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Sample records for united states compared

  1. Comparing population health in the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huguet Nathalie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the paper is to compare population health in the United States (US and Canada. Although the two countries are very similar in many ways, there are potentially important differences in the levels of social and economic inequality and the organization and financing of and access to health care in the two countries. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health 2002/03. The Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 was used to measure overall health-related quality of life (HRQL. Mean HUI3 scores were compared, adjusting for major determinants of health, including body mass index, smoking, education, gender, race, and income. In addition, estimates of life expectancy were compared. Finally, mean HUI3 scores by age and gender and Canadian and US life tables were used to estimate health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE. Results Life expectancy in Canada is higher than in the US. For those Conclusions The population of Canada appears to be substantially healthier than the US population with respect to life expectancy, HRQL, and HALE. Factors that account for the difference may include access to health care over the full life span (universal health insurance and lower levels of social and economic inequality, especially among the elderly.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of Indian Gaming in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, William V.; Bunch, Rick L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on Indian gaming in South Dakota discovered very restrictive and unfavorable tribal-state compacts that appear to border on economic racism. This article expands this previous research by exploring the influence of tribal-state Indian gaming compacts for the Indian casinos located in the contiguous United States. The purpose is…

  3. Childhood Ideology in the United States: A Comparative Cultural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Diane M.

    2003-03-01

    Childhood ideology functions in each nation as a complex of ideas about what children are like and how best to teach and socialise them. One important domain of childhood ideology concerns ideas and practices related to children's development and behaviour management. Drawing from an analysis of popular childrearing magazines and early childhood education materials in the United States, this cultural study describes contemporary American mainstream beliefs concerning children's early emotional and behavioural development. In particular, the paper explores themes of emotional expression, autonomy, individuality, power, and consumerism. Some comparisons with Japanese views on child development and emotional/behavioural socialisation are also made. The paper suggests that popular ideas and techniques of emotional and behavioural management in the United States in both families and early childcare environments reflect a dominant ideology of children that has potentially negative consequences for children's welfare. Furthermore, childhood ideologies, while retaining culturally specific values and ideas neither remain static nor exist in isolation from one another. The paper questions the global diffusion of a Western-style professionalised discourse of child psychology that may not be applicable to all nations and their children.

  4. Poverty and the Income Package of Working Parents: The United States in Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Lee

    1995-01-01

    Examines poverty rates among families with children in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Compares the United States' rates to each of these countries to highlight the role of sickness insurance, child allowances, child support, income-tested social assistance, unemployment…

  5. United States comparative costs and absenteeism of diabetic ophthalmic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Richard A; Kleinman, Nathan L; Patel, Sunil; Smeeding, Jim E; Beren, Ian A; Turpcu, Adam

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective cohort study examined the impact of diabetic macular edema (DME), diabetic retinopathy (DR), or diabetes on annual health benefit costs and absenteeism in US employees. Claims data from 2001 to 2012 was extracted from the Human Capital Management Services Group Research Reference Database on annual direct/indirect health benefit costs and absences for employees aged ≥ 18 years. Employees with DME, DR, or diabetes were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Employees were divided into two groups, drivers or nondrivers, and examined in separate analyses. For drivers and nondrivers, the DME, DR, and diabetes cohorts were compared with their respective control groups (without diabetes). Two-part regression models controlled for demographics and job-related characteristics. A total of 39,702 driver and 426,549 nondriver employees were identified as having ≥ 1 year's continuous health plan enrollment. Direct medical costs for drivers with DME, DR, or diabetes were $6470, $8021, and $5102, respectively (>2.8 times higher and statistically significant compared with driver controls). Nondrivers with DME and DR incurred significantly higher sick leave and short-term disability costs compared with the nondrivers with diabetes and nondriver controls. In drivers with DME, the majority of days of absence were for short- and long-term disability (12.41 and 11.43 days, respectively). In drivers with DR, the majority of days of absence were for short-term disability (10.70 days). In nondrivers with DME and nondrivers with DR, the majority of days of absence were for sick leave (5.74 and 4.93 days, respectively) and short-term disability (5.08 and 4.93 days, respectively). DME and DR are associated with substantial direct medical cost and absenteeism in this real-world sample of medically insured employees. This research highlights the negative impact of DME and DR on annual costs and absenteeism

  6. Comparative analysis of design codes for timber bridges in Canada, the United States, and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wacker; James (Scott) Groenier

    2010-01-01

    The United States recently completed its transition from the allowable stress design code to the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) reliability-based code for the design of most highway bridges. For an international perspective on the LRFD-based bridge codes, a comparative analysis is presented: a study addressed national codes of the United States, Canada, and...

  7. United States and Israeli Homeland Security: A Comparative Analysis of Emergency Preparedness Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pockett, Consuella B

    2005-01-01

    This paper will provide a comparative analysis of the United States (U.S.) Department of Homeland Security's Emergency Preparedness and Response directorate and the Israel Defense Forces Home Front Command...

  8. Online marketing strategies of plastic surgeons and clinics: a comparative study of the United Kingdom and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassab, Reza; Navsaria, Harshad; Myers, Simon; Frame, James

    2011-07-01

    The cosmetic surgery market is a rapidly growing sector of healthcare, and the use of marketing strategies is now an integral part of any cosmetic surgery practice. In this study, the authors review 50 Web sites from practitioners in London and New York to quantify the utilization of online marketing, comparing results between the United Kingdom and the United States.

  9. Income inequality and income mobility in the Scandinavian countries compared to the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Aaberge, Rolf; Björklund, Anders; Jäntti, Markus; Palme, Mårten; Pedersen, Peder J.; Smith, Nina; Wennemo, Tom

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares income inequality and income mobility in the Scandinavian countries and the United States during the 1980's. The results demonstrate that inequality is greater in the United States than in the Scandinavian countries and that the ranking of countries with respect to inequality remains unchanged when the accounting period of income is extended from one to 11 years. The pattern of mobility turns out to be remarkably similar despite major differences in labor market and social...

  10. Parenting Behavior, Health, and Cognitive Development among Children in Black Immigrant Families: Comparing the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margot

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in child development in the United States are significant, with a particularly pronounced disadvantage among Black children. This report focuses on the development of children of Black immigrants, comparing against the outcomes for their peers in native-born and other immigrant families. The report also compares children in the…

  11. Addressing Child Poverty: How Does the United States Compare With Other Nations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeding, Timothy; Thévenot, Céline

    2016-04-01

    Poverty during childhood raises a number of policy challenges. The earliest years are critical in terms of future cognitive and emotional development and early health outcomes, and have long-lasting consequences on future health. In this article child poverty in the United States is compared with a set of other developed countries. To the surprise of few, results show that child poverty is high in the United States. But why is poverty so much higher in the United States than in other rich nations? Among child poverty drivers, household composition and parent's labor market participation matter a great deal. But these are not insurmountable problems. Many of these disadvantages can be overcome by appropriate public policies. For example, single mothers have a very high probability of poverty in the United States, but this is not the case in other countries where the provision of work support increases mothers' labor earnings and together with strong public cash support effectively reduces child poverty. In this article we focus on the role and design of public expenditure to understand the functioning of the different national systems and highlight ways for improvements to reduce child poverty in the United States. We compare relative child poverty in the United States with poverty in a set of selected countries. The takeaway is that the United States underinvests in its children and their families and in so doing this leads to high child poverty and poor health and educational outcomes. If a nation like the United States wants to decrease poverty and improve health and life chances for poor children, it must support parental employment and incomes, and invest in children's futures as do other similar nations with less child poverty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bilingual Preschool Education in the United States and Panama: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivia, Rebeca

    This paper compares bilingual education policy and practice in Panama and the United States. Particular issues studied include the following: the social context of bilingual education in the two countries; programming and policy differences; teacher qualifications; availability of age-appropriate materials; and administrative support, level of…

  13. The Need for Comparative Education Research to Concentrate on the Cultural Revolution within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, M. Loretta

    Comparative education research and courses are needed to identify real revolutionary movements in the current cultural revolution in the United States. The presence of cultural revolution is indicated by, among other things, the development of microcultures. Intranational instead of cross-national studies are of importance in the next few years to…

  14. Small Business Contracting in the United States and Europe: A Comparative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    unlimited. Prepared for: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, California 93943 SMALL BUSINESS CONTRACTING IN THE UNITED STATES AND EUROPE: A...COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT by Max Kidalov, Assistant Professor Procurement Law & Policy March 2010 Graduate School of Business & Public Policy...Daniel T. Oliver Leonard A. Ferrari President Executive Vice President and Provost The report entitled “Small Business Contracting in

  15. This is my neighborhood: comparing United States and Australian Oxford House Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R; Jason, Leonard A; Blake, Ron; Davis, Margaret I; Olson, Bradley D

    2006-01-01

    The number of Oxford Houses, communal-living, mutual help settings for persons in recovery of alcohol and substance abuse, has spread across the United States and recently in and around Melbourne, Australia. In this study 55 US and 6 AU Houses were compared descriptively for their neighborhood characteristics. Across settings, there were greater similarities than significant differences in the locations. Results imply that Australian Oxford Houses are "safe and sober" settings for persons in recovery consistent with the original United States model in physical dwelling settings.

  16. Photovoltaic power stations in Germany and the United States: A comparative study by data envelopment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2014-01-01

    This study compares Photovoltaic (PV) power stations between Germany and the United States to examine which country more efficiently provides renewable energy in their usages. For the comparative analysis, this study utilizes Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) as a methodology to evaluate the performance of PV power stations from the perspective of both solar and land usages. A total of one hundred sixty PV power stations (eighty in Germany and eighty in the United States) are used for this comparison. The demand for sustainable energy and energy security has been rapidly increasing over the past decade because of concerns about environment and limited resources. PV solutions are one of many renewable technologies that are being developed to satisfy a recent demand of electricity. Germany is the world's top installer and consumer of PV power and the United States is one of the top five nations. Germany leads the way in installed PV capacity even though the nation has less solar resources and land area. Due to limited solar resources, low insolation and sunshine, and land area, the United States should have a clear advantage over Germany. However, the empirical result of this study exhibits that PV power stations in Germany operate more efficiently than those of the United States even if the latter has many solar and land advantages. The surprising result indicates that the United States has room for improvement when it comes to utilizing solar and land resources and needs to reform the solar policy. For such a purpose, Feed-In Tariff (FIT) may be an effective energy policy at the state level in the United States because the FIT provides investors such as utility companies and other types of energy firms with financial incentives to develop large PV power stations and generation facilities for other renewable energy. It may be true that the FIT is a powerful policy tool to promote PV and other renewable installation and support a reduction of an amount of greenhouse

  17. Borders and border representations: Comparative approximations among the United States and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cueva Perus

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uses a comparative approach regarding frontier symbols and myths among the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean. Although wars fought over frontiers have greatly diminished throughout the world, the conception of frontier still held by the United States is that of a nationalist myth which embodies a semi-religious faith in the free market and democracy. On the other hand, Latin American and Caribbean countries, whose frontiers are far more complex, have shown extraordinary stability for several decades. This paper points out the risks involved in the spread of United States´ notions of frontier which, in addition, go hand-in-hand with the problem of multicultural segmentation. Although Latin American and Caribbean frontiers may be stable, they are vulnerable to the infiltration of foreing frontier representations.

  18. Comparing Generic Drug Markets in Europe and the United States: Prices, Volumes, and Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Olivier J; Kanavos, Panos G; McKEE, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: Our study indicates that there are opportunities for cost savings in generic drug markets in Europe and the United States. Regulators should make it easier for generic drugs to reach the market. Regulators and payers should apply measures to stimulate price competition among generic drugmakers and to increase generic drug use. To meaningfully evaluate policy options, it is important to analyze historical context and understand why similar initiatives failed previously. Rising drug prices are putting pressure on health care budgets. Policymakers are assessing how they can save money through generic drugs. We compared generic drug prices and market shares in 13 European countries, using data from 2013, to assess the amount of variation that exists between countries. To place these results in context, we reviewed evidence from recent studies on the prices and use of generics in Europe and the United States. We also surveyed peer-reviewed studies, gray literature, and books published since 2000 to (1) outline existing generic drug policies in European countries and the United States; (2) identify ways to increase generic drug use and to promote price competition among generic drug companies; and (3) explore barriers to implementing reform of generic drug policies, using a historical example from the United States as a case study. The prices and market shares of generics vary widely across Europe. For example, prices charged by manufacturers in Switzerland are, on average, more than 2.5 times those in Germany and more than 6 times those in the United Kingdom, based on the results of a commonly used price index. The proportion of prescriptions filled with generics ranges from 17% in Switzerland to 83% in the United Kingdom. By comparison, the United States has historically had low generic drug prices and high rates of generic drug use (84% in 2013), but has in recent years experienced sharp price increases for some off-patent products. There are policy

  19. A comparative study of Japan and United States nuclear enterprise: Industry structure and construction experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinman, G.W.; Lowinger, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Both Japan and the United States have undertaken major programs to utilize nuclear power for central station electricity generation. Over the past 20 years, the Japanese have developed their own construction and government regulatory institutions and now have an essentially independent domestic nuclear power program. Nuclear construction and government oversight of nuclear power have developed somewhat differently in Japan and the United States, reflecting to some extent the two countries' different business and social cultures. In the United States the vendor and utility industries are much more fragmented than those in Japan, and construction projects are carried out on a more competitive basis. The Japanese industry operates through a few well-established consortia while the U.S. industry does not. Relations among the national government, the vendors, and the electric utilities tend to be cooperative in Japan while they are more adversarial in the Untied States. This paper discusses these topics in a framework of a comparative study of the countries' nuclear industries. Whether because of the factors mentioned above or for other reasons the success of nuclear power in Japan and the United States has differed dramatically in recent years. This paper compares the performance of the nuclear enterprise in these two countries in terms of the physical attributes of the plants themselves, the labor required to build them, and the construction times required. It also discusses the relationship between initial estimates of costs and schedules and actual results achieved. On all counts, recent Japanese performance has been better than in the United States

  20. Alcohol and homicide in Russia and the United States: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landberg, Jonas; Norström, Thor

    2011-09-01

    The object of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of the aggregate relationship between alcohol and homicide in Russia and in the United States. The comparison was based on the magnitude of the alcohol effect, the alcohol attributable fraction (AAF), and the degree to which total consumption could account for trends in homicide. We analyzed total and sex-specific homicide rates for the age groups 15-64 years, 15-34 years, and 35-64 years. The study period was 1959-1998 for Russia and 1950-2002 for the United States. For the United States, alcohol consumption was gauged by sales of alcohol; for Russia, estimated unrecorded consumption was included as well. The data were analyzed through autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modeling. The results show that, for Russia as well as for the United States, a 1-L increase in consumption was associated with an increase in homicides of about 10%, although the absolute effect was markedly larger in Russia because of differences in homicide rates. The AAF estimates suggested that 73% and 57% of the homicides would be attributable to alcohol in Russia and in the United States, respectively. Most of the temporal variation in the Russian homicide rate could be accounted for by the trend in drinking, whereas the U.S. trend in total alcohol consumption had a more limited ability to predict the trend in homicides. We conclude that the role of alcohol in homicide seems to be larger in Russia than in the United States.

  1. Culture and health reporting: a comparative content analysis of newspapers in the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lu; Peng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Health reporting has the potential to educate the public and promote health behaviors. Culture influences the style of such communication. Following the theorization of national cultures by Hofstede and Hofstede (2005) and Wilber (2000), this study compares health reporting in the United States and China through a content analysis of leading newspapers. The authors discover significant differences in health reporting in terms of controllability attribution, temporal orientation, citation of authority sources, and use of statistics. As one of the first comparative content analysis studies of health reporting in Eastern and Western cultures, this study provides a unique cultural lens for health communication scholars to better understand health information in the news media.

  2. Comparative Indicators of Education in the United States and Other G-8 Countries: 2009. NCES 2009-039

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David C.; Sen, Anindita; Malley, Lydia B.; Burns, Stephanie D.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes how the education system in the United States compares with education systems in the other Group of Eight (G-8) countries (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom) that are among the world's most economically developed countries and among the United States' largest economic partners.…

  3. Diversity of United States medical students by region compared to US census data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mark M Smith,1 Steven H Rose,1 Darrell R Schroeder,2 Timothy R Long1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA; 2Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA Purpose: Increasing the diversity of the United States (US physician workforce to better represent the general population has received considerable attention. The purpose of this study was to compare medical student race data to that of the US general population. We hypothesized that race demographics of medical school matriculants would reflect that of the general population. Patients and methods: Published race data from the United States Census Bureau (USCB 2010 census and the 2011 Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC allopathic medical school application and enrollment by race and ethnicity survey were analyzed and compared. Race data of enrolled medical students was compared to race data of the general population within geographic regions and subregions. Additionally, race data of medical school applicants and matriculants were compared to race data of the overall general population. Results: Race distribution within US medical schools was significantly different than race distribution for the overall, regional, and subregional populations of the US (P<0.001. Additionally, the overall race distribution of medical school applicants differed significantly to the race distribution of the general population (P<0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that race demographics of US medical school applicants and matriculants are significantly different from that of the general population, and may be resultant of societal quandaries present early in formal education. Initiatives targeting underrepresented minorities at an early stage to enhance health care career interest and provide academic support and mentorship will be required to address the racial disparity that exists in US

  4. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-12-01

    Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills.

  5. Comparative Analysis and Considerations for PV Interconnection Standards in the United States and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-01

    The main objectives of this report are to evaluate China's photovoltaic (PV) interconnection standards and the U.S. counterparts and to propose recommendations for future revisions to these standards. This report references the 2013 report Comparative Study of Standards for Grid-Connected PV System in China, the U.S. and European Countries, which compares U.S., European, and China's PV grid interconnection standards; reviews various metrics for the characterization of distribution network with PV; and suggests modifications to China's PV interconnection standards and requirements. The recommendations are accompanied by assessments of four high-penetration PV grid interconnection cases in the United States to illustrate solutions implemented to resolve issues encountered at different sites. PV penetration in China and in the United States has significantly increased during the past several years, presenting comparable challenges depending on the conditions of the grid at the point of interconnection; solutions are generally unique to each interconnected PV installation or PV plant.

  6. Comparative empirical analysis of temporal relationships between construction investment and economic growth in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Ahmadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The majority of policymakers believe that investments in construction infrastructure would boost the economy of the United States (U.S.. They also assume that construction investment in infrastructure has similar impact on the economies of different U.S. states. In contrast, there have been studies showing the negative impact of construction activities on the economy. However, there has not been any research attempt to empirically test the temporal relationships between construction investment and economic growth in the U.S. states, to determine the longitudinal impact of construction investment on the economy of each state. The objective of this study is to investigate whether Construction Value Added (CVA is the leading (or lagging indicator of real Gross Domestic Product (real GDP for every individual state of the U.S. using empirical time series tests. The results of Granger causality tests showed that CVA is a leading indicator of state real GDP in 18 states and the District of Columbia; real GDP is a leading indicator of CVA in 10 states and the District of Columbia. There is a bidirectional relationship between CVA and real GDP in 5 states and the District of Columbia. In 8 states and the District of Columbia, not only do CVA and real GDP have leading/lagging relationships, but they are also cointegrated. These results highlight the important role of the construction industry in these states. The results also show that leading (or lagging lengths vary for different states. The results of the comparative empirical analysis reject the hypothesis that CVA is a leading indicator of real GDP in the states with the highest shares of construction in the real GDP. The findings of this research contribute to the state of knowledge by quantifying the temporal relationships between construction investment and economic growth in the U.S. states. It is expected that the results help policymakers better understand the impact of construction investment

  7. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  8. Comparative analysis of LMFBR licensing in the United States and other countries - notably France. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.W.; Castillo, M.

    1981-01-01

    The safety-related design aspects and licensing experiences of LMFBR projects in other democratic countries have been studied and contrasted to those in the United States in order to understand the importance of different approaches to safety, and also to understand better the system of the United States. The regulatory systems and LMFBR programs of France and the United States are contrasted in detail, and that of West Germany is also studied. The programs of Japan and the United Kingdom receive considerably less attention, and that of the Soviet Union is ignored

  9. Comparative Analysis Of River Conservation In The United States And South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both the United States and South Africa are recognized for their strong and innovative approaches to the conservation of river ecosystems. These national programs possess similar driving legislation and ecoregional classification schemes supported by comprehensive monitoring prog...

  10. Japanese Immigrants in the United States and Canada : A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Glenn G.

    2000-01-01

    The experiences of Japanese immigrants to the United States and Canada is the difference between assimilating cultures, which bear different attitudes towards wealth and immigration. The United States population does not openly hate Japanese, but in times of economic problems the inherent discrimination shown towards those perceived as outsiders rises. Canada does not have such constrictions, although this should not be construed as implying that there is no discrimination in Canada. It is si...

  11. Canadian and United States regulatory models compared: doses from atmospheric pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S-R.

    1997-01-01

    CANDU reactors sold offshore are licensed primarily to satisfy Canadian Regulations. For radioactive emissions during normal operation, the Canadian Standards Association's CAN/CSA-N288.1-M87 is used. This standard provides guidelines and methodologies for calculating a rate of radionuclide release that exposes a member of the public to the annual dose limit. To calculate doses from air concentrations, either CSA-N288.1 or the Regulatory Guide 1.109 of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, which has already been used to license light-water reactors in these countries, may be used. When dose predictions from CSA-N288.1 are compared with those from the U.S. Regulatory Guides, the differences in projected doses raise questions about the predictions. This report explains differences between the two models for ingestion, inhalation, external and immersion doses

  12. Cost of wind energy: comparing distant wind resources to local resources in the midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppock, David C; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2010-11-15

    The best wind sites in the United States are often located far from electricity demand centers and lack transmission access. Local sites that have lower quality wind resources but do not require as much power transmission capacity are an alternative to distant wind resources. In this paper, we explore the trade-offs between developing new wind generation at local sites and installing wind farms at remote sites. We first examine the general relationship between the high capital costs required for local wind development and the relatively lower capital costs required to install a wind farm capable of generating the same electrical output at a remote site,with the results representing the maximum amount an investor should be willing to pay for transmission access. We suggest that this analysis can be used as a first step in comparing potential wind resources to meet a state renewable portfolio standard (RPS). To illustrate, we compare the cost of local wind (∼50 km from the load) to the cost of distant wind requiring new transmission (∼550-750 km from the load) to meet the Illinois RPS. We find that local, lower capacity factor wind sites are the lowest cost option for meeting the Illinois RPS if new long distance transmission is required to access distant, higher capacity factor wind resources. If higher capacity wind sites can be connected to the existing grid at minimal cost, in many cases they will have lower costs.

  13. A comparative legal analysis of social media advertising of drugs in Germany and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, Bianca

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies use social media such as Facebook and Twitter more and more to advertise their products. Advertising of medicinal products especially in social media is a critical issue confronting patient protection, competition law and ethical concerns in direct-to-consumer advertising. Advertising in the World Wide Web must take into account national and international regulations, depending on which user from which country will have access to the information posted. Different legal requirements, if any, regulate the advertising of medicinal products. This paper discusses, challenges and compares the requirements and regulations of advertising medicinal products in social media, such as Facebook, in the United States on a federal level and the European Union with Germany as a reference Member State. Social media are very active and fast moving. Therefore, it is challenging and necessary at the same time to set guidelines and regulations for the use of social media in drug advertising. This paper is a first step toward promoting an international, consistent approach when talking about regulating advertising of medicinal products in social media.

  14. United States Physical Therapists' Knowledge About Joint Hypermobility Syndrome Compared with Fibromyalgia and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russek, Leslie N; LaShomb, Emily A; Ware, Amy M; Wesner, Sarah M; Westcott, Vanessa

    2016-03-01

    Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is one of the most common inherited connective tissue disorders. It causes significant pain and disability for all age groups, ranging from developmental delay among children to widespread chronic pain in adults. Experts in JHS assert that the condition is under-recognized and poorly managed. The aim of this study was to assess US physical therapists' knowledge about JHS compared with other causes of widespread pain and activity limitations: fibromyalgia, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and adult rheumatoid arthritis. Cross-sectional, Internet-based survey of randomly selected members of the American Physical Therapy Association and descriptive statistics were used to explore physical therapists' knowledge about JHS, fibromyalgia, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and adult rheumatoid arthritis, and chi square was used to compare knowledge about the different conditions. The response rate was 15.5% (496). Although 36% recognized the Beighton Scale for assessing joint hypermobility, only 26.8% of respondents were familiar with the Brighton Criteria for diagnosing JHS. Few respondents (11-19%) realized that JHS has extra-articular features such as anxiety disorder, fatigue, headache, delayed motor development, easy bruising and sleep disturbance. Physical therapists working in environments most likely to see patients with JHS underestimated the likely prevalence in their patient population. The results suggest that many physical therapists in the United States are not familiar with the diagnostic criteria, prevalence or common clinical presentation of JHS. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Comparing Teachers' Views on Morality and Moral Education, a Comparative Study in Turkey and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePage, Pamela; Akar, Hanife; Temli, Yeliz; Sen, Derya; Hasser, Neil; Ivins, Ilene

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the researchers examined how K-8 teachers approach morality, moral education, and the moral development of children in Turkey and in the United States. Both countries have diverse cultures and long histories with secular education systems. Surveys were sent to teachers in nine cities in both countries. Results suggest that Turkish…

  16. Quality improvement strategies and tools: A comparative analysis between Italy and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Stefano; Restuccia, Joseph D; Anessi-Pessina, Eugenio; Rizzo, Marco Giovanni; Cohen, Alan B

    2018-01-01

    Italian and American hospitals, in two different periods, have been urged by external circumstances to extensively redesign their quality improvement strategies. This paper, through the use of a survey administered to chief quality officers in both countries, aims to identify commonalities and differences between the two systems and to understand which approaches are effective in improving quality of care. In both countries chief quality officers report quality improvement has become a strategic priority, clinical governance approaches, and tools-such as disease-specific quality improvement projects and clinical pathways-are commonly used, and there is widespread awareness that clinical decision making must be supported by protocols and guidelines. Furthermore, the study clearly outlines the critical importance of adopting a system-wide approach to quality improvement. To this extent Italy seems lagging behind compared to US in fact: (i) responsibilities for different dimensions of quality are spread across different organizational units; (ii) quality improvement strategies do not typically involve administrative staff; and (iii) quality performance measures are not disseminated widely within the organization but are reported primarily to top management. On the other hand, in Italy chief quality officers perceive that the typical hospital organizational structure, which is based on clinical directories, allows better coordination between clinical specialties than in the United States. In both countries, the results of the study show that it is not the single methodology/model that makes the difference but how the different quality improvement strategies and tools interact to each other and how they are coherently embedded with the overall organizational strategy.

  17. Comparing Guidelines for Statin Treatment in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Deirdre A; Bushnik, Tracey; Manuel, Douglas G; Anderson, Todd J

    2015-07-14

    New guidelines for cardiovascular disease risk assessment and statin eligibility have recently been published in the United States by the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association (ACC-AHA). It is unknown how these guidelines compare with the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) recommendations. Using data from the Canadian Health Measures Survey 2007-2011, we estimated the cardiovascular disease risk and proportion of the Canadian population, aged 40 to 75 years without cardiovascular disease, who would theoretically be eligible for statin treatment under both the CCS and ACC-AHA guidelines. The survey sample used (n=1975) represented 13.1 million community dwelling Canadians between the ages of 40 and 75 years. In comparing the CVD risk assessment methods, we found that calculated CVD risk was higher based on the CCS guidelines compared with the ACC-AHA guidelines. Despite this, a similar proportion and number of Canadians would be eligible for statin treatment under the 2 sets of recommendations. Some discordance in recommendations was found within subgroups of the population, with the CCS guidelines recommending more treatment for individuals who are younger, with a family history of CVD, or with chronic kidney disease. The ACC-AHA recommend more treatment for people who are older (age 60+ years). These results likely overestimate the treatment rate under both guidelines because, in primary prevention, a clinician-patient discussion must occur before treatment and determines uptake. Implementing the ACC-AHA lipid treatment guidelines in Canada would not result in an increase in individuals eligible for statin treatment. In fact, the proportion of the population recommended for statin treatment would decrease slightly and be targeted at different subgroups of the population. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Transcontinental wilderness survey: comparing perceptions between wilderness users in the eastern and western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas Palso; Alan Graefe

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the differences in perceptions of wilderness between recreationists in the Eastern United States and those from the West, with a focus on definitions of wilderness areas and factors that may decrease enjoyment of the wilderness experience. The few studies performed on this comparison over the past 25 years have produced inconsistent results and...

  19. Comparing sensitivity and specificity of screening mammography in the United States and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp Jacobsen, Katja; O'Meara, Ellen S; Key, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Delivery of screening mammography differs substantially between the United States (US) and Denmark. We evaluated whether there are differences in screening sensitivity and specificity. We included screens from women screened at age 50-69 years during 1996-2008/2009 in the US Breast Cancer...

  20. Dependence within Families and the Division of Labor: Comparing Sweden and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evertsson, Marie; Nermo, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    This article assesses the relative explanatory value of the resource-bargaining perspective and the doing-gender approach for the division of housework in the United States and Sweden from the mid-1970s to 2000. The data used are the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Swedish Level of Living Survey. Overall results show that housework…

  1. Between punishment and discipline: comparing strategies to control unauthorized immigration in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, W.

    2014-01-01

    Immigration scholars have noted the rise of a distinctive discourse concerning immigrants in the United States. The ‘immigrant threat’ discourse is said to portray immigrants as an existential threat to the country and contributes to highly restrictive enforcement policies. Through a close

  2. Social functions of high school athletics in the United States: a historical and comparative analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokvis, R.

    2009-01-01

    In the United States competitive sport is part of the extra-curricular program of high schools. In the Netherlands, on the other hand, competitive sport is practiced in private clubs which are completely independent of the high schools. The consolidation and continuity of this difference can be

  3. Influence of Leader Behaviors on Creativity: A Comparative Study between South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Seog Joo

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates what are the relationships between different leader behaviors (i.e. supportive, participative, and controlling leader behaviors) and follower creativity, and whether the relationships differ between South Korea and the United States. Although creativity research suggests that supportive leader behaviors tend to enhance…

  4. An Internationally Intelligible Principle: Comparing the Nondelegation Doctrine in the United States and European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grodin Edward

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the degree of convergence between the United States and the European Union regarding the structural role of administrative agencies. As will be argued, the United States and European Union have arrived at the same broad conclusion about a “nondelegation doctrine”: delegations to administrative agencies should be permitted so long as some limiting principle governs the exercise of that power and allows for sufficient judicial review. However, the Supreme Court has taken a more permissive approach than the Court of Justice in defining the limiting principle. The United States has loosened the reins for the sake of modern administration while the European Union has maintained a firmer grip to keep better control over the Europeanization project. Stated another way, the nondelegation doctrine is simply a reflection of the systems’ relative levels of integration. Thus, the nondelegation doctrine will be stretched in Europe as functional regulatory demands arise from wider and deeper integration. At the same time, the focus will be redirected from substantive limits to procedural controls; accordingly, this Note advocates for a European Administrative Procedure Act.

  5. Globalisation, Language and Education: A Comparative Study of the United States and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Campbell, Zaline M.

    2001-07-01

    Educational language choice has been one of the most provocative issues of the 20th century and continues to be a dominant issue at the turn of the new millennium. Efforts to naturalize English as the only suitable language for post primary school education persist in many African countries, including Tanzania. In the United States the campaign for "English only" in the schools is gaining momentum, despite the increasing multilingual population in the schools. Focusing on Tanzania and the United States, this article examines the fallacy of a monolingual, English only, policy in education. It examines the ethos surrounding the debate about the language of instruction, and considers some of the detrimental effects upon students of attempting to impose a monolingual policy. Finally, the paper suggests possible roles of educators and researchers in fostering international understanding of educational language issues as one aspect of the quest for global peace and social justice in the 21st century.

  6. An economic analysis of payment for health care services: the United States and Switzerland compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Peter; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2009-06-01

    This article seeks to assess whether physician payment reforms in the United States and Switzerland were likely to attain their objectives. We first introduce basic contract theory, with the organizing principle being the degree of information asymmetry between the patient and the health care provider. Depending on the degree of information asymmetry, different forms of payment induce "appropriate" behavior. These theoretical results are then pitted against the RBRVS of the United States to find that a number of its aspects are not optimal. We then turn to Switzerland's Tarmed and find that it fails to conform with the prescriptions of economic contract theory as well. The article closes with a review of possible reforms that could do away with uniform fee schedules to improve the performance of the health care system.

  7. Permanent Income Inequality: Australia, Britain, Germany, and the United States Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Leigh

    2009-01-01

    A common critique of most measures of income inequality, which are based on a single year's income, is that they fail to take account of income mobility. If income fluctuations are large, and individuals can smooth consumption, then high inequality and high mobility may be no worse than low inequality and low mobility. To test this, I use panel data from four countries – Australia, Britain, Germany and the United States – and estimate measures of permanent income inequality that are based on ...

  8. A Comparative Analysis of United States and Chinese Economic Engagement in Sub Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    education opportunities for aspiring sub-Saharan Africa leaders, improve drinking water , and protect forests—all of which is an interesting foreign...ANALYSIS OF UNITED STATES AND CHINESE ECONOMIC ENGAGEMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA by James Housley Furman, Jr. March 2016 Thesis Advisor...ENGAGEMENT IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) James Housley Furman, Jr. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  9. Delay and restricted access of new molecules in Turkey compared to the United States and European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Toros; Yeşil, Atakan; Topcu, Türker

    2013-01-01

    This study compares the performances of new-molecule (NM) launches in Turkey with those in the European Union and United States for the years 2007-2013. The Thomson Reuters Newport Horizon for Innovators Database is used to identify NMs with a launch date after January 1, 2007, worldwide and marketing authorization approval after January 1, 2007, in the European Union. The launch dates for the European Union, the United States, and Turkey were retrieved from the same database. Data for Turkey were confirmed via IMS and RxMedia. Out of 183 records identified that are launched in the European Union, the United States, or both, 44 of the NMs are launched in Turkey (24%). The results of this study show that 24% of the NMs that are launched in either the European Union or United States were able to be launched in Turkey with a mean delay of 821 days (2.25 years).

  10. A Comparative Analysis of Geosciences Education and its Effectiveness in the United States and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontar, Y. Y.

