as a method of approach to European unity, precisely because we believe that there can be no

  14. OECD environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' efforts to manage its environment including air, water, nature, and biodiversity; to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 47 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Toxic plants of the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C

    2011-07-01

    This article lists commonly encountered toxic plants that affect ruminants in the Northeastern United States. Livestock are at risk for ingestion of a large variety of toxic plants. Plant poisonings are likely to be underdiagnosed because tests for most plant toxins are not routinely available at veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Prevention of access to poisonous plants is usually more effective and economical than treatment of plant poisonings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Prisoners of War Experiences and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO, NO. NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Clasification )THE PRISONERS OF WAR EXPERIENCES AND SURVIVAL 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...influence of American values and a history of freedom and opportunity is linked to the struggle of the POWs to survive and ultimately be released with...tiny frag- ments). Most of what we ate I considered inedible before prison, 3 but meat--even dog meat--is the prime source of protein , and to survive

  17. PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Nemeth

    2002-09-01

    In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need

  18. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  19. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  20. Screening Prisoners for Intellectual Disabilities in Three English Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glynis H.; Gardner, Jeff; Freeman, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prisoners with intellectual disabilities are known to be disadvantaged in prisons and to be more susceptible to bullying, segregation, depression and anxiety than other prisoners. Method: In this study, nearly 3000 new prisoners entering three English prisons were offered screening for intellectual disabilities, using the LDSQ.…

  1. A working theology of prison ministry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Stephen T

    2004-01-01

    Drawing upon experiences as a prison chaplain and a state director of prison chaplaincy services, the author proposes a working theology of prison ministry. Such a theology begins with an understanding of the inherent worth of humankind as created by God in God's own image, addresses the question of hope, embodies the incarnate presence of God by being present with people in their alienation, enables the giving and receiving of forgiveness, deals with issues of power and control, and respects the diverse paths that humans take in their walk toward and with God.

  2. [The long road for psychiatric care in prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Gérard

    2016-01-01

    From the 19th century to the present day, the history of psychiatry in prisons has evolved considerably. In parallel with successive laws, codes and articles, psychiatry has gained in structure. From the "medical prison", mental health consultations in every detention centre, the regional medico-psychological services, to today's specially equipped hospital units (UHSA), prisoners receive both preventive care as well as curative treatment.

  3. The state of amphibians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Adams, M.J.; Grant, E.H.C.; Miller, D.; Corn, P.S.; Ball, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, scientists began to identify unexplained declines in amphibian populations around the world. Much has been learned since then, but amphibian declines have not abated and the interactions among the various threats to amphibians are not clear. Amphibian decline is a problem of local, national, and international scope that can affect ecosystem function, biodiversity, and commerce. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of the state of the amphibians and introduces examples to illustrate the range of issues in the United States.

  4. Radical Pedagogy, Prison, and Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dierdre

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the work of The Inside Film project. Inside Film works with a specific group of people (prisoners and ex-prisoners) in a particular set of circumstances (in prison or on parole) exploring how film making can be used within prison education or with people who have been to prison as a means of fostering a critical engagement…

  5. Radical Pedagogy, Prison, and Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Dierdre

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the work of The Inside Film project. Inside Film works with a specific group of people (prisoners and ex-prisoners) in a particular set of circumstances (in prison or on parole) exploring how film making can be used within prison education or with people who have been to prison as a means of fostering a critical engagement…

  6. Intellectual disability and the prison setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tort

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of intellectual disability (ID in the prison setting has scarcely been studied. Although some approximations or estimates regarding people with intellectual disabilities have been performed in Spain, there is little in the way of reliable data. Objectives: 1 To determine the prevalence of ID in a sample population in the residential modules of a Spanish prison, 2 Obtain data on the prevalence of ID in prison psychiatric units and hospitals. Methods: 1 A TONI II test was performed on a sub-sample (n = 398 of a prevalence study in Spanish prisons33 to identify inmates with intellectual disabilities. 2 We reviewed the reports of the psychiatric department of Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu to establish the diagnosis at discharge of patients with a primary diagnosis of intellectual disability 3 Data from the Directorate General of Prisons on the prevalence of ID in Prison Psychiatric Hospitals was reviewed. Results: The data obtained from the TONI II test found 3.77% of the study population has an IQ below 70, and 7.54 % has a borderline IQ rate. Assessment of penitentiary psychiatric hospitalization data showed these figures to be higher. Conclusions: The data from a Spanish prison population showed that ID levels were higher than those in the community, especially amongst prisoners requiring specialized psychiatric care. What is also evident is that adequate resources are required in prisons and in the community to provide better care for people with intellectual disabilities who are in the pathway of the criminal justice system.

  7. Can hepatitis C be eradicated in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlin, Brian R; Winkelstein, Emily R

    2014-10-01

    , and build public health infrastructure to reach, engage, and serve marginalized populations. Governments must take action to bring about these changes. Public health agencies must work with penal institutions to provide prevention and treatment services, including antiviral therapy, to those in need in jails and prisons or on probation or parole. Research is needed to guide efforts in each of these domains. Strong and sustained political advocacy will be needed to build and sustain support for these measures. Leadership must be provided by physicians, scientists, and the public health community in partnership with community advocates and people living with or at risk for hepatitis C. Eliminating hepatitis C from the United States is possible, but will require a sustained national commitment to reach, test, treat, cure, and prevent every case. With strong political leadership, societal commitment, and community support, hepatitis C can be eradicated in the United States. If this is to happen in our lifetimes, the time for action is now. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on "Hepatitis C: next steps toward global eradication."

  8. Mental health state of female prisoners%女性服刑人员的心理健康状况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李力

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental health is the most important internal resource that individual can depend on and also an important factor which affects the existence and development of individual. But there are few studies on the level and characteristics of mental health of female prisoners during serving a sentence.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the level and characteristics of mental health of the female prisoners in Shandong Province.DESIGN: Retrospective, cross sectional,multi-variable and sampling survey based on female prisoners.SETTING: Department of Technology in Shandong Police College.PARTICIPANTS: The investigation was completed in the Shandong Police College frotm January 2002 to March 2002.Totally 393 female prisoners from the Shandong Female Prison were selected with the grouping-sampling method to give the questionnaire and attend the investigation voluntarily,and the persons with definite mental disease were excluded.METHODS: The mental health items of female prisoners,including 9 factors such as somatization, obsessive-compulsion,sensitivity of human relations, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychosis,were explored with Symptom Checklist 90(SCL-90), and the judging standard of psychologic obstacle was whether the total scores of positive symptoms were 2 standard deviations more than those of the norm or not.And combined with the archives of the female prisoners and the questionnaire of self-editing item,relative data were collected. The uniform instructional words and the methods of filling in were explained to the female prisoners firstly,and then the answers of the questionnaire were written collectively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The mental health level and the psychological characteristics of female prisoners.RESULTS: 393 questionnaires were provided.There were 15 questionnaires excluded because more than 5 questions were missed in the paper or responsion consistency deviation appeared obviously after callback.378

  9. 22 CFR 22.3 - Remittances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remittances in the United States. 22.3 Section...-DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND FOREIGN SERVICE § 22.3 Remittances in the United States. (a) Type of remittance. Remittances shall be in the form of: (1) Check or bank draft drawn on a bank in the United States; (2)...

  10. Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.

    1977-01-01

    Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.

  11. United States/Canada electricity exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

  12. Coordinating the United States Interagency Partnering Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    stage over the last 6 years.7 The DoD is on the cutting edge of partnering and there have been valuable lessons learned at the tactical and...global stage . “3D are the three pillars that provide the foundation for promoting and protecting U.S. national security interests abroad.”33 DoD, DoS...operations now will mean throwing 18 away hard-fought gains, and expose the United States to new risks from across the globalising

  13. Contraceptive failure in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, James

    2011-05-01

    This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception available in the United States. Estimates are provided of probabilities of failure during typical use (which includes both incorrect and inconsistent use) and during perfect use (correct and consistent use). The difference between these two probabilities reveals the consequences of imperfect use; it depends both on how unforgiving of imperfect use a method is and on how hard it is to use that method perfectly. These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use.

  14. Mobile satellite service in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

    1988-05-01

    Mobile satellite service (MSS) has been under development in the United States for more than two decades. The service will soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The development and operation of MSS in North America is being coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first AMSC satellite for MSAT-X activities and for government demonstrations.

  15. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  16. Geothermal power generation in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Gerald W.; McCluer, H. K.

    1993-03-01

    Geothermal energy is an indigenous environmentally benign heat source with the potential for 5000-10,000 GWe of power generation in the United States. Approximately 2535 MWe of installed capacity is currently operating in the U.S. with contracted power costs down to 4.6 cents/kWh. This paper summarizes: 1) types of geothermal resources; 2) power conversion systems used for geothermal power generation; 3) environmental aspects; 4) geothermal resource locations, potential, and current power plant development; 5) hurdles, bottlenecks, and risks of geothermal power production; 6) lessons learned; and 7) ongoing and future geothermal research programs.

  17. DSM-5 antisocial personality disorder: predictive validity in a prison sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edens, John F; Kelley, Shannon E; Lilienfeld, Scott O; Skeem, Jennifer L; Douglas, Kevin S

    2015-04-01

    Symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), particularly remorselessness, are frequently introduced in legal settings as a risk factor for future violence in prison, despite a paucity of research on the predictive validity of this disorder. We examined whether an ASPD diagnosis or symptom-criteria counts could prospectively predict any form of institutional misconduct, as well as aggressive and violent infractions among newly admitted prisoners. Adult male (n = 298) and female (n = 55) offenders were recruited from 4 prison systems across the United States. At the time of study enrollment, diagnostic information was collected using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; APA, 1994) Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II; First, Gibbon, Spitzer, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997) supplemented by a detailed review of official records. Disciplinary records were obtained from inmates' respective prisons covering a 1-year period following study enrollment and misconduct was categorized hierarchically as any (general), aggressive (verbal/physical), or violent (physical). Dichotomous ASPD diagnoses and adult symptom-criteria counts did not significantly predict institutional misconduct across our 3 outcome variables, with effect sizes being close to 0 in magnitude. The symptom of remorselessness in particular showed no relation to future misconduct in prison. Childhood symptom counts of conduct disorder demonstrated modest predictive utility. Our results offer essentially no support for the claim that ASPD diagnoses can predict institutional misconduct in prison, regardless of the number of adult symptoms present. In forensic contexts, testimony that an ASPD diagnosis identifies defendants who will pose a serious threat while incarcerated in prison presently lacks any substantial scientific foundation.

