WorldWideScience

Sample records for united states challenges

  1. Chinese medicine education and its challenges in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yihyun

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 4 decades Chinese medicine (CM) has come increasingly into the spotlight in the United States as the clinical effectiveness of CM has been not only empirically well-tested over a long period of time but also proven by recent scientific research. It has proven cost effectiveness, safety, and is authorized for natural and holistic approaches. In consideration, CM is one of the underutilized health care professions in the United States with a promising future. However, CM faces many challenges in its education and system, its niche in the health care system as an independent profession, legal and ethical issues. This paper discusses the confronting issues in the United States: present education, standards of CM education with shifting first professional degree level, new delivery systems of CM education. Development of new research models, training of evidence-based practice, and implementation of integrative medicine into CM education also are the key issues in the current CM profession. This paper also discusses opportunities for the CM profession going beyond the current status, especially with a focus on fusion medicine.

  2. Western United States Dams Challenges Faced, Options, and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water management in the Western United States relies significantly upon a fleet of small to very large engineered dams to store water during times of runoff and distribute that water during times of need. Much of this infrastructure is Federally owned and/or operated, and was designed and funded during the first half of the twentieth century through a complex set of repayment contracts for Federally authorized purposes addressing water supply, recreation, and hydropower, and other water management objectives. With environmental laws, namely the Endangered Species Act, and other environmental concerns taking a more active role in water resources in the mid to latter half of the twentieth century, this infrastructure is being stressed even greater than anticipated to provide authorized purposes. Additionally, weather and climate norms being experienced are certainly near the edges, if not outside, of anticipated variability in the climate and hydrology scenarios for which the infrastructure was designed. And, finally, these dams, economically designed for a lifespan of 50 - 100 years, are experiencing maintenance challenges from routine to significant. This presentation will focus on identifying some of the history and challenges facing the water infrastructure in the Western United States. Additionally, some perspectives on future paths to meet the needs of western irrigation and hydropower production will be provided.

  3. Minority donation in the United States: challenges and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaz, Beth H; Hillyer, Christopher D

    2010-11-01

    In the United States, blood donation rates of African-Americans are 25-50% of that of white individuals. As African-Americans make up an ever increasing and now substantial minority, and African-American recipients of blood transfusion, both specialized, such as sickle cell disease patients, and general hospitalized patients, have a better chance of receiving phenotype-matched or appropriate red blood cell units when there is a significant percentage of products in the inventory from African-American donors, it is important to understand the reason for the observed difference. Possible reasons for this discrepancy in donation rates include increased rates of donor deferral and ineligibility; increased barriers to donation, such as fear and distrust; and different marketing and education strategies. Thus, to increase the blood availability to African-American recipients, the reasons for these donation rate differences must be better understood and subsequently addressed through improved blood donor recruitment programs. The majority of African-American donor recruitment programs have focused on donating for sickle cell disease patients, particularly children, which have been of limited success. Significant improvements in African-American donor recruitment are needed to adequately meet the demand of African-American patients as well as the entire population.

  4. A Private [School] Matter: The State of Materials Challenges in Private College Preparatory School Libraries in the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Renee E.

    2008-01-01

    Materials challenges and censorship occur often in public and private educational settings. Private schools and their library media centers are not subject to the First Amendment but research reported in this article examines the state of challenges to materials held in private schools media centers in the southeast United States as a way to gauge…

  5. Shelter from the Storm: Roles, responsibilities, and challenges in United States housing policy governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Charley

    2017-11-01

    Housing is a critical social determinant of health. Housing policy not only affects health by improving housing quality, affordability, and insecurity; housing policy affects health upstream through the politics that shape housing policy design, implementation, and management. These politics, or governance strategies, determine the successes or failures of housing policy programs. This paper is an overview of challenges in housing policy governance in the United States. I examine the important relationship between housing and health, and emphasize why studying housing policy governance matters. I then present three cases of housing governance challenges in the United States, from each pathway by which housing affects health - housing quality, affordability, and insecurity. Each case corresponds to an arm of the TAPIC framework for evaluating governance (Krieger and Higgins) [1], to assess mechanisms of housing governance in each case. While housing governance has come a long way over the past century, political decentralization and the expansion of the submerged state have increased the number of political actors and policy conflict in many areas. This creates inherent challenges for improving accountability, transparency, and policy capacity. In many instances, too, reduced government accountability and transparency increases the risk of harm to the public and lessens governmental integrity. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Ellis, Eugene G.; Page, William R.; Parker, Melanie J.; Hestbeck, Jay B.; Horak, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Along the nearly 3,200 kilometers (almost 2,000 miles) of the United States–Mexican border, in an area known as the Borderlands, we are witnessing the expression of the challenges of the 21st century. This circular identifies several challenge themes and issues associated with life and the environment in the Borderlands, listed below. The challenges are not one-sided; they do not originate in one country only to become problems for the other. The issues and concerns of each challenge theme flow in both directions across the border, and both nations feel their effects throughout the Borderlands and beyond. The clear message is that our two nations, the United States and Mexico, face the issues in these challenge themes together, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) understands it must work with its counterparts, partners, and customers in both countries.Though the mission of the USGS is not to serve as land manager, law enforcer, or code regulator, its innovation and creativity and the scientific and technical depth of its capabilities can be directly applied to monitoring the conditions of the landscape. The ability of USGS scientists to critically analyze the monitored data in search of signals and trends, whether they lead to negative or positive results, allows us to reach significant conclusions—from providing factual conclusions to decisionmakers, to estimating how much of a natural resource exists in a particular locale, to predicting how a natural hazard phenomenon will unfold, to forecasting on a scale from hours to millennia how ecosystems will behave.None of these challenge themes can be addressed strictly by one or two science disciplines; all require well-integrated, cross-discipline thinking, data collection, and analyses. The multidisciplinary science themes that have become the focus of the USGS mission parallel the major challenges in the border region between Mexico and the United States. Because of this multidisciplinary approach, the USGS

  7. Community Health Workers in the United States: Challenges in Identifying, Surveying, and Supporting the Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Samantha; Allen, Caitlin G; Sutkowi, Katherine; Wennerstrom, Ashley

    2017-12-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are members of a growing profession in the United States. Studying this dynamic labor force is challenging, in part because its members have more than 100 different job titles. The demand for timely, accurate information about CHWs is increasing as the profession gains recognition for its ability to improve health outcomes and reduce costs. Although numerous surveys of CHWs have been conducted, the field lacks well-delineated methods for gaining access to this hard-to-identify workforce. We outline methods for surveying CHWs and promising approaches to engage the workforce and other stakeholders in conducting local, state, and national studies. We also highlight successful strategies to overcome challenges in CHW surveys and future directions for surveying the field.

  8. Internal Environmental Displacement: A Growing Challenge to the United States Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle A. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available While the greatest potential for environmental displacement occurs in poorer nations, internal displacement has resulted from environmental change and disasters in the United States; and climate change will likely amplify this movement. I describe how environmental displacement is a policy drift that reduces the effectiveness of current welfare state policies to protect US populations from the risk of impoverishment. Evidence from previous disasters indicates environmental displacees have particular assistance needs. I identify the four main assistance needs in my Environmental Displacement and Resilience Model then use this model to evaluate whether current policies address housing, finances, health, and discrimination needs of those displaced. My analysis highlights a gap between the country’s response to disasters and the current welfare state social safety nets. Without disaster and welfare policy changes environmental displacement will continue to be a policy drift that leave displacees vulnerable to social and economic marginalization. Mientras que el mayor potencial de desplazamientos por causas medioambientales se da en los países más pobres, en los Estados Unidos se ha producido un desplazamiento interno como resultado de cambios ambientales y desastres; y es probable que el cambio climático aumente estos movimientos. Se describe cómo los desplazamientos por causas ambientales suponen un fallo político que reduce la eficacia de las actuales políticas del estado de bienestar que se deben desarrollar para proteger a la población de Estados Unidos contra el riesgo de empobrecimiento. Evidencias de desastres anteriores indican que los desplazados por causas medioambientales tienen necesidades de asistencia especiales. Se identifican las cuatro necesidades de asistencia principales que recoge Modelo de Desplazamiento Medioambiental y Resiliciencia de la autora, para después usar este modelo para evaluar si las políticas actuales

  9. United States academic medical centers: priorities and challenges amid market transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Irene M; Anason, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    United States academic medical centers (AMCs) have upheld their long-standing reputation for excellence by teaching and training the next generation of physicians, supporting medical research, providing world-class medical care, and offering breakthrough treatments for highly complex medical cases. In recent years, the pace and direction of change reshaping the American health care industry has created a set of new and profound challenges that AMC leaders must address in order to sustain their institutions. University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) is an alliance of 116 leading nonprofit academic medical centers and 276 of their affiliated hospitals, all of which are focused on delivering world-class patient care. Formed in 1984, UHC fosters collaboration with and among its members through its renowned programs and services in the areas of comparative data and analytics, performance improvement, supply chain management, strategic research, and public policy. Each year, UHC surveys the executives of its member institutions to understand the issues they view as most critical to sustaining the viability and success of their organizations. The results of UHC's most recent 2011 member survey, coupled with a 2012 Strategic Health Perspectives Harris Interactive presentation, based in parton surveys of major health care industry stakeholders reveal the most important and relevant issues and opportunities that hospital leaders face today, as the United States health care delivery system undergoes a period of unprecedented transformation.

  10. The United States after the great recession: the challenge of sustainable growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meltzer, Joshua [The Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies (United States); Steven, David [The Brookings Institution Center and the Center on International Cooperation at New York University (United States); Langley, Claire [The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. economic growth model, assesses its’ ability to respond to the key economic, environmental and social challenges currently facing the U.S. and proposes policies that if adopted would move the U.S. onto a more sustainable growth path. The paper provides scenarios of projected future growth trajectories, as well as recommendations for specific policies in key areas: employment, infrastructure, energy and fiscal rebalancing. To reach this goal this paper focuses on four areas for action: Increasing employment, which is the most urgent priority to accelerate recovery from the Great Recession, while addressing underlying structural issues that have led to a decade of poor economic outcomes for most citizens; Investing in the future, as the key marker of whether the United States is prepared to make farsighted decisions to improve education, build new infrastructure and increase innovation; Maximizing an increased energy endowment in a way that grows the economy, while reinforcing the trend towards reducing resource demand and reducing greenhouse gas emissions; and, Fiscal rebalancing, where the United States must insulate economic recovery from the process of fiscal reform while reducing and stabilizing debt over the long term. Finally, we argue that President Obama can re-energize America’s global leadership if he builds on a platform of domestic actions that enhance the sustainability of America’s society and economy.

  11. Operational challenges and opportunities in pastured poultry operations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoraibi, C; Pitesky, M; Dailey, N; Niemeier, D

    2017-06-01

    As pastured poultry production has gained increased popularity in the United States in recent years, there is a growing need for research and outreach efforts aimed at this sector of poultry production. In order to get familiarized with American pastured poultry producers, we conducted an online questionnaire aimed primarily at evaluating what operational challenges are faced by producers and what educational opportunities should be initiated by researchers. Results showed that pastured poultry farms largely vary in total number of acres farmed and total number of birds kept. The vast majority of farms (96%) rotate their flocks on pasture and include livestock species (78%) in their rotation systems. Mobile coops are the preferred housing option provided by producers (88%). The most common source of mortality listed by respondents was predation (52%), followed by "other" (32%). However, predation was not selected as the most important challenge by the majority of respondents. Sixty-four percent of participants instead mentioned providing adequate feed at reasonable cost as the major challenge in raising poultry on pasture, followed again by "other" (52%) and lack of processing facilities for small numbers of birds (40%). Finally, the topics considered by respondents as the most helpful to learn more about were how to improve egg production rate and/or feed conversion ratio (67%), followed by how to improve pasture condition and optimum vegetative cover all year round (62%). Despite its small sample size, this study's results provide some valuable insights of challenges encountered and information needed on pastured poultry farms. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Challenges and Benefits of Early Bilingualism in the United States' Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The population of young dual language learners (DLL) in the United States has tripled in the last several decades and now accounts for 25% of all children in the United States (Migration Policy Institute, June 2014). Many of these children are exposed to multiple languages in the home and the early childhood setting (ECE) setting, and the vast…

  13. Issues, challenges, and approaches for risk-informed decommissioning in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, D.A.; Johnson, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (US-NRC) is the principal Federal regulatory authority in the United States responsible for ensuring public health and safety from the civilian use of radioactive material. US-NRC staff has developed and implemented various risk-informed approaches for regulating and managing the remediation of contaminated sites. A risk-informed approach to regulating the decommissioning of nuclear facilities has been generally defined by the US-NRC staff as an approach to decision-making that uses risk insights as well as traditional considerations to focus regulator and licensee attention on decommissioning activities commensurate with their importance to health and safety. Ensuring that decommissioning is carried out using a risk-informed approach should improve the focus on safety in decommissioning, improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and realism in regulatory decisions, and reduce unnecessary regulatory burden, and cost, on licensees. This paper summarizes the efforts by the US-NRC to develop and implement risk-informed approaches to the remediation of nuclear facilities in the United States. It also discusses the issues and challenges encountered by the US-NRC in attempting to implement a risk-informed approach to decommissioning. The US-NRC has been incrementally implementing its existing risk-informed and performance-based approach as it has completed its decommissioning regulations, guidance and other tools over the past several years. The principal challenge for US-NRC is implementing the existing risk-informed approach at specific sites in a manner that maintains safety, reduces costs, and enhances public understanding of the US-NRC's approach. In addition, effectively communicating how the US-NRC approaches are risk-informed and performance-based; ensuring that licensees understand, and take advantage of, the flexibility in meeting the decommissioning goals; ensuring that licensees and staff are aware of the

  14. HIPAA, HIPAA, Hooray?: Current Challenges and Initiatives in Health Informatics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanjaya

    2008-01-01

    A review of the current challenges, trends and initiatives around the various regulations as related to Health Informatics in the United States is presented. A summary of the functions in a workflow-based approach organized into the process and compliance for HIPAA, secure email and fax communications interfaces, e-prescriptions and patient safety and the health information technology savings claims versus costs follows: HIPAA compliance is complex; data interoperability and integration remains difficult.Email and faxing is possible with current over-the-shelf technologies within the purview of the HIPAA Security and Privacy rule.Integration of e-prescribing and NPI data is an area where health informatics can make a real difference.Medical errors remain high.There are no real savings yet from the usage of health information technologies; the costs for implementation remain high, and the business model has not evolved to meet the needs.Health Information Technology (Health IT) projects continue to have a significant failure rate; Open Source technologies are a viable alternative both for cost reduction and scalability. A discussion on the macro view of health informatics is also presented within the context of healthcare models and a comparison of the U.S. system against other countries.

  15. HIPAA, HIPAA, Hooray? Current Challenges and Initiatives in Health Informatics in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjaya Joshi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the current challenges, trends and initiatives around the various regulations as related to Health Informatics in the United States is presented.A summary of the functions in a workflow-based approach organized into the process and compliance for HIPAA, secure email and fax communications interfaces, e-prescriptions and patient safety and the health information technology savings claims versus costs follows: * HIPAA compliance is complex; data interoperability and integration remains difficult. * Email and faxing is possible with current over-the-shelf technologies within the purview of the HIPAA Security and Privacy rule. * Integration of e-prescribing and NPI data is an area where health informatics can make a real difference. * Medical errors remain high. * There are no real savings yet from the usage of health information technologies; the costs for implementation remain high, and the business model has not evolved to meet the needs. * Health Information Technology (Health IT projects continue to have a significant failure rate; Open Source technologies are a viable alternative both for cost reduction and scalability.A discussion on the macro view of health informatics is also presented within the context of healthcare models and a comparison of the U.S. system against other countries.

  16. Futures project anticipates changes and challenges facing forests of the northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser; Michael E. Goerndt; Nianfu Song; Mark D. Nelson; David J. Nowak; Patrick D. Miles; Brett J. Butler; Ryan D. DeSantis; Francisco X. Aguilar; Brian G. Tavernia

    2014-01-01

    The Northern Forest Futures Project aims to reveal how today's trends and choices are likely to change the future forest landscape in the northeastern and midwestern United States. The research is focused on the 20-state quadrant bounded by Maine, Maryland, Missouri, and Minnesota. This area, which encompasses most of the Central Hardwood Forest region, is the...

  17. Electronic Health Records Data and Metadata: Challenges for Big Data in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Lauren E; Moulaison, Heather Lea

    2013-12-01

    This article, written by researchers studying metadata and standards, represents a fresh perspective on the challenges of electronic health records (EHRs) and serves as a primer for big data researchers new to health-related issues. Primarily, we argue for the importance of the systematic adoption of standards in EHR data and metadata as a way of promoting big data research and benefiting patients. EHRs have the potential to include a vast amount of longitudinal health data, and metadata provides the formal structures to govern that data. In the United States, electronic medical records (EMRs) are part of the larger EHR. EHR data is submitted by a variety of clinical data providers and potentially by the patients themselves. Because data input practices are not necessarily standardized, and because of the multiplicity of current standards, basic interoperability in EHRs is hindered. Some of the issues with EHR interoperability stem from the complexities of the data they include, which can be both structured and unstructured. A number of controlled vocabularies are available to data providers. The continuity of care document standard will provide interoperability in the United States between the EMR and the larger EHR, potentially making data input by providers directly available to other providers. The data involved is nonetheless messy. In particular, the use of competing vocabularies such as the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms, MEDCIN, and locally created vocabularies inhibits large-scale interoperability for structured portions of the records, and unstructured portions, although potentially not machine readable, remain essential. Once EMRs for patients are brought together as EHRs, the EHRs must be managed and stored. Adequate documentation should be created and maintained to assure the secure and accurate use of EHR data. There are currently a few notable international standards initiatives for EHRs. Organizations such as Health Level Seven

  18. Use of the Spanish Language in the United States: Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiestevan, Stina

    This ERIC digest examines the Spanish-speaking group in the United States, its growth through net immigration and natural increase, and its eventual decline as speakers shift to English. The Hispanic population is growing rapidly, but data suggest that U.S. Hispanics do learn and speak English. Research predicts that by the year 2001 the…

  19. Challenges with secondary use of multi-source water-quality data in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Oelsner, Gretchen P.; Argue, Denise M.

    2017-01-01

    Combining water-quality data from multiple sources can help counterbalance diminishing resources for stream monitoring in the United States and lead to important regional and national insights that would not otherwise be possible. Individual monitoring organizations understand their own data very well, but issues can arise when their data are combined with data from other organizations that have used different methods for reporting the same common metadata elements. Such use of multi-source data is termed “secondary use”—the use of data beyond the original intent determined by the organization that collected the data. In this study, we surveyed more than 25 million nutrient records collected by 488 organizations in the United States since 1899 to identify major inconsistencies in metadata elements that limit the secondary use of multi-source data. Nearly 14.5 million of these records had missing or ambiguous information for one or more key metadata elements, including (in decreasing order of records affected) sample fraction, chemical form, parameter name, units of measurement, precise numerical value, and remark codes. As a result, metadata harmonization to make secondary use of these multi-source data will be time consuming, expensive, and inexact. Different data users may make different assumptions about the same ambiguous data, potentially resulting in different conclusions about important environmental issues. The value of these ambiguous data is estimated at \\$US12 billion, a substantial collective investment by water-resource organizations in the United States. By comparison, the value of unambiguous data is estimated at \\$US8.2 billion. The ambiguous data could be preserved for uses beyond the original intent by developing and implementing standardized metadata practices for future and legacy water-quality data throughout the United States.

  20. Environmental challenges threatening the growth of urban agriculture in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Sam E; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

    2013-09-01

    Urban agriculture, though often difficult to define, is an emerging sector of local food economies in the United States. Although urban and agricultural landscapes are often integrated in countries around the world, the establishment of mid- to large-scale food production in the U.S. urban ecosystem is a relatively new development. Many of the urban agricultural projects in the United States have emerged from social movements and nonprofit organizations focused on urban renewal, education, job training, community development, and sustainability initiatives. Although these social initiatives have traction, critical knowledge gaps exist regarding the science of food production in urban ecosystems. Developing a science-based approach to urban agriculture is essential to the economic and environmental sustainability of the movement. This paper reviews abiotic environmental factors influencing urban cropping systems, including soil contamination and remediation; atmospheric pollutants and altered climatic conditions; and water management, sources, and safety. This review paper seeks to characterize the limited state of the science on urban agricultural systems and identify future research questions most relevant to urban farmers, land-use planners, and environmental consultants. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Home Birth Midwifery in the United States : Evolutionary Origins and Modern Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Bria

    2016-12-01

    Human childbirth is distinct in requiring-or at least strongly profiting from-the assistance of a knowledgeable attendant to support the mother during birth. With economic modernization, the role of that attendant is transformed, and increased access to obstetric interventions may bring biomedicine into conflict with anatomical, physiological, and behavioral adaptations for childbirth. This article provides an overview of the role of midwifery in human evolution and ways in which this evolutionary heritage is reflected in home birth in the contemporary United States. Opportunities remain for evolutionary scholars to apply their knowledge and skills to strengthen culturally consonant, evolutionarily grounded maternity care within a complex, multilevel, pluralistic medical system.

  2. The challenges of a good use of electricity: China, United States, India and the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, B.; Laponche, B.

    2011-01-01

    After a discussion of the peculiar characteristics of electricity as energy vector (electricity production, transport and distribution, usages, the issue of load curves and power), this report identifies and discusses criteria corresponding to a 'good use' of electricity. These criteria are related to several issues: greenhouse gas emissions, availability and costs of natural resources, safety, local and global environment, economical and social issues. These issues are addressed through the examination of electricity consumption in China and India, of its evolution in comparison with two other regions (United States and Europe). A third part discusses opportunities and perspectives of a good use of electricity in China and India, in the main socio-economic sectors, and their consequences for the environment, for the preservation of natural resources, and for the Indian and Chinese economy. These aspects are also addressed in comparison with the United States and Europe. Thus, the authors highlight the contrast between the electricity consumption curves for some sectors depending on strategic choices by the Chinese and Indian governments

  3. Meeting a Binational Research Challenge: Substance Abuse Among Transnational Mexican Farmworkers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Victor

    2011-01-01

    To help in understanding the manner in which community, individual, and other factors in the United States and Mexico contribute to drug use among transnational migrants, this paper introduces a binational social ecology model of substance abuse in this population. We draw on our 2 NIH-funded ethnographic studies—1 on problem drinking and the other on drug abuse—among transnational Mexican workers in the mushroom industry of southeastern Pennsylvania. Our model demonstrates that major reasons for substance abuse among transnational migrants include nontraditional living arrangements in labor camps and overcrowded apartments, the absence of kin and community deterrents to drug use, social isolation, the presence of drug use and binge drinking subcultures, the availability of drugs, family history of drugs, previous drug use or witnessing of drug use in Mexico, and drug use norms and drug availability in Mexico. It suggests the need for US and Mexican researchers to collaborate in binational teams and address factors on both sides of the border. Our binational social ecology model, together with our research recommendations, will assist alcohol and drug researchers to discover how community and individual factors in both the United States and abroad fit and interact beyond mere association and provide a more comprehensive research approach to substance abuse research among transnational migrants. PMID:18237326

  4. Access to and use of infertility services in the United States: framing the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adashi, Eli Y; Dean, Laura A

    2016-05-01

    An overview of access to and use of general infertility and assisted reproductive technology (ART) services in the United States (U.S.) shows a declining trend for the ever-use of infertility services. Moreover, the use of ART services lags relative to other member nations of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Access to and use of general infertility and ART services is primarily undermined by a severely constrained underwriting universe dominated by self-insured employers and by a finite number of state infertility insurance mandates. The contribution of traditional public and private payers to the underwriting of ART is limited. As compared with OECD member nations wherein the access to and underwriting of general infertility and ART services is universal, the current status quo in the U.S. can only be characterized as dismal. Further, the current state of affairs is socially unjust in that the right to build a family in the face of infertility appears to have become a function of economic prowess. Given the dominance of the self-insured employers as underwriters of general infertility and ART services, advocacy directed at this interest group is likely to prove most productive. Improving the state of underwriting of general infertility and ART services in the U.S. must be embraced as a central moral imperative and as an unwavering strategic goal of the professional societies entrusted with the reproductive health of women and men. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-project, multi-national, geographically dispersed: Challenges for the Nuclear Renaissance in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear renaissance in the United States is moving at a rapid pace due to the incentives in the Energy Policy Act of 2005, recognition of the environmental benefits of nuclear energy, and the need for stable, reliable, and diverse sources of energy. The U.S. is looking externally to capitalize on French, German, Japanese, and other worldwide experience. A number of challenges to the resurgence of nuclear power are common worldwide, including project management, workforce and supplier availability and large-project construction management experience. For example, AREVA's new plant project teams are comprised of resources drawn from various U.S. centers of technical expertise and backed up by AREVA's worldwide capabilities. However, the challenge lies in having the information infrastructure in place to integrate that expertise and share information across working groups. In another example, the U.S. regulatory process has changed significantly for the better, but the new streamlined combined license process has not been tested. Reactor vendors and utilities have injected new thinking into the process by pursuing Design Certification, Early Site Permit, and Combined License approval in parallel rather than in series. This paper will discuss these and other challenges to licensing and building new nuclear plants, and the approaches being used by AREVA to lead the Nuclear Renaissance in the United States. (author)

  6. Genome privacy: challenges, technical approaches to mitigate risk, and ethical considerations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Singh, Siddharth; Marmor, Rebecca; Bonomi, Luca; Fox, Dov; Dow, Michelle; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2016-01-01

    Accessing and integrating human genomic data with phenotypes is important for biomedical research. Making genomic data accessible for research purposes, however, must be handled carefully to avoid leakage of sensitive individual information to unauthorized parties and improper use of data. In this article, we focus on data sharing within the scope of data accessibility for research. Current common practices to gain biomedical data access are strictly rule based, without a clear and quantitative measurement of the risk of privacy breaches. In addition, several types of studies require privacy-preserving linkage of genotype and phenotype information across different locations (e.g., genotypes stored in a sequencing facility and phenotypes stored in an electronic health record) to accelerate discoveries. The computer science community has developed a spectrum of techniques for data privacy and confidentiality protection, many of which have yet to be tested on real-world problems. In this article, we discuss clinical, technical, and ethical aspects of genome data privacy and confidentiality in the United States, as well as potential solutions for privacy-preserving genotype–phenotype linkage in biomedical research. PMID:27681358

  7. An opportunity and an imperative: Chapter 11 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Along the nearly 3,200 kilometers (almost 2,000 miles) of the United States–Mexican border, we are witnessing the expression of the challenges of the 21st century. The Borderlands have become a microcosm for the entire United States and Mexico; the issues faced in that region are felt throughout both nations—water availability and quality, ecosystem health, natural resource needs, safety from natural hazards, and human socioeconomic well-being. If these issues were not challenging enough, we now recognize that the difficulties of addressing them are exacerbated by the onset of climate change, and as we come to better understand the complexities of the components of these challenge themes, we discover that each part is inextricably intertwined with other overarching issues. Further, because we are a creative and progressive society, we all seek to understand and appreciate the natural environments associated with the Borderlands while at the same time benefitting from the region’s many social and economic values. It is little wonder that we as a society find it increasingly difficult to ask the right questions, much less find suitable answers to the questions we do ask. For the many scientists who have worked in the Borderlands and contributed to the preceding chapters, this circular is a way to describe to the two nations of the region the capabilities the U.S. Geological Survey can provide to assist in that quest for knowledge and understanding in preparation for the future.

  8. Challenge theme 6: Natural hazard risks in the Borderlands: Chapter 8 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, William R.; Parcher, Jean W.; Stefanov, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Natural hazards such as earthquakes, landslides and debris flows, wildfires, hurricanes, and intense storm-induced flash floods threaten communities to varying degrees all along the United States–Mexican border. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collaborates with Federal, State, and local agencies to minimize the effects of natural hazards by providing timely, unbiased science information to emergency response officials, resource managers, and the public to help reduce property damage, injury, and loss of life. The USGS often mobilizes response efforts during and after a natural hazard event to provide technical and scientific counsel on recovery and response, and it has a long history of deploying emergency response teams to major disasters in both domestic and international locations. This chapter describes the challenges of natural hazards in the United States–Mexican border region and the capabilities of the USGS in the fields of hazard research, monitoring, and assessment, as well as preventative mitigation and post-disaster response.

  9. Female Faculty: Challenges and Choices in the United States and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samble, Jennifer N.

    2008-01-01

    Substantial amounts of research and data detail the challenges female faculty face in the academy. These include unequal pay for similarly situated individuals, disparities between female representation within the professoriate and student population, and perceptions and accepted modes of behavior that have the effect of disenfranchising women as…

  10. Challenges to Library Materials from Principals in United States Secondary Schools--A "Victory" of Sorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Dianne McAfee

    1995-01-01

    Examines challenges to school library materials initiated by principals in public middle, junior, and senior high school libraries based on a 1990 survey. A review of literature emphasizing the leadership of principals, their role in school library program development, and the principal and school library censorship is included. (Author/LRW)

  11. Identifying common practices and challenges for local urban tree monitoring programs across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara A. Roman; E. Gregory McPherson; Bryant C. Scharenbroch; Julia. Bartens

    2013-01-01

    Urban forest monitoring data are essential to assess the impacts of tree planting campaigns and management programs. Local practitioners have monitoring projects that have not been well documented in the urban forestry literature. To learn more about practitioner-driven monitoring efforts, the authors surveyed 32 local urban forestry organizations across the United...

  12. Challenges and opportunities of health care supply chain management in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmuti, Dean; Khoury, Grace; Omran, Omar; Abou-Zaid, Ahmed S

    2013-01-01

    This article explores current supply chain management challenges and initiatives and identifies problems that affect supply chain management success in the U.S. health-care industry. In addition, it investigates the impact of health care supply chain management (SCM) initiatives on the overall organizational effectiveness. The attitudinal results, as well as the performance results presented in this study support the claim of health care proponents that the SCM allows organizations to reduce cost, improve quality, and reduce cycle time, and leads to high performance.