    2011-12-01

    Geoscience education is an important issue in the United States and Russia alike. Specifically, the funding of education is highly dependent on the country's overall system and its priorities. The American schools are better funded than Russian schools. The collapse of the Russian economy in the 1980s significantly influenced the decline of the overall national education system, including its quality and funding. Only 4.2 percent of the overall GDP is allocated toward primary and secondary education in Russia. It is 165 times less than in the United States. Russia currently has one of the highest literacy ratings in the world. Despite low funding, students still receive a solid and complete education, specifically in core subjects, such as geosciences, physics and mathematics. However, the education provided by the Russian public schools is becoming less up to date and therefore less effective. Therefore, the country might face poor educational outcomes if the financial allocation is not increased in the near future. Russian schools are designed for a "standard" student. There are a limited amount of auxiliary schools in Russia that focus on providing education for children with various physical disadvantages such as hearing, speech and vision problems. In addition, there are specialized schools for advanced children, who show more potential in certain subjects than the others. The United States, on the other hand, has a relatively lower literacy rate in geosciences, physics and mathematics, but better funding of both public and private schools. Specifically, educational facilities have the necessary learning tools, such as computers, Internet access and updated textbooks. In addition, the handicapped facilities allow for all children to receive compulsory public education. The starting geosciences faculty teaching salary is significantly higher in the United States than in Russia, which makes the profession more desirable. Overall, each country can borrow

  11. World War I and Propaganda Poster Art: Comparing the United States and German Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Jon Kaminski

    2015-01-01

          This paper looks at some similarities and differences between propaganda art used by Germany and the United States during World War I.  The first section briefly looks at aesthetic theory and addresses the philosophical question of whether war propaganda posters are, in fact, ‘art’ at all.  Then images of various posters that were popular and widely published by both nations are shown and discussed.  This paper concludes that while there are many thematic similarities between the poster...

  12. Cosmetic surgery growth and correlations with financial indices: a comparative study of the United Kingdom and United States from 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassab, Reza; Harris, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been significant fluctuation in the yearly growth rates for cosmetic surgery procedures in both the United States and the United Kingdom. The authors compare cosmetic surgical procedure rates in the United Kingdom and United States with the macroeconomic climate of each region to determine whether there is a direct relationship between cosmetic surgery rates and economic health. The authors analyzed annual cosmetic surgery statistics from the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons and the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery for 2002-2011 against economic indices from both regions, including the gross domestic product (GDP), consumer prices indices (CPI), and stock market reports. There was a 285.9% increase in the United Kingdom and a 1.1% increase in the United States in the number of procedures performed between 2002 and 2011. There were significant positive correlations between the number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United Kingdom and both the GDP (r = 0.986, P failed to show a significant relationship with any indices. UK interest rates showed a significant negative correlation (r = -0.668, P indices are accurate indicators of numbers of procedures being performed in the United Kingdom, whereas rates in the United States seem independent of those factors.

  13. Managing crime through migration law in Australia and the United States: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Khanh; Reich, Sudrishti

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the intertwining of migration law and criminal law - termed 'crimmigration' by scholars - in Australia and the United States of America, and its implications for non-citizens who engage in criminal conduct. Our comparison of the two systems demonstrates that the laws and policies in both jurisdictions are similar to a significant degree. Both have strong exclusionary policies characterised by sweeping visa cancellation/removal powers, a heavy focus on enforcement, and limited review rights. In Australia, legislative amendments in 2014 have given the executive greater powers to cancel visas and remove non-citizens on character grounds as a means of ensuring national security and public safety. This has coincided with a new law enforcement body created within the Australian Department of Immigration. These changes reflect a repurposing of migration law as a tool for managing criminal threats based on the concept of 'risk management'. Drawing on the experience of the United States - where such a 'risk management' approach is entrenched - we query the utility of this shift and highlight the potential pitfalls of pursuing such a policy for Australia.

  14. Comparative costs of coal and nuclear-generated electricity in the united states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandfon, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    This paper compares the future first-year operating costs and lifetime levelized costs of producing baseload coal- and nuclear-generated electricity under schedules shorter than those recently experienced at U.S. plants. Nuclear appears to have a clear economic advantage. Coal is favorable only when it is assumed that the units will operate at very low capacity factors and/or when the capital cost differential between nuclear and coal is increased far above the recent historical level. Nuclear is therefore a cost-competitive electric energy option for utilities and should be considered as an alternative to coal when large baseload capacity is required. (author)

  15. A Comparative Case Study on School Management Practices in Two Schools in the United States and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silman, Fatos; Simsek, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing administrative processes in two schools, one in the United States and one in Turkey, in light of the two distinct administrative paradigms: the Anglo-Saxon and Napoleonic traditions. The study showed that in the Turkish school, which is thought to be an example of the Napoleonic administrative tradition, school…

  16. The Idea of the Visiting Inquiry in Comparative Education: The 1903 Mosely Commission and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Through a study of a privately funded and ambitious inquiry into the education system of the United States, the relations between the development of comparative education as an activity and the governing of education systems in the early 20th century can be illuminated. The relations and interests of early comparativists were mobilized and…

  17. The Japanese Labor Market in a Comparative Perspective with the United States. A Transaction-Cost Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masanori

    A comparison is made of some of the notable features of the Japanese and U.S. labor markets. In Japan, as compared to the United States, for example, levels of employment tenure are higher, employer-employee attachment stronger, earnings-tenure profiles more steeply sloped, layoffs and dismissals much less frequent, and joint consultation and…

  18. Are Teachers' Beliefs Related to Their Preferences for ADHD Interventions? Comparing Teachers in the United States and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David F.; Hamilton, Richard J.; Moore, Dennis W.; Pisecco, Stewart

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their preferences for classroom interventions for behaviours consistent with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Teacher ratings of intervention acceptability, effectiveness, and rate of change were compared across United States and New Zealand samples. Beliefs…

  19. Teachers' Attitudes toward Children with Autism: A Comparative Study of the United States and Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Abdulrahman; Tyler-Wood, Tandra

    2015-01-01

    Saudi Arabia (Saudi) and the United States (U.S.) both have procedures in place for identifying and serving individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in the general classroom setting. To determine differences in teachers' attitude towards autism in Saudi and the U.S., data were gathered, compared, and contrasted from both general education…

  20. A Comparative Review of Music Education in Mainland China and the United States: From Nationalism to Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare interactions between social changes and the integration of nationalism and multiculturalism in the context of music education by focusing on the ways in which the governmental politics of mainland China and the United States have managed nationalism and diversity in school music education. This paper also explores…

  1. Maintaining the Integrity of Public Education: A Comparative Analysis of School Autonomy in the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddie, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    This article takes a critical comparative approach to examining autonomous schooling in the United States and Australia. Amid the market imperatives currently driving education priorities, its focus is on how autonomy can be mobilized in ways that preserve the integrity of public education. Through reference to key debates and research about…

  2. Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gori Maia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1 a higher level of socioeconomic development in the American occupational structure, reflecting huge socioeconomic differences between these countries; (2 a tenuous convergence between the Brazilian and American occupational structures; (3 a significant decrease in the net impacts of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment (i.e., reduced social stratification in both countries. These results suggest the analytical worth of considering occupational structure as a significant intermediate variable affecting the level of socioeconomic inequality within a country over time, as well as between two countries at a given point in time.

  3. Dietary recommendations: comparing dietary guidelines from Brazil and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichieri, Rosely; Chiuve, Stephanie E; Pereira, Rosângela Alves; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza; Willett, Walter C

    2010-11-01

    The Brazilian dietary guidelines are based in part on mainstream United States' recommendations, in spite of the criticisms and shortcomings of the American guidelines. In this paper, Brazilian food guidelines are summarized and discussed in comparison with the USA recommendations. American and Brazilian dietary recommendations are quite similar in many aspects, particularly those related to variety in the diet, the importance of physical activity and weight management. Different to American guidelines, those from Brazil advise people to choose fresh foods, to prefer healthier types of fat, to limit trans fat intake and to eat good sources of protein, but does not recommend the consumption of whole grains. Besides the challenges related to their implementation, indicators for the evaluation of the effectiveness of these guidelines should be established from the beginning, particularly those related to changes in dietary habits and the prevalence of obesity.

  4. Comparative policies of two national dental associations: Norway and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helöe, L A

    1991-01-01

    The major issues and challenges confronting the dental professions in the United States and Norway were studied through speeches of and interviews with the presidents of the American Dental Association (ADA) and the Norwegian Dental Association (NDA) in the period 1980-86. The issues most frequently dealt with related to public authorities, particularly legislation and government involvement in dental practice. Anxiety concerning "busyness," the future dental market, and a drop in the quality of applicants to dental schools were also major subjects. The spokespersons of both associations were engaged in increasing the demand for dental services by marketing, but they were ambivalent regarding advertising, especially individual advertising. Both were concerned with protecting dentistry's autonomy. While the Norwegian presidents apparently feared the medical profession's influence upon dentistry, the Americans were concerned with the hygienists and denturists, and with the insurance companies which they suspected of intruding into the dentist-patient relationship. The presidents' statements, which frequently varied, were apparently influenced by the current domestic political climate, the basic socio-political principles of the two countries, and the different socio-demographic make-up of their memberships.

  5. World War I and Propaganda Poster Art: Comparing the United States and German Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jon Kaminski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at some similarities and differences between propaganda art used by Germany and the United States during World War I. The first section briefly looks at aesthetic theory and addresses the philosophical question of whether war propaganda posters are, in fact, ‘art’ at all. Then images of various posters that were popular and widely published by both nations are shown and discussed. This paper concludes that while there are many thematic similarities between the posters used by both sides, there are also some important differences. The most obvious difference between the German and American propaganda art was in regard to the overall tone of the posters and the colors used in the presentation. The images used have been downloaded from a reputable website that depicts reproductions of the posters that were used during WW1. Understanding the nature of the propaganda used by each side can help shed light on the attitudes and sentiments towards the war held by political elites and citizens alike.

  6. Differences in dermatology training abroad: A comparative analysis of dermatology training in the United States and in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jhorar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dermatology residency training is not standardized internationally, and each country dictates how training is conducted within its own borders. This article highlights the types of variability in training that can occur from country to country by comparing dermatology residency training programs in the United States and India. This article specifically analyzes the differences that pertain to application and selection, residency program structure, and post-residency opportunities.

  7. Comparative Power Projectional Capabilities: The Soviet Union and the United States 1980-85.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-26

    Comparisons 2 LDC Growth of GDP , 1970-1990 3 Major LDC Primary Product and Manufactured Good Exporters 4 LDCs with Declining Terms of Trade 5 External Public...Amphibious Unit -- Southern Spain & Western Mediterranean -Marine Amphibious Unit Auckland , New Zealand - Infantry Company Okinawa, Japan - Marine

  8. A comparative analysis of business structures suitable for farmer-owned wind power projects in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    For years, farmers in the United States have looked with envy on their European counterparts' ability to profitably farm the wind through ownership of distributed, utility-scale wind projects. Only within the past few years, however, has farmer- or community-owned wind power development become a reality in the United States. The primary hurdle to this type of development in the United States has been devising and implementing suitable business and legal structures that enable such projects to take advantage of tax-based federal incentives for wind power. This article discusses the limitations of such incentives in supporting farmer- or community-owned wind projects, describes four ownership structures that potentially overcome such limitations, and finally conducts comparative financial analysis on those four structures, using as an example a hypothetical 1.5 MW farmer-owned project located in the state of Oregon. We find that material differences in the competitiveness of each structure do exist, but that choosing the best structure for a given project will largely depend on the conditions at hand; e.g., the ability of the farmer(s) to utilize tax credits, preference for individual versus 'cooperative' ownership, and the state and utility service territory in which the project will be located

  9. The Importance of Comparative Law in Legal Education: United States Goals and Methods of Legal Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Hugh J.; Glendon, Mary Ann

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the rationale for teaching comparative law and describes techniques and results of experiments with two kinds of courses at Boston College Law School: (1) Comparative Legal Analysis, a perspective course, and (2) integration of comparative law as another dimension into courses in a particular subject matter area. (JT)

  10. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  11. A comparative analysis of leaving home in the United States, the Netherlands and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how leaving the parental home differs between three countries with different welfare-state and housing systems: the USA, the Netherlands and West Germany. Using longitudinal survey data, we examine the transitions of leaving home to live with and without a partner. We find that, much more than in the European countries, union formation has become separated from leaving home in the USA. We also find a different impact of level of education and employment status on leaving-home patterns in the European countries with their social-welfare state system than in the US system in which market forces prevail. The differences are not just related to welfare-state systems but also to the sizes of the countries and the geographical dispersion of jobs and educational opportunities.

  12. Comparing Outcomes of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Among Large Teaching and Urban Hospitals in China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhe; Zhang, Heng; Yuan, Xin; Rao, Chenfei; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yun; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Krumholz, Harlan M; Hu, Shengshou

    2017-06-01

    Coronary artery disease is prevalent in China, with concomitant increases in the volume of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The present study aims to compare CABG-related outcomes between China and the United States among large teaching and urban hospitals. Observational analysis of patients aged ≥18 years, discharged from acute-care, large teaching and urban hospitals in China and the United States after hospitalization for an isolated CABG surgery. Data were obtained from the Chinese Cardiac Surgery Registry in China and the National Inpatient Sample in the United States. Analysis was stratified by 2 periods: 2007, 2008, and 2010; and 2011 to 2013 periods. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, and the secondary outcome was length of stay. The sample included 51 408 patients: 32 040 from 77 hospitals in the China-CABG group and 19 368 from 303 hospitals in the US-CABG group. In the 2007 to 2008, 2010 period and for all-age and aged ≥65 years, the China-CABG group had higher mortality than the US-CABG group (1.91% versus 1.58%, P =0.059; and 3.12% versus 2.20%, P =0.004) and significantly higher age-, sex-, and comorbidity-adjusted odds of death (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidential interval, 1.22-2.04; and odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidential interval, 1.24-2.40). There were no significant mortality differences in the 2011 to 2013 period. For preoperative, postoperative, and total hospital stay, respectively, the median (interquartile range) length of stay across the entire study period between China-CABG and US-CABG groups were 9 (8) versus 1 (3), 9 (6) versus 6 (3), and 20 (12) versus 7 (5) days (all P China and the United States. The longer length of stay in China may represent an opportunity for improvement. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Risk of cancer in retransplants compared to primary kidney transplants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalil, Roberto S; Lynch, Charles F; Engels, Eric A

    2015-10-01

    Recipients of kidney transplantation have elevated risk of developing cancer. There are limited data on cancer risk in recipients of kidney retransplantation. We used data from the Transplant Cancer Match Study, which links the U.S. transplant registry with 15 cancer registries. Cancer incidence in recipients of kidney retransplantation and primary kidney transplants was compared utilizing Poisson regression, adjusting for demographic and medical characteristics. We assessed 109 224 primary recipients and 6621 retransplants. Compared to primary recipients, retransplants were younger (median age 40 vs. 46 yr), had higher PRA, and more often received induction with polyclonal antibodies (43% vs. 25%). A total of 5757 cancers were observed in primary recipients and 245 in retransplants. Overall cancer risk was similar in retransplants compared with primary recipients (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.06, 95% CI 0.93-1.20, adjusted for age, gender, race/ethnicity, PRA, and use of polyclonal induction). However, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) occurred in excess among retransplants (adjusted IRR 2.03, 95% CI 1.45-2.77), based on 514 cases in primary recipients and 43 cases in retransplants. Overall cancer risk did not differ in retransplants compared to primary recipients. Increased risk of RCC may be explained by the presence of acquired cystic kidney disease, which is more likely to develop with additional time with kidney disease and time spent on dialysis waiting for retransplantation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Comparing Higher Education Practices and Cultural Competences in Kenya and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musamali, Kennedy; Martin, Barbara N.

    2016-01-01

    Examined within this paper are effective leadership practices across two cultures. Specifically, this study examined the relationship between cultural competency and effective leadership practices in higher education institutions. A quantitative design was used to investigate and compare effective practices of educational leaders in two distinct…

  15. The Spelling Achievement of Third Culture Children Compared to United States Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuidon, Lauren Jayne Berry

    2009-01-01

    Spelling is a critical component to literacy development. Teachers of American children living overseas as well as adult "Third Culture Kids" (TCKs) have reported that spelling is especially challenging for the TCK population. This study investigated whether a difference existed in TCK spelling achievement compared to U.S. norms, as well…

  16. Adequacy by Any Other Name: A Comparative Look at Educational Spending in the United States and the Republic of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nicola A.; Kim, Hyunjun

    2017-01-01

    Scholars and policymakers want to know how much investment is sufficient to attain high-performing schools. Examining education spending in a highly regarded education system can yield insights for the United States. This paper explores conceptualizations and applications of adequacy in the United States and the Republic of Korea. Our exploratory…

  17. Disparity in Dental Attendance Among Older Adult Populations: A Comparative Analysis Across Selected European Countries and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Richard; Moeller, John; Chen, Haiyan; Widström, Eeva; Listl, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study addresses the extent to which diversity in dental attendance across population subgroups exists within and between the United States and selected European countries. Method The analyses relied on 2006/2007 data from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and 2004–2006 data from of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) in the United States for respondents aged 51 years and older. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify impacts of dental care coverage and oral as well as general health status on dental care use. Results We were unable to discern significant differences in dental attendance across population subgroups in countries with and without social health insurance, between the USA and European countries, and between European countries classified by social welfare regime. Patterns of diverse dental use were found, but they did not appear predominately in countries classified by welfare state regime or by presence or absence of social health insurance. Conclusions Findings of this study suggest that income and education have stronger and more persistent correlation with dental use than the correlation between dental insurance and dental use across European countries. We conclude that (1) higher overall rates of coverage in most European countries, compared to relatively lower rates in the USA, contribute to this finding and that (2) policies targeted to improving the income of older persons and their awareness of the importance of oral health care in both Europe and the USA can contribute to improving the use of dental services. PMID:26465093

  18. spa Typing and Multilocus Sequence Typing Show Comparable Performance in a Macroepidemiologic Study of Staphylococcus aureus in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, F Patrick; Suaya, Jose A; Ray, G Thomas; Baxter, Roger; Brown, Megan L; Mera, Robertino M; Close, Nicole M; Thomas, Elizabeth; Amrine-Madsen, Heather

    2016-01-01

    A number of molecular typing methods have been developed for characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates. The utility of these systems depends on the nature of the investigation for which they are used. We compared two commonly used methods of molecular typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Related Sequence Type [BURST]) with the staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing (and its clustering algorithm, Based Upon Repeat Pattern [BURP]), to assess the utility of these methods for macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies of S. aureus in the United States. We typed a total of 366 clinical isolates of S. aureus by these methods and evaluated indices of diversity and concordance values. Our results show that, when combined with the BURP clustering algorithm to delineate clonal lineages, spa typing produces results that are highly comparable with those produced by MLST/BURST. Therefore, spa typing is appropriate for use in macroepidemiology and evolutionary studies and, given its lower implementation cost, this method appears to be more efficient. The findings are robust and are consistent across different settings, patient ages, and specimen sources. Our results also support a model in which the methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) population in the United States comprises two major lineages (USA300 and USA100), which each consist of closely related variants.

  19. Depression among diabetic women in urban centers in Mexico and the United States of America: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara Muñoz, María del Carmen; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Escamilla, Marco Antonio; Mendenhall, Emily

    2014-10-01

    To compare the prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among women with type 2 diabetes in Puebla, Mexico, and Chicago, United States. Two cross-sectional studies were conducted independently, in Puebla (September 2010-March 2011) and in Chicago (January-July 2010). Depression symptomatology was evaluated in a random sample of 241 women self-reporting type 2 diabetes in Puebla and a convenience sample of 121 women of Mexican descent seeking care for type 2 diabetes in Chicago. Depressive symptomatology was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale administered in either English or Spanish. Women were similarly socioeconomically disadvantaged with low education levels in both locations. The Chicago sample of women reported higher levels of depression than the Puebla sample (38% versus 17%, P depression and diabetes in both sites, minimal variations in symptoms were observed. Depressive symptoms, specifically the subjective element (feeling sad) and symptoms associated with diabetes (fatigue and sleep problems) were heightened in both groups. More frequent reporting of "feeling fearful" was statistically significant in Puebla. Despite a higher prevalence of depression among Mexican immigrant women with diabetes in the United States compared to Mexico, there was little variation in their depressive symptoms, regardless of residence. However, women in Mexico did report a higher incidence of fear. Screening for depression in patients with diabetes should take into account symptoms of fatigue and sleep and the bi-directional relationship of depression and diabetes.

  20. Depression among diabetic women in urban centers in Mexico and the United States of America: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Lara Muñoz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among women with type 2 diabetes in Puebla, Mexico, and Chicago, United States. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were conducted independently, in Puebla (September 2010-March 2011 and in Chicago (January-July 2010. Depression symptomatology was evaluated in a random sample of 241 women self-reporting type 2 diabetes in Puebla and a convenience sample of 121 women of Mexican descent seeking care for type 2 diabetes in Chicago. Depressive symptomatology was measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale administered in either English or Spanish. Women were similarly socioeconomically disadvantaged with low education levels in both locations. RESULTS: The Chicago sample of women reported higher levels of depression than the Puebla sample (38% versus 17%, P < 0.0001. Among those with comorbid depression and diabetes in both sites, minimal variations in symptoms were observed. Depressive symptoms, specifically the subjective element (feeling sad and symptoms associated with diabetes (fatigue and sleep problems were heightened in both groups. More frequent reporting of "feeling fearful" was statistically significant in Puebla. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a higher prevalence of depression among Mexican immigrant women with diabetes in the United States compared to Mexico, there was little variation in their depressive symptoms, regardless of residence. However, women in Mexico did report a higher incidence of fear. Screening for depression in patients with diabetes should take into account symptoms of fatigue and sleep and the bi-directional relationship of depression and diabetes.

  1. The impact of sexual harassment on job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and absenteeism: findings from Pakistan compared to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkin, Rebecca S; Shah, Muhammad Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast how differences in perceptions of sexual harassment impact productive work environments for employees in Pakistan as compared to the US; in particular, how it affects job satisfaction, turnover, and/or absenteeism. This study analyzed employee responses in Pakistan (n = 146) and the United States (n = 102, 76) using questionnaire data. Significant results indicated that employees who were sexually harassed reported (a) a decrease in job satisfaction (b) greater turnover intentions and (c) a higher rate of absenteeism. Cross-cultural comparisons indicated that (a) Pakistani employees who were sexually harassed had greater job dissatisfaction and higher overall absenteeism than did their US counterparts and (b) Pakistani women were more likely to use indirect strategies to manage sexual harassment than were US targets.

  2. Comparing of the Financial Ratios: A case study on United States, Great Britain, Greece Due Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Stamatis Kontsas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a comparative study of the countries through the financial ratios that were analysed. This study was carried out in order to find the characteristics of each economy in comparison to the others. It would be worthy to mention that the three economies that were put under comparative study, are not of the same dynamic. The United States of America and Great Britain show some common characteristics due to the positions of power that they possess in the allocation of the global economy. However, in the case of Greece the same dynamic with the other two countries doesn’t exist, a fact that is greatly imprinted in their in-between comparison.

  3. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  4. A Comparative Study of Undergraduates' Attitudes Toward Aging in Taiwan and the United States Through Student Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Chih-Ling

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare similarities and differences in the attitudes toward aging among college students from Taiwan and the United States; 128 Taiwanese students and 124 U.S. students participated in this study. The findings indicate that the majority of students from both countries viewed aging as consisting primarily of physical changes. The differences are the U.S. students' drawings showing physical decline along with hospitals, nursing homes, or death, whereas Taiwanese students presenting physical decline as getting wrinkles, wearing glasses, or needing aid devices. U.S. students associated aging with grandparents-grandchildren relationships, whereas more Taiwanese students thought aging related to spousal relationships. This study adds to the existing literature that demonstrates the strong influence of different cultures on students' attitudes toward aging. Further, knowledge derived from this study can be used in gerontology courses for both students and professors to lessen or correct ageist stereotypes over time.

  5. United States and Canadian approaches to justice in health care: a comparative analysis of health care systems and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker, N S; Meslin, E M

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast the basic ethical values underpinning national health care policies in the United States and Canada. We use the framework of ethical theory to name and elaborate ethical values and to facilitate moral reflection about health care reform. Section one describes historical and contemporary social contract theories and clarifies the ethical values associated with them. Sections two and three show that health care debates and health care systems in both countries reflect the values of this tradition; however, each nation interprets the tradition differently. In the U.S., standards of justice for health care are conceived as a voluntary agreement reached by self-interested parties. Canadians, by contrast, interpret the same justice tradition as placing greater emphasis on concern for others and for the community. The final section draws out the implications of these differences for future U.S. and Canadian health care reforms.

  6. Global issues- National Policies: Comparing wetland protection polies and perceptions in the Netherlands en the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owens, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Wetlands protection is a global goal that requires action on many levels of government, including National, State or Provincial, and municipal. Global plans and programs require a network of national and sub-national policy definition and enforcement. In the United States, for example, global and

  7. Accreditation of undergraduate medical training programs: practices in nine developing countries as compared with the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Jose; Burch, Vanessa C; Adnan, Nor Azila Mohd; Afolabi, Bosede B; Ismail, Zalina; Jafri, Wasim; Olapade-Olaopa, E Oluwabunmi; Otieno-Nyunya, Boaz; Supe, Avinash; Togoo, Altantsetseg; Vargas, Ana Lia; Wasserman, Elizabeth; Morahan, Page S; Burdick, William; Gary, Nancy

    2006-07-01

    Undergraduate medical training program accreditation is practiced in many countries, but information from developing countries is sparse. We compared medical training program accreditation systems in nine developing countries, and compared these with accreditation practices in the United States of America (USA). Medical program accreditation practices in nine developing countries were systematically analyzed using all available published documents. Findings were compared to USA accreditation practices. Accreditation systems with explicitly defined criteria, standards and procedures exist in all nine countries studied: Argentina, India, Kenya, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines and South Africa. Introduction of accreditation processes is relatively recent, starting in 1957 in India to 2001 in Malaysia. Accrediting agencies were set up in these countries predominantly by their respective governments as a result of legislation and acts of Parliament, involving Ministries of Education and Health. As in the USA, accreditation: (1) serves as a quality assurance mechanism promoting professional and public confidence in the quality of medical education, (2) assists medical schools in attaining desired standards, and (3) ensures that graduates' performance complies with national norms. All nine countries follow similar accreditation procedures. Where mandatory accreditation is practiced, non-compliant institutions may be placed on probation, student enrollment suspended or accreditation withdrawn. Accreditation systems in several developing countries are similar to those in the developed world. Data suggest the trend towards instituting quality assurance mechanisms in medical education is spreading to some developing countries, although generalization to other areas of the world is difficult to ascertain.

  8. Closing the Gap on Moral Relativity: Comparing Human Rights Regimes in the United States and the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Armstrong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary authors often overstate the differences within the human rights regimes in the Russian Federation and the United States. This article is meant to provide insight into why the two systems, although taking markedly different developmental paths, have come to be far more similar than is often realized. The first question raised is, how did the two human rights systems develop historically? The next question is, how did the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and its subsequent split into two separate Covenants affect the rights within each system? The third question raised is, what modern advancements have taken place within each system? And finally, what failures within each system are also demonstrative of similarities within the two systems? Thus, the article begins by tracing historical developments within the two systems in order to elucidate regional variances that exist, and to explain how such variance materialized. Next, the article will provide concrete examples by comparing specific rights – such as the right to a public education, the right to social security, the right to participate in political life, and the right to privately own land – in order to provide some insight into why the author believes the differences in the two systems are often overstated by commentators. Finally, the article will explore some shortcomings that also share marked similarities within both systems. The article concludes that while the human rights regimes within Russia and the United States took markedly different paths during their development, and have relied on vastly different political and social situations during their evolution, they have ultimately reached a much greater level of maturity and protection under the law than is often given credit.

  9. Comparative phenotypic and genotypic analyses of Salmonella Rissen that originated from food animals in Thailand and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornsukarom, S; Patchanee, P; Erdman, M; Cray, P F; Wittum, T; Lee, J; Gebreyes, W A

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Rissen has been recognized as one of the most common serovar among humans and pork production systems in different parts of the world, especially Asia. In the United States, this serovar caused outbreaks but its epidemiologic significance remains unknown. The objectives of this study were to compare the phenotypic (antimicrobial susceptibility) and genotypic attributes of Salmonella Rissen isolated in Thailand (Thai) and the United States (US). All the Thai isolates (n = 30) were recovered from swine faecal samples. The US isolates (n = 35) were recovered from swine faecal samples (n = 29), cattle (n = 2), chicken (n = 2), dog (n = 1) and a ready-to-eat product (n = 1). The antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method with a panel of 12 antimicrobials. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to determine the genotypic diversity of isolates. All Thai isolates showed multidrug resistance (MDR) with the most frequent antibiotic resistance shown against ampicillin (100%), sulfisoxazole (96.7%), tetracycline (93.3%), streptomycin (90%) and chloramphenicol (30%). About half of the isolates of USA origin were pan-susceptible and roughly 30% were resistant to only tetracycline (R-type: Te). Salmonella Rissen isolated from Thailand and the USA in this study were found to be clonally unrelated. Genotypic analyses indicated that isolates were clustered primarily based on the geographic origin implying the limited clonality among the strains. Clonal relatedness among different host species within the same geography (USA) was found. We found genotypic similarity in Thai and US isolates in few instances but with no epidemiological link. Further studies to assess propensity for increased inter-regional transmission and dissemination is warranted. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  11. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  12. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  13. A comparative study of forestry in Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States, with special emphasis on policy measures for nonindustrial private forests in Norway and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berit Hauger. Lindstad

    2002-01-01

    In recognition of the cultural, economic, and ecological importance of forestry in Finland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States, this paper compares forest resource data, ownership patterns, management issues, and the impact the forest sector has on the national economies of these four countries. There is particular emphasis on the analysis of policy measures that...

  14. Subjective social status and trajectories of self-rated health status: a comparative analysis of Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Fujiwara, Takeo; Nakayama, Takeo; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2017-11-28

    Japanese society is more egalitarian than the United States as is reflected by the lower degree of prevalence of social inequalities in health. We examined whether subjective socioeconomic status is associated with different trajectories of self-rated health (SRH), and whether this relationship differs between the United States and Japan. We analyzed the responses of 3968 Americans from the survey Midlife in the United States, 2004-06, and the responses of 989 Japanese from the survey Midlife in Japan, 2008. We conducted a multilevel analysis with three self-ratings of health (10 years ago, current and 10 years in the future) nested within individuals and nested within 10 levels of subjective social status. Age, sex, educational level and subjective financial situation were adjusted. After making statistical adjustments for confounding variables, respondents in Japan continued to report lower average levels of health. However, the rate of expected decline in SRH over the next decade was strongly socially patterned in the United States, whereas it was not in Japan. The Japanese showed no disparity in the anticipated trajectory of SRH over time, whereas the Americans showed a strong social class gradient in future trajectories of SRH. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. The Cultural Influence in Accounting Standard Setting: A Comparative Analysis of the United States, Canada, and England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Robert; And Others

    A study of the processes for establishing the principles and policies of measurement and disclosure in preparing financial reports examines differences in these processes in the United States, Canada, and England. Information was drawn from international accounting literature on standard setting. The differences and similarities in the…

  16. Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement: A Comparative Study of Adolescent Students in England and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Gerard, Jean M.

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing mixed methodology, this paper investigates the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement for young adolescents within two Western cultural contexts: the United States and England. Quantitative and qualitative data from 86 North American and 86 British adolescents were utilized to examine the links between self-esteem and…

  17. Comparative Susceptibility of Plants Native to the Appalachian Range of the United States to Inoculation With Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Linderman; Patricia B. de Sá; E.A. Davis

    2008-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death of trees or ramorum blight of other plant species, has many hosts. Some geographic regions, such as the Appalachian range of the eastern United States, are considered high risk of becoming infested with the pathogen because known susceptible plants occur there and climatic characteristics appear...

  18. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  19. Trusting Social Media as a Source of Health Information: Online Surveys Comparing the United States, Korea, and Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hayeon; Omori, Kikuko; Kim, Jihyun; Tenzek, Kelly E; Morey Hawkins, Jennifer; Lin, Wan-Ying; Kim, Yong-Chan; Jung, Joo-Young

    2016-03-14

    The Internet has increasingly become a popular source of health information by connecting individuals with health content, experts, and support. More and more, individuals turn to social media and Internet sites to share health information and experiences. Although online health information seeking occurs worldwide, limited empirical studies exist examining cross-cultural differences in perceptions about user-generated, experience-based information compared to expertise-based information sources. To investigate if cultural variations exist in patterns of online health information seeking, specifically in perceptions of online health information sources. It was hypothesized that Koreans and Hongkongers, compared to Americans, would be more likely to trust and use experience-based knowledge shared in social Internet sites, such as social media and online support groups. Conversely, Americans, compared to Koreans and Hongkongers, would value expertise-based knowledge prepared and approved by doctors or professional health providers more. Survey questionnaires were developed in English first and then translated into Korean and Chinese. The back-translation method ensured the standardization of questions. Surveys were administered using a standardized recruitment strategy and data collection methods. A total of 826 participants living in metropolitan areas from the United States (n=301), Korea (n=179), and Hong Kong (n=337) participated in the study. We found significant cultural differences in information processing preferences for online health information. A planned contrast test revealed that Koreans and Hongkongers showed more trust in experience-based health information sources (blogs: t451.50=11.21, Psocial networking sites [SNS]: t466.75=11.36, P<.001) and also reported using blogs (t515.31=6.67, P<.001) and SNS (t529.22=4.51, P<.001) more frequently than Americans. Americans showed a stronger preference for using expertise-based information sources (eg, Web

  20. Rapanos v. United States & Carabell v. United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents associated with guidance for implementing the definition of waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act following the Rapanos v. United States, and Carabell v. United States Supreme Court decision.

  1. Self-esteem and academic achievement: a comparative study of adolescent students in England and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Gerard, Jean M.

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing mixed methodology, this paper investigates the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement for young adolescents within two Western cultural contexts: the United States and England. Quantitative and qualitative data from 86 North American and 86 British adolescents were utilized to examine the links between self-esteem and academic achievement from the beginning to the end of their academic year during their 11th–12th year of age. For both samples, quantitative results demonstrated that fall self-esteem was related to multiple indicators of later year academic achievement. While country differences emerge by the end of the year, math appears to have a consistent relationship with self-esteem in both country contexts. Qualitative analyses found some support for British students’ self-perceptions as more accurately reflecting their academic experience than the students from the United States. PMID:24068853

  2. Comparing Strategies for Providing Child and Youth Mental Health Care Services in Canada, the United States, and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronis, Scott T; Slaunwhite, Amanda K; Malcom, Kathryn E

    2017-11-01

    This paper reviews how child and youth mental health care services in Canada, the United States, and the Netherlands are organized and financed in order to identify systems and individual-level factors that may inhibit or discourage access to treatment for youth with mental health problems, such as public or private health insurance coverage, out-of-pocket expenses, and referral requirements for specialized mental health care services. Pathways to care for treatment of mental health problems among children and youth are conceptualized and discussed in reference to health insurance coverage and access to specialty services. We outline reforms to the organization of health care that have been introduced in recent years, and the basket of services covered by public and private insurance schemes. We conclude with a discussion of country-level opportunities to enhance access to child and youth mental health services using existing health policy levers in Canada, the United States and the Netherlands.