  18. Opt-out HIV testing in prison: informed and voluntary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, David L; Golin, Carol E; Grodensky, Catherine A; May, Jeanine; Bowling, J Michael; DeVellis, Robert F; White, Becky L; Wohl, David A

    2015-01-01

    HIV testing in prison settings has been identified as an important mechanism to detect cases among high-risk, underserved populations. Several public health organizations recommend that testing across health-care settings, including prisons, be delivered in an opt-out manner. However, implementation of opt-out testing within prisons may pose challenges in delivering testing that is informed and understood to be voluntary. In a large state prison system with a policy of voluntary opt-out HIV testing, we randomly sampled adult prisoners in each of seven intake prisons within two weeks after their opportunity to be HIV tested. We surveyed prisoners' perception of HIV testing as voluntary or mandatory and used multivariable statistical models to identify factors associated with their perception. We also linked survey responses to lab records to determine if prisoners' test status (tested or not) matched their desired and perceived test status. Thirty-eight percent (359/936) perceived testing as voluntary. The perception that testing was mandatory was positively associated with age less than 25 years (adjusted relative risk [aRR]: 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24, 1.71) and preference that testing be mandatory (aRR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.41, 2.31) but negatively associated with entry into one of the intake prisons (aRR: 0.41 95% CI: 0.27, 0.63). Eighty-nine percent of prisoners wanted to be tested, 85% were tested according to their wishes, and 82% correctly understood whether or not they were tested. Most prisoners wanted to be HIV tested and were aware that they had been tested, but less than 40% understood testing to be voluntary. Prisoners' understanding of the voluntary nature of testing varied by intake prison and by a few individual-level factors. Testing procedures should ensure that opt-out testing is informed and understood to be voluntary by prisoners and other vulnerable populations.

  19. Attitudes towards prisoners, as reported by prison inmates, prison employees and college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustad Aase-Bente

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive attitudes towards prisoners are important in securing the effectiveness of various correctional rehabilitation programs and the successful reintegration of prisoners after release. We wanted to investigate the attitudes towards prisoners among prison inmates, prison employees and college students. Methods The Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale was completed by 298 inmates in 4 Norwegian prisons, 387 employees working in the same prisons, and 183 college students. In addition, all respondents were asked a number of general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Results The study groups differed significantly in their attitudes towards prisoners, as measured by the Attitudes Toward Prisoners scale, with prison inmates holding the most positive attitudes. Prison officers held more negative attitudes than other prison employees. Prison employees working in female-only facilities held more positive attitudes than those working in male-only facilities. Students differed significantly in their attitudes, with those studying business economics holding more negative attitudes than those studying nursing. A number of strong correlations emerged between negative attitudes towards prisoners and more pessimistic and punitive answers on general questions about prisoners, crime and punishment. Conclusion The attitudes towards prisoners differed markedly among the groups investigated. The findings could have important implications, particularly for the preventive work carried out in our prisons. Whether attitudes toward prisoners can be influenced by educational programs and the dispersion of factual information needs to be investigated.

  20. State of stress in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, Mary Lou; Zoback, Mark

    1980-11-01

    Inferring principal stress directions from geologic data, focal mechanisms, and in situ stress measurements, we have prepared a map of principal horizontal stress orientations for the conterminous United States. Stress provinces with linear dimensions which range between 100 and 2000 km were defined on the basis of the directions and relative magnitude of principal stresses. Within a given province, stress orientations appear quite uniform (usually within the estimated range of accuracy of the different methods used to determine stress). Available data on the transition in stress direction between the different stress provinces indicate that these transitions can be abrupt, occurring over characterized by high levels of seismicity and generally high heat flow, the stress pattern is complex, but numerous stress provinces can be well delineated. Despite relative tectonic quiescence in the eastern and central United States, a major variation in principal stress orientation is apparent between the Atlantic Coast and midcontinent areas. Most of the eastern United States is marked by predominantly compressional tectonism (combined thrust and strike slip faulting), whereas much of the region west of the southern Great Plains is characterized by predominantly extensional tectonism (combined normal and strike slip faulting). Deformation along the San Andreas fault and in parts of the Sierra Nevada is nearly pure strike slip. Exceptions to this general pattern include areas of compressional tectonics in the western United States (the Pacific Northwest, the Colorado Plateau interior, and the Big Bend segment of the San Andreas fault) and the normal growth faulting along the Gulf Coastal Plain. Sources of stress are constrained not only by the orientation and relative magnitude of the stresses within a given province but also by the manner of transition of the stress field from one province to another. Much of the modern pattern of stress in the western United States can be

  1. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI 1.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950

  2. Transitions to Care in the Community for Prison Releasees with HIV: a Qualitative Study of Facilitators and Challenges in Two States

    OpenAIRE

    Theodore M Hammett; Donahue, Sara; LeRoy, Lisa; Montague, Brian T.; Rosen, David L.; Solomon, Liza; Costa, Michael; Wohl, David; Rich, Josiah D.

    2015-01-01

    One in seven people living with HIV in the USA passes through a prison or jail each year, and almost all will return to the community. Discharge planning and transitional programs are critical but challenging elements in ensuring continuity of care, maintaining treatment outcomes achieved in prison, and preventing further viral transmission. This paper describes facilitators and challenges of in-prison care, transitional interventions, and access to and continuity of care in the community in ...

  3. Western United States beyond the Four Corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The breathtaking beauty of the western United States is apparent in this image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data from 16 different swaths acquired between April 2000 and September 2001by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were used to create this cloud-free natural-color image mosaic. The image is draped over a 100-meter (328-foot)shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.Among the prominent features are the snow-capped Rocky Mountains traversing Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. In the northern portion of the image, the Columbia Plateau stretches across Washington, Oregon and Idaho. Many major rivers originate in this region, including the Missouri to the east of the Continental Divide, the Snake to the west, and the Colorado which wends across Utah and Arizona. The Colorado Plateau and vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert extend south from Utah into Arizona. In the southwestern portion of the image, California's San Joaquin Valley and the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada give way to the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.The Terra spacecraft is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

  4. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  5. The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS prisons project pilot study: protocol for a randomised controlled trial comparing dihydrocodeine and buprenorphine for opiate detoxification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalton Richard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United Kingdom (UK, there is an extensive market for the class 'A' drug heroin. Many heroin users spend time in prison. People addicted to heroin often require prescribed medication when attempting to cease their drug use. The most commonly used detoxification agents in UK prisons are buprenorphine, dihydrocodeine and methadone. However, national guidelines do not state a detoxification drug of choice. Indeed, there is a paucity of research evaluating the most effective treatment for opiate detoxification in prisons. This study seeks to address the paucity by evaluating routinely used interventions amongst drug using prisoners within UK prisons. Methods/Design The Leeds Evaluation of Efficacy of Detoxification Study (LEEDS Prisons Pilot Study will use randomised controlled trial methodology to compare the open use of buprenorphine and dihydrocodeine for opiate detoxification, given in the context of routine care, within HMP Leeds. Prisoners who are eligible and give informed consent will be entered into the trial. The primary outcome measure will be abstinence status at five days post detoxification, as determined by a urine test. Secondary outcomes during the detoxification and then at one, three and six months post detoxification will be recorded.

  6. United States 2030 Food Loss and Waste Reduction Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 16, 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the first ever domestic goal to reduce food loss and waste by half by the year 2030.

  7. Average annual runoff in the United States, 1951-80

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of average annual runoff in the conterminous United States, 1951-1980. Surface runoff Average runoff Surface waters United States

  8. 78 FR 61446 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United States....

  9. Coal Fields of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  10. Abortion Policy in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francome, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Compares the number of legal abortions performed in the United States and Britain. Reveals that the rate of abortion in the United States is more than twice that of Britain. Analyzes the reasons for the different rates. (Author)

  11. Satellite View of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  12. Comparison of Constitutional Spirit Between United States and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琅琅

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the differences in constitutional spirit between United States and China, and then brings out the influence of the constitutional spirit in United States to the constitutional spirit in China.

  13. Weather pattern climatology of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.; Davis, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    In this study the geographic domain covered the 48 conterminous states of the United States. The daily synoptic weather pattern was classified into nine types for the 10-year period January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1978. Weather pattern types were defined relative to the classical polar front model of a mid-latitude cyclonic storm system and its associated air masses. Guidelines for classifying weather patterns on an operational basis were developed. These were applied to 3652 daily surface weather maps to produce a time series of weather pattern type at 120 grid points of a 160 point, 3/sup 0/ latitude by 4/sup 0/ longitude array over the United States. Statistics on the frequency of occurrence, persistence and alternation of weather patterns were calculated for each grid point. Summary statistics for the entire grid and for six regions were also presented. Frequency of occurrence and persistence were found to depend on the size and speed of movement of the weather pattern. Large, slow moving air masses had higher frequency of occurrence and longer persistence than small (fronts) or rapidly moving (or changing) features (fronts, storm centers). Some types showed distinct regional preferences. The subtropical maritime high occurred mainly in the south central and southeast. An indeterminate weather pattern type accounted for those weather patterns that did not fit the polar front model or were too disorganized to be classified. The intermountain thermal low of the desert southwest was one such feature that dominated both frequency of occurrence and persistence in this region. Alternation from one weather pattern to another followed the polar front model of a moving cyclonic storm. The tendency for anticyclonic weather patterns to become disorganized as they weakened was seen in the high percentage of these patterns that changed to an indeterminate pattern as they aged.

  14. Sexual Health of Prison Inmates: A Case Study of Kano Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Health Sciences, Bayero University, Kano State, Nigeria2. ... Keywords: Sexual Health, Sexual Violence, Prison Inmates, Kano Central Prison, Nigeria. Résumé. La santé sexuelle et de la ..... perspective. http://www.nigerianla wguru .com /art.

  15. The relationship between childhood abuse and psychosis for women prisoners: assessing the importance of frequency and type of victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Stephanie C; Tripodi, Stephen J; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2013-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between childhood victimization and self-reported current symptoms of psychosis in an incarcerated female population in the United States. Participants are 159 randomly selected women incarcerated in two North Carolina state prisons. Participants completed a battery of self-report measures to assess childhood victimization and current and lifetime experience of audio/visual hallucinations and delusions. In accordance with the dose-response model, we hypothesized a predictive relationship between severity, frequency, and type of victimization and psychosis for this sample of women prisoners. Results indicate that women who experienced multi-victimization were 2.4 times more likely to report current symptoms of psychosis than other women prisoners who experienced only physical or sexual victimization in childhood. Likewise, a one-unit increase in frequency of childhood victimization was associated with a 3.2% increased likelihood of having reported symptoms of current psychosis. These results provide support for the dose-response model hypothesis that multi-victimization is an important predictor of psychosis for the women prisoner population. Results indicate that adjusting prison-based mental health services to address the relationship of childhood victimization and symptoms of psychosis may be a key factor in improving outcomes among this population.

  16. 27 CFR 479.89 - Transfers to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transfers to the United States. A firearm may be transferred to the United States or any department... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfers to the United States. 479.89 Section 479.89 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL,...

