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  1. NCHS - Leading Causes of Death: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset presents the age-adjusted death rates for the 10 leading causes of death in the United States beginning in 1999. Data are based on information from all...

  2. Leading Causes of Death in Females United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Health Issues at Work Health Equity Leading Causes of Death in Females, United States Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... to current and previous listings for the leading causes of death in females in the United States. Please note ...

  3. Leading Causes of Death in Males United States, 2010

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    ... What’s this? Submit What’s this? Submit Button Leading Causes of Death in Males and Females, United States Recommend on ... to current and previous listings for the leading causes of death for males and females in the United States. ...

  4. Prevalence and Causes of Paralysis—United States, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S.; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A.; Fox, Michael H.; Fredine, Heidi; Cahill, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and causes of functional paralysis in the United States. Methods We used the 2013 US Paralysis Prevalence & Health Disparities Survey to estimate the prevalence of paralysis, its causes, associated sociodemographic characteristics, and health effects among this population. Results Nearly 5.4 million persons live with paralysis. Most persons with paralysis were younger than 65 years (72.1%), female (51.7%), White (71.4%), high school graduates (64.8%), married or living with a partner (47.4%), and unable to work (41.8%). Stroke is the leading cause of paralysis, affecting 33.7% of the population with paralysis, followed by spinal cord injury (27.3%), multiple sclerosis (18.6%), and cerebral palsy (8.3%). Conclusions According to the functional definition, persons living with paralysis represent a large segment of the US population, and two thirds of them are between ages 18 and 64 years. Targeted health promotion that uses inclusion strategies to account for functional limitations related to paralysis can be undertaken in partnership with state and local health departments. PMID:27552260

  5. Prevalence and Causes of Paralysis-United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Brian S; Courtney-Long, Elizabeth A; Fox, Michael H; Fredine, Heidi; Cahill, Anthony

    2016-10-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of functional paralysis in the United States. We used the 2013 US Paralysis Prevalence & Health Disparities Survey to estimate the prevalence of paralysis, its causes, associated sociodemographic characteristics, and health effects among this population. Nearly 5.4 million persons live with paralysis. Most persons with paralysis were younger than 65 years (72.1%), female (51.7%), White (71.4%), high school graduates (64.8%), married or living with a partner (47.4%), and unable to work (41.8%). Stroke is the leading cause of paralysis, affecting 33.7% of the population with paralysis, followed by spinal cord injury (27.3%), multiple sclerosis (18.6%), and cerebral palsy (8.3%). According to the functional definition, persons living with paralysis represent a large segment of the US population, and two thirds of them are between ages 18 and 64 years. Targeted health promotion that uses inclusion strategies to account for functional limitations related to paralysis can be undertaken in partnership with state and local health departments.

  6. Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-10-21

    Dr. Mike Miller reads an abridged version of the article, Encephalitis Caused by Pathogens Transmitted through Organ Transplants, United States, 2002–2013.  Created: 10/21/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 10/23/2014.

  7. Economic stagnation in the United States: underlying causes and global consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Blecker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the causes of the slow recovery of the US economy since the financial crisis and Great Recession of 2008-9. Fallen house values and excessive household debts continue to depress consumer spending, while corporations are failing to invest in spite of record profits. The increasingly unequal distribution of income limits demand, while long-term structural transformations continue to erode employment creation. An expansionary monetary policy has been incapable of sparking a more robust recovery and fiscal policy has been shifted to an austerity stance. In this context, Brazil and other emerging market nations cannot count on the United States to continue to be the leading source of global demand as it was in previous decades.

  8. External causes of pediatric injury-related emergency department visits in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Tamara D; Bublitz, Caroline; Hambidge, Simon J

    2004-10-01

    To characterize the types and external causes of pediatric injury-related visits (IRVs) to emergency departments (EDs), in particular, sports-related injuries. To compare the characteristics of children with IRVs with those with non-IRVs, specifically, differences in IRV rates by race and ethnicity and by health insurance. This was a stratified random-sample survey of EDs in the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS), including all IRVs for patients less than 19 years of age in 1998 (n = 2,656). National estimates of pediatric IRVs were obtained using the assigned patient visit weights in the NHAMCS databases and SUDAAN analyses. Measures of association between predictor variables (patient and health insurance characteristics) and whether a child had an IRV were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analyses to determine adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Pediatric IRVs accounted for more than 11 million ED visits annually. The most common diagnoses for IRVs were open wounds, contusions, sprains and strains, and fractures and dislocations. The leading external causes of IRVs were sports-related injuries, accidental falls, being struck by objects, and motor vehicle collisions. Children with IRVs differed from those who presented for non-IRVs in many characteristics: they were more likely to be male, to be older, to be of white race, and to have private insurance, and less likely to be of Asian or Hispanic ethnicity. Sports and recreation are the leading external causes of pediatric IRVs to EDs in the United States. There are different patterns of IRVs according to gender, age, race, ethnicity, and insurance. Identification of specific patterns of injury is necessary for the design of effective prevention strategies.

  9. Human Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium bovis in the United States, 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Colleen; Cavanaugh, Joseph S; Pratt, Robert; Silk, Benjamin J; LoBue, Philip; Moonan, Patrick K

    2016-09-01

    Using genotyping techniques that have differentiated Mycobacterium bovis from Mycobacterium tuberculosis since 2005, we review the epidemiology of human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis in the United States and validate previous findings nationally. All tuberculosis cases with a genotyped M. tuberculosis complex isolate reported during 2006-2013 in the United States were eligible for analysis. We used binomial regression to identify characteristics independently associated with M. bovis disease using adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During 2006-2013, the annual percentages of tuberculosis cases attributable to M. bovis remained consistent nationally (range, 1.3%-1.6%) among all tuberculosis cases (N = 59 273). Compared with adults 25-44 years of age, infants aged 0-4 years (aPR, 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.8]) and children aged 5-14 years (aPR, 4.0 [95% CI, 3.1-5.3]) had higher prevalences of M. bovis disease. Patients who were foreign-born (aPR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.2-1.7]), Hispanic (aPR, 3.9 [95% CI, 3.0-5.0]), female (aPR, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.3-1.6]), and resided in US-Mexico border counties (aPR, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.7-2.4]) also had higher M. bovis prevalences. Exclusively extrapulmonary disease (aPR, 3.7 [95% CI, 3.3-4.2]) or disease that was both pulmonary and extrapulmonary (aPR, 2.4 [95% CI, 2.1-2.9]) were associated with a higher prevalence of M. bovis disease. Children, foreign-born persons, Hispanics, and females are disproportionately affected by M. bovis, which was independently associated with extrapulmonary disease. Targeted prevention efforts aimed at Hispanic mothers and caregivers are warranted. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Causes and consequences of decreasing atmospheric organic aerosol in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, D. A.; Heald, C. L.; Ridley, K. J.; Kroll, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM) exacerbates respiratory and cardiovascular conditions and is a leading source of premature mortality globally. Organic aerosol contributes a significant fraction of PM in the United States. Here, using surface observations between 1990 and 2012, we show that organic carbon has declined dramatically across the entire United States by 25–50%; accounting for more than 30% of the US-wide decline in PM. The decline is in contrast with the increasing organic aerosol due to wildfires and no clear trend in biogenic emissions. By developing a carbonaceous emissions database for the United States, we show that at least two-thirds of the decline in organic aerosol can be explained by changes in anthropogenic emissions, primarily from vehicle emissions and residential fuel burning. We estimate that the decrease in anthropogenic organic aerosol is responsible for averting 180,000 (117,000–389,000) premature deaths between 1990 and 2012. The unexpected decrease in organic aerosol, likely a consequence of the implementation of Clean Air Act Amendments, results in 84,000 (30,000–164,000) more lives saved than anticipated by the EPA between 2000 and 2010.

  11. Rates, trends, causes, and consequences of urban land-use change in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, William; Taylor, Janis L.; Hester, Dave J.; Mladinich, Carol S.; Glavac, Sonya

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 200 years, changes to the Nation's urban areas have been dramatic. Changes that have occurred relate both to the location of urban centers, as well as to the spatial extent of land dedicated to urban uses. Urban areas at the beginning of the 19th century were located primarily along major rivers or bodies of water, as waterways provided the most efficient means for transporting goods and people. As railroads became prominent, urban areas were able to expand or develop away from the water's edge.Geographic features such as steep slopes, wetlands, and lack of freshwater impeded settlement. In 1902, the National Reclamation Act was passed and with it came funding for the construction of water storage and transportation systems. This encouraged urban expansion in the arid west. After World War II, the Nation's urban areas continued to expand outward away from the city center as populations migrated to the margins of urban areas, where land was less expensive and the environment was less polluted. In 1956, the Federal Highway Act and the building of Interstate highways further facilitated urban expansion across the Unite States. Rural towns, small industrial centers, and farmland were engulfed by expanding urban centers.Over the past 200 years, numerous social, cultural, economic, and political incentives have encouraged urban expansion. In the 1800s, the industrial revolution influenced where people lived and worked. Many people shifted from agricultural production in rural areas to factory work in urban centers. Advances in transportation systems, such as rail transport in the 19th and early 20th centuries, followed by the mass production of the automobile and convenient air travel, facilitated a mobile society and a national economy. Economic growth and a population boom after World War II spurred increased suburbanization-the shifting of residential areas to the outlying section of a city or to a separate municipality-on the fringe of urban areas

  12. Reported foodborne outbreaks due to fresh produce in the United States and European Union: trends and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callejón, Raquel M; Rodríguez-Naranjo, M Isabel; Ubeda, Cristina; Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen; Troncoso, Ana M

    2015-01-01

    The consumption of fruit and vegetables continues to rise in the United States and European Union due to healthy lifestyle recommendations. Meanwhile, the rate of foodborne illness caused by the consumption of these products remains high in both regions, representing a significant public health and financial issue. This study addresses the occurrence of reported foodborne outbreaks associated with fresh fruits and vegetables consumption in the United States and European Union during the period 2004-2012, where data are available. Special attention is paid to those pathogens responsible for these outbreaks, the mechanisms of contamination, and the fresh produce vehicles involved. Norovirus is shown to be responsible for most of the produce-related outbreaks, followed by Salmonella. Norovirus is mainly linked with the consumption of salad in the United States and of berries in the European Union, as demonstrated by the Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA). Salmonella was the leading cause of multistate produce outbreaks in the United States and was the pathogen involved in the majority of sprouts-associated outbreaks. As is reflected in the MCA, the pattern of fresh produce outbreaks differed in the United States and European Union by the type of microorganism and the food vehicle involved.

  13. Population Genetic Structure of Venturia effusa, Cause of Pecan Scab, in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Clive H; Hotchkiss, Michael W; Young, Carolyn A; Charlton, Nikki D; Chakradhar, Mattupalli; Stevenson, Katherine L; Wood, Bruce W

    2017-05-01

    Venturia effusa is the most important pathogen of pecan in the southeastern United States. Little information exists on the population biology and genetic diversity of the pathogen. A hierarchical sampling of 784 isolates from 63 trees in 11 pecan orchards in the southeastern United States were screened against a set of 30 previously characterized microsatellite markers. Populations were collected from Georgia (n = 2), Florida (n = 1), Alabama (n = 2), Mississippi (n = 1), Louisiana (n = 1), Illinois (n = 1), Oklahoma (n = 1), Texas (n = 1), and Kansas (n = 1). Clonality was low in all orchard populations (≤10.1% of isolates), and there were consistently high levels of genotypic diversity (Shannon-Weiner's index = 3.49 to 4.59) and gene diversity (Nei's measure = 0.513 to 0.713). Analysis of molecular variance showed that, although 81% of genetic diversity occurred at the scale of the individual tree, 16% occurred between orchards and only 3% between trees within orchards. All populations could be differentiated from each other (P = 0.01), and various cluster analyses indicated that some populations were more closely related compared with other pairs of populations. This is indicative of some limited population differentiation in V. effusa in the southeastern United States. Bayesian and nearest-neighbor methods suggested eight clusters, with orchards from Georgia and Florida being grouped together. A minimum spanning tree of all 784 isolates also indicated some isolate identification with source population. Linkage disequilibrium was detected in all but one population (Kansas), although 8 of the 11 populations had pecan and pecan scab, which is that V. effusa became an issue on cultivated pecan in the last approximately 120 years (recent population expansion). Recently reported mating type genes and the sexual stage of this fungus may help explain the observed population characteristics, which bear a strong resemblance to those of other well

  14. Causes of Outbreaks Associated with Drinking Water in the United States from 1971 to 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craun, Gunther F.; Brunkard, Joan M.; Yoder, Jonathan S.; Roberts, Virginia A.; Carpenter, Joe; Wade, Tim; Calderon, Rebecca L.; Roberts, Jacquelin M.; Beach, Michael J.; Roy, Sharon L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Since 1971, the CDC, EPA, and Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) have maintained the collaborative national Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System (WBDOSS) to document waterborne disease outbreaks (WBDOs) reported by local, state, and territorial health departments. WBDOs were recently reclassified to better characterize water system deficiencies and risk factors; data were analyzed for trends in outbreak occurrence, etiologies, and deficiencies during 1971 to 2006. A total of 833 WBDOs, 577,991 cases of illness, and 106 deaths were reported during 1971 to 2006. Trends of public health significance include (i) a decrease in the number of reported outbreaks over time and in the annual proportion of outbreaks reported in public water systems, (ii) an increase in the annual proportion of outbreaks reported in individual water systems and in the proportion of outbreaks associated with premise plumbing deficiencies in public water systems, (iii) no change in the annual proportion of outbreaks associated with distribution system deficiencies or the use of untreated and improperly treated groundwater in public water systems, and (iv) the increasing importance of Legionella since its inclusion in WBDOSS in 2001. Data from WBDOSS have helped inform public health and regulatory responses. Additional resources for waterborne disease surveillance and outbreak detection are essential to improve our ability to monitor, detect, and prevent waterborne disease in the United States. PMID:20610821

  15. Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Margaret A.; Baker, Katherine; Cassirer, E. Frances; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren L.; Wolff, Peregrine; Smith, Joshua B.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in lung tissue from 44 bighorn sheep from herds affected by 8 outbreaks in the western United States. M. ovipneumoniae, the only agent detected at significantly higher prevalence in animals from outbreaks (95%) than in animals from unaffected healthy populations (0%), was the most consistently detected agent and the only agent that exhibited single strain types within each outbreak. The other respiratory pathogens were frequently but inconsistently detected, as were several obligate anaerobic bacterial species, all of which might represent secondary or opportunistic infections that could contribute to disease severity. These data provide evidence that M. ovipneumoniae plays a primary role in the etiology of epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep. PMID:22377321

  16. Causes of pneumonia epizootics among bighorn sheep, Western United States, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Thomas E; Highland, Margaret A; Baker, Katherine; Cassirer, E Frances; Anderson, Neil J; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren L; Wolff, Peregrine; Smith, Joshua B; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2012-03-01

    Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in lung tissue from 44 bighorn sheep from herds affected by 8 outbreaks in the western United States. M. ovipneumoniae, the only agent detected at significantly higher prevalence in animals from outbreaks (95%) than in animals from unaffected healthy populations (0%), was the most consistently detected agent and the only agent that exhibited single strain types within each outbreak. The other respiratory pathogens were frequently but inconsistently detected, as were several obligate anaerobic bacterial species, all of which might represent secondary or opportunistic infections that could contribute to disease severity. These data provide evidence that M. ovipneumoniae plays a primary role in the etiology of epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep.

  17. Disease-Causing Fungi in Homes and Yards in the Midwestern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A number of fungal pathogens that may result in a variety of human diseases are found in residential homes and yards. The growth of these microscopic fungi is often favored by particular characteristics of the dwelling and nearby outdoor environment. Evolved virulence factors or increased ability of specific fungi to grow in diverse, and sometimes harsh, microenvironments presented by the domestic environment may promote growth and pathogenesis. Infection may occur by inhalation or direct inoculation and include endemic fungi in addition to opportunistic or emerging species. Systemic or locally aggressive fungal infections are particularly likely and may be life-threatening in those with compromised immune systems. Allergic disease may include sinusitis, pneumonitis and immediate hypersensitivity. Controversial topics include mycotoxins, volatile organic compounds and sick building syndrome. This narrative review describes the usual presentations, domestic environmental sources, prevention techniques and risk of acquiring these diseases in the Midwestern United States.

  18. The causes of medical malpractice suits against radiologists in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whang, Jeremy S; Baker, Stephen R; Patel, Ronak; Luk, Lyndon; Castro, Alejandro

    2013-02-01

    To determine the most frequent causes of malpractice suits as derived from credentialing data of 8401 radiologists. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of New Jersey Medical School. A total of 8401 radiologists in 47 states participating in the network of One-Call Medical, a broker for computed tomographic/magnetic resonance studies in workers' compensation cases, were required to provide their malpractice history as part of their credentialing application. Of these, 2624 (31%) radiologists had at least one claim in their career. In each enrollee's credentialing file, if there was a claim against the enrollee there was a narrative regarding each malpractice case from which, in most instances, a primary allegation could be discerned. Among the 4793 cases, an alleged cause could be derived from the narrative in 4043 (84%). Statistical analysis was performed with Stata 12 (2011; Stata, College Station, Tex) software. The most common general cause was error in diagnosis (14.83 claims per 1000 person-years [95% confidence interval {CI}: 14.19, 15.51]). In this category, breast cancer was the most frequently missed diagnosis (3.57 claims per 1000 person-years [95% CI: 3.26, 3.91]), followed by nonspinal fractures (2.49 claims per 1000 person-years [95% CI: 2.28, 2.72]), spinal fractures (1.32 claims per 1000 person-years [95% CI: 1.16, 1.49]), lung cancer (1.26 claims per 1000 person-years [95% CI: 1.11, 1.42]), and vascular disease (1.08 claims per 1000 person-years [95% CI: 0.93, 1.24]). The category next in frequency was procedural complications (1.76 claims per 1000 person-years [95% CI: 1.58, 1.96]), followed by inadequate communication with either patient (0.40 claim per 1000 person-years [95% CI: 0.32, 0.50]) or referrer (0.71 claim per 1000 person-years [95% CI: 0.60, 0.84]). Radiologists had only a peripheral role in 0.92 claim per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 0.77, 1.10). Failure to recommend additional testing was a rare cause (0.41 claim

  19. Fructose intake at current levels in the United States may cause gastrointestinal distress in normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Peter L; Caviar, Elena M; McCallum, Richard W

    2005-10-01

    Fructose intake has increased considerably in the United States, primarily as a result of increased consumption of high-fructose corn syrup, fruits and juices, and crystalline fructose. The purpose was to determine how often fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, would result in malabsorption and/or symptoms in healthy persons. Fructose absorption was measured using 3-hour breath hydrogen tests and symptom scores were used to rate subjective responses for gas, borborygmus, abdominal pain, and loose stools. The study included 15 normal, free-living volunteers from a medical center community and was performed in a gastrointestinal specialty clinic. Subjects consumed 25- and 50-g doses of crystalline fructose with water after an overnight fast on separate test days. Mean peak breath hydrogen, time of peak, area under the curve (AUC) for breath hydrogen and gastrointestinal symptoms were measured during a 3-hour period after subjects consumed both 25- and 50-g doses of fructose. Differences in mean breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptom scores between doses were analyzed using paired t tests. Correlations among peak breath hydrogen, AUC, and symptoms were also evaluated. More than half of the 15 adults tested showed evidence of fructose malabsorption after 25 g fructose and greater than two thirds showed malabsorption after 50 g fructose. AUC, representing overall breath hydrogen response, was significantly greater after the 50-g dose. Overall symptom scores were significantly greater than baseline after each dose, but scores were only marginally greater after 50 g than 25 g. Peak hydrogen levels and AUC were highly correlated, but neither was significantly related to symptoms. Fructose, in amounts commonly consumed, may result in mild gastrointestinal distress in normal people. Additional study is warranted to evaluate the response to fructose-glucose mixtures (as in high-fructose corn syrup) and fructose taken with food in both normal people and those with

  20. ­Assessing the causes of 20th century wetting in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D. A.; Williams, P.; Seager, R.; Fiore, A. M.; Cook, B.; Mankin, J. S.; Singh, D.; Smerdon, J. E.; Rao, M. P.

    2017-12-01

    During the 20th century, a large area of the eastern United States (US) experienced increases in precipitation and reduced warming, with seasonal cooling of daytime temperatures. These trends are in stark contrast with observed drying and warming globally, particularly with those in the western US. While the reduced temperature trends, termed the eastern US `warming hole,' are well documented and have been linked to reduced insolation from aerosols, evaporative cooling from increased precipitation, and natural climate variability, there is little research evaluating the timing, spatial extent, and physical origins of the historical eastern US precipitation trends. Here we investigate: (1) hydroclimate trends and variability across the continental US for 1895-2016 for all seasons, (2) mechanistic links between wetting and cooling trends in the Southeast US, and (3) dynamical links between wetting trends and large-scale atmospheric circulation changes. Our analyses of hydroclimatic trends indicate strong positive trends in fall precipitation in the Southeast and Northeast US, and positive trends in summer precipitation in the Northeast and Midwest US. The Southeast and Midwest wetting trends are coincident with negative trends in mean daily maximum temperatures (TMax), whereas the Northeast US wetting coincides with warming. Cross-wavelet analysis indicates low-frequency anti-phasing between summer precipitation and TMax, particularly in the Southeast US, but there is little coherence in the fall-season relationship. These results support a positive link between precipitation and evaporative cooling, as this mechanism is expected to be most focused in the boreal summer season. To investigate the shift to wetter conditions in the eastern US, we evaluate moisture transport across multiple reanalysis products, surface observations, and CMIP5 model runs. We find a step-shift toward enhanced southerly flow from the Gulf of Mexico into the Southeast and Midwest US that

  1. Disability status, mortality, and leading causes of death in the United States community population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L; Ault, Kimberly L; Anderson, Wayne L; Weiner, Joshua M; Stevens, Alissa; Campbell, Vincent A; Armour, Brian S

    2015-04-01

    We examined the effect of functional disability on all-cause mortality and cause-specific deaths among community-dwelling US adults. We used data from 142,636 adults who participated in the 1994-1995 National Health Interview Survey-Disability Supplement eligible for linkage to National Death Index records from 1994 to 2006 to estimate the effects of disability on mortality and leading causes of death. Adults with any disability were more likely to die than adults without disability (19.92% vs. 10.94%; hazard ratio=1.51, 95% confidence interval, 1.45-1.57). This association was statistically significant for most causes of death and for most types of disability studied. The leading cause of death for adults with and without disability differed (heart disease and malignant neoplasms, respectively). Our results suggest that all-cause mortality rates are higher among adults with disabilities than among adults without disabilities and that significant associations exist between several types of disability and cause-specific mortality. Interventions are needed that effectively address the poorer health status of people with disabilities and reduce the risk of death.

  2. Plurality of Birth and Infant Mortality Due to External Causes in the United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Katherine A; Thoma, Marie E; Rossen, Lauren M; Warner, Margaret; Simon, Alan E

    2017-03-01

    Risk of death during the first year of life due to external causes, such as unintentional injury and homicide, may be higher among twins and higher-order multiples than among singletons in the United States. We used national birth cohort linked birth-infant death data (2000-2010) to evaluate the risk of infant mortality due to external causes in multiples versus singletons in the United States. Risk of death from external causes during the study period was 3.6 per 10,000 live births in singletons and 5.1 per 10,000 live births in multiples. Using log-binomial regression, the corresponding unadjusted risk ratio was 1.40 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30, 1.50). After adjustment for maternal age, marital status, race/ethnicity, and education, the risk ratio was 1.68 (95% CI: 1.56, 1.81). Infant deaths due to external causes were most likely to occur between 2 and 7 months of age. Applying inverse probability weighting and assuming a hypothetical intervention where no infants were low birth weight, the adjusted controlled direct effect of plurality on infant mortality due to external causes was 1.64 (95% CI: 1.39, 1.97). Twins and higher-order multiples were at greater risk of infant mortality due to external causes, particularly between 2 and 7 months of age, and this risk appeared to be mediated largely by factors other than low-birth-weight status. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  3. Obesity-related mortality in France, Italy, and the United States: a comparison using multiple cause-of-death analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Magali; Désesquelles, Aline; Egidi, Viviana; Demuru, Elena; Frova, Luisa; Meslé, France; Pappagallo, Marilena

    2017-07-01

    We investigate the reporting of obesity on death certificates in three countries (France, Italy, and the United States) with different levels of prevalence, and we examine which causes are frequently associated with obesity. We use cause-of-death data for all deaths at ages 50-89 in 2010-2011. Since obesity may not be the underlying cause (UC) of death, we compute age- and sex-standardized death rates considering all mentions of obesity (multiple causes or MC). We use cluster analyses to identify patterns of cause-of-death combinations. Obesity is selected as UC in no more than 20% of the deaths with a mention of obesity. Mortality levels, whether measured from the UC or the MC, are weakly related to levels of prevalence. Patterns of cause-of-death combinations are similar across the countries. In addition to strong links with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, we identify several less familiar associations. Considering all mentions on the deaths certificates reduces the underestimation of obesity-related mortality based on the UC only. It also enables us to describe the various mortality patterns involving obesity.