  3. How kinship systems and welfare regimes shape leaving home: A comparative study of the United States, Germany, Taiwan, and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Nauck

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper aims to explain societal differences in the event of leaving the parental home as part of the transition to adulthood, in the United States, Germany, China, and Taiwan. It proposes bridge hypotheses between societal characteristics such as kinship system and welfare regime and home-leaving behavior, and tests them with nationally representative panel studies. Methods: Four panel studies (NLSY97 for the USA; PAIRFAM for Germany; CFPS for China; TYP for Taiwan were harmonized for similar cohorts, with an age span of 15 to 30 years. Testing was based on age-specific tabulations of household composition and separate discrete-time event history models. Results: The prevalence of home-leaving is highest in the United States, followed by Germany, China, and then Taiwan. Timing is earlier in the United States than in Germany, and earlier in China than in Taiwan. Gender-specific coincidence of home-leaving with entry into higher education, the work force, cohabitation, and marriage can be conclusively related to differences in kinship system and welfare regime, and regional opportunity disparities. Contribution: The empirical results point to significant cultural differences between home-leaving in collectivistic, patrilineal societies (China, Taiwan and individualistic, bilineal societies (USA, Germany. Whereas neolocal housing signifies an important step in the transition to adulthood in the latter societies, continuous intergenerational housing, or even an early return to it, is normatively supported in collectivistic cultures. Differences between the United States and Germany on the one hand, and China and Taiwan on the other, point to variation in welfare regimes and differences in urbanization.

  4. CULTURAL VALUES, MARKET INSTITUTIONS, AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP POTENTIAL: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE UNITED STATES, TAIWAN, AND VIETNAM

    OpenAIRE

    THANG V. NGUYEN; SCOTT E. BRYANT; JERMAN ROSE; CHIUNG-HUI TSENG; SUPARA KAPASUWAN

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of national cultural values and the development of market institutions on three aspects of entrepreneurship (desire, intention, and confidence in creating new ventures). We ask: What different kinds of effects do cultural and institutional factors have on different aspects of entrepreneurship? Our samples come from Vietnam, Taiwan, and the United States (US). The use of three countries allows us to distinguish the separate influences of culture and market instit...

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGE DISCRIMINATION, EDUCATION, AND DIVERSITY TRAINING: A COMPARATIVE STUDY IN THE UNITED STATES AND THAILAND

    OpenAIRE

    Bahaudin G. M ujtaba; Frank J. Cavico; Albert A. Williams; Jatuporn Sungkhawan

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript explores age discrimination in employment and the challenges that managers confront in seeking to establish and maintain a legal, ethical, and productive workplace. The data regarding age and older workers comes from 218 respondents in the United States and 379 respondents in Thailand. A factor analysis was done ; and the results demonstrate that race, gender, education, country where you live the most, country where you presently live, and diversity training were statisticall...

  6. Comparative assessment of coal tars obtained from 10 former manufactured gas plant sites in the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.G.; Gupta, L.; Kim, T.H.; Moo-Young, H.K.; Coleman, A.J. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2006-11-15

    A comparative analysis was performed on eleven coal tars obtained from former manufactured gas plant sites in the eastern United States. Bulk properties analyzed included percent ash, Karl Fisher water content, viscosity and average molecular weight. Chemical properties included monocyclic- and polycyclic-aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations, alkylated aromatic concentrations, and concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic fractions. It was found that there was at least an order-of-magnitude variation in all properties measured between the eleven coal tars. Additionally, two coal tars obtained from the same manufactured gas plant site had very different properties, highlighting that there can be wide variations in coal tar properties from different samples obtained from the same site. Similarities were also observed between the coal tars. The relative chemical distributions were similar for all coal tars, and the coal tars predominantly consisted of PAHs, with naphthalene being the single-most prevalent compound. The C{sub 9-22} aromatic fraction, an indicator of all PAHs up to a molecular weight of approximately 276 g mole{sup -1}, showed a strong power-law relationship with the coal tar average molecular weight (MWct). And the concentrations of individual PAHs decreased linearly as MWct increased up to ca. 1000 g mole{sup -1}, above which they remained low and variable. Implications of these properties and their variation with MWct on groundwater quality are discussed. Ultimately, while these similarities do allow generalities to be made about coal tars, the wide range of coal tar bulk and chemical properties reported here highlights the complex nature of coal tars.

  7. Comparing hiking, mountain biking and horse riding impacts on vegetation and soils in Australia and the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Catherine Marina; Hill, Wendy; Newsome, David; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2010-01-01

    Hiking, horse riding and mountain biking are popular in protected areas in Australia and the United States of America. To help inform the often contentious deliberations about use of protected areas for these three types of activities, we review recreation ecology research in both countries. Many impacts on vegetation, soils and trails are similar for the three activities, although there can be differences in severity. Impacts include damage to existing trails, soil erosion, compaction and nutrification, changes in hydrology, trail widening, exposure of roots, rocks and bedrock. There can be damage to plants including reduction in vegetation height and biomass, changes in species composition, creation of informal trails and the spread of weeds and plant pathogens. Due to differences in evolutionary history, impacts on soil and vegetation can be greater in Australia than in the USA. There are specific social and biophysical impacts of horses such as those associated with manure and urine, grazing and the construction and use of tethering yards and fences. Mountain bike specific impacts include soil and vegetation damage from skidding and the construction of unauthorised trails, jumps, bridges and other trail technical features. There are gaps in the current research that should be filled by additional research: (1) on horse and mountain bike impacts to complement those on hiking. The methods used need to reflect patterns of actual usage and be suitable for robust statistical analysis; (2) that directly compares types and severity of impacts among activities; and (3) on the potential for each activity to contribute to the spread of weeds and plant pathogens. Additional research will assist managers and users of protected areas in understanding the relative impacts of these activities, and better ways to manage them. It may not quell the debates among users, managers and conservationists, but it will help put it on a more scientific footing. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All

  8. Factors in low-carbon energy transformations: Comparing nuclear and bioenergy in Brazil, Sweden, and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultman, Nathan E.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Runci, Paul; Carlock, Gregory; Anderson, Kate L.

    2012-01-01

    Policies to address climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions might be made more effective if we can better understand the pathways by which transformative technologies become significant components of energy systems. Indeed, the central question of mitigation revolves around the scope of policy to influence or accelerate the diffusion of low-carbon technology. While market forces clearly influence technology deployment, understanding the longer-term and large-scale changes in the energy system requires a broader understanding of the relative influence of institutional, behavioral, and social factors. This paper presents the results of an interview-based, comparative case approach to investigating systematically the relative importance of these non-economic factors influencing technological change across technology and country contexts. We identified two low-carbon energy sectors (bioenergy and nuclear power) that underwent significant changes over the past 50 years in the energy portfolio of three countries: Brazil, Sweden, and the United States. We identified nine categories of factors that might contribute to these large technological transformations, and then evaluated, via interviews with sector participants in each country, which factors were viewed as being determinative or highly influential in the trajectory of that technology in their country context. We also draw out policy implications and directions for future research. - Highlights: ► Study of energy transformations in bioenergy and nuclear energy in Brazil, Sweden, and the US. ► Data include survey and 78 interviews across 3 countries and 2 sectors. ► Across all countries and sectors, domestic policy was seen as the major factor in transitions. ► Other key factors with more variance were technological characteristics and industry structure. ► Study adds empirical detail to understanding of relative weights of factors in energy transitions.

  9. Finding the Gaps: A Comparative Analysis of Disability Laws in the United States to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council on Disability, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help the National Council on Disability (NCD), and others, better understand how the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, if ratified by the United States, might impact U.S. disability laws by examining the degree to which U.S. law is consistent with the CRPD. The paper endeavors to analyze the…

  10. Governing new technology: A comparative analysis of government support for nanotechnology in the Netherlands and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijmberts, Johannes

    This study examines this variance in national government support for nanotechnology---its shape, size, and policy priorities---by comparing the United States and the Netherlands. Our operating hypothesis is that national government support for nanotechnology development is driven not by the intrinsic nature of the technology but by longstanding structural and institutional arrangements. That is, in the U.S., pluralist political traditions and reliance on classical liberal market economics would suggest a detached national government approach, leaving any initiative to market actors. At the same time, legacies of corporatism in the Dutch political system and a tradition of greater direct government involvement in the national economy would suggest a government-led policy on nanotechnology development. The findings show otherwise. Early on, the U.S. government established the National Nanotechnology Initiative, an overarching federal mechanism to promote and coordinate nanotechnology development. Yet, despite its appearance of central direction and coordination, the NNI reflected pluralist arrangements by leaving ample autonomy for participating federal departments and agencies. The creation of the NNI was driven particularly by concerns of about foreign challenges to American global leadership in science and technology. In the Netherlands, by contrast, the path taken shows the legacy of Dutch corporatist practice---slow, incremental, and embedded in pre-existing institutional arrangements. The Dutch government initially took no directive role, relying instead on established links among universities, public research funding organizations, and industries to advance nanotechnology development in the Netherlands. However, over time, Dutch government involvement in nanotechnology grew to be more supportive, sizeable, comprehensive, and directive---particulary by requiring substantial investments in risk-related research as a condition for public funding and, notably, by

  11. The cost of karst subsidence and sinkhole collapse in the United States compared with other natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weary, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Rocks with potential for karst formation are found in all 50 states. Damage due to karst subsidence and sinkhole collapse is a natural hazard of national scope. Repair of damage to buildings, highways, and other infrastructure represents a significant national cost. Sparse and incomplete data show that the average cost of karst-related damages in the United States over the last 15 years is estimated to be at least $300,000,000 per year and the actual total is probably much higher. This estimate is lower than the estimated annual costs for other natural hazards; flooding, hurricanes and cyclonic storms, tornadoes, landslides, earthquakes, or wildfires, all of which average over $1 billion per year. Very few state organizations track karst subsidence and sinkhole damage mitigation costs; none occurs at the Federal level. Many states discuss the karst hazard in their State hazard mitigation plans, but seldom include detailed reports of subsidence incidents or their mitigation costs. Most State highway departments do not differentiate karst subsidence or sinkhole collapse from other road repair costs. Amassing of these data would raise the estimated annual cost considerably. Information from insurance organizations about sinkhole damage claims and payouts is also not readily available. Currently there is no agency with a mandate for developing such data. If a more realistic estimate could be made, it would illuminate the national scope of this hazard and make comparison with costs of other natural hazards more realistic.

  12. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    property of CocaCola Bottling Company, Fayetteville, North Carolina, of a value in excess of $100.00, in violation of Title 18 United States Code, Section...another, to-wit: a Cocacola soft drink machine, the amount of damage to said personal property being more than $200.00, in violation of North Carolina

  13. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight-obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood, and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking.We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i for major potential confounders, and (ii where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000-500,000 and 395,000 (372,000-414,000 deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight-obesity (216,000; 188,000-237,000 and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000-222,000 were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000-107,000, low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000-96,000, and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000-97,000 were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000-40,000 deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were outweighed by 90,000 (88,000-94,000 deaths from

  14. A Comparative Analysis of Patient Access Modes at Wilford Hall United States Air Force Medical Center and Selected Civilian Medical Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    In A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PATIENT ACCESS MODES AT WILFORD HALL UNITED STATES AIR FORCE MEDICAL CENTER N AND SELECTED CIVILIAN MEDICAL CENTERS0 N...current patient access modes at WHMC and several civilian medical centers of comparable size. This project has pursued the subject of patient access in...selected civilian medical centers which are comparable to WHMC in size, specialty mix, workload, and mission, providing responsive and efficient patient

  15. Comparative economic analysis of supporting policies for residential solar PV in the United States: Solar Renewable Energy Credit (SREC) potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, John Edward; Kang, Jin-Su

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies and market reports suggest that the solar photovoltaic markets rely heavily, if not entirely, upon governmental support policies at present. Unlike in other countries where these policies are enacted at a national level, the 50 states in the US pursue different policies in an attempt to foster the growth of renewable energy, and specifically solar photovoltaics. This paper provides an economic and financial analysis of the US federal and state level policies in states with solar-targeted policies that have markets. After putting a value on SRECs, this study further compares solar carve-outs with other incentives including the federal tax credit, net metering, and state personal tax credits. Our findings show that SREC markets can certainly be strong, with New Jersey, Delaware, and Massachusetts having the most potential. Despite their strong potential as effective renewable policies, the lack of a guaranteed minimum and the uncertainty attached are major drawbacks of SREC markets. However, the leveraging of this high value offers hope that the policies will indeed stimulate residential solar photovoltaic markets. - Highlights: ► We measure solar support incentives in eight US states with set-asides that include SREC policies. ► Compare each financial incentive using DCF, NPV, IRR, and Present Value/Watt-capacity. ► Most US SREC markets have strong potential to stimulate solar photovoltaics. ► SREC success requires price floors to alleviate uncertainty issues. ► Private financial entities can leverage SRECs to provide necessary price floors.

  16. A Comparative Analysis of E-Learning Policy Formulation in the European Union and the United States: Discursive Convergence and Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichsen, Elizabeth Roumell; Salajan, Florin D.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a framework that compares the content and purposes of "federal" level European Union (EU) and United States (US) e-learning policy to ascertain trends, patterns, and points of convergence and divergence across the years 1994-2010. It reveals that the EU and US are applying similar rhetoric for policy framing,…

  17. A Comparative Leadership Development Study within Student Collegiate Clubs and Organizations at an Agrarian University in Ukraine and a University within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, Erik; Hoover, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore leadership development within student collegiate clubs and organizations at an agrarian university in Ukraine. The data were then compared to a College of Agricultural Sciences at a university within the United States. The information collected in the study will serve as a basis for understanding leadership…

  18. A Comparative Analysis of the Relationship among Quality Instruction, Teacher Self-Efficacy, Student Background, and Mathematics Achievement in South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Won; Han, Seong Won; Kang, Chungseo; Kwon, Oh Nam

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare and contrast student, teacher, and school factors that are associated with student mathematics achievement in South Korea and the United States. Using the data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011, this study examines factors that are linked to teachers who deliver…

  19. Competence and Human Resource Development in Multinational Companies in Three European Union Member States: A Comparative Analysis between Austria, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Kollinger, Iris; Warmerdam, John; Moerel, Hans; Konrad, John; Burell, Catherine; Guile, David

    A comparative analysis of human resources development and management in the subsidiaries of three multinational companies (Xerox, Glaxo Wellcome, and AXA Nordstern Colonia) was conducted in these three European Union (EU) member states: Austria, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Case studies were used, focusing on competence needs and…

  20. United States rejoin ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    2003-01-01

    Upon pressure from the United States Congress, the US Department of Energy had to withdraw from further American participation in the ITER Engineering Design Activities after the end of its commitment to the EDA in July 1998. In the years since that time, changes have taken place in both the ITER activity and the US fusion community's position on burning plasma physics. Reflecting the interest in the United States in pursuing burning plasma physics, the DOE's Office of Science commissioned three studies as part of its examination of the option of entering the Negotiations on the Agreement on the Establishment of the International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. These were a National Academy Review Panel Report supporting the burning plasma mission; a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) report confirming the role of ITER in achieving fusion power production, and The Lehman Review of the ITER project costing and project management processes (for the latter one, see ITER CTA Newsletter, no. 15, December 2002). All three studies have endorsed the US return to the ITER activities. This historical decision was announced by DOE Secretary Abraham during his remarks to employees of the Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The United States will be working with the other Participants in the ITER Negotiations on the Agreement and is preparing to participate in the ITA

  1. United States advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, the advanced technologies have been applied to uranium enrichment as a means by which it can be assured that nuclear fuel cost will remain competitive in the future. The United States is strongly committed to the development of advanced enrichment technology, and has brought both advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) programs to a point of significant technical refinement. The ability to deploy advanced technologies is the basis for the confidence in competitive future price. Unfortunately, the development of advanced technologies is capital intensive. The year 1985 is the key year for advanced technology development in the United States, since the decision on the primary enrichment technology for the future, AGC or AVLIS, will be made shortly. The background on the technology selection process, the highlights of AGC and AVLIS programs and the way to proceed after the process selection are described. The key objective is to maximize the sales volume and minimize the operating cost. This will help the utilities in other countries supply low cost energy on a reliable, long term basis. (Kako, I.)

  2. Comparative study of meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuforo, Prisca O; Oyedele, Lola; Pacquiao, Dula F

    2004-04-01

    The study was conducted to gain insight into the meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria. Participant-observations occurred in three sites in Nigeria (Ibadan, Lagos, and Owerri) and in Essex County, New Jersey (Newark, Irvington, and East Orange). A total of 50 informants included adult males and females from the three main Nigerian ethnic tribes: Igbo, Yoruba, and Hausa. Leininger's culture care theory of diversity and universality was the study framework. Findings revealed existence of similarities and differences in the cultural meanings, beliefs, and practices among the tribes. Religion, education, and occupation were significant factors influencing informants' attitudes toward continuation of the practice. Government-sponsored public education and influence by the media were found to increase informants' awareness of complications of female circumcision. Changes in attitudes toward the practice and use of alternative practices were evident.

  3. College Students’ Perceptions of Intimate Partner Violence: A Comparative Study of Japan, China, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toan Thanh Nguyen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of cross-cultural differences between the United States, Japan, and China in perceptions of male to female intimate partner violence, and in the extent to which gender and traditional attitudes toward women related to these perceptions. College students (n = 943 read two fictitious scenarios describing marital and dating violence. MANOVA results showed gender differences in the perceptions of violence between the three countries. Male participants had more traditional attitudes toward women and placed more blame on female victims. The magnitude of the difference between women’s and men’s scores was much smaller for Japanese students than for American and Chinese students. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the effects of respondent gender were reduced when traditional attitudes toward women were taken into account. Differences in beliefs about appropriate gender roles still exist among college students in these countries and may be related to socially tolerant attitudes toward violence against women.

  4. The comparative burden of mild, moderate and severe Fibromyalgia: results from a cross-sectional survey in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg Don

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is characterized by chronic, widespread pain, fatigue, and other symptoms; yet few studies have comprehensively assessed its humanistic burden. This observational study evaluates the impact of FM severity on patients' symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, and productivity in the United States. Methods 203 FM subjects were recruited from 20 physician offices. Subjects completed a questionnaire including the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue (MAF, Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS-SS, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS and questions about demographics, pain and other symptoms, HRQoL and productivity. FIQ total scores were used to define FM severity, with 0- Results Mean (SD age was 47.9 (10.9; 95% were female. Most (92% were prescribed medication for FM; 24% and 66% reported moderate and severe FM, respectively. Mean (SD scores were: 6.3 (2.1 for pain intensity; 0.35 (0.35 for EQ-5D; 30.7 (14.2 for MAF; 57.5 (18.4 for MOS-SS Sleep Problems Index; 10.2 (4.8 for HADS anxiety and 9.4 (4.4 for HADS depression. Subjects with worse FM severity reported significantly increased pain severity, HRQoL, fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety and depression (p Conclusions FM imposes a substantial humanistic burden on patients in the United States, and leads to substantial productivity loss, despite treatment. This burden is higher among subjects with worse FM severity.

  5. THE UNITED STATES EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    David Suriñach Fernández

    2017-01-01

    The United States educational system is very complex. Due to the fact a big number of agents take play of its regulation, the differences between the education from one State compared to the education from another, or even between school districts, might be considerable. The last two largest federal education initiatives, No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top, have had a huge impact on the American education system. The escalation of the standardized test throughout the whole country as a ...

  6. Conflicts and natural disaster management: a comparative study of flood control in the Republic of Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jibum

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse the conflicts that arise among major stakeholders during the process of disaster management and to suggest policy recommendations for improving disaster management systems. It describes several important conflict cases that have occurred among major stakeholders, such as governments, private-sector entities, and non-governmental organisations, during natural disaster management. In addition, it probes the similarities and the differences between such conflicts in the Republic of Korea and the United States. The differences between them may originate from a range of factors, such as the disaster itself, cultural features, management practices, and government organisation. However, the conflicts also are very similar in some ways, as the motivations and the behaviour of stakeholders during a disaster are alike in both countries. Based on this comparison, the study presents some common and important implications for successful disaster management practices in Korea and the US, as well as in many other nations around the world. © 2016 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2016.

  7. Comparative Time Series Analysis of Aerosol Optical Depth over Sites in United States and China Using ARIMA Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Zhang, C.; Li, W.

    2017-12-01

    Long-term spatiotemporal analysis and modeling of aerosol optical depth (AOD) distribution is of paramount importance to study radiative forcing, climate change, and human health. This study is focused on the trends and variations of AOD over six stations located in United States and China during 2003 to 2015, using satellite-retrieved Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Collection 6 retrievals and ground measurements derived from Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET). An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model is applied to simulate and predict AOD values. The R2, adjusted R2, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used as indices to select the best fitted model. Results show that there is a persistent decreasing trend in AOD for both MODIS data and AERONET data over three stations. Monthly and seasonal AOD variations reveal consistent aerosol patterns over stations along mid-latitudes. Regional differences impacted by climatology and land cover types are observed for the selected stations. Statistical validation of time series models indicates that the non-seasonal ARIMA model performs better for AERONET AOD data than for MODIS AOD data over most stations, suggesting the method works better for data with higher quality. By contrast, the seasonal ARIMA model reproduces the seasonal variations of MODIS AOD data much more precisely. Overall, the reasonably predicted results indicate the applicability and feasibility of the stochastic ARIMA modeling technique to forecast future and missing AOD values.

  8. On the Outskirts of National Health Reform: A Comparative Assessment of Health Insurance and Access to Care in Puerto Rico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Maria; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2015-09-01

    Puerto Rico is the United States' largest territory, home to nearly 4 million American citizens, yet it has remained largely on the outskirts of US health policy, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA). We analyzed national survey data from 2011 to 2012 and found that despite its far poorer population, Puerto Rico outperforms the mainland United States on several measures of health care coverage and access to care. While the ACA significantly increases federal resources in Puerto Rico, ongoing federal restrictions on Medicaid funding and premium tax credits in Puerto Rico pose substantial health policy challenges in the territory. Puerto Rico is the United States' largest territory, home to nearly 4 million American citizens. Yet it has remained largely on the outskirts of US health policy, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This article presents an overview of Puerto Rico's health care system and a comparative analysis of coverage and access to care in Puerto Rico and the mainland United States. We analyzed 2011-2012 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and 2012 data from the American Community Survey and its counterpart, the Puerto Rico Community Survey. Among adults 18 and older, we examined health insurance coverage; access measures, such as having a usual source of care and cost-related delays in care; self-reported health; and the receipt of recommended preventive services, such as cancer screening and glucose testing. We used multivariate regression models to compare Puerto Rico and the mainland United States, adjusted for age, income, race/ethnicity, and other demographic variables. Uninsured rates were significantly lower in Puerto Rico (unadjusted 7.4% versus 15.0%, adjusted difference: -12.0%, p Puerto Rico. Puerto Rican residents were more likely than those in the mainland United States to have a usual source of care and to have had a checkup within the past year, and fewer experienced cost-related delays in care. Screening

  9. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U 3 O 8 resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed

  10. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed.

  11. The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Art, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that at least in the national security arena, the outcomes of bureaucratic infighting and domestic political struggles are not determined wholly by what goes on with the state. Rather struggles among contending groups are greatly affected by what is perceived to be happening outside the nation. Because external conditions give greater potency to some domestic forces over other, the external environment is never neutral in its domestic impact. The decisions of the period 1950-53 discussed above illustrate the point. But so too do the decisions of 1947, 1960-61 and 1969-72. In the 1947 case, Soviet intransigence provoked US nuclear rearmament. In the 1960-61 case, extended deterrent considerations pushed the United States to preserve its again newly discovered nuclear superiority. In the 1969-72 case, a Soviet determination to remain equal forced US acceptance of nuclear equality. And perhaps the best evidence of all, the perpetuation of parity ended the US inclination to resort to nuclear brinkmanship. In each instance, concerns about relative position heavily affected nuclear choice. Finally, the events of the past three years testify to the effects of international events on domestic choice. Under the terms of the 1987 INF Treaty, the two superpowers decided to dismantle and destroy an entire class of missiles of intermediate range (500-3000 kilometers) that both had deployed in Europe in the 1970s and 1980s, and in their June 1990 joint statement on strategic nuclear weapons, President Gorbachev and Brush agreed to cut the number of Soviet and US long range nuclear forces by 30 per cent. This agreement marks a watershed in US-Soviet strategic arm negotiations because for the first time the United States and the Soviet Union agreed in principals to reduce the number of weapons aimed at one another. Between 1985 and 1990 the cold war was brought to a close

  12. Pharmaceutical sales representatives and patient safety: a comparative prospective study of information quality in Canada, France and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara; Lexchin, Joel; Sutherland, Jason M; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique; Wilkes, Michael S; Durrieu, Geneviève; Reynolds, Ellen

    2013-10-01

    The information provided by pharmaceutical sales representatives has been shown to influence prescribing. To enable safe prescribing, medicines information must include harm as well as benefits. Regulation supports this aim, but relative effectiveness of different approaches is not known. The United States (US) and France directly regulate drug promotion; Canada relies on industry self-regulation. France has the strictest information standards. This is a prospective cohort study in Montreal, Vancouver, Sacramento and Toulouse. We recruited random samples of primary care physicians from May 2009 to June 2010 to report on consecutive sales visits. The primary outcome measure was "minimally adequate safety information" (mention of at least one indication, serious adverse event, common adverse event, and contraindication, and no unqualified safety claims or unapproved indications). Two hundred and fifty-five physicians reported on 1,692 drug-specific promotions. "Minimally adequate safety information" did not differ: 1.7 % of promotions; range 0.9-3.0 % per site. Sales representatives provided some vs. no information on harm more often in Toulouse than in Montreal and Vancouver: 61 % vs. 34 %, OR = 4.0; 95 % CI 2.8-5.6, or Sacramento (39 %), OR = 2.4; 95 % CI 1.7-3.6. Serious adverse events were rarely mentioned (5-6 % of promotions in all four sites), although 45 % of promotions were for drugs with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) "black box" warnings of serious risks. Nevertheless, physicians judged the quality of scientific information to be good or excellent in 901 (54 %) of promotions, and indicated readiness to prescribe 64 % of the time. "Minimally adequate safety information" did not differ in the US and Canadian sites, despite regulatory differences. In Toulouse, consistent with stricter standards, more harm information was provided. However, in all sites, physicians were rarely informed about serious adverse events, raising questions about

  13. Self-other differences in H1N1 flu risk perception in a global context: a comparative study between the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang Kevin; Zhang, Jueman Mandy; Chu, Kejun Rebecca; Shen, Guolin

    2014-01-01

    Extending research on self-other differences in perception to a global health risk, this study compares U.S. and Chinese college students' perceived H1N1 flu risk at four levels: personal, group, societal, and global. It also examines how personal experience, interpersonal communication, traditional and Internet-based media, and self-efficacy affect perception at four levels, as well as the self-other differences between the personal level and each of the other three levels. An online survey in both countries reveals an "ascending pattern," showing higher perceived risk for others than for selves. Chinese respondents perceive higher risk than U.S. respondents at all levels. Interpersonal communication predicts risk perception at four levels in the United States and at the group and societal levels in China. New media exposure exerts influence on all but the group level in China, while social networking sites (SNS) exposure predicts group- and societal-level risk perception in the United States. The overall attention paid to H1N1 information in the media affects all levels in both countries. Interaction between media exposure and attention is influential at all levels in the United States. Self-efficacy is negatively associated with risk perception in China except at the global level. Attention to media in the United States, and SNS exposure in China, explain the self-other differences in three comparisons, along with self-efficacy, which decreases the self-other gap in the United States while increasing the gap in China.

  14. Multi-Omics Research Trends in Sepsis: A Bibliometric, Comparative Analysis Between the United States, the European Union 28 Member States, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Levidou, Georgia; Bauer, Pia; Brand, Helmut; Kouskouti, Christina; Lehrach, Hans; Brand, Angela

    2018-03-01

    "-Omics" research is in transition with the recent rise of multi-omics technology platforms. Integration of "-omics" and multi-omics research is of high priority in sepsis, a heterogeneous syndrome that is widely recognized as a global health burden and a priority biomedical funding field. We report here an original study on bibliometric trends in the use of "-omics" technologies, and multi-omics approaches in particular, in sepsis research in three (supra)national settings, the United States, the European Union 28 Member States (EU-28), and China. Using a 5-year longitudinal bibliometric study design from 2011 to 2015, we analyzed the sepsis-related research articles in English language that included at least one or multi-omics technologies in publicly available form in Medline (free full texts). We found that the United States has had the lead (almost one-third of publications) in the inclusion of an "-omics" or multi-omics technology in sepsis within the study period. However, both China and the EU-28 displayed a significant increase in the number of publications that employed one or more types of "-omics" research (p < 0.005), while the EU-28 displayed a significant increase especially in multi-omics research articles in sepsis (p < 0.05). Notably, more than half of the multi-omics research studies in the sepsis knowledge domain had a university or government/state funding source. Among the multi-omics research publications in sepsis, the combination of genomics and transcriptomics was the most frequent (40.5%), followed by genomics and proteomics (20.4%). We suggest that the lead of the United States in the field of "-omics" and multi-omics research in sepsis is likely at stake, with both the EU-28 and China rapidly increasing their research capacity. Moreover, "triple omics" that combine genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics analyses appear to be uncommon in sepsis, and yet much needed for triangulation of systems science data. These observations

  15. National states and international science: A comparative history of international science congresses in Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, and cold war United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Ronald E; Hoffmann, Dieter; Krementsov, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    Prior studies of modern scientific internationalism have been written primarily from the point of view of scientists, with little regard to the influence of the state. This study examines the state's role in international scientific relations. States sometimes encouraged scientific internationalism; in the mid-twentieth century, they often sought to restrict it. The present study examines state involvement in international scientific congresses, the primary intersection between the national and international dimensions of scientists' activities. Here we examine three comparative instances in which such restrictions affected scientific internationalism: an attempt to bring an international aerodynamics congress to Nazi Germany in the late 1930s, unsuccessful efforts by Soviet geneticists to host the Seventh International Genetics Congress in Moscow in 1937, and efforts by U.S. scientists to host international meetings in 1950s cold war America. These case studies challenge the classical ideology of scientific internationalism, wherein participation by a nation in a scientist's fame spares the scientist conflict between advancing his science and advancing the interests of his nation. In the cases we consider, scientists found it difficult to simultaneously support scientific universalism and elitist practices. Interest in these congresses reached the top levels of the state, and access to patronage beyond state control helped determine their outcomes.

  16. Conventional, hybrid, plug-in hybrid or electric vehicles? State-based comparative carbon and energy footprint analysis in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onat, Nuri Cihat; Kucukvar, Murat; Tatari, Omer

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Driving patterns and electricity generation mix influence vehicle preferences. • EVs are found to be least carbon-intensive vehicle option in 24 states. • HEVs are found to be the most energy-efficient option in 45 states. • EVs across the board are unfavorable in the marginal electricity mix scenario. • Use of renewable energy to power EVs/PHEVs is crucial. - Abstract: Electric vehicles (EVs), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are often considered as better options in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption compared to internal combustion vehicles. However, making any decision among these vehicle options is not a straightforward process due to temporal and spatial variations, such as the sources of the electricity used and regional driving patterns. In this study, we compared these vehicle options across 50 states, taking into account state-specific average and marginal electricity generation mixes, regional driving patterns, and vehicle and battery manufacturing impacts. Furthermore, a policy scenario proposing the widespread use of solar energy to charge EVs and PHEVs is evaluated. Based on the average electricity generation mix scenario, EVs are found to be least carbon-intensive vehicle option in 24 states, while HEVs are found to be the most energy-efficient option in 45 states. In the marginal electricity mix scenario, widespread adoption of EVs is found to be an unwise strategy given the existing and near-future marginal electricity generation mix. On the other hand, EVs can be superior to other alternatives in terms of energy-consumption, if the required energy to generate 1 kW h of electricity is below 1.25 kW h

  17. Use of Free/Libre Open Source Software in Sepsis "-Omics" Research: A Bibliometric, Comparative Analysis Among the United States, EU-28 Member States, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Satyamourthy, Kapaettu; Levidou, Georgia; Brand, Helmut; Bauer, Pia; Kouskouti, Christina; Brand, Angela

    2018-05-01

    "-Omics" systems sciences are at the epicenter of personalized medicine and public health, and drivers of knowledge-based biotechnology innovation. Bioinformatics, a core component of omics research, is one of the disciplines that first employed Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS), and thus provided a fertile ground for its further development. Understanding the use and characteristics of FLOSS deployed in the omics field is valuable for future innovation strategies, policy and funding priorities. We conducted a bibliometric, longitudinal study of the use of FLOSS in sepsis omics research from 2011 to 2015 in the United States, EU-28 and China. Because sepsis is an interdisciplinary field at the intersection of multiple omics technologies and medical specialties, it was chosen as a model innovation ecosystem for this empirical analysis, which used publicly available data. Despite development of and competition from proprietary commercial software, scholars in omics continue to employ FLOSS routinely, and independent of the type of omics technology they work with. The number of articles using FLOSS increased significantly over time in the EU-28, as opposed to the United States and China (R = 0.96, p = 0.004). Furthermore, in an era where sharing of knowledge is being strongly advocated and promoted by public agencies and social institutions, we discuss possible correlations between the use of FLOSS and various funding sources in omics research. These observations and analyses provide new insights into the use of FLOSS in sepsis omics research across three (supra)national regions. Further benchmarking studies are warranted for FLOSS trends in other omics fields and geographical settings. These could, in time, lead to the development of new composite innovation and technology use metrics in omics systems sciences and bioinformatics communities.

  18. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United States...

  19. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    650 of the U.S. Bureau of Mines) ; indeed, we regard that book and the present volume as being complementary. In the examination of the geologic possibilities for finding new deposits-in many respects the principal innovative contributions of this volume-we asked the authors to frankly apply the limits of their ingenuity and not only to summarize current theories but also to express their own intuitive ideas, however speculative and unconventional they may seem, that have come from years of study devoted to the origin of mineral deposits. Readers will see that some authors have speculated more courageously than others. In any case, we believe readers will find all the chapters interesting, and many stimulating; and a few we believe can be frankly characterized as intellectually exciting. Most chapters include a section on prospecting techniques, and a summary of geologic or related problems on which the authors believe research might be most fruitful in the continuing efforts to find new resources. An integral part of the book is the bibliographic material cited at the conclusion of each chapter, in lieu of repetition of detailed descriptions already in print. Index and "spot" maps are not included in most chapters because they are available elsewhere, and in many cases with more detail than could possibly be included here. Maps showing the distribution of known deposits of many commodities in the United States are available in the Mineral Resource (MR) map series of the U.S. Geological Survey and in the National Atlas of the United States. The first three chapters deal not with resources of specific commodities but with general information that is pertinent to the study of mineral resources. In the introductory chapter we discuss the purposes of the book, the distinctions between reserves and various categories of resources, and some general conclusions drawn from our view of the book in its entirety. In the second chapter V. E. McKelvey discusses the problems of

  20. A Comparative Cross-Cultural Examination of Community Art Education Programs in South Korea and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ryan; Kim, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted comparative cross-cultural research to examine a select group of the available and more noteworthy art education organizations and their programs after observing significant differences in the community art education programs offered in Tucson, Arizona, and Anyang, South Korea. The study reports several major differences…

  1. A Comparative Study of Refereed Journal Articles Published by Native and Foreign Born Faculty in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zeng, Gao, Yan-he

    2010-01-01

    One of the key features of American hegemonic power is the ability to attract talents from all over the world, especially in those shortage areas of science and technology. To explore what is behind the advanced American higher education system, this research compares native and foreign born faculty using four dimensions: demographics, field of…

  2. Comparing tree foliage biomass models fitted to a multispecies, felled-tree biomass dataset for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Clough; Matthew B. Russell; Grant M. Domke; Christopher W. Woodall; Philip J. Radtke

    2016-01-01

    tEstimation of live tree biomass is an important task for both forest carbon accounting and studies of nutri-ent dynamics in forest ecosystems. In this study, we took advantage of an extensive felled-tree database(with 2885 foliage biomass observations) to compare different models and grouping schemes based onphylogenetic and geographic variation for predicting foliage...