  17. 46 CFR 67.97 - United States built.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false United States built. 67.97 Section 67.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Build Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.97 United States built. To be considered built in the United States a vessel...

  18. 26 CFR 1.993-7 - Definition of United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of United States. 1.993-7 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-7 Definition of United States. Under section 993(g), the term “United States” includes the States, the District of Columbia,...

  19. 31 CFR 593.411 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 593.411 Importation into the United States. With respect to the prohibitions set forth in § 593.205, the term importation into the United States...

  20. 32 CFR 150.21 - Appeals by the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeals by the United States. 150.21 Section 150... the United States. (a) Restricted filing. Only a representative of the government designated by the Judge Advocate General of the respective service may file an appeal by the United States under...

  1. 31 CFR 545.304 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 545.304 Importation into the United States. (a) With respect to goods, software, or technology, the term importation into the United States means the bringing of any...

  2. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described...

  3. 31 CFR 539.307 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 539.307 Importation into the United States. The term importation into the United States means: (a) With respect to goods or technology, the bringing of any goods...

  4. 78 FR 70275 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce is currently seeking applications for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The purpose of the...

  5. 78 FR 77103 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board. SUMMARY: On November 25, 2013, the Department... 70275) soliciting applications for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...

  6. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    the Vietnam-United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership... platform for future relationship between Vietnam and the United States. Finally, this research suggests a framework for naval cooperation between Vietnam...United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership Agreement signed

  7. 31 CFR 515.334 - United States national.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States national. 515.334 Section 515.334 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... of the United States, and which has its principal place of business in the United States....

  8. 76 FR 68067 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... to trade in textile and apparel goods between Peru and the United States. The provisions within...] RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... of the United States- Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Interim rule effective November 3, 2011...

  9. 77 FR 27669 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK10 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... clearing agency do not constitute United States property. The text of the temporary regulations also serves... Federal Register establish an exception to the definition of United States property (within the meaning...

  10. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  11. Inclusive Education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kenneth Tanner

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive education and collaborative strategies. For example, principals and special education teachers were more positive about inclusive education than regular education teachers. Collaboration as an instructional strategy for "included" students was viewed as a high priority item. Responders who had taken two or more courses in school law rated the identified barriers to inclusive education higher than those with less formal training in the subject.

  12. Detailed gravimetric geoid for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, W. E.; Vincent, S. F.; Berry, R. H.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid was computed for the United States using a combination of satellite-derived spherical harmonic coefficients and 1 by 1 deg mean gravity values from surface gravimetry. Comparisons of this geoid with astrogeodetic geoid data indicate that a precision of plus or minus 2 meters has been obtained. Translations only were used to convert the NAD astrogeodetic geoid heights to geocentric astrogeodetic heights. On the basis of the agreement between the geocentric astrogeodetic geoid heights and the gravimetric geoid heights, no evidence is found for rotation in the North American datum. The value of the zero-order undulation can vary by 10 to 20 meters, depending on which investigator's station positions are used to establish it.

  13. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

  14. Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K. [Environmental Science Division; Greenwood, H. [Environmentall Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-13

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software. The report also includes: A description of each of the components of the Atlas; Lists of the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and A brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies. The Atlas includes the following: A GIS database organized as a set of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS Personal GeoDatabases, and ESRI ArcReader and ArcGIS project files providing an interactive map visualization and analysis interface.

  15. Industry economics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Demand for medical equipment in the United States (US) is projected to grow by 8% between 2001 and 2006, to reach 105 billion dollars. In 2001,the market was valued at 71.4 billion dollars, based on an annual growth of 7.5% between 1996 and 2001, according to The Freedonia Group. Product innovation and the growing ageing population is driving the industry, despite health-care cost containment measures. Medical and surgical instruments continue to be the largest sector, which is expected to grow to 30.5 billion dollars in 2006. However, electromedical/electrotherapeutic apparatus will remain the fastest growing sector, with annual gains of 10.8% predicted for this period.

  16. Eye on China and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mahyari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United States strives to force the Chinese into agreement of increasing the value of their exchange rate to help the USA avoid inflation As China did not come into an agreement with the USA, Tariffs are being put on Chinese products entering USA. However China as began to add tariff on poultry received from the US as well. China was previously not named in the legislation permitting US to add tariff on their goods. But recently a bill was passed giving the commerce department the ability to place important tariffs on all countries to undervalue their currency. The bill passed in legislation had the support of 99 republicans. China has been managing their currency in a manner that makes their goods cheaper to sell and American goods more expensive. The Chinese manipulation of their currency has been quite expensive for the USA, as it has cost them $1.5 billion jobs increasing the percentage of unemployment greatly and significantly. This imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods could result in effecting $300 billion dollars worth of their products. It is obvious that the Americans are attempting to improve and acknowledge their growth and power. As predictions have developed over this conflict, arguing the fact that China will not negotiate with the USA at this point rather fight back and also approach in adding tariffs on USimports. However, this reaction by the Chinese will only worsen the scenario and result in the possible inflation of the US economy or worldwide trade war. This is a very sensitive time for the United States as their biggest hopes are dependent on the Chinese. But it doesn’t look like they will be too satisfied with the outcome.

  17. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  18. Eye on China and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mahyari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available United States strives to force the Chinese into agreement of increasing the value of their exchange rate to help the USA avoid inflation As China did not come into an agreement with the USA, Tariffs are being put on Chinese products entering USA. However China as began to add tariff on poultry received from the US as well. China was previously not named in the legislation permitting US to add tariff on their goods. But recently a bill was passed giving the commerce department the ability to place important tariffs on all countries to undervalue their currency. The bill passed in legislation had the support of 99 republicans. China has been managing their currency in a manner that makes their goods cheaper to sell and American goods more expensive. The Chinese manipulation of their currency has been quite expensive for the USA, as it has cost them $1.5 billion jobs increasing the percentage of unemployment greatly and significantly. This imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods could result in effecting $300 billion dollars worth of their products. It is obvious that the Americans are attempting to improve and acknowledge their growth and power. As predictions have developed over this conflict, arguing the fact that China will not negotiate with the USA at this point rather fight back and also approach in adding tariffs on US
    imports. However, this reaction by the Chinese will only worsen the scenario and result in the possible inflation of the US economy or worldwide trade war. This is a very sensitive time for the United States as their biggest hopes are dependent on the Chinese. But it doesn’t look like they will be too satisfied with the outcome.

  19. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  20. 78 FR 3398 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The Board will meet to present...

  1. 78 FR 70274 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). This will be the last meeting of...

  2. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  3. Characterization of floods in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharia, Manabendra; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vergara, Humberto; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Floods have gained increasing global significance in the recent past due to their devastating nature and potential for causing significant economic and human losses. Until now, flood characterization studies in the United States have been limited due to the lack of a comprehensive database matching flood characteristics such as peak discharges and flood duration with geospatial and geomorphologic information. The availability of a representative and long archive of flooding events spanning 78 years over a variety of hydroclimatic regions results in a spatially and temporally comprehensive flood characterization over the continental U.S. This study, for the first time, employs a large-event database that is based on actual National Weather Service (NWS) definitions of floods instead of the frequently-adopted case study or frequentist approach, allowing us to base our findings on real definitions of floods. It examines flooding characteristics to identify how space and time scales of floods vary with climatic regimes and geomorphology. Flood events were characterized by linking flood response variables in gauged basins to spatially distributed variables describing climatology, geomorphology, and topography. The primary findings of this study are that the magnitude of flooding is highest is regions such as West Coast and southeastern U.S. which experience the most extraordinary precipitation. The seasonality of flooding varies greatly from maxima during the cool season on the West Coast, warm season in the desert Southwest, and early spring in the Southeast. The fastest responding events tend to be in steep basins of the arid Southwest caused by intense monsoon thunderstorms and steep terrain. The envelope curves of unit peak discharge are consistent with those reported for Europe and worldwide. But significant seasonal variability was observed in floods of the U.S. compared to Europe that is attributed to the diversity of causative rainfall ranging from synoptic

  4. [The Habit of Rage in a United States Ghetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgois, Philippe; Castrillo, Fernando Montero; Hart, Laurie; Karandinos, George

    2013-04-01

    For five years, the open air drug sales block where the authors resided and conducted participant-observation fieldwork in the Puerto Rican corner of inner-city Philadelphia was subject to a routinized whirlwind of shootings, stabbings and assaults. The narcotics industry filled the void left by deindustrialization, turning the city's former factory district into an open-air narcotics supermarket staffed at the entry level by young Puerto Ricans serving primarily poor white injectors. A capacity to mobilize rage ensures success in the drug economy, protection in prison, and minimal income for the no-longer-worthy poor who are diagnosed as cognitively disabled. Many residents seek alliances in social networks that oblige them to participate in solidary exchanges of assistive violence. A dynamic of embodied, primitive accumulation kills, maims, disables or incarcerates most of this industry's entry-level employees and customers. Artificially high profit margins depend on violence and coercion. A rage-filled habitus propels street-level sellers into violently defending the micro-monopoly power of their bosses in the underground economy as if it were fun. They rush to enforce commercial transactions in the absence of protective legal sanctions in an environment of scarcity that is flooded by streams of cash, addictive drugs and automatic weapons. With the end of welfare entitlements, the left hand of the state, in the form of social services, attempts to continue subsidies for vulnerable individuals by diagnosing scarred bodies and brains as proof of permanent cognitive disability in need of heavy pharmaceutical medication. Periodic outbursts of interpersonal or of self-inflicted rage-filled violence emerge as the best way to ensure the continuity of that fragile public subsidy. Simultaneously, within the bowels of the right hand of the state, in overcrowded, hostilely-supervised violent prisons, rage becomes a valuable physical self-protection strategy for inmates. In

  5. Invasive cancer incidence - United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple; King, Jessica; Wilson, Reda; Ryerson, Blythe

    2014-03-28

    Cancer has many causes, some of which can, at least in part, be avoided through interventions known to reduce cancer risk. Healthy People 2020 objectives call for reducing colorectal cancer incidence to 38.6 per 100,000 persons, reducing late-stage breast cancer incidence to 41.0 per 100,000 women, and reducing cervical cancer incidence to 7.1 per 100,000 women. To assess progress toward reaching these Healthy People 2020 targets, CDC analyzed data from U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2010. USCS includes incidence data from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System. In 2010, a total of 1,456,496 invasive cancers were reported to cancer registries in the United States (excluding Arkansas and Minnesota), an annual incidence rate of 446 cases per 100,000 persons, compared with 459 in 2009. Cancer incidence rates were higher among men (503) than women (405), highest among blacks (455), and ranged by state from 380 to 511 per 100,000 persons. Many factors, including tobacco use, obesity, insufficient physical activity, and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, contribute to the risk for developing cancer, and differences in cancer incidence indicate differences in the prevalence of these risk factors. These differences can be reduced through policy approaches such as the Affordable Care Act, which could increase access for millions of persons to appropriate and timely cancer preventive services, including help with smoking cessation, cancer screening, and vaccination against HPV.