  13. The United States-Mexican Border - A land of conflict and opportunity: Chapter 1 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.

    2013-01-01

    The boundary between the United States and Mexico was created for convenient expediency through political debate and agreements (fig. 1–1). With the exception of the eastern segment of the border, which follows the course of the Rio Grande (known as the Rio Bravo in Mexico), the defining of this border was based on political decisions that had little concern for ecosystems, geologic features, or water—all of which span that imaginary line. However, the location of the border has had a remarkable effect on the biologic and physical systems in the border region and, in turn, has had a growing influence on what we now see as 21st century socioeconomic and environmental priorities. Because of the complex interactions of the human, ecological, political, and economic exigencies associated with this area, the status of the United States–Mexican border region, known as the Borderlands, has become an ever-present concern for most American citizens and for Mexican and United States Federal, State, and local governments.

  14. Immigrant workers in the United States: recent trends, vulnerable populations, and challenges for occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Linda A

    2005-07-01

    Immigrant workers are a rapidly growing segment of the U.S. work force, and these increasing numbers have resulted in a different ethnic mix in the work force than in previous decades. Immigrant workers are not a homogenous group, but are over-represented in low-paying occupations. Their diversity and vulnerability present distinct challenges for occupational health nurses. High-risk occupations in which a large proportion of immigrant workers are hired include agriculture, sweatshops, day laborers, and construction. Initiatives needed to improve the working conditions of this vulnerable population include improved surveillance and research, culturally competent care providers, improved health care access, advocacy, and changes in immigration and health policy.

  15. Overcoming challenges to the recovery of declining amphibian populations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Susan; Ball, Lianne C.; Barichivich, William J.; Dodd, Kenneth; Enge, Kevin M; Gorman, Thomas A.; O'Donnell, Katherine; Palis, John G; Semlitsch, Raymond D.

    2016-01-01

    The US Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) affords many potential benefits to species threatened with extinction. However, most at-risk amphibians—one of the most imperiled vertebrate groups—remain unlisted under the provisions of the ESA, and many impediments to recovery exist for those species that have been listed. Of the 35 US amphibian species and distinct population segments (“taxa”) listed under the ESA, 40% currently lack a final (completed) recovery plan, 28.6% lack designated critical habitat, and 8.6% lack both. For taxa that have recovery plans, the time between their listing and the development of those plans was from 2 to 29 years, and the time between their listing and the designation of critical habitat ranged from 0 to 14 years. The underlying causes of such delays in protection are complex and constitute obstacles to recovery of imperiled species. We outline a series of strategic actions by which these challenges may be overcome.

  16. Lessons learned and present day challenges of addressing 20th century radiation legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengel, M.T.; Kristofzski, J.G.; Schubert, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly enriched uranium and defense plutonium as well as processing of high-level wastes are among the most challenging issues of addressing radiation legacy of the 20th century. USA and Russia are the two primary countries that have to deal with the challenge and where most of the fissile materials to be processed are concentrated, nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste are stored, and multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities are located. In the US, CH2M HILL is managing two of the most important nuclear projects being conducted by the US Department of Energy at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and at the DOE Hanford Site (177 underground tanks at this site contain 60 percent of the United States' high-level radioactive wastes). Within the framework of the Russian Federal special program 'Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Materials Management, Utilization and Disposal for 1996-2005' works were carried out on the Karachai lake covering with soil, highly active radwaste vitrification and fractionation at the 'Mayak' combine. Currently there is a discussion of launching joint Russian-American initiatives including comparative studies of environmental and public health impacts from high-level waste vitrification and plutonium stabilization processes in Russia and high-level waste removal from tanks in the USA and of continuing comprehensive research with the RADSITE project (USA, European Union, Japan, China and India) using coordinated approaches in 2000-2003. This paper presents comparative studies, technical approaches, and regulatory strategies to address the challenges of managing and closing highly enriched uranium, plutonium, and high level waste sites. (author)

  17. Challenge theme 7: Information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  18. Evolution and trends of the dietetics profession in the United States of America and in Argentina: north and south united by similar challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defranchi, Romina L Barritta de; Nelson, Jennifer K

    2009-06-01

    Since the early stages the profession of dietetics has been characterized as a multifaceted discipline and influenced by scientific and social changes. Today, health and nutrition-related diseases are becoming more global--as is the dietetics profession. The aim of this article is to review the history, education, work and challenges for dietetic practitioners in North and South America, specifically in the United States and in the Argentinean Republic. It was in Argentina where the first Latin American dietetics school was established. Both countries have since shaped the profession creating standards for education and practice in response to advances in the biopsychosocial sciences and economic and environmental changes. Reviewing both the past and current diversities in both Americas contributes to a better understanding of professional strengths and weaknesses, and can prepare dietetics specialists to meet today's needs. Regardless of local disparities, it is interesting that current and future challenges for the dietetics profession are similar between the two countries, such as growing rates of obesity, limited access to and choice of healthy diets among various income groups, busy lifestyles and decline of family meals. These common issues and the availability of Internet tools offer a unique opportunity for partnership and research that can lead to successful creative nutrition interventions and programs. In turn, such joint initiatives will confirm the essential role for the profession--not only in the western hemisphere--but also globally.

  19. Quantification of uncertainty associated with United States high resolution fossil fuel CO2 emissions: updates, challenges and future plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Chandrasekaran, V.; Mendoza, D. L.; Geethakumar, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Vulcan Project has estimated United States fossil fuel CO2 emissions at the hourly time scale and at spatial scales below the county level for the year 2002. Vulcan is built from a wide variety of observational data streams including regulated air pollutant emissions reporting, traffic monitoring, energy statistics, and US census data. In addition to these data sets, Vulcan relies on a series of modeling assumptions and constructs to interpolate in space, time and transform non-CO2 reporting into an estimate of CO2 combustion emissions. The recent version 2.0 of the Vulcan inventory has produced advances in a number of categories with particular emphasis on improved temporal structure. Onroad transportation emissions now avail of roughly 5000 automated traffic count monitors allowing for much improved diurnal and weekly time structure in our onroad transportation emissions. Though the inventory shows excellent agreement with independent national-level CO2 emissions estimates, uncertainty quantification has been a challenging task given the large number of data sources and numerous modeling assumptions. However, we have now accomplished a complete uncertainty estimate across all the Vulcan economic sectors and will present uncertainty estimates as a function of space, time, sector and fuel. We find that, like the underlying distribution of CO2 emissions themselves, the uncertainty is also strongly lognormal with high uncertainty associated with a relatively small number of locations. These locations typically are locations reliant upon coal combustion as the dominant CO2 source. We will also compare and contrast Vulcan fossil fuel CO2 emissions estimates against estimates built from DOE fuel-based surveys at the state level. We conclude that much of the difference between the Vulcan inventory and DOE statistics are not due to biased estimation but mechanistic differences in supply versus demand and combustion in space/time.

  20. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  1. Challenges of socio-economically evaluating wildfire management on non-industrial private and public forestland in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyron J. Venn; David E. Calkin

    2009-01-01

    Non-industrial private forests (NIPFs) and public forests in the United States generate many non-market benefits for landholders and society generally. These values can be both enhanced and diminished by wildfire management. This paper considers the challenges of supporting economically efficient allocation of wildfire suppression resources in a social cost-benefit...

  2. Examining Post-Migration Psycho-Cultural Adjustment Challenges of Foreign-Born Students at Community Colleges in the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemelu, Charles I.

    2012-01-01

    The current study is an attempt to examine post-migration psycho-cultural adjustment factors that potentially inhibit foreign-born students' (FBS) adjustment at community colleges (CCs) in the United States. Although much research has been conducted to better understand various aspects of FBSs' adjustment challenges little attention has been paid…

  3. Community-Owned wind power development: The challenge of applying the European model in the United States, and how states are addressing that challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark

    2004-03-28

    Local farmers, towns, schools, and individual investors are, however, beginning to invest in wind power. With the help of state policy and clean energy fund support, new federal incentives, and creative local wind developers who have devised ownership structures that maximize the value of both state and federal support, community wind power is beginning to take a foothold in parts of the US, in particular the upper Midwest. The purpose of this report is to describe that foothold, as well as the state support that helped to create it. There are a number of reasons why states are becoming increasingly interested in community wind power. In rural Midwestern states such as Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Illinois, community wind is seen as a way to help supplement and stabilize farmer income, and thereby contribute to the preservation of farming communities and the rural landscapes and values they create. In the Northeast, densely populated states such as Massachusetts are turning to community-scale wind development to increase not only the amount of wind power on the grid, but also the public's knowledge, perception, and acceptance of wind power. In still other areas--such as the Pacific Northwest, which is already home to several large wind farms--states are simply responding to strong interest from local constituents who see community wind power as a way to take responsibility for, and mitigate the environmental impact of, electricity generation. But what exactly is ''community wind power''? Definitions vary widely, ranging from behind-the-meter installations to the Danish wind ''cooperatives'' to wind projects owned by municipal utilities. Possible defining criteria include: project size (small vs. large projects); purpose (to offset end-use power consumption vs. to sell power to the grid); ownership (single local vs. multiple local vs. municipal utility vs. commercial owners); and interconnection (behind the meter vs

  4. Data as a Strategic Resource: Self-determination, Governance, and the Data Challenge for Indigenous Nations in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Carroll Rainie; Jennifer Lee Schultz; Eileen Briggs; Patricia Riggs; Nancy Lynn Palmanteer-Holder

    2017-01-01

    Data about Indigenous populations in the United States are inconsistent and irrelevant. Federal and state governments and researchers direct most collection, analysis, and use of data about U.S. Indigenous populations. Indigenous Peoples’ justified mistrust further complicates the collection and use of these data. Nonetheless, tribal leaders and communities depend on these data to inform decision making. Reliance on data that do not reflect tribal needs, priorities, and self-conceptions threa...

  5. The United States Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management's Progress and Challenges in Environmental Remediation and Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, A.; Collazo, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy Environmental Management Program (EM) is responsible for managing the world largest environmental cleanup program comprised of unparalleled scope, complexity, diversity of facilities and contaminants and technical challenges. Established in 1989, EM mission is the safe and successful cleanup of the Cold War legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Within this mission, EM is responsible for radioactive liquid wastes, spent nuclear fuel, nuclear materials, solid radioactive waste, contaminated soils and groundwater and contaminated facilities located in 14 States, on over 2,000,000 acres of land and over 4500 facilities requiring decommissioning. Since 1989 EM has, and continues to evolve into a true project management oriented organization with world-class engineering and technology capabilities, and as the National Academy of Public Administration has concluded, a with the changes underway, EM is on a solid path to becoming a high performing organization. Not only has EM grown and matured as a functional organization, but it has also achieved some remarkable on the ground accomplishments in environmental remediation, deactivation and decommissioning and waste management/nuclear material stabilization. These accomplishments have been made within a context of having to work with some of the most dangerous substances known to humanity; of having to perform first of a kind tasks in highly hazardous environments; and of having to design, construct and operate first of a kind technology and facilities to solve problems that once seemed unsolvable. In addition, EM accomplishments have been made with the highest priority and focus given to safety and risk reduction. In October 2006, and with a life cycle cost of $6.7 Billion, cleanup/D and D was completed at the 800+ facility 6200 acre former nuclear weapons complex at Rocky Flats (Denver, Colorado). Today

  6. Current challenges and realities for forest-based businesses adjacent to public lands in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily J. Davis; Jesse Abrams; Eric M. White; Cassandra Moseley

    2018-01-01

    Through contracting and timber sales, the private sector is engaged in management of national forest lands and local community economies in the United States. But there is little recent research about current relationships between these lands and timber purchasers that could better inform future timber and biomass sale and business assistance policies and programs. We...

  7. Accommodating non-market values in evaluation of wildfire management in the United States: Challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyron J. Venn; David E. Calkin

    2011-01-01

    Forests in the United States generate many non-market benefits for society that can be enhanced and diminished by wildfire and wildfire management. The Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy (1995, updated 2001), and subsequent Guidance to the Implementation of that policy provided in 2009, require fire management priorities be set on the basis of values to be...

  8. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  9. Urban sprawl, obesity, and cancer mortality in the United States: cross-sectional analysis and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrigan, David; Tatalovich, Zaria; Pickle, Linda W; Ewing, Reid; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2014-01-06

    Urban sprawl has the potential to influence cancer mortality via direct and indirect effects on obesity, access to health services, physical activity, transportation choices and other correlates of sprawl and urbanization. This paper presents a cross-sectional analysis of associations between urban sprawl and cancer mortality in urban and suburban counties of the United States. This ecological analysis was designed to examine whether urban sprawl is associated with total and obesity-related cancer mortality and to what extent these associations differed in different regions of the US. A major focus of our analyses was to adequately account for spatial heterogeneity in mortality. Therefore, we fit a series of regression models, stratified by gender, successively testing for the presence of spatial heterogeneity. Our resulting models included county level variables related to race, smoking, obesity, access to health services, insurance status, socioeconomic position, and broad geographic region as well as a measure of urban sprawl and several interactions. Our most complex models also included random effects to account for any county-level spatial autocorrelation that remained unexplained by these variables. Total cancer mortality rates were higher in less sprawling areas and contrary to our initial hypothesis; this was also true of obesity related cancers in six of seven U.S. regions (census divisions) where there were statistically significant associations between the sprawl index and mortality. We also found significant interactions (p urban sprawl for total and obesity related cancer mortality in both sexes. Thus, the association between urban sprawl and cancer mortality differs in different regions of the US. Despite higher levels of obesity in more sprawling counties in the US, mortality from obesity related cancer was not greater in such counties. Identification of disparities in cancer mortality within and between geographic regions is an ongoing public

  10. Challenge theme 2: assuring water availability and quality in the 21st century: Chapter 4 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegary, James; Langeman, Jeff; Leenhouts, Jim; Martin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Along the United States–Mexican border, the health of communities, economies, and ecosystems is inextricably intertwined with the availability and quality of water, but effective water management in the Borderlands is complicated. Water users compete for resources, and their needs are increasing. Managers are faced with issues such as finding a balance between agriculture and rapidly growing cities or maintaining public supplies while ensuring sufficient resources for aquatic ecosystems. In addition to human factors, the dry climate of the Borderlands, as compared to more temperate regions, also increases the challenge of balancing water supplies between humans and ecosystems. Warmer, drier, and more variable conditions across the southwestern United States—the projected results of climate change (Seager and others, 2007)—would further stress water supplies.

  11. The United States Revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (2006: New challenges to balancing patient rights and physician responsibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGregor Joan L

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advance health care directives and informed consent remain the cornerstones of patients' right to self-determination regarding medical care and preferences at the end-of-life. However, the effectiveness and clinical applicability of advance health care directives to decision-making on the use of life support systems at the end-of-life is questionable. The Uniform Anatomical Gift Act (UAGA has been revised in 2006 to permit the use of life support systems at or near death for the purpose of maximizing procurement opportunities of organs medically suitable for transplantation. Some states have enacted the Revised UAGA (2006 and a few of those have included amendments while attempting to preserve the uniformity of the revised Act. Other states have introduced the Revised UAGA (2006 for legislation and remaining states are likely to follow soon. The Revised UAGA (2006 poses challenges to the Patient Self Determination Act (PSDA embodied in advance health care directives and individual expression about the use of life support systems at the end-of-life. The challenges are predicated on the UAGA revising the default choice to presumption of donation intent and the use of life support systems to ensure medical suitability of organs for transplantation. The default choice trumps the expressed intent in an individual's advance health care directive to withhold and/or withdraw life support systems at the end-of-life. The Revised UAGA (2006 overrides advance directives on utilitarian grounds, which is a serious ethical challenge to society. The subtle progression of the Revised UAGA (2006 towards the presumption about how to dispose of one's organs at death can pave the way for an affirmative "duty to donate". There are at least two steps required to resolve these challenges. First, physicians and hospitals must fulfill their responsibilities to educate patients on the new legislations and document their preferences about the use of life support

  12. The Borderlands and climate change: Chapter 10 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Joan; Gray, Floyd; Dubiel, Russell; Langman, Jeff; Moring, J. Bruce; Norman, Laura M.; Page, William R.; Parcher, Jean W.

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of global climate change in response to both natural forces and human activity is one of the defining issues of our times. The unprecedented observational capacity of modern earth-orbiting satellites coupled with the development of robust computational representations (models) of the Earth’s weather and climate systems afford us the opportunity to observe and investigate how these systems work now, how they have worked in the past, and how they will work in the future when forced in specific ways. In the most recent report on global climate change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC; Solomon and others, 2007), analyses using multiple climate models support recent observations that the Earth’s climate is changing in response to a combination of natural and human-induced causes. These changes will be significant in the United States–Mexican border region, where the process of climate change affects all of the Borderlands challenge themes discussed in the preceding chapters. The dual possibilities of both significantly-changed climate and increasing variability in climate make it challenging to take full measure of the potential effects because the Borderlands already experience a high degree of interannual variability and climatological extremes.

  13. Data as a Strategic Resource: Self-determination, Governance, and the Data Challenge for Indigenous Nations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Carroll Rainie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Data about Indigenous populations in the United States are inconsistent and irrelevant. Federal and state governments and researchers direct most collection, analysis, and use of data about U.S. Indigenous populations. Indigenous Peoples’ justified mistrust further complicates the collection and use of these data. Nonetheless, tribal leaders and communities depend on these data to inform decision making. Reliance on data that do not reflect tribal needs, priorities, and self-conceptions threatens tribal self-determination. Tribal data sovereignty through governance of data on Indigenous populations is long overdue. This article provides two case studies of the Ysleta del Sur Pueblo and Cheyenne River Sioux Tribe and their demographic and socioeconomic data initiatives to create locally and culturally relevant data for decision making.

  14. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  15. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  16. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  17. Modeling energy consumption and CO2 emissions at the urban scale: Methodological challenges and insights from the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshall, Lily; Gurney, Kevin; Hammer, Stephen A.; Mendoza, Daniel; Zhou, Yuyu; Geethakumar, Sarath

    2010-01-01

    Local policy makers could benefit from a national, high-resolution inventory of energy consumption and related carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions based on the Vulcan data product, which plots emissions on a 100 km 2 grid. We evaluate the ability of Vulcan to measure energy consumption in urban areas, a scale of analysis required to support goals established as part of local energy, climate or sustainability initiatives. We highlight the methodological challenges of this type of analytical exercise and review alternative approaches. We find that between 37% and 86% of direct fuel consumption in buildings and industry and between 37% and 77% of on-road gasoline and diesel consumption occurs in urban areas, depending on how these areas are defined. We suggest that a county-based definition of urban is preferable to other common definitions since counties are the smallest political unit for which energy data are collected. Urban counties, account for 37% of direct energy consumption, or 50% if mixed urban counties are included. A county-based definition can also improve estimates of per-capita consumption.

  18. Rapanos v. United States & Carabell v. United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents associated with guidance for implementing the definition of waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act following the Rapanos v. United States, and Carabell v. United States Supreme Court decision.

  19. Protocol challenges for on-the-job voice dosimetry of teachers in the United States and Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nix, John; Svec, Jan G.; Laukkanen, Anna-Maria; Titze, Ingo R.

    The occupational voice use of teachers has been an important research topic over the last 10 years. However, data collection on vocal loading in teachers at and away from the workplace poses significant challenges to the research protocol. The challenges include recruitment of subjects, voice data

  20. AN INTRODUCTION TO EXPLORING LAW, DISABILITY, AND THE CHALLENGE OF EQUALITY IN CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES: PAPERS FROM THE BERKELEY SYMPOSIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laverne Jacobs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It brings me great pleasure to write this Introduction to Exploring Law, Disability, and the Challenge of Equality in Canada and the United States. This special collection of articles in the Windsor Yearbook of Access to Justice [WYAJ] stems from a symposium of the same name held at the Berkeley Law School at the University of California on 5 December 2014. Writing this introduction allows me to bring together my identities as a law and disability scholar, the principal organizer and convener of the Berkeley Symposium, and editor-in-chief of the WYAJ. In these roles, I have had the opportunity to engage with this set of articles and their authors in a distinct way – from the early versions of these articles through to the final peer-reviewed publications. The Berkeley Symposium is the first conference, of which we are aware, to bring together scholars and experts from both Canada and the United States to present research and exchange ideas on equality issues affecting persons with disabilities in both countries.1 Each academic was invited to write about an equality issue of their choice that is of contemporary concern to persons with disabilities, and to focus on Canada, the United States,or both, at their  option. The result is a set of articles that is simultaneously introspective and comparative.

  1. Lessons Learned and Present Day Challenges of Addressing 20th Century Radiation Legacies of Russia and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISTOFZSKI, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear submarines, disposal of highly-enriched uranium and weapons-grade plutonium, and processing of high-level radioactive wastes represent the most challenging issues facing the cleanup of 20th century radiation legacy wastes and facilities. The US and Russia are the two primary countries dealing with these challenges, because most of the world's fissile inventory is being processed and stored at multiple industrial sites and nuclear weapons production facilities in these countries

  2. Post-Closure Challenges of U.S. Department of Energy Sites in Desert Environments of the Southwestern United States - 12095

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, April; Steckley, Deborah [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (United States); Gauthier, Cassie; Miller, David [S.M. Stoller Company, Contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy (United States)

    2012-07-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites located in harsh desert environments of the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States require diligence and continual maintenance to ensure the remediation systems function as designed to protect human health and the environment. The geology and climate of this area create issues that are unique to these sites. Geologic formations contain naturally occurring constituents that are often the same as the residual contaminants remaining from historical milling activities at the sites. Although annual precipitation is low, when precipitation events occur they can be of extreme intensity, resulting in erosion and flooding that can quickly destroy infrastructure and rapidly change site conditions. Winds can cause sand storms and sand mounding that effect site features. These challenging environmental conditions, along with the remote locations of the sites, require active management beyond what was originally envisioned for uranium disposal sites to address concerns in a safe and cost-effective manner. The unique environment of the Four Corners region creates many challenges to the LTSM of LM sites in southwestern United States. The remediation efforts and approaches to infrastructure have to be specifically structured to work in this environment. Often, the systems and structures have to be modified based on lessons learned on how to best adapt to these difficult conditions and remote locations. These sites require continual maintenance and additional efforts compared to many other LM sites. (authors)

  3. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    property of CocaCola Bottling Company, Fayetteville, North Carolina, of a value in excess of $100.00, in violation of Title 18 United States Code, Section...another, to-wit: a Cocacola soft drink machine, the amount of damage to said personal property being more than $200.00, in violation of North Carolina

  4. Tackling U.S. energy challenges and opportunities: preliminary policy recommendations for enhancing energy innovation in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anadon, Laura Diaz; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Bunn, Matthew; Jones, Charles

    2009-02-18

    The report offers preliminary recommendations for near-term actions to strengthen the U.S. effort to develop and deploy advanced energy technologies. The report comes as the Obama Administration and the 111th U.S. Congress face enormous challenges and opportunities in tackling the pressing security, economic, and environmental problems posed by the energy sector. Improving the technologies of energy supply and end-use is a prerequisite for surmounting these challenges in a timely and cost-effective way, and this report elaborates on how policy can support develop of these important energy technologies.

  5. Challenge theme 1: Understanding and preserving ecological resources: Chapter 3 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moring, J. Bruce; Papoulias, Diana M.; van Riper, Charles

    2013-01-01

    The notable biodiversity within the United States–Mexican border region is driven by the wide variety of natural landscapes in the area and its biologically unique transition zone of habitats for xeric, temperate, and subtropical species. Six diverse ecoregions cover the length of the border (fig. 3–1): California Coastal Sage, Chaparral, and Oak Woodlands; Sonoran Desert; Madrean Archipelago; Chihuahuan Desert; Southern

  6. United States rejoin ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    2003-01-01

    Upon pressure from the United States Congress, the US Department of Energy had to withdraw from further American participation in the ITER Engineering Design Activities after the end of its commitment to the EDA in July 1998. In the years since that time, changes have taken place in both the ITER activity and the US fusion community's position on burning plasma physics. Reflecting the interest in the United States in pursuing burning plasma physics, the DOE's Office of Science commissioned three studies as part of its examination of the option of entering the Negotiations on the Agreement on the Establishment of the International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. These were a National Academy Review Panel Report supporting the burning plasma mission; a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) report confirming the role of ITER in achieving fusion power production, and The Lehman Review of the ITER project costing and project management processes (for the latter one, see ITER CTA Newsletter, no. 15, December 2002). All three studies have endorsed the US return to the ITER activities. This historical decision was announced by DOE Secretary Abraham during his remarks to employees of the Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The United States will be working with the other Participants in the ITER Negotiations on the Agreement and is preparing to participate in the ITA

  7. United States advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, the advanced technologies have been applied to uranium enrichment as a means by which it can be assured that nuclear fuel cost will remain competitive in the future. The United States is strongly committed to the development of advanced enrichment technology, and has brought both advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) programs to a point of significant technical refinement. The ability to deploy advanced technologies is the basis for the confidence in competitive future price. Unfortunately, the development of advanced technologies is capital intensive. The year 1985 is the key year for advanced technology development in the United States, since the decision on the primary enrichment technology for the future, AGC or AVLIS, will be made shortly. The background on the technology selection process, the highlights of AGC and AVLIS programs and the way to proceed after the process selection are described. The key objective is to maximize the sales volume and minimize the operating cost. This will help the utilities in other countries supply low cost energy on a reliable, long term basis. (Kako, I.)

  8. Challenge theme 3: Protecting the environment and safeguarding human health: Chapter 5 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulias, Diana M.; Parcher, Jean W.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the diverse, fragile ecosystems of the United States–Mexican border region are reaching unsustainable levels because of rapid population growth and changes in land use. Water shortages and pollution, poor air quality, increased soil salinities, and pesticides and heavy metal contaminants are some of the many stressors that are degrading the quality of life in the Borderlands. Lack of water treatment and wastewater infrastructure on both sides of the United States–Mexican border contributes to elevated rates of various communicable diseases most commonly found in developing countries: tuberculosis, intestinal infections, and hepatitis. Chronic diseases (diabetes, cancer, and heart disease) also prevail at high rates along the border, resembling trends observed in developed countries. In addition, the subtropical climate of the Borderlands is particularly suited for vectors of tropical diseases, such as malaria and dengue fever.

  9. Challenge theme 4: People in the Borderlands: Chapter 6 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Shuster, Rudy M.; Parcher, Jean W.

    2013-01-01

    The management of shared resources in the United States–Mexican border region requires cooperation from the people of both countries to assess and understand their relation to the environment. Society is dependent on the long-term healthy functioning of ecosystems and their ability to supply food and raw materials. Likewise, resources and services obtained from nature could be used efficiently within the society. A more equitable distribution of costs and benefits related to goods and services can lead to fewer tensions and a higher quality of life for all the people in the Borderlands. Urban development, background contamination from mineral ore deposits, irrigation, sewage effluent, and even global climate change all have the potential to alter the stability of the fragile systems in the Borderlands (Brady and others, 2001, 2002; Norman, 2007, 2010; Gu and others, 2008; Norman, Gray, and others, 2008; Norman, Hirsch, and Ward, 2008; Norman, Callegary, and others, 2010; Norman, Huth, and others, 2010; Norman, Levick, and others, 2010; Norman, Tallent-Halsell, and others, 2010; Norman, Villarreal, and others 2012). Social efficiency means that because resources should be used where they are needed most, they should be distributed proportionally among human societies and individuals (Azar and others, 1996). Despite the critical role natural resources play in maintaining human and environmental health, current knowledge of the manner in which natural and human-caused forces interact to limit these resources—including their quality and quantity (such as through spatiotemporal changes in precipitation, evapotranspiration, pumping of groundwater, and release of contaminants)—is inadequate. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is trying to understand the relation between changing landscapes, changing demographics, and a changing climate in the Borderlands while the environmental, economic, and societal issues continue to be intertwined between the two nations.

  10. Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Prevention of HIV in Serodiscordant Heterosexual Couples in the United States: Opportunities and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Julie E.; Kurth, Ann E.; Cohen, Stephanie E.; Mannheimer, Sharon B.; Simmons, Janie; Pouget, Enrique R.; Trabold, Nicole; Haberer, Jessica E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Oral HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising new biomedical prevention approach in which HIV-negative individuals are provided with daily oral antiretroviral medication for the primary prevention of HIV-1. Several clinical trials have demonstrated efficacy of oral PrEP for HIV prevention among groups at high risk for HIV, with adherence closely associated with level of risk reduction. In the United States (US), three groups have been prioritized for initial implementation of PrEP—injection drug users, men who have sex with men at substantial risk for HIV, and HIV-negative partners within serodiscordant heterosexual couples. Numerous demonstration projects involving PrEP implementation among MSM are underway, but relatively little research has been devoted to study PrEP implementation in HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. Such couples face a unique set of challenges to PrEP implementation at the individual, couple, and provider level with regard to PrEP uptake and maintenance, adherence, safety and toxicity, clinical monitoring, and sexual risk behavior. Oral PrEP also provides new opportunities for serodiscordant couples and healthcare providers for primary prevention and reproductive health. This article provides a review of the critical issues, challenges, and opportunities involved in the implementation of oral PrEP among HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples in the US. PMID:25045996

  11. The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Art, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that at least in the national security arena, the outcomes of bureaucratic infighting and domestic political struggles are not determined wholly by what goes on with the state. Rather struggles among contending groups are greatly affected by what is perceived to be happening outside the nation. Because external conditions give greater potency to some domestic forces over other, the external environment is never neutral in its domestic impact. The decisions of the period 1950-53 discussed above illustrate the point. But so too do the decisions of 1947, 1960-61 and 1969-72. In the 1947 case, Soviet intransigence provoked US nuclear rearmament. In the 1960-61 case, extended deterrent considerations pushed the United States to preserve its again newly discovered nuclear superiority. In the 1969-72 case, a Soviet determination to remain equal forced US acceptance of nuclear equality. And perhaps the best evidence of all, the perpetuation of parity ended the US inclination to resort to nuclear brinkmanship. In each instance, concerns about relative position heavily affected nuclear choice. Finally, the events of the past three years testify to the effects of international events on domestic choice. Under the terms of the 1987 INF Treaty, the two superpowers decided to dismantle and destroy an entire class of missiles of intermediate range (500-3000 kilometers) that both had deployed in Europe in the 1970s and 1980s, and in their June 1990 joint statement on strategic nuclear weapons, President Gorbachev and Brush agreed to cut the number of Soviet and US long range nuclear forces by 30 per cent. This agreement marks a watershed in US-Soviet strategic arm negotiations because for the first time the United States and the Soviet Union agreed in principals to reduce the number of weapons aimed at one another. Between 1985 and 1990 the cold war was brought to a close

  12. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  13. Building long-term constituencies for space exploration: The challenge of raising public awareness and engagement in the United States and in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Peter, N.; Billings, L.