  3. Sexually Explicit Media Use by Sexual Identity: A Comparative Analysis of Gay, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Martin J; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Scheinmann, Roberta; Antebi-Gruszka, Nadav; Hirshfield, Sabina

    2017-08-01

    Advances in production and distribution of sexually explicit media (SEM) online have resulted in widespread use among men. Limited research has compared contexts of use and behaviors viewed in Internet SEM by sexual identity. The current study examined differences in recent SEM use (past 6 months) by sexual identity among an ethnically diverse sample of 821 men who completed an online survey in 2015. Both gay and bisexual men reported significantly more frequent use of Internet SEM compared to heterosexual men. Although most participants reported viewing SEM at home (on a computer, tablet, or smartphone), significantly more gay men reported SEM use at a sex party or commercial sex venue than either heterosexual or bisexual men. Sexual identity predicted viewing of high-risk and protective behaviors in separate logistic regression models. Specifically, compared to heterosexual men, gay and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless anal sex (gay OR 5.20, 95 % CI 3.35-8.09; bisexual OR 3.99, 95 % CI 2.24-7.10) and anal sex with a condom (gay OR 3.93, 95 % CI 2.64-5.83; bisexual OR 4.59, 95 % CI 2.78-7.57). Compared to gay men, heterosexual and bisexual men had increased odds of viewing condomless vaginal sex (heterosexual OR 27.08, 95 % CI 15.25-48.07; bisexual OR 5.59, 95 % CI 3.81-8.21) and vaginal sex with a condom (heterosexual OR 7.90, 95 % CI 5.19-12.03; bisexual OR 4.97, 95 % CI 3.32-7.44). There was also evidence of identity discrepant SEM viewing as 20.7 % of heterosexual-identified men reported viewing male same-sex behavior and 55.0 % of gay-identified men reported viewing heterosexual behavior. Findings suggest the importance of assessing SEM use across media types and contexts and have implications for research to address the potential influence of SEM on sexual behavior (e.g., investigate associations between viewing condomless vaginal sex and engaging in high-risk encounters with female partners).

  4. Cross-Cultural Studies of Implicit Theories of Creativity: A Comparative Analysis between the United States and the Main Ethnic Groups in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…

  5. A Differential Item Functioning (DIF) Analysis of the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB): Comparing Individuals with Parkinson's Disease from the United States and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylor, Carolyn; McAuliffe, Megan J.; Hughes, Louise E.; Yorkston, Kathryn; Anderson, Tim; Jiseon, Kim; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the cross-cultural applicability of the Communicative Participation Item Bank (CPIB) through a comparison of respondents with Parkinson's disease (PD) from the United States and New Zealand. Method: A total of 428 respondents--218 from the United States and 210 from New Zealand-completed the self-report CPIB and a series of…

  6. Environmental valuation - to use or not to use? A comparative study of the United States and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navrud, S.; Pruckner, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    Valuation methods have been used for five main purposes in environmental decision- making. Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of projects, CBA of new regulations, natural resource damage assessment, environmental costing, and environmental accounting. The relatively lower importance attached to economic efficiency in environmental decision-making in most European countries compared to the U.S.A., both legally and in practice, might account for our general finding that there are very few valuation studies in Europe which have served as a decisive basis for environmental policy and regulations. However, with EU's goal to establish environmentally adjusted national accounts and to apply CBA to environmental policy and regulations, time seems ripe for an increased use of valuation techniques in Europe. 66 refs

  7. Trends in cigarette smoking among adults with HIV compared with the general adult population, United States - 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Emma L; Sutton, Madeline Y; Brooks, John T; Shouse, R Luke; Weiser, John

    2018-06-01

    Smoking increases HIV-related and non-HIV-related morbidity and mortality for persons with HIV infection. We estimated changes in cigarette smoking among adults with HIV and adults in the general U.S. population from 2009 to 2014 to inform HIV smoking cessation programs. Among HIV-positive adults, rates of current smoking declined from 37.6% (confidence interval [CI]: 34.7-40.6) in 2009 to 33.6% (CI: 29.8-37.8) in 2014. Current smoking among U.S. adults declined from 20.6% (CI: 19.9-21.3) in 2009 to 16.8% (CI: 16.2-17.4) in 2014. HIV-positive adults in care were significantly more likely to be current smokers compared with the general U.S. population; they were also less likely to quit smoking. For both HIV-positive adults in care and the general population, disparities were noted by racial/ethnic, educational level, and poverty-level subgroups. For most years, non-Hispanic blacks, those with less than high school education, and those living below poverty level were more likely to be current smokers and less likely to quit smoking compared with non-Hispanic whites, those with greater than high school education, and those living above poverty level, respectively. To decrease smoking-related causes of illness and death and to decrease HIV-related disparities, smoking cessation interventions are vital as part of routine care with HIV-positive persons. Clinicians who care for HIV-positive persons who smoke should utilize opportunities to discuss and implement smoking cessation strategies during routine clinical visits. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. United States panel presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyea, J.

    1990-01-01

    Before I begin I have to make a disclaimer. That is that I am going to be talking about public perception because I think that is very important. But I do not want to give the impression that I think the public is wrong. I happen to agree with the public's perception of nuclear power, and I want to make that clear. I do not like the current generation of nuclear plants as I have made clear in many statements that I have made. On the other hand, in the long term, I feel that we have only two choices on the supply side, and that is nuclear power and solar electricity. And although I think solar electricity has the best chance, I am realistic enough to know that technologies do not always work the way I want. And so I think it is necessary to have at least some kind of nuclear option available. On the other hand, I do not think just any kind of nuclear technology will do. I want to talk to you about the conditions that I think you have to take into account when you try to design reactors that are publicly acceptable. I look at this as an insurance policy. Again, I do not want to be misquoted: I think nuclear power should be considered as an insurance policy, not as our first line of defense. Having made those disclaimers, what we need to do is set out a problem statement. The problem statement I set out is, 'How could one design and demonstrate a nuclear reactor that would regain public confidence in the United States, if one chose to do that?' By regaining confidence, I mean regaining sufficient confidence to site reactors at a number of locations. It is a pretty heavy task because the public cannot judge the technical issues. They have to judge the players by their characters and their histories, just as the way we calibrate anyone that knows things that we do not. I have three theses that I think are crucial. The first is that people do not believe in the claims of advocates, of any point of view, not just nuclear power, once the advocates have been proved wrong on

  9. Comparative effectiveness of quality improvement interventions for pressure ulcer prevention in academic medical centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, William V; Makic, Mary Beth F; Mishra, Manish K; Campbell, Jonathan D; Nair, Kavita V; Wald, Heidi L; Valuck, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of pressure ulcers, one of the hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) targeted by the 2008 nonpayment policy of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), is a critical issue. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) interventions associated with reduced hospital-acquired pressure ulcer (HAPU) rates. In an quasi-experimental design, interrupted time series analyses were conducted to determine the correlation between HAPU incidence rates and adoption of QI interventions. Among University HealthSystem Consortium hospitals, 55 academic medical centers were surveyed from September 2007 through February 2012 for adoption patterns of QI interventions for pressure ulcer prevention, and hospital-level data for 5,208 pressure ulcer cases were analyzed. Between- and within-hospital reduction significance was tested with t-tests post-CMS policy intervention. Fifty-three (96%) of the 55 hospitals used QI interventions for pressure ulcer prevention. The effect size analysis identified five effective interventions that each reduced pressure ulcer rates by greater than 1 case per 1,000 patient discharges per quarter: leadership initiatives, visual tools, pressure ulcer staging, skin care, and patient nutrition. The greatest reductions in rates occurred earlier in the adoption process (pprevention protocol for pressure ulcers. Hospitals can not only use these findings from this study as part of a QI bundle for preventing HAPUs.

  10. Springtime Flood Risk Reduction in Rural Arctic: A Comparative Study of Interior Alaska, United States and Central Yakutia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekaterina Y. Kontar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Every spring, riverine communities throughout the Arctic face flood risk. As the river ice begins to thaw and break up, ice jams—accumulation of chunks and sheets of ice in the river channel, force melt water and ice floes to back up for dozens of kilometers and flood vulnerable communities upstream. Via a comparative analysis between two flood-prone communities in Alaska and Yakutia (Siberia, this study examines key components of flood risk—hazards, exposure, and vulnerability, and existing practices in flood risk reduction in rural Arctic. The research sites are two rural communities—Galena (Yukon River and Edeytsy (Lena River, which sustained major ice-jam floods in May 2013. The data was acquired through a combination of direct observations on site, review of documents and archives, focus group discussions, and surveys. Five focus groups with US and Russian representatives from disaster management agencies revealed a few similar patterns as well as significant differences in flood risk reduction strategies. The main differences included higher reliance on mechanical and short-term ice jam and flood mitigation efforts (e.g., ice-jam demolition in the Russian Arctic, and lack of a centralized flood management model in the US. Surveys conducted among population at risk during the site visits to Edeytsy (November 2015 and Galena (March 2016 revealed higher satisfaction levels with the existing flood risk reduction efforts among Edeytsy residents. Survey respondents in Galena indicated the lack of ice jam removal and other flood prevention measures as the key drawback in the existing flood management. Historical analysis, conducted via the disaster Pressure and Release (PAR model, revealed that springtime flood risk in both regions results from complex interactions among a series of natural processes that generate conditions of hazard, and human actions that generate conditions of communities’ exposure and vulnerability. The analysis

  11. ‘When we are tired we shall rest’: bus boycotts in the United States of America and South Africa and prospects for comparative history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Charles Catsam

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at some of the practical, methodological, and disciplinary issues connected to comparative and transnational history through the lens of bus boycotts in South Africa and the United States in the 1950s. Comparative history by its very nature requires historians to transcend both the restrictive boundaries that the profession sometimes imposes as well as a fundamentally interdisciplinary approach to scholarship. Yet as the suggestive comparisons between boycotts in Montgomery, Alabama, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and the Transvaal in the mid-1950s show, such work can be rewarding in providing a transnational framework for understanding protest movements that transcend national borders. Catsam argues in the end of his article that “a deeper understanding of both [the American and South African] struggles together may well help us better to grasp the significance of each separately.”

  12. [Laws on gender violence and their effect on sexism in advertising: a comparative analysis of advertisements from Argentina, Mexico, Spain and the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Llaguno, Marta; Navarro-Beltrá, Marián

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of gender violence legislation on the incidence of sexism and gender bias in advertisements published in four countries: Argentina, Mexico, Spain, and the United States. The study focused on the content of 163 advertisements: 69 from Spain, 16 from Mexico, 50 from Argentina, and 28 from the United States. Data were gathered on the presence of bodies not associated with the product being advertised, to study the stereotypical presentation of men and women and gender biases in advertisements in Argentina, Mexico, Spain, and the United States. The following stereotypical findings were observed: (i) men were shown in public places more often than women in the ads from Argentina (P = 0.000), Spain (P = 0.000), and Mexico (P = 0.011); (ii) men were shown more often than women practicing neutral professions in the ads from Argentina (P = 0.004), Spain (P = 0.000), and Mexico (P = 0.025); and (iii) men were shown more often than women as workers and users (P = 0.000) and less often than women in a parenting role (P = 0.000). With regard to biases, (i) men were given greater visibility than women in all four countries, and (ii) only in the ads from Spain were there significant differences in terms of parity, with men appearing more often in the ads than women (P = 0.014), and empowerment, with men shown making decisions more often than women; P = 0.045). Those countries with legislation aimed at using communication to prevent gender violence do not have less sexism in their advertisements. To analyze the relationships between laws, sexism, and gender violence, it would be necessary to undertake a rigorous diachronic assessment of the instruments constructed and also to compare the results with other cultural and social indicators that are often difficult to isolate.

  13. Are Some Countries More Prone to Pressure Evaluators than Others? Comparing Findings from the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleger, Lyn; Sager, Fritz; Morris, Michael; Meyer, Wolfgang; Stockmann, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Pressure on evaluators has been investigated recently by surveys in the USA, the UK, Germany, and Switzerland. This study compares the results of those studies regarding pressure on evaluators in different countries. The findings suggest that independence of evaluations does not exist for many respondents. Moreover, the person who commissioned the…

  14. International Views of Inclusive Education: A Comparative Study of Early Childhood Educator's Perceptions in Jordan, United Arab Emirates, and the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaidi, Diala; Homidi, Moayyad; Reyes, Luis V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore and describe early childhood educators' perceptions of academic aspects and social and emotional aspects of inclusion practices. In this comparative international quantitative research an attitudinal demographic survey was distributed to 300 early childhood educators in mandated kindergartens and primary…

  15. Similar or Different?: A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Research in Political Science and International Relations between the United States of America and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research…

  16. The United States and Europe: Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin; Morelli, Vince L

    2006-01-01

    The United States and Europe share a long and intertwined history. Both sides of the Atlantic face a common set of international concerns, have few other comparable partners, and share a deep economic relationship...

  17. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M; Tan, Kathrine R

    2018-05-04

    malaria cases diagnosed in the United States has been increasing since the mid-1970s, the number of cases decreased by 208 from 2014 to 2015. Among the regions of acquisition (Africa, West Africa, Asia, Central America, the Caribbean, South America, Oceania, and the Middle East), the only region with significantly fewer imported cases in 2015 compared with 2014 was West Africa (781 versus 969). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 67.4%, 11.7%, 4.1%, and 3.1% of cases, respectively. Less than 1% of patients were infected by two species. The infecting species was unreported or undetermined in 12.9% of cases. CDC provided diagnostic assistance for 13.1% of patients with confirmed cases and tested 15.0% of P. falciparum specimens for antimalarial resistance markers. Of the U.S. resident patients who reported purpose of travel, 68.4% were visiting friends or relatives. A lower proportion of U.S. residents with malaria reported taking any chemoprophylaxis in 2015 (26.5%) compared with 2014 (32.5%), and adherence was poor in this group. Among the U.S residents for whom information on chemoprophylaxis use and travel region were known, 95.3% of patients with malaria did not adhere to or did not take a CDC-recommended chemoprophylaxis regimen. Among women with malaria, 32 were pregnant, and none had adhered to chemoprophylaxis. A total of 23 malaria cases occurred among U.S. military personnel in 2015. Three cases of malaria were imported from the approximately 3,000 military personnel deployed to an Ebola-affected country; two of these were not P. falciparum species, and one species was unspecified. Among all reported cases in 2015, 17.1% were classified as severe illnesses and 11 persons died, compared with an average of 6.1 deaths per year during 2000-2014. In 2015, CDC received 153 P. falciparum-positive samples for surveillance of antimalarial resistance markers (although certain loci were untestable for some samples); genetic

  18. Tectolinear interpretation of a 1:5,000,000 Landsat-1 mosaic compared with the structure of central and eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutina, Jan; Carter, William D.

    1978-01-01

    The pattern of lineaments and curvilinear features interpreted from a 1:5,000,000 mosaic of satellite images (Landsat-1 was superimposed on a simplified version of the Geological Map of the United States, 1:2,500,000 scale, showing the structural scheme of Central and Eastern United States. A comparison of the above two patterns, shown in Fig. 1, is presented in this paper.

  19. Legislative update: United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The US Senate consented to the ratification of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) on 4 August 2006. The entry into force of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation will substantially change the face of the international nuclear liability regime. The CSC is a free-standing instrument, open to all states. This means that countries can become party to a new global regime providing for liability and compensation for victims of a nuclear incident, without also having to become a contracting party to the Paris Convention or the Vienna Convention. This is certainly a major step forward given that at the present time, over half of the world's reactors in operation or under construction are not covered by any of the international nuclear third party liability conventions. The CSC creates an instrument by which states can ensure that more money will be made available to compensate more victims for a broader range of damage than ever before. The CSC provides for two tiers of compensation. The first tier, fixed at 300 million Special Drawing Rights, is to be provided by the liable operator. This tier is to be distributed on a non-discriminatory basis to victims both inside and outside of the Installation State. If 300 million SDRs are insufficient to compensate all damage, then contracting parties will be required to contribute to the second tier (the international fund). The amount of this second tier is not fixed, but rather will depend on the number of operating nuclear power plants in contracting parties, and is designed to increase as the number of such plants increases

  20. A Comparative Analysis of the Influence of China and the United States in the Southeast Asia Region under the Obama Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With China’s rapid rise and the implementation of the Obama Administration’s ”Return to the Asia Pacific” strategy, both China and the United States have significantly changed their relations with Southeast Asia in recent years. Also, the influence of China and the United States in this region has changed too. Both China and the United States have strengthened relations with the Southeast Asia region in terms of political, economic, military, cultural and other aspects, and their influence has also risen in varying degrees. In comparison, China has a greater impact on the economy of Southeast Asia, while the US has more influence on its military and security. China vigorously implements the neighborhood diplomacy featuring amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness. The United States actively promotes the Asia-Pacific rebalancing strategy. The Southeast Asian countries continue to choose the balance of power strategy, relying on China regarding the economy, relying on the United States regarding the security. This has resulted in the continuous game between China and the United States in the Southeast Asian region.

  1. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  2. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... litigation.'' United States v. Armour and Co., 402 U.S. 673, 681 (1971). Section 5 of the Clayton Act... relief in consent judgment that contained recitals in which defendants asserted their innocence); Armour...

  3. United States Strategy for Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Centner, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    The security and stability of Mexico is of national interest to the United States, and a strong, effective alliance between the two countries is pivotal to our national defense strategy and economic prosperity...

  4. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth...

  5. A Comparative Analysis of State Traffic Safety Countermeasures and Implications for Progress “Toward Zero Deaths” in the United States : Traffic Safety Facts - Research Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    States use a variety of countermeasures to reduce traffic crashes, injuries, and fatalities within their jurisdictions. These countermeasures focus primarily on engineering, law enforcement, and public education (NHTSA, 2006). NHTSA's bi-annual publi...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of Columbia...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District...

  8. Comparative Study on Subjective Experience of Elder Abuse Between Older Korean Immigrants in the United States and Older Koreans in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Miya

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of elder abuse and the relationship between sociodemographic factors and elder abuse among older Koreans in the United States and Korea. Survey data from older Koreans aged between 60 and 79 years from the two countries ( n = 480) were analyzed descriptively and in binary logistic regressions. This study found a similar prevalence of elder abuse in the two samples, with 26% of older Korean immigrants in the United States reporting abuse and 23% of older Koreans in Korea reporting abuse. However, there were significant differences in the types of emotional abuse experienced by older Koreans in both countries. Reports of some types of emotional abuse, such as 'name calling' and 'silent treatment,' were significantly higher in the United States than in Korea. These findings expand our knowledge of the experience of elder abuse among older Koreans in both countries.

  9. The Use of the Death Penalty for Drug Trafficking in the United States, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand: A Comparative Legal Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyos Leechaianan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses the use of capital punishment for drug trafficking and related crimes from a comparative perspective. Domestic narcotics legislation, as well as important drug trafficking cases in four Southeast Asian nations (Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand are examined in-depth and compared to the United States, which plays an important role in eradicating global drug-related problems. This article contends that the use of capital punishment is disproportionate to the gravity of drug-related offenses and that international drug control and enforcement treaties never suggested using such sanctions to deter crime. Fortunately, four Southeast Asian countries in this study, including Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand, currently realize this disproportionality and have become reluctant to carry out executions for drug trafficking; even though they continue to sentence a large number of drug-related offenders to death annually, they do not actually carry out these executions. Future research related to this topic is also recommended in this article.

  10. State nuclear initiatives in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.; Stoiber, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with State nuclear initiatives regarding the role of nuclear power in the energy future of the United States. The question of whether and under what circumstances nuclear facilities should be used to generate electricity was put to the popular vote in several States in 1976. Some general principles of Federal-State relations are discussed with specific reference to nuclear regulations. The initiative mechanism itself is described as well as its legal form and background. The parallel developments in the State and Federal legislative consideration of nuclear issues is reviewed and the suggested reasons for the defeat of the proposals in the seven States concerned are discussed. Finally, the author draws some conclusions on the effects of the 1976 initiatives on future decision-making in the US on energy policy in general and nuclear power in particular. (NEA) [fr

  11. Comparative Analysis of Patterns of Care Study of Radiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer among Three Countries: South Korea, Japan and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Won Joo; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Jeung Kee; Lee, Hyung Sik; Choi, Seok Reyol; Choi, Seok Reyol; Kim, Il Han

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, a nationwide survey of the Patterns of Care Study (PCS) for the various radiotherapy treatments of esophageal cancer was carried out in South Korea. In order to observe the different parameters, as well as offer a solid cooperative system, we compared the Korean results with those observed in the United States (US) and Japan. Two hundreds forty-six esophageal cancer patients from 21 institutions were enrolled in the South Korean study. The patients received radiation therapy (RT) from 1998 to 1999. In order to compare these results with those from the United States, a published study by Suntharalingam, which included 414 patients [treated by Radiotherapy (RT)] from 59 institutions between 1996 and 1999 was chosen. In order to compare the South Korean with the Japanese data, we choose two different studies. The results published by Gomi were selected as the surgery group, in which 220 esophageal cancer patients were analyzed from 76 facilities. The patients underwent surgery and received RT with or without chemotherapy between 1998 and 2001. The non-surgery group originated from a study by Murakami, in which 385 patients were treated either by RT alone or RT with chemotherapy, but no surgery, between 1999 and 2001. The median age of enrolled patients was highest in the Japanese non-surgery group (71 years old). The gender ratio was approximately 9:1 (male:female) in both the Korean and Japanese studies, whereas females made up 23.1% of the study population in the US study. Adenocarcinoma outnumbered squamous cell carcinoma in the US study, whereas squamous cell carcinoma was more prevalent both the Korean and Japanese studies (Korea 96.3%, Japan 98%). An esophagogram, endoscopy, and chest CT scan were the main modalities of diagnostic evaluation used in all three countries. The US and Japan used the abdominal CT scan more frequently than the abdominal ultrasonography. Radiotherapy alone treatment was most rarely used in the US study (9

  12. A comparative analysis of surface winds in the Mid-Continental United States of America during severe droughts in the 1950s and 2010s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, R.; Kohfeld, K. E.; Schepanski, K.; Gill, T. E.

    2016-12-01

    In 2011 the Mid-Continental United States of America experienced its worst drought since the 1930s `Dust Bowl` and subsequent 1950s Southwest drought. Both the 1950s and 2010s droughts have had negative ecological and economic impacts the Mid-Continental US (i.e. crops, livestock, fuel, and transportation). Drought distribution, severity, and duration in North America are influenced by large-scale ocean-atmosphere climate variability as well as mesoscale land-surface forcing. Intense surface heating during a drought's summer months promotes dry convection and convergence thereby indirectly increasing dust emissions through increased surface-winds. Thus, drought years are frequently linked with increased dust storms and overall dust production that can affect visibility, crop production, and human health. Another important aspect that influences dust production is the potential change in behavior of surface winds during different drought and non-drought regimes over the past 60 years. This investigation compares historic and modern surface winds to determine if the wind-driven drought and dust producing conditions have changed. We examine hourly wind speed data from 79 meteorological stations distributed over the mid-continental USA (25° to 49°N,-116° to -93°W) for two drought periods (1954-1956, 2011-2013), and two relatively wet time periods (1983-1987, 1992-1998), as determined using the Palmer-Drought Severity Index. Our preliminary examination of annual and seasonal distributions of wind speed and show that wind speeds were statistically higher during the 1950s compared with the 2010s drought and wind speeds were also greater during the spring months compared to other seasons. Characterizing these winds is a first step in identifying if these changes are a result of land surface changes, general circulation changes associated with atmospheric anomalies, and/or climate change.

  13. Religion, ethnic groups and processes of social stratification in the United States. Mexicans and Chinese citizens’ situation from a comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arriaga Martínez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Through this article we are offering a global view of a theory that explains and contributes to the understanding of the position of ethnic groups in the United States within the social hierarchy. This research is focused toward a comparative analysis of Mexican and Chinese groups starting considering the following Weberian statements: a one that considers the influence of ideas and religious beliefs in the economic behavior of individuals, b and, another one that conceives religions as ethical vehicles liable to inhibit or stimulate the process of social stratification. In sum, this deals trying to consider the influence of diverse elements of religious culture in the makeup of certain economic behavior and context which is capable of vitalizing or hindering group dynamism in the social scale. This behavior is remarkably related to: a money in all its modalities, savings, expenses, investments, loans, etc., b work and entrepreneur business, and c family and communitarian solidarity. We also would like to emphasize on problems stemming from the practical applications of theory and method to the above mentioned phenomenon, emphasizing the productivity of concepts and analytical categories which are representative of a Methodological Individualism and Rational General Theory.

  14. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  15. United States Navy DL Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  16. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  17. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ...

  18. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. ...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ...

  20. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories, states, commonwealths, districts, and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  1. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States. ...

  2. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District of...

  3. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia, the...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America. [31 FR 16758, Dec. 31, 1966. Redesignated at 56 FR 64472, Dec. 10, 1991] ...

  5. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States of...

  6. AREVA in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the United States had 297 million inhabitants (the 3. most populous country in the world) and a land area of 9.4 million km 2 (17 times larger than France). With a GDP of 10,996 billion dollars (under the economic conditions of the year 2000), the U.S. is the largest economic power in the world. It is also the largest consumer of energy, with primary energy consumption of 2,329 million metric tons, meaning that 25% of the world's energy is consumed by just 4% of its population. Although it has large domestic energy supplies, the U.S. is very far from achieving energy self-sufficiency. A decline of nearly 50% in oil production over a period of more than 30 years and the simultaneous stagnation of gas production have further weakened the U.S. energy balance. On a more general level, the increasing depletion of hydrocarbon resources (gas and oil), the concentration of the world's main resources in geo-politically unstable areas and the forecasted increase in the consumption and price of hydrocarbons, especially since 2005, mean that energy independence and supply security have become 2 of the top priorities of U.S. commercial and international policy. In 2007, the U.S. accounted for 22% of global CO 2 emissions, equaling those of China. In relation to population, the U.S. emits 8 metric tons/inhabitant compared to a world average of 4.2 metric tons/inhabitant. Although global warming is seen as a reality by the American public, it has only recently become a major argument in favor of a nuclear energy revival in the U.S. The context is, however, changing significantly. This is evidenced by America's adoption, in recent years, of measures to reduce greenhouse gases, particularly through the development of new, more environmentally friendly technologies. Since 2001, nearly 23 billion dollars in public funds have been devoted to climate research and the development of clean energy sources, notably renewable energies such as wind and solar, but also hydrogen and

  7. AREVA in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, the United States had 297 million inhabitants (the 3. most populous country in the world) and a land area of 9.4 million km{sup 2} (17 times larger than France). With a GDP of 10,996 billion dollars (under the economic conditions of the year 2000), the U.S. is the largest economic power in the world. It is also the largest consumer of energy, with primary energy consumption of 2,329 million metric tons, meaning that 25% of the world's energy is consumed by just 4% of its population. Although it has large domestic energy supplies, the U.S. is very far from achieving energy self-sufficiency. A decline of nearly 50% in oil production over a period of more than 30 years and the simultaneous stagnation of gas production have further weakened the U.S. energy balance. On a more general level, the increasing depletion of hydrocarbon resources (gas and oil), the concentration of the world's main resources in geo-politically unstable areas and the forecasted increase in the consumption and price of hydrocarbons, especially since 2005, mean that energy independence and supply security have become 2 of the top priorities of U.S. commercial and international policy. In 2007, the U.S. accounted for 22% of global CO{sub 2} emissions, equaling those of China. In relation to population, the U.S. emits 8 metric tons/inhabitant compared to a world average of 4.2 metric tons/inhabitant. Although global warming is seen as a reality by the American public, it has only recently become a major argument in favor of a nuclear energy revival in the U.S. The context is, however, changing significantly. This is evidenced by America's adoption, in recent years, of measures to reduce greenhouse gases, particularly through the development of new, more environmentally friendly technologies. Since 2001, nearly 23 billion dollars in public funds have been devoted to climate research and the development of clean energy sources, notably renewable energies such as wind and solar

  8. A comparative analysis of chiropractic and general practitioner patients in North America: Findings from the joint Canada/United States survey of health, 2002–03

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Lu-May

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientifically rigorous general population-based studies comparing chiropractic with primary-care medical patients within and between countries have not been published. The objective of this study is to compare care seekers of doctors of chiropractic (DCs and general practitioners (GPs in the United States and Canada on a comprehensive set of sociodemographic, quality of life, and health-related variables. Methods Data are from the Joint Canada/U.S. Survey of Health (JCUSH, 2002–03, a random sample of adults in Canada (N = 3505 and the U.S. (N = 5183. Respondents were categorized according to their pattern of health-care use in the past year. Distributions, percentages, and estimates (adjusted odds ratios weighted to reflect the complex survey design were produced. Results Nearly 80% of respondents sought care from GPs; 12% sought DC care. Compared with GP only patients, DC patients in both countries tend to be under 65 and white, with arthritis and disabling back or neck pain. U.S. DC patients are more likely than GP only patients to be obese and to lack a regular doctor; Canadian DC patients are more likely than GP only patients to be college educated, to have higher incomes, and dissatisfied with MD care. Compared with seekers of both GP and DC care, DC only patients in both countries have fewer chronic conditions, take fewer drugs, and have no regular doctor. U.S. DC only patients are more likely than GP+DC patients to be uninsured and dissatisfied with health care; Canadian DC only patients are more likely than GP+DC patients to be under 45, male, less educated, smokers, and not obese, without disabling back or neck pain, on fewer drugs, and lacking a regular doctor. Conclusion Chiropractic and GP patients are dissimilar in both Canada and the U.S., with key differences between countries and between DC patients who do and do not seek care from GPs. Such variation has broad and potentially far-reaching health policy and

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Domestic Violence Shelter Staff Perceptions Regarding Barriers to Services in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Jonathan A; Muftić, Lisa R

    2017-11-01

    Service provision for domestic violence (DV) survivors has been a long-standing staple of shelters in the United States. Although shelter services provide numerous benefits for survivors, barriers tied to acquisition remain a pressing concern when combatting DV. Nevertheless, there has been minimal research exploring barriers to service acquisition on a cross-national level. As such, the current research cross-nationally examines perceptions of shelter staff regarding acquisition barriers as well as the effectiveness of local agencies to meet survivor needs and differences in populations served in the United States (specifically Texas) as well as in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Data collection stemmed from self-report surveys originally constructed in English and translated into Bosnian/Serbian/Croatian. Results underscored differences between populations served, perceptions of local agencies assisting survivors of DV, and barriers tied to cultural and financial concerns. Implications, limitations, and future directions are also discussed.

  10. Gender differences in time-use over the life-course. A comparative analysis of France, Italy, Sweden and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Anxo; Letizia Mencarini; Ariane Paihlé; Anne Solaz; Maria Letizia Tanturri; Lennard Flood

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse how men and women in France, Italy, Sweden and United States use their time over the life cycle and the extent to which the societal and institutional contexts influence the gender division of labour. Our central hypothesis is that contextual factors play a crucial role in shaping men’s and women’s time allocation across the life course. Countries that diverge significantly in terms of welfare state regime, employment and working time systems, fa...

  11. Comparing Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use with or without Including Prayer as a Modality in a Local and Diverse United States Jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Brenda; Upchurch, Dawn M; Kuo, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Few studies to date have examined the utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in a local, ethnically diverse population in the United States (U.S.). Fewer have addressed the differences in their use based on inclusion or exclusion of prayer as a modality. Variable definitions of CAM are known to affect public health surveillance (i.e., continuous, systematic data collection, analysis, and interpretation) or benchmarking (i.e., identifying and comparing key indicators of health to inform community planning) related to this non-mainstream collection of health and wellness therapies. The present study sought to better understand how including or excluding prayer could affect reporting of CAM use among residents of a large, urban U.S. jurisdiction. Using population-weighted data from a cross-sectional Internet panel survey collected as part of a larger countywide population health survey, the study compared use of CAM based on whether prayer or no prayer was included in its definition. Patterns of CAM use by socio-demographic characteristics were described for the two operationalized definitions. Multivariable binomial regression analyses were performed to control for gender, age, race/ethnicity, education, employment, income, and health insurance status. One of the analyses explored the associations between CAM use and racial/ethnic characteristics in the study sample. Los Angeles County, California. A socio-demographically diverse sample of Los Angeles County residents. CAM use (with prayer) and CAM use (excluding prayer). Blacks were among the highest users of CAM when compared to Whites, especially when prayer was included as a CAM modality. Regardless of prayer inclusion, being a woman predicted higher use of CAM. How CAM is defined matters in gauging the utilization of this non-mainstream collection of therapies. Given that surveillance and/or benchmarking data are often used to inform resource allocation and planning decisions, results from

  12. Comparing cropland net primary production estimates from inventory, a satellite-based model, and a process-based model in the Midwest of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengpeng; Liu, Shuguang; Tan, Zhengxi; Bliss, Norman B.; Young, Claudia J.; West, Tristram O.; Ogle, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying the spatial and temporal variability of net primary production (NPP) for croplands is essential to understand regional cropland carbon dynamics. We compared three NPP estimates for croplands in the Midwestern United States: inventory-based estimates using crop yield data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS); estimates from the satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NPP product; and estimates from the General Ensemble biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) process-based model. The three methods estimated mean NPP in the range of 469–687 g C m−2 yr−1and total NPP in the range of 318–490 Tg C yr−1 for croplands in the Midwest in 2007 and 2008. The NPP estimates from crop yield data and the GEMS model showed the mean NPP for croplands was over 650 g C m−2 yr−1 while the MODIS NPP product estimated the mean NPP was less than 500 g C m−2 yr−1. MODIS NPP also showed very different spatial variability of the cropland NPP from the other two methods. We found these differences were mainly caused by the difference in the land cover data and the crop specific information used in the methods. Our study demonstrated that the detailed mapping of the temporal and spatial change of crop species is critical for estimating the spatial and temporal variability of cropland NPP. We suggest that high resolution land cover data with species–specific crop information should be used in satellite-based and process-based models to improve carbon estimates for croplands.