  6. Measuring group climate in prison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, P.; Stams, G.J.; van der Laan, P.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the construct validity and reliability of the Prison Group Climate Instrument (PGCI) in a sample of 77 adolescents placed in a Dutch youth prison and 49 adult prisoners living in a Dutch psychiatric prison with a therapeutic living group structure. Confirmatory factor anal

  7. 20 CFR 404.1093 - Possession of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of the United States. 404.1093... Income § 404.1093 Possession of the United States. In using the exclusions from gross income provided under section 931 of the Code (relating to income from sources within possessions of the United...

  8. 26 CFR 400.5-1 - Redemption by United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Redemption by United States. 400.5-1 Section... by United States. (a) Scope. The purpose of this section is to prescribe rules with respect to the provisions contained in section 7425(d), relating to redemption of real property by the United...

  9. 75 FR 41927 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... United States Sentencing Commission is an independent agency in the judicial branch of the United States..., and judicial branches of government, and other interested parties, to study the manner in which United... might be appropriate in light of the information obtained from that study. (12) Resolution of...

  10. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  11. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  12. Derecho Hazards in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Walker S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2005-11-01

    Convectively generated wind-storms occur over broad temporal and spatial scales; however, the more widespread and longer lived of these windstorms have been given the name "derecho." Utilizing an integrated derecho database, including 377 events from 1986 to 2003, this investigation reveals the amount of insured property losses, fatalities, and injuries associated with these windstorms in the United States. Individual derechos have been responsible for up to 8 fatalities, 204 injuries, forest blow-downs affecting over 3,000 km2 of timber, and estimated insured losses of nearly a $500 million. Findings illustrate that derecho fatalities occur more frequently in vehicles or while boating, while injuries are more likely to happen in vehicles or mobile homes. Both fatalities and injuries are most common outside the region with the highest derecho frequency. An underlying synthesis of both physical and social vulnerabilities is suggested as the cause of the unexpected casualty distribution. In addition, casualty statistics and damage estimates from hurricanes and tornadoes are contrasted with those from derechos to emphasize that derechos can be as hazardous as many tornadoes and hurricanes.

  13. Romantic Love in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor C. de Munck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We seek to advance cultural models theory by contributing to issues related to theory, methods, and testing the external validity of a cultural model. We propose that cultural models are learned as if they were truly properties of collectivities but have no primary existence except in individual representations of them. The shared aspect of cultural models also implies collective awareness of the if–then entailments of cultural models. We use inductive ethnographic methods of freelisting (n = 80 and pile sorting (n = 39 to derive a cultural model of romantic love in the United States. From these tasks, we developed a cultural model of successful romantic love consisting of normative scenarios. For successful romantic love relations, a person would feel excited about meeting their beloved; make passionate and intimate love as opposed to only physical love; feel comfortable with the beloved, behaving in a companionable, friendly way with one’s partner; listen to the other’s concerns, offering to help out in various ways if necessary; and, all the while, keeping a mental ledger of the degree to which altruism and passion are mutual. Our model is supported through an examination of two extended case studies. Further research is required, of course, but we believe we have a rather novel and dynamic cultural model that is falsifiable and predictive of successful love relationships. The model is unique in that it combines passion with comfort and friendship as properties of romantic love.

  14. Health System Reform in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McDonough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA. Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider.

  15. United States and world energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, L.L.; Baird, L.M.; Varanini, E.E. III (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    This volume examines the economic, political, and social implications of the oil-dependence dilemma facing the United States. Most of the contributors are energy consultants in the public or private sector. Their analyses of the changing oil situation and its impact on other energy policies reflect either an international, national, or regional perspective with a unique combination of pragmatic insights and academic analyses of these complex issues. While examining the various aspects of the energy dependence dilemma presented here, one critical theme will probably recur to the reader. That is, given the inadequate nature of the US response to the 1973 and 1979 shortfalls in foreign oil supplies, how will we manage the projected future shortages in foreign oil supplies. The 18 papers of this volume were presented at a conference at Los Angeles in July 1980 and cosponsored by the University of Southern California and the California Energy Commission; a separate abstract was prepared for each paper. See also EAPA 7:3231 and Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) 6:18036.

  16. The United Mexican States: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R; Aguirre, E J

    1988-09-01

    Although the popular North American opinion of Mexico is one that paints a picture of a poor, disadvantaged country, South America sees Mexico has a richer more prosperous nation. It is observed that only in the Latin American countries of Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago do consumers have higher incomes than Mexican consumers. Moreover, while millions of Mexicans migrate to the United States to seek a better standard of living, several thousand Central American refugees illegally migrate to Mexico in search of a better life. This better life includes an increased age of lie expectancy from 51 years in the 1950s to 64 years in the late 1970s. There have also been improvements in health care and school enrollments and in the low cost availability of education. Tourism and the prospect of the manufacturing of energy are significant, positive factors working in favor of an improved Mexican economy and a higher overall quality of life. However, Mexico faces serious problems such as a mounting foreign debt. Also rising is Mexico's population which has doubled since 1964 and which continues to grow at a rate of 1.9%. Economic programs and reforms and family development planning have been instituted in response to the countries' current recession and population growth and have begun to show positive results.

  17. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Baum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and the L.A. Riots of 1991, with references to other cultural catastrophes. While these projects are different, they are not opposed; both museums locate the American perspective of events and their meanings at the forefront. American holocaust museums seem to challenge spaces between memory and its direction, vision and revision. Within the gruesome context of holocaust portrayal, interrogate the valences of memory’s play and expose American holocaust museums as theatres of pornographic memory. The seduction of feeling does not invite change so much as purgation, what Aristotle identified as catharsis — an emotional and physical release, unfortunately replicating the seductive techniques used by Goebbels for the glorification of Hitler. Through manipulation of viewers as automatic audiences, these museums function as centres for pathos I question the policy and polity of presenting genocide as an entertainment leading to catharsis, recognizing that the final act of purgation is all too easily negation.

  18. USEEIO: a New and Transparent United States ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    National-scope environmental life cycle models of goods and services may be used for many purposes, not limited to quantifying impacts of production and consumption of nations, assessing organization-wide impacts, identifying purchasing hot spots, analyzing environmental impacts of policies, and performing streamlined life cycle assessment. USEEIO is a new environmentally extended input-output model of the United States fit for such purposes and other sustainable materials management applications. USEEIO melds data on economic transactions between 389 industry sectors with environmental data for these sectors covering land, water, energy and mineral usage and emissions of greenhouse gases, criteria air pollutants, nutrients and toxics, to build a life cycle model of 385 US goods and services. In comparison with existing US input-output models, USEEIO is more current with most data representing year 2013, more extensive in its coverage of resources and emissions, more deliberate and detailed in its interpretation and combination of data sources, and includes formal data quality evaluation and description. USEEIO was assembled with a new Python module called the IO Model Builder capable of assembling and calculating results of user-defined input-output models and exporting the models into LCA software. The model and data quality evaluation capabilities are demonstrated with an analysis of the environmental performance of an average hospital in the US. All USEEIO f

  19. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  20. United States orbital transfer vehicle programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    The United States will rely on five orbital transfer vehicles to carry spacecraft to higher energy orbits than achievable by the Space Shuttle or various Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV). These vehicles are the Payload Assist Module-Delta (PAM-D), an upgraded version designated PAM-DII, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS), and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). Development of these vehicles have evolved through contrasting cultures of government and commercial management. The spectrum of their capabilities range from providing spacecraft with only a preprogrammed perigee velocity additions to man-in-the-loop remote controlled spacecraft rendezvous, docking, retrieval and return to a space base; either the Shuttle or the Space Station Freedom. The PAM-D, PAM-DII, and IUS are now nearing maturity. Their characteristics, flight record, costs, and projected future uses are defined. The TOS and OMV are currently in development with first uses scheduled in 1992 and 1993, respectively. The TOS is being commercially developed while the OMV is government developed. The TOS and OMV capabilities, constraints, and costs are reviewed.

  1. Russian: United States Environmental Restoration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Russian - United States Environmental Restoration Workshop, held in Washington, D.C., and Richland, Washington, from April 5 through 18, 1993, was the first extended collaborative information exchange between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Russian scientists at the site level. In addition to the Russian scientists, workshop participants included scientists and staff from DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the US Environmental Training Institute (USETI), universities, and the private sector. The first week (April 5 through 10) of the workshop took place in Washington, D.C., where the Russian and US participants were presented with a US perspective on environmental restoration and remediation issues from representatives in DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second week (April 11 through 18) occurred in Richland, Washington, where the participants were presented with site-specific environmental restoration and remediation issues related to Hanford Site cleanup. This report is a compilation of the presentations, discussions, and experiences shared during the second week of the workshop in Richland, Washington.

  2. 28 CFR 97.20 - Standards to ensure the safety of violent prisoners during transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prisoners during transport. 97.20 Section 97.20 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED... safety of violent prisoners during transport. Companies covered under this section must comply with applicable State and federal laws that govern the safety of violent prisoners during transport. In...

  3. 76 FR 30741 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Existing Collection; Comments Requested: Prison...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ...: Prison Population Reports: Summary of Sentenced Population Movement--National Prisoner Statistics... a brief abstract: Primary: State Departments of Corrections. Others: The Federal Bureau of Prisons. For the NPS-1B form, 51 central reporters (one from each and the Federal Bureau of...

  4. Inmate Recidivism as a Measure of Private Prison Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Andrew L.; Sharp, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    The growth of the private corrections industry has elicited interest in the comparative performance of state and private prisons. One way to measure the service quality of private prisons is to examine inmates' postrelease performance. Current empirical evidence is limited to four studies, all conducted in Florida. This analysis replicates and…

  5. Inmate Recidivism as a Measure of Private Prison Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Andrew L.; Sharp, Susan F.

    2008-01-01

    The growth of the private corrections industry has elicited interest in the comparative performance of state and private prisons. One way to measure the service quality of private prisons is to examine inmates' postrelease performance. Current empirical evidence is limited to four studies, all conducted in Florida. This analysis replicates and…

  6. Security and Paperwork Keep Prison Researchers on The Outside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    The American prison apparatus is larger today than ever before. The Pew Center on the States reported in February 2008 that more than one in 100 American adults live behind bars. However, few are scrutinizing the everyday experiences of the 2.3 million people in American prisons and jails. Scholars who want to do ethnographic fieldwork in prisons…

  7. 77 FR 60005 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... of charges for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United...

  8. Continental Divide of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Continental Divide of the United States. The map layer was created by extracting Hydrologic Unit Boundary line features from an existing...

  9. Global Map: Ports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing ferry ports in the United States and Puerto Rico. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of the United...