  4. Hospitalizations and Deaths Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, United States, 1999?2005

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Eili; Smith, David L.; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2007-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections with Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infections, are a major cause of illness and death and impose serious economic costs on patients and hospitals. However, the recent magnitude and trend of these infections have not been reported. We used national hospitalization and resistance data to estimate the annual number of hospitalizations and deaths associated with S. aureus and MRSA from 1999 through 2005. During this period, t...

  5. Cancer as a cause of death among people with AIDS in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Edgar P.; Engels, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Background People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), are at increased risk for cancer. Highly active antiretroviral therapy [(HAART), widely available since 1996] has resulted in dramatic declines in AIDS-related deaths. Methods We evaluated cancer as a cause of death in a U.S. registry-based cohort of 83,282 people with AIDS (1980–2006). Causes of death due to AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs) and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs) were assessed. We evaluated mortality rates and the fraction of deaths due to cancer. Poisson regression assessed rates according to calendar year of AIDS onset. Results Overall mortality declined from 302 (1980–1989), to 140 (1990–1995), to 29 per 1,000 person-years (1996–2006). ADC mortality declined from 2.95 (1980–1989) to 0.65 per 1,000 person-years (1996–2006) (PAIDS-related deaths. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was the commonest cancer-related cause of death (36% during 1996–2006). Likewise, NADC mortality declined from 2.21 to 0.84 per 1,000 person-years (1980–1989 vs. 1996–2006, PAIDS, cancers account for a growing fraction of deaths. Improved cancer prevention and treatment, particularly for non-Hodgkin lymphoma and lung cancer, would reduce mortality among people with AIDS. PMID:20825305

  6. Trends in the leading causes of injury mortality, Australia, Canada, and the United States, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Karin; Clapperton, Angela; Macpherson, Alison; Sleet, David; Newton, Donovan; Murdoch, James; Mackay, J Morag; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Wilkins, Natalie; Marr, Angela; Ballesteros, Michael; McClure, Roderick

    2017-06-16

    The aim of this study was to highlight the differences in injury rates between populations through a descriptive epidemiological study of population-level trends in injury mortality for the high-income countries of Australia, Canada and the United States. Mortality data were available for the US from 2000 to 2014, and for Canada and Australia from 2000 to 2012. Injury causes were defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision external cause codes, and were grouped into major causes. Rates were direct-method age-adjusted using the US 2000 projected population as the standard age distribution. US motor vehicle injury mortality rates declined from 2000 to 2014 but remained markedly higher than those of Australia or Canada. In all three countries, fall injury mortality rates increased from 2000 to 2014. US homicide mortality rates declined, but remained higher than those of Australia and Canada. While the US had the lowest suicide rate in 2000, it increased by 24% during 2000-2014, and by 2012 was about 14% higher than that in Australia and Canada. The poisoning mortality rate in the US increased dramatically from 2000 to 2014. Results show marked differences and striking similarities in injury mortality between the countries and within countries over time. The observed trends differed by injury cause category. The substantial differences in injury rates between similarly resourced populations raises important questions about the role of societal-level factors as underlying causes of the differential distribution of injury in our communities.

  7. Anti-Gay Prejudice and All-Cause Mortality Among Heterosexuals in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellatorre, Anna; Muennig, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We determined whether individuals who harbor antigay prejudice experience elevated mortality risk. Methods. Data on heterosexual sexual orientation (n = 20 226, aged 18–89 years), antigay attitudes, and mortality risk factors came from the General Social Survey, which was linked to mortality data from the National Death Index (1988–2008). We used Cox proportional hazard models to examine whether antigay prejudice was associated with mortality risk among heterosexuals. Results. Heterosexuals who reported higher levels of antigay prejudice had higher mortality risk than those who reported lower levels (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 1.42), with control for multiple risk factors for mortality, including demographics, socioeconomic status, and fair or poor self-rated health. This result translates into a life expectancy difference of approximately 2.5 years (95% CI = 1.0, 4.0 years) between individuals with high versus low levels of antigay prejudice. Furthermore, in sensitivity analyses, antigay prejudice was specifically associated with increased risk of cardiovascular-related causes of death in fully adjusted models (HR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.04, 1.60). Conclusions. The findings contribute to a growing body of research suggesting that reducing prejudice may improve the health of both minority and majority populations. PMID:24328664

  8. Plutonium-related work and cause-specific mortality at the United States Department of Energy Hanford Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Steve; Richardson, David; Wolf, Susanne; Mihlan, Gary

    2004-02-01

    Health effects of working with plutonium remain unclear. Plutonium workers at the United States Department of Energy (US-DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State, USA were evaluated for increased risks of cancer and non-cancer mortality. Periods of employment in jobs with routine or non-routine potential for plutonium exposure were identified for 26,389 workers hired between 1944 and 1978. Life table regression was used to examine associations of length of employment in plutonium jobs with confirmed plutonium deposition and with cause specific mortality through 1994. Incidence of confirmed internal plutonium deposition in all plutonium workers was 15.4 times greater than in other Hanford jobs. Plutonium workers had low death rates compared to other workers, particularly for cancer causes. Mortality for several causes was positively associated with length of employment in routine plutonium jobs, especially for employment at older ages. At ages 50 and above, death rates for non-external causes of death, all cancers, cancers of tissues where plutonium deposits, and lung cancer, increased 2.0 +/- 1.1%, 2.6 +/- 2.0%, 4.9 +/- 3.3%, and 7.1 +/- 3.4% (+/-SE) per year of employment in routine plutonium jobs, respectively. Workers employed in jobs with routine potential for plutonium exposure have low mortality rates compared to other Hanford workers even with adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, and employment factors. This may be due, in part, to medical screening. Associations between duration of employment in jobs with routine potential for plutonium exposure and mortality may indicate occupational exposure effects. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Underlying causes of neonatal deaths in term singleton pregnancies: home births versus hospital births in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Arabin, Birgit; Dudenhausen, Joachim; Orosz, Brooke; Chervenak, Frank A

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the underlying causes of neonatal mortality (NNM) in midwife-attended home births and compare them to hospital births attended by a midwife or a physician in the United States (US). A retrospective cohort study of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) linked birth/infant death data set (linked files) for 2008 through 2012 of singleton, term (≥37 weeks) births and normal newborn weights (≥2500 grams). Midwife-attended home births had the highest rate of neonatal deaths [122/95,657 neonatal mortality (NNM) 12.75/10,000; relative risk (RR): 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3-4.4], followed by hospital physician births (8695/14,447,355 NNM 6.02/10,000; RR: 1.7 95% CI 1.6-1.9) and hospital midwife births (480/1,363,199 NNM 3.52/10,000 RR: 1). Among midwife-assisted home births, underlying causes attributed to labor and delivery caused 39.3% (48/122) of neonatal deaths (RR: 13.4; 95% CI 9-19.9) followed by 29.5% due to congenital anomalies (RR: 2.5; 95% CI 1.8-3.6), and 12.3% due to infections (RR: 4.5; 95% CI 2.5-8.1). There are significantly increased risks of neonatal deaths among midwife-attended home births associated with three underlying causes: labor and delivery issues, infections, and fetal malformations. This analysis of the causes of neonatal death in planned home birth shows that it is consistently riskier for newborns to deliver at home than at the hospital. Physicians, midwives, and other health care providers have a professional responsibility to share information about the clinical benefits and risks of clinical management.

  10. Multilocus sequence typing of Xylella fastidiosa causing Pierce's disease and oleander leaf scorch in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoli; Morano, Lisa; Bromley, Robin; Spring-Pearson, Senanu; Stouthamer, Richard; Nunney, Leonard

    2010-06-01

    Using a modified multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for the bacterial plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa based on the same seven housekeeping genes employed in a previously published MLST, we studied the genetic diversity of two subspecies, X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi, which cause Pierce's disease and oleander leaf scorch, respectively. Typing of 85 U.S. isolates (plus one from northern Mexico) of X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa from 15 different plant hosts and 21 isolates of X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi from 4 different hosts in California and Texas supported their subspecific status. Analysis using the MLST genes plus one cell-surface gene showed no significant genetic differentiation based on geography or host plant within either subspecies. Two cases of homologous recombination (with X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex, the third U.S. subspecies) were detected in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa. Excluding recombination, MLST site polymorphism in X. fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa (0.048%) and X. fastidiosa subsp. sandyi (0.000%) was substantially lower than in X. fastidiosa subsp. multiplex (0.240%), consistent with the hypothesis that X. fastidiosa subspp. fastidiosa and sandyi were introduced into the United States (probably just prior to 1880 and 1980, respectively). Using whole-genome analysis, we showed that MLST is more effective at genetic discrimination at the specific and subspecific level than other typing methods applied to X. fastidiosa. Moreover, MLST is the only technique effective in detecting recombination.

  11. Mortality Caused by Chronic Liver Disease Among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States, 1999–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaprasad, Anil; Byrd, Kathy K.; Redd, John T.; Perdue, David G.; Manos, M. Michele; McMahon, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared chronic liver disease (CLD) mortality from 1999 to 2009 between American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and Whites in the United States after improving CLD case ascertainment and AI/AN race classification. Methods. We defined CLD deaths and causes by comprehensive death certificate-based diagnostic codes. To improve race classification, we linked US mortality data to Indian Health Service enrollment records, and we restricted analyses to Contract Health Service Delivery Areas and to non-Hispanic populations. We calculated CLD death rates (per 100 000) in 6 geographic regions. We then described trends using linear modeling. Results. CLD mortality increased from 1999 to 2009 in AI/AN persons and Whites. Overall, the CLD death rate ratio (RR) of AI/AN individuals to Whites was 3.7 and varied by region. The RR was higher in women (4.7), those aged 25 to 44 years (7.4), persons residing in the Northern Plains (6.4), and persons dying of cirrhosis (4.0) versus hepatocellular carcinoma (2.5), particularly those aged 25 to 44 years (7.7). Conclusions. AI/AN persons had greater CLD mortality, particularly from premature cirrhosis, than Whites, with variable mortality by region. Comprehensive prevention and care strategies are urgently needed to stem the CLD epidemic among AI/AN individuals. PMID:24754616

  12. The causes of the municipal solid waste and the greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungtaek; Kim, Jonghoon; Chong, Wai K O

    2016-10-01

    The United States generated approximately 730kg of waste per capita in 2013, which is the highest amount of waste among OECD countries. The waste has adverse effects to human health and the environment. One of the most serious adverse effects is greenhouse gas emissions, especially methane (CH4), which causes global warming. However, the United States' amount of waste generation is not decreasing, and the recycling rate is only 26%, which is lower than other OECD countries. In order to decrease waste generation and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying the causality of the waste generation and greenhouse gas emissions from waste sector should be made a priority. The research objective is to verify whether the Environmental Kuznets Curve relationship is supported for waste generation and GDP across the U.S. Moreover, it also confirmed that total waste generation and recycling of waste influences carbon dioxide emissions from the waste sector. Based on the results, critical insight and suggestions were offered to policymakers, which is the potential way to lower the solid waste and greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector. This research used annually based U.S. data from 1990 to 2012, and these data were collected from various data sources. To verify the causal relationship, the Granger causality test was applied. The results showed that there is no causality between GDP and waste generation, but total waste and recycling generate significantly increasing and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector, respectively. This implies that waste generation will not decrease even if GDP increases. And, if waste generation decreases or the recycling rate increases, greenhouse gas emission will decrease. Based on these results, increasing the recycling rate is first suggested. The second suggestion is to break the causal relationship between MSW and greenhouse gas emission from the waste sector. The third is that the U.S. government should benchmark a

  13. Leading causes of death among decedents with mention of schizophrenia on the death certificates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jin-Jia; Liang, Fu-Weng; Li, Chung-Yi; Lu, Tsung-Hsueh

    2018-01-30

    Little is known about the changes in the ranking of leading cause of death (COD) among people died with schizophrenia across years in the United States (U.S.). This study aims to determine the ranking of leading COD among U.S. decedents with mention of schizophrenia by age from 2000 to 2015. The mortality multiple COD files maintained by the National Center for Health Statistics were used to identify decedents aged 15 years old and above with mention of schizophrenia anywhere on the death certificates to determine the number and proportion of deaths attributed to various underlying CODs. Of 13,289, 13,655, 14,135, and 15,033 people who died in 2000-2003, 2004-2007, 2008-2011and 2012-2015 with mention of schizophrenia, similar to all decedents, heart disease and cancer was the first and the second leading COD throughout the study years. Schizophrenia ranked the third in most years except in 2004-2007. The first leading COD for decedents with mention of schizophrenia aged 15-24, 25-44, 45-64, 65-74, and 75+ years old in 2012-2015 was suicide, accidents, heart disease, heart disease, and Alzheimer's disease and related dementia, respectively. Nevertheless, it was accidents, accidents, cancer, cancer, and heart disease, respectively for all decedents. The ranking of leading CODs among U.S. decedents with mention of schizophrenia changed across years and differed from all decedents by age, which suggest that different interventions should be designed accordingly. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The preventable causes of death in the United States: comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the number of deaths caused by risk factors is needed for health policy and priority setting. Our aim was to estimate the mortality effects of the following 12 modifiable dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors in the United States (US using consistent and comparable methods: high blood glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, and blood pressure; overweight-obesity; high dietary trans fatty acids and salt; low dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids (seafood, and fruits and vegetables; physical inactivity; alcohol use; and tobacco smoking.We used data on risk factor exposures in the US population from nationally representative health surveys and disease-specific mortality statistics from the National Center for Health Statistics. We obtained the etiological effects of risk factors on disease-specific mortality, by age, from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies that had adjusted (i for major potential confounders, and (ii where possible for regression dilution bias. We estimated the number of disease-specific deaths attributable to all non-optimal levels of each risk factor exposure, by age and sex. In 2005, tobacco smoking and high blood pressure were responsible for an estimated 467,000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 436,000-500,000 and 395,000 (372,000-414,000 deaths, accounting for about one in five or six deaths in US adults. Overweight-obesity (216,000; 188,000-237,000 and physical inactivity (191,000; 164,000-222,000 were each responsible for nearly 1 in 10 deaths. High dietary salt (102,000; 97,000-107,000, low dietary omega-3 fatty acids (84,000; 72,000-96,000, and high dietary trans fatty acids (82,000; 63,000-97,000 were the dietary risks with the largest mortality effects. Although 26,000 (23,000-40,000 deaths from ischemic heart disease, ischemic stroke, and diabetes were averted by current alcohol use, they were outweighed by 90,000 (88,000-94,000 deaths from

  15. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  16. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  17. Differences Between Rural and Urban Areas in Mortality Rates for the Leading Causes of Infant Death: United States, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Danielle M; Hoyert, Donna L

    2018-02-01

    The leading causes of infant death vary by age at death but were consistent from 2005 to 2015 (1-6). Previous research shows higher infant mortality rates in rural counties compared with urban counties and differences in cause of death for individuals aged 1 year and over by urbanization level (4,5,7,8). No research, however, has examined if mortality rates from the leading causes of infant death differ by urbanization level. This report describes the mortality rates for the five leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death in the United States across rural, small and medium urban, and large urban counties defined by maternal residence, as reported on the birth certificate for combined years 2013-2015. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  18. Causes of systematic over- or underestimation of low streamflows by use of index-streamgage approaches in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, K.; Kiang, J.E.; Chen, Y.-Y.; Carlisle, D.M.; Granato, G.E.

    2011-01-01

    Low-flow characteristics can be estimated by multiple linear regressions or the index-streamgage approach. The latter transfers streamflow information from a hydrologically similar, continuously gaged basin ('index streamgage') to one with a very limited streamflow record, but often results in biased estimates. The application of the index-streamgage approach can be generalized into three steps: (1) selection of streamflow information of interest, (2) definition of hydrologic similarity and selection of index streamgage, and (3) application of an information-transfer approach. Here, we explore the effects of (1) the range of streamflow values, (2) the areal density of streamgages, and (3) index-streamgage selection criteria on the bias of three information-transfer approaches on estimates of the 7-day, 10-year minimum streamflow (Q7, 10). The three information-transfer approaches considered are maintenance of variance extension, base-flow correlation, and ratio of measured to concurrent gaged streamflow (Q-ratio invariance). Our results for 1120 streamgages throughout the United States suggest that only a small portion of the total bias in estimated streamflow values is explained by the areal density of the streamgages and the hydrologic similarity between the two basins. However, restricting the range of streamflow values used in the index-streamgage approach reduces the bias of estimated Q7, 10 values substantially. Importantly, estimated Q7, 10 values are heavily biased when the observed Q7, 10 values are near zero. Results of the analysis also showed that Q7, 10 estimates from two of the three index-streamgage approaches have lower root-mean-square error values than estimates derived from multiple regressions for the large regions considered in this study.

  19. How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in the United States in 2010?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Technical Information Service NCHS How Did Cause of Death Contribute to Racial Differences in Life Expectancy in ... National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. What causes of death influenced the difference in life expectancy between the ...

  20. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  1. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  2. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  3. Colistin- and Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli Harboring mcr-1 and blaNDM-5, Causing a Complicated Urinary Tract Infection in a Patient from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, José R; Patrawalla, Amee; Chen, Liang; Chavda, Kalyan D; Mathema, Barun; Vinnard, Christopher; Dever, Lisa L; Kreiswirth, Barry N

    2016-08-30

    Colistin is increasingly used as an antibiotic of last resort for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections. The plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was initially identified in animal and clinical samples from China and subsequently reported worldwide, including in the United States. Of particular concern is the spread of mcr-1 into carbapenem-resistant bacteria, thereby creating strains that approach pan-resistance. While several reports of mcr-1 have involved carbapenem-resistant strains, no such isolates have been described in the United States. Here, we report the isolation and identification of an Escherichia coli strain harboring both mcr-1 and carbapenemase gene blaNDM-5 from a urine sample in a patient without recent travel outside the United States. The isolate exhibited resistance to both colistin and carbapenems, but was susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The mcr-1- and blaNDM-5-harboring plasmids were completely sequenced and shown to be highly similar to plasmids previously reported from China. The strain in this report was first isolated in August 2014, highlighting an earlier presence of mcr-1 within the United States than previously recognized. Colistin has become the last line of defense for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria resistant to multiple classes of antibiotics, in particular carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). Resistance to colistin, encoded by the plasmid-borne gene mcr-1, was first identified in animal and clinical samples from China in November 2015 and has subsequently been reported from numerous other countries. In April 2016, mcr-1 was identified in a carbapenem-susceptible Escherichia coli strain from a clinical sample in the United States, followed by a second report from a carbapenem-susceptible E. coli strain originally isolated in May 2015. We report the isolation and identification of

  4. Laurel wilt, caused by Raffaelea lauricola , is detected for the first time outside the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. C. Ploetz; Y. Y. Thant; M. A. Hughes; T. J. Dreaden; J. L. Konkol; A. T. Kyaw; J. A. Smith; C. L. Harmon

    2016-01-01

    In October 2014, a survey for diseases and pests of an emerging fruit crop, avocado (Persea americana) (FAO 2000), was conducted in Southern Shan State of Myanmar (aka Burma). In the Tuanggyi District (1,400 m elevation, 20.5°N 97°E), monocultures of up to 20 ha were observed, whereas...

  5. Rapanos v. United States & Carabell v. United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents associated with guidance for implementing the definition of waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act following the Rapanos v. United States, and Carabell v. United States Supreme Court decision.

  6. Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on water- and foodborne diseases caused by microbiologic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J B; Epstein, P R; Lipp, E K; Sherman, B H; Bernard, S M; Patz, J A

    2001-05-01

    Exposure to waterborne and foodborne pathogens can occur via drinking water (associated with fecal contamination), seafood (due to natural microbial hazards, toxins, or wastewater disposal) or fresh produce (irrigated or processed with contaminated water). Weather influences the transport and dissemination of these microbial agents via rainfall and runoff and the survival and/or growth through such factors as temperature. Federal and state laws and regulatory programs protect much of the U.S. population from waterborne disease; however, if climate variability increases, current and future deficiencies in areas such as watershed protection, infrastructure, and storm drainage systems will probably increase the risk of contamination events. Knowledge about transport processes and the fate of microbial pollutants associated with rainfall and snowmelt is key to predicting risks from a change in weather variability. Although recent studies identified links between climate variability and occurrence of microbial agents in water, the relationships need further quantification in the context of other stresses. In the marine environment as well, there are few studies that adequately address the potential health effects of climate variability in combination with other stresses such as overfishing, introduced species, and rise in sea level. Advances in monitoring are necessary to enhance early-warning and prevention capabilities. Application of existing technologies, such as molecular fingerprinting to track contaminant sources or satellite remote sensing to detect coastal algal blooms, could be expanded. This assessment recommends incorporating a range of future scenarios of improvement plans for current deficiencies in the public health infrastructure to achieve more realistic risk assessments.

  7. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    property of CocaCola Bottling Company, Fayetteville, North Carolina, of a value in excess of $100.00, in violation of Title 18 United States Code, Section...another, to-wit: a Cocacola soft drink machine, the amount of damage to said personal property being more than $200.00, in violation of North Carolina

  8. Genetic Characterization of Fungi Isolated from the Environmental Swabs collected from a Compounding Center Known to Cause Multistate Meningitis Outbreak in United States Using ITS Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad M. Sulaiman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A multistate fungal meningitis outbreak started in September of 2012 which spread in 20 states of the United States. The outbreak has been fatal so far, and has affected 751 individuals with 64 deaths among those who received contaminated spinal injections manufactured by a Compounding Center located in Massachusetts. In a preliminary study, Food and Drug Administration (FDA investigated the outbreak in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, state and local health departments, and identified four fungal and several bacterial contaminations in the recalled unopened injection vials. This follow-up study was carried out to assess DNA sequencing of the ITS1 region of rRNA gene for rapid identification of fungal pathogens during public health outbreak investigations. A total of 26 environmental swabs were collected from several locations at the manufacturing premises of the Compounding Center known to have caused the outbreak. The swab samples were initially examined by conventional microbiologic protocols and a wide range of fungal species were recovered. Species-identification of these microorganisms was accomplished by nucleotide sequencing of ITS1 region of rRNA gene. Analysis of data confirmed 14 additional fungal species in the swabs analyzed.

  9. United States rejoin ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    2003-01-01

    Upon pressure from the United States Congress, the US Department of Energy had to withdraw from further American participation in the ITER Engineering Design Activities after the end of its commitment to the EDA in July 1998. In the years since that time, changes have taken place in both the ITER activity and the US fusion community's position on burning plasma physics. Reflecting the interest in the United States in pursuing burning plasma physics, the DOE's Office of Science commissioned three studies as part of its examination of the option of entering the Negotiations on the Agreement on the Establishment of the International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. These were a National Academy Review Panel Report supporting the burning plasma mission; a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) report confirming the role of ITER in achieving fusion power production, and The Lehman Review of the ITER project costing and project management processes (for the latter one, see ITER CTA Newsletter, no. 15, December 2002). All three studies have endorsed the US return to the ITER activities. This historical decision was announced by DOE Secretary Abraham during his remarks to employees of the Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The United States will be working with the other Participants in the ITER Negotiations on the Agreement and is preparing to participate in the ITA

  10. United States advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, the advanced technologies have been applied to uranium enrichment as a means by which it can be assured that nuclear fuel cost will remain competitive in the future. The United States is strongly committed to the development of advanced enrichment technology, and has brought both advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) programs to a point of significant technical refinement. The ability to deploy advanced technologies is the basis for the confidence in competitive future price. Unfortunately, the development of advanced technologies is capital intensive. The year 1985 is the key year for advanced technology development in the United States, since the decision on the primary enrichment technology for the future, AGC or AVLIS, will be made shortly. The background on the technology selection process, the highlights of AGC and AVLIS programs and the way to proceed after the process selection are described. The key objective is to maximize the sales volume and minimize the operating cost. This will help the utilities in other countries supply low cost energy on a reliable, long term basis. (Kako, I.)