    2010-08-01

    Space exploration is a multifaceted endeavor and will be a "grand challenge" of the 21st century. It has already become an element of the political agenda of a growing number of countries worldwide. However, the public is largely unaware of space exploration activities and in particular does not perceive any personal benefit. In order to achieve highly ambitious space exploration goals to explore robotically and with humans the inner solar system, space agencies must improve and expand their efforts to inform and raise the awareness of the public about what they are doing, and why. Therefore adopting new techniques aiming at informing and engaging the public using participatory ways, new communication techniques to reach, in particular, the younger generation will be a prerequisite for a sustainable long-term exploration program: as they will enable it and carry most of the associated financial burden. This paper presents an environmental analysis of space exploration in the United States and Europe and investigates the current branding stature of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). We discuss how improved market research and new branding methods can increase public space awareness and improve the image of NASA and ESA. We propose a new participatory approach to engage the public as major stakeholder (along governments, the industrial space sector and the science community) that may provide sufficient resources for and sustainability of a long-term space exploration program.

  14. Variation in Sexual Identification Among Behaviorally Bisexual Women in the Midwestern United States: Challenging the Established Methods for Collecting Data on Sexual Identity and Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Aleta; Schick, Vanessa R; Dodge, Brian; van Der Pol, Barbara; Herbenick, Debby; Sanders, Stephanie A; Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2017-07-01

    Collecting information on sexual identity is critical to ensuring the visibility of minority populations who face stigmatization and discrimination related to sexual identities. However, it is challenging to capture the nuances of sexual identity with traditional survey research methods. Using a mixed-methods approach, we gathered data on the sexual identities of 80 behaviorally bisexual women in the Midwestern United States through an online survey. When provided different types of measures (e.g., open ended and fixed response) and different contexts in which to identify (e.g., private and public), participants varied in how they reported their sexual identities. Qualitative analysis of participant narratives around identity change finds partitioning and ranking of attraction is a key component in understanding behaviorally bisexual women's identities. We further identify a division regarding the desired outcomes of identity development processes. Given the multiple ways in which participants identified depending upon the type of measure and the context specified, and the variation in identification over time, results support reconsidering the capability of typical measures and methods used in survey research to capture sexual identity information. Additionally, findings highlight the utility of including multiple, context-specific measures of sexual identities in future research.

  15. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United States...

  16. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    650 of the U.S. Bureau of Mines) ; indeed, we regard that book and the present volume as being complementary. In the examination of the geologic possibilities for finding new deposits-in many respects the principal innovative contributions of this volume-we asked the authors to frankly apply the limits of their ingenuity and not only to summarize current theories but also to express their own intuitive ideas, however speculative and unconventional they may seem, that have come from years of study devoted to the origin of mineral deposits. Readers will see that some authors have speculated more courageously than others. In any case, we believe readers will find all the chapters interesting, and many stimulating; and a few we believe can be frankly characterized as intellectually exciting. Most chapters include a section on prospecting techniques, and a summary of geologic or related problems on which the authors believe research might be most fruitful in the continuing efforts to find new resources. An integral part of the book is the bibliographic material cited at the conclusion of each chapter, in lieu of repetition of detailed descriptions already in print. Index and "spot" maps are not included in most chapters because they are available elsewhere, and in many cases with more detail than could possibly be included here. Maps showing the distribution of known deposits of many commodities in the United States are available in the Mineral Resource (MR) map series of the U.S. Geological Survey and in the National Atlas of the United States. The first three chapters deal not with resources of specific commodities but with general information that is pertinent to the study of mineral resources. In the introductory chapter we discuss the purposes of the book, the distinctions between reserves and various categories of resources, and some general conclusions drawn from our view of the book in its entirety. In the second chapter V. E. McKelvey discusses the problems of

  17. Challenges and Opportunities for the Use of Medications to Treat Opioid Addiction in the United States and Other Nations of the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrino, Mark W; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Samuels, Paul N; Maremmani, Icro

    2015-01-01

    There has been a well documented increase in the use and abuse of prescription opioids and heroin in the United States and other parts of the world. There has also been an increasing focus to increase access to the use of medications (methadone, buprenorphine, Naltrexone/Vivitrol) for opioid addicted individuals under legal supervision. As policymakers engage in strategic initiatives to better prevent and effectively treat chronic opioid addiction, both in the United States and other countries, there are a number of unintended consequences, complicating how best to increase access to effective treatment.

  18. United States panel presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyea, J.

    1990-01-01

    Before I begin I have to make a disclaimer. That is that I am going to be talking about public perception because I think that is very important. But I do not want to give the impression that I think the public is wrong. I happen to agree with the public's perception of nuclear power, and I want to make that clear. I do not like the current generation of nuclear plants as I have made clear in many statements that I have made. On the other hand, in the long term, I feel that we have only two choices on the supply side, and that is nuclear power and solar electricity. And although I think solar electricity has the best chance, I am realistic enough to know that technologies do not always work the way I want. And so I think it is necessary to have at least some kind of nuclear option available. On the other hand, I do not think just any kind of nuclear technology will do. I want to talk to you about the conditions that I think you have to take into account when you try to design reactors that are publicly acceptable. I look at this as an insurance policy. Again, I do not want to be misquoted: I think nuclear power should be considered as an insurance policy, not as our first line of defense. Having made those disclaimers, what we need to do is set out a problem statement. The problem statement I set out is, 'How could one design and demonstrate a nuclear reactor that would regain public confidence in the United States, if one chose to do that?' By regaining confidence, I mean regaining sufficient confidence to site reactors at a number of locations. It is a pretty heavy task because the public cannot judge the technical issues. They have to judge the players by their characters and their histories, just as the way we calibrate anyone that knows things that we do not. I have three theses that I think are crucial. The first is that people do not believe in the claims of advocates, of any point of view, not just nuclear power, once the advocates have been proved wrong on

  19. The United States Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management's Progress and Challenges in Environmental Remediation and Decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, A.; Collazo, Y. [US Dept. of Energy, Charles Negin, Project Enhancement Corporation (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy Environmental Management Program (EM) is responsible for managing the world largest environmental cleanup program comprised of unparalleled scope, complexity, diversity of facilities and contaminants and technical challenges. Established in 1989, EM mission is the safe and successful cleanup of the Cold War legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Within this mission, EM is responsible for radioactive liquid wastes, spent nuclear fuel, nuclear materials, solid radioactive waste, contaminated soils and groundwater and contaminated facilities located in 14 States, on over 2,000,000 acres of land and over 4500 facilities requiring decommissioning. Since 1989 EM has, and continues to evolve into a true project management oriented organization with world-class engineering and technology capabilities, and as the National Academy of Public Administration has concluded, a with the changes underway, EM is on a solid path to becoming a high performing organization. Not only has EM grown and matured as a functional organization, but it has also achieved some remarkable on the ground accomplishments in environmental remediation, deactivation and decommissioning and waste management/nuclear material stabilization. These accomplishments have been made within a context of having to work with some of the most dangerous substances known to humanity; of having to perform first of a kind tasks in highly hazardous environments; and of having to design, construct and operate first of a kind technology and facilities to solve problems that once seemed unsolvable. In addition, EM accomplishments have been made with the highest priority and focus given to safety and risk reduction. In October 2006, and with a life cycle cost of $6.7 Billion, cleanup/D and D was completed at the 800+ facility 6200 acre former nuclear weapons complex at Rocky Flats (Denver, Colorado). Today

  20. Solving the problems we face: the United States Environmental Protection Agency, sustainability, and the challenges of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addressing the problems of the twenty-first century will require new initiatives that complement traditional regulatory activities. Existing regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act are important safety nets in the United States for protecting human health and t...

  1. Legislative update: United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The US Senate consented to the ratification of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) on 4 August 2006. The entry into force of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation will substantially change the face of the international nuclear liability regime. The CSC is a free-standing instrument, open to all states. This means that countries can become party to a new global regime providing for liability and compensation for victims of a nuclear incident, without also having to become a contracting party to the Paris Convention or the Vienna Convention. This is certainly a major step forward given that at the present time, over half of the world's reactors in operation or under construction are not covered by any of the international nuclear third party liability conventions. The CSC creates an instrument by which states can ensure that more money will be made available to compensate more victims for a broader range of damage than ever before. The CSC provides for two tiers of compensation. The first tier, fixed at 300 million Special Drawing Rights, is to be provided by the liable operator. This tier is to be distributed on a non-discriminatory basis to victims both inside and outside of the Installation State. If 300 million SDRs are insufficient to compensate all damage, then contracting parties will be required to contribute to the second tier (the international fund). The amount of this second tier is not fixed, but rather will depend on the number of operating nuclear power plants in contracting parties, and is designed to increase as the number of such plants increases

  2. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  3. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... litigation.'' United States v. Armour and Co., 402 U.S. 673, 681 (1971). Section 5 of the Clayton Act... relief in consent judgment that contained recitals in which defendants asserted their innocence); Armour...

  4. United States Strategy for Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Centner, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    The security and stability of Mexico is of national interest to the United States, and a strong, effective alliance between the two countries is pivotal to our national defense strategy and economic prosperity...

  5. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of Columbia...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District...

  8. It’s the Strategic Narrative Stupid! How the United States May Overcome the Challenge of Continued Engagement in Afghanistan Beyond 2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2017-01-01

    This chapter argues that US staying power in Afghanistan primarily will be determined by the ability of the US President to craft a strategic narrative that can convince most members of Congress that it is necessary to stay engaged, that it is the right thing to do, and that the United States......, Afghanistan and the world will benefit from it. In addition, the President must promise success at an acceptable price and deliver it by demonstrating that progress is being made on a continuous basis....

  9. State nuclear initiatives in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.; Stoiber, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with State nuclear initiatives regarding the role of nuclear power in the energy future of the United States. The question of whether and under what circumstances nuclear facilities should be used to generate electricity was put to the popular vote in several States in 1976. Some general principles of Federal-State relations are discussed with specific reference to nuclear regulations. The initiative mechanism itself is described as well as its legal form and background. The parallel developments in the State and Federal legislative consideration of nuclear issues is reviewed and the suggested reasons for the defeat of the proposals in the seven States concerned are discussed. Finally, the author draws some conclusions on the effects of the 1976 initiatives on future decision-making in the US on energy policy in general and nuclear power in particular. (NEA) [fr

  10. Challenges on preparing unitization agreements in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marilda Rosado de Sa [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Appi, Valeria Tiriba [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    As a further stage of the new oil and gas industry in Brazil, various challenges are now faced as an outcome from the O and G projects progress, under the legal framework in force in Brazil. Among all are the first unitization processes, which require a set of steps to be performed in order to achieve a unitization agreement. The paper aims at analyzing the legal, technical and drafting issues to be dealt with in such agreements. After a brief introduction to the general issues at stake in the unitization agreements the study shall encompass a follow up of the sequence of events to be complied with. One could mention the settlement of the criteria onto calculations to serve as guidelines for the negotiations will be based on. That, is usually based on concepts as oil in place, possible O and G in the reservoir, or reserve, which must be agreed by all involved parties. Another possible step to be considered is the creation of a common database, in order to permit fast decisions and optimise E and P operations in the unitized area. Other concerns should be addressed, depending on the amount of O and G to be produced from the unitized area, as: the avoidance of multiple redeterminations aiming to decrease unnecessary expenditures, which could jeopardize the arising project profitability; and the recalculations of Government take, royalties and other incumbencies, to be shared by all involved parties. The paper shall also mention the experience of other countries trying to adopt, where applicable and compatible with the best practices of the oil industry, solutions adopted where tradition in oil and gas is more mature. It should be considered that, in each bidding round the Brazilian Concession Agreement has undergone changes, therefore during an unitization process with two different versions of the Concession Agreement differences between corresponding clauses will have to be faced. Comments should also be made about satellite agreements, encompassing O and G buying

  11. ISO developments in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, William W.

    1998-01-01

    An important feature of the restructuring process in the United States is the creation of independent system operators (ISOs) to coordinate dispatch and access to transmission grids. A number of ISOs have been proposed and are summarized here. Perhaps the greatest challenge is the pricing of transmission to give proper economic signals to market participants, and the locational pricing scheme now operating in the PJM system offers the best hope for efficient pricing. (author)

  12. THE UNITED STATES EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    David Suriñach Fernández

    2017-01-01

    The United States educational system is very complex. Due to the fact a big number of agents take play of its regulation, the differences between the education from one State compared to the education from another, or even between school districts, might be considerable. The last two largest federal education initiatives, No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top, have had a huge impact on the American education system. The escalation of the standardized test throughout the whole country as a ...

  13. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  14. United States Navy DL Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  15. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  16. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ...

  17. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. ...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ...

  19. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories, states, commonwealths, districts, and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  20. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States. ...

  1. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District of...

  2. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia, the...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America. [31 FR 16758, Dec. 31, 1966. Redesignated at 56 FR 64472, Dec. 10, 1991] ...

  4. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States of...

  5. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  6. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its...

  7. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  8. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  9. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  10. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  11. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States. ...

  12. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  13. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  14. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  15. 31 CFR 536.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 536.315 Section 536.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.315 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  16. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  17. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  18. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  19. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority...

  20. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  1. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories and...

  2. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  3. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  4. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  5. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  6. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  7. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  8. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority...

  9. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  10. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  11. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  12. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  13. Overcoming the Challenges in Implementing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Prevention Programs Can Decrease the Burden on Healthcare Costs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritika Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, identifying prediabetics would reduce the diabetic burden on the American healthcare system. As we expect the prevalence rate of prediabetes to continue increasing, we wonder if there is a better way of managing prediabetics and reducing the economic cost on the healthcare system. To do so, understanding the demographics and behavioral factors of known prediabetics was important. For this purpose, responses of prediabetic/borderline diabetes patients from the most recent publicly available 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS survey were analyzed. The findings showed that there was a correlation between household income, geographic residence in the US, and risk for developing diabetes mellitus type 2, aside from the accepted risk factors such as high BMI. In conclusion, implementation of the National Diabetes Prevention Program is a rational way of reducing the burden of DM on the healthcare system both economically and by prevalence. However, difficulties arise in ensuring patient compliance to the program and providing access to all regions and communities of the United States. Technology incorporation in the NDPP program would maintain a low-cost implementation by the healthcare system, be affordable and accessible for all participants, and decrease economic burden attributed to diabetes mellitus.

  14. Challenges in the Evaluation of Interventions to Improve Engagement Along the HIV Care Continuum in the United States: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risher, Kathryn A; Kapoor, Sunaina; Daramola, Alice Moji; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela; Skarbinski, Jacek; Doyle, Kate; Shearer, Kate; Dowdy, David; Rosenberg, Eli; Sullivan, Patrick; Shah, Maunank

    2017-07-01

    In the United States (US), there are high levels of disengagement along the HIV care continuum. We sought to characterize the heterogeneity in research studies and interventions to improve care engagement among people living with diagnosed HIV infection. We performed a systematic literature search for interventions to improve HIV linkage to care, retention in care, reengagement in care and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the US published from 2007-mid 2015. Study designs and outcomes were allowed to vary in included studies. We grouped interventions into categories, target populations, and whether results were significantly improved. We identified 152 studies, 7 (5%) linkage studies, 33 (22%) retention studies, 4 (3%) reengagement studies, and 117 (77%) adherence studies. 'Linkage' studies utilized 11 different outcome definitions, while 'retention' studies utilized 39, with very little consistency in effect measurements. The majority (59%) of studies reported significantly improved outcomes, but this proportion and corresponding effect sizes varied substantially across study categories. This review highlights a paucity of assessments of linkage and reengagement interventions; limited generalizability of results; and substantial heterogeneity in intervention types, outcome definitions, and effect measures. In order to make strides against the HIV epidemic in the US, care continuum research must be improved and benchmarked against an integrated, comprehensive framework.

  15. Environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' effort to manage its environment including air, water nature, and biodiversity to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  16. United States National Seismographic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN's) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105 degree W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN)

  17. Forest carbon management in the United States: 1600-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Birdsey; Kurt Pregitzer; Alan Lucier

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of past forest management on carbon stocks in the United States, and the challenges for managing forest carbon resources in the 21st century. Forests in the United States were in approximate carbon balance with the atmosphere from 1600-1800. Utilization and land clearing caused a large pulse of forest carbon emissions during the 19th...

  18. Challenges, coping strategies, and recommendations related to the HIV services field in the HAART era: a systematic literature review of qualitative studies from the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Miller, Katye R; Galos, Dylan; Love, Randi; Poole, Charles

    2013-02-01

    Qualitative research methods have been utilized to study the nature of work in the HIV services field. Yet current literature lacks a Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART) era compendium of qualitative research studying challenges and coping strategies in the field. This study systematically reviewed challenges and coping strategies that qualitative researchers observed in the HIV services field during the HAART era, and their recommendations to organizations. Four online databases were searched for peer-reviewed research that utilized qualitative methods, were published from January 1998 to February 2012, utilized samples of individuals in the HIV services field; occurred in the U.S. or Canada, and contained information related to challenges and/or coping strategies. Abstracts were identified (n=846) and independently read and coded for inclusion by at least two of the four first authors. Identified articles (n=26) were independently read by at least two of the four first authors who recorded the study methodology, participant demographics, challenges and coping strategies, and recommendations. A number of challenges affecting those in the HIV services field were noted, particularly interpersonal and organizational issues. Coping strategies were problem- and emotion-focused. Summarized research recommendations called for increased support, capacity-building, and structural changes. Future research on challenges and coping strategies must provide up-to-date information to the HIV services field while creating, implementing, and evaluating interventions to manage current challenges and reduce the risk of burnout.

  19. Challenges: a state and compact perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1987-01-01

    The challenges facing states and compacts in their efforts to implement the Low-Level Waste Policy Amendments Act are described. Institutional challenges include: small-volume sites; compact maintenance; shifting agencies and changing personnel; and timing of progress. The technical challenge lies in the enormous number of plans, procedures, and regulations that have to be developed over the next four years. There are two main fiscal challenges: funding of day-to-day operations of compact commissions; and financing the siting and construction of new disposal sites. There are also two main regulatory challenges: host states must develop regulations for siting and selection of technology; and all states have to await federal regulations to be completed. The final challenge is political: whether a region can overcome public opposition and actually site a facility

  20. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  1. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  2. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board ...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and the...

  4. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia. ...

  5. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. [60 FR 10797, Feb. 28, 1995] National...

  6. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of...

  7. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  8. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  9. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M; Tan, Kathrine R

    2018-05-04

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to provide information on its occurrence (e.g., temporal, geographic, and demographic), guide prevention and treatment recommendations for travelers and patients, and facilitate transmission control measures if locally acquired cases are identified. This report summarizes confirmed malaria cases in persons with onset of illness in 2015 and summarizes trends in previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff members. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS), the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), or direct CDC consultations. CDC reference laboratories provide diagnostic assistance and conduct antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. This report summarizes data from the integration of all NMSS and NNDSS cases, CDC reference laboratory reports, and CDC clinical consultations. CDC received reports of 1,517 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case, with an onset of symptoms in 2015 among persons who received their diagnoses in the United States. Although the number of

  10. Consumer flexibility - State and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grande, Ove S.; Saele, Hanne; Morch, Andrei Z.

    2002-02-01

    This report summarises experiences and results from relevant projects carried out within the area of consumer flexibility in the last years. A general description of the projects is presented. In addition are testing activities, economical signals for motivating the end user for load reductions and appropriate technology for communication and effect management mentioned separately. Briefly summarised is the following achieved: 1) The potential for effect regulating measures in ordinary consumption and in power demanding industry is analysed and estimated to 1750 MW and 3360 MW respectively. 2) Time varied rates are developed and are tested. The NVE has decided on this basis that all the network owners should offer season varied rates to their customers. 3) Test projects in Drammen, Oslo and Trondheim have shown that it is possible to motivate smaller consumers for and implement load reductions. 4) Technology for load management for the end user is evaluated. 5) A survey is made viewing the technology for two way communication. In addition the ''option'' market for the reserves of the Statnett has proved that a steady compensation is a sufficient incentive for producing substantial effect reserves in the load sector (power intensive industry). In the last part of the report the incentives and frame conditions for establishing technical solutions and infrastructure are discussed. Further work will focus on the consumer flexibility in shortage situations. The main challenges are connected to: 1) Establishing a foundation for decisions concerning cost efficient investments in necessary technical equipment. 2) To find an optimal combination of a price flexible and remote controlled load reduction

  11. Teen Pregnancy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States: the contribution of abstinence and improved contraceptive use. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(1):150-6. Lindberg LD, Santelli JS, Desai, S. Understanding the Decline in Adolescent Fertility in the United States, 2007–2012. J ...

  12. THORP and after - challenging state decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, P.; Lawrence, J.

    1994-01-01

    This article looks at an increasing trend for European Community law to be used by those seeking to challenge decisions taken at a national level which effect the environment. The debate over the future operation of British Nuclear Fuels Ltd's Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant at the Sellafield site (THORP) is used as an example of this trend. The United Kingdom government's energy policy authorised the construction and operation of the THORP plant. The decision to continue with the project has been challenged by Greenpeace and Lancashire County Council acting cooperatively. Their challenge was based on Community law and legislation. (UK)

  13. Fracking in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, advances in technology have made it profitable to extract natural gas from shale, leading to a boom in shale gas development in the United States. Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, the controversial method for extracting natural gas, offers numerous benefits: relatively cheap energy, enhanced energy security, job creation, tax revenues and decreased dependence on dirty coal. Fracking, however, can also increase greenhouse gas emissions, pollute the air and result in health effects, consume huge quantities of water, and cause earthquakes. While some areas welcome fracking for the economic benefits it brings, other communities are attempting to ban fracking altogether. This article examines the benefits and risks of fracking in the U.S

  14. United States uranium enrichment policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's uranium enrichment program policies governing the manner in which ERDA's enrichment complex is being operated and expanded to meet customer requirements for separative work, research and development activities directed at providing technology alternatives for future enrichment capacity, and establishing the framework for additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity to meet the domestic and foreign nuclear industry's growing demand for enrichment services are considered. The ERDA enrichment complex consists of three gaseous diffusion plants located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Today, these plants provide uranium enrichment services for commercial nuclear power generation. These enrichment services are provided under contracts between the Government and the utility customers. ERDA's program involves a major pilot plant cascade, and pursues an advanced isotope separation technique for the late 1980's. That the United States must develop additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity is discussed

  15. Oil Vulnerabilities and United States Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-08

    Mazda, Mercedes - Benz , Ford, Mercury, and Nissan offer flexible fuel vehicles in the United States. Ethanol is currently produced in the United States...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT OIL VULNERABILITIES AND UNITED STATES STRATEGY by Colonel Shawn P. Walsh...Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting

  16. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  17. TRAINING OF THE STATE PRESIDENT'S UNIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary function of the State President's Unit is to protect the head of state - not his person as is generally believed, but his authority over the state. Ironically, the ceremonial performances of the State President's Unit lead people to believe that they are only capable of doing drill exer- cises. However, upon investigating.

  18. A faith-based community partnership to address HIV/AIDS in the southern United States: implementation, challenges, and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abara, Winston; Coleman, Jason D; Fairchild, Amanda; Gaddist, Bambi; White, Jacob

    2015-02-01

    Though race and region are not by themselves risk factors for HIV infection, regional and racial disparities exist in the burden of HIV/AIDS in the US. Specifically, African Americans in the southern US appear to bear the brunt of this burden due to a complex set of upstream factors like structural and cultural influences that do not facilitate HIV/AIDS awareness, HIV testing, or sexual risk-reduction techniques while perpetuating HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Strategies proposed to mitigate the burden among this population have included establishing partnerships and collaborations with non-traditional entities like African American churches and other faith-based organizations. Though efforts to partner with the African American church are not necessarily novel, most of these efforts do not present a model that focuses on building the capacity of the African American church to address these upstream factors and sustain these interventions. This article will describe Project Fostering AIDS Initiatives That Heal (F.A.I.T.H), a faith-based model for successfully developing, implementing, and sustaining locally developed HIV/AIDS prevention interventions in African American churches in South Carolina. This was achieved by engaging the faith community and the provision of technical assistance, grant funding and training for project personnel. Elements of success, challenges, and lessons learned during this process will also be discussed.

  19. Contrasts between the environmental restoration challenges posed by uranium mining and milling in the United States and the former German Democratic Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.; Chernoff, A.R.; Mager, D.; Goldammer, W.

    1993-01-01

    The former Soviet Union demands for uranium feed materials were primarily met by the East German Republic. A small area 200 km long and 50 km wide in the provinces of Saxony and Thuringia provided more than half of the uranium concentrate processed by the Soviet Union, and used for nuclear weapons development and power generation. With the majority of the ore processed in Germany of an average lower grade than a number of deposits found around the world, the mining and milling resulted in an enormous scale of surface disturbance and quantities of mill tailings concentrated in a relatively small densely populated geographical area. As a result of the re-unification of the two Germanies, all uranium extraction and processing activities were suddenly brought to a halt for economic reasons. The former soviet-East German corporation responsible for the uranium concentrate production was changed into a German state-operated company tasked with the facility decommissioning and environmental restoration. Code-named WISMUT (the German word for Bismuth) during the cold war, this organization was literally changed overnight from a self-sufficient, autonomously operating and state controlled effort into a public works, environmentally conscious corporation

  20. The Borderlands - A region of physical and cultural diversity: Chapter 2 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Woodward, Dennis G.; Durall, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    The area surrounding the United States–Mexican border is very physically and culturally diverse and cannot be generalized by any single description. To assist in an accurate appraisal and understanding of this remarkable region, the Borderlands team has divided it into eight subareas based on the watershed subareas of the U.S. Geological Survey Border Environmental Health Initiative (http://borderhealth.cr.usgs.gov) (fig. 2–1), the boundaries of which are defined primarily by surface-water drainage basins. The drainage basins directly adjacent to or crossing the international boundary were automatically included in the defined border region, as were those basins that contain unconsolidated aquifers that extend to or cross the international boundary. Also, “protected areas” adjacent to included basins were selectively added to the defined border region. Though some geographic features are entirely within the Borderlands, many features—deserts, mountain ranges, rivers, etc.— extend beyond the region boundaries but are still influential to Borderlands environments (fig. 2–2). In some cases, the authors of the following chapters have made fine adjustments to the Borderlands boundaries, and they have described those alterations where necessary. By describing and studying these subareas individually and comparing them to one another, we can emphasize the physical and cultural diversity that makes the Borderlands such an important geographic area.

  1. AREVA in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the United States had 297 million inhabitants (the 3. most populous country in the world) and a land area of 9.4 million km 2 (17 times larger than France). With a GDP of 10,996 billion dollars (under the economic conditions of the year 2000), the U.S. is the largest economic power in the world. It is also the largest consumer of energy, with primary energy consumption of 2,329 million metric tons, meaning that 25% of the world's energy is consumed by just 4% of its population. Although it has large domestic energy supplies, the U.S. is very far from achieving energy self-sufficiency. A decline of nearly 50% in oil production over a period of more than 30 years and the simultaneous stagnation of gas production have further weakened the U.S. energy balance. On a more general level, the increasing depletion of hydrocarbon resources (gas and oil), the concentration of the world's main resources in geo-politically unstable areas and the forecasted increase in the consumption and price of hydrocarbons, especially since 2005, mean that energy independence and supply security have become 2 of the top priorities of U.S. commercial and international policy. In 2007, the U.S. accounted for 22% of global CO 2 emissions, equaling those of China. In relation to population, the U.S. emits 8 metric tons/inhabitant compared to a world average of 4.2 metric tons/inhabitant. Although global warming is seen as a reality by the American public, it has only recently become a major argument in favor of a nuclear energy revival in the U.S. The context is, however, changing significantly. This is evidenced by America's adoption, in recent years, of measures to reduce greenhouse gases, particularly through the development of new, more environmentally friendly technologies. Since 2001, nearly 23 billion dollars in public funds have been devoted to climate research and the development of clean energy sources, notably renewable energies such as wind and solar, but also hydrogen and

  2. AREVA in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, the United States had 297 million inhabitants (the 3. most populous country in the world) and a land area of 9.4 million km{sup 2} (17 times larger than France). With a GDP of 10,996 billion dollars (under the economic conditions of the year 2000), the U.S. is the largest economic power in the world. It is also the largest consumer of energy, with primary energy consumption of 2,329 million metric tons, meaning that 25% of the world's energy is consumed by just 4% of its population. Although it has large domestic energy supplies, the U.S. is very far from achieving energy self-sufficiency. A decline of nearly 50% in oil production over a period of more than 30 years and the simultaneous stagnation of gas production have further weakened the U.S. energy balance. On a more general level, the increasing depletion of hydrocarbon resources (gas and oil), the concentration of the world's main resources in geo-politically unstable areas and the forecasted increase in the consumption and price of hydrocarbons, especially since 2005, mean that energy independence and supply security have become 2 of the top priorities of U.S. commercial and international policy. In 2007, the U.S. accounted for 22% of global CO{sub 2} emissions, equaling those of China. In relation to population, the U.S. emits 8 metric tons/inhabitant compared to a world average of 4.2 metric tons/inhabitant. Although global warming is seen as a reality by the American public, it has only recently become a major argument in favor of a nuclear energy revival in the U.S. The context is, however, changing significantly. This is evidenced by America's adoption, in recent years, of measures to reduce greenhouse gases, particularly through the development of new, more environmentally friendly technologies. Since 2001, nearly 23 billion dollars in public funds have been devoted to climate research and the development of clean energy sources, notably renewable energies such as wind and solar

  3. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  4. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  5. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  6. East Asian Security: Two Views. The Security Challenges in Northeast Asia: A Chinese View. Security Challenges to the United States in Northeast Asia: Looking beyond the Transformation of the Six-Party Talks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shulong, Chu; Rozman, Gilbert

    2007-01-01

    .... The two papers herein, originally presented at the Strategic Studies Institute's 2007 annual Strategy Conference, highlight the challenges posed by the rise of China and by the new possibility...