  10. Cities and Towns of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes cities in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These cities were collected from the 1970 National Atlas of the United...

  11. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  12. Environmental Assessment: Interim Western United States C-17 Landing Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    RESEARCH STATE CLEARINGHOUSE AND PLANNING UNIT ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER GOVERNOR January 7, 2008 Doug Allbright U.S. Air Force Headquarters Air...STATE OF CALIFORNIA GoVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING AND RESEARCH STATE CLEARINGHOUSE AND PLANNING UNIT ARNOLD SCHWARZENBGGER. CYNTHJABRYANT DIRECTOR

  13. 26 CFR 31.3121(e)-1 - State, United States, and citizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State, United States, and citizen. 31.3121(e)-1... § 31.3121(e)-1 State, United States, and citizen. (a) When used in the regulations in this subpart, the... is used in a geographical sense. The term “citizen of the United States” includes a citizen of the...

  14. American Experience and Enlightenment of Private Administration--Taking Private Prison as Research Object%私人行政的美国经验与启示--以私人监狱为研究对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李年清

    2014-01-01

    Private administration rose widely from the 1980s. The existence of the private prison is a typical example of private administration. Private entities have a long history of participating in the correction of prisoners in the United States. In recent 30 years, the private prison is playing a more and more important role in the prison system in the United States for the increasing number of prisoners, the pressure of ifnancial deficit and the popularizing of prisoner outsourcing. In the text of private prisons, the government plays multiple roles. For ensuring the accountability of private prisons, the Supreme Court of the United States modestly applies public law norms to private entities.%从20世纪80年代开始,私人行政广泛兴起。私人监狱的存在便是私人行政的典型例证。私人主体参与美国囚犯的矫治有着悠久的历史。近30年来,由于监狱人口的迅速增长和财政赤字的压力,囚犯外包愈发普遍,私人监狱在美国监狱体系中占据越来越重要的地位。面对监狱私营化,政府角色更加多元化。为保障私人监狱的责任性,美国最高法院审慎地将公法规范适用于私人主体。

  15. Airport geomagnetic surveys in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berarducci, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the United States military have requirements for design, location, and construction of compass calibration pads (compass roses), these having been developed through collaboration with US Geological Survey (USGS) personnel. These requirements are detailed in the FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5300-13, Appendix 4, and in various military documents, such as Handbook 1021/1, but the major requirement is that the range of declination measured within 75 meters of the center of a compass rose be less than or equal to 30 minutes of arc. The USGS Geomagnetism Group has developed specific methods for conducting a magnetic survey so that existing compass roses can be judged in terms of the needed standards and also that new sites can be evaluated for their suitability as potentially new compass roses. First, a preliminary survey is performed with a total-field magnetometer, with differences over the site area of less than 75nT being sufficient to warrant additional, more detailed surveying. Next, a number of survey points are established over the compass rose area and nearby, where declination is to be measured with an instrument capable of measuring declination to within 1 minute of arc, such as a Gurley transit magnetometer, DI Flux theodolite magnetometer, or Wild T-0. The data are corrected for diurnal and irregular effects of the magnetic field and declination is determined for each survey point, as well as declination range and average of the entire compass rose site. Altogether, a typical survey takes about four days to complete. ?? 2006 Springer.

  16. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Wiederhold, Nathan; Robert, Vincent A. R. G.; Crous, Pedro W.; Geiser, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs). Three of the FSSC species (Fusarium falciforme, Fusarium keratoplasticum, and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12) accounted for four-fifths of the veterinary strains (38/47) and STs (27/33) within this clade. Most of the F. falciforme strains (12/15) were recovered from equine keratitis infections; however, strains of F. keratoplasticum and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12 were mostly (25/27) isolated from marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Our sampling suggests that the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), with eight mycoses-associated species, may represent the second most important clade of veterinary relevance within Fusarium. Six of the multilocus STs within the FSSC (3+4-eee, 1-b, 12-a, 12-b, 12-f, and 12-h) and one each within the FIESC (1-a) and the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (ST-33) were widespread geographically, including three STs with transoceanic disjunctions. In conclusion, fusaria associated with veterinary mycoses are phylogenetically diverse and typically can only be identified to the species level using DNA sequence data from portions of one or more informative genes. PMID:27605713

  17. Indonesian and United States of American Economic Partnership Agreement Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajerin Tajerin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes fisheries trade effects from the implementation of Indonesian and the UnitedStates of American Economic Partnership Agreement (IUSEPA. The analysis is performed on theintegrated world trade databases owned by World Trade Organization, United Nations Conferenceon Trade and Development, and United Nations Statistics Division, using Wits software packagedeveloped by the World Bank. The result indicates that in the future, Indonesian government as aparty that will conduct bilateral economic partnership agreement with the United states, needs topropose or negotiate fishery import tariffs that imposed by the United States ranges from 0 to 7percent.Keywords: Bilateral economic agreement, fisheries, trade effect

  18. ADPF 347 AND THE “UNCONSTITUTIONAL STATE OF AFFAIRS” OF BRAZIL’S PRISON SYSTEM -- ADPF 347 E O “ESTADO DE COISAS INCONSTITUCIONAL” DO SISTEMA PRISIONAL BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Luís Santos Sombra

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay aims at analyzing the main aspects related to a prison system’s lawsuit judged by the Brazilian Supreme Court in which the “Unconstitutional State of Affairs” adjudication technique was firstly examined. Challenging the base arguments that were presented in the ADPF 347, Justice Rapporteur Marco Aurélio, the article’s purpose is points out that there was not an institutional failure of both Legislative and Executive branches of government in order to justify a structural intervention for overcoming alleged barriers. A parallel with Colombian Supreme Court adjudication practices will be drawn in accordance with the legal transplants theory to understand how Brazil would achieve its reach just importing a structural injunction model that even in Colombia did not work in prisons. Keywords: Unconstitutional State of Affairs. Structural Injunction. ADPF 347. Brazil’s Supreme Court. Colombia’s Supreme Court. Legal Transplants.

  19. United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    UNITED STATES FEDERAL GUIDANCE ON WITNESS PROTECTION IN HUMAN TRAFFICKING A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...JUN 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...United States needs overarching federal guidance on witness protection for human trafficking victims/witnesses in order to enhance their safety and

  20. Maths in Prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Patricia Byrne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available I teach maths to all levels in an adult male remand prison in Ireland and am also studying for a PhD in maths in prison education in Dublin Institute of Technology (DIT. This paper describes recent initiatives piloted by maths teachers and school management to increase attendance, engagement and certification in maths. It assesses the effects of the initiatives and looks at future potential in this setting and in others. To set the paper in context, I begin by describing a typical day as a prison maths teacher.

  1. The effect of health and penal harm on aging female prisoners' views of dying in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Dayron; Aday, Ronald H; Wahidin, Azrini

    With tougher sentencing laws, an increasing number of individuals are finding themselves spending their final years of life in prison. Drawing on a sample of 327 women over the age of 50 incarcerated in five Southern states, the present study investigates the relationship between numerous health variables and the Templer Death Anxiety Scale (TDAS). Qualitatively, the article also provides personal accounts from inmates that serve to reinforce death fears when engaging the prison health care system. Participants reported a mean of 6.40 on the TDAS indicating a substantial degree of death anxiety when compared to community samples. Both mental and physical health measures were important indicators of death anxiety. Qualitative information discovered that respondents' concerns about dying in prison were often influenced by the perceived lack of adequate health care and the indifference of prison staff and other instances of penal harm.

  2. The dose-response of time served in prison on mortality: New York State, 1989-2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patterson, Evelyn J

    2013-01-01

    .... Using 1989-2003 New York State parole administrative data from the Bureau of Justice Statistics on state correctional facilities, I employed multinomial logistic regression analyses and formal...

  3. Relationships and sexuality of imprisoned men in the German penal system--a survey of inmates in a Berlin prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The lack of concrete scientific data on the sexual behavior of inmates in German prisons is surprising, especially given the extant international scholarship on prison culture and sexual violence. Historically, the most influential publications were Clemmer's "The Prison Community", and Sykes's "The Society of Captives", which both addressed the importance of sexual deprivation and analyzed the impact of sexual victimization on prisoners. Different forms of homosexual contact between inmates include prostitution and "protective pairing", both characterized as "dark" issues--nonconsensual sexual acts--which still have not been scientifically researched. The United States enacted the Prison Rape Elimination Act, 2003, revealing nationwide data on the prevalence of sexual assault within correctional facilities. Prison inmates suffer not only from separation from their spouses or partners, but also from sexual harassment, extortion, and the threat of rape, which has multiple implications for their mental and physical health. This article presents the first German study to record data about the relationships and sexuality of imprisoned men, and was conducted in an adult correctional facility for long-term prisoners in Berlin-Tegel. The survey, which is based on results from a questionnaire taken by voluntary study participants, had a special focus on the occurrence of consensual homoerotic contacts between heterosexual inmates. The emphasis was on the potential impact of such contact on role behavior during confinement, as well as the impact on sexual identity after release. The survey revealed the first data on the incidence and prevalence of sexual violence and coercion within correctional facilities. This article presents the results of this survey for the first time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 1:2,000,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set has been superseded by huc2m. This file contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the conterminous United States along with Alaska, Hawaii,...

  5. (SUPERSEDED) 1:2,000,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States (SUPERSEDED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the conterminous United States along with Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was...

  6. Abortion surveillance--United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Zane, Suzanne B; Burley, Kim D; Jamieson, Denise J

    2012-11-23

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2009. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2009, data were received from 48 reporting areas. For the purpose of trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from the 45 areas that reported data every year during 2000-2009. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculated abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 784,507 abortions were reported to CDC for 2009. Of these abortions, 772,630 (98.5%) were from the 45 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2000-2009. Among these same 45 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2009 was 15.1 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 227 abortions per 1,000 live births. Compared with 2008, the total number and rate of reported abortions for 2009 decreased 5%, representing the largest single year decrease for the entire period of analysis. The abortion ratio decreased 2%. From 2000 to 2009, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 6%, 7%, and 8%, respectively, to the lowest levels for 2000-2009. In 2009 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates, whereas women aged ≥30 years accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2009, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 24.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had an abortion rate of 27.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 years and 20.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 25-29 years. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years

  7. Vendo o sol nascer bordado: poderes, saberes e fazeres de reeducandas na Unidade Prisional de Goiás * Seeing the sun be born embroidery: powers and knowledges of Reeducandas in the Goiás’s Unit Prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLÓVIS CARVALHO BRITTO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Este artigo analisa as interlocuções entre memória, patrimônio, artes do saber-fazer e as relações de gênero na Unidade Prisional de Goiás com enfoque no projeto Cabocla: bordando cidadania, o modo como ele tem contribuído para uma outra formatação da experiência feminina no cárcere, a economia simbólica e a patrimonialização de objetos através da eleição da cultura vilaboense, reproduzida em bordados feitos por mulheres encarceradas. Por meio de entrevistas com a idealizadora do projeto e com uma esposa de reeducando, uma ex-reeducanda e uma mulher que cumpre pena privativa de liberdade, alinhavamos um painel sobre os impactos da atividade manual no encarceramento e na trajetória de vida dessas mulheres.Palavras-chave: bordado; memória; cárcere; patrimônio.Abstract: This article examines the dialogues between memory, heritage, arts know-how and gender relations in Prison Unit Goiás focusing on Cabocla project: embroidering citizenship, the way he has contributed to a other formatting of the female experience in prison the symbolic economy and patrimony of objects through the election of vilaboense culture, reproduced in embroidery made by women prisoners. Through interviews with the creator of the project and re-educating with a wife, an ex-convict and a woman who still meets custodial sentence, sew a panel on the impact of incarceration on manual activity and the life course of these women.Keyword: embroidery; memory; jail; patrimony.