  13. The Contemporary Use of Angiography and Revascularization Among Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in the United States Compared With South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Jae; Simon, Dajuanicia; Wang, Tracy Y; Alexander, Karen P; Jeong, Myung Ho; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Bates, Eric R; Henry, Timothy D; Peterson, Eric D; Roe, Matthew T

    2015-12-01

    Practice guidelines recommend an early invasive strategy for high-risk non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients, but international differences in the use of invasive strategies are unknown. Profiling NSTEMI patient management in the United States (U.S.) and South Korea could provide insight into how patients are triaged for an early invasive strategy in different health care environments and geographical regions. We evaluated the use of angiography and revascularization for NSTEMI patients treated at revascularization-capable hospitals (2007-2010) in both the ACTION Registry-GWTG (U.S.: n = 133,835; 433 hospitals) and KAMIR/KorMI Registry (South Korea: n = 7,901; 72 hospitals). Compared with South Korean patients, U.S. NSTEMI patients more commonly had established cardiovascular risk factors, disease, and prior cardiovascular events and procedures. From 2007-2010, the use of angiography for NSTEMI patients rose steadily in both countries, but the use of revascularization only rose in South Korea. Patients from South Korea more commonly underwent angiography and revascularization. Percutaneous coronary intervention was the most common type of revascularization in both countries, but coronary artery bypass grafting was less common in South Korea. The use of both angiography and revascularization was incrementally lower with a higher predicted mortality risk for patients from both countries, but greater differences between low- and high-risk patients occurred in the U.S. The profile, characteristics, and use of angiography and revascularization for NSTEMI patients in the U.S. vs South Korea differed substantially from 2007-2010, underscoring the heterogeneity of NSTEMI patients and treatment selection among different countries. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  15. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its...

  16. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  17. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  18. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  19. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  20. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States. ...

  1. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  2. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  3. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  4. 31 CFR 536.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 536.315 Section 536.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.315 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  5. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  6. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  7. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  8. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority...

  9. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  10. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories and...

  11. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  12. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  13. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  14. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  15. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  16. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  17. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority...

  18. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  19. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  20. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  1. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  2. Environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' effort to manage its environment including air, water nature, and biodiversity to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  3. United States National Seismographic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN's) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105 degree W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN)

  4. Depression Among Non-Daily Smokers Compared to Daily Smokers and Never-Smokers in the United States: An Emerging Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Andrea H; Gbedemah, Misato; Wall, Melanie M; Hasin, Deborah S; Zvolensky, Michael J; Chaiton, Michael; Goodwin, Renee D

    2017-09-01

    Depression is strongly associated with daily smoking. Yet, little is known about the association between depression and non-daily smoking. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of past-year depression and changes in past-year depression over time among non-daily smokers, compared to daily smokers and never-smokers, overall and stratified by age, gender, income, nicotine dependence, and cigarettes per day. Data were drawn from the National Household Survey on Drug Use (NSDUH), an annual cross-sectional study of persons aged 12 and over (total study population N = 496 805). The prevalence of past-year depression was examined annually among non-daily smokers, daily smokers, and never-smokers from 2005 to 2013 using linear trend analyses. Past-year depression was common among 10.10% of non-daily smokers, common among 10.78% of daily smokers, and 5.51% of never-smokers in 2013. The prevalence of depression increased from 2005 to 2013 among non-daily smokers (9.06% vs. 10.10%; p = .034) while there was no significant change in depression over time among daily smokers. Increases in depression among non-daily smokers occurred for both men and women and appear most pronounced youth, those smoking fewer cigarettes, and those without nicotine dependence. The prevalence of depression among non-daily smokers was equivalent to daily smokers and nearly twice that among nonsmokers. Depression appears to be increasing over time in non-daily smokers especially among youth, those who smoke less, and those without nicotine dependence. More work on the mental health of non-daily smokers is needed as this is an increasing and understudied group. This is the first study to investigate changes in the prevalence of depression among non-daily smokers compared to daily smokers and never-smokers over the past decade in a nationally representative sample of the United States. The results suggest an increase in depression among non-daily smokers over time that did not

  5. Initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children in Europe and the United States: comparing clinical practice to guidelines and literature evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweel, Gwenda; Saavedra-Lozano, Jesus; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; Ramilo, Octavio; de Groot, Ronald

    2006-11-01

    Several guidelines are available to guide the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. The recommendations in these guidelines show significant variability. Because there is no well-established evidence on when to start HAART, it is left to the discretion of the pediatrician which guidelines to follow. We conducted a survey concerning the indications for starting antiretroviral therapy among pediatricians involved in the treatment of HIV-infected patients in Europe and the United States. We compared the results of this survey with the guidelines available at the time, the recently adapted guidelines and literature evidence. Our results indicate that in clinical practice HAART was initiated at higher viral loads and lower CD4 counts than recommended by the guidelines. American guidelines recommended and still recommend more aggressive treatment than the European guidelines, and this is reflected in clinical practice. Until recently all guidelines were based on long term risk analyses of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and death performed in cohort data. A recent short term risk analysis makes it possible to calculate the 6 or 12-month risk for progression to AIDS or death for an individual child. Because viral load and CD4 count are typically measured every 3 months, one can argue that it is clinically more relevant to base the decision of when to start HAART on the short term probability of disease progression. Guidelines in Europe are now based on this type of analysis. The American guidelines only adopted the thresholds for CD4 and viral load. The short term risk analysis also shows that the risk for developing AIDS varies markedly with age. This should be reflected in all guidelines. Determining the acceptable risk of disease progression is difficult and influenced by patient-, doctor- and culture-related factors. The controversy over whether or not to treat

  6. Comparing the cost effectiveness of nature-based and coastal adaptation: A case study from the Gulf Coast of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero, Borja G; Beck, Michael W; Bresch, David N; Calil, Juliano; Meliane, Imen

    2018-01-01

    Coastal risks are increasing from both development and climate change. Interest is growing in the protective role that coastal nature-based measures (or green infrastructure), such as reefs and wetlands, can play in adapting to these risks. However, a lack of quantitative information on their relative costs and benefits is one principal factor limiting their use more broadly. Here, we apply a quantitative risk assessment framework to assess coastal flood risk (from climate change and economic exposure growth) across the United States Gulf of Mexico coast to compare the cost effectiveness of different adaptation measures. These include nature-based (e.g. oyster reef restoration), structural or grey (e.g., seawalls) and policy measures (e.g. home elevation). We first find that coastal development will be a critical driver of risk, particularly for major disasters, but climate change will cause more recurrent losses through changes in storms and relative sea level rise. By 2030, flooding will cost $134-176.6 billion (for different economic growth scenarios), but as the effects of climate change, land subsidence and concentration of assets in the coastal zone increase, annualized risk will more than double by 2050 with respect to 2030. However, from the portfolio we studied, the set of cost-effective adaptation measures (with benefit to cost ratios above 1) could prevent up to $57-101 billion in losses, which represents 42.8-57.2% of the total risk. Nature-based adaptation options could avert more than $50 billion of these costs, and do so cost effectively with average benefit to cost ratios above 3.5. Wetland and oyster reef restoration are found to be particularly cost-effective. This study demonstrates that the cost effectiveness of nature-based, grey and policy measures can be compared quantitatively with one another, and that the cost effectiveness of adaptation becomes more attractive as climate change and coastal development intensifies in the future. It also

  7. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  8. Nuclear power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    All over the world except in the United States, nuclear energy is a low cost, secure, environmentally acceptable form of energy. In the United States, civilian nuclear power is dead. 112 nuclear power plants have been abandoned or cancelled in the last decade, and there has been no new order for nuclear plants since 1978. It will be fortunate to have 125 operating nuclear plants in the United States in the year 2000. There are almost 90 completed nuclear power plants and about 45 under construction in the United States, but several of those under construction will eventually be abandoned. About 20 % of the electricity in the United States will be generated by nuclear plants in 2000 as compared with 13 % supplied in the last year. Under the present regulatory and institutional arrangement, American electric utilities would not consider to order a new nuclear power plant. Post-TMI nuclear plants became very expensive, and there is also ideological opposition to nuclear power. Coal-firing plants are also in the similar situation. The uncertainty about electric power demand, the cost of money, the inflation of construction cost and regulation caused the situation. (Kako, I.)

  9. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  10. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board ...

  11. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and the...

  12. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia. ...

  13. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. [60 FR 10797, Feb. 28, 1995] National...

  14. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of...

  15. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  16. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  17. Internet Control or Internet Censorship? Comparing the Control Models of China, Singapore, and the United States to Guide Taiwan’s Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey (Chien-Fei) Li

    2014-01-01

    Internet censorship refers to a government’s unjustified scrutiny and control of online speech or government-approved control measures. The danger of Internet censorship is its chilling effect and substantial harm on free speech, a cornerstone of democracy, in cyberspace. This article compares China’s blocking and filtering system, Singapore’s class license system, and the United States’ government-private partnership model and identifies the features of each model. This article also explore...

  18. A Comparative Study of Faculty Members' Career Advancement (Promotion) Systems in the United States and the Islamic Republic of Iran: "Case Analysis of the University of Tehran and Portland State University"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaomi, Mohammad Mehdi; Asaadi, Robert Reza

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the similarities and differences in the systems for faculty career advancement in higher education institutions in the United States and the Islamic Republic of Iran. The analysis focuses on two specific cases: the University of Tehran and Portland State University. Through this paired comparison, we draw out the similarities…

  19. Contemporary prophetic preaching theory in the United States of America and South Africa: A comparative study through the lens of shared Reformation roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora Tubbs Tisdale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article two homileticians – one from the United States of America (USA and one from South Africa (SA − enter into a dialog regarding how the task of prophetic preaching today might be revived, reframed and redefined in light of the Reformation principle of the viva vox Evangelii [living voice of the gospel]. Each author begins by summarising four contemporary approaches to prophetic preaching set forth by Reformed and Lutheran homiletical scholars in their respective contexts. Then each addresses the questions: Where do I particularly see Reformation themes and emphases at work in the work of these homileticians? And how might those Reformation emphases continue to challenge and reframe preaching practices today? Finally, each gives initial eflections on how a comparison between the perspectives deeens and expands his or her nderstanding of prophetic preaching and its role in church and society.

  20. Teen Pregnancy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States: the contribution of abstinence and improved contraceptive use. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(1):150-6. Lindberg LD, Santelli JS, Desai, S. Understanding the Decline in Adolescent Fertility in the United States, 2007–2012. J ...

  1. Fracking in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, advances in technology have made it profitable to extract natural gas from shale, leading to a boom in shale gas development in the United States. Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, the controversial method for extracting natural gas, offers numerous benefits: relatively cheap energy, enhanced energy security, job creation, tax revenues and decreased dependence on dirty coal. Fracking, however, can also increase greenhouse gas emissions, pollute the air and result in health effects, consume huge quantities of water, and cause earthquakes. While some areas welcome fracking for the economic benefits it brings, other communities are attempting to ban fracking altogether. This article examines the benefits and risks of fracking in the U.S

  2. United States uranium enrichment policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's uranium enrichment program policies governing the manner in which ERDA's enrichment complex is being operated and expanded to meet customer requirements for separative work, research and development activities directed at providing technology alternatives for future enrichment capacity, and establishing the framework for additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity to meet the domestic and foreign nuclear industry's growing demand for enrichment services are considered. The ERDA enrichment complex consists of three gaseous diffusion plants located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Today, these plants provide uranium enrichment services for commercial nuclear power generation. These enrichment services are provided under contracts between the Government and the utility customers. ERDA's program involves a major pilot plant cascade, and pursues an advanced isotope separation technique for the late 1980's. That the United States must develop additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity is discussed

  3. Oil Vulnerabilities and United States Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-08

    Mazda, Mercedes - Benz , Ford, Mercury, and Nissan offer flexible fuel vehicles in the United States. Ethanol is currently produced in the United States...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT OIL VULNERABILITIES AND UNITED STATES STRATEGY by Colonel Shawn P. Walsh...Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting

  4. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  5. A Comparative View of Equality Under the UN Convention on the Rights of PERSONS with Disabilities and the Disability Laws of the United States and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene S Kanter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities [CRPD], the first international treaty addressing specifically the rights of people with disabilities, including in the workplace.  The purpose of the CRPD is “to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity....” The CRPD has been ratified by 160 countries, including Canada, but not yet by the United States. Article 27 of the CRPD, entitled Work and Employment, prohibits not only discrimination against people with disabilities in employment, but also the right of people with disabilities to reasonable accommodations, equal remuneration for work of equal value, safe and healthy working conditions,  assistance in finding, obtaining, maintaining and returning to employment,  rehabilitation, job retention and return-to-work programmes,  as well as affirmative action programmes, incentives and other measures to promote equal employment opportunities. As compared to the Americans with Disabilities Act and the Canadian Charter, the CRPD, therefore, goes beyond prohibiting discrimination and instead seeks to ensure greater substantive equality for people with disabilities in the workplace.  As such, the author proposes that both US and Canadian legislatures and courts should look to the CRPD to help their respective countries move beyond traditional notions of formal equality towards a new right to substantive equality in the workplace for people with disabilities. En 2006, les Nations Unies ont adopté la Convention relative aux droits des personnes handicapées [CDPH], le premier traité international portant explicitement sur les droits des personnes handicapées, y compris les droits dans le milieu de travail. La CDPH a pour objet de « promouvoir, protéger et assurer la pleine et égale jouissance de tous

  6. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  7. TRAINING OF THE STATE PRESIDENT'S UNIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary function of the State President's Unit is to protect the head of state - not his person as is generally believed, but his authority over the state. Ironically, the ceremonial performances of the State President's Unit lead people to believe that they are only capable of doing drill exer- cises. However, upon investigating.

  8. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  9. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  10. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  11. Data report: western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.

    1982-04-01

    This abbreviated summary data report, presents results of ground water and stream surface sediment reconnaissance in the western United States. Surface sediment samples were collected at 67,741 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 13,979 sites, and surface water samples were collected at 2,958 sites. Neutron activaton analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in waters. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground waters. Supplemental analyses of the sediments for extractable uranium and 22 other elements are given where they are available. Supplemental analyses of water samples for 33 additional elements are also reported where they are available. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables on microfiche. Data from ground water sites (on microfiche in pocket) include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V by neutron activation and Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Sc, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Zn, and Zr by spectrophotometry). Helium analyses are given for ground water

  12. Comparative analysis of Edwardsiella isolates from fish in the eastern United States identifies two distinct genetic taxa amongst organisms phenotypically classified as E. tarda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Matt J.; Quiniou, Sylvie M.; Cody, Theresa; Tabuchi, Maki; Ware, Cynthia; Cipriano, Rocco C.; Mauel, Michael J.; Soto, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    Edwardsiella tarda, a Gram-negative member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, has been implicated in significant losses in aquaculture facilities worldwide. Here, we assessed the intra-specific variability of E. tarda isolates from 4 different fish species in the eastern United States. Repetitive sequence mediated PCR (rep-PCR) using 4 different primer sets (ERIC I & II, ERIC II, BOX, and GTG5) and multi-locus sequence analysis of 16S SSU rDNA, groEl, gyrA, gyrB, pho, pgi, pgm, and rpoA gene fragments identified two distinct genotypes of E. tarda (DNA group I; DNA group II). Isolates that fell into DNA group II demonstrated more similarity to E. ictaluri than DNA group I, which contained the reference E. tarda strain (ATCC #15947). Conventional PCR analysis using published E. tarda-specific primer sets yielded variable results, with several primer sets producing no observable amplification of target DNA from some isolates. Fluorometric determination of G + C content demonstrated 56.4% G + C content for DNA group I, 60.2% for DNA group II, and 58.4% for E. ictaluri. Surprisingly, these isolates were indistinguishable using conventional biochemical techniques, with all isolates demonstrating phenotypic characteristics consistent with E. tarda. Analysis using two commercial test kits identified multiple phenotypes, although no single metabolic characteristic could reliably discriminate between genetic groups. Additionally, anti-microbial susceptibility and fatty acid profiles did not demonstrate remarkable differences between groups. The significant genetic variation (<90% similarity at gyrA, gyrB, pho, phi and pgm; <40% similarity by rep-PCR) between these groups suggests organisms from DNA group II may represent an unrecognized, genetically distinct taxa of Edwardsiella that is phenotypically indistinguishable from E. tarda.

  13. State laws on tobacco control--United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A; Allison, H; Knowles, S B; Fishburn, B A; Woollery, T A; Marx, W T; Shelton, D M; Husten, C G; Eriksen, M P

    1999-06-25

    State laws addressing tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, are summarized. Laws address smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco products, advertising of tobacco products, and excise taxes on tobacco products. Legislation effective through December 31, 1998. CDC identified laws addressing tobacco control by using an on-line legal research database. CDC's findings were verified with the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database. Since a previous surveillance summary on state tobacco-control laws published in November 1995 (covering legislation effective through June 30, 1995), several states have enacted new restrictions or strengthened existing legislation that addresses smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco, tobacco advertising, and tobacco taxes. Five states strengthened their smoke-free indoor air legislation. All states and Washington, D.C., continued to prohibit the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; however, 21 states expanded minors' access laws by designating enforcement authorities, adding license suspension or revocation for sale to minors, or requiring signage. Since the 1995 report, eight additional states (a total of 19 states and Washington, D.C.) now ban vending machines from areas accessible to minors. Thirteen states restrict advertising of tobacco products, an increase of four states since the 1995 report. Although the number of states that tax cigarettes and smokeless tobacco did not change, 13 states increased excise taxes on cigarettes, and five states increased excise taxes on smokeless tobacco products. The average state excise tax on cigarettes is 38.9 cents per pack, an increase of 7.4 cents compared with the average tax in the 1995 report. State laws addressing tobacco control vary in relation to restrictiveness, enforcement and penalties, preemptions, and exceptions. The data summarizing state tobacco-control laws are available through CDC

  14. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  15. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  16. School Autonomy: A Comparison between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangang; Gao, Xingyuan; Shen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    This study examined and compared school autonomy in China and the United States. Based on the international PISA 2012 school data, the authors examined three aspects of school autonomy. We found that in comparison with the United States, (1) principals from China were less likely to have responsibility over eleven school decisions (hiring…

  17. Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Nivolumab-Ipilimumab Combination Therapy Compared with Monotherapy for First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Anna; Tran, Dang M; McDowell, Leann C; Keyvani, Dor; Barcelon, Jay Andrew; Merino, Oscar; Wilson, Leslie

    2017-06-01

    The approval of new immunotherapies has dramatically changed the treatment landscape of metastatic melanoma. These survival gains come with trade-offs in side effects and costs, as well as important considerations for third-party payer systems, physicians, and patients. To develop a Markov model to determine the cost-effectiveness of nivolumab, ipilimumab, and nivolumab-ipilimumab combination as firstline therapy in metastatic melanoma, while accounting for differential effectiveness in programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) positive and negative patients. A 3-state Markov model (PD-L1 positive stable disease, PD-L1 negative stable disease, and progression and/or death) was developed using a U.S. societal perspective with a lifetime time horizon of 14.5 years. Transition probabilities were calculated from progression-free (PF) survival data reported in the CheckMate-067 trial. Costs were expressed in 2015 U.S. dollars and were determined using national sources. Adverse event (AE) management was determined using immune-related AE (irAE) data from CheckMate-067, irAE management guides for nivolumab and ipilimumab, and treatment guidelines. Utilities were obtained from published literature, using melanoma-specific studies when available, and were weighted based on incidence and duration of irAEs. Base case, one-way sensitivity, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. Nivolumab-ipilimumab combination therapy was not the cost-effective choice ($454,092 per PF quality-adjusted life-year [QALY]) compared with nivolumab monotherapy in a base case analysis at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per PFQALY. Combination therapy and nivolumab monotherapy were cost-effective choices compared with ipilimumab monotherapy. PD-L1 positive status, utility of nivolumab and combination therapy, and medication costs contributed the most uncertainty to the model. In a population of 100% PD-L1 negative patients, nivolumab was still the optimal treatment, but combination

  19. The United Kingdom: Issues for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    ...; and more recently, from the UK's strong support in countering terrorism and confronting Iraq. The United States and Britain also share a mutually beneficial trade and economic relationship, and are each other's biggest foreign direct investors...

  20. Global Entrepreneurship and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Global Entrepreneurship and the United States by Zoltan J. Acs Laszlo Szerb Ruxton, MD 21204 for under contract number SBAHQ-09...SUBTITLE Global Entrepreneurship and the United States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...3 2.1. Assessing Entrepreneurship ..................................................................................4 2.2. Stages of Development

  1. Immigration Enforcement Within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-06

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Policy Issues...Remained in the United States, (Washington: Center for Immigration Studies, May 2002). Immigration Enforcement Within the United States Introduction ...interior enforcement lack a border component. For example, fugitive taskforces, investigations of alien slavery and sweatshops , and employer sanctions do

  2. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8... scheduled for May 25, 2010. Date: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801 9th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20220. Subject: Review and discuss obverse and...

  3. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  4. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  5. Regional Comparative Unit Cost Studies for Maintenance and Operation of Physical Plants in Universities and Colleges in Central States Region and Rocky Mountain Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of Physical Plant Administrators, Corvallis, OR.

    Presented in this document are data pertaining to maintenance and operations costs at colleges and universities in the central states region and the Rocky Mountain region. The major accounts included in the cost analysis are: (1) physical plant administration, (2) building maintenance, (3) custodial services, (4) utilities, (5) landscape and…

  6. A Domestic Intelligence Agency for the United States? A Comparative Analysis of Domestic Intelligence Agencies and Their Implications for Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    cooperate with everybody, bilaterally, regionally, at the global level, in the fight against terror.”70 Manmoham Singh , Prime Minister of India...As Swati Pandey states: For a counterterrorism law, lawmakers should consider the state’s police capabilities, the legal system, and the political...Enemy Within, 50. 70 Manmoham Singh , “Interview of Prime Minister Dr. Manmoham Singh ,” interview by Charlie Rose, Charlie Rose Show (21 September

  7. Nuclear development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, S.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the nuclear development in the United States has been one of international cooperation relations so far. The United States is to offer the technical information on atomic energy utilization to foreign countries in exchange for the guarantee that they never attempt to have or develop nuclear weapons. Actually, the United States has supplied the technologies on nuclear fuel cycle and other related fields to enable other countries to achieve economical and social progress. The Department of Energy clarified the public promise of the United States regarding the idea of international energy community. The ratio of nuclear power generation to total electric power supply in the United States exceeded 12%, and will exceed 20% by 1990. Since 1978, new nuclear power station has not been ordered, and some of the contracted power stations were canceled. The atomic energy industry in the United States prospered at the beginning of 1970s, but lost the spirit now, mainly due to the institutional problems rather than the technical ones. As the policy of the government to eliminate the obstacles, the improvement of the procedure for the permission and approval, the establishment of waste disposal capability, the verification of fast breeder reactor technology and the promotion of commercial fuel reprocessing were proposed. The re-establishment of the United States as the reliable supplier of atomic energy service is the final aim. (Kako, I.)

  8. Prostate cancer disparities in Black men of African descent: a comparative literature review of prostate cancer burden among Black men in the United States, Caribbean, United Kingdom, and West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reams R Renee

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American men have the highest prostate cancer morbidity and mortality rates than any other racial or ethnic group in the US. Although the overall incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer has been declining in White men since 1991, the decline in African American men lags behind White men. Of particular concern is the growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry in the Caribbean Islands, United Kingdom and West Africa. This higher incidence of prostate cancer observed in populations of African descent may be attributed to the fact that these populations share ancestral genetic factors. To better understand the burden of prostate cancer among men of West African Ancestry, we conducted a review of the literature on prostate cancer incidence, prevalence, and mortality in the countries connected by the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Results Several published studies indicate high prostate cancer burden in Nigeria and Ghana. There was no published literature for the countries Benin, Gambia and Senegal that met our review criteria. Prostate cancer morbidity and/or mortality data from the Caribbean Islands and the United Kingdom also provided comparable or worse prostate cancer burden to that of US Blacks. Conclusion The growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry follows the path of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. To better understand and address the global prostate cancer disparities seen in Black men of West African ancestry, future studies should explore the genetic and environmental risk factors for prostate cancer among this group.

  9. Financial impact of spinal cord stimulation on the healthcare budget: a comparative analysis of costs in Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna; Bishop, Sharon

    2009-06-01

    Many institutions with spinal cord stimulation (SCS) programs fail to realize that besides the initial implantation cost, budgetary allocation must be made to address annual maintenance costs as well as complications as they arise. Complications remain the major contributing factor to the overall expense of SCS. The authors present a formula that, when applied, provides a realistic representation of the actual costs necessary to implant and maintain SCS systems in Canada and the US. The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 197 cases involving SCS (161 implanted and 36 failed trial stimulations) between 1995 and 2006. The cost of patient workup, initial implantation, annual maintenance, and resources necessary to resolve complications were assessed for each case and a unit cost applied. The total cost allocated for each case was determined by summing across healthcare resource headings. Using the same parameters, the unit cost was calculated in both Canadian (CAD) and US dollars (USD) at 2007 prices. The cost of implanting a SCS system in Canada is $21,595 (CAD), in US Medicare $32,882 (USD), and in US Blue Cross Blue Shield (BCBS) $57,896 (USD). The annual maintenance cost of an uncomplicated case in Canada is $3539 (CAD), in US Medicare $5071 (USD), and in BCBS $7277 (USD). The mean cost of a complication was $5191 in Canada (range $136-18,837 [CAD]). In comparison, in the US the figures were $9649 (range $381-28,495) for Medicare and $21,390 (range $573-54,547) for BCBS (both USD). Using these calculations a formula was derived as follows: the annual maintenance cost (a) was added to the average annual cost per complication per patient implanted (b); the sum was then divided by the implantation cost (c); and the result was multiplied by 100 to obtain a percentage (a + b / c x 100). To make this budgetary cap universally applicable, the results from the application of the formula were averaged, resulting in an 18% premium. For budgeting purposes the

  10. Counselor Preparation in Nigeria and the United States of America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares and contrast counsellor-training programs in two institutions from different cultures. The University of Ilorin, Nigeria and The Pennsylvania State University. While the United States is. an industrialized western nation, Nigeria is a developing African nation. A comparative inquiry of this nature is likely to ...

  11. More stressors prior to and during the course of bipolar illness in patients from the United States compared with the Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori; Leverich, Gabriele; Nolen, Willem; Kupka, Ralph; Grunze, Heinz; Frye, Mark; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Sue; Keck, Paul; Rowe, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Considerable data suggest that compared to some European countries, in the U.S. there are more childhood onset bipolar disorders, more adverse courses of illness, and greater treatment resistance. Psychosocial variables related to these findings have not been adequately explored. Therefore we

  12. Market Reactions to Publicly Announced Privacy and Security Breaches Suffered by Companies Listed on the United States Stock Exchanges: A Comparative Empirical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Adolfo S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of security and privacy breaches the present research examines the comparative announcement impact between the two types of events. The first part of the dissertation analyzes the impact of publicly announced security and privacy breaches on abnormal stock returns, the change in firm risk, and abnormal trading volume are measured.…

  13. Household pesticide usage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, E P; Keefe, T J; Wheeler, H W; Mounce, L; Helwic, L; Applehans, F; Goes, E; Goes, T; Mihlan, G; Rench, J; Taylor, D K

    1981-01-01

    A total of 10,000 U.S. households in 25 standard metropolitan statistical areas and 25 counties were included in the United States. More than 8,200 households granted an interview. Nine of every ten households in the United States used some types of pesticide in their house, garden, or yard. Households in the southeastern United States used the most pesticides. Although more than 500 different pesticide formulations were used by the sampled households, 15 pesticides accounted for 65.5% of all pesticides reported in this study. Thirteen of these 15 pesticides were insecticides, one was a herbicide, and one was a rodenticide.

  14. Intergenerational educational mobility in Denmark and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Thomsen, Jens-Peter

    2018-01-01

    An overall finding in comparative mobility studies is that intergenerational mobility is greater in Scandinavia than in liberal welfare-state countries like the United States and United Kingdom. However, in a recent study, Landersø and Heckman (L & H) (2017) argue that intergenerational educational...... mobility in Denmark and the United States is remarkably similar. L & H’s findings run contrary to widespread beliefs and have been echoed in academia and mass media on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. In this article, we reanalyze educational mobility in Denmark and the United States using the same data...... sources as L & H. We apply several different methodological approaches from economics and sociology, and we consistently find that educational mobility is higher in Denmark than in the United States....

  15. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  16. Quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising: a comparative study in Australia, Malaysia and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitry Agnes I

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Journal advertising is used by pharmaceutical companies to disseminate medicine information to doctors. The quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in Australia and the US has been questioned in several studies. No recent evidence is available on the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in Australia and the US and no Malaysian data have been published. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in these three countries. Methods A consecutive sample of 85 unique advertisements from each country was selected from journal advertising published between January 2004 to December 2006. Claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising were compared between the three countries. Results Less than one-third of the claims were unambiguous claims (Australia, 30%, Malaysia 17%, US, 23%. In Malaysia significantly less unambiguous claims were provided than in Australia and the US (P Conclusions The majority of claims were vague suggesting poor quality of claims in journal advertising in these three countries. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial, systematic review or meta- analysis was commonly cited to support claims. However, the more frequent use of data that have not been published and independently reviewed in the US compared to Australia and Malaysia raises questions on the quality of references in the US. The use of relative rather than absolute benefits may overemphasize the benefit of medicines which may leave doctors susceptible to misinterpreting information.

  17. Quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising: a comparative study in Australia, Malaysia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Noordin; Vitry, Agnes I; Roughead, Elizabeth E

    2010-05-29

    Journal advertising is used by pharmaceutical companies to disseminate medicine information to doctors. The quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in Australia and the US has been questioned in several studies. No recent evidence is available on the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in Australia and the US and no Malaysian data have been published. The aim of this study was to compare the quality of claims, references and the presentation of risk results in journal advertising in these three countries. A consecutive sample of 85 unique advertisements from each country was selected from journal advertising published between January 2004 to December 2006. Claims, references and the presentation of risk results in medical journal advertising were compared between the three countries. Less than one-third of the claims were unambiguous claims (Australia, 30%, Malaysia 17%, US, 23%). In Malaysia significantly less unambiguous claims were provided than in Australia and the US (P review or meta-analysis (Australia, 84%, Malaysia, 81%, US, 76%) with journal articles being the most commonly cited references in all countries. Data on file were significantly more likely to be cited in the US (17%) than in Australia (2%) and Malaysia (4%) (P countries. Evidence from a randomized controlled trial, systematic review or meta- analysis was commonly cited to support claims. However, the more frequent use of data that have not been published and independently reviewed in the US compared to Australia and Malaysia raises questions on the quality of references in the US. The use of relative rather than absolute benefits may overemphasize the benefit of medicines which may leave doctors susceptible to misinterpreting information.

  18. A functional intranet for the United States Coast Guard Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, Robert Todd.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis describes the complete development process of a friendly functional Intranet for an operational United States Coast Guard (USCG) electronic Support Unit (ESU) in Alameda, California. The final product is suitable for immediate use. It may also be used as a prototype for future Intranet development efforts. The methodology used to develop a finished, working product provides the core subject matter for this thesis. The disc...

  19. On the Outskirts of National Health Reform: A Comparative Assessment of Health Insurance and Access to Care in Puerto Rico and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Portela, Maria; Sommers, Benjamin Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Context: Puerto Rico is the U.S.’s largest territory, home to nearly 4 million American citizens. Yet it has remained largely on the outskirts of U.S. health policy, including the Affordable Care Act (ACA). This paper presents an overview of Puerto Rico’s health care system and a comparative analysis of coverage and access to care in Puerto Rico versus the mainland U.S. Methods: We analyzed 2011-2012 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor and Surveillance System, and 2012 d...

  20. A proposed United States resource classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is a world-wide problem calling for world-wide communication to resolve the many supply and distribution problems. Essential to a communication problem are a definition and comparability of elements being communicated. The US Geological Survey, with the co-operation of the US Bureau of Mines and the US Department of Energy, has devised a classification system for all mineral resources, the principles of which, it is felt, offer the possibility of world communication. At present several other systems, extant or under development (Potential Gas Committee of the USA, United Nations Resource Committee, and the American Society of Testing and Materials) are internally consistent and provide easy communication linkage. The system in use by the uranium community in the United States of America, however, ties resource quantities to forward-cost dollar values rendering them inconsistent with other classifications and therefore not comparable. This paper develops the rationale for the new USGS resource classification and notes its benefits relative to a forward-cost classification and its relationship specifically to other current classifications. (author)

  1. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Tamayao, Mili-Ann M.; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M. L.; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2016-04-01

    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally.

  2. Randomized trial to compare the safety and immunogenicity of CSL Limited's 2009 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine to an established vaccine in United States children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Rebecca C; Hu, Wilson; Houchin, Vonda G; Eder, Frank S; Jackson, Kenneth C; Hartel, Gunter F; Sawlwin, Daphne C; Albano, Frank R; Greenberg, Michael

    2014-12-12

    A trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (CSL's TIV, CSL Limited) was licensed under USA accelerated approval regulations for use in persons≥18 years. We performed a randomized, observer-blind study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of CSL's TIV versus an established US-licensed vaccine in a population≥6 months to vaccination history determined the dosing regimen (one or two vaccinations). Subjects received CSL's TIV (n=739) or the established vaccine (n=735) in the autumn of 2009. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition titers were determined pre-vaccination and 30 days after the last vaccination. No febrile seizures or other vaccine-related SAEs were reported. After the first vaccination for Cohorts A and B, respectively, the relative risks of fever were 2.73 and 2.32 times higher for CSL's TIV compared to the established vaccine. Irritability and loss of appetite (for Cohort A) and malaise (for Cohort B) were also significantly higher for CSL's TIV compared to the established vaccine. Post-vaccination geometric mean titers (GMTs) for CSL's TIV versus the established vaccine were 385.49 vs. 382.45 for H1N1; 669.13 vs. 705.61 for H3N2; and 100.65 vs. 93.72 for B. CSL's TIV demonstrated immunological non-inferiority to the established vaccine in all cohorts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of regional grid mix, driving patterns and climate on the comparative carbon footprint of gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Michalek, Jeremy J; Tamayao, Mili-Ann M; Hendrickson, Chris; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2016-01-01

    We compare life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from several light-duty passenger gasoline and plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) across US counties by accounting for regional differences due to marginal grid mix, ambient temperature, patterns of vehicle miles traveled (VMT), and driving conditions (city versus highway). We find that PEVs can have larger or smaller carbon footprints than gasoline vehicles, depending on these regional factors and the specific vehicle models being compared. The Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicle has a smaller carbon footprint than the most efficient gasoline vehicle (the Toyota Prius) in the urban counties of California, Texas and Florida, whereas the Prius has a smaller carbon footprint in the Midwest and the South. The Leaf is lower emitting than the Mazda 3 conventional gasoline vehicle in most urban counties, but the Mazda 3 is lower emitting in rural Midwest counties. The Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle has a larger carbon footprint than the Prius throughout the continental US, though the Volt has a smaller carbon footprint than the Mazda 3 in many urban counties. Regional grid mix, temperature, driving conditions, and vehicle model all have substantial implications for identifying which technology has the lowest carbon footprint, whereas regional patterns of VMT have a much smaller effect. Given the variation in relative GHG implications, it is unlikely that blunt policy instruments that favor specific technology categories can ensure emission reductions universally. (letter)

  4. Analysis of United States' Broadband Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uzarski, Joel S

    2007-01-01

    .... With every month that passes, the United States fails to close the gap in the digital divide both inside its borders as well as among the other countries that lead the world in broadband penetration...