  7. Data report: western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.

    1982-04-01

    This abbreviated summary data report, presents results of ground water and stream surface sediment reconnaissance in the western United States. Surface sediment samples were collected at 67,741 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 13,979 sites, and surface water samples were collected at 2,958 sites. Neutron activaton analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in waters. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground waters. Supplemental analyses of the sediments for extractable uranium and 22 other elements are given where they are available. Supplemental analyses of water samples for 33 additional elements are also reported where they are available. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables on microfiche. Data from ground water sites (on microfiche in pocket) include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V by neutron activation and Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Sc, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Zn, and Zr by spectrophotometry). Helium analyses are given for ground water

  8. Leadership Development in Agricultural Economics: Challenges for Academic Units

    OpenAIRE

    Boland, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Crafting and executing strategy are key tasks to be carried out by a manager of an enterprise. Unit leaders are managers of an academic enterprise called a department. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of information collected from interviews with unit leaders of departments of agricultural economics and discuss challenges being faced by these unit leaders in March 2009.

  9. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  10. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  11. Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  12. United States of America: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas; Rosenau, Pauline; Unruh, Lynn Y; Barnes, Andrew J; Saltman, Richard B; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the United States health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The US health system has both considerable strengths and notable weaknesses. It has a large and well-trained health workforce, a wide range of high-quality medical specialists as well as secondary and tertiary institutions, a robust health sector research program and, for selected services, among the best medical outcomes in the world. But it also suffers from incomplete coverage of its citizenry, health expenditure levels per person far exceeding all other countries, poor measures on many objective and subjective measures of quality and outcomes, an unequal distribution of resources and outcomes across the country and among different population groups, and lagging efforts to introduce health information technology. It is difficult to determine the extent to which deficiencies are health-system related, though it seems that at least some of the problems are a result of poor access to care. Because of the adoption of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, the United States is facing a period of enormous potential change. Improving coverage is a central aim, envisaged through subsidies for the uninsured to purchase private insurance, expanded eligibility for Medicaid (in some states) and greater protection for insured persons. Furthermore, primary care and public health receive increased funding, and quality and expenditures are addressed through a range of measures. Whether the ACA will indeed be effective in addressing the challenges identified above can only be determined over time. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  13. The United Kingdom: Issues for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    ...; and more recently, from the UK's strong support in countering terrorism and confronting Iraq. The United States and Britain also share a mutually beneficial trade and economic relationship, and are each other's biggest foreign direct investors...

  14. Global Entrepreneurship and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Global Entrepreneurship and the United States by Zoltan J. Acs Laszlo Szerb Ruxton, MD 21204 for under contract number SBAHQ-09...SUBTITLE Global Entrepreneurship and the United States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...3 2.1. Assessing Entrepreneurship ..................................................................................4 2.2. Stages of Development

  15. Immigration Enforcement Within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-06

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Policy Issues...Remained in the United States, (Washington: Center for Immigration Studies, May 2002). Immigration Enforcement Within the United States Introduction ...interior enforcement lack a border component. For example, fugitive taskforces, investigations of alien slavery and sweatshops , and employer sanctions do

  16. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8... scheduled for May 25, 2010. Date: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801 9th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20220. Subject: Review and discuss obverse and...

  17. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  18. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  19. Rural Ageing in the United States: Trends and Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Nina; Brown, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines rural population ageing in the United States with a particular focus on the contrasting contexts in which older rural residents live. We compare the characteristics of the older population by rural versus urban residence, and explore challenges and opportunities associated with the ageing of rural baby boomers. The United…

  20. Nuclear development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, S.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the nuclear development in the United States has been one of international cooperation relations so far. The United States is to offer the technical information on atomic energy utilization to foreign countries in exchange for the guarantee that they never attempt to have or develop nuclear weapons. Actually, the United States has supplied the technologies on nuclear fuel cycle and other related fields to enable other countries to achieve economical and social progress. The Department of Energy clarified the public promise of the United States regarding the idea of international energy community. The ratio of nuclear power generation to total electric power supply in the United States exceeded 12%, and will exceed 20% by 1990. Since 1978, new nuclear power station has not been ordered, and some of the contracted power stations were canceled. The atomic energy industry in the United States prospered at the beginning of 1970s, but lost the spirit now, mainly due to the institutional problems rather than the technical ones. As the policy of the government to eliminate the obstacles, the improvement of the procedure for the permission and approval, the establishment of waste disposal capability, the verification of fast breeder reactor technology and the promotion of commercial fuel reprocessing were proposed. The re-establishment of the United States as the reliable supplier of atomic energy service is the final aim. (Kako, I.)

  1. Household pesticide usage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, E P; Keefe, T J; Wheeler, H W; Mounce, L; Helwic, L; Applehans, F; Goes, E; Goes, T; Mihlan, G; Rench, J; Taylor, D K

    1981-01-01

    A total of 10,000 U.S. households in 25 standard metropolitan statistical areas and 25 counties were included in the United States. More than 8,200 households granted an interview. Nine of every ten households in the United States used some types of pesticide in their house, garden, or yard. Households in the southeastern United States used the most pesticides. Although more than 500 different pesticide formulations were used by the sampled households, 15 pesticides accounted for 65.5% of all pesticides reported in this study. Thirteen of these 15 pesticides were insecticides, one was a herbicide, and one was a rodenticide.

  2. Making things happen through challenging goals: leader proactivity, trust, and business-unit performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Craig D; Cooper, Cecily D; Wernsing, Tara S

    2013-05-01

    Building on decades of research on the proactivity of individual performers, this study integrates research on goal setting and trust in leadership to examine manager proactivity and business unit sales performance in one of the largest sales organizations in the United States. Results of a moderated-mediation model suggest that proactive senior managers establish more challenging goals for their business units (N = 50), which in turn are associated with higher sales performance. We further found that employees' trust in the manager is a critical contingency variable that facilitates the relationship between challenging sales goals and subsequent sales performance. This research contributes to growing literatures on trust in leadership and proactivity by studying their joint effects at a district-unit level of analysis while identifying district managers' tendency to set challenging goals as a process variable that helps translate their proactivity into the collective performance of their units. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. A functional intranet for the United States Coast Guard Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, Robert Todd.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis describes the complete development process of a friendly functional Intranet for an operational United States Coast Guard (USCG) electronic Support Unit (ESU) in Alameda, California. The final product is suitable for immediate use. It may also be used as a prototype for future Intranet development efforts. The methodology used to develop a finished, working product provides the core subject matter for this thesis. The disc...

  4. Analysis of United States' Broadband Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uzarski, Joel S

    2007-01-01

    .... With every month that passes, the United States fails to close the gap in the digital divide both inside its borders as well as among the other countries that lead the world in broadband penetration...

  5. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  6. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  7. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mailing List Previous Reports Suggested Citation Related Sites Purchase Health, United States Behavioral Health Report Children’s ... with Internet Explorer may experience difficulties in directly accessing links to Excel files ...

  8. Improving the United States' Strategic Communication Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risberg, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    ...? Much of the answer to this question is the failure of the United States Government to effectively use strategic communication to inform and influence populations to recognize the value of American...

  9. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  10. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  11. NCHS - Leading Causes of Death: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset presents the age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States beginning in 1999. Data are based on information from all...

  12. The United States and Europe: Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin; Morelli, Vince L

    2006-01-01

    The United States and Europe share a long and intertwined history. Both sides of the Atlantic face a common set of international concerns, have few other comparable partners, and share a deep economic relationship...

  13. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.

  14. Climate change indicators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published this report, Climate Change Indicators in the United States, to help readers interpret a set of important indicators to better understand climate change. The report presents 24 indicators, ...

  15. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  16. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  17. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  18. United States housing, first quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing under construction, and housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated regularly.

  19. Regulatory practices - United States example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, M.

    1976-01-01

    In 1954, the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 was revised to do away with the federal state monopoly in this field and to enable private industry to develop nuclear power. This evolution led the federal authorities to give the Atomic Energy Commission the powers to control the design, licensing and operation of nuclear reactors. These powers were constantly strengthened and are now exercised by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Since its creation in 1975, the Commission has amended the regulations on licensing of nuclear reactors in the light of experience acquired so as to shorten the duration of this procedure. These amendments concern the standardization of nuclear power plants, limited work authorizations, the methods for issuing licenses. The objective of the Commission aim to make the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants simpler and more efficient and hence, less costly, while ensuring that a very high level for safety standards and environmental protection is maintained. (NEA) [fr

  20. Energy problems of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2006-01-01

    The united states are the third world producer of oil which accounts for 440% of world production and 20 million barrels/day of which 60% are imported. That dependence on imports is likely to increase in the next decades. Such supplies and their security are therefore a fundamental factor of the United States foreign policy in combination with their political, economic and strategic objectives in a world both unsure and dangerous

  1. Trial by jury in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochhead Robert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e Republic of Moldova is considering the adoption of trial by jury in select criminal cases. Th e following article is intended to contribute to the discussion of that proposal. Th e article will briefl y describe the history of juries under the English common law and as adopted by the United States. It will then outline some of the basic procedures in trials by jury as currently practiced in the United States federal court system.

  2. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Baum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and the L.A. Riots of 1991, with references to other cultural catastrophes. While these projects are different, they are not opposed; both museums locate the American perspective of events and their meanings at the forefront. American holocaust museums seem to challenge spaces between memory and its direction, vision and revision. Within the gruesome context of holocaust portrayal, interrogate the valences of memory’s play and expose American holocaust museums as theatres of pornographic memory. The seduction of feeling does not invite change so much as purgation, what Aristotle identified as catharsis — an emotional and physical release, unfortunately replicating the seductive techniques used by Goebbels for the glorification of Hitler. Through manipulation of viewers as automatic audiences, these museums function as centres for pathos I question the policy and polity of presenting genocide as an entertainment leading to catharsis, recognizing that the final act of purgation is all too easily negation.

  3. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  4. 76 FR 38700 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... prices in advertisements, in-store displays, and online. Consumer World believes these rules should be... has ruled on that motion. I. Procedural History The United States and seven Plaintiff States filed the... Restraints result in higher merchant costs, and merchants generally pass costs on to consumers, retail prices...

  5. Challenges encountered by critical care unit managers in the large intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlakala, Mokgadi C; Bezuidenhout, Martie C; Botha, Annali D H

    2014-04-04

    Nurses in intensive care units (ICUs) are exposed regularly to huge demands interms of fulfilling the many roles that are placed upon them. Unit managers, in particular, are responsible for the efficient management of the units and have the responsibilities of planning, organising, leading and controlling the daily activities in order to facilitate the achievement of the unit objectives. The objective of this study was to explore and present the challenges encountered by ICU managers in the management of large ICUs. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted at five hospital ICUs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Data were collected through individual interviews from purposively-selected critical care unit managers, then analysed using the matic coding. Five themes emerged from the data: challenges related to the layout and structure of the unit, human resources provision and staffing, provision of material resources, stressors in the unit and visitors in the ICU. Unit managers in large ICUs face multifaceted challenges which include the demand for efficient and sufficient specialised nurses; lack of or inadequate equipment that goes along with technology in ICU and supplies; and stressors in the ICU that limit the efficiency to plan, organise, lead and control the daily activities in the unit. The challenges identified call for multiple strategies to assist in the efficient management of large ICUs.

  6. Challenges encountered by critical care unit managers in the large intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokgadi C. Matlakala

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nurses in intensive care units (ICUs are exposed regularly to huge demands interms of fulfilling the many roles that are placed upon them. Unit managers, in particular, are responsible for the efficient management of the units and have the responsibilities of planning, organising, leading and controlling the daily activities in order to facilitate the achievement of the unit objectives. Objectives: The objective of this study was to explore and present the challenges encountered by ICU managers in the management of large ICUs. Method: A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study was conducted at five hospital ICUs in Gauteng province, South Africa. Data were collected through individual interviews from purposively-selected critical care unit managers, then analysed using the matic coding. Results: Five themes emerged from the data: challenges related to the layout and structure of the unit, human resources provision and staffing, provision of material resources, stressors in the unit and visitors in the ICU. Conclusion: Unit managers in large ICUs face multifaceted challenges which include the demand for efficient and sufficient specialised nurses; lack of or inadequate equipment that goes along with technology in ICU and supplies; and stressors in the ICU that limit the efficiency to plan, organise, lead and control the daily activities in the unit. The challenges identified call for multiple strategies to assist in the efficient management of large ICUs.

  7. Exporting Rambutan to United States: One Reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Mohd Sidek Othman

    2011-01-01

    Rambutan is a one of commodity that are passed by United States of America authority to be market in that states. The main condition for the approval is the exporter must use irradiation technology as quarantine treatment to monitor the insects in there. United States of America's Agriculture Department (USDA-APHIS) has make early survey to the facilities involved in exporting process chain to overview Malaysia preparedness for this purpose. This paper work will discussed the possibility of this exporting implemented based on conditions rule by the USDA. (author)

  8. Radiation therapy facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballas, Leslie K.; Elkin, Elena B.; Schrag, Deborah; Minsky, Bruce D.; Bach, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: About half of all cancer patients in the United States receive radiation therapy as a part of their cancer treatment. Little is known, however, about the facilities that currently deliver external beam radiation. Our goal was to construct a comprehensive database of all radiation therapy facilities in the United States that can be used for future health services research in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: From each state's health department we obtained a list of all facilities that have a linear accelerator or provide radiation therapy. We merged these state lists with information from the American Hospital Association (AHA), as well as 2 organizations that audit the accuracy of radiation machines: the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) and Radiation Dosimetry Services (RDS). The comprehensive database included all unique facilities listed in 1 or more of the 4 sources. Results: We identified 2,246 radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States as of 2004-2005. Of these, 448 (20%) facilities were identified through state health department records alone and were not listed in any other data source. Conclusions: Determining the location of the 2,246 radiation facilities in the United States is a first step in providing important information to radiation oncologists and policymakers concerned with access to radiation therapy services, the distribution of health care resources, and the quality of cancer care

  9. Nuclear power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    All over the world except in the United States, nuclear energy is a low cost, secure, environmentally acceptable form of energy. In the United States, civilian nuclear power is dead. 112 nuclear power plants have been abandoned or cancelled in the last decade, and there has been no new order for nuclear plants since 1978. It will be fortunate to have 125 operating nuclear plants in the United States in the year 2000. There are almost 90 completed nuclear power plants and about 45 under construction in the United States, but several of those under construction will eventually be abandoned. About 20 % of the electricity in the United States will be generated by nuclear plants in 2000 as compared with 13 % supplied in the last year. Under the present regulatory and institutional arrangement, American electric utilities would not consider to order a new nuclear power plant. Post-TMI nuclear plants became very expensive, and there is also ideological opposition to nuclear power. Coal-firing plants are also in the similar situation. The uncertainty about electric power demand, the cost of money, the inflation of construction cost and regulation caused the situation. (Kako, I.)

  10. Fragmentation of Continental United States Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Robert V. O' Neill; K. Bruce Jones; Elizabeth R. Smith; John W. Coulston; Timothy G. Wade; Jonathan H. Smith

    2002-01-01

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m (0.09 ha pixel-1) land- cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indexes measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes including 2.25, 7.29, 65.61, 590.49, and 5314.41 ha....

  11. Strategies to address management challenges in larger intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlakala, M C; Bezuidenhout, M C; Botha, A D H

    2015-10-01

    To illustrate the need for and suggest strategies that will enhance sustainable management of a large intensive care unit (ICU). The challenges faced by intensive care nursing in South Africa are well documented. However, there appear to be no strategies available to assist nurses to manage large ICUs or for ICU managers to deal with problems as they arise. Data sources to illustrate the need for strategies were challenges described by ICU managers in the management of large ICUs. A purposive sample of managers was included in individual interviews during compilation of evidence regarding the challenges experienced in the management of large ICUs. The challenges were presented at the Critical Care Society of Southern Africa Congress held on 28 August to 2 September 2012 in Sun City North-West province, South Africa. Five strategies are suggested for the challenges identified: divide the units into sections; develop a highly skilled and effective nursing workforce to ensure delivery of quality nursing care; create a culture to retain an effective ICU nursing team; manage assets; and determine the needs of ICU nurses. ICUs need measures to drive the desired strategies into actions to continuously improve the management of the unit. Future research should be aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the strategies identified. This research highlights issues relating to large ICUs and the strategies will assist ICU managers to deal with problems related to large unit sizes, shortage of trained ICU nurses, use of agency nurses, shortage of equipment and supplies and stressors in the ICU. The article will make a contribution to the body of nursing literature on management of ICUs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  13. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  14. The Impact of Challenging Geometry and Measurement Units on the Achievement of Grade 2 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, M. Katherine; Casa, Tutita M.; Adelson, Jill L.; Firmender, Janine M.

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of Project M[superscript 2] was to develop and field-test challenging geometry and measurement units for all K-2 students. This article reports on the achievement results for students in Grade 2 at 12 urban and suburban sites in 4 states using the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) mathematics concepts subtest and an open-response…

  15. Microbial production of hyaluronic acid: current state, challenges, and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Long

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hyaluronic acid (HA is a natural and linear polymer composed of repeating disaccharide units of β-1, 3-N-acetyl glucosamine and β-1, 4-glucuronic acid with a molecular weight up to 6 million Daltons. With excellent viscoelasticity, high moisture retention capacity, and high biocompatibility, HA finds a wide-range of applications in medicine, cosmetics, and nutraceuticals. Traditionally HA was extracted from rooster combs, and now it is mainly produced via streptococcal fermentation. Recently the production of HA via recombinant systems has received increasing interest due to the avoidance of potential toxins. This work summarizes the research history and current commercial market of HA, and then deeply analyzes the current state of microbial production of HA by Streptococcus zooepidemicus and recombinant systems, and finally discusses the challenges facing microbial HA production and proposes several research outlines to meet the challenges.

  16. Enrichment situation outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Different enrichment technologies are briefly characterized which include gaseous diffusion, which is presently the production mainstay of the United States and France; the gaseous centrifuge which is the production plant for Urenco and the technology for future United States enrichment expansion; the aero-dynamic processes which include the jet nozzle (also known as the Becker process) and the fixed-wall centrifuge (also known as the Helikon process); chemical processes; laser isotope separation processes (also referred to in the literature as LIS); and plasma technology

  17. Solar energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, D.; Slaoui, A.; Soler, R.; Bermudez, V.

    2009-01-01

    Written by a group of five French experts who visited several research centres, innovating companies and solar power stations in the United States, this report first proposes an overview of solar energy in the United States, indicating and commenting the respective shares of different renewable energies in the production, focusing on the photovoltaic energy production and its RD sector. The second part presents industrial and research activities in the solar sector, and more specifically photovoltaic technologies (silicon and thin layer technology) and solar concentrators (thermal solar concentrators, photovoltaic concentrators). The last chapter presents the academic research activities in different universities (California Tech Beckman Institute, Stanford, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines)

  18. Food irradiation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1963, some irradiated foods have been permitted for sale in the United States. Yet, at this time, commercial application has been limited to irradiation of a relatively small fraction of the spices and seasonings used as ingredients in other foods. The current situation regarding irradiated foods in the United States and how it developed is discussed. The author writes from experience gained as a Government regulator concerned primarily with ensuring safety of food and therefore this is stressed together with the crucial role played by consumers and industry. (author)

  19. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  20. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States...

  1. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F

    2003-08-15

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  2. Energy and environmental policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbard, P.J.; Tierney, S.F.

    2003-08-01

    The energy and environmental policies of the United States are, like those of any nation, greatly shaped by a particular economic, institutional and political context. Understanding that context is useful for providing insights into the substance of US energy and environmental policy, the challenges and opportunities associated with it, and future potential for change. This article examines this policy context, focusing on the interaction of energy and environmental policies related to the electric industry. (author)

  3. Present and Future of the United States-Bolivia Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Bolivariana para las Americas (Spanish for Bolivarian Alternative for the Americas) ALC Acuerdo de Libre Comercio (Spanish for Free Trade Agreement) ATPA...Challenge Account) DEA Drug Enforcement Agency FELCN Fuerza Especial de Lucha Contra el Narcotráfico (Spanish for Special Force to Combat Drug...Organizacion de Estados Americanos (Spanish for Organization of American States) PNUD United Nations Program for Development) TCP Tratado de Comercio de

  4. Ising Processing Units: Potential and Challenges for Discrete Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffrin, Carleton James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nagarajan, Harsha [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bent, Russell Whitford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-05

    The recent emergence of novel computational devices, such as adiabatic quantum computers, CMOS annealers, and optical parametric oscillators, presents new opportunities for hybrid-optimization algorithms that leverage these kinds of specialized hardware. In this work, we propose the idea of an Ising processing unit as a computational abstraction for these emerging tools. Challenges involved in using and bench- marking these devices are presented, and open-source software tools are proposed to address some of these challenges. The proposed benchmarking tools and methodology are demonstrated by conducting a baseline study of established solution methods to a D-Wave 2X adiabatic quantum computer, one example of a commercially available Ising processing unit.

  5. Obesity: A United States Strategic Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    States Department of Veterans Affairs 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dr. Thomas ...Army Ms. Karen Malebranche United States Department of Veterans Affairs Project Adviser Dr. Thomas Williams U.S. Army War...per American has increased by 57 pounds per year ( poultry representing 46 pounds).86 Surprisingly however, the percentage of calories from meat

  6. Environmental remediation and waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntzing, L.M.; Person, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental remediation of radioactively and chemically contaminated sites represents one of the most complex challenges of our age. It is currently a problem at nuclear weapons sites in the United States, but as the civilian nuclear industry everywhere deals with decommissioning and decontamination, the lessons learned from these early activities will be influential. The task is challenging for several reasons. First, standards governing remedial action are complex and constantly evolving. Second, unless contaminated material is to be stabilized in place, it must be removed and sent to another facility for storage and ultimate disposal. Third the task is technically demanding. Those who undertake the challenge must be technically sophisticated, creative, and innovative. Fourth, the challenge is a risky one. Those who seek to remediate past contamination may find themselves exposed to expanding and unfair allegations of liability for that very contamination. Finally, there is often a basic crisis of public confidence regarding remediation efforts

  7. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  8. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... response from the Nigerian government. ... domestic crises that negatively impacts state stability, the US government ... Harrison C. Ajebon, Department of Political Science, University of Calabar, ..... Sweden. United Kingdom. Switzerland. Asia & far East. Japan ..... case Study of Nigeria, in Ikonnechidi and.

  9. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  10. Nuclear accidents. Three mile Island (United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the accident of Three Miles Island power plant which occurred the 28 march 1979 in the United States. The accident scenario, the consequences and the reactor core and vessel, after the accident, are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  11. Energy policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M

    1978-06-01

    Energy policy in the United States is examined with particular regard to the nuclear power industry. The advantages of nuclear power over conventional and other sources are presented and the vigorous expansion of research and development is advocated. Future energy supplies are discussed and the author stresses the necessity for continued research into breeder technology.

  12. Political initiative needed in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, K.

    1979-01-01

    The financing of nuclear power stations in the United States is in trouble mainly because of the long lead times caused by licensing. It will again become feasible when legislation reduces the construction time to eight years or less. The overriding need to protect the dollar by reducing oil imports, will lead the US Government to embrace nuclear power openly. (U.K.)

  13. Motorcycle trends in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    During the last decade there has been a significant increase in the number of motorcycle sales and registrations in the United States. At the same time there has been a shift in the demographics of motorcycle users and increased focus on motorcycle s...

  14. 76 FR 18783 - United States et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... customers based on existing supplier-customer relationships. d. Neither Supply Responses Nor Entry Would... Final Judgment, Stipulation and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the... Competitive Impact Statement have been filed with the United States District Court for the Eastern District of...

  15. Overview of United States synchrotron radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    There has been considerable activity within the past year involving the creation of new and the improvement of existing capabilities for research with synchrotron light. The purpose of this review is to summarize what has happened within the United States. Being a status report, some of the information necessarily has a date attached to it - the date, in this case, being early September 1983

  16. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  17. Friendships of Indonesian and United States Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Doran C.; Pidada, Sri; Victor, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Issues in the study of friendship across cultures were explored by reviewing a set of studies focusing on the friendships of Indonesian and United States youth. Four topics are considered: similarity of friendships across cultures, dimensions of friendships that vary across cultures, the utility of the individualism/collectivism dimension for…

  18. Woody encroachment in the Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg C. Liknes; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Kevin. Nimerfro

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of the central United States is dominated by cropland and rangeland mixed with remnants of short- and tall-grass prairies that were once prevalent. Since the last ice age, these areas had sparse tree cover due to cyclical severe droughts, intentional fires used by indigenous people as a land management tool, and natural fires caused by lightning. More...

  19. Radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, efforts to dispose of the nation's high- and low-level radioactive wastes are based on somewhat different approaches.The individual States are responsible for disposing of low-level wastes with the Federal Government providing technical and financial support to help the States in the early phases of their efforts. The Federal Government has responsibility for developing facilities for the disposal of high-level waste. However, both efforts show a common need to meet national objectives while satisfying the concerns of the public. (author)

  20. Both Europe's and the United States' electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matly, M.

    2006-01-01

    While the United States quickly had the largest electrical indus in the world, electrification in rural areas ended about thirty years after most European countries. Public intervention is a deciding factor in completing electrification, and the late involvement by the American authorities explains the gap. However it would be wrong to oppose in Europe and in the United States a motivated public sector and little involved private companies. In both continents indeed, major private and public urban distributors were almost not involved in rural electrification processes, where local players prevailed: local communities around Europe, small and medium size business in some European countries such as France, co-operative companies in the United States. Additionally, there is an essential difference between electrification in Europe and in the United States. The former does not provide much more than lighting and its success leaves few traces in popular memories; the latter includes many facilities and services, changes the lives of rural populations and is celebrated a such. Whereas the colonial venture keep European economies away from their domestic markets, while in the United States the urban market growth contents large companies, the American co-operative movement is right to believe in the existence of a large electrical equipment market among farmers then considered poor and behind. It even uses the market to complete a more profitable and less costly electrification. Electricity stories that offer food for the thoughts of Third World decision makers and power companies, when they entrust most rural electrification to their large urban companies and deny the existence of a real equipment market in their own rural world. (author)

  1. Challenges faced in the implementation of provisions of the United ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children tend to be among the most vulnerable cohorts of the population in any given society. Consequently, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) adopted in 1989 by member states of the United Nations aims to protect them. While several conventions have been crafted for various target groups, the CRC is the ...

  2. The challenges of preventive diplomacy: The United Nations' post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Africa, however, where international borders are porous and state organs are sometimes not in .... the media, and information dissemination form part of the options available to the United .... National boundaries are blurred by ..... and arrangements for the free flow of information, including the monitoring of regional arms ...

  3. Antiabortion violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jennefer A; Schumacher, Kristin L; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine if an association exists between the amount of harassment and violence directed against abortion providers and the restrictiveness of state laws relating to family planning. We used responses from a July 2010 survey of 357 abortion providers in 50 states to determine their experience of antiabortion harassment and violence. Their responses were grouped and analyzed in relation to a published grading of state laws in the United States (A, B, C, D and F) as they relate to restrictions on family planning services. Group by group comparison of respondents illustrates that the difference in the number of reported incidents of minor vandalism by group is statistically significant (A vs. C, p=.07; A vs. D, p=.017; A vs. F, p=.0002). Incidents of harassment follow a similar pattern. There were no differences noted overall for violence or major vandalism. Major violence, including eight murders, is a new occurrence in the last two decades. Harassment of abortion providers in the United States has an association with the restrictiveness of state abortion laws. In the last two decades, murder of abortion providers has become an unfortunate part of the violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  5. The State of Homeless Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabler, Brenda; Weinstein, Elana

    2009-01-01

    Across America, the numbers of homeless children and families are growing as a result of many factors including the recent economic crisis, home foreclosures, and natural disasters. Because of an increase in the number of homeless children throughout the United States, this population has unmet needs that can be targeted in school settings under…

  6. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    do not have female staff; the male-to-female staff ratio in the health field is 7 to 1.130 More nurses and female staff are needed, especially to...exercise was rescheduled for 2009. 9 Interview with Ninth Air Force personnel, September 12, 2008. 200 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure

  7. 45 CFR 212.7 - Repayment to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repayment to the United States. 212.7 Section 212... UNITED STATES CITIZENS RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 212.7 Repayment to the United States. (a) An..., any or all of the cost of such assistance to the United States, except insofar as it is determined...

  8. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for 30...

  9. 31 CFR 515.330 - Person within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person within the United States. 515... Definitions § 515.330 Person within the United States. (a) The term person within the United States, includes: (1) Any person, wheresoever located, who is a resident of the United States; (2) Any person actually...

  10. 39 CFR 221.1 - The United States Postal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The United States Postal Service. 221.1 Section 221.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.1 The United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service was established as an...

  11. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of First Spouse Bronze Medals and 2010 First Spouse Bronze Medal Series: Four...

  12. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers and...

  13. 37 CFR 1.412 - The United States Receiving Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information § 1.412 The United States Receiving Office. (a) The United States Patent and Trademark Office is a Receiving Office only for applicants who are residents or nationals of the United States of America. (b) The... “United States Receiving Office” or by the abbreviation “RO/US.” (c) The major functions of the Receiving...