  8. The United States of America country update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Boyd, Tonya L.; Renner, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  9. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W. (1); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (2); Boyd, Tonya L. (1); Renner, Joel (3); (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0001-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  10. The Human Rights Record of the United States in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THE INFORMATION OFFICE OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE

    2007-01-01

    @@ EDITOR'S NOTE: On March 8, the Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China published a document entitled the Human Rights Record of the United States in 2006. Following is the full text.

  11. 1990 County Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the 1990 State and county boundaries of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting...

  12. Major Roads of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The file was produced by joining the individual State roads...

  13. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  14. 2000 County Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the 2000 State and county boundaries of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting...

  15. THE DETENTION OF ASYLUM-SEEKERS IN THE UNITED STATES: FROM FORCED MIGRATION TO PUNISHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiz Silva Menezes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present situation of the refugee international regime is a result of the historical affirmation of human rights, so that refuge and human rights are intrinsically related. The detention of asylum-seekers is an example of how intern procedures of the countries can oppose their commitments to human rights and to international protection: it is an usual practice during the process of refugee status determination, punishing the person forced to leave his/her country and seek international protection, introducing him/her into the penal system or into a prison-like system and, thus, systematically violating the rights of people who only seek the guaranty of their rights. This paper analyzes the characteristics of this practice and aims to demonstrate how it, because violates human rights, undermines the refuge – which exists exactly because of the imperative of respect for these rights. We concentrate specifically on the detention of asylum-seekers in the United States, because it was a great booster for the creation of the human rights and refugee international regimes, because it frequently uses, in its discourse, the sign of the human rights as parameter for the action of the states and for being one of the countries which have the largest numbers of refugees.

  16. Landfills in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations of landfills and waste transfer stations in 11 western states. Data was obtained from state and federal agencies in GIS, tabular, and map format.

  17. Unverified Prisoners System (UPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — UPS is an internal SSA system used by the Office of Earnings Operations (OEO) to track and resolve unverified prisoner and deportee records in an effort to find a...

  18. Education in Prison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Cosman

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Most convicted criminals in prisons are youngish adults, under-educated and illiterate, but most are able and willing to learn. Yet educational programs in prison­ when and if they exist - are not and cannot be of good quality. Punishment is the infliction of suffering, and produces hatred and violence: education is the nurture of growth and fulfillment, the development of the human person. Thus, all that education can do in prisons is to develop some basic skills in prisoners, aimed at productive work. What are actually needed are real educational programmes. Therefore, it seems necessary to obey the higher order of » the inherent dignity and value of all me mbers of the human family.«

  19. Zero Tolerance Educational Policies and Expansion of the School-to-Prison Pipeline for African American Males: A Multi-Conceptual Analysis of the Linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Wayne V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this theoretical study was to explore, examine, and analyze the United States (US) Zero Tolerance (ZT) educational policies and practices of the school-to-prison pipeline phenomenon. This study specifically explored the influence of the ZT policy on African American males becoming part of that system. The study was guided by three…

  20. From Amsterdam to Auburn: an explanation for the rise of the prison in seventeenth-century Holland and nineteenth-century America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Spierenburg (Pieter)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe article attempts to make the difference in timing between Europe and the United States with respect to the rise of imprisonment understandable. It starts with Europe, taking Amsterdam as its main example. As a punitive institution, the prison became well-established in various Europe

  1. From Amsterdam to Auburn: an explanation for the rise of the prison in seventeenth-century Holland and nineteenth-century America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Spierenburg (Pieter)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe article attempts to make the difference in timing between Europe and the United States with respect to the rise of imprisonment understandable. It starts with Europe, taking Amsterdam as its main example. As a punitive institution, the prison became well-established in various

  2. Age, Cumulative Trauma and Stressful Life Events, and Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms among Older Adults in Prison: Do Subjective Impressions Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Zgoba, Kristen; Courtney, Deborah; Ristow, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aging prison population in the United States presents a significant public health challenge with high rates of trauma and mental health issues that the correctional system alone is ill-prepared to address. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of age, objective, and subjective measures of trauma and stressful…

  3. History of the United States Disciplinary Barracks, 1875-Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-07

    of 1876, the inmate population had reached a s t rength of 332. With t he a r r i v a l of l a rge groups of new prisoners i n the summer of...continued throughout 1883 and the capab i l i ty of the prison was increased t o approximately 600 inmates by the end of the year. By 1885, the...ions and t o remove the "hardened or incorrigible" mi l i t a ry prisoners from the l oca l guardhouse where he could influence minor offenders

  4. Principal thorium resources in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Armbrustmacher, T.J.; Olson, J.C.; Brownfield, I.K.; Brock, M.R.; Lemons, J.F.; Coppa, L.V.; Clingan, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    Resources were assessed for thorium in the higher grade and better known deposits in the United States in: (1) veins, (2) massive carbonatites, (3) stream placers of North and South Carolina, and (4) disseminated deposits. Thorium resources for the first three categories were divided into reserves and probable potential resources. Each of these then were separated into the following cost categories: (1) the amount of ThO2 producible at less than $15 per pound, (2) the amount producible at between $15 and $30 per pound, and (3) the amount producible at more than $50 per pound. The type of mining and milling needed at each deposit determines the capital, operating, and fixed costs of both mining and milling. Costs start with the clearing of land and are carried through to the final product, which for all deposits is ThO2. Capital costs of mining are affected most by the type of mining and the size of the mine. Those of milling are affected most by the kind of mill, its size, and whether or not extra circuits are needed for the separation of rare earths or some other byproduct. Veins, massive carbonatites, and stream placers of North and South Carolina have reserves of 188,000 short tons of ThO2 and probable potential resources of 505,000 tons of ThO2. Approximately half of the reserves and probable potential resources can be produced at less than $30 per pound of ThO2. Veins are the highest grade source in the United States and have total reserves of 142,000 tons of ThO2 and probable potential resources of 343,000 tons. About 90 percent of the reserves and 91 percent of the probable potential resources can be produced at less than $15 per pound of ThO2. Seven vein districts were evaluated: (1) Lemhi Pass, Mont.-Idaho, (2) Wet Mountains, Colo., (3) Powderhorn, Colo., (4) Hall Mountain, Idaho, (5) Diamond Creek, Idaho, (6) Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyo. and (7) Mountain Pass, Calif. Eighty-seven percent of the total reserves and probable potential resources are in the

  5. Ai margini della cittadinanza: le detenute dopo l’Unità italiana (1860-1915

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Gibson

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the gendered nature of the Italian prison system after unification in 1860. Despite its liberal and secular principles, the new Italian parliamentary state left penal institutions for women and girls in the control of religious orders of nuns. While the state instituted a series of reforms for male prisons during the first fifty years after unification, it ignored the deplorable conditions for female inmates. This failure to secularize female prisons denied women the “negative right” to equal punishment and constituted one of the many ways in which women were denied full citizenship in united Italy.

  6. The prison's double bottom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Željko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available People well acquainted with prisons often wonder what is it that prevents the existence of peaceful prisons, or in other words, is it possible to provide a peaceful serving of one's time to those inmates who wish so. Another related issue is whether such a model of the prison may be designed that will enable the staff, primarily the experts-educators, to work normally. In an ideal-typical prison system everyone should do their job. The jailers should engage in daily supervision of the inmates and take care of their security, while the educators, far less numerous, should concentrate on the resocialization of the inmates. Together with craftsmen-instructors in the workshops, jailers and educators should exert a unified educational influence synchronized by the prison management. In practice, however, such unified educational influence does not exist. Peaceful prison is impossible to establish in practice, since it suits neither the inmates nor the management. Both sides favor compromise or status quo, because they profit from it.

  7. 78 FR 27857 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Final... United States Standards for Wheat under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) to change the definition of Contrasting classes (CCL) in the class Hard White wheat. This change will help facilitate the...

  8. 12 CFR 561.53 - United States Treasury General Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Treasury General Account. 561.53 Section 561.53 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.53 United States Treasury General Account. The...

  9. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of... (IFLE): Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)--Special Focus Competition: European Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting applications for new awards for...

  10. 19 CFR 10.46 - Articles for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles for the United States. 10.46 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles for Institutions § 10.46 Articles for the United States. Pursuant to subheadings 9808.00.10 and...

  11. Foreign Students and Scholars and the United States Tax System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David, II.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1992-93 school year more than 425,000 foreign students were studying in the United States. In addition, hundreds of foreign nationals were in the United States as visiting research scholars, lecturers, and professors. Offers a guide to help foreign nationals comply with the tax system while affording them the least possible tax…

  12. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  13. The United States Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    Black and white maps, graphs and tables that may be reproduced are presented in this volume focusing on the United States. Some of the features of the United States depicted are: size, population, agriculture and resources, manufactures, trade, citizenship, employment, income, poverty, the federal budget, energy, health, education, crime, and the…

  14. United States’ Interests in the Horn of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-23

    while Haile Selassie intended to ensure that the United States had a vested interest in the survival of his regime. "There was never an alliance between...company; and he sent troops to fight in Korea. Emperor Haile Selassie’s political manuevering achieved the establishment of a United States vested

  15. 7 CFR 65.260 - United States country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States country of origin. 65.260 Section 65.260..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.260 United States country of origin....

  16. Immigration to the United States: 1996 Update. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuffel, Eric; Pemberton, Alissa

    Immigration, both legal and illegal, has a profound impact on the United States. The public policy implications of immigration include the impact on population growth, employment, wages, taxes, and social spending. In 1994, a net total of between 900,000 and 1.1 million immigrants were added to the foreign-born population of the United States.…

  17. 31 CFR 560.319 - United States depository institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States depository institution. 560.319 Section 560.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... associations, credit unions, trust companies and United States bank holding companies)....