  11. Adherence to a healthy diet according to the World Health Organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Nicole; Geelen, Anouk; Streppel, Martinette T; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Orfanos, Philippos; van den Hooven, Edith H; Pikhart, Hynek; Boffetta, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bobak, Martin; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kee, Frank; Franco, Oscar H; Park, Yikyung; Hallmans, Göran; Tjønneland, Anne; May, Anne M; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Růžena; Amiano, Pilar; Kampman, Ellen; Feskens, Edith J

    2014-11-15

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated guidelines for a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and postpone death worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the association between the WHO guidelines, measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and all-cause mortality in elderly men and women from Europe and the United States. We analyzed data from 396,391 participants (42% women) in 11 prospective cohort studies who were 60 years of age or older at enrollment (in 1988-2005). HDI scores were based on 6 nutrients and 1 food group and ranged from 0 (least healthy diet) to 70 (healthiest diet). Adjusted cohort-specific hazard ratios were derived by using Cox proportional hazards regression and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. During 4,497,957 person-years of follow-up, 84,978 deaths occurred. Median HDI scores ranged from 40 to 54 points across cohorts. For a 10-point increase in HDI score (representing adherence to an additional WHO guideline), the pooled adjusted hazard ratios were 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) for men and women combined, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.92) for men, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.95) for women. These estimates translate to an increased life expectancy of 2 years at the age of 60 years. Greater adherence to the WHO guidelines is associated with greater longevity in elderly men and women in Europe and the United States. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. CAUSES: On the Role of Surface Energy Budget Errors to the Warm Surface Air Temperature Error Over the Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H.-Y.; Klein, S. A.; Xie, S.; Zhang, C.; Tang, S.; Tang, Q.; Morcrette, C. J.; Van Weverberg, K.; Petch, J.; Ahlgrimm, M.; Berg, L. K.; Cheruy, F.; Cole, J.; Forbes, R.; Gustafson, W. I.; Huang, M.; Liu, Y.; Merryfield, W.; Qian, Y.; Roehrig, R.; Wang, Y.-C.

    2018-03-01

    Many weather forecast and climate models simulate warm surface air temperature (T2m) biases over midlatitude continents during the summertime, especially over the Great Plains. We present here one of a series of papers from a multimodel intercomparison project (CAUSES: Cloud Above the United States and Errors at the Surface), which aims to evaluate the role of cloud, radiation, and precipitation biases in contributing to the T2m bias using a short-term hindcast approach during the spring and summer of 2011. Observations are mainly from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains sites. The present study examines the contributions of surface energy budget errors. All participating models simulate too much net shortwave and longwave fluxes at the surface but with no consistent mean bias sign in turbulent fluxes over the Central United States and Southern Great Plains. Nevertheless, biases in the net shortwave and downward longwave fluxes as well as surface evaporative fraction (EF) are contributors to T2m bias. Radiation biases are largely affected by cloud simulations, while EF bias is largely affected by soil moisture modulated by seasonal accumulated precipitation and evaporation. An approximate equation based upon the surface energy budget is derived to further quantify the magnitudes of radiation and EF contributions to T2m bias. Our analysis ascribes that a large EF underestimate is the dominant source of error in all models with a large positive temperature bias, whereas an EF overestimate compensates for an excess of absorbed shortwave radiation in nearly all the models with the smallest temperature bias.

  13. Changes in the prevalence of the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the United States from 1988 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younossi, Zobair M; Stepanova, Maria; Afendy, Mariam; Fang, Yun; Younossi, Youssef; Mir, Hesham; Srishord, Manirath

    2011-06-01

    Chronic liver diseases (CLDs) are major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We assessed changes in the prevalence of different types of CLD in the United States. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted between 1988 and 2008 were used to estimate changes in the prevalence and predictors of CLDs. Serologic and clinical data were used to establish the diagnoses of CLDs in 39,500 adults. Statistical analyses were conducted with SUDAAN 10.0 (SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, NC). The prevalence rates for CLD were 11.78% (1988-1994), 15.66% (1999-2004), and 14.78% (2005-2008). During the same period, the prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection (0.36%, 0.33%, and 0.34%), hepatitis C virus (1.95%, 1.97%, and 1.68%), and alcoholic liver disease (1.38%, 2.21%, and 2.05%) remained generally stable. In contrast, the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increased from 5.51% to 9.84% to 11.01%. From 1988 to 1994, NAFLD accounted for 46.8% of CLD cases; from 1994 to 2004 its prevalence increased to 62.84%, and then to 75.1% from 2005 to 2008. During these time periods, steady increases were observed in obesity (21.74%, 30.02%, and 33.22%), visceral obesity (35.18%, 48.16%, and 51.43%), type II diabetes (5.55%, 7.88%, and 9.11%), insulin resistance (23.29%, 32.50%, and 35.00%), and hypertension (22.68%, 33.11%, and 34.08%). A multivariate analysis showed that during all time periods, obesity was an independent predictor of NAFLD. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data collected from 1988 to 2008 show that the prevalence of major causes of CLD remained stable, except for NAFLD, which increased steadily, along with the prevalence of metabolic conditions. Given the increasing rates of obesity, NAFLD prevalence is expected to contribute substantially to the burden of CLD in the United States. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Leading Causes of Death Contributing to Decrease in Life Expectancy Gap Between Black and White Populations: United States, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Kenneth D; Anderson, Robert N; Arias, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Life expectancy at birth has increased steadily since 1900 to a record 78.8 years in 2013. But differences in life expectancy between the white and black populations still exist, despite a decrease in the life expectancy gap from 5.9 years in 1999 to 3.6 years in 2013. Differences in the change over time in the leading causes of death for the black and white populations have contributed to this decrease in the gap in life expectancy. Between 1999 and 2013, the decrease in the life expectancy gap between the black and white populations was mostly due to greater decreases in mortality from heart disease, cancer, HIV disease, unintentional injuries, and perinatal conditions among the black population. Similarly, the decrease in the gap between black and white male life expectancy was due to greater decreases in death rates for HIV disease, cancer, unintentional injuries, heart disease, and perinatal conditions in black males. For black females, greater decreases in diabetes death rates, combined with decreased rates for heart disease and HIV disease, were the major causes contributing to the decrease in the life expectancy gap with white females. The decrease in the gap in life expectancy between the white and black populations would have been larger than 3.6 years if not for increases in death rates for the black population for aortic aneurysm, Alzheimer’s disease, and maternal conditions. For black males, the causes that showed increases in death rates over white males were hypertension, aortic aneurysm, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and kidney disease, while the causes that showed increases in death rates for black females were Alzheimer’s disease, maternal conditions, and atherosclerosis. This NCHS Data Brief is the second in a series of data briefs that explore the causes of death contributing to differences in life expectancy between detailed ethnic and racial populations in the United States. The first data brief focused on the racial differences in life

  15. United States panel presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyea, J.

    1990-01-01

    Before I begin I have to make a disclaimer. That is that I am going to be talking about public perception because I think that is very important. But I do not want to give the impression that I think the public is wrong. I happen to agree with the public's perception of nuclear power, and I want to make that clear. I do not like the current generation of nuclear plants as I have made clear in many statements that I have made. On the other hand, in the long term, I feel that we have only two choices on the supply side, and that is nuclear power and solar electricity. And although I think solar electricity has the best chance, I am realistic enough to know that technologies do not always work the way I want. And so I think it is necessary to have at least some kind of nuclear option available. On the other hand, I do not think just any kind of nuclear technology will do. I want to talk to you about the conditions that I think you have to take into account when you try to design reactors that are publicly acceptable. I look at this as an insurance policy. Again, I do not want to be misquoted: I think nuclear power should be considered as an insurance policy, not as our first line of defense. Having made those disclaimers, what we need to do is set out a problem statement. The problem statement I set out is, 'How could one design and demonstrate a nuclear reactor that would regain public confidence in the United States, if one chose to do that?' By regaining confidence, I mean regaining sufficient confidence to site reactors at a number of locations. It is a pretty heavy task because the public cannot judge the technical issues. They have to judge the players by their characters and their histories, just as the way we calibrate anyone that knows things that we do not. I have three theses that I think are crucial. The first is that people do not believe in the claims of advocates, of any point of view, not just nuclear power, once the advocates have been proved wrong on

  16. The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Art, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that at least in the national security arena, the outcomes of bureaucratic infighting and domestic political struggles are not determined wholly by what goes on with the state. Rather struggles among contending groups are greatly affected by what is perceived to be happening outside the nation. Because external conditions give greater potency to some domestic forces over other, the external environment is never neutral in its domestic impact. The decisions of the period 1950-53 discussed above illustrate the point. But so too do the decisions of 1947, 1960-61 and 1969-72. In the 1947 case, Soviet intransigence provoked US nuclear rearmament. In the 1960-61 case, extended deterrent considerations pushed the United States to preserve its again newly discovered nuclear superiority. In the 1969-72 case, a Soviet determination to remain equal forced US acceptance of nuclear equality. And perhaps the best evidence of all, the perpetuation of parity ended the US inclination to resort to nuclear brinkmanship. In each instance, concerns about relative position heavily affected nuclear choice. Finally, the events of the past three years testify to the effects of international events on domestic choice. Under the terms of the 1987 INF Treaty, the two superpowers decided to dismantle and destroy an entire class of missiles of intermediate range (500-3000 kilometers) that both had deployed in Europe in the 1970s and 1980s, and in their June 1990 joint statement on strategic nuclear weapons, President Gorbachev and Brush agreed to cut the number of Soviet and US long range nuclear forces by 30 per cent. This agreement marks a watershed in US-Soviet strategic arm negotiations because for the first time the United States and the Soviet Union agreed in principals to reduce the number of weapons aimed at one another. Between 1985 and 1990 the cold war was brought to a close

  17. CDC National Health Report: leading causes of morbidity and mortality and associated behavioral risk and protective factors--United States, 2005-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicole Blair; Hayes, Locola D; Brown, Kathryn; Hoo, Elizabeth C; Ethier, Kathleen A

    2014-10-31

    Although substantial progress has been made in improving the health of persons in the United States, serious problems remain to be solved. Life expectancy is increasing, and the rates of the leading causes of death are improving in many cases; however, numerous indicators (i.e., measures of observed or calculated data on the status of a condition) of the health and safety of the U.S. population remain poor. This report reviews population health in the United States and provides an assessment of recent progress in meeting high-priority health objectives. The health status indicators described in this report were selected because of their direct relation to the leading causes of death and other substantial sources of morbidity and mortality and should be the focus of prevention efforts. Data are reported starting in 2005 (or the earliest available year since 2005) through the current data year. Because data sources and specific indicators vary regarding when data are available, the most recent year for which data are available might range from 2010 to 2013. Data were obtained from 17 CDC surveys or surveillance systems and three non-CDC sources to provide a view of this particular point of time in the nation's health and trends in recent years. Data from the following CDC surveillance systems and surveys were used: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS); Emerging Infections Program/Active Bacterial Core surveillance (EIP/ABCs); Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet); Internet Panel Surveys: Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Health-Care Personnel and Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women; National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN); National HIV Surveillance System; National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS); National Immunization Survey (NIS); National Immunization Survey

  18. Colistin- and Carbapenem-Resistant Escherichia coli Harboring mcr-1 and blaNDM-5, Causing a Complicated Urinary Tract Infection in a Patient from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Mediavilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Colistin is increasingly used as an antibiotic of last resort for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative infections. The plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was initially identified in animal and clinical samples from China and subsequently reported worldwide, including in the United States. Of particular concern is the spread of mcr-1 into carbapenem-resistant bacteria, thereby creating strains that approach pan-resistance. While several reports of mcr-1 have involved carbapenem-resistant strains, no such isolates have been described in the United States. Here, we report the isolation and identification of an Escherichia coli strain harboring both mcr-1 and carbapenemase gene blaNDM-5 from a urine sample in a patient without recent travel outside the United States. The isolate exhibited resistance to both colistin and carbapenems, but was susceptible to amikacin, aztreonam, gentamicin, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The mcr-1- and blaNDM-5-harboring plasmids were completely sequenced and shown to be highly similar to plasmids previously reported from China. The strain in this report was first isolated in August 2014, highlighting an earlier presence of mcr-1 within the United States than previously recognized.

  19. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P Grytdal

    -years, respectively; community incidence rates for these viruses were 23.4, 22.5, and 8.5 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. This study provides the first age-group specific laboratory-based community and outpatient incidence rates for norovirus AGE in the U.S. Norovirus was the most frequently detected viral enteropathogen across the age spectrum with the highest rates of norovirus disease observed among young children and, to a lesser extent, the elderly. These data provide a better understanding of the norovirus disease burden in the United States, including variations within different age groups, which can help inform the development, targeting, and future impacts of interventions, including vaccines.

  20. Causes of death and infant mortality rates among full-term births in the United States between 2010 and 2012: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoliya, Neha; Fink, Günther

    2018-03-01

    While the high prevalence of preterm births and its impact on infant mortality in the US have been widely acknowledged, recent data suggest that even full-term births in the US face substantially higher mortality risks compared to European countries with low infant mortality rates. In this paper, we use the most recent birth records in the US to more closely analyze the primary causes underlying mortality rates among full-term births. Linked birth and death records for the period 2010-2012 were used to identify the state- and cause-specific burden of infant mortality among full-term infants (born at 37-42 weeks of gestation). Multivariable logistic models were used to assess the extent to which state-level differences in full-term infant mortality (FTIM) were attributable to observed differences in maternal and birth characteristics. Random effects models were used to assess the relative contribution of state-level variation to FTIM. Hypothetical mortality outcomes were computed under the assumption that all states could achieve the survival rates of the best-performing states. A total of 10,175,481 infants born full-term in the US between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012, were analyzed. FTIM rate (FTIMR) was 2.2 per 1,000 live births overall, and ranged between 1.29 (Connecticut, 95% CI 1.08, 1.53) and 3.77 (Mississippi, 95% CI 3.39, 4.19) at the state level. Zero states reached the rates reported in the 6 low-mortality European countries analyzed (FTIMR 2.75. Sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) accounted for 43% of FTIM; congenital malformations and perinatal conditions accounted for 31% and 11.3% of FTIM, respectively. The largest mortality differentials between states with good and states with poor FTIMR were found for SUDI, with particularly large risk differentials for deaths due to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) (odds ratio [OR] 2.52, 95% CI 1.86, 3.42) and suffocation (OR 4.40, 95% CI 3.71, 5.21). Even though these mortality differences

  1. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United States...

  2. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    650 of the U.S. Bureau of Mines) ; indeed, we regard that book and the present volume as being complementary. In the examination of the geologic possibilities for finding new deposits-in many respects the principal innovative contributions of this volume-we asked the authors to frankly apply the limits of their ingenuity and not only to summarize current theories but also to express their own intuitive ideas, however speculative and unconventional they may seem, that have come from years of study devoted to the origin of mineral deposits. Readers will see that some authors have speculated more courageously than others. In any case, we believe readers will find all the chapters interesting, and many stimulating; and a few we believe can be frankly characterized as intellectually exciting. Most chapters include a section on prospecting techniques, and a summary of geologic or related problems on which the authors believe research might be most fruitful in the continuing efforts to find new resources. An integral part of the book is the bibliographic material cited at the conclusion of each chapter, in lieu of repetition of detailed descriptions already in print. Index and "spot" maps are not included in most chapters because they are available elsewhere, and in many cases with more detail than could possibly be included here. Maps showing the distribution of known deposits of many commodities in the United States are available in the Mineral Resource (MR) map series of the U.S. Geological Survey and in the National Atlas of the United States. The first three chapters deal not with resources of specific commodities but with general information that is pertinent to the study of mineral resources. In the introductory chapter we discuss the purposes of the book, the distinctions between reserves and various categories of resources, and some general conclusions drawn from our view of the book in its entirety. In the second chapter V. E. McKelvey discusses the problems of

  3. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytdal, Scott P; DeBess, Emilio; Lee, Lore E; Blythe, David; Ryan, Patricia; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D; Hall, Aron J

    2016-01-01

    -years). Outpatient incidence rates of rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were 2.0, 1.6, 0.6 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; community incidence rates for these viruses were 23.4, 22.5, and 8.5 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. This study provides the first age-group specific laboratory-based community and outpatient incidence rates for norovirus AGE in the U.S. Norovirus was the most frequently detected viral enteropathogen across the age spectrum with the highest rates of norovirus disease observed among young children and, to a lesser extent, the elderly. These data provide a better understanding of the norovirus disease burden in the United States, including variations within different age groups, which can help inform the development, targeting, and future impacts of interventions, including vaccines.

  4. Incidence of Norovirus and Other Viral Pathogens That Cause Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) among Kaiser Permanente Member Populations in the United States, 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytdal, Scott P.; Biggs, Christianne; Cameron, Miriam; Schmidt, Mark; Parashar, Umesh D.; Hall, Aron J.

    2016-01-01

    -years). Outpatient incidence rates of rotavirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus were 2.0, 1.6, 0.6 per 1,000 person-years, respectively; community incidence rates for these viruses were 23.4, 22.5, and 8.5 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. This study provides the first age-group specific laboratory-based community and outpatient incidence rates for norovirus AGE in the U.S. Norovirus was the most frequently detected viral enteropathogen across the age spectrum with the highest rates of norovirus disease observed among young children and, to a lesser extent, the elderly. These data provide a better understanding of the norovirus disease burden in the United States, including variations within different age groups, which can help inform the development, targeting, and future impacts of interventions, including vaccines. PMID:27115485

  5. Fracking in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Renee

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, advances in technology have made it profitable to extract natural gas from shale, leading to a boom in shale gas development in the United States. Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, the controversial method for extracting natural gas, offers numerous benefits: relatively cheap energy, enhanced energy security, job creation, tax revenues and decreased dependence on dirty coal. Fracking, however, can also increase greenhouse gas emissions, pollute the air and result in health effects, consume huge quantities of water, and cause earthquakes. While some areas welcome fracking for the economic benefits it brings, other communities are attempting to ban fracking altogether. This article examines the benefits and risks of fracking in the U.S

  6. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. Alcohol brand sponsorship of events, organizations and causes in the United States, 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Olivia; Stamatakos, Korene; Ayers, Amanda J; Fryer, Victoria A; Jernigan, David H; Siegel, Michael

    2014-12-01

    There has been insufficient research attention to the alcohol industry's use of corporate sponsorship as a marketing tool. This paper provides a systematic investigation of the nature and extent of alcohol sponsorship-at the brand level-in the United States. The study examined sponsorship of organizations and events in the United States by alcohol brands from 2010 to 2013. The top 75 brands of alcohol consumed by underage drinkers were identified based on a previously conducted national internet-based survey. For each of these brands, a systematic search for sponsorships was conducted using Google. The sponsorships were coded by category and type of sponsorship. We identified 945 sponsorships during the study period for the top 75 brands consumed by underage drinkers. The most popular youth brands were far more likely to engage in sponsorship and to have a higher number of sponsorships. The identified sponsorships overwhelmingly associated alcohol brands with integral aspects of American culture, including sports, music, the arts and entertainment, and drinking itself. The most popular brands among underage drinkers were much more likely to associate their brands with these aspects of American culture than brands that were less popular among underage drinkers. Alcohol brand sponsorship must be viewed as a major alcohol marketing strategy that generates brand capital through positive associations with integral aspects of culture, creation of attractive brand personalities, and identification with specific market segments. Alcohol research, practice and policy should address this highly prevalent form of alcohol marketing. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M; Tan, Kathrine R

    2018-05-04

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles species mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to provide information on its occurrence (e.g., temporal, geographic, and demographic), guide prevention and treatment recommendations for travelers and patients, and facilitate transmission control measures if locally acquired cases are identified. This report summarizes confirmed malaria cases in persons with onset of illness in 2015 and summarizes trends in previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film microscopy, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff members. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System (NMSS), the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS), or direct CDC consultations. CDC reference laboratories provide diagnostic assistance and conduct antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. This report summarizes data from the integration of all NMSS and NNDSS cases, CDC reference laboratory reports, and CDC clinical consultations. CDC received reports of 1,517 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case, with an onset of symptoms in 2015 among persons who received their diagnoses in the United States. Although the number of

  8. Legislative update: United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The US Senate consented to the ratification of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC) on 4 August 2006. The entry into force of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation will substantially change the face of the international nuclear liability regime. The CSC is a free-standing instrument, open to all states. This means that countries can become party to a new global regime providing for liability and compensation for victims of a nuclear incident, without also having to become a contracting party to the Paris Convention or the Vienna Convention. This is certainly a major step forward given that at the present time, over half of the world's reactors in operation or under construction are not covered by any of the international nuclear third party liability conventions. The CSC creates an instrument by which states can ensure that more money will be made available to compensate more victims for a broader range of damage than ever before. The CSC provides for two tiers of compensation. The first tier, fixed at 300 million Special Drawing Rights, is to be provided by the liable operator. This tier is to be distributed on a non-discriminatory basis to victims both inside and outside of the Installation State. If 300 million SDRs are insufficient to compensate all damage, then contracting parties will be required to contribute to the second tier (the international fund). The amount of this second tier is not fixed, but rather will depend on the number of operating nuclear power plants in contracting parties, and is designed to increase as the number of such plants increases

  9. NCHS - Injury Mortality: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes injury mortality in the United States beginning in 1999. Two concepts are included in the circumstances of an injury death: intent of injury...

  10. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... litigation.'' United States v. Armour and Co., 402 U.S. 673, 681 (1971). Section 5 of the Clayton Act... relief in consent judgment that contained recitals in which defendants asserted their innocence); Armour...

  11. United States Strategy for Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Centner, Robert C

    2005-01-01

    The security and stability of Mexico is of national interest to the United States, and a strong, effective alliance between the two countries is pivotal to our national defense strategy and economic prosperity...

  12. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth...

  13. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of Columbia...

  14. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District...

  15. Political initiative needed in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, K.

    1979-01-01

    The financing of nuclear power stations in the United States is in trouble mainly because of the long lead times caused by licensing. It will again become feasible when legislation reduces the construction time to eight years or less. The overriding need to protect the dollar by reducing oil imports, will lead the US Government to embrace nuclear power openly. (U.K.)

  16. Woody encroachment in the Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg C. Liknes; Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Kevin. Nimerfro

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of the central United States is dominated by cropland and rangeland mixed with remnants of short- and tall-grass prairies that were once prevalent. Since the last ice age, these areas had sparse tree cover due to cyclical severe droughts, intentional fires used by indigenous people as a land management tool, and natural fires caused by lightning. More...

  17. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  18. State nuclear initiatives in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.; Stoiber, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with State nuclear initiatives regarding the role of nuclear power in the energy future of the United States. The question of whether and under what circumstances nuclear facilities should be used to generate electricity was put to the popular vote in several States in 1976. Some general principles of Federal-State relations are discussed with specific reference to nuclear regulations. The initiative mechanism itself is described as well as its legal form and background. The parallel developments in the State and Federal legislative consideration of nuclear issues is reviewed and the suggested reasons for the defeat of the proposals in the seven States concerned are discussed. Finally, the author draws some conclusions on the effects of the 1976 initiatives on future decision-making in the US on energy policy in general and nuclear power in particular. (NEA) [fr

  19. Effect of climate on the distribution of Fusarium spp. causing crown rot of wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Grant J; Smiley, Richard W; Walker, Carl; Huggins, David; Rupp, Richard; Abatzoglou, John; Garland-Campbell, Kimberly; Paulitz, Timothy C

    2013-11-01

    Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is one of the most widespread root and crown diseases of wheat in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) of the United States. Our objectives were to characterize crown rot severity and distribution throughout the PNW by conducting a survey of 210 fields covering the diverse dryland wheat-producing areas of Washington and Oregon and to utilize a factor analysis statistical approach to determine the effects of climate and geography on species distribution and disease severity. Climatic variables were based on 30-year averages and 2008 and 2009 separately (the 2 years of the survey). Mean annual temperature, mean temperature in the coldest month, mean temperature in the warmest month, mean annual precipitation, snowfall, elevation, soil type, and cropping intensity were highly intercorrelated. The factor analysis of the climate variables resulted in the development of two latent factors that could be used as predictor variables in logistic regression models for the presence or absence of Fusarium spp. and of FCR disease scores. Isolates of Fusarium spp. were recovered from 99% of 105 fields sampled in 2008 and 97% of fields in 2009. There were differences between years for responses of FCR and nodes scores, and isolations of Fusarium pseudograminearum with more significant results in 2008, due to warmer drier weather. Results of the factor analysis showed that the distribution of F. pseudograminearum occurred in a greater frequency in areas of the PNW at lower elevations with lower moisture and higher temperatures in 2008, whereas F. culmorum occurred in greater frequency in areas at higher elevations with moderate to high moisture and cooler temperatures consistently across both years. Disease scores increased with increasing levels of factors 1 (primarily temperature) and 2 (primarily precipitation). Both the frequency of pathogen species and disease scores were influenced by the year, indicating that soilborne pathogens are responsive to short

  20. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  1. THE UNITED STATES EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    David Suriñach Fernández

    2017-01-01

    The United States educational system is very complex. Due to the fact a big number of agents take play of its regulation, the differences between the education from one State compared to the education from another, or even between school districts, might be considerable. The last two largest federal education initiatives, No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top, have had a huge impact on the American education system. The escalation of the standardized test throughout the whole country as a ...

  2. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  3. United States Navy DL Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  4. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  5. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia. ...

  6. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. ...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ...

  8. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories, states, commonwealths, districts, and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  9. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States. ...

  10. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District of...

  11. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia, the...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America. [31 FR 16758, Dec. 31, 1966. Redesignated at 56 FR 64472, Dec. 10, 1991] ...

  13. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States of...