  5. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  6. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  7. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mailing List Previous Reports Suggested Citation Related Sites Purchase Health, United States Behavioral Health Report Children’s ... with Internet Explorer may experience difficulties in directly accessing links to Excel files ...

  8. Improving the United States' Strategic Communication Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risberg, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    ...? Much of the answer to this question is the failure of the United States Government to effectively use strategic communication to inform and influence populations to recognize the value of American...

  9. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  10. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  11. NCHS - Leading Causes of Death: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset presents the age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States beginning in 1999. Data are based on information from all...

  12. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.

  13. Climate change indicators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published this report, Climate Change Indicators in the United States, to help readers interpret a set of important indicators to better understand climate change. The report presents 24 indicators, ...

  14. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  15. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  16. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  17. Comparative requirements for electric energy for production of hydrogen fuel and/or recharging of battery electric automobile fleets in New Zealand and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, Paul [Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Leaver, Jonathan D. [Department of Civil Engineering, Unitec NZ, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2010-10-15

    Within the current outlook for sustainable electric energy supply with concomitant reduction in emission of greenhouse gases, accelerated attention is focusing on the long-term development of hydrogen fuel cell and all-electric battery vehicles to provide alternative fuels to replace petroleum-derived fuels for automotive national fleets. The potential varies significantly between large industrially developed nations and smaller industrially developing nations. The requirement for additional electric energy supply from low-specific energy renewable resources and high-specific energy nuclear resources depends strongly on individual national economic, environmental, and political factors. Analysis of the additional electric energy supply required for the two potential large-scale technologies for fueling future national transportation sectors is compared for a large Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nation (USA) with a small OECD nation (New Zealand), normalized on a per-capita basis. (author)

  18. United States housing, first quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing under construction, and housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated regularly.

  19. Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderam, Saswati; Kissin, Dmitry M; Crawford, Sara B; Folger, Suzanne G; Boulet, Sheree L; Warner, Lee; Barfield, Wanda D

    2018-02-16

    Since the first U.S. infant conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) was born in 1981, both the use of ART and the number of fertility clinics providing ART services have increased steadily in the United States. ART includes fertility treatments in which eggs or embryos are handled in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro fertilization [IVF] and related procedures). Although the majority of infants conceived through ART are singletons, women who undergo ART procedures are more likely than women who conceive naturally to deliver multiple-birth infants. Multiple births pose substantial risks for both mothers and infants, including obstetric complications, preterm delivery (state-specific information for the United States (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) on ART procedures performed in 2015 and compares birth outcomes that occurred in 2015 (resulting from ART procedures performed in 2014 and 2015) with outcomes for all infants born in the United States in 2015. 2015. In 1995, CDC began collecting data on ART procedures performed in fertility clinics in the United States as mandated by the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act of 1992 (FCSRCA) (Public Law 102-493 [October 24, 1992]). Data are collected through the National ART Surveillance System, a web-based data collection system developed by CDC. This report includes data from 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico). In 2015, a total of 182,111 ART procedures (range: 135 in Alaska to 23,198 in California) with the intent to transfer at least one embryo were performed in 464 U.S. fertility clinics and reported to CDC. These procedures resulted in 59,334 live-birth deliveries (range: 55 in Wyoming to 7,802 in California) and 71,152 infants born (range: 68 in Wyoming to 9,176 in California). Nationally, the number of ART procedures performed per 1 million women of reproductive age (15-44 years), a proxy measure of the ART utilization rate, was

  20. Regulatory practices - United States example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, M.

    1976-01-01

    In 1954, the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 was revised to do away with the federal state monopoly in this field and to enable private industry to develop nuclear power. This evolution led the federal authorities to give the Atomic Energy Commission the powers to control the design, licensing and operation of nuclear reactors. These powers were constantly strengthened and are now exercised by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Since its creation in 1975, the Commission has amended the regulations on licensing of nuclear reactors in the light of experience acquired so as to shorten the duration of this procedure. These amendments concern the standardization of nuclear power plants, limited work authorizations, the methods for issuing licenses. The objective of the Commission aim to make the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants simpler and more efficient and hence, less costly, while ensuring that a very high level for safety standards and environmental protection is maintained. (NEA) [fr

  1. Energy problems of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2006-01-01

    The united states are the third world producer of oil which accounts for 440% of world production and 20 million barrels/day of which 60% are imported. That dependence on imports is likely to increase in the next decades. Such supplies and their security are therefore a fundamental factor of the United States foreign policy in combination with their political, economic and strategic objectives in a world both unsure and dangerous

  2. Trial by jury in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochhead Robert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e Republic of Moldova is considering the adoption of trial by jury in select criminal cases. Th e following article is intended to contribute to the discussion of that proposal. Th e article will briefl y describe the history of juries under the English common law and as adopted by the United States. It will then outline some of the basic procedures in trials by jury as currently practiced in the United States federal court system.

  3. Counseling on lifestyle habits in the United States and Sweden: a report comparing primary care health professionals' perspectives on lifestyle counseling in terms of scope, importance and competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinehall, Lars; Johansson, Helene; Sorensen, Julie; Jerdén, Lars; May, John; Jenkins, Paul

    2014-05-03

    The role of primary care professionals in lifestyle counseling for smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet is receiving attention at the national level in many countries. The U. S. and Sweden are two countries currently establishing priorities in these areas. A previously existing international research collaboration provides a unique opportunity to study this issue. Data from a national survey in Sweden and a study in rural Upstate New York were compared to contrast the perspectives, attitudes, and practice of primary care professionals in the two countries. Answers to four key questions on counseling for tobacco use, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and eating habits were compared. The response rates were 71% (n=180) and 89% (n=86) in the Sweden and the U.S. respectively. U.S. professionals rated counseling "very important" significantly more frequently than Swedish professionals for tobacco (99% versus 92%, p<.0001), physical activity (90% versus 79%, p=.04), and eating habits (86% versus 69%, p=.003). U.S. professionals also reported giving "very much" counseling more frequently for these same three endpoints than did the Swedish professionals (tobacco 81% versus 38%, p<.0001, physical activity 64% versus 31%, p<.0001, eating 59% versus 34%, p=.0001). Swedish professionals also rated their level of expertise in providing counseling significantly lower than did their U.S. counterparts for all four endpoints. A higher percentage of U.S. professionals expressed a desire to increase levels of counseling "very much", but only significantly so for eating habits (42% versus 28%, p=.037). The study demonstrates large differences between the extent that Swedish and American primary care professionals report being engaged in counseling on lifestyle issues, how important they perceive counseling to be, and what expertise they possess in this regard. Explanations might be found in inter-professional attitudes, the organization of healthcare

  4. Cost-effectiveness of carfilzomib plus dexamethasone compared with bortezomib plus dexamethasone for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowiak, Andrzej J; Houisse, Ivan; Májer, István; Benedict, Ágnes; Campioni, Marco; Panjabi, Sumeet; Ailawadhi, Sikander

    2017-12-01

    We assessed the economic value of carfilzomib 56 mg/m 2 and dexamethasone (Kd56) vs. bortezomib and dexamethasone (Vd) for relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (R/RMM) using ENDEAVOR trial results. Cost-effectiveness of Kd56 vs. Vd was assessed using a partitioned survival model by estimating progression-free survival, overall survival, and direct costs over a lifetime horizon. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) survival data were extrapolated after matching registry and ENDEAVOR patients. Utilities were sourced from the literature and mapped from patient-reported quality of life in ENDEAVOR to estimate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) from life-years (LYs). The model predicted an average gain of 1.66 LYs and 1.50 QALYs with Kd56 vs. Vd, and lifetime additional costs of $182,699, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $121,828/QALY gained. The ICER was $114,793/QALY in patients with 1 prior treatment; $99,263/QALY in those not transplanted, and discount in bortezomib price. Kd56 is cost-effective for patients with R/RMM at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $150,000/QALY. Trial data in the model may limit generalizability; however, SEER registry data mitigates this challenge. Kd56 provides additional value in key subgroups, and remains cost-effective after steep comparator discounts.

  5. Grid parity analysis of stand-alone hybrid microgrids: A comparative study of Germany, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jawad M.

    Grid parity for alternative energy resources occurs when the cost of electricity generated from the source is lower than or equal to the purchasing price of power from the electricity grid. This thesis aims to quantitatively analyze the evolution of hybrid stand-alone microgrids in the US, Germany, Pakistan and South Africa to determine grid parity for a solar PV/Diesel/Battery hybrid system. The Energy System Model (ESM) and NREL's Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software are used to simulate the microgrid operation and determine a Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) figure for each location. This cost per kWh is then compared with two distinct estimates of future retail electricity prices at each location to determine grid parity points. Analysis results reveal that future estimates of LCOE for such hybrid stand-alone microgrids range within the 35-55 cents/kWh over the 25 year study period. Grid parity occurs earlier in locations with higher power prices or unreliable grids. For Pakistan grid parity is already here, while Germany hits parity between the years 2023-2029. Results for South Africa suggest a parity time range of the years 2040-2045. In the US, places with low grid prices do not hit parity during the study period. Sensitivity analysis results reveal the significant impact of financing and the cost of capital on these grid parity points, particularly in developing markets of Pakistan and South Africa. Overall, the study helps conclude that variations in energy markets may determine the fate of emerging energy technologies like microgrids. However, policy interventions have a significant impact on the final outcome, such as the grid parity in this case. Measures such as eliminating uncertainty in policies and improving financing can help these grids overcome barriers in developing economies, where they may find a greater use much earlier in time.

  6. Learning from our global competitors: A comparative analysis of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education pipelines in the United States, Mainland China and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Christina M.

    Maintaining a competitive edge within the 21st century is dependent on the cultivation of human capital, producing qualified and innovative employees capable of competing within the new global marketplace. Technological advancements in communications technology as well as large scale, infrastructure development has led to a leveled playing field where students in the U.S. will ultimately be competing for jobs with not only local, but also international, peers. Thus, the ability to understand and learn from our global competitors, starting with the examination of innovative education systems and best practice strategies, is tantamount to the economic development, and ultimate survival, of the U.S. as a whole. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current state of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education and workforce pipelines in the U.S., China, and Taiwan. Two broad research questions examined STEM workforce production in terms of a) structural differences in primary and secondary school systems, including analysis of minimum high school graduation requirements and assessments as well as b) organizational differences in tertiary education and trends in STEM undergraduate and graduate degrees awarded in each region of interest. While each of the systems studied had their relative strengths and weaknesses, each of the Asian economies studied had valuable insights that can be categorized broadly in terms of STEM capacity, STEM interest and a greater understanding of global prospects that led to heightened STEM awareness. In China and Taiwan, STEM capacity was built via both traditional and vocational school systems. Focused and structured curriculum during the primary and early secondary school years built solid mathematics and science skills that translated into higher performance on international assessments and competitions. Differentiated secondary school options, including vocational high school and technical colleges and

  7. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  8. 76 FR 38700 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... prices in advertisements, in-store displays, and online. Consumer World believes these rules should be... has ruled on that motion. I. Procedural History The United States and seven Plaintiff States filed the... Restraints result in higher merchant costs, and merchants generally pass costs on to consumers, retail prices...

  9. Comprehensive stroke units: a review of comparative evidence and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel K Y; Cordato, Dennis; O'Rourke, Fintan; Chan, Daniel L; Pollack, Michael; Middleton, Sandy; Levi, Chris

    2013-06-01

    Stroke unit care offers significant benefits in survival and dependency when compared to general medical ward. Most stroke units are either acute or rehabilitation, but comprehensive (combined acute and rehabilitation) model (comprehensive stroke unit) is less common. To examine different levels of evidence of comprehensive stroke unit compared to other organized inpatient stroke care and share local experience of comprehensive stroke units. Cochrane Library and Medline (1980 to December 2010) review of English language articles comparing stroke units to alternative forms of stroke care delivery, different types of stroke unit models, and differences in processes of care within different stroke unit models. Different levels of comparative evidence of comprehensive stroke units to other models of stroke units are collected. There are no randomized controlled trials directly comparing comprehensive stroke units to other stroke unit models (either acute or rehabilitation). Comprehensive stroke units are associated with reduced length of stay and greatest reduction in combined death and dependency in a meta-analysis study when compared to other stroke unit models. Comprehensive stroke units also have better length of stay and functional outcome when compared to acute or rehabilitation stroke unit models in a cross-sectional study, and better length of stay in a 'before-and-after' comparative study. Components of stroke unit care that improve outcome are multifactorial and most probably include early mobilization. A comprehensive stroke unit model has been successfully implemented in metropolitan and rural hospital settings. Comprehensive stroke units are associated with reductions in length of stay and combined death and dependency and improved functional outcomes compared to other stroke unit models. A comprehensive stroke unit model is worth considering as the preferred model of stroke unit care in the planning and delivery of metropolitan and rural stroke services

  10. Exporting Rambutan to United States: One Reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Mohd Sidek Othman

    2011-01-01

    Rambutan is a one of commodity that are passed by United States of America authority to be market in that states. The main condition for the approval is the exporter must use irradiation technology as quarantine treatment to monitor the insects in there. United States of America's Agriculture Department (USDA-APHIS) has make early survey to the facilities involved in exporting process chain to overview Malaysia preparedness for this purpose. This paper work will discussed the possibility of this exporting implemented based on conditions rule by the USDA. (author)

  11. Radiation therapy facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballas, Leslie K.; Elkin, Elena B.; Schrag, Deborah; Minsky, Bruce D.; Bach, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: About half of all cancer patients in the United States receive radiation therapy as a part of their cancer treatment. Little is known, however, about the facilities that currently deliver external beam radiation. Our goal was to construct a comprehensive database of all radiation therapy facilities in the United States that can be used for future health services research in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: From each state's health department we obtained a list of all facilities that have a linear accelerator or provide radiation therapy. We merged these state lists with information from the American Hospital Association (AHA), as well as 2 organizations that audit the accuracy of radiation machines: the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) and Radiation Dosimetry Services (RDS). The comprehensive database included all unique facilities listed in 1 or more of the 4 sources. Results: We identified 2,246 radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States as of 2004-2005. Of these, 448 (20%) facilities were identified through state health department records alone and were not listed in any other data source. Conclusions: Determining the location of the 2,246 radiation facilities in the United States is a first step in providing important information to radiation oncologists and policymakers concerned with access to radiation therapy services, the distribution of health care resources, and the quality of cancer care

  12. Fragmentation of Continental United States Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Robert V. O' Neill; K. Bruce Jones; Elizabeth R. Smith; John W. Coulston; Timothy G. Wade; Jonathan H. Smith

    2002-01-01

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m (0.09 ha pixel-1) land- cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indexes measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes including 2.25, 7.29, 65.61, 590.49, and 5314.41 ha....

  13. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  14. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  15. Recurrent Kawasaki disease, United States and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Ryan A.; Holman, Robert C.; Uehara, Ritei; Callinan, Laura S.; Guest, Jodie L.; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Belay, Ermias D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Descriptive epidemiologic studies of recurrent and non-recurrent Kawasaki disease (KD) may identify other potentially important differences between these illnesses. Methods Data from the United States and Japan, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) national KD surveillance (1984–2008) and the 17th Japanese nationwide survey (2001–2002), respectively, were analyzed to examine recurrent KD patients <18 years of age meeting the CDC KD case or atypical KD case definition. These patients were compared to non-recurrent KD patients. Results Of the 5557 US KD patients <18 years of age during 1984–2008, 97 (1.7%) were identified as having had recurrent KD. Among the US Asian/Pacific Islander KD patients, 3.5% had recurrent KD, which was similar to the percentage identified among KD patients (3.5%) in the Japanese survey. Compared to non-recurrent KD patients, KD patients experiencing a recurrent KD episode were more likely to be older, fulfill the atypical KD case definition, and have coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) despite IVIG treatment. Conclusions Differences in the age, race, and frequency of CAA exist between recurrent and non-recurrent KD patients. The increased association of CAA with recurrent KD suggests that more aggressive treatment strategies in conjunction with IVIG may be indicated for the second episode of KD. PMID:26096590

  16. Enrichment situation outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Different enrichment technologies are briefly characterized which include gaseous diffusion, which is presently the production mainstay of the United States and France; the gaseous centrifuge which is the production plant for Urenco and the technology for future United States enrichment expansion; the aero-dynamic processes which include the jet nozzle (also known as the Becker process) and the fixed-wall centrifuge (also known as the Helikon process); chemical processes; laser isotope separation processes (also referred to in the literature as LIS); and plasma technology

  17. Solar energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, D.; Slaoui, A.; Soler, R.; Bermudez, V.

    2009-01-01

    Written by a group of five French experts who visited several research centres, innovating companies and solar power stations in the United States, this report first proposes an overview of solar energy in the United States, indicating and commenting the respective shares of different renewable energies in the production, focusing on the photovoltaic energy production and its RD sector. The second part presents industrial and research activities in the solar sector, and more specifically photovoltaic technologies (silicon and thin layer technology) and solar concentrators (thermal solar concentrators, photovoltaic concentrators). The last chapter presents the academic research activities in different universities (California Tech Beckman Institute, Stanford, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines)

  18. Food irradiation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1963, some irradiated foods have been permitted for sale in the United States. Yet, at this time, commercial application has been limited to irradiation of a relatively small fraction of the spices and seasonings used as ingredients in other foods. The current situation regarding irradiated foods in the United States and how it developed is discussed. The author writes from experience gained as a Government regulator concerned primarily with ensuring safety of food and therefore this is stressed together with the crucial role played by consumers and industry. (author)

  19. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States...

  20. Tragedy, transformation, and triumph: comparing the factors and forces that led to the adoption of the 1860 Adulteration Act in England and the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    The 1860 Adulteration Act in England and the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act in the United States were two of the earliest pieces of legislation to provide generalized regulation of food and drugs on a national scale. While significant scholarly attention has been given to explaining the factors and forces that led to the passage of each Act independent of the other, few books or articles have directly compared the similar individuals and events that led to the adoption of both Acts. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Through a comparative examination, this paper reveals that four main components were key to the national pure food and drug movements in both countries: individuals who crusaded for national adulteration legislation; tragedies that shocked the public into calling for reform; press and publicity that was willing and able to bring the evils of adulteration to the forefront of the public mind; and a transformation of the social, political, and economic systems, which created atmospheres conducive to reform. This paper aims to shed new light on the 1860 Adulteration Act and the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act--two acts that derive their importance not just from the effect that they directly had on the regulation of food and drugs but also as some of the earliest examples of western governments coming to recognize the need for national regulation to protect the public from harm and coming to embrace their changing role as spearheads of modern regulatory states.

  1. Obesity: A United States Strategic Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    States Department of Veterans Affairs 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dr. Thomas ...Army Ms. Karen Malebranche United States Department of Veterans Affairs Project Adviser Dr. Thomas Williams U.S. Army War...per American has increased by 57 pounds per year ( poultry representing 46 pounds).86 Surprisingly however, the percentage of calories from meat

  2. Policy Perspectives on State Elementary and Secondary Public Education Finance Systems in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and compare individual state funding systems for public elementary and secondary education in the United States. States' major education funding systems are described as well as funding mechanisms for students with disabilities; English language learners (ELL); gifted and talented students; and low income…

  3. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  4. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... response from the Nigerian government. ... domestic crises that negatively impacts state stability, the US government ... Harrison C. Ajebon, Department of Political Science, University of Calabar, ..... Sweden. United Kingdom. Switzerland. Asia & far East. Japan ..... case Study of Nigeria, in Ikonnechidi and.

  5. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  6. Nuclear accidents. Three mile Island (United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the accident of Three Miles Island power plant which occurred the 28 march 1979 in the United States. The accident scenario, the consequences and the reactor core and vessel, after the accident, are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  7. Energy policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M

    1978-06-01

    Energy policy in the United States is examined with particular regard to the nuclear power industry. The advantages of nuclear power over conventional and other sources are presented and the vigorous expansion of research and development is advocated. Future energy supplies are discussed and the author stresses the necessity for continued research into breeder technology.

  8. Political initiative needed in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, K.

    1979-01-01

    The financing of nuclear power stations in the United States is in trouble mainly because of the long lead times caused by licensing. It will again become feasible when legislation reduces the construction time to eight years or less. The overriding need to protect the dollar by reducing oil imports, will lead the US Government to embrace nuclear power openly. (U.K.)

  9. Motorcycle trends in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    During the last decade there has been a significant increase in the number of motorcycle sales and registrations in the United States. At the same time there has been a shift in the demographics of motorcycle users and increased focus on motorcycle s...

  10. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  11. 76 FR 18783 - United States et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... customers based on existing supplier-customer relationships. d. Neither Supply Responses Nor Entry Would... Final Judgment, Stipulation and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the... Competitive Impact Statement have been filed with the United States District Court for the Eastern District of...

  12. Overview of United States synchrotron radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    There has been considerable activity within the past year involving the creation of new and the improvement of existing capabilities for research with synchrotron light. The purpose of this review is to summarize what has happened within the United States. Being a status report, some of the information necessarily has a date attached to it - the date, in this case, being early September 1983

  13. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  14. Friendships of Indonesian and United States Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Doran C.; Pidada, Sri; Victor, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Issues in the study of friendship across cultures were explored by reviewing a set of studies focusing on the friendships of Indonesian and United States youth. Four topics are considered: similarity of friendships across cultures, dimensions of friendships that vary across cultures, the utility of the individualism/collectivism dimension for…

  15. Woody encroachment in the Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg C. Liknes; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Kevin. Nimerfro

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of the central United States is dominated by cropland and rangeland mixed with remnants of short- and tall-grass prairies that were once prevalent. Since the last ice age, these areas had sparse tree cover due to cyclical severe droughts, intentional fires used by indigenous people as a land management tool, and natural fires caused by lightning. More...

  16. Monthly hydroclimatology of the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Thomas; Devineni, Naresh; Sankarasubramanian, A.

    2018-04-01

    Physical/semi-empirical models that do not require any calibration are of paramount need for estimating hydrological fluxes for ungauged sites. We develop semi-empirical models for estimating the mean and variance of the monthly streamflow based on Taylor Series approximation of a lumped physically based water balance model. The proposed models require mean and variance of monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, co-variability of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and regionally calibrated catchment retention sensitivity, atmospheric moisture uptake sensitivity, groundwater-partitioning factor, and the maximum soil moisture holding capacity parameters. Estimates of mean and variance of monthly streamflow using the semi-empirical equations are compared with the observed estimates for 1373 catchments in the continental United States. Analyses show that the proposed models explain the spatial variability in monthly moments for basins in lower elevations. A regionalization of parameters for each water resources region show good agreement between observed moments and model estimated moments during January, February, March and April for mean and all months except May and June for variance. Thus, the proposed relationships could be employed for understanding and estimating the monthly hydroclimatology of ungauged basins using regional parameters.

  17. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  18. Radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, efforts to dispose of the nation's high- and low-level radioactive wastes are based on somewhat different approaches.The individual States are responsible for disposing of low-level wastes with the Federal Government providing technical and financial support to help the States in the early phases of their efforts. The Federal Government has responsibility for developing facilities for the disposal of high-level waste. However, both efforts show a common need to meet national objectives while satisfying the concerns of the public. (author)

  19. Both Europe's and the United States' electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matly, M.

    2006-01-01

    While the United States quickly had the largest electrical indus in the world, electrification in rural areas ended about thirty years after most European countries. Public intervention is a deciding factor in completing electrification, and the late involvement by the American authorities explains the gap. However it would be wrong to oppose in Europe and in the United States a motivated public sector and little involved private companies. In both continents indeed, major private and public urban distributors were almost not involved in rural electrification processes, where local players prevailed: local communities around Europe, small and medium size business in some European countries such as France, co-operative companies in the United States. Additionally, there is an essential difference between electrification in Europe and in the United States. The former does not provide much more than lighting and its success leaves few traces in popular memories; the latter includes many facilities and services, changes the lives of rural populations and is celebrated a such. Whereas the colonial venture keep European economies away from their domestic markets, while in the United States the urban market growth contents large companies, the American co-operative movement is right to believe in the existence of a large electrical equipment market among farmers then considered poor and behind. It even uses the market to complete a more profitable and less costly electrification. Electricity stories that offer food for the thoughts of Third World decision makers and power companies, when they entrust most rural electrification to their large urban companies and deny the existence of a real equipment market in their own rural world. (author)

  20. Promoting "Academic Entrepreneurship" in Europe and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.; Bagley, Constance E.

    2016-01-01

    and business thereby contributing to the development of the knowledge based economy.” As the European Commission has recognized, the European Union (“EU”) needs to take action to “unlock the potential of IPRs [intellectual property rights] that lie dormant in universities, research institutes and companies...... States (“U.S.”). Our comparative analysis of the EU and U.S. approaches to translational medicine shows that there are lessons to be shared. The EU can apply the experiences from the U.S. Bayh-Dole Act and PPPPs in the United States, and the United States can emulate certain of the open innovation...

  1. Antiabortion violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jennefer A; Schumacher, Kristin L; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine if an association exists between the amount of harassment and violence directed against abortion providers and the restrictiveness of state laws relating to family planning. We used responses from a July 2010 survey of 357 abortion providers in 50 states to determine their experience of antiabortion harassment and violence. Their responses were grouped and analyzed in relation to a published grading of state laws in the United States (A, B, C, D and F) as they relate to restrictions on family planning services. Group by group comparison of respondents illustrates that the difference in the number of reported incidents of minor vandalism by group is statistically significant (A vs. C, p=.07; A vs. D, p=.017; A vs. F, p=.0002). Incidents of harassment follow a similar pattern. There were no differences noted overall for violence or major vandalism. Major violence, including eight murders, is a new occurrence in the last two decades. Harassment of abortion providers in the United States has an association with the restrictiveness of state abortion laws. In the last two decades, murder of abortion providers has become an unfortunate part of the violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  3. The State of Homeless Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabler, Brenda; Weinstein, Elana

    2009-01-01

    Across America, the numbers of homeless children and families are growing as a result of many factors including the recent economic crisis, home foreclosures, and natural disasters. Because of an increase in the number of homeless children throughout the United States, this population has unmet needs that can be targeted in school settings under…

  4. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    do not have female staff; the male-to-female staff ratio in the health field is 7 to 1.130 More nurses and female staff are needed, especially to...exercise was rescheduled for 2009. 9 Interview with Ninth Air Force personnel, September 12, 2008. 200 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure

  5. 45 CFR 212.7 - Repayment to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repayment to the United States. 212.7 Section 212... UNITED STATES CITIZENS RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 212.7 Repayment to the United States. (a) An..., any or all of the cost of such assistance to the United States, except insofar as it is determined...

  6. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for 30...

  7. 31 CFR 515.330 - Person within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person within the United States. 515... Definitions § 515.330 Person within the United States. (a) The term person within the United States, includes: (1) Any person, wheresoever located, who is a resident of the United States; (2) Any person actually...

  8. 39 CFR 221.1 - The United States Postal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The United States Postal Service. 221.1 Section 221.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.1 The United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service was established as an...

  9. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of First Spouse Bronze Medals and 2010 First Spouse Bronze Medal Series: Four...

  10. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers and...

  11. 37 CFR 1.412 - The United States Receiving Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information § 1.412 The United States Receiving Office. (a) The United States Patent and Trademark Office is a Receiving Office only for applicants who are residents or nationals of the United States of America. (b) The... “United States Receiving Office” or by the abbreviation “RO/US.” (c) The major functions of the Receiving...

  12. The United States and world energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The United States, dominating the world's energy markets as a producer and consumer, is sensitive to changes in this market and intends to influence the development of global energy policy. Supply will be increased by nations such as Venezuela, Indonesia and perhaps in the future a United Yemen and the Commonwealth of Independent States, moving to freer market economies which will allow investment opportunities previously inaccessible to foreign companies. Although world energy demand will grow, little of this will be in the US where, under the National Energy Strategy, comprehensive measures are being introduced to improve energy efficiency. The US energy security will be further improved by such measures as diversification of supply, larger domestic production and increasing interdependence between suppliers, traders and consumers. (author)

  13. United States of America National Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The United States has produced this report as part of the preparations for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in Brazil in June 1992. It summarizes this nation's efforts to protect and enhance the quality of the human environment in concert with its efforts to provide economic well-being during the two decades since the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm. The information presented in this report is primarily and deliberately retrospective. It is an attempt to portray the many human, economic and natural resources of the United States, to describe resource use and the principal national laws and programs established to protect these resources, and to analyze key issues on the agenda of UNCED. This analysis is presented in terms of past and present conditions and trends, measures of progress made in responding to the key issues, and a summary of government activities, underway or pending, to address ongoing or newly emerging national environmental and resource management problems

  14. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American) knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and...

  15. The United States toward Energy Independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardon, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The U.S.'s exploitation of 'unconventional' domestic oil reserves is reviving its economy. It will also have effects on the country's energy independence and thus its geopolitical position. While it is unlikely that the relationship between Washington and the Middle East region will be fundamentally altered, the U.S.'s relationships with China, Russia, and Europe could be affected. The United States will have to incorporate these changes into its global strategies

  16. Low birth weight in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Robert L; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2007-02-01

    Pregnancy outcomes in the United States and other developed countries are considerably better than those in many developing countries. However, adverse pregnancy outcomes are generally more common in the United States than in other developed countries. Low-birth-weight infants, born after a preterm birth or secondary to intrauterine growth restriction, account for much of the increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Wide disparities exist in both preterm birth and growth restriction among different population groups. Poor and black women, for example, have twice the preterm birth rate and higher rates of growth restriction than do most other women. Low birth weight in general is thought to place the infant at greater risk of later adult chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Of interest, maternal thinness is a strong predictor of both preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. However, in the United States, several nutritional interventions, including high-protein diets, caloric supplementation, calcium and iron supplementation, and various other vitamin and mineral supplementations, have not generally reduced preterm birth or growth restriction. Bacterial intrauterine infections play an important role in the etiology of the earliest preterm births, but, at least to date, antibiotic treatment either before labor for risk factors such as bacterial vaginosis or during preterm labor have not consistently reduced the preterm birth rate. Most interventions have failed to reduce preterm birth or growth restriction. The substantial improvement in newborn survival in the United States over the past several decades is mostly due to better access to improved neonatal care for low-birth-weight infants.

  17. OECD environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' efforts to manage its environment including air, water, nature, and biodiversity; to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 47 figs., 20 tabs.

  18. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  19. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  20. Diesel fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V.

    2003-01-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO 2 emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  1. Electric trade in the United States 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Electric Trade in the United States 1990 (ELECTRA) is the third in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data. The second report contained data for 1988. This report provides information on the industry during 1990

  2. The United States facing their petroleum dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of ''the energy crisis of 2000-2001'', the Cheney report and the petroleum dependence, this study presents a critical examination of the United States petroleum situation, its perception in the american political milieu and the public policies implementing during the last ten years. The first section is devoted to the petroleum supply. In the second section, the american petroleum policy and the energy safety are studied. (A.L.B.)

  3. United States Energy Policy: Security Not Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    on leased land, ensuring fracking is done responsibly, and getting more natural gas and hybrid systems into U.S. mass transit. Internationally, the...fewer environ disturbances -Can store underground -Environ impacts of fracking unknown -uses large amount of water -potential for saline...from shale continues to rise as the United States determines how to drill safely. However, the impact of fracking on the environment is still

  4. ISO developments in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, William W.

    1998-01-01

    An important feature of the restructuring process in the United States is the creation of independent system operators (ISOs) to coordinate dispatch and access to transmission grids. A number of ISOs have been proposed and are summarized here. Perhaps the greatest challenge is the pricing of transmission to give proper economic signals to market participants, and the locational pricing scheme now operating in the PJM system offers the best hope for efficient pricing. (author)

  5. Burnup credit activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.; Thomas, D.A.; Doering, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers progress in burnup credit activities that have occurred in the United States of America (USA) since the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Burnup Credit was convened in October 1997. The Proceeding of the AGM were issued in April 1998 (IAEA-TECDOC-1013, April 1998). The three applications of the use of burnup credit that are discussed in this report are spent fuel storage, spent fuel transportation, and spent fuel disposal. (author)

  6. United States steps up waste isolation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedes, H W [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (USA). Office of Waste Isolation; Carbiener, W A [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (USA)

    1982-11-01

    A description is given of the United States' waste isolation programme which now involves tests of specific sites. The US Department of Energy plans to build a system of mined geological repositories for the disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste. It is hoped that the first repository will be available by 1998. Studies of the geology and hydrology of the proposed sites, the waste packaging and the repository design are reported.

  7. The United States and the Kurds: Case Studies in United States Engagement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, Peter

    1997-01-01

    ..., between 1969- 1975, and 1990-1996. Both eras saw the United States able to influence events relating to the Kurds in support of a larger regional policy, only to find no easy solution to the Kurdish quest for autonomy...

  8. United States position on severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    The United States policy on severe accidents was published in 1985 for both new plant applications and for existing plants. Implementation of this policy is in progress. This policy, aided by a related safety goal policy and by analysis capabilities emerging from improved understanding of accident phenomenology, is viewed as a logical development from the pioneering work in the WASH-1400 Reactor Safety Study published by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1975. This work provided an estimate of the probability and consequences of severe accidents which, prior to that time, had been mostly evaluated by somewhat arbitrary assumptions dating back 30 years. The early history of severe accident evaluation is briefly summarized for the period 1957-1979. Then, the galvanizing action of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) on severe accident analysis, experimentation and regulation is reviewed. Expressions of US policy in the form of rulemaking, severe accident policy, safety research, safety goal policy and court decisions (on adequacy of safety) are discussed. Finally, the NRC policy as of March 1988 is stated, along with a prospective look at the next few years. (author). 19 refs

  9. PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken Nemeth

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need technical

  10. Rural Ageing in the United States: Trends and Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Nina; Brown, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines rural population ageing in the United States with a particular focus on the contrasting contexts in which older rural residents live. We compare the characteristics of the older population by rural versus urban residence, and explore challenges and opportunities associated with the ageing of rural baby boomers. The United…

  11. Textbook Development and Selection in Japan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Masaru; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study trip by 13 U.S. social studies educators and publishers to Japan. Compares development, marketing, and selection of textbooks in the United States and Japan. Concludes that both nations should improve textbooks and textbook selection processes. (CFR)

  12. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  13. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    compared to other Allied 17Walter McDougall , Promised Land, Crusader State: The American Encounter with the World Since 1776 (Boston: Mariner Books, 1998...Russia–Georgia War was carried out largely under EU, Organization for Security and Cooperation, and United States leadership. Bush assisted...Operation Unified Protector provided a means for the international community to carry out R2P in order to protect the Libyan population from the

  14. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  15. Case law: Canada, France, Switzerland, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Canada: Appellate decision upholding nuclear regulatory licensing process and practices for consultation with aboriginal groups: Fond du Lac Denesuline First Nation v. Canada (Attorney General). France: Court of Appeal of Nimes regarding the SOCATRI incident in July 2008; Conseil d'Etat regarding the association Reseau 'Sortir du nucleaire'. Switzerland: Judgement of the Federal Administrative Court in the matter of Balmer-Schafroth a.o.v. BKW FMB Energy Ltd on the repeal of the time limitation with respect to the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. United States: Judgement of a US District Court granting a permanent injunction against the State of Vermont in order to prevent certain State laws from prohibiting Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant's continued operation

  16. State cigarette minimum price laws - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Cigarette price increases reduce the demand for cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and youth initiation of smoking. Excise tax increases are the most effective government intervention to increase the price of cigarettes, but cigarette manufacturers use trade discounts, coupons, and other promotions to counteract the effects of these tax increases and appeal to price-sensitive smokers. State cigarette minimum price laws, initiated by states in the 1940s and 1950s to protect tobacco retailers from predatory business practices, typically require a minimum percentage markup to be added to the wholesale and/or retail price. If a statute prohibits trade discounts from the minimum price calculation, these laws have the potential to counteract discounting by cigarette manufacturers. To assess the status of cigarette minimum price laws in the United States, CDC surveyed state statutes and identified those states with minimum price laws in effect as of December 31, 2009. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which determined that 25 states had minimum price laws for cigarettes (median wholesale markup: 4.00%; median retail markup: 8.00%), and seven of those states also expressly prohibited the use of trade discounts in the minimum retail price calculation. Minimum price laws can help prevent trade discounting from eroding the positive effects of state excise tax increases and higher cigarette prices on public health.