  18. Civic Engagement in the United States: Roots and Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The adult education and civic education movements are not synonymous, but the two were intertwined during the early years of adult education's formation as a field in the United States. This chapter traces the development of adult civic education in the United States, focusing on the 1920s through the 1950s. First, the roots of civic education…

  19. Pine Engraver, Ips pini, in the Western United States (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra J. Kegley; R. Ladd Livingston; Kenneth E. Gibson

    1997-01-01

    The pine engraver, Ips pini (Say), is one of the most common and widely distributed bark beetles in North America. It occurs from southern Appalachia north to Maine and Quebec, westward across the northern United States and Canada, into the interior of Alaska, throughout the Pacific Coast States and the Rocky Mountain region, to northern Mexico. In the western United...

  20. The Organization of Paralympic Sport in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joe; Mushett, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, Paralympic sport is governed by the United States Olympic Committee (USOC), as set forth in the Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act of 1998. The USOC formed a dedicated Paralympic Division in 2001 to manage this responsibility in close cooperation with other USOC divisions and many of the sport-specific national…

  1. Preparation of School Psychologists in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    School psychology in the United States continues to evolve in response to shifts in the country's demographic characteristics, an increasing focus on the importance of child mental health, together with health and education reforms. The landscape of school psychological services in the United States also is shaped through the changing roles and…

  2. Preparation of School Psychologists in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    School psychology in the United States continues to evolve in response to shifts in the country's demographic characteristics, an increasing focus on the importance of child mental health, together with health and education reforms. The landscape of school psychological services in the United States also is shaped through the changing roles and…

  3. 78 FR 26425 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ..., the simple movement of a stolen trade secret within a domestic multinational company (e.g., from a United States office to an overseas office of the same company) may not pose the same risks or harms. More generally, the Commission heard that foreign actors increasingly target United States companies...

  4. Inpatient Financial Burden of Atopic Dermatitis in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narla, Shanthi; Hsu, Derek Y; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the inpatient burden of atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to determine the risk factors and financial burden of hospitalizations for AD in the United States. Data were analyzed from the 2002-2012 National Inpatient Sample, including a 20% representative sample of all......, there is a substantial inpatient financial burden of AD in the United States....

  5. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  6. Does racism affect health? Evidence from the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter; Murphy, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Blacks have worse overall health than whites in both the United States and the United Kingdom. However, the relative difference in health between the two groups within each cultural context differs between each context. In this article, we attempt to glean insights into these health disparities. We do so by first examining what is currently known about differences in morbidity and mortality for blacks and whites in the United States and the United Kingdom. We then turn to medical examination data by race and country of birth in an attempt to further untangle the complex interplay of socioeconomic status (SES), race, and racism as determinants of health in the United States and the United Kingdom. We find that (1) longer exposure of blacks to the recipient country is a risk for mortality in the United States but not in the United Kingdom; (2) adjustment for SES matters a good deal for mortality in the United States, but less so in the United Kingdom; (3) morbidity indicators do not paint a clear picture of black disadvantage relative to whites in either context; and (4) were one to consider medical examination data alone, differences between the two groups exist only in the United States. Taken together, we conclude that it is possible that the "less racist" United Kingdom provides a healthier environment for blacks than the United States. However, there remain many mysteries that escape simple explanation. Our findings raise more questions than they answer, and the health risks and health status of blacks in the United States are much more complex than previously thought.

  7. Leveling of Tuberculosis Incidence - United States, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jorge L; Mindra, Godwin; Haddad, Maryam B; Pratt, Robert; Price, Sandy F; Langer, Adam J

    2016-03-25

    After 2 decades of progress toward tuberculosis (TB) elimination with annual decreases of ≥0.2 cases per 100,000 persons (1), TB incidence in the United States remained approximately 3.0 cases per 100,000 persons during 2013-2015. Preliminary data reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System indicate that TB incidence among foreign-born persons in the United States (15.1 cases per 100,000) has remained approximately 13 times the incidence among U.S.-born persons (1.2 cases per 100,000). Resuming progress toward TB elimination in the United States will require intensification of efforts both in the United States and globally, including increasing U.S. efforts to detect and treat latent TB infection, strengthening systems to interrupt TB transmission in the United States and globally, accelerating reductions in TB globally, particularly in the countries of origin for most U.S.

  8. Initiation of opiate addiction in a Canadian prison: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Ronald

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In North America, the harms of illicit drug use have been responded to primarily through law enforcement interventions. This strategy has resulted in record populations of addicted individuals being incarcerated in both Canada and the United States. The incarceration of non-violent drug offenders has become increasingly controversial as studies demonstrate the harms, including elevated HIV risk behavior, of incarcerating injection drug users. Other harms, such as the initiation of illicit drug use by prison inmates who previously did not use drugs, have been less commonly described. Case Presentation We report on the case of an individual who initiated non-injection opiate use in a Canadian prison and developed an addiction to the drug. Upon release into the community, the individual continued using opiates and sought treatment at a clinic. The patient feared that he might initiate injection use of opiates if his cravings could not be controlled. The patient was placed on methadone maintenance therapy. Conclusion While anecdotal reports indicate that initiation in prison of the use of addictive illicit substances is frequent, documentation through clinical experience is rare, and the public health implications of this behavior have not been given sufficient attention in the literature. Strategies of incarcerating non-violent drug offenders and attempting to keep illicit drugs out of prisons have not reduced the harms and costs of illicit drug use. Effective, practical alternatives are urgently needed; expanded community diversion programs for non-violent drug offenders deserve particular attention.

  9. The paradox of control: An ethnographic analysis of opiate maintenance treatment in a Norwegian prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjåland, Kristian

    2015-08-01

    Opiate maintenance treatment (OMT) is increasingly being offered in prisons throughout Europe. The benefits of OMT in prison have been found to be similar to those produced by OMT in community settings. However, prison-based OMT has been a controversial issue because of fear of the diversion of OMT medications and the development of black markets for prescription drugs such as buprenorphine and methadone. Prison-based OMT thus involves a delicate balance between the considerations of control and treatment. This article reports on an ethnographic study of a prison-based OMT programme in a closed Norwegian prison. The data include field notes from eight months of participant observation in the prison as well as qualitative interviews with 23 prisoners and 12 prison staff. Midway through the fieldwork, the prison authorities established a separate unit for OMT-enrolled prisoners to reduce the widespread diversion of buprenorphine. This "natural experiment" is explored in the analysis. The prison-based OMT programme was characterised by strict and repressive control to prevent the diversion of buprenorphine, and the control became even stricter after the establishment of the OMT unit. However, the diversion of buprenorphine increased rather than decreased after the establishment of the OMT unit. To understand this "paradox of control", the article engages with theories of legitimacy, power and resistance. The excessive and repressive control was perceived as illegitimate and unfair by the majority of study participants. In various ways, many prisoners protested, confronted and subverted the OMT programme. The increase in buprenorphine diversion is interpreted as a form of collective resistance towards the perceived unfairness of the OMT programme. The article demonstrates that an unbalanced and control-dominated approach to prison-based OMT may have the opposite effect of what is intended. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Kellison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation to initiate species-introduction trials in 1959. The results were sufficiently promising that a contingent of forest products companies formed a cooperative to work with the USDA Forest Service, Lehigh Acres, FL, USA, on genetic improvement of selected species for fiber production. The Florida initiative caused other industrial forestry companies in the upper South to establish plantations regardless of the species or seed source. The result was invariably the same: failure. Bruce Zobel, Professor of Forestry, North Carolina State University, initiated a concerted effort to assess the potential worth of eucalyptus for plantation use. The joint industrial effort evaluated 569 sources representing 103 species over a 14-year period. The three levels of testing, screening, in-depth, and semioperational trials led to identification of some species and sources that offered promise for adaptation, but severe winter temperatures in late 1983 and early 1984 and 1985 terminated the project. Despite the failed attempt valuable silvicultural practices were ascertained that will be beneficial to other researchers and practitioners when attempts are again made to introduce the species complex into the US South.

  11. Forest Resources of the United States, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; Patrick D. Miles; John S. Vissage; Scott A. Pugh

    2004-01-01

    Forest resource growth, harvests, and land use conversion can change inventories within States, among regions, and even among countries, and can significantly influence the future performance of resources. This could affect the State, regional, and national economies that depend on the affected resources, as well as the resource environments. Periodic surveys provide...

  12. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  13. Demography, vulnerabilities and right to health to Brazilian prison population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marden Marques; Bueno, Paula Michele Martins Gomes

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the latest research on the profile of the Brazilian prison population, its demography and current laws and regulations. It aims in the direction of ensuring the human right to health. Brazilian prison system is a complex universe in which state and federal criminal contexts keep more than 607,000 people in custody. This population is composed of 75% of young and black people, 67% poorly educated and 41% are pre-trial detainees, living in overcrowded prisons and architecturally vandalized, with population growth of around 575% in 24 years, making this environment a major focus of production of diseases. The prison becomes the object of differentiated intervention by public bodies linked to the executive and the judiciary - it is worth remarking that the data show the high level of inequalities and health vulnerabilities among the prison population, whose needs involve a set of cross-sector of transverse public policies actions towards penal execution.

  14. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    8. 42Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the Albanian State was created but with only one-half of the Albanian population...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, THE UNITED STATES, AND INTERNATIONAL LEGITIMACY A Monograph by MAJ Mark Van Gelder...North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The United States, and International Legitimacy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  15. When security and medicine missions conflict: confidentiality in prison settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Scott A; Aburabi, Raed

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - It is a simple fact that prisons cannot exist - practically, legally, ethically or morally - without the support of physicians and other health professionals. Access to adequate healthcare is one of the fundamental measures of the legitimacy of a jail or prison. At the same time, there is a fundamental tension in the missions of the prison and doctor. The primary mission of the prison is security and often punishment. Reform and rehabilitation have intermittently been stated goals of prisons in the last century, but in practice those humane goals have rarely governed prison administrative culture. The primary mission of the physician is to promote the health and welfare of his or her patient. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach - At times, what is required to serve the patient's best interest is at odds with the interests of security. Much of the work of the prison physician does not conflict with the operation of security. Indeed, much of the work of the prison physician is allowed to proceed without much interference from the security regime. But given the fundamental discord in the legitimate missions of security vs medicine, conflict between the doctor and the warden is inevitable. Findings - In this paper, the authors consider the example of patient confidentiality to illustrate this conflict, using case examples inspired by real cases from the experience of the authors. Originality/value - The authors provide an ethical and practical framework for health professionals to employ when confronting these inevitable conflicts in correctional settings.

  16. Geothermal overviews of the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N.; Axtell, L.H. (comps.)

    1972-01-01

    This compendium presents data on geothermal resources for all those western states with geothermal potential. Individual sections, which have been processed separately for inclusion in the EDB data base, are devoted to each of the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. A separate section is also devoted to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Imperial Valley Project. Maps and references are included for each section. (JGB)

  17. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  18. Toxaphene in the United States: 1. Usage gridding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. F.