  14. Nuclear power in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    All over the world except in the United States, nuclear energy is a low cost, secure, environmentally acceptable form of energy. In the United States, civilian nuclear power is dead. 112 nuclear power plants have been abandoned or cancelled in the last decade, and there has been no new order for nuclear plants since 1978. It will be fortunate to have 125 operating nuclear plants in the United States in the year 2000. There are almost 90 completed nuclear power plants and about 45 under construction in the United States, but several of those under construction will eventually be abandoned. About 20 % of the electricity in the United States will be generated by nuclear plants in 2000 as compared with 13 % supplied in the last year. Under the present regulatory and institutional arrangement, American electric utilities would not consider to order a new nuclear power plant. Post-TMI nuclear plants became very expensive, and there is also ideological opposition to nuclear power. Coal-firing plants are also in the similar situation. The uncertainty about electric power demand, the cost of money, the inflation of construction cost and regulation caused the situation. (Kako, I.)

  15. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-16

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations.

  16. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment according to World Health Organization and United States criteria in an aged, urban Scandinavian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Helena; Vinding, T; Nielsen, N V

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in an epidemiologic study of aged, urban individuals in Denmark. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: The study population consisted of 1000 randomly selected residents aged 60 to 80 years in Copenhagen, Denmark. Of 976...... eligible persons, 946 (96.9%) could be examined. Information about best-corrected visual acuity (VA) was obtained from 944 cooperative persons (96.7%). METHODS: Data from the Copenhagen City Eye Study were used to assess the cause-specific prevalence of visual impairment as defined by the World Health...

  17. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  18. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its...

  19. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  20. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  1. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  2. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  3. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States. ...

  4. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  5. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  6. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  7. 31 CFR 536.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 536.315 Section 536.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.315 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  8. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  9. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  10. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  11. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority...

  12. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  13. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories and...

  14. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  15. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  16. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  17. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  18. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  19. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  20. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority...

  1. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  2. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  3. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  4. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  5. Cause for Concern: A Mixed-Methods Study of Campus Safety and Security Practices in United States-Mexico Border Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ryan Clevis

    2014-01-01

    Campus safety has been a source of concern since the 1990s. However, in 2007, the tragedy at the Virginia Polytechnic and State University sent a sense of alarm through many institutions of higher education. Immediately following this tragedy, institutions across the country began to evaluate and question their safety and security practices. While…

  6. Did the Great Recession affect mortality rates in the metropolitan United States? Effects on mortality by age, gender and cause of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, Erin C; Charters, Thomas J; Harper, Sam; Nandi, Arijit

    2017-09-01

    Mortality rates generally decline during economic recessions in high-income countries, however gaps remain in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms. This study estimates the impacts of increases in unemployment rates on both all-cause and cause-specific mortality across U.S. metropolitan regions during the Great Recession. We estimate the effects of economic conditions during the recent and severe recessionary period on mortality, including differences by age and gender subgroups, using fixed effects regression models. We identify a plausibly causal effect by isolating the impacts of within-metropolitan area changes in unemployment rates and controlling for common temporal trends. We aggregated vital statistics, population, and unemployment data at the area-month-year-age-gender-race level, yielding 527,040 observations across 366 metropolitan areas, 2005-2010. We estimate that a one percentage point increase in the metropolitan area unemployment rate was associated with a decrease in all-cause mortality of 3.95 deaths per 100,000 person years (95%CI -6.80 to -1.10), or 0.5%. Estimated reductions in cardiovascular disease mortality contributed 60% of the overall effect and were more pronounced among women. Motor vehicle accident mortality declined with unemployment increases, especially for men and those under age 65, as did legal intervention and homicide mortality, particularly for men and adults ages 25-64. We find suggestive evidence that increases in metropolitan area unemployment increased accidental drug poisoning deaths for both men and women ages 25-64. Our finding that all-cause mortality decreased during the Great Recession is consistent with previous studies. Some categories of cause-specific mortality, notably cardiovascular disease, also follow this pattern, and are more pronounced for certain gender and age groups. Our study also suggests that the recent recession contributed to the growth in deaths from overdoses of prescription drugs in

  7. Environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' effort to manage its environment including air, water nature, and biodiversity to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  8. United States National Seismographic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN's) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105 degree W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN)

  9. Association of a Negative Wealth Shock With All-Cause Mortality in Middle-aged and Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Lindsay R; Burgard, Sarah A; Needham, Belinda L; Elliott, Michael R; Langa, Kenneth M; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F

    2018-04-03

    A sudden loss of wealth-a negative wealth shock-may lead to a significant mental health toll and also leave fewer monetary resources for health-related expenses. With limited years remaining to regain lost wealth in older age, the health consequences of these negative wealth shocks may be long-lasting. To determine whether a negative wealth shock was associated with all-cause mortality during 20 years of follow-up. The Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative prospective cohort study of US adults aged 51 through 61 years at study entry. The study population included 8714 adults, first assessed for a negative wealth shock in 1994 and followed biennially through 2014 (the most recent year of available data). Experiencing a negative wealth shock, defined as a loss of 75% or more of total net worth over a 2-year period, or asset poverty, defined as 0 or negative total net worth at study entry. Mortality data were collected from the National Death Index and postmortem interviews with family members. Marginal structural survival methods were used to account for the potential bias due to changes in health status that may both trigger negative wealth shocks and act as the mechanism through which negative wealth shocks lead to increased mortality. There were 8714 participants in the study sample (mean [SD] age at study entry, 55 [3.2] years; 53% women), 2430 experienced a negative wealth shock during follow-up, 749 had asset poverty at baseline, and 5535 had continuously positive wealth without shock. A total of 2823 deaths occurred during 80 683 person-years of follow-up. There were 30.6 vs 64.9 deaths per 1000 person-years for those with continuously positive wealth vs negative wealth shock (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.50; 95% CI, 1.36-1.67). There were 73.4 deaths per 1000 person-years for those with asset poverty at baseline (adjusted HR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.44-1.94; compared with continuously positive wealth). Among US adults aged 51 years and older

  10. Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Hillis, Susan D.; Klevens, Joanne; Houry, Debra

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Interpersonal violence, which includes child abuse and neglect, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and elder abuse, affects millions of US residents each year. However, surveillance systems, programs, and policies to address violence often lack broad, cross-sector collaboration, and there is limited awareness of effective strategies to prevent violence. OBJECTIVES To describe the burden of interpersonal violence in the United States, explore challenges to violence prevention efforts and to identify prevention opportunities. DATA SOURCES We reviewed data from health and law enforcement surveillance systems including the National Vital Statistics System, the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports, the US Justice Department’s National Crime Victimization Survey, the National Survey of Children’s Exposure to Violence, the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System, the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System—All Injury Program. RESULTS Homicide rates have decreased from a peak of 10.7 per 100 000 persons in 1980 to 5.1 per 100 000 in 2013. Aggravated assault rates have decreased from a peak of 442 per 100 000 in 1992 to 242 per 100 000 in 2012. Nevertheless, annually, there are more than 16 000 homicides and 1.6 million nonfatal assault injuries requiring treatment in emergency departments. More than 12 million adults experience intimate partner violence annually and more than 10 million children younger than 18 years experience some form of maltreatment from a caregiver, ranging from neglect to sexual abuse, but only a small percentage of these violent incidents are reported to law enforcement, health care clinicians, or child protective agencies. Moreover, exposure to violence increases vulnerability to a broad range of mental and physical health problems over the life course; for example

  11. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States. ...

  12. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board ...

  13. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and the...

  14. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia. ...

  15. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States means each of the several States and the District of Columbia. [60 FR 10797, Feb. 28, 1995] National...

  16. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  18. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  19. Teen Pregnancy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States: the contribution of abstinence and improved contraceptive use. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(1):150-6. Lindberg LD, Santelli JS, Desai, S. Understanding the Decline in Adolescent Fertility in the United States, 2007–2012. J ...

  20. Forest carbon management in the United States: 1600-2100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Birdsey; Kurt Pregitzer; Alan Lucier

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of past forest management on carbon stocks in the United States, and the challenges for managing forest carbon resources in the 21st century. Forests in the United States were in approximate carbon balance with the atmosphere from 1600-1800. Utilization and land clearing caused a large pulse of forest carbon emissions during the 19th...

  1. Wheat rusts in the United States in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2016, wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. graminis was widespread throughout the United States. Cool temperatures and abundant rainfall in the southern Great Plains allowed stripe rust to become widely established and spread throughout the Great Plains and eastern United State...

  2. United States uranium enrichment policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's uranium enrichment program policies governing the manner in which ERDA's enrichment complex is being operated and expanded to meet customer requirements for separative work, research and development activities directed at providing technology alternatives for future enrichment capacity, and establishing the framework for additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity to meet the domestic and foreign nuclear industry's growing demand for enrichment services are considered. The ERDA enrichment complex consists of three gaseous diffusion plants located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Today, these plants provide uranium enrichment services for commercial nuclear power generation. These enrichment services are provided under contracts between the Government and the utility customers. ERDA's program involves a major pilot plant cascade, and pursues an advanced isotope separation technique for the late 1980's. That the United States must develop additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity is discussed

  3. Oil Vulnerabilities and United States Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-08

    Mazda, Mercedes - Benz , Ford, Mercury, and Nissan offer flexible fuel vehicles in the United States. Ethanol is currently produced in the United States...USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT OIL VULNERABILITIES AND UNITED STATES STRATEGY by Colonel Shawn P. Walsh...Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on Higher Education is an institutional accrediting

  4. TRAINING OF THE STATE PRESIDENT'S UNIT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary function of the State President's Unit is to protect the head of state - not his person as is generally believed, but his authority over the state. Ironically, the ceremonial performances of the State President's Unit lead people to believe that they are only capable of doing drill exer- cises. However, upon investigating.

  5. State laws on tobacco control--United States, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J A; Allison, H; Knowles, S B; Fishburn, B A; Woollery, T A; Marx, W T; Shelton, D M; Husten, C G; Eriksen, M P

    1999-06-25

    State laws addressing tobacco use, the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, are summarized. Laws address smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco products, advertising of tobacco products, and excise taxes on tobacco products. Legislation effective through December 31, 1998. CDC identified laws addressing tobacco control by using an on-line legal research database. CDC's findings were verified with the National Cancer Institute's State Cancer Legislative Database. Since a previous surveillance summary on state tobacco-control laws published in November 1995 (covering legislation effective through June 30, 1995), several states have enacted new restrictions or strengthened existing legislation that addresses smoke-free indoor air, minors' access to tobacco, tobacco advertising, and tobacco taxes. Five states strengthened their smoke-free indoor air legislation. All states and Washington, D.C., continued to prohibit the sale and distribution of tobacco products to minors; however, 21 states expanded minors' access laws by designating enforcement authorities, adding license suspension or revocation for sale to minors, or requiring signage. Since the 1995 report, eight additional states (a total of 19 states and Washington, D.C.) now ban vending machines from areas accessible to minors. Thirteen states restrict advertising of tobacco products, an increase of four states since the 1995 report. Although the number of states that tax cigarettes and smokeless tobacco did not change, 13 states increased excise taxes on cigarettes, and five states increased excise taxes on smokeless tobacco products. The average state excise tax on cigarettes is 38.9 cents per pack, an increase of 7.4 cents compared with the average tax in the 1995 report. State laws addressing tobacco control vary in relation to restrictiveness, enforcement and penalties, preemptions, and exceptions. The data summarizing state tobacco-control laws are available through CDC

  6. AREVA in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the United States had 297 million inhabitants (the 3. most populous country in the world) and a land area of 9.4 million km 2 (17 times larger than France). With a GDP of 10,996 billion dollars (under the economic conditions of the year 2000), the U.S. is the largest economic power in the world. It is also the largest consumer of energy, with primary energy consumption of 2,329 million metric tons, meaning that 25% of the world's energy is consumed by just 4% of its population. Although it has large domestic energy supplies, the U.S. is very far from achieving energy self-sufficiency. A decline of nearly 50% in oil production over a period of more than 30 years and the simultaneous stagnation of gas production have further weakened the U.S. energy balance. On a more general level, the increasing depletion of hydrocarbon resources (gas and oil), the concentration of the world's main resources in geo-politically unstable areas and the forecasted increase in the consumption and price of hydrocarbons, especially since 2005, mean that energy independence and supply security have become 2 of the top priorities of U.S. commercial and international policy. In 2007, the U.S. accounted for 22% of global CO 2 emissions, equaling those of China. In relation to population, the U.S. emits 8 metric tons/inhabitant compared to a world average of 4.2 metric tons/inhabitant. Although global warming is seen as a reality by the American public, it has only recently become a major argument in favor of a nuclear energy revival in the U.S. The context is, however, changing significantly. This is evidenced by America's adoption, in recent years, of measures to reduce greenhouse gases, particularly through the development of new, more environmentally friendly technologies. Since 2001, nearly 23 billion dollars in public funds have been devoted to climate research and the development of clean energy sources, notably renewable energies such as wind and solar, but also hydrogen and

  7. AREVA in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, the United States had 297 million inhabitants (the 3. most populous country in the world) and a land area of 9.4 million km{sup 2} (17 times larger than France). With a GDP of 10,996 billion dollars (under the economic conditions of the year 2000), the U.S. is the largest economic power in the world. It is also the largest consumer of energy, with primary energy consumption of 2,329 million metric tons, meaning that 25% of the world's energy is consumed by just 4% of its population. Although it has large domestic energy supplies, the U.S. is very far from achieving energy self-sufficiency. A decline of nearly 50% in oil production over a period of more than 30 years and the simultaneous stagnation of gas production have further weakened the U.S. energy balance. On a more general level, the increasing depletion of hydrocarbon resources (gas and oil), the concentration of the world's main resources in geo-politically unstable areas and the forecasted increase in the consumption and price of hydrocarbons, especially since 2005, mean that energy independence and supply security have become 2 of the top priorities of U.S. commercial and international policy. In 2007, the U.S. accounted for 22% of global CO{sub 2} emissions, equaling those of China. In relation to population, the U.S. emits 8 metric tons/inhabitant compared to a world average of 4.2 metric tons/inhabitant. Although global warming is seen as a reality by the American public, it has only recently become a major argument in favor of a nuclear energy revival in the U.S. The context is, however, changing significantly. This is evidenced by America's adoption, in recent years, of measures to reduce greenhouse gases, particularly through the development of new, more environmentally friendly technologies. Since 2001, nearly 23 billion dollars in public funds have been devoted to climate research and the development of clean energy sources, notably renewable energies such as wind and solar

  8. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  9. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  10. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  11. Data report: western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.

    1982-04-01

    This abbreviated summary data report, presents results of ground water and stream surface sediment reconnaissance in the western United States. Surface sediment samples were collected at 67,741 sites, at a target sampling density of one site per 13 square kilometers. Ground water samples were collected at 13,979 sites, and surface water samples were collected at 2,958 sites. Neutron activaton analysis results are given for uranium and 16 other elements in sediments, and for uranium and 9 other elements in waters. Mass spectrometry results are given for helium in ground waters. Supplemental analyses of the sediments for extractable uranium and 22 other elements are given where they are available. Supplemental analyses of water samples for 33 additional elements are also reported where they are available. Analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables on microfiche. Data from ground water sites (on microfiche in pocket) include (1) water chemistry measurements (pH, conductivity, and alkalinity), (2) physical measurements where applicable (water temperature, well description, and scintillometer reading), and (3) elemental analyses (U, Al, Br Cl, Dy, F, Mg, Mn, Na, and V by neutron activation and Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Sc, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, V, Y, Zn, and Zr by spectrophotometry). Helium analyses are given for ground water

  12. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  13. Contemporary United States Foreign Policy Towards Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAslan, Hugh

    2004-01-01

    United States national interests in Indonesia have traditionally being based on strategic security requirements given Indonesia's geographic location between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, and strong...

  14. Causes of blindness in blind unit of the school for the handicapped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To describe the causes of blindness in pupils and staff in the blind unit of the School for the Handicapped in Kwara State. 2. To identify problems in the blind school and initiate intervention. All the blind or visually challenged people in the blind unit of the school for the handicapped were interviewed and examined using a ...

  15. Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  16. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  17. Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  18. The United Kingdom: Issues for the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin

    2007-01-01

    ...; and more recently, from the UK's strong support in countering terrorism and confronting Iraq. The United States and Britain also share a mutually beneficial trade and economic relationship, and are each other's biggest foreign direct investors...

  19. Global Entrepreneurship and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Global Entrepreneurship and the United States by Zoltan J. Acs Laszlo Szerb Ruxton, MD 21204 for under contract number SBAHQ-09...SUBTITLE Global Entrepreneurship and the United States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...3 2.1. Assessing Entrepreneurship ..................................................................................4 2.2. Stages of Development

  20. Immigration Enforcement Within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-06

    Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Policy Issues...Remained in the United States, (Washington: Center for Immigration Studies, May 2002). Immigration Enforcement Within the United States Introduction ...interior enforcement lack a border component. For example, fugitive taskforces, investigations of alien slavery and sweatshops , and employer sanctions do

  1. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8... scheduled for May 25, 2010. Date: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801 9th Street, NW., Washington, DC 20220. Subject: Review and discuss obverse and...

  2. Latino College Completion: United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excelencia in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, Excelencia in Education launched the Ensuring America's Future initiative to inform, organize, and engage leaders in a tactical plan to increase Latino college completion. An executive summary of Latino College Completion in 50 states synthesizes information on 50 state factsheets and builds on the national benchmarking guide. Each…

  3. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  4. Nuclear development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, S.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the nuclear development in the United States has been one of international cooperation relations so far. The United States is to offer the technical information on atomic energy utilization to foreign countries in exchange for the guarantee that they never attempt to have or develop nuclear weapons. Actually, the United States has supplied the technologies on nuclear fuel cycle and other related fields to enable other countries to achieve economical and social progress. The Department of Energy clarified the public promise of the United States regarding the idea of international energy community. The ratio of nuclear power generation to total electric power supply in the United States exceeded 12%, and will exceed 20% by 1990. Since 1978, new nuclear power station has not been ordered, and some of the contracted power stations were canceled. The atomic energy industry in the United States prospered at the beginning of 1970s, but lost the spirit now, mainly due to the institutional problems rather than the technical ones. As the policy of the government to eliminate the obstacles, the improvement of the procedure for the permission and approval, the establishment of waste disposal capability, the verification of fast breeder reactor technology and the promotion of commercial fuel reprocessing were proposed. The re-establishment of the United States as the reliable supplier of atomic energy service is the final aim. (Kako, I.)

  5. Household pesticide usage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, E P; Keefe, T J; Wheeler, H W; Mounce, L; Helwic, L; Applehans, F; Goes, E; Goes, T; Mihlan, G; Rench, J; Taylor, D K

    1981-01-01

    A total of 10,000 U.S. households in 25 standard metropolitan statistical areas and 25 counties were included in the United States. More than 8,200 households granted an interview. Nine of every ten households in the United States used some types of pesticide in their house, garden, or yard. Households in the southeastern United States used the most pesticides. Although more than 500 different pesticide formulations were used by the sampled households, 15 pesticides accounted for 65.5% of all pesticides reported in this study. Thirteen of these 15 pesticides were insecticides, one was a herbicide, and one was a rodenticide.

  6. A functional intranet for the United States Coast Guard Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah, Robert Todd.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis describes the complete development process of a friendly functional Intranet for an operational United States Coast Guard (USCG) electronic Support Unit (ESU) in Alameda, California. The final product is suitable for immediate use. It may also be used as a prototype for future Intranet development efforts. The methodology used to develop a finished, working product provides the core subject matter for this thesis. The disc...

  7. Analysis of United States' Broadband Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Uzarski, Joel S

    2007-01-01

    .... With every month that passes, the United States fails to close the gap in the digital divide both inside its borders as well as among the other countries that lead the world in broadband penetration...

  8. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  9. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  10. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mailing List Previous Reports Suggested Citation Related Sites Purchase Health, United States Behavioral Health Report Children’s ... with Internet Explorer may experience difficulties in directly accessing links to Excel files ...

  11. Improving the United States' Strategic Communication Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risberg, Robert H

    2008-01-01

    ...? Much of the answer to this question is the failure of the United States Government to effectively use strategic communication to inform and influence populations to recognize the value of American...

  12. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  13. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  14. The United States and Europe: Current Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Archick, Kristin; Morelli, Vince L

    2006-01-01

    The United States and Europe share a long and intertwined history. Both sides of the Atlantic face a common set of international concerns, have few other comparable partners, and share a deep economic relationship...

  15. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.

  16. Climate change indicators in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published this report, Climate Change Indicators in the United States, to help readers interpret a set of important indicators to better understand climate change. The report presents 24 indicators, ...

  17. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center Anonymous Feedback Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  18. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  19. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  20. Abortion surveillance--United States, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, L M; Smith, J C; Ramick, M

    1995-05-05

    From 1980 through 1991, the number of legal induced abortions reported to CDC remained stable, varying each year by 1969, CDC has compiled abortion data received from 52 reporting areas: 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. In 1991, 1,388,937 abortions were reported--a 2.8% decrease from 1990. The abortion ratio was 339 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, and the abortion rate was 24 per 1,000 women 15-44 years of age. Women who were undergoing an abortion were more likely to be young, white, and unmarried; most had had no previous live births and had been obtaining an abortion for the first time. More than half (52%) of all abortions were performed at or before the 8th week of gestation, and 88% were before the 13th week. Younger women (i.e., women may partially account for this decline. An accurate assessment of the number and characteristics of women who obtain abortions in the United States is necessary both to monitor efforts to prevent unintended pregnancy and to identify and reduce preventable causes of morbidity and mortality associated with abortions.

  1. United States housing, first quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing under construction, and housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated regularly.

  2. Regulatory practices - United States example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapar, M.

    1976-01-01

    In 1954, the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 was revised to do away with the federal state monopoly in this field and to enable private industry to develop nuclear power. This evolution led the federal authorities to give the Atomic Energy Commission the powers to control the design, licensing and operation of nuclear reactors. These powers were constantly strengthened and are now exercised by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Since its creation in 1975, the Commission has amended the regulations on licensing of nuclear reactors in the light of experience acquired so as to shorten the duration of this procedure. These amendments concern the standardization of nuclear power plants, limited work authorizations, the methods for issuing licenses. The objective of the Commission aim to make the licensing procedure for nuclear power plants simpler and more efficient and hence, less costly, while ensuring that a very high level for safety standards and environmental protection is maintained. (NEA) [fr

  3. Energy problems of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2006-01-01

    The united states are the third world producer of oil which accounts for 440% of world production and 20 million barrels/day of which 60% are imported. That dependence on imports is likely to increase in the next decades. Such supplies and their security are therefore a fundamental factor of the United States foreign policy in combination with their political, economic and strategic objectives in a world both unsure and dangerous

  4. Trial by jury in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lochhead Robert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Th e Republic of Moldova is considering the adoption of trial by jury in select criminal cases. Th e following article is intended to contribute to the discussion of that proposal. Th e article will briefl y describe the history of juries under the English common law and as adopted by the United States. It will then outline some of the basic procedures in trials by jury as currently practiced in the United States federal court system.

  5. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  6. 76 FR 38700 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... prices in advertisements, in-store displays, and online. Consumer World believes these rules should be... has ruled on that motion. I. Procedural History The United States and seven Plaintiff States filed the... Restraints result in higher merchant costs, and merchants generally pass costs on to consumers, retail prices...

  7. Exporting Rambutan to United States: One Reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Mohd Sidek Othman

    2011-01-01

    Rambutan is a one of commodity that are passed by United States of America authority to be market in that states. The main condition for the approval is the exporter must use irradiation technology as quarantine treatment to monitor the insects in there. United States of America's Agriculture Department (USDA-APHIS) has make early survey to the facilities involved in exporting process chain to overview Malaysia preparedness for this purpose. This paper work will discussed the possibility of this exporting implemented based on conditions rule by the USDA. (author)

  8. Radiation therapy facilities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballas, Leslie K.; Elkin, Elena B.; Schrag, Deborah; Minsky, Bruce D.; Bach, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: About half of all cancer patients in the United States receive radiation therapy as a part of their cancer treatment. Little is known, however, about the facilities that currently deliver external beam radiation. Our goal was to construct a comprehensive database of all radiation therapy facilities in the United States that can be used for future health services research in radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: From each state's health department we obtained a list of all facilities that have a linear accelerator or provide radiation therapy. We merged these state lists with information from the American Hospital Association (AHA), as well as 2 organizations that audit the accuracy of radiation machines: the Radiologic Physics Center (RPC) and Radiation Dosimetry Services (RDS). The comprehensive database included all unique facilities listed in 1 or more of the 4 sources. Results: We identified 2,246 radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States as of 2004-2005. Of these, 448 (20%) facilities were identified through state health department records alone and were not listed in any other data source. Conclusions: Determining the location of the 2,246 radiation facilities in the United States is a first step in providing important information to radiation oncologists and policymakers concerned with access to radiation therapy services, the distribution of health care resources, and the quality of cancer care

  9. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…

  10. Homeless Youth in the United States: Description and Developmental Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smollar, Jacqueline

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the history and causes of homeless children in the United States from early 19th century to the present. Explores four characteristics necessary for positive developmental pathways that are compromised for children who live on the street: sense of industry and competency, feeling connected to others and society, sense of control of one's…

  11. 75 FR 27387 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ...) those cultural ties provided the primary motivation for the defendant's illegal reentry or continued... continuously in the United States from childhood, (B) those cultural ties provided the primary motivation for... acts), makes it unlawful, whether or not acting under color of law, to willfully cause bodily injury to...