  14. State laws on tobacco control--United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A; Allison, H; Knowles, S B; Fishburn, B A; Woollery, T A; Marx, W T; Shelton, D M; Husten, C G; Eriksen, M P

    1999-06-25

    State laws addressing tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, are summarized. Laws address smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco products, advertising of tobacco products, and excise taxes on tobacco products. Legislation effective through December 31, 1998. CDC identified laws addressing tobacco control by using an on-line legal research database. CDC's findings were verified with the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database. Since a previous surveillance summary on state tobacco-control laws published in November 1995 (covering legislation effective through June 30, 1995), several states have enacted new restrictions or strengthened existing legislation that addresses smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco, tobacco advertising, and tobacco taxes. Five states strengthened their smoke-free indoor air legislation. All states and Washington, D.C., continued to prohibit the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; however, 21 states expanded minors' access laws by designating enforcement authorities, adding license suspension or revocation for sale to minors, or requiring signage. Since the 1995 report, eight additional states (a total of 19 states and Washington, D.C.) now ban vending machines from areas accessible to minors. Thirteen states restrict advertising of tobacco products, an increase of four states since the 1995 report. Although the number of states that tax cigarettes and smokeless tobacco did not change, 13 states increased excise taxes on cigarettes, and five states increased excise taxes on smokeless tobacco products. The average state excise tax on cigarettes is 38.9 cents per pack, an increase of 7.4 cents compared with the average tax in the 1995 report. State laws addressing tobacco control vary in relation to restrictiveness, enforcement and penalties, preemptions, and exceptions. The data summarizing state tobacco-control laws are available through CDC

  15. The United States and world energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The United States, dominating the world's energy markets as a producer and consumer, is sensitive to changes in this market and intends to influence the development of global energy policy. Supply will be increased by nations such as Venezuela, Indonesia and perhaps in the future a United Yemen and the Commonwealth of Independent States, moving to freer market economies which will allow investment opportunities previously inaccessible to foreign companies. Although world energy demand will grow, little of this will be in the US where, under the National Energy Strategy, comprehensive measures are being introduced to improve energy efficiency. The US energy security will be further improved by such measures as diversification of supply, larger domestic production and increasing interdependence between suppliers, traders and consumers. (author)

  16. United States of America National Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The United States has produced this report as part of the preparations for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in Brazil in June 1992. It summarizes this nation's efforts to protect and enhance the quality of the human environment in concert with its efforts to provide economic well-being during the two decades since the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm. The information presented in this report is primarily and deliberately retrospective. It is an attempt to portray the many human, economic and natural resources of the United States, to describe resource use and the principal national laws and programs established to protect these resources, and to analyze key issues on the agenda of UNCED. This analysis is presented in terms of past and present conditions and trends, measures of progress made in responding to the key issues, and a summary of government activities, underway or pending, to address ongoing or newly emerging national environmental and resource management problems

  17. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American) knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and...

  18. The United States toward Energy Independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardon, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The U.S.'s exploitation of 'unconventional' domestic oil reserves is reviving its economy. It will also have effects on the country's energy independence and thus its geopolitical position. While it is unlikely that the relationship between Washington and the Middle East region will be fundamentally altered, the U.S.'s relationships with China, Russia, and Europe could be affected. The United States will have to incorporate these changes into its global strategies

  19. Low birth weight in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Robert L; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2007-02-01

    Pregnancy outcomes in the United States and other developed countries are considerably better than those in many developing countries. However, adverse pregnancy outcomes are generally more common in the United States than in other developed countries. Low-birth-weight infants, born after a preterm birth or secondary to intrauterine growth restriction, account for much of the increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Wide disparities exist in both preterm birth and growth restriction among different population groups. Poor and black women, for example, have twice the preterm birth rate and higher rates of growth restriction than do most other women. Low birth weight in general is thought to place the infant at greater risk of later adult chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Of interest, maternal thinness is a strong predictor of both preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. However, in the United States, several nutritional interventions, including high-protein diets, caloric supplementation, calcium and iron supplementation, and various other vitamin and mineral supplementations, have not generally reduced preterm birth or growth restriction. Bacterial intrauterine infections play an important role in the etiology of the earliest preterm births, but, at least to date, antibiotic treatment either before labor for risk factors such as bacterial vaginosis or during preterm labor have not consistently reduced the preterm birth rate. Most interventions have failed to reduce preterm birth or growth restriction. The substantial improvement in newborn survival in the United States over the past several decades is mostly due to better access to improved neonatal care for low-birth-weight infants.

  20. OECD environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' efforts to manage its environment including air, water, nature, and biodiversity; to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 47 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  2. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  3. Diesel fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V.

    2003-01-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO 2 emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  4. Electric trade in the United States 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Electric Trade in the United States 1990 (ELECTRA) is the third in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data. The second report contained data for 1988. This report provides information on the industry during 1990

  5. The United States facing their petroleum dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of ''the energy crisis of 2000-2001'', the Cheney report and the petroleum dependence, this study presents a critical examination of the United States petroleum situation, its perception in the american political milieu and the public policies implementing during the last ten years. The first section is devoted to the petroleum supply. In the second section, the american petroleum policy and the energy safety are studied. (A.L.B.)

  6. United States Energy Policy: Security Not Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    on leased land, ensuring fracking is done responsibly, and getting more natural gas and hybrid systems into U.S. mass transit. Internationally, the...fewer environ disturbances -Can store underground -Environ impacts of fracking unknown -uses large amount of water -potential for saline...from shale continues to rise as the United States determines how to drill safely. However, the impact of fracking on the environment is still

  7. Burnup credit activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.; Thomas, D.A.; Doering, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers progress in burnup credit activities that have occurred in the United States of America (USA) since the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Burnup Credit was convened in October 1997. The Proceeding of the AGM were issued in April 1998 (IAEA-TECDOC-1013, April 1998). The three applications of the use of burnup credit that are discussed in this report are spent fuel storage, spent fuel transportation, and spent fuel disposal. (author)

  8. United States steps up waste isolation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedes, H W [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (USA). Office of Waste Isolation; Carbiener, W A [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (USA)

    1982-11-01

    A description is given of the United States' waste isolation programme which now involves tests of specific sites. The US Department of Energy plans to build a system of mined geological repositories for the disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste. It is hoped that the first repository will be available by 1998. Studies of the geology and hydrology of the proposed sites, the waste packaging and the repository design are reported.

  9. The United States and the Kurds: Case Studies in United States Engagement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, Peter

    1997-01-01

    ..., between 1969- 1975, and 1990-1996. Both eras saw the United States able to influence events relating to the Kurds in support of a larger regional policy, only to find no easy solution to the Kurdish quest for autonomy...

  10. United States position on severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    The United States policy on severe accidents was published in 1985 for both new plant applications and for existing plants. Implementation of this policy is in progress. This policy, aided by a related safety goal policy and by analysis capabilities emerging from improved understanding of accident phenomenology, is viewed as a logical development from the pioneering work in the WASH-1400 Reactor Safety Study published by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1975. This work provided an estimate of the probability and consequences of severe accidents which, prior to that time, had been mostly evaluated by somewhat arbitrary assumptions dating back 30 years. The early history of severe accident evaluation is briefly summarized for the period 1957-1979. Then, the galvanizing action of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) on severe accident analysis, experimentation and regulation is reviewed. Expressions of US policy in the form of rulemaking, severe accident policy, safety research, safety goal policy and court decisions (on adequacy of safety) are discussed. Finally, the NRC policy as of March 1988 is stated, along with a prospective look at the next few years. (author). 19 refs

  11. Stigma and abortion complications in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lisa H

    2012-12-01

    Abortion is highly stigmatized in the United States and elsewhere. As a result, many women who seek or undergo abortion keep their decision a secret. In many regions of the world, stigma is a recognized contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion, even when abortion is legal. Women may self-induce abortion in ways that are dangerous, or seek unsafe clandestine abortion from inadequately trained health care providers out of fear that their sexual activity, pregnancy, or abortion will be exposed if they present to a safe, licensed facility. However, unsafe abortion rarely occurs in the United States, and accordingly, stigma as a cause of unsafe abortion in the United States context has not been described. I consider the relationship of stigma to two serious abortion complications experienced by U.S. patients. Both patients wished to keep their abortion decision a secret from family and friends, and in both cases, their inability to disclose their abortion contributed to life-threatening complications. The experiences of these patients suggest that availability of legal abortion services in the United States may not be enough to keep all women safe. The cases also challenge the rhetoric that "abortion hurts women," suggesting instead that abortion stigma hurts women.

  12. PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken Nemeth

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need technical

  13. 77 FR 61819 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Countervailing and Anti-Dumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Relating to Imports from Nonmarket Economy Countries.'' China also challenges the concurrent application of... Proceeding Regarding United States-- Countervailing and Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Products From China... 17, 2012, the People's Republic of China (``China'') requested consultations with the United States...

  14. No Place to Call Home: Child & Youth Homelessness in the United States. Poverty Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "No Place to Call Home: Child and Youth Homelessness in the United States," prepared by intern Neil Damron and released in May 2015, presents the statistics on child and youth homelessness and recent trends in Wisconsin and the United States. It explores the major challenges faced by homeless minors, and, drawing from recent research by…

  15. Traveling Uncharted Waters: The Exchange of Government Information between the United States and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui

    1998-01-01

    Describes a program established between the United States and China for exchange of government publications through their national libraries, the Library of Congress and the National Library of China. Challenges to the program, including the shift to electronic formats in the United States and government Internet censorship in China, are…

  16. Teaching Chinese as a Second Language: From Taiwan to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shuliang

    2014-01-01

    Teaching Chinese as a second language in Taiwan vs. in the United States. How are they different? What are the challenges to teachers? This article will bring to you interesting findings from the perspective of a native speaking Chinese teacher.

  17. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  18. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  19. Optimal operation of cogeneration units. State of art and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polimeni, S.

    2001-01-01

    Optimal operation of cogeneration plants and of power plant fueling waste products is a complex challenge as they have to fulfill, beyond the contractual obligation of electric power supply, the constraints of supplying the required thermal energy to the user (for cogeneration units) or to burn completely the by-products of the industrial complex where they are integrated. Electrical power market evolution is pushing such units to a more and more volatile operation caused by uncertain selling price levels. This work intends to pinpoint the state of art in the optimization of these units outlining the important differences among the different size and cycles. The effect of the market liberalization on the automation systems and the optimization algorithms will be discussed [it

  20. Case law: Canada, France, Switzerland, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Canada: Appellate decision upholding nuclear regulatory licensing process and practices for consultation with aboriginal groups: Fond du Lac Denesuline First Nation v. Canada (Attorney General). France: Court of Appeal of Nimes regarding the SOCATRI incident in July 2008; Conseil d'Etat regarding the association Reseau 'Sortir du nucleaire'. Switzerland: Judgement of the Federal Administrative Court in the matter of Balmer-Schafroth a.o.v. BKW FMB Energy Ltd on the repeal of the time limitation with respect to the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. United States: Judgement of a US District Court granting a permanent injunction against the State of Vermont in order to prevent certain State laws from prohibiting Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant's continued operation

  1. Responding to rural health disparities in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Jones

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the need to address territorial inequalities in American healthcare services. It shows how much the situation has become critical in the United States. It discusses to what extent telemedicine is a sustainable option to reduce the negative consequences of the economic, professional and physical barriers to care in rural areas. As far as healthcare is concerned, rural and urban environments in the United States do not have to face the same barriers and challenges. The article first details what specific health issues have to be dealt with in rural areas. The case of emergency care in Vermont is then developed to illustrate what could be the benefits of using ICTs to improve access to care.

  2. State cigarette minimum price laws - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Cigarette price increases reduce the demand for cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and youth initiation of smoking. Excise tax increases are the most effective government intervention to increase the price of cigarettes, but cigarette manufacturers use trade discounts, coupons, and other promotions to counteract the effects of these tax increases and appeal to price-sensitive smokers. State cigarette minimum price laws, initiated by states in the 1940s and 1950s to protect tobacco retailers from predatory business practices, typically require a minimum percentage markup to be added to the wholesale and/or retail price. If a statute prohibits trade discounts from the minimum price calculation, these laws have the potential to counteract discounting by cigarette manufacturers. To assess the status of cigarette minimum price laws in the United States, CDC surveyed state statutes and identified those states with minimum price laws in effect as of December 31, 2009. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which determined that 25 states had minimum price laws for cigarettes (median wholesale markup: 4.00%; median retail markup: 8.00%), and seven of those states also expressly prohibited the use of trade discounts in the minimum retail price calculation. Minimum price laws can help prevent trade discounting from eroding the positive effects of state excise tax increases and higher cigarette prices on public health.

  3. The state of amphibians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Adams, M.J.; Grant, E.H.C.; Miller, D.; Corn, P.S.; Ball, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, scientists began to identify unexplained declines in amphibian populations around the world. Much has been learned since then, but amphibian declines have not abated and the interactions among the various threats to amphibians are not clear. Amphibian decline is a problem of local, national, and international scope that can affect ecosystem function, biodiversity, and commerce. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of the state of the amphibians and introduces examples to illustrate the range of issues in the United States.

  4. 31 CFR 103.39 - Person outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person outside the United States. 103... Person outside the United States. For the purposes of this subpart, a remittance or transfer of funds, or... the United States, shall be deemed to be a remittance or transfer to a person outside the United...

  5. Challenges to State Legitimacy and Institutional Channels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article engages the debate on state legitimacy and fragility in Africa. It analyses the historical and empirical challenges to state legitimacy and how they relate to constructions of institutional channels of political participation on the continent. The study challenges mainstream westerncentric explanations that sweepingly

  6. States of Confusion: Regulation of Surrogacy in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Some countries, including Switzerland, Germany, Spain, France, Greece, and Norway, ban commercial surrogacy (Patton 2010, 523). Others, such as India and the Ukraine, have actively tried to be seen as commercial surrogacy destinations (Mohapatra 2012, 412, 432–437, 441–448). Unlike either of these approaches, the United States (US) has no national stance on surrogacy. In fact, there are no national laws or regulations related to surrogacy in the US (Margalit 2014). Instea...

  7. Advanced Reactor Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giessing, D. F.; Griffith, J. D.; McGoff, D. J.; Rosen, Sol [U. S. Department of Energy, Texas (United States)

    1990-04-15

    In the United States, three technologies are employed for the new generation of advanced reactors. These technologies are Advanced Light Water Reactors (A LWRs) for the 1990s and beyond, the Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (M HTGR) for commercial use after the turn of the century, and Liquid Metal Reactors (LWRs) to provide energy production and to convert reactor fission waste to a more manageable waste product. Each technology contributes to the energy solution. Light Water Reactors For The 1990s And Beyond--The U. S. Program The economic and national security of the United States requires a diversified energy supply base built primarily upon adequate, domestic resources that are relatively free from international pressures. Nuclear energy is a vital component of this supply and is essential to meet current and future national energy demands. It is a safe, economically continues to contribute to national energy stability, and strength. The Light Water Reactor (LWR) has been a major and successful contributor to the electrical generating needs of many nations throughout the world. It is being counted upon in the United States as a key to revitalizing nuclear energy option in the 1990s. In recent years, DOE joined with the industry to ensure the availability and future viability of the LWR option. This national program has the participation of the Nation's utility industry, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and several of the major reactor manufacturers and architect-engineers. Separate but coordinated parts of this program are managed by EPRI and DOE.

  8. Hybrid Reactor designs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkenhauer, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews the current, active, interrelated Hybrid Reactor development programs in the United States, and offers a probable future course of action for the technology. The Department of Energy (DOE) program primarily emphasizes development of Hybrid Reactors that are optimized for proliferation resistance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) program concentrates on avenues for Hybrid Reactor commercialization. The history of electrical generation technology has been one of steady movement toward higher power densities and higher quality fuels. An apparent advantage of the Hybrid Reactor option is that it follows this trend

  9. United States Army Weapon Systems 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-18

    equipment, tractor, van, wrecker, 8.8-ton Load Handling System (LHS), 8.8-ton LHS trailer, and 10-ton dump truck models). Three truck variants and...NJ) hydraulic pump and motor: Vickers (Jackson, MS) 131 UnIteD StAteS Army ACqUISItIon phASe InveStment Component High Mobility Engineer Excavator...MEDEVAC and hoist configuration, the UH-72A is also being fielded in a VIP, National Guard Homeland Security (HLS) and a Combined Training Center

  10. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  11. Nuclear engineering education in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    In discussing nuclear engineering education in the United States it is shown that the most critical issue facing the nuclear engineering education community today is enrolment in a time of increasing demand for graduate engineers. Related to the issue of enrolment is support for graduate students, whether it be fellowships, traineeships, or research assistantships. Other issues are those of maintaining a vital faculty in the face of a competitive job market, of maintaining research facilities and developing new ones, and of determining the directions of educational efforts in the future. (U.K.)

  12. Early uranium mining in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium mining in the United States is closer to 100 years old than to the 200 years since the discovery of the element. Even then, for much of this time the rock was brought out of the ground for reasons other than its uranium content. The history of the US uranium industry is divided into five periods which follow roughly chronologically upon one another, although there is some overlap. The periods cover: uranium use in glass and ceramics; radium extraction; vanadium extraction; government uranium extraction and commercial extraction. (author)

  13. Uranium enrichment services in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, P.; Lenders, M.

    1994-01-01

    The United States of America is the world's largest market for uranium enrichment services. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russian uranium is entering the world market on an increasing scale. The U.S. tries to protect its market and, in this connection, also the European market from excessive price drops by taking anti-dumping measures. In order to become more competitive, American companies have adapted modern enrichment techniques from Europe. European - U.S. joint ventures are to help, also technically and economically, to integrate military uranium, accumulating as a consequence of worldwide disarmament, into the commercial fuel cycle for the peaceful use of nuclear power. (orig.) [de

  14. The hydroelectric power market in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The second-largest producer of hydroelectric power in the world is the United States, right after Canada. In the United States, 7.1 per cent of net electricity generation was attributed to hydroelectric power in 2000, which totalled 269 terawatt hours (TWh). Aging facilities, outdated technology in some facilities, a cumbersome licensing process, and increasing environmental demands from interest groups for the preservation of river systems and surrounding wildlife challenge the industry. Pacific Coast states, especially California, were faced with electric power shortages during the summer of 2001, due to low market prices, high power usage among consumers and drought. The problems with the deregulation of the electricity market were brought to light by these shortages. Legislation to restructure the electric power industry in 25 states had not been enacted as of January 2002. The purchase of more power from both Canada and the Mexico is being considered by the government of the United States, as is the creation of a national power grid to allow for power transmission throughout the country. The Canada-United States energy trade might be affected by such a move, and result in project construction opportunities for Canadian companies. Renewable energy sources must be responsible for the generation of 10 per cent of power generation levels by 2020, on a gradual basis as mandated by law. By 2005, New York City must purchase 10 per cent of its power from renewable energy sources, reaching 20 per cent by 2010. The repair and replacement of aging dam equipment, the development of advanced turbine technology to protect fish stocks and water quality, dam removal, the construction of power lines are all opportunities open to Canadian companies. 60 refs., 5 tabs

  15. 75 FR 31465 - United States, State of Illinois, State of Colorado, and State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ..., and often offer full-service restaurants or in-service dining. Premiere theatres also differ from... selection is deemed not to be a suitable alternative, the United States shall in its sole discretion select... suitable alternative pursuant to Section VI(A). If AMC's selection is deemed not to be a suitable...

  16. 22 CFR 22.3 - Remittances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remittances in the United States. 22.3 Section...-DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND FOREIGN SERVICE § 22.3 Remittances in the United States. (a) Type of remittance. Remittances shall be in the form of: (1) Check or bank draft drawn on a bank in the United States; (2) money...

  17. Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderam, Saswati; Kissin, Dmitry M; Crawford, Sara B; Folger, Suzanne G; Boulet, Sheree L; Warner, Lee; Barfield, Wanda D

    2018-02-16

    Since the first U.S. infant conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) was born in 1981, both the use of ART and the number of fertility clinics providing ART services have increased steadily in the United States. ART includes fertility treatments in which eggs or embryos are handled in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro fertilization [IVF] and related procedures). Although the majority of infants conceived through ART are singletons, women who undergo ART procedures are more likely than women who conceive naturally to deliver multiple-birth infants. Multiple births pose substantial risks for both mothers and infants, including obstetric complications, preterm delivery (state-specific information for the United States (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) on ART procedures performed in 2015 and compares birth outcomes that occurred in 2015 (resulting from ART procedures performed in 2014 and 2015) with outcomes for all infants born in the United States in 2015. 2015. In 1995, CDC began collecting data on ART procedures performed in fertility clinics in the United States as mandated by the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act of 1992 (FCSRCA) (Public Law 102-493 [October 24, 1992]). Data are collected through the National ART Surveillance System, a web-based data collection system developed by CDC. This report includes data from 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico). In 2015, a total of 182,111 ART procedures (range: 135 in Alaska to 23,198 in California) with the intent to transfer at least one embryo were performed in 464 U.S. fertility clinics and reported to CDC. These procedures resulted in 59,334 live-birth deliveries (range: 55 in Wyoming to 7,802 in California) and 71,152 infants born (range: 68 in Wyoming to 9,176 in California). Nationally, the number of ART procedures performed per 1 million women of reproductive age (15-44 years), a proxy measure of the ART utilization rate, was

  18. Challenges of ECG monitoring and ECG interpretation in dialysis units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulikakos, Dimitrios; Malik, Marek

    Patients on hemodialysis (HD) suffer from high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality due to high rates of coronary artery disease and arrhythmias. Electrocardiography (ECG) is often performed in the dialysis units as part of routine clinical assessment. However, fluid and electrolyte changes have been shown to affect all ECG morphologies and intervals. ECG interpretation thus depends on the time of the recording in relation to the HD session. In addition, arrhythmias during HD are common, and dialysis-related ECG artifacts mimicking arrhythmias have been reported. Studies using advanced ECG analyses have examined the impact of the HD procedure on selected repolarization descriptors and heart rate variability indices. Despite the challenges related to the impact of the fluctuant fluid and electrolyte status on conventional and advanced ECG parameters, further research in ECG monitoring during dialysis has the potential to provide clinically meaningful and practically useful information for diagnostic and risk stratification purposes. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. License renewal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brons, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear plants in the United States are licensed for 40 years, a length specified in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which laid out much of the regulatory basis for the commercial nuclear industry. The Act, however, made provision for license renewal. The original 40-year license period was chosen arbitrarily by the U.S. Congress because it was the typical period over which utilities recovered their investment in electricity generating plants. Nuclear plants, however, are subject to a rigorous program of Nuclear Regulatory Commission oversight, maintenance and equipment replacement. In effect, they must be in the same operating condition on the last day of their licenses as they were on the first. As the industry matured, it became apparent that there was no physical limitation on the continued operation of nuclear plants past 40 years. The industry turned its attention toward license renewal. When the issue was first raised, the NRC considered stringent process equivalent to seeking a new operating license for each plant. The complexity, length and cost of the process made it unlikely that many nuclear plants would seek license renewal. The nuclear industry worked successfully with NRC on the application of generic principles to license renewal, however, and in 1995, the NRC issued an efficient, tightly-focused rule that made license renewal a safe, viable option. To extend the operating license for a reactor, a company must demonstrate to the NRC that aging effects will be adequately managed during the renewal terms, thus ensuring equipment functionality. The rule allows licensees to apply for extensions of up to 20 years. The first license renewal application was filed in 1998 by the owner of the two-unit Calvert Cliffs plant. Shortly thereafter, an application was filed for the three-unit Oconee Nuclear Station. The NRC renewed the licenses for all five units in 2000, and since then, five more licenses have been renewed. The NRC has received 37

  20. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  1. The politics of home birth in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declercq, Eugene

    2012-12-01

    Home birth has emerged as a political issue in several states in the United States, and this essay examines two aspects of home births politics. First, legislative battles over home birth policy do not conform to our typical models of partisan (i.e., Democratic vs Republican) politics, and attempts at advocacy cannot rely on classical strategies of alignment with a dominant party in a state. Second, the debates over home birth have increasingly begun to parallel current partisan battles in their emotion and intensity with the related gridlock and reluctance to consider compromises that are often necessary to achieve policy goals. This essay calls for a greater willingness for all sides to approach home birth less as an ideological mission and more as a health policy challenge to support consumers interested in an integrated system of care. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Step-grandparenthood in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahirun, Jenjira J; Park, Sung S; Seltzer, Judith A

    2018-01-18

    This study provides new information about the demography of step-grandparenthood in the United States. Specifically, we examine the prevalence of step-grandparenthood across birth cohorts and for socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups. We also examine lifetime exposure to the step-grandparent role. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Health and Retirement Study, we use percentages to provide first estimates of step-grandparenthood and to describe demographic and socioeconomic variation in who is a step-grandparent. We use life tables to estimate the exposure to step-grandparenthood. The share of step-grandparents is increasing across birth cohorts. However, individuals without a college education and non-Whites are more likely to become step-grandparents. Exposure to the step-grandparent role accounts for approximately 15% of total grandparent years at age 65 for women and men. A growing body of research finds that grandparents are increasingly instrumental in the lives of younger generations. However, the majority of this work assumes that these ties are biological, with little attention paid to the role of family complexity across three generations. Understanding the demographics of step-grandparenthood sheds light on the family experiences of an overlooked, but growing segment of the older adult population in the United States. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Loughry, W.J.; Lockhart, J. Mitchell; Inman, W. Barry; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Pena, Maria T.; Marcos, Luis A.; Scollard, David M.; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and have been implicated in zoonotic transmission of leprosy. Early studies found this disease mainly in Texas and Louisiana, but armadillos in the southeastern United States appeared to be free of infection. We screened 645 armadillos from 8 locations in the southeastern United States not known to harbor enzootic leprosy for M. leprae DNA and antibodies. We found M. leprae–infected armadillos at each location, and 106 (16.4%) animals had serologic/PCR evidence of infection. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism variable number tandem repeat genotyping/genome sequencing, we detected M. leprae genotype 3I-2-v1 among 35 armadillos. Seven armadillos harbored a newly identified genotype (3I-2-v15). In comparison, 52 human patients from the same region were infected with 31 M. leprae types. However, 42.3% (22/52) of patients were infected with 1 of the 2 M. leprae genotype strains associated with armadillos. The geographic range and complexity of zoonotic leprosy is expanding. PMID:26583204

  4. Challenged by the state and the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann-Jacobsen, Emilie Tinne

    2017-01-01

    As in other regions, journalism in Southeast Asia is under pressure. Journalists in many of the region’s emerging markets have to develop their profession while struggling with changing market conditions, increasingly more demanding audiences, different degrees of authoritative states and growing...

  5. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, John C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, James M.; Mattick, R.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin Previous HitoffTop the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank. Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsided basement. Acoustically, the sedimentary sequence beneath the shelf is divided into three units which are correlated speculatively with the Cenozoic, the Cretaceous, and the Jurassic-Triassic sections. These units thicken offshore, and some have increased seismic velocities farther offshore. The uppermost unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to slightly more than a kilometer in a seaward direction, and velocity values range from 1.7 to 2.2 km/sec. The middle unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to as much as 5 km (northern Baltimore Canyon trough), and seismic velocity ranges from 2.2 to 5.4 km/sec. The lowest unit thickens to a maximum of 9 km (northern Baltimore Canyon), and velocities span the 3.9 to 5.9-km/sec interval. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile. Because the magnetic-slope-anomaly wavelength is nearly 50 km across, a

  6. 31 CFR 500.520 - Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. 500.520..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.520 Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. (a) Banking institutions within...

  7. 31 CFR 515.520 - Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. 515.520..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.520 Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. (a) Banking institutions within...

  8. Postdeployment reintegration experiences of female soldiers from national guard and reserve units in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E

    2014-01-01

    Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.

  9. Teacher Education and Black Male Students in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Richard Milner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Teacher education programs in the United States (U.S. struggle to prepare teachers to meet the complex needs of elementary and secondary students in public schools - especially those of color, those living in poverty, and those whose first language is not English. In this article, we argue for focused attention on preparing educators to teach African American male students as these students face particular institutional challenges in successfully navigating the U.S. public school system. Drawing from the significant body of research on teacher education and teacher learning for equity and social justice, four Black teacher educators discuss challenges they have faced in classes designed to prepare teachers to teach Black male students. Through an analysis of commonalities in their experiences, they propose means for teacher educators to foster greater understandings of the heterogeneity found among Black male students so that teachers can craft more responsive and responsible educational experiences for Black males.

  10. A Multiyear Model of Influenza Vaccination in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, Arnold; Zhang, Yuji; Kamis, Tamara

    2017-07-28

    Vaccinating adults against influenza remains a challenge in the United States. Using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we present a model for predicting who receives influenza vaccination in the United States between 2012 and 2014, inclusive. The logistic regression model contains nine predictors: age, pneumococcal vaccination, time since last checkup, highest education level attained, employment, health care coverage, number of personal doctors, smoker status, and annual household income. The model, which classifies correctly 67 percent of the data in 2013, is consistent with models tested on the 2012 and 2014 datasets. Thus, we have a multiyear model to explain and predict influenza vaccination in the United States. The results indicate room for improvement in vaccination rates. We discuss how cognitive biases may underlie reluctance to obtain vaccination. We argue that targeted communications addressing cognitive biases could be useful for effective framing of vaccination messages, thus increasing the vaccination rate. Finally, we discuss limitations of the current study and questions for future research.

  11. Leading Causes of Death in Females United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Health Issues at Work Health Equity Leading Causes of Death in Females, United States Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... to current and previous listings for the leading causes of death in females in the United States. Please note ...

  12. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Team More Information Arsenic in groundwater of the United States Arsenic in groundwater is largely the result of ... Gronberg (2011) for updated arsenic map. Featured publications United States Effects of human-induced alteration of groundwater flow ...

  13. Residency training in the United States: What foreign medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FMGs) planning to pursue post-graduate residency training in the United States of America (USA). While the number of residency training positions is shrinking, and the number of United States graduates has steadily declined over the past ...