    2001-08-01

    Toxaphene, as a general-purpose insecticide, was widely used in the United States. The use of toxaphene in the United States can be divided into four different periods between 1947 and 1986, with total usage of about 490 kt, and total production around 720 kt. Inventories of gridded usage of toxaphene in the United States with 1/6° by 1/4° latitude/longitude resolution have been created by using different gridded cropland and cattle as surrogate data. The intensive use of toxaphene on croplands was concentrated in the southeastern part of the United States with the highest usage of 2 kt per grid cell. The results show that the state of Alabama was the largest user of toxaphene, reaching as much as 87 kt, followed by Mississippi at 60 kt. The total usage in the top 10 states is 410 kt, 84% of the national usage in the United States. The use in the first six states, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Arkansas, Texas, and South Carolina, is 350 kt, 71% of the national usage in the United States.

  19. Experimentation on prisoners by the Japanese during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdwood, Ronald H

    1985-08-24

    Girdwood, president of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, recounts his experience in assessing and treating newly released Allied prisoners in the Far East during World War II. Although he had been posted to various locales and had interviewed many prison camp survivors, he had not heard direct accounts of germ warfare experiments allegedly performed by the Japanese on American, British, and Australian prisoners until they were reported on a British television program, Unit 731, on 13 August 1985. While poor medical care, abuse, and malnutrition were known, information about biological warfare disclosed on the television program was evidently not known to British, Indian, or Australian authorities until the war's end.

  20. [Psychopathology of violence in prisons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreau, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The issue of violence in prisons concerns the people detained there, the conditions of the imprisonment and the relations which are established between the prisoners and the guards. The deprivation of liberty in prison, by suppressing desire, stirs up violence. Security contingency measures are not sufficient to control aggressive urges. Violence in prison stems from the internal regulations, the architecture of the building, the organisation of the surveillance and from the psychopathological dynamics of the deprivations resulting from being locked up.

  1. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  2. Progress toward sodium reduction in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Jessica; Cogswell, Mary; Curtis, Christine J; Gunn, Janelle; Neiman, Andrea; Angell, Sonia Y

    2012-10-01

    The average adult in the United States of America consumes well above the recommended daily limit of sodium. Average sodium intake is about 3 463 mg/day, as compared to the 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans recommendation of sodium reduction policies and programs in the United States at the federal, state, and local levels; efforts to monitor the health impact of sodium reduction; ways to assess consumer knowledge, attitudes, and behavior; and how these activities depend on and inform global efforts to reduce sodium intake. Reducing excess sodium intake is a public health opportunity that can save lives and health care dollars in the United States and globally. Future efforts, including sharing successes achieved and barriers identified in the United States and globally, may quicken and enhance progress.

  3. 76 FR 697 - United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... States--Oman Free Trade Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of Oman. DATES: Interim rule...'') entered into the U.S.--Oman Free Trade Agreement (``OFTA'' or ``Agreement''). The stated objectives of the...

  4. A Comparative Analysis of Indian Gaming in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, William V.; Bunch, Rick L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on Indian gaming in South Dakota discovered very restrictive and unfavorable tribal-state compacts that appear to border on economic racism. This article expands this previous research by exploring the influence of tribal-state Indian gaming compacts for the Indian casinos located in the contiguous United States. The purpose is…

  5. Babesiosis among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries, United States, 2006–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven A.; Izurieta, Hector S.; Kumar, Sanjai; Burwen, Dale R.; Gibbs, Jonathan; Kropp, Garner; Erten, Tugce; MaCurdy, Thomas E.; Worrall, Christopher M.; Kelman, Jeffrey A.; Walderhaug, Mark O.

    2012-01-01

    We used administrative databases to assess babesiosis among elderly persons in the United States by year, sex, age, race, state of residence, and diagnosis months during 2006–2008. The highest babesiosis rates were in Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and Massachusetts, and findings suggested babesiosis expansion to other states. PMID:22257500

  6. Long-term aridity changes in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Edward R; Woodhouse, Connie A; Eakin, C Mark; Meko, David M; Stahle, David W

    2004-11-01

    The western United States is experiencing a severe multiyear drought that is unprecedented in some hydroclimatic records. Using gridded drought reconstructions that cover most of the western United States over the past 1200 years, we show that this drought pales in comparison to an earlier period of elevated aridity and epic drought in AD 900 to 1300, an interval broadly consistent with the Medieval Warm Period. If elevated aridity in the western United States is a natural response to climate warming, then any trend toward warmer temperatures in the future could lead to a serious long-term increase in aridity over western North America.

  7. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  8. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  9. Forest Resources of the United States, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad, tech. coord. Smith; Patrick D., data coord. Miles; Charles H., map coord. Perry; Scott A., Data CD coord. Pugh

    2009-01-01

    Forest resource statistics from the 2000 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment were updated to provide current information on the Nation's forests. Resource tables present estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Current resource data and trends are analyzed...

  10. Forest Resources of the United States, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; John S. Vissage; David R. Darr; Raymond M. Sheffield

    2001-01-01

    Forest resource statistics from the 1987 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment were updated to 1997 to provide current information on the Nation`s forests. Resource tables present estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Current resource data are analyzed and...

  11. Explaining the United States-Israel Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    influxes of Ethiopian Jews during and Soviet Jews after the Cold War. Loan guarantees have been 77...and Saudi Arabia .88 President Bill Clinton stated that America’s interests in the Middle East are: “pursuing a comprehensive breakthrough to Middle...been, at least to some extent, an asset to the Arab regimes, as a strategic counterweight to radicalism.”136 Saudi Arabia and the members of the Gulf

  12. United States Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions are businesses and organizations that have made a public commitment to reduce food loss and waste in their own operations in the United States by 50 percent by the year 2030.

  13. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) (Lease)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  14. 1:100,000-scale Counties of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the county boundaries of the conterminous United States (AK, HI and Puerto Rico are available separately). The lines were extracted from U.S....

  15. National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 640 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The...

  16. Sand and Gravel Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  17. Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Quaternary Fault and Fold Database contains the results of thousands of scientific assessments of faults and associated folds in the United States that...

  18. Plant and Animal Phenology Data for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As of January 1, 2013, the dataset contains phenology data on 591 species of plants and animals, with 7,512 locations registered across the United States. Protocols...

  19. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 2000-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 2000-2004. Parameter-elevation...

  20. United States Coast Pilot (volume 1 through 9)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Coast Pilot is a series of 9 nautical books that cover a wide variety of information important to navigators of U.S. coastal and intercoastal...

  1. Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Technical Information Service NCHS Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009 Recommend on ... more likely than men to have used the Internet for health information. Women were more likely than ...

  2. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) Inventory (Building)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  3. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  4. Costly Regional Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains information on costly regional landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. The extents of the regional events were drawn from...

  5. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  6. US Forest Service Forest Carbon Stocks Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — Through application of a nearest-neighbor imputation approach, mapped estimates of forest carbon density were developed for the contiguous United States using the...

  7. Indian Lands of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Indian lands of the United States. Only areas of 640 acres or more are included. Federally-administered lands within a reservation are included...

  8. Barack Obama’s infrastructure policies for the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The new president of the United States, Barack Obama, has set his policies on infrastructures. To carry them out, he will resort mostly to economics incentives and, to a lesser extent, regulatory constraints.

  9. United States Mortality Database, 1988-1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains mortality information for United States Health Service Areas (805 groups of counties). Included are mortality rates by sex and race (white...

  10. Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is the nation's inventory of protected areas, including public open space and voluntarily provided,...

  11. Human Population in the Western United States (1900 - 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Map containing historical census data from 1900 - 2000 throughout the western United States at the county level. Data includes total population, population density,...

  12. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States Recommend on ... reported smoking every day or some days. Current Smoking Among Adults in 2015 (Nation) By Gender 2 ...

  13. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Topographic Moisture Potential of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated topographic moisture potential classes for the contiguous United States. These topographic moisture potential classes...

  14. Map service: United States Decadal Production History Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  15. Streamflow Gaging Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  16. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  17. Elevation in the Western United States (90 meter DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation in the western United States obtained from the National Elevation Dataset. Data was converted from float point to integer format and resampled from 30m...

  18. Territorial Acquisitions of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the major acquisitions of territory by the United States of America. Only areas in North America, the Caribbean, and Hawaii are included....

  19. 1990 point population coverage for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage of the 1990 Census of Population and Housing for the conterminous United States. (Alaska and Hawaii are available separately). The coverage...

  20. Streams and Waterbodies of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows areal and linear water features of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The original file was produced by joining the...

  1. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Surficial Lithology of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated a new classification and map of the lithology of surficial materials for the contiguous United States. This was...

  2. United States Earthquake Intensity Database, 1638-1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Earthquake Intensity Database is a collection of damage and felt reports for over 23,000 U.S. earthquakes from 1638-1985. The majority of...

  3. NCHS - Births to Unmarried Women by Age Group: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes number of births to unmarried women by age group in the United States since 1940. Methods for collecting information on marital status changed...

  4. Base-flow index grid for the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 1-kilometer raster (grid) dataset for the conterminous United States was created by interpolating base-flow index (BFI) values estimated at U.S. Geological...

  5. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 2005-2009 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 2005-2009. Parameter-elevation...

  6. Seismic Hazard Map for the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows seismic hazard in the United States. The data represent a model showing the probability that ground motion will reach a certain level. This map...

  7. Global Map: Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of the...

  8. United States Crimes Database 1994-2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 1994-2000, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  9. United States Crimes Database 2001-2002 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 2001-2002, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  10. Public Land Survey System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  11. United States Tornado Touchdown Points 1950-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows tornado touchdown points in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, from 1950 to 2004. Statistical data were obtained from...

  12. Costly Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows point locations of costly individual landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. Landslide locations were determined from...

  13. Current Developments in Communications Law in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadl, Robert D.

    1973-01-01

    Article reviews some of the major developments in communications law in the United States in the past year (1972). Significant events are covered in the areas of cable television, television programming and domestic satelites. (Author)

  14. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1962. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  15. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 1961-1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 1961-1990. Parameter-elevation...

  16. Crushed Stone Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes crushed stone operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  17. Map service: United States Oil and Gas Production 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  18. Decline of forest interior conditions in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest interior environments, thereby endangering subordinate ecological attributes and functions. We analyzed the spatial patterns of forest disturbance and recovery for the conterminous United States from 2001 to 2006 to det...

  19. Inorganic Nitrogen Wet Deposition for the Conterminous United States, 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Annual inorganic nitrogen wet deposition were estimated for the conterminous United States for 1984. The estimates were derived from inorganic nitrogen...

  20. Disseminating Library and Information Science Research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Douglas

    1975-01-01

    A descriptive survey of the organizations and institutions which conduct and support current research in library and information science in the United States of America and of the major sources of research information. (Author)