  12. Derecho Hazards in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Walker S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2005-11-01

    Convectively generated wind-storms occur over broad temporal and spatial scales; however, the more widespread and longer lived of these windstorms have been given the name "derecho." Utilizing an integrated derecho database, including 377 events from 1986 to 2003, this investigation reveals the amount of insured property losses, fatalities, and injuries associated with these windstorms in the United States. Individual derechos have been responsible for up to 8 fatalities, 204 injuries, forest blow-downs affecting over 3,000 km2 of timber, and estimated insured losses of nearly a $500 million. Findings illustrate that derecho fatalities occur more frequently in vehicles or while boating, while injuries are more likely to happen in vehicles or mobile homes. Both fatalities and injuries are most common outside the region with the highest derecho frequency. An underlying synthesis of both physical and social vulnerabilities is suggested as the cause of the unexpected casualty distribution. In addition, casualty statistics and damage estimates from hurricanes and tornadoes are contrasted with those from derechos to emphasize that derechos can be as hazardous as many tornadoes and hurricanes.

  13. State of the environment - causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter the economic development and technologies, gross domestic product, industry, mineral resources exploitation, power plant engineering, gas engineering, heat production, forestry, agriculture, and transport and their environmental impact are reviewed. Selected indicators of the public health and basic factors influencing the death-rate of the Slovak population as well as causes of death in 1997 are presented

  14. Homicides - United States, 2007 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Joseph E; Hall, Jeffrey; McDaniel, Dawn; Stevens, Mark R

    2013-11-22

    According to 1981-2009 data, homicide accounts for 16,000-26,000 deaths annually in the United States and ranks within the top four leading causes of death among U.S. residents aged 1-40 years. Homicide can have profound long-term emotional consequences on families and friends of victims and on witnesses to the violence, as well as cause excessive economic costs to residents of affected communities. For years, homicide rates have been substantially higher among certain populations. Previous reports have found that homicides are higher among males, adolescents and young adults, and certain racial/ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic blacks, non-Hispanic American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs), and Hispanics. The 2011 CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report (CHDIR) described similar findings for the year 2007. For example, the 2011 report showed that the 2007 homicide rate was highest among non-Hispanic blacks (23.1 deaths per 100,000), followed by AI/ANs (7.8 deaths per 100,000), Hispanics (7.6 deaths per 100,000), non-Hispanic whites (2.7 deaths per 100,000), and Asian/Pacific Islanders (A/PIs) (2.4 deaths per 100,000). In addition, non-Hispanic black men aged 20-24 years were at greatest risk for homicide in 2007, with a rate that exceeded 100 deaths per 100,000 population. Other studies have reported that community factors such as poverty and economic inequality and individual factors such as unemployment and involvement in criminal activities can play a substantial role in these persistent disparities in homicide rates. Public health strategies are needed in communities at high risk for homicide to prevent violence and save lives.

  15. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  16. On machine surface to the unit event causing residual stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalama, R.M.; Mannanb, M.A.; Spowageca, A.

    2005-01-01

    Integrity and reduce overall costs. Within the framework of surface integrity investigations, special emphasis is given to the measurement of residual stresses because they contribute directly to premature failure of components. Since the highest residual stresses are to be found in surface layers, these deserve special attention when dealing with dynamically, heavily loaded machine parts such as gas turbine components used in aero engines. Of the many techniques available for the measurement of residual stresses, the most highly developed and widely used non-destructive method is based on X-ray diffraction (XRD). However, it is not possible to use this technique for inspection of all the components, since it is time consuming, complicated as well as expensive. In this paper, a method is being proposed that augments the XRD method but at the same time capable of inspecting all the components. A non-destructive, visual inspection technique has been developed that can correlate the characteristic features on the surface to the unit event causing the residual stress and the type of residual stress generated on the machined surface. Pictures of the machined surfaces have been taken using a digital video microscope at a magnification of 500 and the surface feature correlated to the unit event causing the residual stress. Sharp and well defined long grooves indicate that the plastic deformation is dominated by a mechanical unit event while appearance of streaks and small areas of smeared material indicate that the plastic deformation is dominated by a thermal unit event. These trends have been confirmed by measuring the residual stresses using XRD. The proposed technique is an attempt at establishing a simple methodology that would be useful to industries manufacturing aerospace and other components that require good surface integrity. (Author)

  17. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Kellison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation to initiate species-introduction trials in 1959. The results were sufficiently promising that a contingent of forest products companies formed a cooperative to work with the USDA Forest Service, Lehigh Acres, FL, USA, on genetic improvement of selected species for fiber production. The Florida initiative caused other industrial forestry companies in the upper South to establish plantations regardless of the species or seed source. The result was invariably the same: failure. Bruce Zobel, Professor of Forestry, North Carolina State University, initiated a concerted effort to assess the potential worth of eucalyptus for plantation use. The joint industrial effort evaluated 569 sources representing 103 species over a 14-year period. The three levels of testing, screening, in-depth, and semioperational trials led to identification of some species and sources that offered promise for adaptation, but severe winter temperatures in late 1983 and early 1984 and 1985 terminated the project. Despite the failed attempt valuable silvicultural practices were ascertained that will be beneficial to other researchers and practitioners when attempts are again made to introduce the species complex into the US South.

  18. Fragmentation of Continental United States Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Robert V. O' Neill; K. Bruce Jones; Elizabeth R. Smith; John W. Coulston; Timothy G. Wade; Jonathan H. Smith

    2002-01-01

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m (0.09 ha pixel-1) land- cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indexes measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes including 2.25, 7.29, 65.61, 590.49, and 5314.41 ha....

  19. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  20. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  1. Enrichment situation outside the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Different enrichment technologies are briefly characterized which include gaseous diffusion, which is presently the production mainstay of the United States and France; the gaseous centrifuge which is the production plant for Urenco and the technology for future United States enrichment expansion; the aero-dynamic processes which include the jet nozzle (also known as the Becker process) and the fixed-wall centrifuge (also known as the Helikon process); chemical processes; laser isotope separation processes (also referred to in the literature as LIS); and plasma technology

  2. Solar energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, D.; Slaoui, A.; Soler, R.; Bermudez, V.

    2009-01-01

    Written by a group of five French experts who visited several research centres, innovating companies and solar power stations in the United States, this report first proposes an overview of solar energy in the United States, indicating and commenting the respective shares of different renewable energies in the production, focusing on the photovoltaic energy production and its RD sector. The second part presents industrial and research activities in the solar sector, and more specifically photovoltaic technologies (silicon and thin layer technology) and solar concentrators (thermal solar concentrators, photovoltaic concentrators). The last chapter presents the academic research activities in different universities (California Tech Beckman Institute, Stanford, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Colorado School of Mines)

  3. Food irradiation in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Since 1963, some irradiated foods have been permitted for sale in the United States. Yet, at this time, commercial application has been limited to irradiation of a relatively small fraction of the spices and seasonings used as ingredients in other foods. The current situation regarding irradiated foods in the United States and how it developed is discussed. The author writes from experience gained as a Government regulator concerned primarily with ensuring safety of food and therefore this is stressed together with the crucial role played by consumers and industry. (author)

  4. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  5. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States...

  6. Aircraft wake vortices : a state-of-the-art review of the United States R&D program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-28

    The report summarizes the current state-of-the-art understanding : of the aircraft wake vortex phenomenon and the results of the United : States program to minimize the restrictions caused by aircraft wake : vortices in the terminal environment. The ...

  7. Obesity: A United States Strategic Imperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    States Department of Veterans Affairs 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dr. Thomas ...Army Ms. Karen Malebranche United States Department of Veterans Affairs Project Adviser Dr. Thomas Williams U.S. Army War...per American has increased by 57 pounds per year ( poultry representing 46 pounds).86 Surprisingly however, the percentage of calories from meat

  8. Prevalence and causes of thrombocytopenia in an academic state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    threatening pathological conditions. To establish the cause, appropriate laboratory investigation is required. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and causes of platelet counts <100 × 109/L in state health facilities in Johannesburg, South ...

  9. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  10. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... response from the Nigerian government. ... domestic crises that negatively impacts state stability, the US government ... Harrison C. Ajebon, Department of Political Science, University of Calabar, ..... Sweden. United Kingdom. Switzerland. Asia & far East. Japan ..... case Study of Nigeria, in Ikonnechidi and.

  11. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  12. Nuclear accidents. Three mile Island (United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the accident of Three Miles Island power plant which occurred the 28 march 1979 in the United States. The accident scenario, the consequences and the reactor core and vessel, after the accident, are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  13. Energy policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M

    1978-06-01

    Energy policy in the United States is examined with particular regard to the nuclear power industry. The advantages of nuclear power over conventional and other sources are presented and the vigorous expansion of research and development is advocated. Future energy supplies are discussed and the author stresses the necessity for continued research into breeder technology.

  14. Motorcycle trends in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    During the last decade there has been a significant increase in the number of motorcycle sales and registrations in the United States. At the same time there has been a shift in the demographics of motorcycle users and increased focus on motorcycle s...

  15. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  16. 76 FR 18783 - United States et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... customers based on existing supplier-customer relationships. d. Neither Supply Responses Nor Entry Would... Final Judgment, Stipulation and Competitive Impact Statement Notice is hereby given pursuant to the... Competitive Impact Statement have been filed with the United States District Court for the Eastern District of...

  17. Overview of United States synchrotron radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    There has been considerable activity within the past year involving the creation of new and the improvement of existing capabilities for research with synchrotron light. The purpose of this review is to summarize what has happened within the United States. Being a status report, some of the information necessarily has a date attached to it - the date, in this case, being early September 1983

  18. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  19. Friendships of Indonesian and United States Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Doran C.; Pidada, Sri; Victor, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Issues in the study of friendship across cultures were explored by reviewing a set of studies focusing on the friendships of Indonesian and United States youth. Four topics are considered: similarity of friendships across cultures, dimensions of friendships that vary across cultures, the utility of the individualism/collectivism dimension for…

  20. Radioactive waste management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, efforts to dispose of the nation's high- and low-level radioactive wastes are based on somewhat different approaches.The individual States are responsible for disposing of low-level wastes with the Federal Government providing technical and financial support to help the States in the early phases of their efforts. The Federal Government has responsibility for developing facilities for the disposal of high-level waste. However, both efforts show a common need to meet national objectives while satisfying the concerns of the public. (author)

  1. Both Europe's and the United States' electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matly, M.

    2006-01-01

    While the United States quickly had the largest electrical indus in the world, electrification in rural areas ended about thirty years after most European countries. Public intervention is a deciding factor in completing electrification, and the late involvement by the American authorities explains the gap. However it would be wrong to oppose in Europe and in the United States a motivated public sector and little involved private companies. In both continents indeed, major private and public urban distributors were almost not involved in rural electrification processes, where local players prevailed: local communities around Europe, small and medium size business in some European countries such as France, co-operative companies in the United States. Additionally, there is an essential difference between electrification in Europe and in the United States. The former does not provide much more than lighting and its success leaves few traces in popular memories; the latter includes many facilities and services, changes the lives of rural populations and is celebrated a such. Whereas the colonial venture keep European economies away from their domestic markets, while in the United States the urban market growth contents large companies, the American co-operative movement is right to believe in the existence of a large electrical equipment market among farmers then considered poor and behind. It even uses the market to complete a more profitable and less costly electrification. Electricity stories that offer food for the thoughts of Third World decision makers and power companies, when they entrust most rural electrification to their large urban companies and deny the existence of a real equipment market in their own rural world. (author)

  2. Antiabortion violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jennefer A; Schumacher, Kristin L; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine if an association exists between the amount of harassment and violence directed against abortion providers and the restrictiveness of state laws relating to family planning. We used responses from a July 2010 survey of 357 abortion providers in 50 states to determine their experience of antiabortion harassment and violence. Their responses were grouped and analyzed in relation to a published grading of state laws in the United States (A, B, C, D and F) as they relate to restrictions on family planning services. Group by group comparison of respondents illustrates that the difference in the number of reported incidents of minor vandalism by group is statistically significant (A vs. C, p=.07; A vs. D, p=.017; A vs. F, p=.0002). Incidents of harassment follow a similar pattern. There were no differences noted overall for violence or major vandalism. Major violence, including eight murders, is a new occurrence in the last two decades. Harassment of abortion providers in the United States has an association with the restrictiveness of state abortion laws. In the last two decades, murder of abortion providers has become an unfortunate part of the violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The State of Homeless Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabler, Brenda; Weinstein, Elana

    2009-01-01

    Across America, the numbers of homeless children and families are growing as a result of many factors including the recent economic crisis, home foreclosures, and natural disasters. Because of an increase in the number of homeless children throughout the United States, this population has unmet needs that can be targeted in school settings under…

  4. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    do not have female staff; the male-to-female staff ratio in the health field is 7 to 1.130 More nurses and female staff are needed, especially to...exercise was rescheduled for 2009. 9 Interview with Ninth Air Force personnel, September 12, 2008. 200 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure

  5. 45 CFR 212.7 - Repayment to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repayment to the United States. 212.7 Section 212... UNITED STATES CITIZENS RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 212.7 Repayment to the United States. (a) An..., any or all of the cost of such assistance to the United States, except insofar as it is determined...

  6. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for 30...

  7. 31 CFR 515.330 - Person within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person within the United States. 515... Definitions § 515.330 Person within the United States. (a) The term person within the United States, includes: (1) Any person, wheresoever located, who is a resident of the United States; (2) Any person actually...

  8. 39 CFR 221.1 - The United States Postal Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The United States Postal Service. 221.1 Section 221.1 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 221.1 The United States Postal Service. The United States Postal Service was established as an...

  9. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of First Spouse Bronze Medals and 2010 First Spouse Bronze Medal Series: Four...

  10. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers and...

  11. 37 CFR 1.412 - The United States Receiving Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information § 1.412 The United States Receiving Office. (a) The United States Patent and Trademark Office is a Receiving Office only for applicants who are residents or nationals of the United States of America. (b) The... “United States Receiving Office” or by the abbreviation “RO/US.” (c) The major functions of the Receiving...

  12. The United States and world energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The United States, dominating the world's energy markets as a producer and consumer, is sensitive to changes in this market and intends to influence the development of global energy policy. Supply will be increased by nations such as Venezuela, Indonesia and perhaps in the future a United Yemen and the Commonwealth of Independent States, moving to freer market economies which will allow investment opportunities previously inaccessible to foreign companies. Although world energy demand will grow, little of this will be in the US where, under the National Energy Strategy, comprehensive measures are being introduced to improve energy efficiency. The US energy security will be further improved by such measures as diversification of supply, larger domestic production and increasing interdependence between suppliers, traders and consumers. (author)

  13. United States of America National Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The United States has produced this report as part of the preparations for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) to be held in Brazil in June 1992. It summarizes this nation's efforts to protect and enhance the quality of the human environment in concert with its efforts to provide economic well-being during the two decades since the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment was held in Stockholm. The information presented in this report is primarily and deliberately retrospective. It is an attempt to portray the many human, economic and natural resources of the United States, to describe resource use and the principal national laws and programs established to protect these resources, and to analyze key issues on the agenda of UNCED. This analysis is presented in terms of past and present conditions and trends, measures of progress made in responding to the key issues, and a summary of government activities, underway or pending, to address ongoing or newly emerging national environmental and resource management problems

  14. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, Rob

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American) knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and...

  15. The United States toward Energy Independence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardon, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    The U.S.'s exploitation of 'unconventional' domestic oil reserves is reviving its economy. It will also have effects on the country's energy independence and thus its geopolitical position. While it is unlikely that the relationship between Washington and the Middle East region will be fundamentally altered, the U.S.'s relationships with China, Russia, and Europe could be affected. The United States will have to incorporate these changes into its global strategies

  16. Low birth weight in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Robert L; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2007-02-01

    Pregnancy outcomes in the United States and other developed countries are considerably better than those in many developing countries. However, adverse pregnancy outcomes are generally more common in the United States than in other developed countries. Low-birth-weight infants, born after a preterm birth or secondary to intrauterine growth restriction, account for much of the increased morbidity, mortality, and cost. Wide disparities exist in both preterm birth and growth restriction among different population groups. Poor and black women, for example, have twice the preterm birth rate and higher rates of growth restriction than do most other women. Low birth weight in general is thought to place the infant at greater risk of later adult chronic medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. Of interest, maternal thinness is a strong predictor of both preterm birth and fetal growth restriction. However, in the United States, several nutritional interventions, including high-protein diets, caloric supplementation, calcium and iron supplementation, and various other vitamin and mineral supplementations, have not generally reduced preterm birth or growth restriction. Bacterial intrauterine infections play an important role in the etiology of the earliest preterm births, but, at least to date, antibiotic treatment either before labor for risk factors such as bacterial vaginosis or during preterm labor have not consistently reduced the preterm birth rate. Most interventions have failed to reduce preterm birth or growth restriction. The substantial improvement in newborn survival in the United States over the past several decades is mostly due to better access to improved neonatal care for low-birth-weight infants.

  17. OECD environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' efforts to manage its environment including air, water, nature, and biodiversity; to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 47 figs., 20 tabs.

  18. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  19. Diesel fuel in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensaid, B; Saint-Antonin, V

    2003-07-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  20. Diesel fuel in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensaid, B.; Saint-Antonin, V.

    2003-01-01

    In the 1970's, Diesel technology had a poor image in the United States owing to the inadequate performance and reliability observed in certain models. The 1990's brought increased awareness of greenhouse effect issues. Greater Diesel penetration of the American automobile market could represent a short-term solution for reducing CO 2 emissions, along with the use of hybrid vehicles, but the impact on American refining plant would be substantial. (author)

  1. Electric trade in the United States 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Electric Trade in the United States 1990 (ELECTRA) is the third in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Electric Data Systems Branch, Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data. The second report contained data for 1988. This report provides information on the industry during 1990

  2. The United States facing their petroleum dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of ''the energy crisis of 2000-2001'', the Cheney report and the petroleum dependence, this study presents a critical examination of the United States petroleum situation, its perception in the american political milieu and the public policies implementing during the last ten years. The first section is devoted to the petroleum supply. In the second section, the american petroleum policy and the energy safety are studied. (A.L.B.)

  3. United States Energy Policy: Security Not Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    on leased land, ensuring fracking is done responsibly, and getting more natural gas and hybrid systems into U.S. mass transit. Internationally, the...fewer environ disturbances -Can store underground -Environ impacts of fracking unknown -uses large amount of water -potential for saline...from shale continues to rise as the United States determines how to drill safely. However, the impact of fracking on the environment is still

  4. ISO developments in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, William W.

    1998-01-01

    An important feature of the restructuring process in the United States is the creation of independent system operators (ISOs) to coordinate dispatch and access to transmission grids. A number of ISOs have been proposed and are summarized here. Perhaps the greatest challenge is the pricing of transmission to give proper economic signals to market participants, and the locational pricing scheme now operating in the PJM system offers the best hope for efficient pricing. (author)

  5. Burnup credit activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lake, W.H.; Thomas, D.A.; Doering, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers progress in burnup credit activities that have occurred in the United States of America (USA) since the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Burnup Credit was convened in October 1997. The Proceeding of the AGM were issued in April 1998 (IAEA-TECDOC-1013, April 1998). The three applications of the use of burnup credit that are discussed in this report are spent fuel storage, spent fuel transportation, and spent fuel disposal. (author)

  6. United States steps up waste isolation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedes, H W [Department of Energy, Germantown, MD (USA). Office of Waste Isolation; Carbiener, W A [Battelle Columbus Labs., OH (USA)

    1982-11-01

    A description is given of the United States' waste isolation programme which now involves tests of specific sites. The US Department of Energy plans to build a system of mined geological repositories for the disposal of commercially generated high-level and transuranic radioactive waste. It is hoped that the first repository will be available by 1998. Studies of the geology and hydrology of the proposed sites, the waste packaging and the repository design are reported.

  7. The United States and the Kurds: Case Studies in United States Engagement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lambert, Peter

    1997-01-01

    ..., between 1969- 1975, and 1990-1996. Both eras saw the United States able to influence events relating to the Kurds in support of a larger regional policy, only to find no easy solution to the Kurdish quest for autonomy...

  8. United States position on severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    The United States policy on severe accidents was published in 1985 for both new plant applications and for existing plants. Implementation of this policy is in progress. This policy, aided by a related safety goal policy and by analysis capabilities emerging from improved understanding of accident phenomenology, is viewed as a logical development from the pioneering work in the WASH-1400 Reactor Safety Study published by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 1975. This work provided an estimate of the probability and consequences of severe accidents which, prior to that time, had been mostly evaluated by somewhat arbitrary assumptions dating back 30 years. The early history of severe accident evaluation is briefly summarized for the period 1957-1979. Then, the galvanizing action of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) on severe accident analysis, experimentation and regulation is reviewed. Expressions of US policy in the form of rulemaking, severe accident policy, safety research, safety goal policy and court decisions (on adequacy of safety) are discussed. Finally, the NRC policy as of March 1988 is stated, along with a prospective look at the next few years. (author). 19 refs

  9. PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ken Nemeth

    2002-01-01

    In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need technical

  10. Case law: Canada, France, Switzerland, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Canada: Appellate decision upholding nuclear regulatory licensing process and practices for consultation with aboriginal groups: Fond du Lac Denesuline First Nation v. Canada (Attorney General). France: Court of Appeal of Nimes regarding the SOCATRI incident in July 2008; Conseil d'Etat regarding the association Reseau 'Sortir du nucleaire'. Switzerland: Judgement of the Federal Administrative Court in the matter of Balmer-Schafroth a.o.v. BKW FMB Energy Ltd on the repeal of the time limitation with respect to the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. United States: Judgement of a US District Court granting a permanent injunction against the State of Vermont in order to prevent certain State laws from prohibiting Vermont Yankee nuclear power plant's continued operation

  11. An introduction to medical malpractice in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, B Sonny

    2009-02-01

    Medical malpractice law in the United States is derived from English common law, and was developed by rulings in various state courts. Medical malpractice lawsuits are a relatively common occurrence in the United States. The legal system is designed to encourage extensive discovery and negotiations between adversarial parties with the goal of resolving the dispute without going to jury trial. The injured patient must show that the physician acted negligently in rendering care, and that such negligence resulted in injury. To do so, four legal elements must be proven: (1) a professional duty owed to the patient; (2) breach of such duty; (3) injury caused by the breach; and (4) resulting damages. Money damages, if awarded, typically take into account both actual economic loss and noneconomic loss, such as pain and suffering.

  12. State cigarette minimum price laws - United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    Cigarette price increases reduce the demand for cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and youth initiation of smoking. Excise tax increases are the most effective government intervention to increase the price of cigarettes, but cigarette manufacturers use trade discounts, coupons, and other promotions to counteract the effects of these tax increases and appeal to price-sensitive smokers. State cigarette minimum price laws, initiated by states in the 1940s and 1950s to protect tobacco retailers from predatory business practices, typically require a minimum percentage markup to be added to the wholesale and/or retail price. If a statute prohibits trade discounts from the minimum price calculation, these laws have the potential to counteract discounting by cigarette manufacturers. To assess the status of cigarette minimum price laws in the United States, CDC surveyed state statutes and identified those states with minimum price laws in effect as of December 31, 2009. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which determined that 25 states had minimum price laws for cigarettes (median wholesale markup: 4.00%; median retail markup: 8.00%), and seven of those states also expressly prohibited the use of trade discounts in the minimum retail price calculation. Minimum price laws can help prevent trade discounting from eroding the positive effects of state excise tax increases and higher cigarette prices on public health.

  13. The state of amphibians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Adams, M.J.; Grant, E.H.C.; Miller, D.; Corn, P.S.; Ball, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, scientists began to identify unexplained declines in amphibian populations around the world. Much has been learned since then, but amphibian declines have not abated and the interactions among the various threats to amphibians are not clear. Amphibian decline is a problem of local, national, and international scope that can affect ecosystem function, biodiversity, and commerce. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of the state of the amphibians and introduces examples to illustrate the range of issues in the United States.

  14. 31 CFR 103.39 - Person outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Person outside the United States. 103... Person outside the United States. For the purposes of this subpart, a remittance or transfer of funds, or... the United States, shall be deemed to be a remittance or transfer to a person outside the United...

  15. States of Confusion: Regulation of Surrogacy in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mohapatra, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Some countries, including Switzerland, Germany, Spain, France, Greece, and Norway, ban commercial surrogacy (Patton 2010, 523). Others, such as India and the Ukraine, have actively tried to be seen as commercial surrogacy destinations (Mohapatra 2012, 412, 432–437, 441–448). Unlike either of these approaches, the United States (US) has no national stance on surrogacy. In fact, there are no national laws or regulations related to surrogacy in the US (Margalit 2014). Instea...