  17. The state of amphibians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Adams, M.J.; Grant, E.H.C.; Miller, D.; Corn, P.S.; Ball, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, scientists began to identify unexplained declines in amphibian populations around the world. Much has been learned since then, but amphibian declines have not abated and the interactions among the various threats to amphibians are not clear. Amphibian decline is a problem of local, national, and international scope that can affect ecosystem function, biodiversity, and commerce. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of the state of the amphibians and introduces examples to illustrate the range of issues in the United States.

  18. 31 CFR 103.39 - Person outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person outside the United States. 103... Person outside the United States. For the purposes of this subpart, a remittance or transfer of funds, or... the United States, shall be deemed to be a remittance or transfer to a person outside the United...

  19. States of Confusion: Regulation of Surrogacy in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Some countries, including Switzerland, Germany, Spain, France, Greece, and Norway, ban commercial surrogacy (Patton 2010, 523). Others, such as India and the Ukraine, have actively tried to be seen as commercial surrogacy destinations (Mohapatra 2012, 412, 432–437, 441–448). Unlike either of these approaches, the United States (US) has no national stance on surrogacy. In fact, there are no national laws or regulations related to surrogacy in the US (Margalit 2014). Instea...

  20. Advanced Reactor Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giessing, D. F.; Griffith, J. D.; McGoff, D. J.; Rosen, Sol [U. S. Department of Energy, Texas (United States)

    1990-04-15

    In the United States, three technologies are employed for the new generation of advanced reactors. These technologies are Advanced Light Water Reactors (A LWRs) for the 1990s and beyond, the Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (M HTGR) for commercial use after the turn of the century, and Liquid Metal Reactors (LWRs) to provide energy production and to convert reactor fission waste to a more manageable waste product. Each technology contributes to the energy solution. Light Water Reactors For The 1990s And Beyond--The U. S. Program The economic and national security of the United States requires a diversified energy supply base built primarily upon adequate, domestic resources that are relatively free from international pressures. Nuclear energy is a vital component of this supply and is essential to meet current and future national energy demands. It is a safe, economically continues to contribute to national energy stability, and strength. The Light Water Reactor (LWR) has been a major and successful contributor to the electrical generating needs of many nations throughout the world. It is being counted upon in the United States as a key to revitalizing nuclear energy option in the 1990s. In recent years, DOE joined with the industry to ensure the availability and future viability of the LWR option. This national program has the participation of the Nation's utility industry, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and several of the major reactor manufacturers and architect-engineers. Separate but coordinated parts of this program are managed by EPRI and DOE.

  1. Hybrid Reactor designs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkenhauer, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews the current, active, interrelated Hybrid Reactor development programs in the United States, and offers a probable future course of action for the technology. The Department of Energy (DOE) program primarily emphasizes development of Hybrid Reactors that are optimized for proliferation resistance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) program concentrates on avenues for Hybrid Reactor commercialization. The history of electrical generation technology has been one of steady movement toward higher power densities and higher quality fuels. An apparent advantage of the Hybrid Reactor option is that it follows this trend

  2. United States Army Weapon Systems 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-18

    equipment, tractor, van, wrecker, 8.8-ton Load Handling System (LHS), 8.8-ton LHS trailer, and 10-ton dump truck models). Three truck variants and...NJ) hydraulic pump and motor: Vickers (Jackson, MS) 131 UnIteD StAteS Army ACqUISItIon phASe InveStment Component High Mobility Engineer Excavator...MEDEVAC and hoist configuration, the UH-72A is also being fielded in a VIP, National Guard Homeland Security (HLS) and a Combined Training Center

  3. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  4. Nuclear engineering education in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    In discussing nuclear engineering education in the United States it is shown that the most critical issue facing the nuclear engineering education community today is enrolment in a time of increasing demand for graduate engineers. Related to the issue of enrolment is support for graduate students, whether it be fellowships, traineeships, or research assistantships. Other issues are those of maintaining a vital faculty in the face of a competitive job market, of maintaining research facilities and developing new ones, and of determining the directions of educational efforts in the future. (U.K.)

  5. Early uranium mining in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium mining in the United States is closer to 100 years old than to the 200 years since the discovery of the element. Even then, for much of this time the rock was brought out of the ground for reasons other than its uranium content. The history of the US uranium industry is divided into five periods which follow roughly chronologically upon one another, although there is some overlap. The periods cover: uranium use in glass and ceramics; radium extraction; vanadium extraction; government uranium extraction and commercial extraction. (author)

  6. Uranium enrichment services in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, P.; Lenders, M.

    1994-01-01

    The United States of America is the world's largest market for uranium enrichment services. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russian uranium is entering the world market on an increasing scale. The U.S. tries to protect its market and, in this connection, also the European market from excessive price drops by taking anti-dumping measures. In order to become more competitive, American companies have adapted modern enrichment techniques from Europe. European - U.S. joint ventures are to help, also technically and economically, to integrate military uranium, accumulating as a consequence of worldwide disarmament, into the commercial fuel cycle for the peaceful use of nuclear power. (orig.) [de

  7. 75 FR 31465 - United States, State of Illinois, State of Colorado, and State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ..., and often offer full-service restaurants or in-service dining. Premiere theatres also differ from... selection is deemed not to be a suitable alternative, the United States shall in its sole discretion select... suitable alternative pursuant to Section VI(A). If AMC's selection is deemed not to be a suitable...

  8. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W. (1); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (2); Boyd, Tonya L. (1); Renner, Joel (3); (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0001-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  9. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W [1; Bloomquist, R Gordon [2; Boyd, Tonya L [1; Renner, Joel [3; (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0000-12-30

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  10. The United States of America country update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Boyd, Tonya L.; Renner, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  11. 22 CFR 22.3 - Remittances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remittances in the United States. 22.3 Section...-DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND FOREIGN SERVICE § 22.3 Remittances in the United States. (a) Type of remittance. Remittances shall be in the form of: (1) Check or bank draft drawn on a bank in the United States; (2) money...

  12. Do Small States Matter? : A comparative analysis of the discourses by three of the non-permanent members of the United Nations Security Council on the crisis in Libya and Syria between 2011 and 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Afrida

    2017-01-01

    A new era of wars and instability have left the world shaken with the civil wars in Syria and Libya. Although there are many similarities with Syria and Libya, the two states did not have the same end due to actions by the United Nations Security Council. Libya resulted in a military humanitarian intervention, while Syria did not. Studies about the Security Council usually focuses on the actions of the Permanent Five members who holds institutional power and influence over the council, mostly...

  13. License renewal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brons, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear plants in the United States are licensed for 40 years, a length specified in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which laid out much of the regulatory basis for the commercial nuclear industry. The Act, however, made provision for license renewal. The original 40-year license period was chosen arbitrarily by the U.S. Congress because it was the typical period over which utilities recovered their investment in electricity generating plants. Nuclear plants, however, are subject to a rigorous program of Nuclear Regulatory Commission oversight, maintenance and equipment replacement. In effect, they must be in the same operating condition on the last day of their licenses as they were on the first. As the industry matured, it became apparent that there was no physical limitation on the continued operation of nuclear plants past 40 years. The industry turned its attention toward license renewal. When the issue was first raised, the NRC considered stringent process equivalent to seeking a new operating license for each plant. The complexity, length and cost of the process made it unlikely that many nuclear plants would seek license renewal. The nuclear industry worked successfully with NRC on the application of generic principles to license renewal, however, and in 1995, the NRC issued an efficient, tightly-focused rule that made license renewal a safe, viable option. To extend the operating license for a reactor, a company must demonstrate to the NRC that aging effects will be adequately managed during the renewal terms, thus ensuring equipment functionality. The rule allows licensees to apply for extensions of up to 20 years. The first license renewal application was filed in 1998 by the owner of the two-unit Calvert Cliffs plant. Shortly thereafter, an application was filed for the three-unit Oconee Nuclear Station. The NRC renewed the licenses for all five units in 2000, and since then, five more licenses have been renewed. The NRC has received 37

  14. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  15. Step-grandparenthood in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahirun, Jenjira J; Park, Sung S; Seltzer, Judith A

    2018-01-18

    This study provides new information about the demography of step-grandparenthood in the United States. Specifically, we examine the prevalence of step-grandparenthood across birth cohorts and for socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups. We also examine lifetime exposure to the step-grandparent role. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Health and Retirement Study, we use percentages to provide first estimates of step-grandparenthood and to describe demographic and socioeconomic variation in who is a step-grandparent. We use life tables to estimate the exposure to step-grandparenthood. The share of step-grandparents is increasing across birth cohorts. However, individuals without a college education and non-Whites are more likely to become step-grandparents. Exposure to the step-grandparent role accounts for approximately 15% of total grandparent years at age 65 for women and men. A growing body of research finds that grandparents are increasingly instrumental in the lives of younger generations. However, the majority of this work assumes that these ties are biological, with little attention paid to the role of family complexity across three generations. Understanding the demographics of step-grandparenthood sheds light on the family experiences of an overlooked, but growing segment of the older adult population in the United States. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Loughry, W.J.; Lockhart, J. Mitchell; Inman, W. Barry; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Pena, Maria T.; Marcos, Luis A.; Scollard, David M.; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and have been implicated in zoonotic transmission of leprosy. Early studies found this disease mainly in Texas and Louisiana, but armadillos in the southeastern United States appeared to be free of infection. We screened 645 armadillos from 8 locations in the southeastern United States not known to harbor enzootic leprosy for M. leprae DNA and antibodies. We found M. leprae–infected armadillos at each location, and 106 (16.4%) animals had serologic/PCR evidence of infection. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism variable number tandem repeat genotyping/genome sequencing, we detected M. leprae genotype 3I-2-v1 among 35 armadillos. Seven armadillos harbored a newly identified genotype (3I-2-v15). In comparison, 52 human patients from the same region were infected with 31 M. leprae types. However, 42.3% (22/52) of patients were infected with 1 of the 2 M. leprae genotype strains associated with armadillos. The geographic range and complexity of zoonotic leprosy is expanding. PMID:26583204

  17. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, John C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, James M.; Mattick, R.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin Previous HitoffTop the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank. Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsided basement. Acoustically, the sedimentary sequence beneath the shelf is divided into three units which are correlated speculatively with the Cenozoic, the Cretaceous, and the Jurassic-Triassic sections. These units thicken offshore, and some have increased seismic velocities farther offshore. The uppermost unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to slightly more than a kilometer in a seaward direction, and velocity values range from 1.7 to 2.2 km/sec. The middle unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to as much as 5 km (northern Baltimore Canyon trough), and seismic velocity ranges from 2.2 to 5.4 km/sec. The lowest unit thickens to a maximum of 9 km (northern Baltimore Canyon), and velocities span the 3.9 to 5.9-km/sec interval. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile. Because the magnetic-slope-anomaly wavelength is nearly 50 km across, a

  18. 31 CFR 500.520 - Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. 500.520..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.520 Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. (a) Banking institutions within...

  19. 31 CFR 515.520 - Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. 515.520..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.520 Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. (a) Banking institutions within...

  20. United States of America: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas; Rosenau, Pauline; Unruh, Lynn Y; Barnes, Andrew J; Saltman, Richard B; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the United States health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The US health system has both considerable strengths and notable weaknesses. It has a large and well-trained health workforce, a wide range of high-quality medical specialists as well as secondary and tertiary institutions, a robust health sector research program and, for selected services, among the best medical outcomes in the world. But it also suffers from incomplete coverage of its citizenry, health expenditure levels per person far exceeding all other countries, poor measures on many objective and subjective measures of quality and outcomes, an unequal distribution of resources and outcomes across the country and among different population groups, and lagging efforts to introduce health information technology. It is difficult to determine the extent to which deficiencies are health-system related, though it seems that at least some of the problems are a result of poor access to care. Because of the adoption of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, the United States is facing a period of enormous potential change. Improving coverage is a central aim, envisaged through subsidies for the uninsured to purchase private insurance, expanded eligibility for Medicaid (in some states) and greater protection for insured persons. Furthermore, primary care and public health receive increased funding, and quality and expenditures are addressed through a range of measures. Whether the ACA will indeed be effective in addressing the challenges identified above can only be determined over time. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  1. Leading Causes of Death in Females United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Health Issues at Work Health Equity Leading Causes of Death in Females, United States Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... to current and previous listings for the leading causes of death in females in the United States. Please note ...

  2. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Team More Information Arsenic in groundwater of the United States Arsenic in groundwater is largely the result of ... Gronberg (2011) for updated arsenic map. Featured publications United States Effects of human-induced alteration of groundwater flow ...

  3. Residency training in the United States: What foreign medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FMGs) planning to pursue post-graduate residency training in the United States of America (USA). While the number of residency training positions is shrinking, and the number of United States graduates has steadily declined over the past ...

  4. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin L. Warren; Brooks M. Burr; Stephen J. Walsh; Henry L. Bart; Robert C. Cashner; David A. Etnier; Byron J. Freeman; Bernard R. Kuhajda; Richard L. Mayden; Henry W. Robison; Stephen T. Ross; Wayne C. Starnes

    2000-01-01

    The Southeastern Fishes Council Technical Advisory Committee reviewed the diversity, distribution, and status of all native freshwater and diadromous fishes across 51 major drainage units of the Southern United States. The Southern United States supports more native fishes than any area of comparable size on the North American continent north of Mexico, but also has a...

  5. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kechichian, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  6. Air pollution problem in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, H

    1964-10-01

    Air pollution in the United States as a problem affecting health, as well as man's enjoyment of his property, was first noted in 1912 in the reports of the investigators at the Mellon Institute of the University of Pittsburgh. The Selby copper smelter incident in 1915 was among the first episodic air pollution events documented. The US Public Health Service studied carbon monoxide buildup in vehicular tunnels in 1928 and 1929. the Donora (Pennsylvania) pollution episode, where 17 people died, occurred in 1949. It and the onset of smog conditions in the Los Angeles area really initiated broad public awareness of air pollution as a public health hazard in the USA. The symptoms of air pollution-related injuries are discussed, the role of the US Public Health Service in dealing with air pollution, and the effect of the Clean Air Act of 1963 are discussed. 26 references.

  7. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Filipy, R.E.; Dietert, S.E.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes the primary scientific activities of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries for the period October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. The Registries are parallel human tissue research programs devoted to the study of the actinide elements in humans. To date there have been 261 autopsy or surgical specimen donations, which include 11 whole bodies. The emphasis of the Registry was directed towards quality improvement and the development of a fully computerized data base that would incorporate not only the results of postmortem radiochemical analysis, but also medical and monitoring information obtained during life. Human subjects reviews were also completed. A three compartment biokinetic model for plutonium distribution is proposed. 2 tabs

  8. Licensing of HTGRs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.R.; Orvis, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The licensing history of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the United States is given historical perspective. The experience began with the licensing of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and extends to the continuing experience at the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. Additional experience was obtained from the licensing reviews in the mid-1970s of the large HTGR plants that were to be built by Philadelphia Electric Company and Delmarva Power and Light. Also, information was provided by the licensing review of the General Atomic standard plant by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at about the same time. These experiences are summarized in terms of the principal design criteria that were required by the regulatory authority for each project. These criteria include specification of the design basis accidents that were postulated for the plant safety analysis. Several technical issues raised by the NRC during their review of the large HTGR are presented. (author)

  9. Licensing of HTGRs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C. R.; Orvis, D. D. [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA)

    1981-01-15

    The licensing history of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the United States is given historical perspective. The experience began with the licensing of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and extends to the continuing experience at the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. Additional experience was obtained from the licensing reviews in the mid-1970s of the large HTGR plants that were to be built by Philadelphia Electric Company and Delmarva Power and Light. Also, information was provided by the licensing review of the General Atomic standard plant by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at about the same time. These experiences are summarized in terms of the principal design criteria that were required by the regulatory authority for each project. These criteria include specification of the design basis accidents that were postulated for the plant safety analysis. Several technical issues raised by the NRC during their review of the large HTGR are presented.

  10. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

  11. Radiation protection standards in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.; Arsenault, F.J.; Conti, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Standards to protect workers and members of the general public against any harmful effects of ionizing radiation are numerous and complex in the United States. Many Federal agencies have protection responsibilities, our Congress limits the discretionary authority given to these agencies in providing for this protection, and our court system appears at times to render judgments that are illogical to our sense of the degree of radiological protection required. To many our standards appear to be overprotective in that they have, at best, marginal health benefits and without question are costly to implement. Government agencies, the Congress, industry, professional organizations, and others have expressed their concerns and interests regarding standards in a variety of ways

  12. Nuclear material control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.; Waddoups, I.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions

  13. Uranium resources in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, Michel.

    1975-01-01

    The United States are certainly the country which is the most concerned by a better evaluation of uranium resources. This is so because of the importance of the American nuclear program and because of a certain number of doubts in their uranium supply. This is probably why studies concerning American uranium resources have been very frequent in recent months. Although, most of these studies are not yet finished it is perhaps possible to draw a few conclusions in order to better see the framework of this important uranium resources problem. This is what this article attempts, using among other studies, the one carried-out for the National Science Foundation which is among the most complete, especially concerning the complete range of resources [fr

  14. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  15. The United States nuclear merchant ship program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, E.V.

    1978-01-01

    The issues of financial protection contemplate appropriate financing to permit construction of the involved vessels. In addition, the licensing process will require a demonstrated ability for financial response in the event of injury to persons or damage to property. Since the thrust in the United States is to use the Price-Anderson framework for Insurance and Indemnity, much attention is devoted to this legislation. The pre-existing regime is related to the distinguishing requirements of the Maritime field with proposals being advanced to more nearly parallel the insurance coverage philosophy of Europe, i.e., to utilize insurance pools for the nuclear risks and utilize the conventional insurance market for non-nuclear risks. Public affairs issues impact heavily on legislation efforts and thusly become significant in developing a program for Financial Protection

  16. Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K. [Environmental Science Division; Greenwood, H. [Environmentall Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-13

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software. The report also includes: A description of each of the components of the Atlas; Lists of the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and A brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies. The Atlas includes the following: A GIS database organized as a set of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS Personal GeoDatabases, and ESRI ArcReader and ArcGIS project files providing an interactive map visualization and analysis interface.

  17. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Marilyn; Maslow, Melanie J.

    2001-06-01

    Since the first outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in 1993, understanding of the vast distribution and potential impact of hantaviruses has grown. At least 277 cases of HPS have been documented in the United States. The full clinical spectrum has yet to be elucidated, and one outbreak suggested the possibility of person-to-person transmission. New research has identified the b-3 integrins as cellular receptors for hantaviruses and has determined the pivotal role of the immune system in pathogenesis. Rapid diagnosis has been facilitated by a new immunoblot assay to detect Sin Nombre virus infection. Treatment remains primarily supportive; however, a placebo- controlled trial of ribavirin is ongoing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be a potential therapy in severe cases; inhaled nitric oxide needs further study. Vaccines developed against hantaviruses associated with hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome might be effective against HPS-associated strains.

  18. Unplanned pregnancies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D A

    1986-03-01

    Unplanned pregnancies constitute an epidemic in the United States. Over 3 million unplanned pregnancies occur, and over 1.5 million induced abortions are performed each year. Women of minority races and those with less than 12 years of education are at high risk of having unwanted children. Fear of complications (not the complications themselves) is the most powerful deterrent to women's use of contraception. Much of this fear is due to bad press. Recent good news about contraception, such as protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer, protection against ectopic pregnancy, and absence of teratogenic effects, has not received appropriate media coverage. For healthy women younger than 35 years, failure to use fertility control is more dangerous than use of any method.

  19. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994

  20. Global context for the United States Forest Sector in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify markets for, and competitors to, the United States forest industries in the next 30 years. The Global Forest Products Model was used to make predictions of international demand, supply, trade, and prices, conditional on the last RPA Timber Assessment projections for the United States. It was found that the United States, Japan...

  1. 27 CFR 479.89 - Transfers to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transfers to the United States. A firearm may be transferred to the United States or any department... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfers to the United States. 479.89 Section 479.89 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO...

  2. 32 CFR 516.54 - Witnesses for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Witnesses for the United States. 516.54 Section..., Travel, and Expenses of Witnesses § 516.54 Witnesses for the United States. (a) Status of witness. A military member authorized to appear as a witness for the United States, including those authorized to...

  3. 32 CFR 150.21 - Appeals by the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeals by the United States. 150.21 Section 150... the United States. (a) Restricted filing. Only a representative of the government designated by the Judge Advocate General of the respective service may file an appeal by the United States under Article...

  4. 78 FR 27857 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... RIN 0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... (GIPSA) is revising the United States Standards for Wheat under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) to change the definition of Contrasting classes (CCL) in the class Hard White wheat. This change...

  5. 31 CFR 515.334 - United States national.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States national. 515.334 Section 515.334 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... of the United States, and which has its principal place of business in the United States. [61 FR...

  6. Forecasting the expansion of zebra mussels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossenbroek, Jonathan M; Johnson, Ladd E; Peters, Brett; Lodge, David M

    2007-06-01

    Because zebra mussels spread rapidly throughout the eastern United States in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their spread to the western United States has been expected. Overland dispersal into inland lakes and reservoirs, however, has occurred at a much slower rate than earlier spread via connected, navigable waterways. We forecasted the potential western spread of zebra mussels by predicting the overland movement of recreational boaters with a production-constrained gravity model. We also predicted the potential abundance of zebra mussels in two western reservoirs by comparing their water chemistry characteristics with those of water bodies with known abundances of zebra mussels. Most boats coming from waters infested with zebra mussels were taken to areas that already had zebra mussels, but a small proportion of such boats did travel west of the 100th meridian. If zebra mussels do establish in western U.S. water bodies, we predict that population densities could achieve similar levels to those in the Midwestern United States, where zebra mussels have caused considerable economic and ecological impacts. Our analyses suggest that the dispersal of zebra mussels to the western United States is an event of low probability but potentially high impact on native biodiversity and human infrastructure. Combining these results with economic analyses could help determine appropriate investment levels in prevention and control strategies.

  7. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United States. The current study addresses gaps in the existing research by using novel measures of structural racism and by explicitly testing the hypothesis that structural racism is a risk factor for myocardial infarction among Blacks in the United States. State-level indicators of structural racism included four domains: (1) political participation; (2) employment and job status; (3) educational attainment; and (4) judicial treatment. State-level racial disparities across these domains were proposed to represent the systematic exclusion of Blacks from resources and mobility in society. Data on past-year myocardial infarction were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (non-Hispanic Black: N = 8245; non-Hispanic White: N = 24,507), a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 18 and older. Models were adjusted for individual-level confounders (age, sex, education, household income, medical insurance) as well as for state-level disparities in poverty. Results indicated that Blacks living in states with high levels of structural racism were generally more likely to report past-year myocardial infarction than Blacks living in low-structural racism states. Conversely, Whites living in high structural racism states experienced null or lower odds of myocardial infarction compared to Whites living in low-structural racism states. These results raise the provocative possibility that structural

  8. Latin America and the United States: What Do United States History Textbooks Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Dan B.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluates how U.S.-Latin American relations are presented in high school U.S. history textbooks. An examination of 10 textbooks published between 1977-81 revealed inadequate coverage of Latin American cultural diversity and United States foreign policy from the Latin American perspective. (AM)

  9. Short Rotation Crops in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L L

    1998-06-04

    The report is based primarily on the results of survey questions sent to approximately 60 woody and 20 herbaceous crop researchers in the United States and on information from the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program. Responses were received from 13 individuals involved in woody crops research or industrial commercialization (with 5 of the responses coming from industry). Responses were received from 11 individuals involved in herbaceous crop research. Opinions on market incentives, technical and non-technical barriers, and highest priority research and development areas are summarized in the text. Details on research activities of the survey responders are provided as appendices to the paper. Woody crops grown as single-stem systems (primarily Populus and Eucalyptus species) are perceived to have strong pulp fiber and oriented strand board markets, and the survey responders anticipated that energy will comprise 25% or less of the utilization of single-stem short-rotation woody crops between now and 2010. The only exception was a response from California where a substantial biomass energy market does currently exist. Willows (Salix species) are only being developed for energy and only in one part of the United States at present. Responses from herbaceous crop researchers suggested frustration that markets (including biomass energy markets) do not currently exist for the crop, and it was the perception of many that federal incentives will be needed to create such markets. In all crops, responses indicate that a wide variety of research and development activities are needed to enhance the yields and profitability of the crops. Ongoing research activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program are described in an appendix to the paper.

  10. Fires Across the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Days of record heat made the western United States tinder dry in early July 2007. Numerous wildfires raced across the dry terrain during the weekend of July 7. From Washington to Arizona, firefighters were battling fast-moving wildfires that threatened residences, businesses, gas wells, coal mines, communications equipment, and municipal watersheds. This image of the West was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite on Sunday, July 8. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red. Some of the largest blazes are labeled. Utah's Milford Flat was the largest; according to the July 9 morning report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the blaze was more than 280,000 acres, having grown more than 124,000 acres in the previous 24 hours. The fires have destroyed homes, forced evacuations, shut down trains and highways, and killed several people. Weather conditions were not expected to improve significantly across much of the area for several days, with hot temperatures and dry thunderstorms (lightning and winds, but little rain) likely in many places. Nearly the entire western United States was experiencing some level of drought as of July 3, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. The drought had reached the 'extreme' category in southern California and western Arizona, and ranged from moderate to severe across most of the rest of the Southwest and Great Basin. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 500 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions and formats, including an infrared-enhanced version that makes burned terrain appear brick red. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center

  11. The United States: breakthroughs and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, U E

    1992-01-01

    The health system of the United States is in a paradoxical position. At its best, the system is a magnet for those seeking the latest technical breakthroughs. It can offer that excellence because there have never been effective financial constraints on the imagination; the system has become a major economic frontier, at which professional and other entrepreneurs successfully seek their fortune. At the same time, the system is leaving increasing numbers of Americans frustrated and disillusioned. It is beset by excess capacity in many areas, is needlessly expensive, and often bestows unnecessary health services. Yet only the experts are aware of these flaws; most Americans still express high satisfaction with the quality of the services they receive from their doctors and hospitals. The public's major misgivings arise over the awkward and inequitable way in which American health care is financed. The typical private health insurance policy, for example, is tied to a particular job. If the job is lost, so is the health insurance. Furthermore, these policies are priced on actuarially "fair" principles, so sick individuals are forced to pay higher insurance premiums than relatively healthy ones and chronically ill persons often cannot obtain health insurance coverage at any price. Although there are public programs to catch many persons not privately insured, the coverage tends to be insufficiently extensive and deep. Some 35 million Americans, mostly poor, have no health insurance whatsoever. Unfortunately, at this time there is no political force in the United States strong enough to reform the American health system toward greater social equity and economic efficiency, whereas there are numerous groups powerful enough to block whatever reform might harm their own narrow economic interests. Other nations can learn from America's clinical and organizational innovations in health care delivery. They can also learn what not to do by studying the unseemly way in which

  12. Eye on China and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mahyari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United States strives to force the Chinese into agreement of increasing the value of their exchange rate to help the USA avoid inflation As China did not come into an agreement with the USA, Tariffs are being put on Chinese products entering USA. However China as began to add tariff on poultry received from the US as well. China was previously not named in the legislation permitting US to add tariff on their goods. But recently a bill was passed giving the commerce department the ability to place important tariffs on all countries to undervalue their currency. The bill passed in legislation had the support of 99 republicans. China has been managing their currency in a manner that makes their goods cheaper to sell and American goods more expensive. The Chinese manipulation of their currency has been quite expensive for the USA, as it has cost them $1.5 billion jobs increasing the percentage of unemployment greatly and significantly. This imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods could result in effecting $300 billion dollars worth of their products. It is obvious that the Americans are attempting to improve and acknowledge their growth and power. As predictions have developed over this conflict, arguing the fact that China will not negotiate with the USA at this point rather fight back and also approach in adding tariffs on USimports. However, this reaction by the Chinese will only worsen the scenario and result in the possible inflation of the US economy or worldwide trade war. This is a very sensitive time for the United States as their biggest hopes are dependent on the Chinese. But it doesn’t look like they will be too satisfied with the outcome.

  13. High Speed Rail (HSR) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-08

    announced that it will expand the capacity on its aging high speed line between Tokyo and Osaka, the most heavily traveled intercity rail segment in the...United States, in most of these countries intercity rail travel (including both conventional and high speed rail) represents less than 10% of all...that is sometimes mentioned by its advocates. Intercity passenger rail transport is relatively safe, at least compared with highway travel . And HSR in

  14. Child Labor Trafficking in the United States: A Hidden Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufka Walts, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Emerging research brings more attention to labor trafficking in the United States. However, very few efforts have been made to better understand or respond to labor trafficking of minors. Cases of children forced to work as domestic servants, in factories, restaurants, peddling candy or other goods, or on farms may not automatically elicit suspicion from an outside observer as compared to a child providing sexual services for money. In contrast to sex trafficking, labor trafficking is often t...

  15. Cost analysis of LEED certified United States navy buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Kirar, Carl V.

    2011-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document A study was completed at UW-Madison in 2010 that reviewed the energy consumption of US Navy buildings which earned Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC). The research compared LEED certified buildings to a commercial counterpart within the US Navy inventory against Executive Order (EO) 13423. The EO mandated that all federal agencies meet a 30 percent reduction of...

  16. Training programs in medical physics in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzl, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    The history of the field of medical physics in the United States is reviewed; the importance of the development of the nuclear reactor and particle accelerators to medical physics is pointed out. Conclusions and recommendations of an IAEA/WHO seminar on the training of medical physicists (in 1972) are given and compared with existing programs in the US. It is concluded that the recommendations of the IAEA are, for the most part, followed. 1 table

  17. Abortion surveillance--United States, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, L M; Smith, J C; Ramick, M

    1995-05-05

    From 1980 through 1991, the number of legal induced abortions reported to CDC remained stable, varying each year by 1969, CDC has compiled abortion data received from 52 reporting areas: 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. In 1991, 1,388,937 abortions were reported--a 2.8% decrease from 1990. The abortion ratio was 339 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, and the abortion rate was 24 per 1,000 women 15-44 years of age. Women who were undergoing an abortion were more likely to be young, white, and unmarried; most had had no previous live births and had been obtaining an abortion for the first time. More than half (52%) of all abortions were performed at or before the 8th week of gestation, and 88% were before the 13th week. Younger women (i.e., women may partially account for this decline. An accurate assessment of the number and characteristics of women who obtain abortions in the United States is necessary both to monitor efforts to prevent unintended pregnancy and to identify and reduce preventable causes of morbidity and mortality associated with abortions.

  18. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  19. United States electric industry : restructuring in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum Hollis, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed review of the United States electric power industry. The aim of the review was to clarify and better define current industry procedures and practices in light of significant and recent restructuring. In addition, recent bankruptcies and the power blackout in 2003 have raised concerns over industry practices. Issues concerning Independent System Operators (ISO) and regional transmission organizations were evaluated, with reference to an evolution and implementation of Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) policy, including a cost-benefit analysis. A background of RTO formations was provided with reference to consolidation, selection process and transfer of assets. Standard market design, network access and pricing issues were reviewed, as well as market and reliability concerns. Issues concerning affiliate treatment, shortages and the effect of sale of securities were presented. Various approaches to congestion management were examined, with examples from California and New England. Market monitoring issues, investigations and hearings were also examined, with examples and orders, including details of refunds. Measures to improve reliability were reviewed, including: management systems, benefit margins, requirements, assurance agreements and reserve markets. Issues concerning information access were presented, including: Open Access Same-time Information System (OASIS) requirements; tagging; standard business practices and protocols; and quarterly report practices and protocols. Interconnection policies were reviewed with reference to applicability, service options and pricing. The issue of variations was examined, with case examples concerning cost allocation, contract rights and treatment of specific costs. Jurisdiction issues concerning corporate realignments and power exchanges were presented, as well as specific services and state-federal relations. Issues concerning mergers and merger policy were also discussed, with reference

  20. 78 FR 70274 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... the schedule and agenda for an open meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...

  1. 78 FR 3398 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... the schedule and agenda for an open meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...

  2. The Holdridge life zones of the conterminous United States in relation to ecosystem mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Lugo; S. L. Brown; R. Dodson; T. S Smith; H. H. Shugart

    1999-01-01

    Aim Our main goals were to develop a map of the life zones for the conterminous United States, based on the Holdridge Life Zone system, as a tool for ecosystem mapping, and to compare the map of Holdridge life zones with other global vegetation classification and mapping efforts. Location The area of interest is the forty-eight contiguous states of the United States....

  3. Mission Statements of Christian Elementary Schools in the United States and the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandstra, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the mission statements of a small sample of Christian elementary schools in the United States and the Netherlands. In the United States, Christian schools are private schools, while in the Netherlands Christian schools receive state funding, just like public schools. Content analysis of mission statements revealed similarities…

  4. The Physical Economy of the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierlinger, Sylvia; Krausmann, Fridolin

    2012-06-01

    The United States is not only the world's largest economy, but it is also one of the world's largest consumers of natural resources. The country, which is inhabited by some 5% of the world's population, uses roughly one-fifth of the global primary energy supply and 15% of all extracted materials. This article explores long-term trends and patterns of material use in the United States. Based on a material flow account (MFA) that is fully consistent with current standards of economy-wide MFAs and covers domestic extraction, imports, and exports of materials for a 135-year period, we investigated the evolution of the U.S. industrial metabolism. This process was characterized by an 18-fold increase in material consumption, a multiplication of material use per capita, and a shift from renewable biomass toward mineral and fossil resources. In spite of considerable improvements in material intensity, no dematerialization has happened so far; in contrast to other high-income countries, material use has not stabilized since the 1970s, but has continued to grow. This article compares patterns and trends of material use in the United States with those in Japan and the United Kingdom and discusses the factors underlying the disproportionately high level of U.S. per capita resource consumption.