  14. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kechichian, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  15. Air pollution problem in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, H

    1964-10-01

    Air pollution in the United States as a problem affecting health, as well as man's enjoyment of his property, was first noted in 1912 in the reports of the investigators at the Mellon Institute of the University of Pittsburgh. The Selby copper smelter incident in 1915 was among the first episodic air pollution events documented. The US Public Health Service studied carbon monoxide buildup in vehicular tunnels in 1928 and 1929. the Donora (Pennsylvania) pollution episode, where 17 people died, occurred in 1949. It and the onset of smog conditions in the Los Angeles area really initiated broad public awareness of air pollution as a public health hazard in the USA. The symptoms of air pollution-related injuries are discussed, the role of the US Public Health Service in dealing with air pollution, and the effect of the Clean Air Act of 1963 are discussed. 26 references.

  16. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Filipy, R.E.; Dietert, S.E.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes the primary scientific activities of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries for the period October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. The Registries are parallel human tissue research programs devoted to the study of the actinide elements in humans. To date there have been 261 autopsy or surgical specimen donations, which include 11 whole bodies. The emphasis of the Registry was directed towards quality improvement and the development of a fully computerized data base that would incorporate not only the results of postmortem radiochemical analysis, but also medical and monitoring information obtained during life. Human subjects reviews were also completed. A three compartment biokinetic model for plutonium distribution is proposed. 2 tabs

  17. Licensing of HTGRs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.R.; Orvis, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The licensing history of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the United States is given historical perspective. The experience began with the licensing of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and extends to the continuing experience at the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. Additional experience was obtained from the licensing reviews in the mid-1970s of the large HTGR plants that were to be built by Philadelphia Electric Company and Delmarva Power and Light. Also, information was provided by the licensing review of the General Atomic standard plant by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at about the same time. These experiences are summarized in terms of the principal design criteria that were required by the regulatory authority for each project. These criteria include specification of the design basis accidents that were postulated for the plant safety analysis. Several technical issues raised by the NRC during their review of the large HTGR are presented. (author)

  18. Licensing of HTGRs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C. R.; Orvis, D. D. [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA)

    1981-01-15

    The licensing history of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the United States is given historical perspective. The experience began with the licensing of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and extends to the continuing experience at the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. Additional experience was obtained from the licensing reviews in the mid-1970s of the large HTGR plants that were to be built by Philadelphia Electric Company and Delmarva Power and Light. Also, information was provided by the licensing review of the General Atomic standard plant by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at about the same time. These experiences are summarized in terms of the principal design criteria that were required by the regulatory authority for each project. These criteria include specification of the design basis accidents that were postulated for the plant safety analysis. Several technical issues raised by the NRC during their review of the large HTGR are presented.

  19. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

  20. Radiation protection standards in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.; Arsenault, F.J.; Conti, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Standards to protect workers and members of the general public against any harmful effects of ionizing radiation are numerous and complex in the United States. Many Federal agencies have protection responsibilities, our Congress limits the discretionary authority given to these agencies in providing for this protection, and our court system appears at times to render judgments that are illogical to our sense of the degree of radiological protection required. To many our standards appear to be overprotective in that they have, at best, marginal health benefits and without question are costly to implement. Government agencies, the Congress, industry, professional organizations, and others have expressed their concerns and interests regarding standards in a variety of ways

  1. Nuclear material control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.; Waddoups, I.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions

  2. Uranium resources in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, Michel.

    1975-01-01

    The United States are certainly the country which is the most concerned by a better evaluation of uranium resources. This is so because of the importance of the American nuclear program and because of a certain number of doubts in their uranium supply. This is probably why studies concerning American uranium resources have been very frequent in recent months. Although, most of these studies are not yet finished it is perhaps possible to draw a few conclusions in order to better see the framework of this important uranium resources problem. This is what this article attempts, using among other studies, the one carried-out for the National Science Foundation which is among the most complete, especially concerning the complete range of resources [fr

  3. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  4. The United States nuclear merchant ship program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, E.V.

    1978-01-01

    The issues of financial protection contemplate appropriate financing to permit construction of the involved vessels. In addition, the licensing process will require a demonstrated ability for financial response in the event of injury to persons or damage to property. Since the thrust in the United States is to use the Price-Anderson framework for Insurance and Indemnity, much attention is devoted to this legislation. The pre-existing regime is related to the distinguishing requirements of the Maritime field with proposals being advanced to more nearly parallel the insurance coverage philosophy of Europe, i.e., to utilize insurance pools for the nuclear risks and utilize the conventional insurance market for non-nuclear risks. Public affairs issues impact heavily on legislation efforts and thusly become significant in developing a program for Financial Protection

  5. Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K. [Environmental Science Division; Greenwood, H. [Environmentall Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-13

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software. The report also includes: A description of each of the components of the Atlas; Lists of the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and A brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies. The Atlas includes the following: A GIS database organized as a set of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS Personal GeoDatabases, and ESRI ArcReader and ArcGIS project files providing an interactive map visualization and analysis interface.

  6. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Marilyn; Maslow, Melanie J.

    2001-06-01

    Since the first outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in 1993, understanding of the vast distribution and potential impact of hantaviruses has grown. At least 277 cases of HPS have been documented in the United States. The full clinical spectrum has yet to be elucidated, and one outbreak suggested the possibility of person-to-person transmission. New research has identified the b-3 integrins as cellular receptors for hantaviruses and has determined the pivotal role of the immune system in pathogenesis. Rapid diagnosis has been facilitated by a new immunoblot assay to detect Sin Nombre virus infection. Treatment remains primarily supportive; however, a placebo- controlled trial of ribavirin is ongoing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be a potential therapy in severe cases; inhaled nitric oxide needs further study. Vaccines developed against hantaviruses associated with hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome might be effective against HPS-associated strains.

  7. Unplanned pregnancies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D A

    1986-03-01

    Unplanned pregnancies constitute an epidemic in the United States. Over 3 million unplanned pregnancies occur, and over 1.5 million induced abortions are performed each year. Women of minority races and those with less than 12 years of education are at high risk of having unwanted children. Fear of complications (not the complications themselves) is the most powerful deterrent to women's use of contraception. Much of this fear is due to bad press. Recent good news about contraception, such as protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer, protection against ectopic pregnancy, and absence of teratogenic effects, has not received appropriate media coverage. For healthy women younger than 35 years, failure to use fertility control is more dangerous than use of any method.

  8. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994

  9. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure - TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrell, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program is to provide fresh nuclear reactor fuel to United States universities at no, or low, cost to the university. The title of the fuel remains with the United States government and when universities are finished with the fuel, the fuel is returned to the United States government. The program is funded by the United States Department of Energy - Nuclear Energy division, managed by Department of Energy - Idaho Field Office, and contracted to the Idaho National Laboratory's Management and Operations Contractor - Battelle Energy Alliance. Program has been at Idaho since 1977 and INL subcontracts with 26 United States domestic reactor facilities (13 TRIGA facilities, 9 plate fuel facilities, 2 AGN facilities, 1 Pulstar fuel facility, 1 Critical facility). University has not shipped fuel since 1968 and as such, we have no present procedures for shipping spent fuel. In addition: floor loading rate is unknown, many interferences must be removed to allow direct access to the reactor tank, floor space in the reactor cell is very limited, pavement ends inside our fence; some of the surface is not finished. The whole approach is narrow, curving and downhill. A truck large enough to transport the cask cannot pull into the lot and then back out (nearly impossible / refused by drivers); a large capacity (100 ton), long boom crane would have to be used due to loading dock obstructions. Access to the entrance door is on a sidewalk. The campus uses it as a road for construction equipment, deliveries and security response. Large trees are on both sides of sidewalk. Spent fuel shipments have never been done, no procedures approved or in place, no approved casks, no accident or safety analysis for spent fuel loading. Any cask assembly used in this facility will have to be removed from one crane, moved on the floor and then attached to another crane to get from the staging area to the reactor room. Reactor

  10. Global context for the United States Forest Sector in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify markets for, and competitors to, the United States forest industries in the next 30 years. The Global Forest Products Model was used to make predictions of international demand, supply, trade, and prices, conditional on the last RPA Timber Assessment projections for the United States. It was found that the United States, Japan...

  11. 27 CFR 479.89 - Transfers to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transfers to the United States. A firearm may be transferred to the United States or any department... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfers to the United States. 479.89 Section 479.89 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO...

  12. 32 CFR 516.54 - Witnesses for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Witnesses for the United States. 516.54 Section..., Travel, and Expenses of Witnesses § 516.54 Witnesses for the United States. (a) Status of witness. A military member authorized to appear as a witness for the United States, including those authorized to...

  13. 32 CFR 150.21 - Appeals by the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeals by the United States. 150.21 Section 150... the United States. (a) Restricted filing. Only a representative of the government designated by the Judge Advocate General of the respective service may file an appeal by the United States under Article...

  14. 78 FR 27857 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... RIN 0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... (GIPSA) is revising the United States Standards for Wheat under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) to change the definition of Contrasting classes (CCL) in the class Hard White wheat. This change...

  15. 31 CFR 515.334 - United States national.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States national. 515.334 Section 515.334 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... of the United States, and which has its principal place of business in the United States. [61 FR...

  16. Field Evaluation of the Performance of the RTU Challenge Unit: Daikin Rebel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ngo, Hung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Underhill, Ronald M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-31

    Packaged rooftop air-conditioning units (RTUs) are used in 44% (2.5 million) of all commercial buildings, serving over 57% (46 billion square feet) of the commercial building floor space in the United States (EIA 2012). The primary energy consumption associated with RTUs is over 2.2 quads annually. Therefore, even a small improvement in efficiency or part-load operation of these units can lead to significant reductions in energy use and carbon emissions. Starting in 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Technologies Office funded a series of projects related to RTUs. Some projects were intended to improve the operating efficiency of the existing RTUs, while others were focused on improving the operating efficiency of new units. This report documents the field-testing and comparison of the seasonal efficiency of a state-of-art RTU Challenge unit and a standard unit. Section II provides the background for the work. Section III describes the measurement and verification plan for the field tests. Section IV describes the measurement and verification evaluation plan. The results are described in Section V. The lessons learned and recommendations for future work are presented in Section VI. A list of references is provided in Section VII.

  17. A proposed United States resource classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is a world-wide problem calling for world-wide communication to resolve the many supply and distribution problems. Essential to a communication problem are a definition and comparability of elements being communicated. The US Geological Survey, with the co-operation of the US Bureau of Mines and the US Department of Energy, has devised a classification system for all mineral resources, the principles of which, it is felt, offer the possibility of world communication. At present several other systems, extant or under development (Potential Gas Committee of the USA, United Nations Resource Committee, and the American Society of Testing and Materials) are internally consistent and provide easy communication linkage. The system in use by the uranium community in the United States of America, however, ties resource quantities to forward-cost dollar values rendering them inconsistent with other classifications and therefore not comparable. This paper develops the rationale for the new USGS resource classification and notes its benefits relative to a forward-cost classification and its relationship specifically to other current classifications. (author)

  18. Latin America and the United States: What Do United States History Textbooks Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Dan B.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluates how U.S.-Latin American relations are presented in high school U.S. history textbooks. An examination of 10 textbooks published between 1977-81 revealed inadequate coverage of Latin American cultural diversity and United States foreign policy from the Latin American perspective. (AM)

  19. Short Rotation Crops in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L L

    1998-06-04

    The report is based primarily on the results of survey questions sent to approximately 60 woody and 20 herbaceous crop researchers in the United States and on information from the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program. Responses were received from 13 individuals involved in woody crops research or industrial commercialization (with 5 of the responses coming from industry). Responses were received from 11 individuals involved in herbaceous crop research. Opinions on market incentives, technical and non-technical barriers, and highest priority research and development areas are summarized in the text. Details on research activities of the survey responders are provided as appendices to the paper. Woody crops grown as single-stem systems (primarily Populus and Eucalyptus species) are perceived to have strong pulp fiber and oriented strand board markets, and the survey responders anticipated that energy will comprise 25% or less of the utilization of single-stem short-rotation woody crops between now and 2010. The only exception was a response from California where a substantial biomass energy market does currently exist. Willows (Salix species) are only being developed for energy and only in one part of the United States at present. Responses from herbaceous crop researchers suggested frustration that markets (including biomass energy markets) do not currently exist for the crop, and it was the perception of many that federal incentives will be needed to create such markets. In all crops, responses indicate that a wide variety of research and development activities are needed to enhance the yields and profitability of the crops. Ongoing research activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program are described in an appendix to the paper.

  20. Fires Across the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Days of record heat made the western United States tinder dry in early July 2007. Numerous wildfires raced across the dry terrain during the weekend of July 7. From Washington to Arizona, firefighters were battling fast-moving wildfires that threatened residences, businesses, gas wells, coal mines, communications equipment, and municipal watersheds. This image of the West was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite on Sunday, July 8. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red. Some of the largest blazes are labeled. Utah's Milford Flat was the largest; according to the July 9 morning report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the blaze was more than 280,000 acres, having grown more than 124,000 acres in the previous 24 hours. The fires have destroyed homes, forced evacuations, shut down trains and highways, and killed several people. Weather conditions were not expected to improve significantly across much of the area for several days, with hot temperatures and dry thunderstorms (lightning and winds, but little rain) likely in many places. Nearly the entire western United States was experiencing some level of drought as of July 3, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. The drought had reached the 'extreme' category in southern California and western Arizona, and ranged from moderate to severe across most of the rest of the Southwest and Great Basin. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 500 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions and formats, including an infrared-enhanced version that makes burned terrain appear brick red. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center

  1. The United States: breakthroughs and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, U E

    1992-01-01

    The health system of the United States is in a paradoxical position. At its best, the system is a magnet for those seeking the latest technical breakthroughs. It can offer that excellence because there have never been effective financial constraints on the imagination; the system has become a major economic frontier, at which professional and other entrepreneurs successfully seek their fortune. At the same time, the system is leaving increasing numbers of Americans frustrated and disillusioned. It is beset by excess capacity in many areas, is needlessly expensive, and often bestows unnecessary health services. Yet only the experts are aware of these flaws; most Americans still express high satisfaction with the quality of the services they receive from their doctors and hospitals. The public's major misgivings arise over the awkward and inequitable way in which American health care is financed. The typical private health insurance policy, for example, is tied to a particular job. If the job is lost, so is the health insurance. Furthermore, these policies are priced on actuarially "fair" principles, so sick individuals are forced to pay higher insurance premiums than relatively healthy ones and chronically ill persons often cannot obtain health insurance coverage at any price. Although there are public programs to catch many persons not privately insured, the coverage tends to be insufficiently extensive and deep. Some 35 million Americans, mostly poor, have no health insurance whatsoever. Unfortunately, at this time there is no political force in the United States strong enough to reform the American health system toward greater social equity and economic efficiency, whereas there are numerous groups powerful enough to block whatever reform might harm their own narrow economic interests. Other nations can learn from America's clinical and organizational innovations in health care delivery. They can also learn what not to do by studying the unseemly way in which

  2. Eye on China and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mahyari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United States strives to force the Chinese into agreement of increasing the value of their exchange rate to help the USA avoid inflation As China did not come into an agreement with the USA, Tariffs are being put on Chinese products entering USA. However China as began to add tariff on poultry received from the US as well. China was previously not named in the legislation permitting US to add tariff on their goods. But recently a bill was passed giving the commerce department the ability to place important tariffs on all countries to undervalue their currency. The bill passed in legislation had the support of 99 republicans. China has been managing their currency in a manner that makes their goods cheaper to sell and American goods more expensive. The Chinese manipulation of their currency has been quite expensive for the USA, as it has cost them $1.5 billion jobs increasing the percentage of unemployment greatly and significantly. This imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods could result in effecting $300 billion dollars worth of their products. It is obvious that the Americans are attempting to improve and acknowledge their growth and power. As predictions have developed over this conflict, arguing the fact that China will not negotiate with the USA at this point rather fight back and also approach in adding tariffs on USimports. However, this reaction by the Chinese will only worsen the scenario and result in the possible inflation of the US economy or worldwide trade war. This is a very sensitive time for the United States as their biggest hopes are dependent on the Chinese. But it doesn’t look like they will be too satisfied with the outcome.

  3. Energy policies of IEA countries: United States - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    The United States is the largest economy and energy user in the world. Significant developments have taken place in its energy policy since the last IEA review in 2002. Most important is the Energy Policy Act 2005 - a comprehensive energy legislation which has set new directions, including opening the way for a nuclear renaissance. Two closely connected challenges shape all debates on the nation's energy policy path: how to increase security by reducing the dependence on imported supplies; and how to address growing emissions of greenhouse gases. The United States national strategy is to find solutions largely through technology. It is a world leader in R&D and is driving development of carbon capture and storage and second-generation biofuels. But thus far, no federal government policy is in place to establish as a target an absolute reduction of CO2 emissions. The resulting uncertainty risks holding back investments into new technologies and may delay projects that are urgently required. The transport sector will be a key to a sustainable success. In the short to medium term, reduced fuel demand through higher vehicle efficiency will increase security and reduce CO2 emissions. Yet the policy for the revision of CAFE (the corporate average fuel economy) standards will leave consumers with vehicles that fall short of the technological possibilities. This review takes an in-depth look at these issues and provides recommendations on how the United States can do more to answer the challenges of both improving its security of energy supply and lowering its emissions intensity, demonstrating the significant improvements that can already be realised through existing technologies.

  4. Energy policies of IEA countries: United States - 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-02-15

    The United States is the largest economy and energy user in the world. Significant developments have taken place in its energy policy since the last IEA review in 2002. Most important is the Energy Policy Act 2005 - a comprehensive energy legislation which has set new directions, including opening the way for a nuclear renaissance. Two closely connected challenges shape all debates on the nation's energy policy path: how to increase security by reducing the dependence on imported supplies; and how to address growing emissions of greenhouse gases. The United States national strategy is to find solutions largely through technology. It is a world leader in R&D and is driving development of carbon capture and storage and second-generation biofuels. But thus far, no federal government policy is in place to establish as a target an absolute reduction of CO2 emissions. The resulting uncertainty risks holding back investments into new technologies and may delay projects that are urgently required. The transport sector will be a key to a sustainable success. In the short to medium term, reduced fuel demand through higher vehicle efficiency will increase security and reduce CO2 emissions. Yet the policy for the revision of CAFE (the corporate average fuel economy) standards will leave consumers with vehicles that fall short of the technological possibilities. This review takes an in-depth look at these issues and provides recommendations on how the United States can do more to answer the challenges of both improving its security of energy supply and lowering its emissions intensity, demonstrating the significant improvements that can already be realised through existing technologies.

  5. 45 CORRUPTION, THE STATE AND THE CHALLENGE OF SOCIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    development theory which focuses mainly on socio-economic factors. Another approach ... corruption and the social instability that plagues the country. A healthier ... Corruption, the State and the Challenge of Social Stability in Nigeria - Rev.

  6. Environmental remediation and waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntzing, L.M.; Person, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental remediation of radioactively and chemically contaminated sites represents one of the most complex challenges of our age. It is currently a problem at nuclear weapons sites in the Unites States, but as the civilian nuclear industry everywhere deals with decommissioning and decontamination, the lessons learned from these early activities will be influential. The task is challenging for several reasons. First, standards governing remedial action are complex and constantly evolving. Second, unless contaminated material is to be stabilized in place, it must be removed and sent to another facility for storage and ultimate disposal. Third, the task is technically demanding. Those who undertake the challenge must be technically sophisticated, creative, and innovative. Fourth, the challenge is a risky one. Those who seek to remediate past contamination may find themselves exposed to expanding and unfair allegations of liability for that very contamination. Finally, there is often a basic crisis of public confidence regarding remediation efforts. This paper briefly outlines some of the liabilities surrounding environmental contracting and ways to minimize risks

  7. Abortion surveillance--United States, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, L M; Smith, J C; Ramick, M

    1995-05-05

    From 1980 through 1991, the number of legal induced abortions reported to CDC remained stable, varying each year by 1969, CDC has compiled abortion data received from 52 reporting areas: 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. In 1991, 1,388,937 abortions were reported--a 2.8% decrease from 1990. The abortion ratio was 339 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, and the abortion rate was 24 per 1,000 women 15-44 years of age. Women who were undergoing an abortion were more likely to be young, white, and unmarried; most had had no previous live births and had been obtaining an abortion for the first time. More than half (52%) of all abortions were performed at or before the 8th week of gestation, and 88% were before the 13th week. Younger women (i.e., women may partially account for this decline. An accurate assessment of the number and characteristics of women who obtain abortions in the United States is necessary both to monitor efforts to prevent unintended pregnancy and to identify and reduce preventable causes of morbidity and mortality associated with abortions.

  8. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  9. Ebola Crisis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Raghunath Patwardhan M.D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about readiness of the U.S. health care system to deal with crises. Using the Ebola crisis as a reference, first it examines the response to the current challenge. However, that is the smaller objective of the article. Lately, we are also being challenged to deal with other kinds of epidemics like obesity, mental health diseases, and violence. These crises are not dramatic like the Ebola crisis. However, these are no less insidious than Ebola. If we are not ready for them, then these crises have the potential to undermine the long-term health and prosperity of our society. In this context, and therefore mainly, this article is about two major long-standing systemic problems in the U.S. health care system that the unfolding of the Ebola crisis has bared. One is about how the inherent problem in the design of American federalist system regarding state autonomy on health matters is creating a dysfunctional health care system. The other is about the inertia of the research industry in the health care system in clinging to an archaic outdated inefficient mind-set and methodology that fails to generate the right information required for an appropriate decision making in matters of health care delivery, including crises. These problems are not small, nor their solutions easy. However, no matter how uncomfortable and tedious, facing them is necessary and inevitable. The discussions and arguments in this article are to outline their nature broadly and to make a call to further a dialogue.

  10. United States electric industry : restructuring in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum Hollis, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed review of the United States electric power industry. The aim of the review was to clarify and better define current industry procedures and practices in light of significant and recent restructuring. In addition, recent bankruptcies and the power blackout in 2003 have raised concerns over industry practices. Issues concerning Independent System Operators (ISO) and regional transmission organizations were evaluated, with reference to an evolution and implementation of Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) policy, including a cost-benefit analysis. A background of RTO formations was provided with reference to consolidation, selection process and transfer of assets. Standard market design, network access and pricing issues were reviewed, as well as market and reliability concerns. Issues concerning affiliate treatment, shortages and the effect of sale of securities were presented. Various approaches to congestion management were examined, with examples from California and New England. Market monitoring issues, investigations and hearings were also examined, with examples and orders, including details of refunds. Measures to improve reliability were reviewed, including: management systems, benefit margins, requirements, assurance agreements and reserve markets. Issues concerning information access were presented, including: Open Access Same-time Information System (OASIS) requirements; tagging; standard business practices and protocols; and quarterly report practices and protocols. Interconnection policies were reviewed with reference to applicability, service options and pricing. The issue of variations was examined, with case examples concerning cost allocation, contract rights and treatment of specific costs. Jurisdiction issues concerning corporate realignments and power exchanges were presented, as well as specific services and state-federal relations. Issues concerning mergers and merger policy were also discussed, with reference

  11. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : Government comments on Environmental Challenges and Opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market: Secretariat report to Council under article 13 of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation : Canada, Mexico, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    Canada, Mexico, and the United States commented in turn on the issues related to the integration of the North American electricity market. Canada indicated that the report was based on on specific sets of data, analyses, and several assumptions. It provides a starting point for further discussions as information and analyses are further improved. Four categories of issues were identified: transboundary airshed management, innovative economic instruments, energy efficiency and renewable energy, and information planning and transboundary cumulative impact assessment. Some of those areas are already the subject of improved cooperation. Mexico mentioned that the major problem was one of pollution in geographically shared but jurisdictionally divided regions. This situation could lead to preferences in the selection of locations for power generation plants, as environmental rules differ. The suggestions made in the report do not always reflect the approaches being discussed in Mexico. Some specific comments about the various working papers were offered. The United States stated that the report provides a solid foundation for further discussions on the topic. The United States also indicated that further qualification, analysis, and/or discussion is required on some important issues. It felt that the future growth, continental-scale integration, and environmental impacts related to the electricity sector had been overestimated. More comprehensive comparisons between the three countries would benefit the entire process. More specific comments were included

  12. 78 FR 70274 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... the schedule and agenda for an open meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...

  13. 78 FR 3398 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... the schedule and agenda for an open meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...

  14. Surveillance for Lyme Disease - United States, 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Amy M; Hinckley, Alison F; Mead, Paul S; Hook, Sarah A; Kugeler, Kiersten J

    2017-11-10

    from states with low incidence, infection occurred more commonly among females and older adults. In addition, probable cases occurred more commonly among females and with a higher modal age than confirmed cases. Lyme disease continues to be the most commonly reported vectorborne disease in the United States. Although concentrated in historically high-incidence areas, the geographic distribution is expanding into neighboring states. The trend of stable to decreasing case counts in many states with high incidence could be a result of multiple factors, including actual stabilization of disease incidence or artifact due to modifications in reporting practices employed by some states to curtail the resource burden associated with Lyme disease surveillance. This report highlights the continuing public health challenge of Lyme disease in states with high incidence and demonstrates its emergence in neighboring states that previously experienced few cases. Educational efforts should be directed accordingly to facilitate prevention, early diagnosis, and appropriate treatment. As Lyme disease emerges in neighboring states, clinical suspicion of Lyme disease in a patient should be based on local experience rather than incidence cutoffs used for surveillance purposes. A diagnosis of Lyme disease should be considered in patients with compatible clinical signs and a history of potential exposure to infected ticks, not only in states with high incidence but also in areas where Lyme disease is known to be emerging. These findings underscore the ongoing need to implement personal prevention practices routinely (e.g., application of insect repellent and inspection for and removal of ticks) and to develop other effective interventions.

  15. Confronting the Challenges Facing the Nigerian Nation State: Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explains the concept of nation-state and sports. It critically examines some of the challenges characterizing Nigerian nation state such as ethnicity, corruption, politics of godfatherisms, tribalism, language differences, and religious crises among others. It emphasizes the use of sports for creating of friendship ...

  16. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  17. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  18. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, J.C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, J.M.; Mattick, R.E.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin off the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsidized basement. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile

  19. Monthly hydroclimatology of the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Thomas; Devineni, Naresh; Sankarasubramanian, A.

    2018-04-01

    Physical/semi-empirical models that do not require any calibration are of paramount need for estimating hydrological fluxes for ungauged sites. We develop semi-empirical models for estimating the mean and variance of the monthly streamflow based on Taylor Series approximation of a lumped physically based water balance model. The proposed models require mean and variance of monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, co-variability of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and regionally calibrated catchment retention sensitivity, atmospheric moisture uptake sensitivity, groundwater-partitioning factor, and the maximum soil moisture holding capacity parameters. Estimates of mean and variance of monthly streamflow using the semi-empirical equations are compared with the observed estimates for 1373 catchments in the continental United States. Analyses show that the proposed models explain the spatial variability in monthly moments for basins in lower elevations. A regionalization of parameters for each water resources region show good agreement between observed moments and model estimated moments during January, February, March and April for mean and all months except May and June for variance. Thus, the proposed relationships could be employed for understanding and estimating the monthly hydroclimatology of ungauged basins using regional parameters.

  20. The United Mexican States: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R; Aguirre, E J

    1988-09-01

    Although the popular North American opinion of Mexico is one that paints a picture of a poor, disadvantaged country, South America sees Mexico has a richer more prosperous nation. It is observed that only in the Latin American countries of Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago do consumers have higher incomes than Mexican consumers. Moreover, while millions of Mexicans migrate to the United States to seek a better standard of living, several thousand Central American refugees illegally migrate to Mexico in search of a better life. This better life includes an increased age of lie expectancy from 51 years in the 1950s to 64 years in the late 1970s. There have also been improvements in health care and school enrollments and in the low cost availability of education. Tourism and the prospect of the manufacturing of energy are significant, positive factors working in favor of an improved Mexican economy and a higher overall quality of life. However, Mexico faces serious problems such as a mounting foreign debt. Also rising is Mexico's population which has doubled since 1964 and which continues to grow at a rate of 1.9%. Economic programs and reforms and family development planning have been instituted in response to the countries' current recession and population growth and have begun to show positive results.

  1. Interfuel substitution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Vasetsky, Olexandr [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Timilsina, Govinda R. [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818 H Street N.W., Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we use the locally flexible translog functional form to investigate the demand for energy and interfuel substitution in the United States and to provide a comparison of our results with most of the existing empirical energy demand literature. Motivated by the widespread practice of ignoring theoretical regularity, we follow Barnett's (2002) suggestions and estimate the model subject to theoretical regularity, using methods developed by Diewert and Wales (1987) and Ryan and Wales (2000), in an attempt to produce inference consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. Moreover, we use the most recent data, published by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), and in addition to investigating interfuel substitution possibilities in total U.S. energy demand, we follow Serletis et al. (2009) and also examine interfuel substitution possibilities in energy demand by sector. Moreover, we test for weak separability, with the objective of discovering the structure of the functional form in total energy demand as well as energy demand by sector. (author)

  2. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  3. Recurrent Kawasaki disease, United States and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Ryan A.; Holman, Robert C.; Uehara, Ritei; Callinan, Laura S.; Guest, Jodie L.; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Belay, Ermias D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Descriptive epidemiologic studies of recurrent and non-recurrent Kawasaki disease (KD) may identify other potentially important differences between these illnesses. Methods Data from the United States and Japan, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) national KD surveillance (1984–2008) and the 17th Japanese nationwide survey (2001–2002), respectively, were analyzed to examine recurrent KD patients <18 years of age meeting the CDC KD case or atypical KD case definition. These patients were compared to non-recurrent KD patients. Results Of the 5557 US KD patients <18 years of age during 1984–2008, 97 (1.7%) were identified as having had recurrent KD. Among the US Asian/Pacific Islander KD patients, 3.5% had recurrent KD, which was similar to the percentage identified among KD patients (3.5%) in the Japanese survey. Compared to non-recurrent KD patients, KD patients experiencing a recurrent KD episode were more likely to be older, fulfill the atypical KD case definition, and have coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) despite IVIG treatment. Conclusions Differences in the age, race, and frequency of CAA exist between recurrent and non-recurrent KD patients. The increased association of CAA with recurrent KD suggests that more aggressive treatment strategies in conjunction with IVIG may be indicated for the second episode of KD. PMID:26096590

  4. Derecho Hazards in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Walker S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2005-11-01

    Convectively generated wind-storms occur over broad temporal and spatial scales; however, the more widespread and longer lived of these windstorms have been given the name "derecho." Utilizing an integrated derecho database, including 377 events from 1986 to 2003, this investigation reveals the amount of insured property losses, fatalities, and injuries associated with these windstorms in the United States. Individual derechos have been responsible for up to 8 fatalities, 204 injuries, forest blow-downs affecting over 3,000 km2 of timber, and estimated insured losses of nearly a $500 million. Findings illustrate that derecho fatalities occur more frequently in vehicles or while boating, while injuries are more likely to happen in vehicles or mobile homes. Both fatalities and injuries are most common outside the region with the highest derecho frequency. An underlying synthesis of both physical and social vulnerabilities is suggested as the cause of the unexpected casualty distribution. In addition, casualty statistics and damage estimates from hurricanes and tornadoes are contrasted with those from derechos to emphasize that derechos can be as hazardous as many tornadoes and hurricanes.