  16. Advanced Reactor Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giessing, D. F.; Griffith, J. D.; McGoff, D. J.; Rosen, Sol [U. S. Department of Energy, Texas (United States)

    1990-04-15

    In the United States, three technologies are employed for the new generation of advanced reactors. These technologies are Advanced Light Water Reactors (A LWRs) for the 1990s and beyond, the Modular High Temperature Gas Reactor (M HTGR) for commercial use after the turn of the century, and Liquid Metal Reactors (LWRs) to provide energy production and to convert reactor fission waste to a more manageable waste product. Each technology contributes to the energy solution. Light Water Reactors For The 1990s And Beyond--The U. S. Program The economic and national security of the United States requires a diversified energy supply base built primarily upon adequate, domestic resources that are relatively free from international pressures. Nuclear energy is a vital component of this supply and is essential to meet current and future national energy demands. It is a safe, economically continues to contribute to national energy stability, and strength. The Light Water Reactor (LWR) has been a major and successful contributor to the electrical generating needs of many nations throughout the world. It is being counted upon in the United States as a key to revitalizing nuclear energy option in the 1990s. In recent years, DOE joined with the industry to ensure the availability and future viability of the LWR option. This national program has the participation of the Nation's utility industry, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and several of the major reactor manufacturers and architect-engineers. Separate but coordinated parts of this program are managed by EPRI and DOE.

  17. Stigma and abortion complications in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Lisa H

    2012-12-01

    Abortion is highly stigmatized in the United States and elsewhere. As a result, many women who seek or undergo abortion keep their decision a secret. In many regions of the world, stigma is a recognized contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion, even when abortion is legal. Women may self-induce abortion in ways that are dangerous, or seek unsafe clandestine abortion from inadequately trained health care providers out of fear that their sexual activity, pregnancy, or abortion will be exposed if they present to a safe, licensed facility. However, unsafe abortion rarely occurs in the United States, and accordingly, stigma as a cause of unsafe abortion in the United States context has not been described. I consider the relationship of stigma to two serious abortion complications experienced by U.S. patients. Both patients wished to keep their abortion decision a secret from family and friends, and in both cases, their inability to disclose their abortion contributed to life-threatening complications. The experiences of these patients suggest that availability of legal abortion services in the United States may not be enough to keep all women safe. The cases also challenge the rhetoric that "abortion hurts women," suggesting instead that abortion stigma hurts women.

  18. Forecasting the expansion of zebra mussels in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossenbroek, Jonathan M; Johnson, Ladd E; Peters, Brett; Lodge, David M

    2007-06-01

    Because zebra mussels spread rapidly throughout the eastern United States in the late 1980s and early 1990s, their spread to the western United States has been expected. Overland dispersal into inland lakes and reservoirs, however, has occurred at a much slower rate than earlier spread via connected, navigable waterways. We forecasted the potential western spread of zebra mussels by predicting the overland movement of recreational boaters with a production-constrained gravity model. We also predicted the potential abundance of zebra mussels in two western reservoirs by comparing their water chemistry characteristics with those of water bodies with known abundances of zebra mussels. Most boats coming from waters infested with zebra mussels were taken to areas that already had zebra mussels, but a small proportion of such boats did travel west of the 100th meridian. If zebra mussels do establish in western U.S. water bodies, we predict that population densities could achieve similar levels to those in the Midwestern United States, where zebra mussels have caused considerable economic and ecological impacts. Our analyses suggest that the dispersal of zebra mussels to the western United States is an event of low probability but potentially high impact on native biodiversity and human infrastructure. Combining these results with economic analyses could help determine appropriate investment levels in prevention and control strategies.

  19. Hybrid Reactor designs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolkenhauer, W.C.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews the current, active, interrelated Hybrid Reactor development programs in the United States, and offers a probable future course of action for the technology. The Department of Energy (DOE) program primarily emphasizes development of Hybrid Reactors that are optimized for proliferation resistance. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) program concentrates on avenues for Hybrid Reactor commercialization. The history of electrical generation technology has been one of steady movement toward higher power densities and higher quality fuels. An apparent advantage of the Hybrid Reactor option is that it follows this trend

  20. United States Army Weapon Systems 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-18

    equipment, tractor, van, wrecker, 8.8-ton Load Handling System (LHS), 8.8-ton LHS trailer, and 10-ton dump truck models). Three truck variants and...NJ) hydraulic pump and motor: Vickers (Jackson, MS) 131 UnIteD StAteS Army ACqUISItIon phASe InveStment Component High Mobility Engineer Excavator...MEDEVAC and hoist configuration, the UH-72A is also being fielded in a VIP, National Guard Homeland Security (HLS) and a Combined Training Center

  1. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  2. Nuclear engineering education in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    In discussing nuclear engineering education in the United States it is shown that the most critical issue facing the nuclear engineering education community today is enrolment in a time of increasing demand for graduate engineers. Related to the issue of enrolment is support for graduate students, whether it be fellowships, traineeships, or research assistantships. Other issues are those of maintaining a vital faculty in the face of a competitive job market, of maintaining research facilities and developing new ones, and of determining the directions of educational efforts in the future. (U.K.)

  3. Early uranium mining in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahne, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium mining in the United States is closer to 100 years old than to the 200 years since the discovery of the element. Even then, for much of this time the rock was brought out of the ground for reasons other than its uranium content. The history of the US uranium industry is divided into five periods which follow roughly chronologically upon one another, although there is some overlap. The periods cover: uranium use in glass and ceramics; radium extraction; vanadium extraction; government uranium extraction and commercial extraction. (author)

  4. Uranium enrichment services in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek, P.; Lenders, M.

    1994-01-01

    The United States of America is the world's largest market for uranium enrichment services. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union, Russian uranium is entering the world market on an increasing scale. The U.S. tries to protect its market and, in this connection, also the European market from excessive price drops by taking anti-dumping measures. In order to become more competitive, American companies have adapted modern enrichment techniques from Europe. European - U.S. joint ventures are to help, also technically and economically, to integrate military uranium, accumulating as a consequence of worldwide disarmament, into the commercial fuel cycle for the peaceful use of nuclear power. (orig.) [de

  5. 75 FR 31465 - United States, State of Illinois, State of Colorado, and State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ..., and often offer full-service restaurants or in-service dining. Premiere theatres also differ from... selection is deemed not to be a suitable alternative, the United States shall in its sole discretion select... suitable alternative pursuant to Section VI(A). If AMC's selection is deemed not to be a suitable...

  6. 22 CFR 22.3 - Remittances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remittances in the United States. 22.3 Section...-DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND FOREIGN SERVICE § 22.3 Remittances in the United States. (a) Type of remittance. Remittances shall be in the form of: (1) Check or bank draft drawn on a bank in the United States; (2) money...

  7. Healthy Eating and Risks of Total and Cause-Specific Death among Low-Income Populations of African-Americans and Other Adults in the Southeastern United States: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danxia Yu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A healthy diet, as defined by the US Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA, has been associated with lower morbidity and mortality from major chronic diseases in studies conducted in predominantly non-Hispanic white individuals. It is unknown whether this association can be extrapolated to African-Americans and low-income populations.We examined the associations of adherence to the DGA with total and cause-specific mortality in the Southern Community Cohort Study, a prospective study that recruited 84,735 American adults, aged 40-79 y, from 12 southeastern US states during 2002-2009, mostly through community health centers that serve low-income populations. The present analysis included 50,434 African-Americans, 24,054 white individuals, and 3,084 individuals of other racial/ethnic groups, among whom 42,759 participants had an annual household income less than US$15,000. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Adherence to the DGA was measured by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI, 2010 and 2005 editions (HEI-2010 and HEI-2005, respectively. During a mean follow-up of 6.2 y, 6,906 deaths were identified, including 2,244 from cardiovascular disease, 1,794 from cancer, and 2,550 from other diseases. A higher HEI-2010 score was associated with lower risks of disease death, with adjusted hazard ratios (HRs of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73-0.86 for all-disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.94 for cardiovascular disease mortality, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.69-0.95 for cancer mortality, and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.67-0.88 for other disease mortality, when comparing the highest quintile with the lowest (all p-values for trend 0.50. Several component scores in the HEI-2010, including whole grains, dairy, seafood and plant proteins, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, showed significant inverse associations with total mortality. HEI-2005 score was also associated with lower disease mortality, with a HR of 0.86 (95

  8. Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderam, Saswati; Kissin, Dmitry M; Crawford, Sara B; Folger, Suzanne G; Boulet, Sheree L; Warner, Lee; Barfield, Wanda D

    2018-02-16

    Since the first U.S. infant conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) was born in 1981, both the use of ART and the number of fertility clinics providing ART services have increased steadily in the United States. ART includes fertility treatments in which eggs or embryos are handled in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro fertilization [IVF] and related procedures). Although the majority of infants conceived through ART are singletons, women who undergo ART procedures are more likely than women who conceive naturally to deliver multiple-birth infants. Multiple births pose substantial risks for both mothers and infants, including obstetric complications, preterm delivery (state-specific information for the United States (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) on ART procedures performed in 2015 and compares birth outcomes that occurred in 2015 (resulting from ART procedures performed in 2014 and 2015) with outcomes for all infants born in the United States in 2015. 2015. In 1995, CDC began collecting data on ART procedures performed in fertility clinics in the United States as mandated by the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act of 1992 (FCSRCA) (Public Law 102-493 [October 24, 1992]). Data are collected through the National ART Surveillance System, a web-based data collection system developed by CDC. This report includes data from 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico). In 2015, a total of 182,111 ART procedures (range: 135 in Alaska to 23,198 in California) with the intent to transfer at least one embryo were performed in 464 U.S. fertility clinics and reported to CDC. These procedures resulted in 59,334 live-birth deliveries (range: 55 in Wyoming to 7,802 in California) and 71,152 infants born (range: 68 in Wyoming to 9,176 in California). Nationally, the number of ART procedures performed per 1 million women of reproductive age (15-44 years), a proxy measure of the ART utilization rate, was

  9. License renewal in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brons, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear plants in the United States are licensed for 40 years, a length specified in the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which laid out much of the regulatory basis for the commercial nuclear industry. The Act, however, made provision for license renewal. The original 40-year license period was chosen arbitrarily by the U.S. Congress because it was the typical period over which utilities recovered their investment in electricity generating plants. Nuclear plants, however, are subject to a rigorous program of Nuclear Regulatory Commission oversight, maintenance and equipment replacement. In effect, they must be in the same operating condition on the last day of their licenses as they were on the first. As the industry matured, it became apparent that there was no physical limitation on the continued operation of nuclear plants past 40 years. The industry turned its attention toward license renewal. When the issue was first raised, the NRC considered stringent process equivalent to seeking a new operating license for each plant. The complexity, length and cost of the process made it unlikely that many nuclear plants would seek license renewal. The nuclear industry worked successfully with NRC on the application of generic principles to license renewal, however, and in 1995, the NRC issued an efficient, tightly-focused rule that made license renewal a safe, viable option. To extend the operating license for a reactor, a company must demonstrate to the NRC that aging effects will be adequately managed during the renewal terms, thus ensuring equipment functionality. The rule allows licensees to apply for extensions of up to 20 years. The first license renewal application was filed in 1998 by the owner of the two-unit Calvert Cliffs plant. Shortly thereafter, an application was filed for the three-unit Oconee Nuclear Station. The NRC renewed the licenses for all five units in 2000, and since then, five more licenses have been renewed. The NRC has received 37

  10. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  11. Step-grandparenthood in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahirun, Jenjira J; Park, Sung S; Seltzer, Judith A

    2018-01-18

    This study provides new information about the demography of step-grandparenthood in the United States. Specifically, we examine the prevalence of step-grandparenthood across birth cohorts and for socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups. We also examine lifetime exposure to the step-grandparent role. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Health and Retirement Study, we use percentages to provide first estimates of step-grandparenthood and to describe demographic and socioeconomic variation in who is a step-grandparent. We use life tables to estimate the exposure to step-grandparenthood. The share of step-grandparents is increasing across birth cohorts. However, individuals without a college education and non-Whites are more likely to become step-grandparents. Exposure to the step-grandparent role accounts for approximately 15% of total grandparent years at age 65 for women and men. A growing body of research finds that grandparents are increasingly instrumental in the lives of younger generations. However, the majority of this work assumes that these ties are biological, with little attention paid to the role of family complexity across three generations. Understanding the demographics of step-grandparenthood sheds light on the family experiences of an overlooked, but growing segment of the older adult population in the United States. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Loughry, W.J.; Lockhart, J. Mitchell; Inman, W. Barry; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Pena, Maria T.; Marcos, Luis A.; Scollard, David M.; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and have been implicated in zoonotic transmission of leprosy. Early studies found this disease mainly in Texas and Louisiana, but armadillos in the southeastern United States appeared to be free of infection. We screened 645 armadillos from 8 locations in the southeastern United States not known to harbor enzootic leprosy for M. leprae DNA and antibodies. We found M. leprae–infected armadillos at each location, and 106 (16.4%) animals had serologic/PCR evidence of infection. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism variable number tandem repeat genotyping/genome sequencing, we detected M. leprae genotype 3I-2-v1 among 35 armadillos. Seven armadillos harbored a newly identified genotype (3I-2-v15). In comparison, 52 human patients from the same region were infected with 31 M. leprae types. However, 42.3% (22/52) of patients were infected with 1 of the 2 M. leprae genotype strains associated with armadillos. The geographic range and complexity of zoonotic leprosy is expanding. PMID:26583204

  13. 31 CFR 50.81 - State causes of action preempted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or resulting from an act of terrorism that are otherwise available under State law are preempted... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State causes of action preempted. 50.81 Section 50.81 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK...

  14. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, John C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, James M.; Mattick, R.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin Previous HitoffTop the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank. Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsided basement. Acoustically, the sedimentary sequence beneath the shelf is divided into three units which are correlated speculatively with the Cenozoic, the Cretaceous, and the Jurassic-Triassic sections. These units thicken offshore, and some have increased seismic velocities farther offshore. The uppermost unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to slightly more than a kilometer in a seaward direction, and velocity values range from 1.7 to 2.2 km/sec. The middle unit thickens from a fraction of a kilometer to as much as 5 km (northern Baltimore Canyon trough), and seismic velocity ranges from 2.2 to 5.4 km/sec. The lowest unit thickens to a maximum of 9 km (northern Baltimore Canyon), and velocities span the 3.9 to 5.9-km/sec interval. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile. Because the magnetic-slope-anomaly wavelength is nearly 50 km across, a

  15. Optimal operation of cogeneration units. State of art and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polimeni, S.

    2001-01-01

    Optimal operation of cogeneration plants and of power plant fueling waste products is a complex challenge as they have to fulfill, beyond the contractual obligation of electric power supply, the constraints of supplying the required thermal energy to the user (for cogeneration units) or to burn completely the by-products of the industrial complex where they are integrated. Electrical power market evolution is pushing such units to a more and more volatile operation caused by uncertain selling price levels. This work intends to pinpoint the state of art in the optimization of these units outlining the important differences among the different size and cycles. The effect of the market liberalization on the automation systems and the optimization algorithms will be discussed [it

  16. 31 CFR 500.520 - Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. 500.520..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.520 Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. (a) Banking institutions within...

  17. 31 CFR 515.520 - Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. 515.520..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.520 Payments from accounts of United States citizens in employ of United States in foreign countries and certain other persons. (a) Banking institutions within...

  18. United States of America: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas; Rosenau, Pauline; Unruh, Lynn Y; Barnes, Andrew J; Saltman, Richard B; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the United States health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The US health system has both considerable strengths and notable weaknesses. It has a large and well-trained health workforce, a wide range of high-quality medical specialists as well as secondary and tertiary institutions, a robust health sector research program and, for selected services, among the best medical outcomes in the world. But it also suffers from incomplete coverage of its citizenry, health expenditure levels per person far exceeding all other countries, poor measures on many objective and subjective measures of quality and outcomes, an unequal distribution of resources and outcomes across the country and among different population groups, and lagging efforts to introduce health information technology. It is difficult to determine the extent to which deficiencies are health-system related, though it seems that at least some of the problems are a result of poor access to care. Because of the adoption of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, the United States is facing a period of enormous potential change. Improving coverage is a central aim, envisaged through subsidies for the uninsured to purchase private insurance, expanded eligibility for Medicaid (in some states) and greater protection for insured persons. Furthermore, primary care and public health receive increased funding, and quality and expenditures are addressed through a range of measures. Whether the ACA will indeed be effective in addressing the challenges identified above can only be determined over time. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  19. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Team More Information Arsenic in groundwater of the United States Arsenic in groundwater is largely the result of ... Gronberg (2011) for updated arsenic map. Featured publications United States Effects of human-induced alteration of groundwater flow ...

  20. Residency training in the United States: What foreign medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FMGs) planning to pursue post-graduate residency training in the United States of America (USA). While the number of residency training positions is shrinking, and the number of United States graduates has steadily declined over the past ...

  1. The United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kechichian, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)

  2. Occurrence of the root-rot pathogen, Fusarium commune, in midwestern and western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. E. Stewart; R. K. Dumroese; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium commune can cause damping-off and root rot of conifer seedlings in forest nurseries. The pathogen is only reported in Oregon, Idaho, and Washington within United States. Fusarium isolates were collected from midwestern and western United States to determine occurrence of this pathogen. DNA sequences of mitochondrial small subunit gene were used to identify F....

  3. Air pollution problem in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimann, H

    1964-10-01

    Air pollution in the United States as a problem affecting health, as well as man's enjoyment of his property, was first noted in 1912 in the reports of the investigators at the Mellon Institute of the University of Pittsburgh. The Selby copper smelter incident in 1915 was among the first episodic air pollution events documented. The US Public Health Service studied carbon monoxide buildup in vehicular tunnels in 1928 and 1929. the Donora (Pennsylvania) pollution episode, where 17 people died, occurred in 1949. It and the onset of smog conditions in the Los Angeles area really initiated broad public awareness of air pollution as a public health hazard in the USA. The symptoms of air pollution-related injuries are discussed, the role of the US Public Health Service in dealing with air pollution, and the effect of the Clean Air Act of 1963 are discussed. 26 references.

  4. United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Filipy, R.E.; Dietert, S.E.

    1991-06-01

    This report summarizes the primary scientific activities of the United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries for the period October 1, 1989 through September 30, 1990. The Registries are parallel human tissue research programs devoted to the study of the actinide elements in humans. To date there have been 261 autopsy or surgical specimen donations, which include 11 whole bodies. The emphasis of the Registry was directed towards quality improvement and the development of a fully computerized data base that would incorporate not only the results of postmortem radiochemical analysis, but also medical and monitoring information obtained during life. Human subjects reviews were also completed. A three compartment biokinetic model for plutonium distribution is proposed. 2 tabs

  5. Licensing of HTGRs in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, C.R.; Orvis, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The licensing history of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the United States is given historical perspective. The experience began with the licensing of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and extends to the continuing experience at the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. Additional experience was obtained from the licensing reviews in the mid-1970s of the large HTGR plants that were to be built by Philadelphia Electric Company and Delmarva Power and Light. Also, information was provided by the licensing review of the General Atomic standard plant by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at about the same time. These experiences are summarized in terms of the principal design criteria that were required by the regulatory authority for each project. These criteria include specification of the design basis accidents that were postulated for the plant safety analysis. Several technical issues raised by the NRC during their review of the large HTGR are presented. (author)

  6. Licensing of HTGRs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, C. R.; Orvis, D. D. [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (USA)

    1981-01-15

    The licensing history of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) in the United States is given historical perspective. The experience began with the licensing of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station and extends to the continuing experience at the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Generating Station. Additional experience was obtained from the licensing reviews in the mid-1970s of the large HTGR plants that were to be built by Philadelphia Electric Company and Delmarva Power and Light. Also, information was provided by the licensing review of the General Atomic standard plant by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at about the same time. These experiences are summarized in terms of the principal design criteria that were required by the regulatory authority for each project. These criteria include specification of the design basis accidents that were postulated for the plant safety analysis. Several technical issues raised by the NRC during their review of the large HTGR are presented.

  7. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

  8. Radiation protection standards in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.; Arsenault, F.J.; Conti, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    Standards to protect workers and members of the general public against any harmful effects of ionizing radiation are numerous and complex in the United States. Many Federal agencies have protection responsibilities, our Congress limits the discretionary authority given to these agencies in providing for this protection, and our court system appears at times to render judgments that are illogical to our sense of the degree of radiological protection required. To many our standards appear to be overprotective in that they have, at best, marginal health benefits and without question are costly to implement. Government agencies, the Congress, industry, professional organizations, and others have expressed their concerns and interests regarding standards in a variety of ways

  9. Nuclear material control in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.; Waddoups, I.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy has defined a safeguards system to be an integrated system of physical protection, material accounting and material control subsystems designed to deter, prevent, detect, and respond to unauthorized possession, use, or sabotage of SNM. In practice, safeguards involve the development and application of techniques and procedures dealing with the establishment and continued maintenance of a system of activities. The system must also include administrative controls and surveillance to assure that the procedures and techniques of the system are effective and are being carried out. The control of nuclear material is critical to the safeguarding of nuclear materials within the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy includes as part of material control four functional performance areas. They include access controls, material surveillance, material containment and detection/assessment. This paper will address not only these areas but also the relationship between material control and other safeguards and security functions

  10. Uranium resources in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, Michel.

    1975-01-01

    The United States are certainly the country which is the most concerned by a better evaluation of uranium resources. This is so because of the importance of the American nuclear program and because of a certain number of doubts in their uranium supply. This is probably why studies concerning American uranium resources have been very frequent in recent months. Although, most of these studies are not yet finished it is perhaps possible to draw a few conclusions in order to better see the framework of this important uranium resources problem. This is what this article attempts, using among other studies, the one carried-out for the National Science Foundation which is among the most complete, especially concerning the complete range of resources [fr

  11. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  12. The United States nuclear merchant ship program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maynard, E.V.

    1978-01-01

    The issues of financial protection contemplate appropriate financing to permit construction of the involved vessels. In addition, the licensing process will require a demonstrated ability for financial response in the event of injury to persons or damage to property. Since the thrust in the United States is to use the Price-Anderson framework for Insurance and Indemnity, much attention is devoted to this legislation. The pre-existing regime is related to the distinguishing requirements of the Maritime field with proposals being advanced to more nearly parallel the insurance coverage philosophy of Europe, i.e., to utilize insurance pools for the nuclear risks and utilize the conventional insurance market for non-nuclear risks. Public affairs issues impact heavily on legislation efforts and thusly become significant in developing a program for Financial Protection

  13. Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K. [Environmental Science Division; Greenwood, H. [Environmentall Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-13

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software. The report also includes: A description of each of the components of the Atlas; Lists of the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and A brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies. The Atlas includes the following: A GIS database organized as a set of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS Personal GeoDatabases, and ESRI ArcReader and ArcGIS project files providing an interactive map visualization and analysis interface.

  14. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Marilyn; Maslow, Melanie J.

    2001-06-01

    Since the first outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in 1993, understanding of the vast distribution and potential impact of hantaviruses has grown. At least 277 cases of HPS have been documented in the United States. The full clinical spectrum has yet to be elucidated, and one outbreak suggested the possibility of person-to-person transmission. New research has identified the b-3 integrins as cellular receptors for hantaviruses and has determined the pivotal role of the immune system in pathogenesis. Rapid diagnosis has been facilitated by a new immunoblot assay to detect Sin Nombre virus infection. Treatment remains primarily supportive; however, a placebo- controlled trial of ribavirin is ongoing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation may be a potential therapy in severe cases; inhaled nitric oxide needs further study. Vaccines developed against hantaviruses associated with hemorrhagic fever and renal syndrome might be effective against HPS-associated strains.

  15. Unplanned pregnancies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, D A

    1986-03-01

    Unplanned pregnancies constitute an epidemic in the United States. Over 3 million unplanned pregnancies occur, and over 1.5 million induced abortions are performed each year. Women of minority races and those with less than 12 years of education are at high risk of having unwanted children. Fear of complications (not the complications themselves) is the most powerful deterrent to women's use of contraception. Much of this fear is due to bad press. Recent good news about contraception, such as protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer, protection against ectopic pregnancy, and absence of teratogenic effects, has not received appropriate media coverage. For healthy women younger than 35 years, failure to use fertility control is more dangerous than use of any method.

  16. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994

  17. Global context for the United States Forest Sector in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify markets for, and competitors to, the United States forest industries in the next 30 years. The Global Forest Products Model was used to make predictions of international demand, supply, trade, and prices, conditional on the last RPA Timber Assessment projections for the United States. It was found that the United States, Japan...

  18. 27 CFR 479.89 - Transfers to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transfers to the United States. A firearm may be transferred to the United States or any department... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfers to the United States. 479.89 Section 479.89 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO...

  19. 32 CFR 516.54 - Witnesses for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Witnesses for the United States. 516.54 Section..., Travel, and Expenses of Witnesses § 516.54 Witnesses for the United States. (a) Status of witness. A military member authorized to appear as a witness for the United States, including those authorized to...