  5. PERSONAL INCOME TAX POLICY ANALYSIS: ALBANIA VS. UNITED STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agim Binaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Personal income tax has become an important part of the Albania’s revenue system. Revenue from personal income tax was more than 27.9 billion ALL for the year of 2011 which makes up a 3% increase when compared to the previous year. This paper compares and contrasts Albanian and American income tax systems by describing many similarities as well as distinctive characteristics that were found. Professor Agim Binaj of Agricultural University of Tirana highlights the need for a fair personal income tax reform in Albania. This paper concludes with recommendations and an agenda for future research on tax policy using lessons from the United States tax system.

  6. Phocine Distemper Virus in Seals, East Coast, United States, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, J.A. Philip; Melia, Mary M.; Doherty, Nadine V.; Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, elevated numbers of deaths among seals, constituting an unusual mortality event, occurred off the coasts of Maine and Massachusetts, United States. We isolated a virus from seal tissue and confirmed it as phocine distemper virus (PDV). We compared the viral hemagglutinin, phosphoprotein, and fusion (F) and matrix (M) protein gene sequences with those of viruses from the 1988 and 2002 PDV epizootics. The virus showed highest similarity with a PDV 1988 Netherlands virus, which raises the possibility that the 2006 isolate from the United States might have emerged independently from 2002 PDVs and that multiple lineages of PDV might be circulating among enzootically infected North American seals. Evidence from comparison of sequences derived from different tissues suggested that mutations in the F and M genes occur in brain tissue that are not present in lung, liver, or blood, which suggests virus persistence in the central nervous system. PMID:21291591

  7. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  8. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  9. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, J.C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, J.M.; Mattick, R.E.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin off the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsidized basement. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile

  10. The United Mexican States: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R; Aguirre, E J

    1988-09-01

    Although the popular North American opinion of Mexico is one that paints a picture of a poor, disadvantaged country, South America sees Mexico has a richer more prosperous nation. It is observed that only in the Latin American countries of Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago do consumers have higher incomes than Mexican consumers. Moreover, while millions of Mexicans migrate to the United States to seek a better standard of living, several thousand Central American refugees illegally migrate to Mexico in search of a better life. This better life includes an increased age of lie expectancy from 51 years in the 1950s to 64 years in the late 1970s. There have also been improvements in health care and school enrollments and in the low cost availability of education. Tourism and the prospect of the manufacturing of energy are significant, positive factors working in favor of an improved Mexican economy and a higher overall quality of life. However, Mexico faces serious problems such as a mounting foreign debt. Also rising is Mexico's population which has doubled since 1964 and which continues to grow at a rate of 1.9%. Economic programs and reforms and family development planning have been instituted in response to the countries' current recession and population growth and have begun to show positive results.

  11. Interfuel substitution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Vasetsky, Olexandr [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Timilsina, Govinda R. [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818 H Street N.W., Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we use the locally flexible translog functional form to investigate the demand for energy and interfuel substitution in the United States and to provide a comparison of our results with most of the existing empirical energy demand literature. Motivated by the widespread practice of ignoring theoretical regularity, we follow Barnett's (2002) suggestions and estimate the model subject to theoretical regularity, using methods developed by Diewert and Wales (1987) and Ryan and Wales (2000), in an attempt to produce inference consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. Moreover, we use the most recent data, published by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), and in addition to investigating interfuel substitution possibilities in total U.S. energy demand, we follow Serletis et al. (2009) and also examine interfuel substitution possibilities in energy demand by sector. Moreover, we test for weak separability, with the objective of discovering the structure of the functional form in total energy demand as well as energy demand by sector. (author)

  12. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Baum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and the L.A. Riots of 1991, with references to other cultural catastrophes. While these projects are different, they are not opposed; both museums locate the American perspective of events and their meanings at the forefront. American holocaust museums seem to challenge spaces between memory and its direction, vision and revision. Within the gruesome context of holocaust portrayal, interrogate the valences of memory’s play and expose American holocaust museums as theatres of pornographic memory. The seduction of feeling does not invite change so much as purgation, what Aristotle identified as catharsis — an emotional and physical release, unfortunately replicating the seductive techniques used by Goebbels for the glorification of Hitler. Through manipulation of viewers as automatic audiences, these museums function as centres for pathos I question the policy and polity of presenting genocide as an entertainment leading to catharsis, recognizing that the final act of purgation is all too easily negation.

  13. Derecho Hazards in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Walker S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2005-11-01

    Convectively generated wind-storms occur over broad temporal and spatial scales; however, the more widespread and longer lived of these windstorms have been given the name "derecho." Utilizing an integrated derecho database, including 377 events from 1986 to 2003, this investigation reveals the amount of insured property losses, fatalities, and injuries associated with these windstorms in the United States. Individual derechos have been responsible for up to 8 fatalities, 204 injuries, forest blow-downs affecting over 3,000 km2 of timber, and estimated insured losses of nearly a $500 million. Findings illustrate that derecho fatalities occur more frequently in vehicles or while boating, while injuries are more likely to happen in vehicles or mobile homes. Both fatalities and injuries are most common outside the region with the highest derecho frequency. An underlying synthesis of both physical and social vulnerabilities is suggested as the cause of the unexpected casualty distribution. In addition, casualty statistics and damage estimates from hurricanes and tornadoes are contrasted with those from derechos to emphasize that derechos can be as hazardous as many tornadoes and hurricanes.

  14. Seismic hazard in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles; Boyd, Oliver; Petersen, Mark D.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Shumway, Allison

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey seismic hazard maps for the central and eastern United States were updated in 2014. We analyze results and changes for the eastern part of the region. Ratio maps are presented, along with tables of ground motions and deaggregations for selected cities. The Charleston fault model was revised, and a new fault source for Charlevoix was added. Background seismicity sources utilized an updated catalog, revised completeness and recurrence models, and a new adaptive smoothing procedure. Maximum-magnitude models and ground motion models were also updated. Broad, regional hazard reductions of 5%–20% are mostly attributed to new ground motion models with stronger near-source attenuation. The revised Charleston fault geometry redistributes local hazard, and the new Charlevoix source increases hazard in northern New England. Strong increases in mid- to high-frequency hazard at some locations—for example, southern New Hampshire, central Virginia, and eastern Tennessee—are attributed to updated catalogs and/or smoothing.

  15. Use of Internet Search Data to Monitor Rotavirus Vaccine Impact in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Minesh P; Lopman, Benjamin A; Tate, Jacqueline E; Harris, John; Esparza-Aguilar, Marcelino; Sanchez-Uribe, Edgar; Richardson, Vesta; Steiner, Claudia A; Parashar, Umesh D

    2018-02-19

    Previous studies have found a strong correlation between internet search and public health surveillance data. Less is known about how search data respond to public health interventions, such as vaccination, and the consistency of responses in different countries. In this study, we aimed to study the correlation between internet searches for "rotavirus" and rotavirus disease activity in the United States, United Kingdom, and Mexico before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine. We compared time series of internet searches for "rotavirus" from Google Trends with rotavirus laboratory reports from the United States and United Kingdom and with hospitalizations for acute gastroenteritis in the United States and Mexico. Using time and location parameters, Google quantifies an internet query share (IQS) to measure the relative search volume for specific terms. We analyzed the correlation between IQS and laboratory and hospitalization data before and after national vaccine introductions. There was a strong positive correlation between the rotavirus IQS and laboratory reports in the United States (R2 = 0.79) and United Kingdom (R2 = 0.60) and between the rotavirus IQS and acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations in the United States (R2 = 0.87) and Mexico (R2 = 0.69) (P United States and by 70% (95% CI, 55%-86%) in Mexico. In the United Kingdom, there was a loss of seasonal variation after vaccine introduction. Rotavirus internet search data trends mirrored national rotavirus laboratory trends in the United States and United Kingdom and gastroenteritis-hospitalization data in the United States and Mexico; lower correlations were found after rotavirus vaccine introduction. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. SECURITY IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: COMPARING UNITED NATIONS 2030 AGENDA FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT WITH MILLENNIUM DECLARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet BARBAK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with Millennium Declaration in terms of their security conceptualizations to explore changes in security thinking and policy components (goals, targets, principles, priorities etc. over time. In doing so, it is envisaged that United Nations’ expectations from member states regarding their national security policies and organizations could be revealed. Security thinking has changed since late 1980’s with the introduction of sustainable development approach by the United Nations. This shift in security thinking encompasses human security and security-development nexus. Holding all member states responsible, Millennium Declaration and 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development constitute the primary and the most recent outcome documents of United Nations’ sustainable development policy. Both documents have security components. This enables extracting security elements and comparing them with an analytical manner. Consequently, findings are compared and discussed in terms of public policy and organization at national level.

  17. Comparative Analysis of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase CTX-M-65-Producing Salmonella enterica Serovar Infantis Isolates from Humans, Food Animals, and Retail Chickens in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folster, Jason P.; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Chen, Jessica; Hoffmann, Maria; Li, Cong; Morales, Cesar; Tyson, Gregory H.; Mukherjee, Sampa; Brown, Allison C.; Green, Alice; Wilson, Wanda; Dessai, Uday; Abbott, Jason; Joseph, Lavin; Haro, Jovita; Ayers, Sherry; McDermott, Patrick F.; Zhao, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We sequenced the genomes of 10 Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis isolates containing blaCTX-M-65 obtained from chicken, cattle, and human sources collected between 2012 and 2015 in the United States through routine National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS) surveillance and product sampling programs. We also completely assembled the plasmids from four of the isolates. All isolates had a D87Y mutation in the gyrA gene and harbored between 7 and 10 resistance genes [aph(4)-Ia, aac(3)-IVa, aph(3′)-Ic, blaCTX-M-65, fosA3, floR, dfrA14, sul1, tetA, aadA1] located in two distinct sites of a megaplasmid (∼316 to 323 kb) similar to that described in a blaCTX-M-65-positive S. Infantis isolate from a patient in Italy. High-quality single nucleotide polymorphism (hqSNP) analysis revealed that all U.S. isolates were closely related, separated by only 1 to 38 pairwise high-quality SNPs, indicating a high likelihood that strains from humans, chickens, and cattle recently evolved from a common ancestor. The U.S. isolates were genetically similar to the blaCTX-M-65-positive S. Infantis isolate from Italy, with a separation of 34 to 47 SNPs. This is the first report of the blaCTX-M-65 gene and the pESI (plasmid for emerging S. Infantis)-like megaplasmid from S. Infantis in the United States, and it illustrates the importance of applying a global One Health human and animal perspective to combat antimicrobial resistance. PMID:28483962

  18. A Comparative Analysis of Unit Cohesion in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    winning” the war in Vietnam. One only needs to turn to cinema to see the divide and portrayal of the Vietnam conflict. Movies like, Platoon...disapproved of post-war (World War II) re-colonization, especially the French efforts in Indochina that included Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. He offered...the political process, and result in a communist government; this became known as the Domino Theory. The United States replaced the French and

  19. Consumer bankruptcy law for Ethiopia: Lessons from United States ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After deregulation of consumer credit and resultant availability, ... Germany, United States, United Kingdom and France are some of the countries ... social insurance, development policy and rehabilitative function of discharge and fresh start.

  20. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan; Robert, Vincent A R G; Crous, Pedro W; Geiser, David M

    2016-11-01

    Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs). Three of the FSSC species (Fusarium falciforme, Fusarium keratoplasticum, and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12) accounted for four-fifths of the veterinary strains (38/47) and STs (27/33) within this clade. Most of the F. falciforme strains (12/15) were recovered from equine keratitis infections; however, strains of F. keratoplasticum and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12 were mostly (25/27) isolated from marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Our sampling suggests that the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), with eight mycoses-associated species, may represent the second most important clade of veterinary relevance within Fusarium Six of the multilocus STs within the FSSC (3+4-eee, 1-b, 12-a, 12-b, 12-f, and 12-h) and one each within the FIESC (1-a) and the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (ST-33) were widespread geographically, including three STs with transoceanic disjunctions. In conclusion, fusaria associated with veterinary mycoses are phylogenetically diverse and typically can only be identified to the species level using DNA sequence data from portions of one or more informative genes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Homicides - United States, 2007 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Joseph E; Hall, Jeffrey; McDaniel, Dawn; Stevens, Mark R

    2013-11-22

    According to 1981-2009 data, homicide accounts for 16,000-26,000 deaths annually in the United States and ranks within the top four leading causes of death among U.S. residents aged 1-40 years. Homicide can have profound long-term emotional consequences on families and friends of victims and on witnesses to the violence, as well as cause excessive economic costs to residents of affected communities. For years, homicide rates have been substantially higher among certain populations. Previous reports have found that homicides are higher among males, adolescents and young adults, and certain racial/ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), and Hispanics. The 2011 CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report (CHDIR) described similar findings for the year 2007. For example, the 2011 report showed that the 2007 homicide rate was highest among non-Hispanic blacks (23.1 deaths per 100,000), followed by AI/ANs (7.8 deaths per 100,000), Hispanics (7.6 deaths per 100,000), non-Hispanic whites (2.7 deaths per 100,000), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs) (2.4 deaths per 100,000). In addition, non-Hispanic black men aged 20-24 years were at greatest risk for homicide in 2007, with a rate that exceeded 100 deaths per 100,000 population. Other studies have reported that community factors such as poverty and economic inequality and individual factors such as unemployment and involvement in criminal activities can play a substantial role in these persistent disparities in homicide rates. Public health strategies are needed in communities at high risk for homicide to prevent violence and save lives.

  2. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  3. Refugee Status Required for Resettlement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    STATES REFUGEE ADMISSIONS PROGRAM FLOWCHART ...the American public’s concerns. 50 APPENDIX A UNITED STATES REFUGEE ADMISSIONS PROGRAM FLOWCHART Source: US Citizenship and Immigration...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Refugee Status Required for Resettlement in the United States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  4. A Systematic Evaluation of State Laws Governing Optometric Glaucoma Management in the United States Upto 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodnicki, Kevin; Kalarn, Sachin; Quinn, Laura; Jampel, Henry; Saeedi, Osamah

    2018-03-01

    To describe state laws that govern the optometric practice of glaucoma management in the United States and to correlate those laws with state demographics upto 2015. We performed a cross-sectional ecological study of the 50 United States and the District of Columbia. Regulations governing optometric scope of practice as written by each state Board of Optometry were reviewed. Specific optometric privileges assessed included: ability to manage glaucoma independently, use of diagnostic pharmaceutical agents, use of therapeutic pharmaceutical agents (including topical and oral steroids and other oral pharmaceutical agents), IV injections, intraocular injections, therapeutic lasers, presence of defined referral, and comanagement guidelines, and hours of yearly continuing education needed for glaucoma management. Optometric privilege was compared with demographic and employment information for each state. Optometrists in all states, except for Massachusetts, and the District of Columbia are allowed to manage glaucoma; 16 states have defined comanagement guidelines. Therapeutic lasers are allowed in 3 states: Kentucky, Louisiana, and Oklahoma. States with defined comanagement guidelines had a mean of 6.9±1.9 ophthalmologists per 100,000 people, significantly more than the 5.3±1.1 in states without defined comanagement of glaucoma (Pstate, the less likely there is to be defined comanagement [β (SE)=-0.008 (0.003), P=0.02] and the greater the number of ophthalmologists in a given state, the more likely a state has defined comanagement [β (SE)=-0.13 (0.006)]. There is a diversity of regulations that govern optometric management of glaucoma in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The number of optometrists and ophthalmologists in a state may influence state regulations governing optometric practice and referral guidelines.

  5. Distribution of specialized care centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henry E; Yealy, Donald M

    2012-11-01

    As a recommended strategy for optimally managing critical illness, regionalization of care involves matching the needs of the target population with available hospital resources. The national supply and characteristics of hospitals providing specialized critical care services is currently unknown. We seek to characterize the current distribution of specialized care centers in the United States. Using public data linked with the American Hospital Association directory and US Census, we identified US general acute hospitals providing specialized care for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) (≥40 annual primary percutaneous coronary interventions reported in Medicare Hospital Compare), stroke (The Joint Commission certified stroke centers), trauma (American College of Surgeons or state-designated, adult or pediatric, level I or II), and pediatric critical care (presence of a pediatric ICU) services. We determined the characteristics and state-level distribution and density of specialized care centers (centers per state and centers per state population). Among 4,931 acute care hospitals in the United States, 1,325 (26.9%) provided one of the 4 defined specialized care services, including 574 STEMI, 763 stroke, 508 trauma, and 457 pediatric critical care centers. Approximately half of the 1,325 hospitals provided 2 or more specialized services, and one fifth provided 3 or 4 specialized services. There was variation in the number of each type of specialized care center in each state: STEMI median 7 interquartile range (IQR 2 to 14), stroke 8 (IQR 3 to 17), trauma 6 (IQR 3 to 11), pediatric specialized care 6 (IQR 3 to 11). Similarly, there was variation in the number of each type of specialized care center per population: STEMI median 1 center per 585,135 persons (IQR 418,729 to 696,143), stroke 1 center per 412,188 persons (IQR 321,604 to 572,387), trauma 1 center per 610,589 persons (IQR 406,192 to 917,588), and pediatric critical care 1 center per 665

  6. Child Labor Trafficking in the United States: A Hidden Crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Kaufka Walts

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging research brings more attention to labor trafficking in the United States. However, very few efforts have been made to better understand or respond to labor trafficking of minors. Cases of children forced to work as domestic servants, in factories, restaurants, peddling candy or other goods, or on farms may not automatically elicit suspicion from an outside observer as compared to a child providing sexual services for money. In contrast to sex trafficking, labor trafficking is often tied to formal economies and industries, which often makes it more difficult to distinguish from "legitimate" work, including among adolescents. This article seeks to provide examples of documented cases of child labor trafficking in the United States, and to provide an overview of systemic gaps in law, policy, data collection, research, and practice. These areas are currently overwhelmingly focused on sex trafficking, which undermines the policy intentions of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (2000, the seminal statute criminalizing sex and labor trafficking in the United States, its subsequent reauthorizations, and international laws and protocols addressing human trafficking.

  7. Perinatal risks of planned home births in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Brent, Robert L; Arabin, Birgit; Levene, Malcolm I; Chervenak, Frank A

    2015-03-01

    We analyzed the perinatal risks of midwife-attended planned home births in the United States from 2010 through 2012 and compared them with recommendations from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for planned home births. Data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics birth certificate data files from 2010 through 2012 were utilized to analyze the frequency of certain perinatal risk factors that were associated with planned midwife-attended home births in the United States and compare them with deliveries performed in the hospital by certified nurse midwives. Home birth deliveries attended by others were excluded; only planned home births attended by midwives were included. Hospital deliveries attended by certified nurse midwives served as the reference. Perinatal risk factors were those established by ACOG and AAP. Midwife-attended planned home births in the United States had the following risk factors: breech presentation, 0.74% (odds ratio [OR], 3.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.87-3.56); prior cesarean delivery, 4.4% (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 2.0-2.17); twins, 0.64% (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.84-2.31); and gestational age 41 weeks or longer, 28.19% (OR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.68-1.74). All 4 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher among midwife-attended planned home births when compared with certified nurse midwives-attended hospital births, and 3 of 4 perinatal risk factors were significantly higher in planned home births attended by non-American Midwifery Certification Board (AMCB)-certified midwives (other midwives) when compared with home births attended by certified nurse midwives. Among midwife-attended planned home births, 65.7% of midwives did not meet the ACOG and AAP recommendations for certification by the American Midwifery Certification Board. At least 30% of midwife-attended planned home births are not low risk and not within

  8. Unites States and the oil of the Middle-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2005-08-01

    The author discusses different aspects of the United States intervention and behavior in the Middle-East petroleum management. The Iraq and Iran potentials are largely under used. The Saudi Arabia defines its own oil policy, but benefits of the Unites States military help. The United States intervention is in the domain of the security of flux on the world market. (A.L.B.)

  9. Nightmares in United States Military Personnel With Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Jennifer L.; Brock, Matthew S.; Matsangas, Panagiotis; Motamedi, Vida; Mysliwiec, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disturbances are common in United States military personnel. Despite their exposure to combat and trauma, little is known about nightmares in this population. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and associated clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of nightmares in United States military personnel with sleep disturbances. Methods: Retrospective review of 500 active duty United States military personnel who underwent a sleep medicine evaluation and polysomnography at our sleep center. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-Addendum were used to characterize clinically significant nightmares. Subjective and objective sleep attributes were compared between groups. Results: At least weekly nightmares were present in 31.2%; yet, only 3.9% reported nightmares as a reason for evaluation. Trauma-related nightmares occurred in 60% of those patients with nightmares. Patients with nightmares had increased sleep onset latency (SOL) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency (mean SOL/REM sleep latency 16.6/145 minutes, P = .02 and P = .01 respectively) compared to those without (mean SOL/REM sleep latency 12.5/126 minutes). The comorbid disorders of depression (P ≤ .01, relative risk [RR] 3.55 [95% CI, 2.52–4.98]), anxiety (P ≤ .01, RR 2.57 [95% CI, 1.93–3.44]), posttraumatic stress disorder (P ≤ .01, RR 5.11 [95% CI, 3.43–7.62]), and insomnia (P ≤ .01, RR 1.59 [95% CI, 1.42–1.79]) were all associated with nightmares. Conclusions: Clinically significant nightmares are highly prevalent in United States military personnel with sleep disturbances. Nightmares are associated with both subjective and objective sleep disturbances and are frequently comorbid with other sleep and mental health disorders. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 303. Citation: Creamer JL, Brock MS, Matsangas P, Motamedi V, Mysliwiec V. Nightmares in United States military

  10. The Rising Tiger (United States Policy Consideration towards Southeast Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Carla; Pagliano, Gary; Rosner, Elliot J

    1997-01-01

    .... Southeast Asia, consisting of the countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, and the Philippines, presents opportunities for the United States...

  11. Iran and the United States: Recreating a Strategic Partnership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weynand, Gordon W

    2009-01-01

    Iran's geographical location, regional influence, large and well-educated population, extensive petroleum resources, and functioning theocratic democracy make it critical for the United States to seek...

  12. Factors Affecting Productivity in the United States Naval Construction Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morton, Darren

    1997-01-01

    By using a craftsman questionnaire, this thesis identifies and ranks the most important factors impairing Petty Officer productivity and morale in the United States Naval Construction Force (Seabees...

  13. Private forest-land owners of the United States, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1996-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the United States. It discusses landowner characteristics, attitudes, harvesting experience, tenure, and management planning.

  14. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United States. The current study addresses gaps in the existing research by using novel measures of structural racism and by explicitly testing the hypothesis that structural racism is a risk factor for myocardial infarction among Blacks in the United States. State-level indicators of structural racism included four domains: (1) political participation; (2) employment and job status; (3) educational attainment; and (4) judicial treatment. State-level racial disparities across these domains were proposed to represent the systematic exclusion of Blacks from resources and mobility in society. Data on past-year myocardial infarction were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (non-Hispanic Black: N = 8245; non-Hispanic White: N = 24,507), a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 18 and older. Models were adjusted for individual-level confounders (age, sex, education, household income, medical insurance) as well as for state-level disparities in poverty. Results indicated that Blacks living in states with high levels of structural racism were generally more likely to report past-year myocardial infarction than Blacks living in low-structural racism states. Conversely, Whites living in high structural racism states experienced null or lower odds of myocardial infarction compared to Whites living in low-structural racism states. These results raise the provocative possibility that structural

  15. Anti-Terrorism Authority Under the Laws of the United Kingdom and the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feikert, Clare; Doyle, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This is a comparison of the laws of the United Kingdom and of the United States that govern criminal and intelligence investigations of terrorist activities Both systems rely upon a series of statutory authorizations...

  16. Occupational therapy students' attitudes towards inclusion education in Australia, United Kingdom, United States and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Keli; Brown, Ted; Peyton, Claudia G; Rodger, Sylvia; Huang, Yan-Hua; Wu, Chin-Yu; Watson, Callie; Stagnitti, Karen; Hutton, Eve; Casey, Jackie; Hong, Chia Swee

    2010-03-01

    This international, cross-cultural study investigated the attitudes of occupational therapy students from Australia, United Kingdom, United States and Taiwan towards inclusive education for students with disabilities. The possible impact of professional education on students' attitudes was also explored. A total of 485 students from 11 entry-level occupational therapy education programmes from Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States and Taiwan participated in the study. Among them, 264 were freshmen (first-year students) and 221 were seniors (final-year students). Data collected from a custom-designed questionnaire were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In general, the occupational therapy students reported having positive attitudes towards inclusion. Considerable differences, however, existed among the student groups from the four countries. Professional education appeared to have a significant impact on students' attitudes towards inclusion from first year to senior year. Although students were in favour of inclusion, they also cautioned that their support for inclusive practices depended on various factors such as adequate preparation, support and assistance to students with disabilities. Limitations of the study included the small, convenience sample and different degree structures of the participating programmes. Future research studies need to compare occupational therapy students' attitudes with students from other health care professions. A longitudinal study on the impact of the professional education programme on students' attitudes towards inclusive education is warranted.

  17. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  18. Estimating Climate Trends: Application to United States Plant Hardiness Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Y. Krakauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States Department of Agriculture classifies plant hardiness zones based on mean annual minimum temperatures over some past period (currently 1976–2005. Since temperatures are changing, these values may benefit from updating. I outline a multistep methodology involving imputation of missing station values, geostatistical interpolation, and time series smoothing to update a climate variable’s expected value compared to a climatology period and apply it to estimating annual minimum temperature change over the coterminous United States. I show using hindcast experiments that trend estimation gives more accurate predictions of minimum temperatures 1-2 years in advance compared to the previous 30 years’ mean alone. I find that annual minimum temperature increased roughly 2.5 times faster than mean temperature (~2.0 K versus ~0.8 K since 1970, and is already an average of 1.2  0.5 K (regionally up to ~2 K above the 1976–2005 mean, so that much of the country belongs to warmer hardiness zones compared to the current map. The methods developed may also be applied to estimate changes in other climate variables and geographic regions.

  19. Gender-based discrimination as reflected in the laws of urinary segregation: Comparing facilities in South Africa’s major cities with those in East Coast cities in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier Steyn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International treaties, national legislation and local by-laws advocate the equal treatment of people of different genders, but there are still claims of gender-based discrimination. However, indicators of discrimination against women, including employment ratios and differences in income, show that great strides have been made in the recent past. These measures are, however, often biased. In this study a different, more exact and tangible method of detecting and describing discrimination is presented, based on the difference between the number of ablution facilities provided for each gender group in public spaces. Ablution facilities at airports, train stations and shopping centres in four major South African cities (N=128 were inspected. The same was done at six East Coast cities in the United States of America (USA; N=124. Medium to large differences in the respective number of facilities were found (eta2 .05 to .13 in South Africa, with women receiving fewer services than those for men. The same tendency was not found in the USA. These results suggest that, despite the progressive legislation and vigorous affirmative action applied in South Africa, South African women are still being discriminated against on a very concrete, tangible level.

  20. Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States. Volume 45, Number 53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-31

    Trichinosis Tuberculosis Typhoid fever Yellow fever NOTE: Although varicella is not a nationally notifiable disease, the Council of State and...plague among humans, two of which were fatal, were re- ported in the United States (two cases in Arizona, one in Colorado, and two in New Mexico ). Both...13 cases per year) were reported in the United States. Of these cases, 80% occurred in the southwestern states of New Mexico , Arizona, and

  1. Tuberculosis along the United States-Mexico border, 1993-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Eileen; Laserson, Kayla F; Wells, Charles D; Moore, Marisa

    2004-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading public health problem and a recognized priority for the federal Governments of both Mexico and the United States of America. The objectives of this research, primarily for the four states in the United States that are along the border with Mexico, were to: (1) describe the epidemiological situation of TB, (2) identify TB risk factors, and (3) discuss tuberculosis program strategies. We analyzed tuberculosis case reports collected from 1993 through 2001 by the tuberculosis surveillance system of the United States. We used those data to compare TB cases mainly among three groups: (1) Mexican-born persons in the four United States border states (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas), (2) persons in those four border states who had been born in the United States, and (3) Mexican-born persons in the 46 other states of the United States, which do not border Mexico. For the period from 1993 through 2001, of the 16 223 TB cases reported for Mexican-born persons in the United States, 12 450 of them (76.7%) were reported by Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. In those four border states overall in 2001, tuberculosis case rates for Mexican-born persons were 5.0 times as high as the rates for persons born in the United States; those four states have 23 counties that directly border on Mexico, and the ratio in those counties was 5.8. HIV seropositivity, drug and alcohol use, unemployment, and incarceration were significantly less likely to be reported in Mexican-born TB patients from the four border states and the nonborder states than in patients born in the United States from the four border states (P pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were 18-64 years of age and residing in the four border states, the Mexican-born patients were 3.6 times as likely as the United States-born patients were to have resistance to at least isoniazid and rifampin (i. e., to have multidrug-resistant TB) and twice as likely to have isoniazid resistance

  2. Leadership Styles in United States Marine Corps Transport Helicopter Squadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    This thesis examined leadership styles in United States Marine Corps transport helicopter squadrons. Analyses were conducted to determine how... leadership styles related to subordinate extra effort, leader effectiveness, satisfaction with leader, unit cohesion, and unit morale. The importance of...military history to the development of military leaders was also examined. Leadership styles of officers were evaluated by the leader himself as well as

  3. Trends and demographics in hip arthroscopy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Scott R; Ngo, Stephanie S; Hobson, Taylor; Nguyen, Shawn; Alluri, Ram; Wang, Jeffrey C; Hame, Sharon L

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the trends and report on the demographics of patients undergoing hip arthroscopy in the United States. Patients who underwent hip arthroscopy from 2004 to 2009 were identified by searching Current Procedural Terminology codes in the PearlDiver Patient Records Database (PearlDiver Technologies, Fort Wayne, IN), a national database of orthopaedic insurance records. The year of procedure, age, gender, and region of the United States were recorded for each patient. Results were reported for each variable as the incidence of procedures identified per 10,000 patients searched in the database. In total, 3,447 cases of hip arthroscopy were identified between 2004 and 2009. The incidence of procedures increased significantly over the study period, from 1.20 cases per 10,000 patients in 2004 to 5.58 in 2009 (P arthroscopy was performed most commonly in patients aged 20 to 39 years (P arthroscopy was observed in the Western region with an incidence of 5.24 cases identified compared with 2.94, 2.70, and 2.56 in the Northeast, Midwest, and South, respectively (P arthroscopy was observed in the examined cohort of patients between 2004 and 2009. The majority of cases were performed in patients aged 20 to 39 years, with no difference in gender. The Western region of the United States was found to have a higher incidence of hip arthroscopy compared with the Midwest, South, and Northeast. Level IV, cross-sectional study. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of Fibrates in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackevicius, Cynthia A.; Tu, Jack V.; Ross, Joseph S.; Ko, Dennis T.; Carreon, Daniel; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2012-01-01

    Context Interest in the role of fibrates has intensified with the publication of the negative ACCORD trial with fenofibrate, especially since the evidence for clinical outcomes benefit for fibrates is heavily weighted on older fibrates, gemfibrozil and clofibrate. Objective This study seeks to examine trends in the current use of fibrates, and for fenofibrate, to illuminate the relationship between differences in the availability of proprietary versus generic formulations and use and economic implications in the United States (US) compared with Canada. Design/Setting/Patients Population-level, cohort study using IMS Health data in the United States and Canada of patients prescribed fibrates between 2002 and 2009. Main Outcome Measure(s) Fibrate prescribing and expenditures. Results From 2002–2009, fibrate prescriptions increased 117.1% in the US, by 12,000/month to 2.1 million prescriptions/month, yet only increased by 18.1% in Canada. (pCanada, while in the US, it increased by 159.3%, comprising 47.9% of total fibrate prescriptions in 2002 and 65.2% in 2009. The annual ratio of generic:brand fenofibrate use in the US from 2002 to 2008 ranged from 0:1 to 0.09:1, while the ratio in Canada steadily increased from 2005 to 2008 from 0.51:1 to 1.89:1. In the US, crude fenofibrate expenditures rose from $33.2 million/month in 2002 to $129.6 million/month in 2009, while those in Canada declined from $5.6 million/month to $5.1 million/month. Fibrate expenditures per 100,000 population were 3-fold higher in the US compared with Canada in 2009. Conclusions During the past decade, prescriptions for fibrates, particularly, fenofibrate, increased in the United States, while prescriptions for fibrates in Canada remained stable. PMID:21427374

  5. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Richard N [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  6. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Richard N.

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  7. Asian Immigration: The View from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines contemporary Asian immigration to the United States from a U.S. perspective. Analyzes immigration policies and data on recent immigration from Asia. Discusses impacts concerning the United States and the immigrants themselves and speculates on future immigration. The composition of Asian immigration might change, and the number might…

  8. 19 CFR 10.46 - Articles for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles for the United States. 10.46 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles for Institutions § 10.46 Articles for the United States. Pursuant to subheadings 9808.00.10 and 9808...

  9. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  10. Income Distribution Policy in the United States [and] Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okner, Benjamin A.; Rivlin, Alice M.

    The focus of this paper is inequality - primarily, income - inequality - in the United States and the historical-political context in which policies that affect inequality are being discussed. The first section gives a brief description of recent trends in the distribution of income in the United States, a picture whose most remarkable feature is…

  11. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of...)--Special Focus Competition: European Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting... and Culture, European Commission for funding under a separate but parallel EU competition. Within this...

  12. Leading Causes of Death in Males United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What’s this? Submit What’s this? Submit Button Leading Causes of Death in Males and Females, United States Recommend on ... to current and previous listings for the leading causes of death for males and females in the United States. ...

  13. 78 FR 77103 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism... extended deadline for application for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board... Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The November 25, 2013 notice provided that all applications...

  14. 78 FR 70275 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism... an opportunity to apply for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board... Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The purpose of the Board is to advise the Secretary of...

  15. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... being the promotion of such sales to United States retail outlets by advertising in trade publications... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1.953-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX...

  16. Research on Anoplophora glabripennis in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack

    2003-01-01

    In the mid-1990s it was estimated that more than 400 exotic (non-native) forest insects had already become established in the United States (HAACK and BYLER, 1993; MATTSON et al., 1994; NIEMELA and MATTSON, 1996). This number has continued to grow with new exotics discovered annually in the United States (HAACK, 2002; HAACK and POLAND, 2001; HAACK et al., 2002). One...

  17. Forest carbon management in the United States: 1600-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Birdsey; Kurt Pregitzer; Alan Lucier

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of past forest management on carbon stocks in the United States, and the challenges for managing forest carbon resources in the 21st century. Forests in the United States were in approximate carbon balance with the atmosphere from 1600-1800. Utilization and land clearing caused a large pulse of forest carbon emissions during the 19th...

  18. African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Home > African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles ...

  19. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    the Vietnam-United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership...United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership Agreement signed...Economic Zone FTA Free Trade Agreement GDP Gross Domestic Product IMET International Military Education and Training MIA Missing in Action

  20. 77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement... other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA). Please...