  5. Seismic hazard in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles; Boyd, Oliver; Petersen, Mark D.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Shumway, Allison

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey seismic hazard maps for the central and eastern United States were updated in 2014. We analyze results and changes for the eastern part of the region. Ratio maps are presented, along with tables of ground motions and deaggregations for selected cities. The Charleston fault model was revised, and a new fault source for Charlevoix was added. Background seismicity sources utilized an updated catalog, revised completeness and recurrence models, and a new adaptive smoothing procedure. Maximum-magnitude models and ground motion models were also updated. Broad, regional hazard reductions of 5%–20% are mostly attributed to new ground motion models with stronger near-source attenuation. The revised Charleston fault geometry redistributes local hazard, and the new Charlevoix source increases hazard in northern New England. Strong increases in mid- to high-frequency hazard at some locations—for example, southern New Hampshire, central Virginia, and eastern Tennessee—are attributed to updated catalogs and/or smoothing.

  6. The Cuba–United States Thaw: Building Bridges through Science and Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G.; Kouri, Vivian; Resik, Sonia; Acosta, Belsy; Guillen, Gerardo; Goraleski, Karen; Espinal, Marcos; Guzman, Maria G.

    2017-01-01

    Beginning in 2014, there has been significant progress in normalization of relations between Cuba and the United States. Herein, we discuss the history and recent progress in scientific collaboration between the two countries as well as the continued challenges. Science and global health diplomacy can be key tools in reestablishing a trusting and productive relationship of mutual and global benefit, bringing about better and healthier lives for people in both Cuba and the United States. PMID:28719268

  7. The Cuba-United States Thaw: Building Bridges Through Science and Global Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Daniel G; Kouri, Vivian; Resik, Sonia; Acosta, Belsy; Guillen, Gerardo; Goraleski, Karen; Espinal, Marcos; Guzman, Maria G

    2017-06-01

    AbstractBeginning in 2014, there has been significant progress in normalization of relations between Cuba and the United States. Herein, we discuss the history and recent progress in scientific collaboration between the two countries as well as the continued challenges. Science and global health diplomacy can be key tools in reestablishing a trusting and productive relationship of mutual and global benefit, bringing about better and healthier lives for people in both Cuba and the United States.

  8. Consumer bankruptcy law for Ethiopia: Lessons from United States ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After deregulation of consumer credit and resultant availability, ... Germany, United States, United Kingdom and France are some of the countries ... social insurance, development policy and rehabilitative function of discharge and fresh start.

  9. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan; Robert, Vincent A R G; Crous, Pedro W; Geiser, David M

    2016-11-01

    Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs). Three of the FSSC species (Fusarium falciforme, Fusarium keratoplasticum, and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12) accounted for four-fifths of the veterinary strains (38/47) and STs (27/33) within this clade. Most of the F. falciforme strains (12/15) were recovered from equine keratitis infections; however, strains of F. keratoplasticum and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12 were mostly (25/27) isolated from marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Our sampling suggests that the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), with eight mycoses-associated species, may represent the second most important clade of veterinary relevance within Fusarium Six of the multilocus STs within the FSSC (3+4-eee, 1-b, 12-a, 12-b, 12-f, and 12-h) and one each within the FIESC (1-a) and the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (ST-33) were widespread geographically, including three STs with transoceanic disjunctions. In conclusion, fusaria associated with veterinary mycoses are phylogenetically diverse and typically can only be identified to the species level using DNA sequence data from portions of one or more informative genes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Homicides - United States, 2007 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Joseph E; Hall, Jeffrey; McDaniel, Dawn; Stevens, Mark R

    2013-11-22

    According to 1981-2009 data, homicide accounts for 16,000-26,000 deaths annually in the United States and ranks within the top four leading causes of death among U.S. residents aged 1-40 years. Homicide can have profound long-term emotional consequences on families and friends of victims and on witnesses to the violence, as well as cause excessive economic costs to residents of affected communities. For years, homicide rates have been substantially higher among certain populations. Previous reports have found that homicides are higher among males, adolescents and young adults, and certain racial/ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), and Hispanics. The 2011 CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report (CHDIR) described similar findings for the year 2007. For example, the 2011 report showed that the 2007 homicide rate was highest among non-Hispanic blacks (23.1 deaths per 100,000), followed by AI/ANs (7.8 deaths per 100,000), Hispanics (7.6 deaths per 100,000), non-Hispanic whites (2.7 deaths per 100,000), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs) (2.4 deaths per 100,000). In addition, non-Hispanic black men aged 20-24 years were at greatest risk for homicide in 2007, with a rate that exceeded 100 deaths per 100,000 population. Other studies have reported that community factors such as poverty and economic inequality and individual factors such as unemployment and involvement in criminal activities can play a substantial role in these persistent disparities in homicide rates. Public health strategies are needed in communities at high risk for homicide to prevent violence and save lives.

  11. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  12. Refugee Status Required for Resettlement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    STATES REFUGEE ADMISSIONS PROGRAM FLOWCHART ...the American public’s concerns. 50 APPENDIX A UNITED STATES REFUGEE ADMISSIONS PROGRAM FLOWCHART Source: US Citizenship and Immigration...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Refugee Status Required for Resettlement in the United States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  13. Coccidioidomycosis Outbreaks, United States and Worldwide, 1940-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Michael; Jackson, Brendan R; McCotter, Orion; Benedict, Kaitlin

    2018-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial illness and death in the United States each year. Although most cases are sporadic, outbreaks provide insight into the clinical and environmental features of coccidioidomycosis, high-risk activities, and the geographic range of Coccidioides fungi. We identified reports published in English of 47 coccidioidomycosis outbreaks worldwide that resulted in 1,464 cases during 1940-2015. Most (85%) outbreaks were associated with environmental exposures; the 2 largest outbreaks resulted from an earthquake and a large dust storm. More than one third of outbreaks occurred in areas where the fungus was not previously known to be endemic, and more than half of outbreaks involved occupational exposures. Coccidioidomycosis outbreaks can be difficult to detect and challenging to prevent given the unknown effectiveness of environmental control methods and personal protective equipment; therefore, increased awareness of coccidioidomycosis outbreaks is needed among public health professionals, healthcare providers, and the public.

  14. The political economy of nuclear energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nivola, P.S.

    2004-05-01

    A tendency among commentators, even experts like the author of the sentence above, is to regard the complicated story of nuclear energy in the United States as exceptionally troubled and frustrating. The root cause of the troubles and frustrations, moreover, is commonly thought to be more political than economic. The promise of nuclear power in this country is said to have been dimmed primarily by an eccentrically risk-averse public and an unusually hostile regulatory climate. Practically nowhere else, it is said, have political and legal institutions been so uncooperative. Supposedly the central governments of most other advanced countries have lent far more support to their nuclear industries. And because those governments are assumed to be more aggressive in combating pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions from burning fossil fuels, surely 'the rest of the world' has been doing much more than America to level the playing field for the development of nuclear energy. The following paper challenges this conventional picture. (author)

  15. Cognitive and affective components of challenge and threat states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijen, Carla; Jones, Marc V; McCarthy, Paul J; Sheffield, David; Allen, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    We explored the cognitive and affective components of the Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) using a cross-sectional design. One hundred and seventy-seven collegiate athletes indicated how they typically approached an important competition on measures of self-efficacy, perceived control, achievement goals, emotional states and interpretation of emotional states. Participants also indicated to what extent they typically perceived the important competition as a challenge and/or a threat. The results suggest that a perception of challenge was not predicted by any of the cognitive components. A perception of threat was positively predicted by avoidance goals and negatively predicted by self-efficacy and approach goals. Both challenge and threat had a positive relationship with anxiety. Practical implications of this study are that an avoidance orientation appeared to be related to potentially negative constructs such as anxiety, threat and dejection. The findings may suggest that practitioners and researchers should focus on reducing an avoidance orientation, however the results should be treated with caution in applied settings, as this study did not examine how the combination of constructs exactly influences sport performance. The results provided partial support for the TCTSA with stronger support for proposed relationships with threat rather than challenge states.

  16. Unites States and the oil of the Middle-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2005-08-01

    The author discusses different aspects of the United States intervention and behavior in the Middle-East petroleum management. The Iraq and Iran potentials are largely under used. The Saudi Arabia defines its own oil policy, but benefits of the Unites States military help. The United States intervention is in the domain of the security of flux on the world market. (A.L.B.)

  17. The Rising Tiger (United States Policy Consideration towards Southeast Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Carla; Pagliano, Gary; Rosner, Elliot J

    1997-01-01

    .... Southeast Asia, consisting of the countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, and the Philippines, presents opportunities for the United States...

  18. Iran and the United States: Recreating a Strategic Partnership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weynand, Gordon W

    2009-01-01

    Iran's geographical location, regional influence, large and well-educated population, extensive petroleum resources, and functioning theocratic democracy make it critical for the United States to seek...

  19. Factors Affecting Productivity in the United States Naval Construction Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morton, Darren

    1997-01-01

    By using a craftsman questionnaire, this thesis identifies and ranks the most important factors impairing Petty Officer productivity and morale in the United States Naval Construction Force (Seabees...

  20. Private forest-land owners of the United States, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1996-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the United States. It discusses landowner characteristics, attitudes, harvesting experience, tenure, and management planning.

  1. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W. (1); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (2); Boyd, Tonya L. (1); Renner, Joel (3); (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0001-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  2. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W [1; Bloomquist, R Gordon [2; Boyd, Tonya L [1; Renner, Joel [3; (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0000-12-30

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  3. The United States of America country update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Boyd, Tonya L.; Renner, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  4. Power Dissipation Challenges in Multicore Floating-Point Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    , we analyze the impact of power dissipation in floating-point (FP) units and we consider different alternatives in the implementation of FP-division that lead to substantial energy savings. We compare the implementation of division in a Fused Multiply-Add (FMA) unit based on the Newton-Raphson...

  5. Anti-Terrorism Authority Under the Laws of the United Kingdom and the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feikert, Clare; Doyle, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This is a comparison of the laws of the United Kingdom and of the United States that govern criminal and intelligence investigations of terrorist activities Both systems rely upon a series of statutory authorizations...

  6. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  7. Challenges of Local Government Administration in Edo State of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the fundamental problems that envelope local government administration in Edo State, and discovered that the challenges are constitutional issues. It also identified problems of graft, poor revenue generation by local authorities, and poor revenue allocation cum fiscal transfer to local governments.

  8. Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States. Volume 45, Number 53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-31

    Trichinosis Tuberculosis Typhoid fever Yellow fever NOTE: Although varicella is not a nationally notifiable disease, the Council of State and...plague among humans, two of which were fatal, were re- ported in the United States (two cases in Arizona, one in Colorado, and two in New Mexico ). Both...13 cases per year) were reported in the United States. Of these cases, 80% occurred in the southwestern states of New Mexico , Arizona, and

  9. Leadership Styles in United States Marine Corps Transport Helicopter Squadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    This thesis examined leadership styles in United States Marine Corps transport helicopter squadrons. Analyses were conducted to determine how... leadership styles related to subordinate extra effort, leader effectiveness, satisfaction with leader, unit cohesion, and unit morale. The importance of...military history to the development of military leaders was also examined. Leadership styles of officers were evaluated by the leader himself as well as

  10. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Richard N [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  11. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Richard N.

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  12. Nonprofit Human Milk Banking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegrove, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Human milk, widely understood to be beneficial for infants, can be lifesaving for preterm neonates, especially in reducing the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis. Donor human milk (DHM) is an option when mothers are unable to provide milk or have an inadequate supply for their infants. Nonprofit donor human milk banks are established to provide safe, processed human milk from milk donated by healthy lactating mothers who have undergone a rigorous screening process. These milk banks, operating under the auspices of the Human Milk Banking Association of North America, obtain, process, and dispense human milk under strict guidelines set by the association. Increasing the supply of donor human milk to meet a dramatic increase in demand poses a significant challenge for nonprofit milk banks. Efforts to increase supply nationwide include education of providers, use of social media to engage potential donors, and outreach to news media. In parallel, milk banks are establishing regional depots to collect donations, and additional milk banks are being developed. This article describes the current nonprofit milk bank industry in the United States, its challenges, and its future prospects. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  13. The welfare state, pensions, privatization: the case of Social Security in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Boff, R B

    1997-01-01

    In all high-income nations, the welfare state is under challenge, with particular concern voiced about the burden of retirement pensions on the public fisc and on younger workers. The strongest drive against social insurance is taking place in the United States, which has less of it than other nations and appears to be in the best position to meet future entitlement claims. In this article, the author examines the liabilities that the U.S. Social Security system is likely to incur over the next 35 years and finds that there is little danger that the system will fall into insolvency. Privatizing Social Security is not necessary to assure the integrity of future pension benefits. Furthermore, the cost-benefit ratio of privatization appears to be unfavorable, as borne out by the mandatory private pension plan in effect in Chile. Some wealthy nations will face greater demographic strains than the United States, but all need to retain the welfare state as a foundation for future changes in the world of work.

  14. Asian Immigration: The View from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines contemporary Asian immigration to the United States from a U.S. perspective. Analyzes immigration policies and data on recent immigration from Asia. Discusses impacts concerning the United States and the immigrants themselves and speculates on future immigration. The composition of Asian immigration might change, and the number might…

  15. 19 CFR 10.46 - Articles for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles for the United States. 10.46 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles for Institutions § 10.46 Articles for the United States. Pursuant to subheadings 9808.00.10 and 9808...

  16. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  17. Income Distribution Policy in the United States [and] Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okner, Benjamin A.; Rivlin, Alice M.

    The focus of this paper is inequality - primarily, income - inequality - in the United States and the historical-political context in which policies that affect inequality are being discussed. The first section gives a brief description of recent trends in the distribution of income in the United States, a picture whose most remarkable feature is…

  18. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of...)--Special Focus Competition: European Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting... and Culture, European Commission for funding under a separate but parallel EU competition. Within this...

  19. Leading Causes of Death in Males United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What’s this? Submit What’s this? Submit Button Leading Causes of Death in Males and Females, United States Recommend on ... to current and previous listings for the leading causes of death for males and females in the United States. ...

  20. 78 FR 77103 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism... extended deadline for application for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board... Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The November 25, 2013 notice provided that all applications...

  1. 78 FR 70275 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism... an opportunity to apply for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board... Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The purpose of the Board is to advise the Secretary of...

  2. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... being the promotion of such sales to United States retail outlets by advertising in trade publications... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1.953-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX...

  3. Research on Anoplophora glabripennis in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack

    2003-01-01

    In the mid-1990s it was estimated that more than 400 exotic (non-native) forest insects had already become established in the United States (HAACK and BYLER, 1993; MATTSON et al., 1994; NIEMELA and MATTSON, 1996). This number has continued to grow with new exotics discovered annually in the United States (HAACK, 2002; HAACK and POLAND, 2001; HAACK et al., 2002). One...

  4. African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Home > African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles ...

  5. School Autonomy: A Comparison between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangang; Gao, Xingyuan; Shen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    This study examined and compared school autonomy in China and the United States. Based on the international PISA 2012 school data, the authors examined three aspects of school autonomy. We found that in comparison with the United States, (1) principals from China were less likely to have responsibility over eleven school decisions (hiring…

  6. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    the Vietnam-United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership...United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership Agreement signed...Economic Zone FTA Free Trade Agreement GDP Gross Domestic Product IMET International Military Education and Training MIA Missing in Action

  7. 77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement... other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA). Please...

  8. 78 FR 63052 - United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Panama. DATES: Interim... and the Republic of Panama (the ``Parties'') signed the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement...

  9. 15 CFR 971.209 - Processing outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing outside the United States... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.209 Processing outside the United States. (a) Except as provided in this section...

  10. Development of Water Quality Modeling in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes historical trends in water quality model development in the United States, reviews current efforts, and projects promising future directions. Water quality modeling has a relatively long history in the United States. While its origins lie in the work...

  11. 26 CFR 1.993-7 - Definition of United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of United States. 1.993-7 Section 1.993-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-7 Definition of United States...

  12. Wheat rusts in the United States in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. graminis was widespread throughout the United States. Cool temperatures and abundant rainfall in the southern Great Plains allowed stripe rust to become widely established and spread throughout the Great Plains and eastern United State...

  13. 77 FR 27669 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... contracts. The temporary regulations provide that certain obligations of United States persons arising from upfront payments made by controlled foreign corporations pursuant to contracts that are cleared by a... the meaning of section 956(c)) for obligations of United States persons arising from certain upfront...

  14. Preparation of School Psychologists in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    School psychology in the United States continues to evolve in response to shifts in the country's demographic characteristics, an increasing focus on the importance of child mental health, together with health and education reforms. The landscape of school psychological services in the United States also is shaped through the changing roles and…

  15. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Kellison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation to initiate species-introduction trials in 1959. The results were sufficiently promising that a contingent of forest products companies formed a cooperative to work with the USDA Forest Service, Lehigh Acres, FL, USA, on genetic improvement of selected species for fiber production. The Florida initiative caused other industrial forestry companies in the upper South to establish plantations regardless of the species or seed source. The result was invariably the same: failure. Bruce Zobel, Professor of Forestry, North Carolina State University, initiated a concerted effort to assess the potential worth of eucalyptus for plantation use. The joint industrial effort evaluated 569 sources representing 103 species over a 14-year period. The three levels of testing, screening, in-depth, and semioperational trials led to identification of some species and sources that offered promise for adaptation, but severe winter temperatures in late 1983 and early 1984 and 1985 terminated the project. Despite the failed attempt valuable silvicultural practices were ascertained that will be beneficial to other researchers and practitioners when attempts are again made to introduce the species complex into the US South.

  16. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... Peru. Venezuela. Mexico. New Zealand. Virgin Island. Europe. Germany. France. Italy. Netherlands. Portugal. Spain. Sweden. United Kingdom. Switzerland. Asia & far East. Japan. Singapore. India. Indonesia. Korea. Taiwan. China. Thailand. 321,797.8. 12,782.7. 309,015.1. 56,421.7. 2,413.7. 44,448.1.

  17. Intergenerational educational mobility in Denmark and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Thomsen, Jens-Peter

    2018-01-01

    An overall finding in comparative mobility studies is that intergenerational mobility is greater in Scandinavia than in liberal welfare-state countries like the United States and United Kingdom. However, in a recent study, Landersø and Heckman (L & H) (2017) argue that intergenerational educational...... mobility in Denmark and the United States is remarkably similar. L & H’s findings run contrary to widespread beliefs and have been echoed in academia and mass media on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. In this article, we reanalyze educational mobility in Denmark and the United States using the same data...... sources as L & H. We apply several different methodological approaches from economics and sociology, and we consistently find that educational mobility is higher in Denmark than in the United States....

  18. Financing cures in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Anirban

    2015-02-01

    True cures in health care are rare but likely not for long. The high price tag that accompanies a cure along with its rapid uptake create challenges in the financing of cures by public and private payers. In the US, the disaggregated nature of health insurance system adds to this challenge as patients frequently churn across multiple health plans. This creates a 'free-rider' problem, where no one health plan has the incentive to invest in cure since the returns will be scattered over many health plans. Here, a new health currency is proposed as a generalized version of a social impact bond that has the potential to solve this free-rider problem, as it can be traded not only between public and private payers but also within the private sector. An ensuing debate as to whether and how to develop such a currency can serve the US health care system well.

  19. A Hypothetical Case: UNITED STATES v. Clonaid

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chun-Ying

    2003-01-01

    The government took the place of FDA to bring a suit against Clonaid Company to grant preliminary injunction to enjoin defendant Clonaid Company from cloning human beings and using human embryos in SCNT research in violation of the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and the Public Health Service Act. In response to government¡¦s motion for injunction, the defendant, Clonaid, first challenges the statutory authority of FDA to regulate human cloning. Then Clonaid ass...

  20. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  1. United States Strategy in Colombia: New Opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Lee C

    2003-01-01

    .... Despite decades of U.S. support to the Government of Colombia, the troika of guerrilla insurgency, civil disorder by paramilitaries, and illegal drug activities has brought Colombia close to becoming a failed State. U.S...

  2. Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  3. HIV Testing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing is offered at CDC-funded testing sites (accounting for more than 3 million tests) and in ... text Each state Medicaid program determines its own definition of medical necessity, although it generally refers to ...

  4. Geothermal overviews of the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N.; Axtell, L.H. (comps.)

    1972-01-01

    This compendium presents data on geothermal resources for all those western states with geothermal potential. Individual sections, which have been processed separately for inclusion in the EDB data base, are devoted to each of the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. A separate section is also devoted to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Imperial Valley Project. Maps and references are included for each section. (JGB)

  5. Nations United: The United Nations, the United States, and the Global Campaign Against Terrorism. A Curriculum Unit & Video for Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, Christina; McLeod, Shannon

    This curriculum unit and 1-hour videotape are designed to help students understand the purpose and functions of the United Nations (UN) and explore the relationship between the United Nations and the United States. The UN's role in the global counterterrorism campaign serves as a case study for the unit. The students are asked to develop a basic…

  6. Homosexuality, Manliness and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    units upon completion of basic and advanced training. Nowadays, most servicemembers live in apartment style quarters, where they may share...grown up in an era where differing sexual orientation was far more acceptable than in previous generations, which subsequently leads to the second...changed over time from pre- Victorian to World War I. Focusing the majority of his research on Canadian youth in Ontario during the build-up to World

  7. Homosexuality, Manliness, and the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    units upon completion of basic and advanced training. Nowadays, most servicemembers live in apartment style quarters, where they may share...grown up in an era where differing sexual orientation was far more acceptable than in previous generations, which subsequently leads to the second...changed over time from pre- Victorian to World War I. Focusing the majority of his research on Canadian youth in Ontario during the build-up to World

  8. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  9. 78 FR 46686 - Privacy Act of 1974; Treasury/United States Mint .013-United States Mint National Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... available publicly. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For general questions and privacy issues, please... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Privacy Act of 1974; Treasury/United States Mint .013--United States... Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 552a, the Department of the Treasury (``Treasury'') and the...

  10. Identifying future electricity-water tradeoffs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Sovacool, Kelly E.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers for the electricity industry, national laboratories, and state and federal agencies have begun to argue that the country could face water shortages resulting from the addition of thermoelectric power plants, but have not attempted to depict more precisely where or how severe those shortages will be. Using county-level data on rates of population growth collected from the US Census Bureau, utility estimates of future planned capacity additions in the contiguous United States reported to the US Energy Information Administration, and scientific estimates of anticipated water shortages provided from the US Geologic Survey and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, this paper highlights the most likely locations of severe shortages in 22 counties brought about by thermoelectric capacity additions. Within these areas are some 20 major metropolitan regions where millions of people live. After exploring the electricity-water nexus and explaining the study's methodology, the article then focuses on four of these metropolitan areas - Houston, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; Las Vegas, Nevada; New York, New York - to deepen an understanding of the water and electricity challenges they may soon be facing. It concludes by identifying an assortment of technologies and policies that could respond to these electricity-water tradeoffs.

  11. Identifying future electricity-water tradeoffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sovacool, Kelly E. [Department of Geography, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Researchers for the electricity industry, national laboratories, and state and federal agencies have begun to argue that the country could face water shortages resulting from the addition of thermoelectric power plants, but have not attempted to depict more precisely where or how severe those shortages will be. Using county-level data on rates of population growth collected from the US Census Bureau, utility estimates of future planned capacity additions in the contiguous United States reported to the US Energy Information Administration, and scientific estimates of anticipated water shortages provided from the US Geologic Survey and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, this paper highlights the most likely locations of severe shortages in 22 counties brought about by thermoelectric capacity additions. Within these areas are some 20 major metropolitan regions where millions of people live. After exploring the electricity-water nexus and explaining the study's methodology, the article then focuses on four of these metropolitan areas - Houston, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; Las Vegas, Nevada; New York, New York - to deepen an understanding of the water and electricity challenges they may soon be facing. It concludes by identifying an assortment of technologies and policies that could respond to these electricity-water tradeoffs. (author)

  12. A Review Of The History Of Gender Equality In The United States Of America

    OpenAIRE

    Wedad Andrada Quffa

    2016-01-01

    Gender inequality is one of the important challenges in all modern societies, the United States of America being no exception, despite the progress and significant advances that have been made in the past century. There still is a significant gender gap in many areas - most notable being the pay gap, social norms and practices, education, political participation and social institutions. The present article aims to analyse the legal framework and social framework that has evolved in the United...

  13. Pancreatic cancer clinical trials and accrual in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoos, William A; James, Porsha M; Rahib, Lola; Talley, Anitra W; Fleshman, Julie M; Matrisian, Lynn M

    2013-09-20

    Pancreatic cancer clinical trials open in the United States and their accrual were examined to identify opportunities to accelerate progress in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer-specific clinical trials open in the United States in the years 2011 and 2012 were obtained from the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network database. Accrual information was obtained from trial sponsors. The portfolio of pancreatic cancer clinical trials identified by type (adenocarcinoma or neuroendocrine), phase, disease stage, and treatment approach is reported. More than half of trials for patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma applied biologic insights to new therapeutic approaches, and 38% focused on optimization of radiation or chemotherapy delivery or regimens. In 2011, pancreatic cancer trials required total enrollment of 11,786 patients. Actual accrual to 93.2% of trials was 1,804 patients, an estimated 4.57% of the patients with pancreatic cancer alive in that year. The greatest need was for patients with resectable cancer. Trials open in 2011 enrolled an average of 15% of their total target accrual. Physician recommendations greatly influenced patients' decision to enroll or not enroll onto a clinical trial. Matching to a clinical trial within a 50-mile radius and identifying trials for recurrent/refractory disease were documented as challenges for patient accrual. Overall trial enrollment indicates that pancreatic cancer trials open in 2011 would require 6.7 years on average to complete accrual. These results suggest that harmonizing patient supply and demand for clinical trials is required to accelerate progress toward improving survival in pancreatic cancer.

  14. The Future of the United States Antarctic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, J. E.; Weidner, G. A.; Lazzara, M. A.; Knuth, S. L.; Cassano, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    The last three decades have seen Antarctic surface meteorological observations augmented by an increasing number of automated weather stations (AWS). Since 1980, the University of Wisconsin-Madison has managed an expanding array of AWS in Antarctica that are funded through the United States' National Science Foundation. The AWS network began with six stations and has grown to approximately 60 stations. The majority of the AWS use a custom electronics package designed in the 1970s and modified over approximately 20 years. However, dramatic changes in the electronics industry have led the UW-Madison to transition its AWS to commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components capable of integrating on-station storage, varied sensors, multiple data telemetry options, and a flexible operating system. Among the important technical issues arising from adopting a COTS-based AWS system are limited temperature certification for Antarctic conditions; non-standard integration of the varied telecommunications equipment; potentially inflexible data acquisition schemes; and frequent product upgrades, changes, and obsolescence. The UW-Madison presents the current status of its AWS system; its recent experience with new data loggers, sensors, and communication options; and its attempts to obtain a standardized AWS. The intent is to encourage the development of a forum where groups can document their experiences with varied AWS systems in the extreme polar climate. Recent events have added another challenge within the United States Antarctic Program, as it has become clear that budgetary and logistic limitations will drastically impact the AWS program. With logistical costs playing a bigger factor in funding AWS operations, international coordination and cooperation will be important in deploying and maintaining the AWS networks (such as GCOS) that are critical to monitoring the world's climate.

  15. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  16. Communication between United States-Based Firms and Mexican Production Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Lila

    A study examined the types of communication technologies being used by United States-based corporations with operations in Mexico to determine the challenges these companies face when communicating across the border. A total of 703 U.S. corporations doing business with Mexico (culled from lists in two professional directories) were chosen for the…

  17. Tribal wilderness research needs and issues in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan McDonald; Tom McDonald; Leo H. McAvoy

    2000-01-01

    This paper represents a dialogue between tribal wilderness managers and researchers on the primary research needs of tribal wilderness in the United States and Canada. The authors identify a number of research priorities for tribal wildlands. The paper also discusses some major issues and challenges faced by researchers conducting research in areas that are culturally...

  18. Climate-induced changes in vulnerability to biological threats in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiu Olatinwo; Qinfeng Guo; Songlin Fei; William Otrosina; Kier Klepzig; Douglas Streett

    2014-01-01

    Forest land managers face the challenges of preparing their forests for the impacts of climate change. However, climate change adds a new dimension to the task of developing and testing science-based management options to deal with the effects of stressors on forest ecosystems in the southern United States. The large spatial scale and complex interactions make...

  19. Entropy dynamics in cone production of longleaf pine forests in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiongwen Chen; Dale G. Brockway; Qinfeng Guo

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic temporal patterns of seed production are a challenge for the regeneration and restoration of longleaf pine, which is a keystone component of an endangered ecosystem in the southeastern United States. In this study, long-term data for longleaf pine cone production, collected at six sites across the southeastern region, was examined from the perspective of...