  20. 32 CFR 150.21 - Appeals by the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeals by the United States. 150.21 Section 150... the United States. (a) Restricted filing. Only a representative of the government designated by the Judge Advocate General of the respective service may file an appeal by the United States under Article...

  1. 78 FR 27857 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... RIN 0580-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards... (GIPSA) is revising the United States Standards for Wheat under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) to change the definition of Contrasting classes (CCL) in the class Hard White wheat. This change...

  2. 31 CFR 515.334 - United States national.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States national. 515.334 Section 515.334 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... of the United States, and which has its principal place of business in the United States. [61 FR...

  3. A proposed United States resource classification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Energy is a world-wide problem calling for world-wide communication to resolve the many supply and distribution problems. Essential to a communication problem are a definition and comparability of elements being communicated. The US Geological Survey, with the co-operation of the US Bureau of Mines and the US Department of Energy, has devised a classification system for all mineral resources, the principles of which, it is felt, offer the possibility of world communication. At present several other systems, extant or under development (Potential Gas Committee of the USA, United Nations Resource Committee, and the American Society of Testing and Materials) are internally consistent and provide easy communication linkage. The system in use by the uranium community in the United States of America, however, ties resource quantities to forward-cost dollar values rendering them inconsistent with other classifications and therefore not comparable. This paper develops the rationale for the new USGS resource classification and notes its benefits relative to a forward-cost classification and its relationship specifically to other current classifications. (author)

  4. Latin America and the United States: What Do United States History Textbooks Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Dan B.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluates how U.S.-Latin American relations are presented in high school U.S. history textbooks. An examination of 10 textbooks published between 1977-81 revealed inadequate coverage of Latin American cultural diversity and United States foreign policy from the Latin American perspective. (AM)

  5. Short Rotation Crops in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L L

    1998-06-04

    The report is based primarily on the results of survey questions sent to approximately 60 woody and 20 herbaceous crop researchers in the United States and on information from the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program. Responses were received from 13 individuals involved in woody crops research or industrial commercialization (with 5 of the responses coming from industry). Responses were received from 11 individuals involved in herbaceous crop research. Opinions on market incentives, technical and non-technical barriers, and highest priority research and development areas are summarized in the text. Details on research activities of the survey responders are provided as appendices to the paper. Woody crops grown as single-stem systems (primarily Populus and Eucalyptus species) are perceived to have strong pulp fiber and oriented strand board markets, and the survey responders anticipated that energy will comprise 25% or less of the utilization of single-stem short-rotation woody crops between now and 2010. The only exception was a response from California where a substantial biomass energy market does currently exist. Willows (Salix species) are only being developed for energy and only in one part of the United States at present. Responses from herbaceous crop researchers suggested frustration that markets (including biomass energy markets) do not currently exist for the crop, and it was the perception of many that federal incentives will be needed to create such markets. In all crops, responses indicate that a wide variety of research and development activities are needed to enhance the yields and profitability of the crops. Ongoing research activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program are described in an appendix to the paper.

  6. Fires Across the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Days of record heat made the western United States tinder dry in early July 2007. Numerous wildfires raced across the dry terrain during the weekend of July 7. From Washington to Arizona, firefighters were battling fast-moving wildfires that threatened residences, businesses, gas wells, coal mines, communications equipment, and municipal watersheds. This image of the West was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite on Sunday, July 8. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red. Some of the largest blazes are labeled. Utah's Milford Flat was the largest; according to the July 9 morning report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the blaze was more than 280,000 acres, having grown more than 124,000 acres in the previous 24 hours. The fires have destroyed homes, forced evacuations, shut down trains and highways, and killed several people. Weather conditions were not expected to improve significantly across much of the area for several days, with hot temperatures and dry thunderstorms (lightning and winds, but little rain) likely in many places. Nearly the entire western United States was experiencing some level of drought as of July 3, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. The drought had reached the 'extreme' category in southern California and western Arizona, and ranged from moderate to severe across most of the rest of the Southwest and Great Basin. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 500 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions and formats, including an infrared-enhanced version that makes burned terrain appear brick red. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center

  7. The United States: breakthroughs and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, U E

    1992-01-01

    The health system of the United States is in a paradoxical position. At its best, the system is a magnet for those seeking the latest technical breakthroughs. It can offer that excellence because there have never been effective financial constraints on the imagination; the system has become a major economic frontier, at which professional and other entrepreneurs successfully seek their fortune. At the same time, the system is leaving increasing numbers of Americans frustrated and disillusioned. It is beset by excess capacity in many areas, is needlessly expensive, and often bestows unnecessary health services. Yet only the experts are aware of these flaws; most Americans still express high satisfaction with the quality of the services they receive from their doctors and hospitals. The public's major misgivings arise over the awkward and inequitable way in which American health care is financed. The typical private health insurance policy, for example, is tied to a particular job. If the job is lost, so is the health insurance. Furthermore, these policies are priced on actuarially "fair" principles, so sick individuals are forced to pay higher insurance premiums than relatively healthy ones and chronically ill persons often cannot obtain health insurance coverage at any price. Although there are public programs to catch many persons not privately insured, the coverage tends to be insufficiently extensive and deep. Some 35 million Americans, mostly poor, have no health insurance whatsoever. Unfortunately, at this time there is no political force in the United States strong enough to reform the American health system toward greater social equity and economic efficiency, whereas there are numerous groups powerful enough to block whatever reform might harm their own narrow economic interests. Other nations can learn from America's clinical and organizational innovations in health care delivery. They can also learn what not to do by studying the unseemly way in which

  8. Eye on China and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mahyari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United States strives to force the Chinese into agreement of increasing the value of their exchange rate to help the USA avoid inflation As China did not come into an agreement with the USA, Tariffs are being put on Chinese products entering USA. However China as began to add tariff on poultry received from the US as well. China was previously not named in the legislation permitting US to add tariff on their goods. But recently a bill was passed giving the commerce department the ability to place important tariffs on all countries to undervalue their currency. The bill passed in legislation had the support of 99 republicans. China has been managing their currency in a manner that makes their goods cheaper to sell and American goods more expensive. The Chinese manipulation of their currency has been quite expensive for the USA, as it has cost them $1.5 billion jobs increasing the percentage of unemployment greatly and significantly. This imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods could result in effecting $300 billion dollars worth of their products. It is obvious that the Americans are attempting to improve and acknowledge their growth and power. As predictions have developed over this conflict, arguing the fact that China will not negotiate with the USA at this point rather fight back and also approach in adding tariffs on USimports. However, this reaction by the Chinese will only worsen the scenario and result in the possible inflation of the US economy or worldwide trade war. This is a very sensitive time for the United States as their biggest hopes are dependent on the Chinese. But it doesn’t look like they will be too satisfied with the outcome.

  9. OXA-48-Producing Enterobacteriaceae Causing Bacteremia, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulsoo Ahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OXA-48-producing isolates were identified in approximately 4% and less than 1% of ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae causing bacteremia at the largest tertiary hospital in Abu Dhabi.

  10. Geomorphic changes caused by the 2011 flood at selected sites along the lower Missouri River and comparison to historical floods: Chapter H in 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of recent and historical U.S. Geological Survey streamgage information was used to assess geomorphic changes caused by the 2011 flood, in comparison to selected historical floods, at three streamgage sites along the lower Missouri River—Sioux City, Iowa; Omaha, Nebraska; and Kansas City, Missouri. Channel-width change was not evident at the three streamgage sites following the 2011 flood and likely was inhibited by bank stabilization. Pronounced changes in channel-bed elevation were indicated. At Sioux City and Omaha, the geomorphic effects of the 2011 flood were similar in terms of the magnitude of channelbed scour and recovery. At both sites, the 2011 flood caused pronounced scour (about 3 feet) of the channel bed; however, at Omaha, most of the channel-bed scour occurred after the flood had receded. More than 1 year after the flood, the channel bed had only partially recovered (about 1 foot) at both sites. Pronounced scour (about 3 feet at Sioux City and about 1.5 feet at Omaha) also was caused by the 1952 flood, which had a substantially larger peak discharge but was much shorter in duration at both sites. Again, at Omaha, most of the channel- bed scour occurred after the flood had receded. At Sioux City, substantial recovery of the channel bed (about 2.5 feet) was documented 1 year after the 1952 flood. Recovery to the pre-flood elevation was complete by April 1954. The greater recovery following the 1952 flood, compared to the 2011 flood, likely was related to a more abundant sediment supply because the flood predated the completion of most of the main-stem dam, channelization, and bank stabilization projects. At Omaha, following the 1952 flood, the channel bed never fully recovered to its pre-flood elevation. The geomorphic effect of the 2011 flood at Kansas City was fill (about 1 foot) on the channel bed followed by relative stability. The 1952 flood, which had a substantially larger peak discharge but was much shorter in duration, caused

  11. A Perspective on United States Policy toward the Arab Gulf Countries and Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al Shamisi, Ibrahim A

    2005-01-01

    .... The events of September 2001 caused important changes in the United States' national security policy, which led it to initiate aggressive foreign policies toward Islam in general, and Arabs in particular...

  12. United States electric industry : restructuring in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum Hollis, S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed review of the United States electric power industry. The aim of the review was to clarify and better define current industry procedures and practices in light of significant and recent restructuring. In addition, recent bankruptcies and the power blackout in 2003 have raised concerns over industry practices. Issues concerning Independent System Operators (ISO) and regional transmission organizations were evaluated, with reference to an evolution and implementation of Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) policy, including a cost-benefit analysis. A background of RTO formations was provided with reference to consolidation, selection process and transfer of assets. Standard market design, network access and pricing issues were reviewed, as well as market and reliability concerns. Issues concerning affiliate treatment, shortages and the effect of sale of securities were presented. Various approaches to congestion management were examined, with examples from California and New England. Market monitoring issues, investigations and hearings were also examined, with examples and orders, including details of refunds. Measures to improve reliability were reviewed, including: management systems, benefit margins, requirements, assurance agreements and reserve markets. Issues concerning information access were presented, including: Open Access Same-time Information System (OASIS) requirements; tagging; standard business practices and protocols; and quarterly report practices and protocols. Interconnection policies were reviewed with reference to applicability, service options and pricing. The issue of variations was examined, with case examples concerning cost allocation, contract rights and treatment of specific costs. Jurisdiction issues concerning corporate realignments and power exchanges were presented, as well as specific services and state-federal relations. Issues concerning mergers and merger policy were also discussed, with reference

  13. 78 FR 70274 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... the schedule and agenda for an open meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...

  14. 78 FR 3398 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... the schedule and agenda for an open meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...

  15. Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Suicide in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Balis, Theodora; Postolache, Teodor T.

    2008-01-01

    Suicide is the third-leading cause of death for adolescents between 15 and 24 years of age in the United States and its rate has been increasing. Factors that contribute to rate of, risks for, or protection against depression and suicide may be different for people from cultures with different values and health beliefs. Although typically seen as affecting Caucasians more than other groups in the U.S., the rates of suicide among African Americans, Latinos, and others have been increasing. 87 ...

  16. The Changing Face of Tobacco Use Among United States Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Lauterstein, Dana; Hoshino, Risa; Gordon, Terry; Watkins, Beverly-Xaviera; Weitzman, Michael; Zelikoff, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use, primarily in the form of cigarettes, is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States (U.S.). The adverse effects of tobacco use began to be recognized in the 1940’s and new hazards of active smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure from cigarettes continue to be identified to this day. This has led to a sustained and wide-ranging array of highly effective regulatory, public health, and clinical efforts that have been informed by extensive scien...

  17. Energy consumption, income, and carbon emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soytas, Ugur [Department of Business Administration, Middle East Technical University Ankara, Turkey 06531 (Turkey); Sari, Ramazan [Department of Economics, Abant Izzet Baysal University Bolu, Turkey 14280 (Turkey); Ewing, Bradley T. [Rawls College of Business Texas Tech University Lubbock, TX 79409-2101 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    This paper investigates the effect of energy consumption and output on carbon emissions in the United States. Earlier research focused on testing the existence and/or shape of an environmental Kuznets curve without taking energy consumption into account. We investigate the Granger causality relationship between income, energy consumption, and carbon emissions, including labor and gross fixed capital formation in the model. We find that income does not Granger cause carbon emissions in the US in the long run, but energy use does. Hence, income growth by itself may not become a solution to environmental problems. (author)

  18. Chagas Cardiomyopathy in New Orleans and the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Robert C; Burak, Joshua; Tiwari, Sumit; Chakraborti, Chayan; Sander, Gary E

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease (CD), caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, affects 6-7 million people worldwide annually, primarily in Central and South America, and >300,000 people in the United States. CD consists of acute and chronic stages. Hallmarks of acute CD include fever, myalgia, diaphoresis, hepatosplenomegaly, and myocarditis. Symptoms of chronic CD include pathologic involvement of the heart, esophagus, and colon. Myocardial involvement is identifiable by electrocardiogram and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showing inflammation and left ventricular wall functional abnormalities. We present two cases of CD identified in a single hospital in the Southeastern United States. Case 1 presents a patient with symptoms of anginal chest pain and associated shortness of breath with myocardial involvement suggestive of ischemic infarction but normal coronary arteries. Case 2 describes a patient with no physical symptoms and echocardiogram with ejection fraction of 50% with posterolateral and anterolateral wall hypokinesis but normal coronary arteries. With a growing number of immigrants from Central and South America in the United States, it is imperative for clinicians to include CD as part of the differential diagnosis for patients presenting with heart disease who have a history of exposure to T. cruzi endemic areas.

  19. Experience with HEPA filters at United States nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1977-01-01

    Part 50 of Title 10 of the United States Code of Federal Regulations requires that a number of atmosphere cleanup systems be included in the design of commercial nuclear power plants to be licensed in the United States. These filtering systems are to contain high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters for removal of radioactive particulate matter generated during normal and accident conditions. Recommendations for the design, testing and maintenance of the filtering systems and HEPA filter components are contained in a number of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission documents and industry standards. This paper will discuss this published guidance available to designers of filtering systems and the plant operators of U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. The paper will also present a survey of published reports of experience with HEPA filters, failures and possible causes for the failures, and other abnormal occurrences pertaining to HEPA filters installed in U.S. nuclear power installations. A discussion will be included of U.S. practices for qualification of HEPA filters before installation, and verification of continued performance capability at scheduled intervals during operation

  20. Transmission policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of electric power transmission access, pricing and investment policies in the US over the last 15 years and evaluates the current state of those policies. Pre-liberalization transmission access and pricing policies are reviewed first since more recent policies have evolved from them. FERC's efforts to ensure that transmission owning utilities provide non-discriminatory access and pricing to wholesale transmission customers, culminating in Order 888 and 889 are discussed. These rules did not respond to problems created by a highly balkanized transmission system and only partially responded to problems caused by common ownership and operation of transmission networks with generating and marketing businesses in the same regions. These problems motivated FERC to seek to create Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO) meeting a long list of criteria related to governance, network operations, transmission pricing and investment as reflected in Order 2000. The slow pace of 'voluntary' reform following Order 2000 led FERC to issue a proposed Standard Market Design Rule (SMD) which provided more detailed prescriptions for wholesale market design, network operations, regional planning, resource adequacy, and transmission investment. The SMD rule confronted enormous resistance from groups of utilities and states that had not embraced an electricity sector liberalization agenda. However, many of the provisions of the SMD are being implemented by the RTOs and ISOs in the Northeast and Midwest. PJM's market rules and transmission pricing, planning and investment policies are reviewed as an articulation of FERC's RTO and SMD visions. (author)

  1. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  2. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  3. Regional geologic framework off northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlee, J.; Behrendt, J.C.; Grow, J.A.; Robb, J.M.; Mattick, R.E.; Taylor, P.T.; Lawson, B.J.

    1976-01-01

    Six multichannel seismic-reflection profiles taken across the Atlantic continental margin off the northeastern United States show an excess of 14 km of presumed Mesozoic and younger sedimentary rocks in the Baltimore Canyon trough and 8 km in the Georges Bank basin. Beneath the continental rise, the sedimentary prism thickness exceeds 7 km south of New Jersey and Maryland, and it is 4.5 km thick south of Georges Bank Stratigraphically, the continental slope--outer edge of the continental shelf is a transition zone of high-velocity sedimentary rock, probably carbonate, that covers deeply subsidized basement. The spatial separation of magnetic and gravity anomalies on line 2 (New Jersey) suggests that in the Baltimore Canyon region the magnetic-slope anomaly is due to edge effects and that the previously reported free-air and isostatic gravity anomalies over the outer shelf may be due in part to a lateral increase in sediment density (velocity) near the shelf edge. The East Coast magnetic anomaly and the free-air gravity high both coincide over the outer shelf edge on line 1 (Georges Bank) but are offset by 20 km from the ridge on the reflection profile

  4. Monthly hydroclimatology of the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Thomas; Devineni, Naresh; Sankarasubramanian, A.

    2018-04-01

    Physical/semi-empirical models that do not require any calibration are of paramount need for estimating hydrological fluxes for ungauged sites. We develop semi-empirical models for estimating the mean and variance of the monthly streamflow based on Taylor Series approximation of a lumped physically based water balance model. The proposed models require mean and variance of monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration, co-variability of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration and regionally calibrated catchment retention sensitivity, atmospheric moisture uptake sensitivity, groundwater-partitioning factor, and the maximum soil moisture holding capacity parameters. Estimates of mean and variance of monthly streamflow using the semi-empirical equations are compared with the observed estimates for 1373 catchments in the continental United States. Analyses show that the proposed models explain the spatial variability in monthly moments for basins in lower elevations. A regionalization of parameters for each water resources region show good agreement between observed moments and model estimated moments during January, February, March and April for mean and all months except May and June for variance. Thus, the proposed relationships could be employed for understanding and estimating the monthly hydroclimatology of ungauged basins using regional parameters.

  5. The United Mexican States: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R; Aguirre, E J

    1988-09-01

    Although the popular North American opinion of Mexico is one that paints a picture of a poor, disadvantaged country, South America sees Mexico has a richer more prosperous nation. It is observed that only in the Latin American countries of Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago do consumers have higher incomes than Mexican consumers. Moreover, while millions of Mexicans migrate to the United States to seek a better standard of living, several thousand Central American refugees illegally migrate to Mexico in search of a better life. This better life includes an increased age of lie expectancy from 51 years in the 1950s to 64 years in the late 1970s. There have also been improvements in health care and school enrollments and in the low cost availability of education. Tourism and the prospect of the manufacturing of energy are significant, positive factors working in favor of an improved Mexican economy and a higher overall quality of life. However, Mexico faces serious problems such as a mounting foreign debt. Also rising is Mexico's population which has doubled since 1964 and which continues to grow at a rate of 1.9%. Economic programs and reforms and family development planning have been instituted in response to the countries' current recession and population growth and have begun to show positive results.

  6. Interfuel substitution in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos; Vasetsky, Olexandr [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Timilsina, Govinda R. [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818 H Street N.W., Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we use the locally flexible translog functional form to investigate the demand for energy and interfuel substitution in the United States and to provide a comparison of our results with most of the existing empirical energy demand literature. Motivated by the widespread practice of ignoring theoretical regularity, we follow Barnett's (2002) suggestions and estimate the model subject to theoretical regularity, using methods developed by Diewert and Wales (1987) and Ryan and Wales (2000), in an attempt to produce inference consistent with neoclassical microeconomic theory. Moreover, we use the most recent data, published by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), and in addition to investigating interfuel substitution possibilities in total U.S. energy demand, we follow Serletis et al. (2009) and also examine interfuel substitution possibilities in energy demand by sector. Moreover, we test for weak separability, with the objective of discovering the structure of the functional form in total energy demand as well as energy demand by sector. (author)

  7. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  8. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Baum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and the L.A. Riots of 1991, with references to other cultural catastrophes. While these projects are different, they are not opposed; both museums locate the American perspective of events and their meanings at the forefront. American holocaust museums seem to challenge spaces between memory and its direction, vision and revision. Within the gruesome context of holocaust portrayal, interrogate the valences of memory’s play and expose American holocaust museums as theatres of pornographic memory. The seduction of feeling does not invite change so much as purgation, what Aristotle identified as catharsis — an emotional and physical release, unfortunately replicating the seductive techniques used by Goebbels for the glorification of Hitler. Through manipulation of viewers as automatic audiences, these museums function as centres for pathos I question the policy and polity of presenting genocide as an entertainment leading to catharsis, recognizing that the final act of purgation is all too easily negation.

  9. Recurrent Kawasaki disease, United States and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Ryan A.; Holman, Robert C.; Uehara, Ritei; Callinan, Laura S.; Guest, Jodie L.; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Yashiro, Mayumi; Belay, Ermias D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Descriptive epidemiologic studies of recurrent and non-recurrent Kawasaki disease (KD) may identify other potentially important differences between these illnesses. Methods Data from the United States and Japan, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) national KD surveillance (1984–2008) and the 17th Japanese nationwide survey (2001–2002), respectively, were analyzed to examine recurrent KD patients <18 years of age meeting the CDC KD case or atypical KD case definition. These patients were compared to non-recurrent KD patients. Results Of the 5557 US KD patients <18 years of age during 1984–2008, 97 (1.7%) were identified as having had recurrent KD. Among the US Asian/Pacific Islander KD patients, 3.5% had recurrent KD, which was similar to the percentage identified among KD patients (3.5%) in the Japanese survey. Compared to non-recurrent KD patients, KD patients experiencing a recurrent KD episode were more likely to be older, fulfill the atypical KD case definition, and have coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) despite IVIG treatment. Conclusions Differences in the age, race, and frequency of CAA exist between recurrent and non-recurrent KD patients. The increased association of CAA with recurrent KD suggests that more aggressive treatment strategies in conjunction with IVIG may be indicated for the second episode of KD. PMID:26096590

  10. Seismic hazard in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles; Boyd, Oliver; Petersen, Mark D.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Rezaeian, Sanaz; Shumway, Allison

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey seismic hazard maps for the central and eastern United States were updated in 2014. We analyze results and changes for the eastern part of the region. Ratio maps are presented, along with tables of ground motions and deaggregations for selected cities. The Charleston fault model was revised, and a new fault source for Charlevoix was added. Background seismicity sources utilized an updated catalog, revised completeness and recurrence models, and a new adaptive smoothing procedure. Maximum-magnitude models and ground motion models were also updated. Broad, regional hazard reductions of 5%–20% are mostly attributed to new ground motion models with stronger near-source attenuation. The revised Charleston fault geometry redistributes local hazard, and the new Charlevoix source increases hazard in northern New England. Strong increases in mid- to high-frequency hazard at some locations—for example, southern New Hampshire, central Virginia, and eastern Tennessee—are attributed to updated catalogs and/or smoothing.