  20. Fault Lines in Our Democracy: Civic Knowledge, Voting Behavior, and Civic Engagement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Richard J.; Sum, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    As the 21st century unfolds, the United States faces historic challenges, including a struggling economy, an aging infrastructure and global terrorism. Solutions will have to come from educated, skilled citizens who understand and believe in our democratic system and are civically engaged. This incisive new report examines these fault lines and…

  1. Mental Health of Survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake Living in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Thousands of survivors of the 2010 Haitian Earthquake are currently living in the United States. This podcast features a brief non-disease-specific interview with Dr. Marc Safran, CDC's longest serving psychiatrist, about a few of the mental health challenges such survivors may face.

  2. Economic Conditions and the Divorce Rate: A Time-Series Analysis of the Postwar United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Scott J.

    1985-01-01

    Challenges the belief that the divorce rate rises during prosperity and falls during economic recessions. Time-series regression analysis of postwar United States reveals small but positive effects of unemployment on divorce rate. Stronger influences on divorce rates are changes in age structure and labor-force participation rate of women.…

  3. Residential firewood use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, F W; Dungan, J L

    1983-03-25

    An empirical relation between residential firewood use and population density was developed from survey data for 64 counties in New England and was corroborated by data from other states. The results indicate that usage is concentrated in urbanized areas of the Northeast and north central states and that about 9.0 to 11.0 percent of U.S. space heating input is from firewood. No constraints due to the supply of wood were apparent in 1978-1979. These findings have implications for effects on air quality.

  4. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  5. Tuition Reciprocity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gregory; Wright, Dianne Brown; Kennedy, Angelica

    2008-01-01

    Reciprocity agreements are contracts between two or more parties whereby students pay reduced tuition rates. The rate of reduction is determined by the parameters set forth in each individual state's agreement but may range from a modest reduction in fees to a waiver of full non-resident tuition. In addition to providing tuition relief,…

  6. Steam generator issues in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strosnider, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Alloy 600 steam generator tubes in the US have exhibited degradation mechanisms similar to those observed in other countries. Effective programs have been implemented to address several degradation mechanisms including: wastage; mechanical wear; pitting; and fatigue. These degradation mechanisms are fairly well understood as indicated by the ability to effectively mitigate/manage them. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is the dominant degradation mechanism in the US. SCC poses significant inspection and management challenges to the industry and the regulators. The paper also addresses issues of research into SCC, inspection programs, plugging, repair strategies, water chemistry, and regulatory control. Emerging issues in the US include: parent tube cracking at sleeve joints; detection and repair of circumferential cracks; free span cracking; inspection and cracking of dented regions; and severe accident analysis

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Indian Gaming in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, William V.; Bunch, Rick L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on Indian gaming in South Dakota discovered very restrictive and unfavorable tribal-state compacts that appear to border on economic racism. This article expands this previous research by exploring the influence of tribal-state Indian gaming compacts for the Indian casinos located in the contiguous United States. The purpose is…

  8. United States - Japanese nuclear relations: implications for the pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttmeier, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The initiation of a new approach to non-proliferation policy by the United States in 1977 was the most upsetting development in the history of US-Japanese nuclear relations. The policy has seemingly altered Japanese views of its own nuclear future very little, yet it has altered the tone of the nuclear relationship with the United States. Recent Japanese nuclear power developments, both technical and administrative, are outlined and the prospects for the future of the United States-Japanese nuclear relationship and for Pacific regional cooperation assessed. Issues of importance in the relationship include reprocessing - enrichment, plutonium management, spent fuel and waste management and uranium supplies

  9. Medical revalidation as professional regulatory reform: Challenging the power of enforceable trust in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Zoey

    2018-05-01

    For more than two decades, international healthcare crises and ensuing political debates have led to increasing professional governance and regulatory policy reform. Governance and policy reforms, commonly representing a shift from embodied trust in professionals to state enforceable trust, have challenged professional power and self-regulatory privileges. However, controversy remains as to whether such policies do actually shift the balance of power and what the resulting effects of policy introduction would be. This paper explores the roll-out and operationalisation of revalidation as medical regulatory reform within a United Kingdom National Health Service hospital from 2012 to 2013, and its impact upon professional power. Revalidation policy was subject to the existing governance and management structures of the organisation, resulting in the formal policy process being shaped at the local level. This paper explores how the disorganised nature of the organisation hindered rather than facilitated robust processes of professional governance and regulation, fostering formalistic rather than genuine professional engagement with the policy process. Formalistic engagement seemingly assisted the medical profession in retaining self-regulatory privileges whilst maintaining professional power over the policy process. The paper concludes by challenging the concept of state enforceable trust and the theorisation that professional groups are effectively regulated and controlled by means of national and organisational objectives, such as revalidation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Progressing Deployment of Solar Photovoltaic Installations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Calvin Lee

    2011-07-01

    This dissertation evaluates the likelihood of solar PV playing a larger role in national and state level renewable energy portfolios. I examine the feasibility of large-scale solar PV arrays on college campuses, the financials associated with large-scale solar PV arrays and finally, the influence of environmental, economic, social and political variables on the distribution of residential solar PV arrays in the United States. Chapter two investigates the challenges and feasibility of college campuses adopting a net-zero energy policy. Using energy consumption data, local solar insolation data and projected campus growth, I present a method to identify the minimum sized solar PV array that is required for the City College campus of the Los Angeles Community College District to achieve net-zero energy status. I document how current energy demand can be reduced using strategic demand side management, with remaining energy demand being met using a solar PV array. Chapter three focuses on the financial feasibility of large-scale solar PV arrays, using the proposed City College campus array as an example. I document that even after demand side energy management initiatives and financial incentives, large-scale solar PV arrays continue to have ROIs greater than 25 years. I find that traditional financial evaluation methods are not suitable for environmental projects such as solar PV installations as externalities are not taken into account and therefore calls for development of alternative financial valuation methods. Chapter four investigates the influence of environmental, social, economic and political variables on the distribution of residential solar PV arrays across the United States using ZIP code level data from the 2000 US Census. Using data from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Open PV project, I document where residential solar PVs are currently located. A zero-inflated negative binomial model was run to evaluate the influence of selected variables

  11. NCHS - Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  12. Transmission policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of electric power transmission access, pricing and investment policies in the US over the last 15 years and evaluates the current state of those policies. Pre-liberalization transmission access and pricing policies are reviewed first since more recent policies have evolved from them. FERC's efforts to ensure that transmission owning utilities provide non-discriminatory access and pricing to wholesale transmission customers, culminating in Order 888 and 889 are discussed. These rules did not respond to problems created by a highly balkanized transmission system and only partially responded to problems caused by common ownership and operation of transmission networks with generating and marketing businesses in the same regions. These problems motivated FERC to seek to create Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO) meeting a long list of criteria related to governance, network operations, transmission pricing and investment as reflected in Order 2000. The slow pace of 'voluntary' reform following Order 2000 led FERC to issue a proposed Standard Market Design Rule (SMD) which provided more detailed prescriptions for wholesale market design, network operations, regional planning, resource adequacy, and transmission investment. The SMD rule confronted enormous resistance from groups of utilities and states that had not embraced an electricity sector liberalization agenda. However, many of the provisions of the SMD are being implemented by the RTOs and ISOs in the Northeast and Midwest. PJM's market rules and transmission pricing, planning and investment policies are reviewed as an articulation of FERC's RTO and SMD visions. (author)

  13. Level III and IV Ecoregions of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and downloadable maps and datasets for Level III and IV ecoregions of the continental United States. Ecoregions are areas of general similarity in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources.

  14. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) Inventory (Building)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1093 - Possession of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment... figuring your net earnings from self-employment, the term possession of the United States shall be deemed...

  16. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  17. 2014 Highlights of Ferry Operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Based on information provided by operators who responded to the 2014 National Census of Ferry Operators (NCFO), the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) conservatively estimates that ferries in the United States carried just over 115 million pas...

  18. Psychotropic Medication Use among Adolescents: United States, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... no. 12–3929. 2010. Pratt LA, Brody DJ. Depression in the United States household population, 2005–2006. NCHS data brief, no 7. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2008. Akinbami LJ, Liu X, Pastor PN, Reuben ...

  19. NCHS - Births to Unmarried Women by Age Group: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes number of births to unmarried women by age group in the United States since 1940. Methods for collecting information on marital status changed...

  20. United States Coast Pilot (volume 1 through 9)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Coast Pilot is a series of 9 nautical books that cover a wide variety of information important to navigators of U.S. coastal and intercoastal...

  1. United States Air Force Nurse Crops Captains' Perceived Leadership Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randall, Marjorie

    1998-01-01

    ... effectiveness of nurses who lacked the additional training. Two hundred and seventy-nine United States Air Force Nurse Corps Captains with management experience completed Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Practice Inventory-Self (LPI...

  2. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  3. Barack Obama’s infrastructure policies for the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The new president of the United States, Barack Obama, has set his policies on infrastructures. To carry them out, he will resort mostly to economics incentives and, to a lesser extent, regulatory constraints.

  4. United States Earthquake Intensity Database, 1638-1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Earthquake Intensity Database is a collection of damage and felt reports for over 23,000 U.S. earthquakes from 1638-1985. The majority of...

  5. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  6. Nigeria and the United States: An Analysis of National Goals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, John M

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, the continent of Africa has regained its importance to the United States and other developed nations, primarily due to its vast amounts of untapped resources...

  7. United States Japan Industry and Technology Management Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gercik, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    .... The intellectual focus of the Program is to integrate the research methodologies of the social sciences, the humanities, and technology to approach issues confronting the United States and Japan...

  8. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) (Lease)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  9. The Rising Tiger (United States Policy Consideration towards Southeast Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Carla; Pagliano, Gary; Rosner, Elliot J

    1997-01-01

    .... soldiers Island-hopped through the Philippines enjoying ultimate victory in the Pacific theater, while during the Vietnam War, the United States experienced policy failures and conflicts in the nation's will...

  10. United States Foreign Policy and the Second Liberian Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2013 .... Diaspora groups based in the United States to intervene in the war. Ulti- .... take security sector reform as required by the Abuja II Peace Accord.

  11. Precipitation Frequency Atlas of the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Precipitation Frequency of the Western United States publication is an eleven volume set held in the archives. It was the culmination of many years of...

  12. HTGR development in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The status of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) development in the United States of America is described, including the organizational structure for the development support, HTGR development programme, and plans for future activities in the field

  13. Health care in the United States: organization, management, and policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenwald, Howard P

    2010-01-01

    "Health Care in the United States discusses the basic structures and operations of the U.S. health system. This resource includes examples, tables, and a glossary with key terms and acronyms to help understand important concepts...

  14. United States Air Force Nurse Crops Captains' Perceived Leadership Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randall, Marjorie

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceived leadership effectiveness of nurses who attended the United States Air Force Nursing Service Management residence course with the perceived leadership...

  15. Comparison between the United States Soil Conservation Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-10-26

    Oct 26, 2005 ... The United States Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method is used to estimate rainfall .... Precipitation is an important element in many engineering ... National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  16. Intra-State Challenges to the Nation-State Project in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intra-State Challenges to the Nation-State Project in Africa. Abdul Raufu Mustapha. Abstract. No Abstract Available CODESRIA Bulletin No.2, 3 & 4 2003: 26-34. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and ...

  17. Envisioning a renewable electricity future for the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai, Trieu; Mulcahy, David; Hand, M. Maureen; Baldwin, Samuel F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents high renewable electricity penetration scenarios in the United States using detailed capacity expansion modeling that is designed to properly account for the variability and uncertainty of wind and solar resources. The scenarios focus solely on the electricity system, an important sector within the larger energy sector, and demonstrate long-term visions of a U.S. power system where renewable technologies, including biomass, geothermal, hydropower, solar, and wind, contribute 80% of 2050 annual electricity, including 49–55% from wind and solar photovoltaic generation. We present the integration challenges of achieving this high penetration and characterize the options to increase grid flexibility to manage variability. Four high renewable pathways are modeled and demonstrate the robustness and diversity of renewable options. We estimate 69–82% annual greenhouse gas emission reductions and 3%–30% incremental electricity price increases associated with reaching 80%-by-2050 renewable electricity relative to reference scenarios. This paper affirms and strengthens similar analysis from the Renewable Electricity Futures study by using an improved model and updated data to better reflect investment and dispatch decisions under current outlooks for the U.S. electricity sector. - Highlights: • We model high renewable electricity scenarios for the U.S. electricity sector. • The mix of technologies will depend on future costs and system conditions. • Integration challenges and flexibility options are presented. • We estimate an incremental electricity price increase of 3–30% to achieve 80% RE (renewable electricity). • We estimate 69–82% reduction in annual carbon emissions with 80% RE

  18. Strategic Information Warfare: Challenges for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    University Press, 1991); Williamson Murray and Allan R. Millet , eds., Military Innovation in the Interwar Period (Cambridge UK: Cambridge University...The Free Press, 1995); James E. Austin, Managing in Developing Countries (New York: The Free Press, 1990); and Jean - jäcques Salomon, Francisco R...34 in War and Anti-War, 241 -251. 16 Schwartau, 2d ed., 540. See also Jean Guisel, Cvberwar: Espionage on the Internet (New York: Plenum Trade, 1997

  19. The New Migrants from Asia: Vietnamese in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hien Duc

    1996-01-01

    Presents instructional materials for a unit of study reexamining the effects of the Vietnam War on the Vietnamese migration to the United States. These materials discuss the historical background of this migration as well as the development of Vietnamese American communities and their relationship to other Asian American communities. (MJP)

  20. Immigrants to the United States and Adult Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrotta, Clarena

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes documented and undocumented immigrant populations in the United States. It discusses salient factors influencing their status as immigrants as well as adult education services available to them through publicly funded programs, social units, and community centers, especially churches and libraries.

  1. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ...-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into...-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter ``UKFTA'' or the ``Agreement''). On December 3, 2010, the United...

  2. The United States initiative for international radioactive source management (ISRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraine, N.; Karhnak, J.

    1999-01-01

    The United States takes seriously the potential problems from uncontrolled radioactive sources. To address these problems, the United States Department of State is leading the development of an initiative for International Radioactive Source Management (ISRM). The Department of State, through a number of Federal and state agencies, regulatory bodies and private industry, will endeavor to provide coordinated support to the international community, particularly through IAEA, to assist in the development and implementation of risk-based clearance levels to support import/export of radioactive contaminated metals and the tracking, management, identification, remediation, and disposition of 'lost sources' entering nation states and targeted industries. The United States believes that the international control of radioactive sources is critical in avoiding wide-spread contamination of the world metal supply. Thus the initiative has four objectives: (1) Protect sources from becoming lost (Tracking management); (2) Identify primary locations where sources have been lost (Stop future losses); (3) Locate lost sources (monitor and retrieve); and (4) Educate and train (deploy knowledge and technology). A number of efforts already underway in the United States support the overall initiative. The EPA has provided a grant to the Conference of Radiation Program Control Directors (CRCPD) to develop a nation-wide program for the disposition of orphaned radioactive sources. This program now has internet visibility and a toll-free telephone number to call for assistance in the disposal of sources. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and other government agencies as well as private companies are assisting CRCPD in this program. The NRC has begun a program to improve control of radioactive sources in the United States, and also intends to promulgate a regulation defining conditions for the release of materials from licensed facilities. The DOE is

  3. Neotectonic studies in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definitions of contemporary regional and local stress regimes which explain neotectonism are based on data derived from (1) gross crustal patterns suggested by plate tectonic theory, (2) vertical crustal movements, (3) earthquake focal mechanism solutions, which usually lack known geologic control at (focal) depths of concern, (4) instrumental measurements which, for all practical purposes, are near-surface measurements, (5) and the character and orientation of Quaternary (surficial) geologic features. It has been suggested that principal stress vectors vary widely within regions and reflect the interaction of whatever stress mechanisms are present at a particular locale as imposed on particular rock media. Recent studies on the tectonism of northern and southeastern New York state are summarized and interpretations of the available data are offered which present an explanation for the observed neotectonism. (author)

  4. Transmission policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joskow, P.L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Department of Economics

    2005-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of electric power transmission access, pricing and investment policies in the US over the last 15 years and evaluates the current state of those policies. Pre-liberalization transmission access and pricing policies are reviewed first since more recent policies have evolved from them. FERC's efforts to ensure that transmission owning utilities provide non-discriminatory access and pricing to wholesale transmission customers, culminating in Order 888 and 889 are discussed. These rules did not respond to problems created by a highly balkanized transmission system and only partially responded to problems caused by common ownership and operation of transmission networks with generating and marketing businesses in the same regions. These problems motivated FERC to seek to create Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO) meeting a long list of criteria related to governance, network operations, transmission pricing and investment as reflected in Order 2000. The slow pace of 'voluntary' reform following Order 2000 led FERC to issue a proposed Standard Market Design Rule (SMD) which provided more detailed prescriptions for wholesale market design, network operations, regional planning, resource adequacy, and transmission investment. The SMD rule confronted enormous resistance from groups of utilities and states that had not embraced an electricity sector liberalization agenda. However, many of the provisions of the SMD are being implemented by the RTOs and ISOs in the Northeast and Midwest. PJM's market rules and transmission pricing, planning and investment policies are reviewed as an articulation of FERC's RTO and SMD visions. (author)

  5. Status of the breeder fuel cycle in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the status and plans for the fast reactor fuel cycle in the United States. The United States is undertaking a complete reexamination of its entire breeder program strategy, and the direction of the new program is not yet clear. Studies in progress to examine the associated fuel cycle strategies as they relate to the overall emerging breeder strategy are described. The present status of and recent developments in the fuel cycle R and D programs are summarized

  6. The Energy Puzzle Between the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    securing China’s status as a great power.2 As of 2011, China is the second largest consumer of natural resources (oil, liquefied petroleum gas ( LPG ...pursuit of natural resources, (oil, natural gas , coal or renewable energy sources) is reshaping the world’s energy security. The United States is...pursuit of natural resources, (oil, natural gas , coal or renewable energy sources) is reshaping the world’s energy security. The United States is

  7. Complexity Leadership Theory: A United States Marine Corps Historical Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    DD-MM-YYYY) 23-04-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Complexity...Monograph Title : Complexity Leadership Theory : A United States Marine Corps Historical Overlay Approved by...General Ridgway’s Success in Korea.” Master’s thesis , United States Army Command and General Staff College, 2010. Diana, Gabriel. “Vision, Education

  8. Declining urban and community tree cover in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2018-01-01

    Paired aerial photographs were interpreted to assess recent changes (c. 2009–2014) in tree, impervious and other cover types within urban/community and urban land in all 50 United States and the District of Columbia. National results indicate that tree cover in urban/community areas of the United States is on the decline at a rate of about 175,000 acres per year, which...

  9. An Introduction to Retail Electricity Choice in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Retail electricity choice in the United States allows end-use customers (including industrial, commercial, and residential customers) to buy electricity from competitive retail suppliers. This brochure offers an overview of retail electricity choice in the United States, and its impact on prices and renewable energy procurement. It concludes with three lessons learned from the U.S. retail market experience that may serve as a reference for other countries and regions taking steps towards retail electricity market liberalization.

  10. Thermic insulation in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaon, G. (Ambassade de France a New York (USA)); Atlas, O. (Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, (USA))

    1984-01-30

    At present, thermic insulation accounts for 13% of the savings which have been made and this percentage should increase substantially in the future. The ideal insulation material must have low thermic conductivity, but also be light, have a low dilatation coefficient, good mechanical resistance and be fireproof and non-toxic. Rock wool and above all glass wool have the major portion in the insulation market with about 75% of the total. The prospects for an increase in sales are average: 6 to 7% per year until 1990 with a stabilization or a decrease after this date. Production is concentrated in the hands of about ten producers. The insulation with a cellulose base -with the addition of a combustion inhibitor, usually borax- represent about 15% of the market. Manufacturers are numerous and the production units are small. Any serious evaluation of the future of this product is difficult to make. However, it should be noted that combustion inhibition is one of the main factors of success of this product and constitutes a relatively active field of research. Perlite and vermiculite have a marginal part of the market which is concentrated in the hands of a few dozen producers. Their future seems promising and their production should double between now and the end of the century. There is also the field of plastics which has to be considered and notably polystyrene, polyurethanes and polyisocyanates. These can be injected and moulded in situ. To the extent that toxicity studies can definitively conclude that they are not harmful (urea-formol resins have just been prohibited), their future is brillant and their growth rate could reach about 200% per year. The big chemical and pharmaceutical companies are interested in these products and their portion of the market can rapidly go beyond their present 6 to 8%.

  11. Vertebrate species introductions in the United States and its territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Gary W.; Fuller, Pam L.

    2011-01-01

    At least 1,065 introduced vertebrate species have been introduced in the United States and its territories, including at least 86 mammalian, 127 avian, 179 reptilian/amphibian, and 673 fish species. Examples in each major taxonomic group include domestic cat, small Indian mongoose, red fox, goat, pig, rabbit, rats, house mouse, gray squirrel, nutria, starling, Indian common myna, red-vented bulbul, brown treesnake, red-eared slider, brown trout, tilapia, and grass carp. We briefly review some of these species and the types of damage they cause. We then review the basic types of methods used for control or eradication of each taxonomic group, including physical, chemical, biological, and cultural methods. We discuss some of the challenges in managing these species, including issues with the use of toxicants, land access, public attitudes, and monitoring difficulties. Finally, we list some ongoing research and future research needs, including improved detection methods, improved attractants, improved barriers, improved capture methods, fertility control, and risk assessment methods.

  12. Large component regulatory relief in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.L.; Boyle, R.W.

    2004-01-01

    The dismantling of retired nuclear power and test facilities required the transport of reactor vessels, reactor vessel heads, pressurizers, reactor coolant pumps, and steam generators; whereas the replacement of degraded components to continue operations has been generally limited to pressurized water reactor steam generators, and more recently, reactor heads. These components are quite large and massive, measuring up to 20 feet in diameter and 70 feet in length and weighing 50 to 600 tons. Issue Several issues arose, due to the implementation of the 1985 IAEA transportations regulations in the United States, on the practical matters of how to characterize the components and comply with the transportation regulations. The concept of a Surface Contaminated Object (SCO) was new to many in the U.S., and the large components were not readily amenable to transportation under the regulations. It was apparent that most of the components should be considered as SCO. However, it was not certain that the contamination limits for inaccessible areas could be met due to non-uniform contamination deposition; nor could the interior areas be readily surveyed without on-site dismantlement of the large component. Additionally, while the components were generally substantial in design and construction due to their use as pressure vessels under other codes, the current regulations required packages that met tests such as for stacking and free drop that would pose severe engineering challenges, prohibitive costs, or logistical difficulties during transport, due to the size and weight of the components being transport

  13. Vertebrate species introductions in the United States and its territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. WITMER, Pam L. FULLER

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available At least 1,065 introduced vertebrate species have been introduced in the United States and its territories, including at least 86 mammalian, 127 avian, 179 reptilian/amphibian, and 673 fish species. Examples in each major taxonomic group include domestic cat, small Indian mongoose, red fox, goat, pig, rabbit, rats, house mouse, gray squirrel, nutria, starling, Indian common myna, red-vented bulbul, brown treesnake, red-eared slider, brown trout, tilapia, and grass carp. We briefly review some of these species and the types of damage they cause. We then review the basic types of methods used for control or eradication of each taxonomic group, including physical, chemical, biological, and cultural methods. We discuss some of the challenges in managing these species, including issues with the use of toxicants, land access, public attitudes, and monitoring difficulties. Finally, we list some ongoing research and future research needs, including improved detection methods, improved attractants, improved barriers, improved capture methods, fertility control, and risk assessment methods [Current Zoology 57 (5: 559–567, 2011].

  14. Modeling HIV transmission and AIDS in the united states

    CERN Document Server

    Hethcote, Herbert W

    1992-01-01

    The disease that came to be called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first identified in the summer of 1981. By that time, nearly 100,000 persons in the United States may have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By the time the routes of transmission were clearly identified and HIV was established as the cause of AIDS in 1983, over 300,000 people may have been infected. That number has continued to increase, with approximately 1,000,000 Americans believed to be infected in 1991. The epidemic is of great public health concern because HlV is infectious, causes severe morbidity and death in most if not all of those infected, and often occurs in relatively young persons. In addition, the cost of medical care for a person with HIV disease is high, and the medical care needs of HIV-infected persons place a severe burden on the medical care systems in many areas. Understanding and controlling the HIV epidemic is a particularly difficult challenge. The long and variable period between H...

  15. UNITED STATES DURING THE COLD WAR 1945-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Mujiyati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available United States and the Soviet Union is a country on the part of allies who emerged as the winner during World War II. However, after reaching the Allied victory in the situation soon changed, man has become an opponent. United States and the Soviet Union are competing to expand the influence and power. To compete the United States strive continuously strengthen itself both in the economic and military by establishing a defense pact and aid agencies in the field of economy. During the Cold War the two are not fighting directly in one of the countries of the former Soviet Union and the United States. However, if understood, teradinya the Korean War and the Vietnam War is a result of tensions between the two countries and is a direct warfare conducted by the United States and the Soviet Union. Cold War ended in conflict with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as the winner of the country.

  16. Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    5.:01 6.01 1 5801 25.0100MS OC2&O 1 I I150Of.01 2.01 1.01 I I I I I I I I (5A 440 AI ,.l;. :, 2) ARARAT MARINE, tNC. I I I ! : 16 I -660 I9A~ o * 16... MONT CATNEIMEN M 3103 3 1333 31 0.1.39003 3 ...M 3AM ME#CNIMAN it 1907 of M1M 94311041 3 0730303 77.71 22.73 14.03 18003 1 40.0180MIR 3K ETCNtMAN 1 197...903D MONTE & STATES U=16 MCI. I I I I I fts me Is"M 1 19624asat #Q.ot 11.11 6.61 - t 41111 13.618M ILA MY I SM I 1",211 61.61 11.21 1.01 1 1KW9Ift, I

  17. Radiation processing in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1986-01-01

    In animal feeding studies, including the huge animal feeding studies on radiation sterilized poultry products irradiated with sterilizing dose of 58 kGy revealed no harmful effects. This finding is corroborated by the very extensive analysis of the radiolytic products, which indicated that the radiolytic products could not in the quantity found in the food be expected to produce any toxic effect. It thus appears to be proven with reasonable certainty that no harm will result from the proposed use of the process. Accordingly, FDA is moving forward with approvals while allowing the required time for hearings and objection. On July 5, 1983 FDA permitted gamma irradiation for control of microbial contamination in dried spices and dehydrated vegetable seasoning at doses up to 10 kGy; on June 19, 1984 the approval was expanded to cover insect infection; and additional seasonings and irradiation of dry or dehydrated enzyme preparations were approved on February 12 and June 4, respectively, 1985. In addition, in July 1985, FDA cleared irradiation of pork products with doses of 0.3 to 1 kGy for eliminating trichinosis. Approvals of other agencies, including Food and Drug Administration, Department of Agriculture, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department of Transportation, Environmental Protection Agency, and States and local communities, are usually of a technological nature and can then be obtained if the process is technologically feasible. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Small Hydropower in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy, Telluride, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Small hydropower, defined in this report as hydropower with a generating capacity of up to 10 MW typically built using existing dams, pipelines, and canals has substantial opportunity for growth. Existing small hydropower comprises about 75% of the current US hydropower fleet in terms of number of plants. The economic feasibility of developing new small hydropower projects has substantially improved recently, making small hydropower the type of new hydropower development most likely to occur. In 2013, Congress unanimously approved changes to simplify federal permitting requirements for small hydropower, lowering costs and reducing the amount of time required to receive federal approvals. In 2014, Congress funded a new federal incentive payment program for hydropower, currently worth approximately 1.5 cents/kWh. Federal and state grant and loan programs for small hydropower are becoming available. Pending changes in federal climate policy could benefit all renewable energy sources, including small hydropower. Notwithstanding remaining barriers, development of new small hydropower is expected to accelerate in response to recent policy changes.

  19. Inching toward incrementalism: federalism, devolution, and health policy in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparer, Michael S; France, George; Clinton, Chelsea

    2011-02-01

    In the United States, the recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 envisions a significant increase in federal oversight over the nation's health care system. At the same time, however, the legislation requires the states to play key roles in every aspect of the reform agenda (such as expanding Medicaid programs, creating insurance exchanges, and working with providers on delivery system reforms). The complicated intergovernmental partnerships that govern the nation's fragmented and decentralized system are likely to continue, albeit with greater federal oversight and control. But what about intergovernmental relations in the United Kingdom? What impact did the formal devolution of power in 1999 to Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland have on health policy in those nations, and in the United Kingdom more generally? Has devolution begun a political process in which health policy in the United Kingdom will, over time, become increasingly decentralized and fragmented, or will this "state of unions" retain its long-standing reputation as perhaps the most centralized of the European nations? In this article, we explore the federalist and intergovernmental implications of recent reforms in the United States and the United Kingdom, and we put forward the argument that political fragmentation (long-standing in the United States and just emerging in the United Kingdom) produces new intergovernmental partnerships that, in turn, produce incremental growth in overall government involvement in the health care arena. This is the impact of what can be called catalytic federalism.

  20. Implementation of ergonomics in a service unit: challenges and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penteado, Eliane Villas Bôas de Freitas; de França, Maria Goretti; Ramalhoto, Ana Maria de Brito; de Oliveira, Ana Maria; Machado, Bruno Rangel Cortoppassi; Genipapeiro, Joana Angélica Matos

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the implementation of ergonomics in a service unit of a major company in the energy sector. From the perspective of management, it analyses the process of implementation of ergonomics programmes in four operational areas. The objective was to diagnose the level of implementation of ergonomics. The study is descriptive, undertaken through the interaction with the technical staff of the operational areas involved, incorporating the perception of these role players concerning their work routines. The results indicated significant differences in the level of implementation of the programmes, especially those concerning structural conditions. Important conquests were registered, such as the investment in the training of specialists, the establishment of a facilitator network and the improvement of the standard for the directioning and alignment of the execution of initiatives. The linking in of the programmes with those of occupational health management emphasises its contribution to the safety and well-being of the workforce through interventions aimed mainly at eliminating and reducing ergonomic biomechanical risks. However, the need to broaden and deepen the ergonomic approach regarding organizational and cognitive aspects, as well as the insertion of ergonomics in project design of new work spaces and processes were also identified.