  11. Understanding Toxoplasmosis in the United States Through "Large Data" Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykins, Joseph; Wang, Kanix; Wheeler, Kelsey; Clouser, Fatima; Dixon, Ashtyn; El Bissati, Kamal; Zhou, Ying; Lyttle, Christopher; Rzhetsky, Andrey; McLeod, Rima

    2016-08-15

    Toxoplasma gondii infection causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the United States, and infects approximately one-third of persons globally. Clinical manifestations vary. Seropositivity is associated with neurologic diseases and malignancies. There are few objective data concerning US incidence and distribution of toxoplasmosis. Truven Health MarketScan Database and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes, including treatment specific to toxoplasmosis, identified patients with this disease. Spatiotemporal distribution and patterns of disease manifestation were analyzed. Comorbidities between patients and matched controls were compared. Between 2003 and 2012, 9260 patients had ICD-9 codes for toxoplasmosis. This database of patients with ICD-9 codes includes 15% of those in the United States, excluding patients with no or public insurance. Thus, assuming that demographics do not change incidence, the calculated total is 61 700 or 6856 patients per year. Disease was more prevalent in the South. Mean age at diagnosis was 37.5 ± 15.5 years; 2.4% were children aged 0-2 years, likely congenitally infected. Forty-one percent were male, and 73% of women were of reproductive age. Of identified patients, 38% had eye disease and 12% presented with other serious manifestations, including central nervous system and visceral organ damage. Toxoplasmosis was statistically associated with substantial comorbidities, including human immunodeficiency virus, autoimmune diseases, and neurologic diseases. Toxoplasmosis causes morbidity and mortality in the United States. Our analysis of private insurance records missed certain at-risk populations and revealed fewer cases of retinal disease than previously estimated, suggesting undercoding, underreporting, undertreating, or differing demographics of those with eye disease. Mandatory reporting of infection to health departments and gestational screening could improve care and facilitate detection of

  12. Transmission policy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joskow, P.L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Department of Economics

    2005-06-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of electric power transmission access, pricing and investment policies in the US over the last 15 years and evaluates the current state of those policies. Pre-liberalization transmission access and pricing policies are reviewed first since more recent policies have evolved from them. FERC's efforts to ensure that transmission owning utilities provide non-discriminatory access and pricing to wholesale transmission customers, culminating in Order 888 and 889 are discussed. These rules did not respond to problems created by a highly balkanized transmission system and only partially responded to problems caused by common ownership and operation of transmission networks with generating and marketing businesses in the same regions. These problems motivated FERC to seek to create Regional Transmission Organizations (RTO) meeting a long list of criteria related to governance, network operations, transmission pricing and investment as reflected in Order 2000. The slow pace of 'voluntary' reform following Order 2000 led FERC to issue a proposed Standard Market Design Rule (SMD) which provided more detailed prescriptions for wholesale market design, network operations, regional planning, resource adequacy, and transmission investment. The SMD rule confronted enormous resistance from groups of utilities and states that had not embraced an electricity sector liberalization agenda. However, many of the provisions of the SMD are being implemented by the RTOs and ISOs in the Northeast and Midwest. PJM's market rules and transmission pricing, planning and investment policies are reviewed as an articulation of FERC's RTO and SMD visions. (author)

  13. A Summary and Analysis of Warrantless Arrest Statutes for Domestic Violence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeoli, April M.; Norris, Alexis; Brenner, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have enacted statutes that allow police officers to make warrantless arrests for domestic violence given probable cause; however, state laws differ from one another in multiple, important ways. Research on domestic violence warrantless arrest laws rarely describe them as anything…

  14. Surveillance for Lyme Disease - United States, 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Amy M; Hinckley, Alison F; Mead, Paul S; Hook, Sarah A; Kugeler, Kiersten J

    2017-11-10

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne disease in the United States but is geographically focal. The majority of Lyme disease cases occur in the Northeast, mid-Atlantic, and upper Midwest regions. Lyme disease can cause varied clinical manifestations, including erythema migrans, arthritis, facial palsy, and carditis. Lyme disease occurs most commonly among children and older adults, with a slight predominance among males. 2008-2015. Lyme disease has been a nationally notifiable condition in the United States since 1991. Possible Lyme disease cases are reported to local and state health departments by clinicians and laboratories. Health department staff conduct case investigations to classify cases according to the national surveillance case definition. Those that qualify as confirmed or probable cases of Lyme disease are reported to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. States with an average annual incidence during this reporting period of ≥10 confirmed Lyme disease cases per 100,000 population were classified as high incidence. States that share a border with those states or that are located between areas of high incidence were classified as neighboring states. All other states were classified as low incidence. During 2008-2015, a total of 275,589 cases of Lyme disease were reported to CDC (208,834 confirmed and 66,755 probable). Although most cases continue to be reported from states with high incidence in the Northeast, mid-Atlantic, and upper Midwest regions, case counts in most of these states have remained stable or decreased during the reporting period. In contrast, case counts have increased in states that neighbor those with high incidence. Overall, demographic characteristics associated with confirmed cases were similar to those described previously, with a slight predominance among males and a bimodal age distribution with peaks among young children and older adults. Yet, among the subset of cases reported

  15. Mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Jason P; Gross, Cary P

    2014-01-01

    The mortality burden from nonneoplastic skin disease in the United States is unknown. We sought to estimate mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease as underlying and contributing causes of death. Population-based death certificate data detailing mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease for years 1999 to 2009 were used to calculate absolute numbers of death and age-adjusted mortality by year, patient demographics, and 10 most commonly reported diagnoses. Nonneoplastic skin diseases were reported as underlying and contributing causes of mortality for approximately 3948 and 19,542 patients per year, respectively. Age-adjusted underlying cause mortality (per 100,000 persons) were significantly greater (P deaths occurred in patients ages 65 years and older (34,248 total deaths). Common underlying causes of death included chronic ulcers (1789 deaths/y) and cellulitis (1348 deaths/y). Errors in death certificate data and inability to adjust for patient-level confounders may limit the accuracy and generalizability of our results. Mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease is uncommon yet potentially preventable. The elderly bear the greatest burden of mortality from nonneoplastic skin disease. Chronic ulcers and cellulitis constitute frequent causes of death. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Causes of several accidents in gamma radiography testing units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vykrocil, L.

    1979-01-01

    Three cases are described of radiation accidents in gamma flaw-detection work-places in the West Bohemian Region. The causes of the accidents stemmed from the unsatisfactory technical condition of the materials testing equipment used and nonobservance of regulations for work with radioactive sourr.es. It is necessary for precluding similar accident to improve preventive care of gamma flaw-detection equipment and to educate personnel who would be considered for coping with the situation when control over the radiation source is lost. (Ha)

  17. Consumer bankruptcy law for Ethiopia: Lessons from United States ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After deregulation of consumer credit and resultant availability, ... Germany, United States, United Kingdom and France are some of the countries ... social insurance, development policy and rehabilitative function of discharge and fresh start.

  18. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan; Robert, Vincent A R G; Crous, Pedro W; Geiser, David M

    2016-11-01

    Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs). Three of the FSSC species (Fusarium falciforme, Fusarium keratoplasticum, and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12) accounted for four-fifths of the veterinary strains (38/47) and STs (27/33) within this clade. Most of the F. falciforme strains (12/15) were recovered from equine keratitis infections; however, strains of F. keratoplasticum and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12 were mostly (25/27) isolated from marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Our sampling suggests that the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), with eight mycoses-associated species, may represent the second most important clade of veterinary relevance within Fusarium Six of the multilocus STs within the FSSC (3+4-eee, 1-b, 12-a, 12-b, 12-f, and 12-h) and one each within the FIESC (1-a) and the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (ST-33) were widespread geographically, including three STs with transoceanic disjunctions. In conclusion, fusaria associated with veterinary mycoses are phylogenetically diverse and typically can only be identified to the species level using DNA sequence data from portions of one or more informative genes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  20. Refugee Status Required for Resettlement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    STATES REFUGEE ADMISSIONS PROGRAM FLOWCHART ...the American public’s concerns. 50 APPENDIX A UNITED STATES REFUGEE ADMISSIONS PROGRAM FLOWCHART Source: US Citizenship and Immigration...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Refugee Status Required for Resettlement in the United States 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  1. Regionalization of ground motion attenuation in the conterminous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.H.; Bernreuter, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Attenuation results from geometric spreading and from absorption. The former is almost independent of crustal geology or physiographic region. The latter depends strongly on crustal geology and the state of the earth's upper mantle. Except for very high-frequency waves, absorption does not affect ground motion at distances less than 25 to 50 km. Thus, in the near-field zone, the attenuation in the eastern United States will be similar to that in the western United States. Most of the differences in ground motion can be accounted for by differences in attenuation caused by differences in absorption. The other important factor is that for some Western earthquakes the fault breaks the earth's surface, resulting in larger ground motion. No Eastern earthquakes are known to have broken the earth's surface by faulting. The stress drop of Eastern earthquakes may be higher than for Western earthquakes of the same seismic moment, which would affect the high-frequency spectral content. This factor is believed to be of much less significance than differences in absorption in explaining the differences in ground motion between the East and the West. 6 figures

  2. Unites States and the oil of the Middle-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2005-08-01

    The author discusses different aspects of the United States intervention and behavior in the Middle-East petroleum management. The Iraq and Iran potentials are largely under used. The Saudi Arabia defines its own oil policy, but benefits of the Unites States military help. The United States intervention is in the domain of the security of flux on the world market. (A.L.B.)

  3. The Rising Tiger (United States Policy Consideration towards Southeast Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Carla; Pagliano, Gary; Rosner, Elliot J

    1997-01-01

    .... Southeast Asia, consisting of the countries of Thailand, Cambodia, Burma, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, and the Philippines, presents opportunities for the United States...

  4. Iran and the United States: Recreating a Strategic Partnership

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weynand, Gordon W

    2009-01-01

    Iran's geographical location, regional influence, large and well-educated population, extensive petroleum resources, and functioning theocratic democracy make it critical for the United States to seek...

  5. Factors Affecting Productivity in the United States Naval Construction Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morton, Darren

    1997-01-01

    By using a craftsman questionnaire, this thesis identifies and ranks the most important factors impairing Petty Officer productivity and morale in the United States Naval Construction Force (Seabees...

  6. Private forest-land owners of the United States, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. Birch; Thomas W. Birch

    1996-01-01

    A statistical analytical report on mail canvass of private forest-land owners in the United States. It discusses landowner characteristics, attitudes, harvesting experience, tenure, and management planning.

  7. The Caspian energy game: views from the United States and United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, H

    2003-07-01

    The importance of the Caspian Sea region to energy production is increasing and the forces influencing it are changing. The attention on this region focuses on its oil and natural gas reserves. A series of interviews with Western experts mainly from the United States and United Kingdom, including those in international organizations, academia, policy institutions, and government and industry officials identified key trends and issues that are important to their future policies and the significance of the Caspian oil and gas to the world energy market. The overriding issues are: The influence of Russia on regional security, stability, and the transportation of oil and gas products in the Caspian region. The outcome of the test between the United States and Iraq and the major effects it could have on commercial interests in the region and on who will be the major actors. Tensions caused by Iran refusal to settle the international demarcation of the Caspian Sea. Turkey position as a player, the affect of its new islamic-dominated government and its energy policies. Europe need to import gas and to diversify its supply. The construction of a pipeline to China. The impact of September 11, 2001 and terrorism on the Caspian region issues. The stability of the former Soviet Republics in the region. (author)

  8. The Caspian energy game: views from the United States and United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, H.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of the Caspian Sea region to energy production is increasing and the forces influencing it are changing. The attention on this region focuses on its oil and natural gas reserves. A series of interviews with Western experts mainly from the United States and United Kingdom, including those in international organizations, academia, policy institutions, and government and industry officials identified key trends and issues that are important to their future policies and the significance of the Caspian oil and gas to the world energy market. The overriding issues are: The influence of Russia on regional security, stability, and the transportation of oil and gas products in the Caspian region. The outcome of the test between the United States and Iraq and the major effects it could have on commercial interests in the region and on who will be the major actors. Tensions caused by Iran refusal to settle the international demarcation of the Caspian Sea. Turkey position as a player, the affect of its new islamic-dominated government and its energy policies. Europe need to import gas and to diversify its supply. The construction of a pipeline to China. The impact of September 11, 2001 and terrorism on the Caspian region issues. The stability of the former Soviet Republics in the region. (author)

  9. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W. (1); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (2); Boyd, Tonya L. (1); Renner, Joel (3); (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0001-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  10. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W [1; Bloomquist, R Gordon [2; Boyd, Tonya L [1; Renner, Joel [3; (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0000-12-30

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  11. The United States of America country update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Boyd, Tonya L.; Renner, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  12. Summary of floods in the United States during 1958

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, E.L.

    1964-01-01

    This report describes the most outstanding floods that occurred in the United States during 1958.A series of storms from January 23 to February 16 brought large amounts of precipitation to northern California and produced damaging floods, particularly in the Lower Sacramento Valley where losses totaled about \\$12 million.Major floods, notable because of the large area affected, occurred on many small streams in central and south Texas, following heavy general rains in late February. Extensive flooding occurred along the Gulf Coastal plain on the lower reaches of the major streams from the Brazos River to the Nueces River. Two lives were lost, and property damage exceeded \\$1 million.Damaging floods of April 1-7 followed one of the wettest winters in California history. Swollen streams overflowed their banks throughout the central part of the State, and discharge peaks on many streams exceeded those .of the floods of December 1955. Most severely flooded was the San Francisco Bay area. Total flood damage was estimated at \\$23 million.The storms and floods of April-May in Louisiana and adjacent States outranked all other floods in the United States during 1958 with respect to intensity of rain over a large area, number of streams having maximum discharge of record, rare occurrence of peaks, and great amount (\\$21 million) of resultant damage.Heavy rains on June 8-15 caused one of the greatest summer floods of record in central Indiana. Peak discharges were high and of rare occurrences. Failure of numerous levees along the Wabash River caused great damage. Crop damage alone was estimated at \\$48 million.Intense rains of July 1-2 caused record-breaking floods in southwestern Iowa. Rapid rises and the great magnitude of the floods on small streams resulted in 18 deaths and many injuries. Six towns and cities along the East Nishnabotna River and its tributaries were particularly hard hit; rural damage was also high. Total damage was estimated at \\$15 million

  13. Anti-Terrorism Authority Under the Laws of the United Kingdom and the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feikert, Clare; Doyle, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This is a comparison of the laws of the United Kingdom and of the United States that govern criminal and intelligence investigations of terrorist activities Both systems rely upon a series of statutory authorizations...

  14. Causes of childhood blindness in the northeastern states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Harsha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The northeastern region (NER of India is geographically isolated and ethno-culturally different from the rest of the country. There is lacuna regarding the data on causes of blindness and severe visual impairment in children from this region. Aim: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness amongst children from schools for the blind in the four states of NER of India. Design and Setting: Survey of children attending special education schools for the blind in the NER. Materials and Methods: Blind and severely visually impaired children (best corrected visual acuity < 20/200 in the better eye, aged up to 16 years underwent visual acuity estimation, external ocular examination, retinoscopy and fundoscopy. Refraction and low vision workup was done where indicated. World Health Organization′s reporting form was used to code anatomical and etiological causes of visual loss. Statistical Analysis: Microsoft Excel Windows software with SPSS. Results: A total of 376 students were examined of whom 258 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The major anatomical causes of visual loss amongst the 258 were congenital anomalies (anophthalmos, microphthalmos 93 (36.1%; corneal conditions (scarring, vitamin A deficiency 94 (36.7%; cataract or aphakia 28 (10.9%, retinal disorders 15 (5.8% and optic atrophy 14 (5.3%. Nearly half of the children were blind from conditions which were either preventable or treatable (48.5%. Conclusion: Nearly half the childhood blindness in the NER states of India is avoidable and Vitamin A deficiency forms an important component unlike other Indian states. More research and multisectorial effort is needed to tackle congenital anomalies.

  15. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  16. Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States. Volume 45, Number 53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-31

    Trichinosis Tuberculosis Typhoid fever Yellow fever NOTE: Although varicella is not a nationally notifiable disease, the Council of State and...plague among humans, two of which were fatal, were re- ported in the United States (two cases in Arizona, one in Colorado, and two in New Mexico ). Both...13 cases per year) were reported in the United States. Of these cases, 80% occurred in the southwestern states of New Mexico , Arizona, and

  17. Leadership Styles in United States Marine Corps Transport Helicopter Squadrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    This thesis examined leadership styles in United States Marine Corps transport helicopter squadrons. Analyses were conducted to determine how... leadership styles related to subordinate extra effort, leader effectiveness, satisfaction with leader, unit cohesion, and unit morale. The importance of...military history to the development of military leaders was also examined. Leadership styles of officers were evaluated by the leader himself as well as

  18. Cryptosporidium surveillance and risk factors in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Jonathan S; Beach, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Surveillance for Cryptosporidium in the United States indicates that the reported incidence of infection has increased dramatically since 2004. The reasons for this increase are unclear but might be caused by an actual increase in incidence, improved surveillance, improved awareness about cryptosporidiosis, and/or increases in testing practices resulting from the licensing of the first-ever treatment for cryptosporidiosis. While regional differences remain, the incidence of cryptosporidiosis appears to be increasing across the United States. Onset of illness is most common during the summer, particularly among younger children. Cryptosporidiosis case reporting also influences outbreak detection and reporting; the recent rise in cases coincides with an increase in the number of reported cryptosporidiosis outbreaks, particularly in treated recreational water venues. Risk factors include ingesting contaminated recreational or drinking water, exposure to infected animals, having close contacts with cryptosporidiosis, travel to disease-endemic areas, and ingestion of contaminated food. Advances in molecular characterization of clinical specimens have improved our understanding of the changing epidemiology and risk factors. Prevention and control of cryptosporidiosis requires continued efforts to interrupt the transmission of Cryptosporidium through water, food, and contact with infected persons or animals. Of particular importance is continued improvement and monitoring of drinking water treatment and advances in the design, operation, and management of recreational water venues coupled with behavioral changes among the swimming public. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Severe hearing impairment among military veterans--United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    A substantial proportion of hearing loss in the United States is attributable to employment-related exposure to noise. Among military veterans, the most common service-connected disabilities are hearing impairments, suggesting that occupational noise exposure during military service might cause more veterans to have hearing loss than nonveterans. However, a recent analysis of data from the 1993-1995 Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study did not find significant differences between the two groups. To further investigate hearing loss among veterans, specifically the prevalence of severe hearing impairment (SHI), data from the 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) were analyzed. This report describes the results of those analyses, which indicated that the prevalence of SHI among veterans was significantly greater than among nonveterans. Veterans were 30% more likely to have SHI than nonveterans after adjusting for age and current occupation, and veterans who served in the United States or overseas during September 2001-March 2010, the era of overseas contingency operations (including Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom), were four times more likely than nonveterans to have SHI. These findings suggest a need for increased emphasis on improving military hearing conservation programs (HCPs) and on hearing loss surveillance in military and veterans' health systems.

  20. Recent advances in the control of oak wilt in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan A. Wilson

    2005-01-01

    Oak wilt, caused by Ceratocystis fagacearum (T.W.Bretz) J. Hunt, is probably the most destructive disease of oak trees (Quercus species) in the United States, and is currently causing high morality at epiphytotic proportions in central Texas. The serious potential for damage pro,pted an increase in federal funding within the past...

  1. United States panel presentations[Nuclear power technology in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyea, J [National Audubon Society, New York, NY (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Before I begin I have to make a disclaimer. That is that I am going to be talking about public perception because I think that is very important. But I do not want to give the impression that I think the public is wrong. I happen to agree with the public's perception of nuclear power, and I want to make that clear. I do not like the current generation of nuclear plants as I have made clear in many statements that I have made. On the other hand, in the long term, I feel that we have only two choices on the supply side, and that is nuclear power and solar electricity. And although I think solar electricity has the best chance, I am realistic enough to know that technologies do not always work the way I want. And so I think it is necessary to have at least some kind of nuclear option available. On the other hand, I do not think just any kind of nuclear technology will do. I want to talk to you about the conditions that I think you have to take into account when you try to design reactors that are publicly acceptable. I look at this as an insurance policy. Again, I do not want to be misquoted: I think nuclear power should be considered as an insurance policy, not as our first line of defense. Having made those disclaimers, what we need to do is set out a problem statement. The problem statement I set out is, 'How could one design and demonstrate a nuclear reactor that would regain public confidence in the United States, if one chose to do that?' By regaining confidence, I mean regaining sufficient confidence to site reactors at a number of locations. It is a pretty heavy task because the public cannot judge the technical issues. They have to judge the players by their characters and their histories, just as the way we calibrate anyone that knows things that we do not. I have three theses that I think are crucial. The first is that people do not believe in the claims of advocates, of any point of view, not just nuclear power, once the advocates have been proved wrong on

  2. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Richard N [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-07-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  3. Pesticide risk assessment in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Richard N.

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of potential risks, all pesticides distributed and sold in the United States must fulfil extensive registration requirements for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Registration is a licensing procedure where industry must submit data to demonstrate the safety of pesticidal substances and products before they can be used commercially. The regulatory control of pesticides is unique among chemicals in the U.S. in that testing beyond initial registration may be imposed by the Agency throughout the commercial life of the chemical, as long as there is adequate justification. Registration requirements are gauged to the nature of potential exposures. For instance, more data are generally needed for food use registrations than for non-food uses because of direct consumption of treated foods by the whole U.S. population. Unlike pesticide practices in many countries and authorities, as in the European Community where agricultural pesticides, non-agricultural pesticides and genetically engineered microbial agents are handled by separate directives, all pesticide activities are covered in the U.S. by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. This statute covers pesticide uses on foods and animal feed and a number of non-food applications like forest and horticultural uses, residential lawn care, in-home applications, and disinfectants/sterilants. Traditional inorganic and organic chemicals are covered, as well as biological agents like pheromones. Naturally occurring and genetically altered microorganisms also come under the definition of pesticides, but multicellular animals are exempt from regulation as pesticides. Pesticide registration in the U.S. as in many other countries may be a long-term, resource intensive undertaking. Not uncommonly the process from beginning to complete registration may take 4 to 10 years and cost about $10 million. To meet the responsibilities of reviewing studies, overseeing 400 active ingredients and 35

  4. Asian Immigration: The View from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Examines contemporary Asian immigration to the United States from a U.S. perspective. Analyzes immigration policies and data on recent immigration from Asia. Discusses impacts concerning the United States and the immigrants themselves and speculates on future immigration. The composition of Asian immigration might change, and the number might…

  5. 19 CFR 10.46 - Articles for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles for the United States. 10.46 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles for Institutions § 10.46 Articles for the United States. Pursuant to subheadings 9808.00.10 and 9808...

  6. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  7. Income Distribution Policy in the United States [and] Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okner, Benjamin A.; Rivlin, Alice M.

    The focus of this paper is inequality - primarily, income - inequality - in the United States and the historical-political context in which policies that affect inequality are being discussed. The first section gives a brief description of recent trends in the distribution of income in the United States, a picture whose most remarkable feature is…

  8. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of...)--Special Focus Competition: European Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting... and Culture, European Commission for funding under a separate but parallel EU competition. Within this...

  9. 78 FR 77103 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism... extended deadline for application for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board... Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The November 25, 2013 notice provided that all applications...

  10. 78 FR 70275 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism... an opportunity to apply for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board... Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The purpose of the Board is to advise the Secretary of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... being the promotion of such sales to United States retail outlets by advertising in trade publications... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1.953-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX...

  12. Research on Anoplophora glabripennis in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack

    2003-01-01

    In the mid-1990s it was estimated that more than 400 exotic (non-native) forest insects had already become established in the United States (HAACK and BYLER, 1993; MATTSON et al., 1994; NIEMELA and MATTSON, 1996). This number has continued to grow with new exotics discovered annually in the United States (HAACK, 2002; HAACK and POLAND, 2001; HAACK et al., 2002). One...

  13. African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Home > African Journals Online: United States Minor Outlying Islands. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles ...

  14. School Autonomy: A Comparison between China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangang; Gao, Xingyuan; Shen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    This study examined and compared school autonomy in China and the United States. Based on the international PISA 2012 school data, the authors examined three aspects of school autonomy. We found that in comparison with the United States, (1) principals from China were less likely to have responsibility over eleven school decisions (hiring…

  15. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    the Vietnam-United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership...United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership Agreement signed...Economic Zone FTA Free Trade Agreement GDP Gross Domestic Product IMET International Military Education and Training MIA Missing in Action

  16. 77 FR 64031 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement... other customs-related provisions of the United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement (PTPA). Please...

  17. 78 FR 63052 - United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Trade Promotion Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Panama. DATES: Interim... and the Republic of Panama (the ``Parties'') signed the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement...

  18. 15 CFR 971.209 - Processing outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing outside the United States... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.209 Processing outside the United States. (a) Except as provided in this section...

  19. Development of Water Quality Modeling in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation describes historical trends in water quality model development in the United States, reviews current efforts, and projects promising future directions. Water quality modeling has a relatively long history in the United States. While its origins lie in the work...

  20. 26 CFR 1.993-7 - Definition of United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of United States. 1.993-7 Section 1.993-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-7 Definition of United States...

  1. 77 FR 27669 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... contracts. The temporary regulations provide that certain obligations of United States persons arising from upfront payments made by controlled foreign corporations pursuant to contracts that are cleared by a... the meaning of section 956(c)) for obligations of United States persons arising from certain upfront...

  2. Preparation of School Psychologists in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    School psychology in the United States continues to evolve in response to shifts in the country's demographic characteristics, an increasing focus on the importance of child mental health, together with health and education reforms. The landscape of school psychological services in the United States also is shaped through the changing roles and…

  3. THE UNITED STATES AND NIGERIAN RELATIONS:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs. I.D

    2009-12-25

    Dec 25, 2009 ... Peru. Venezuela. Mexico. New Zealand. Virgin Island. Europe. Germany. France. Italy. Netherlands. Portugal. Spain. Sweden. United Kingdom. Switzerland. Asia & far East. Japan. Singapore. India. Indonesia. Korea. Taiwan. China. Thailand. 321,797.8. 12,782.7. 309,015.1. 56,421.7. 2,413.7. 44,448.1.

  4. Intergenerational educational mobility in Denmark and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Stefan Bastholm; Thomsen, Jens-Peter

    2018-01-01

    An overall finding in comparative mobility studies is that intergenerational mobility is greater in Scandinavia than in liberal welfare-state countries like the United States and United Kingdom. However, in a recent study, Landersø and Heckman (L & H) (2017) argue that intergenerational educational...... mobility in Denmark and the United States is remarkably similar. L & H’s findings run contrary to widespread beliefs and have been echoed in academia and mass media on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. In this article, we reanalyze educational mobility in Denmark and the United States using the same data...... sources as L & H. We apply several different methodological approaches from economics and sociology, and we consistently find that educational mobility is higher in Denmark than in the United States....

  5. Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Jesse D.; Palmer, Dustyn; Dyer, Jessie; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary During 2010, 48 states and Puerto Rico reported 6,154 rabid animals and 2 human rabies cases to the CDC, representing an 8% decrease from the 6,690 rabid animals and 4 human cases reported in 2009. Hawaii and Mississippi did not report any laboratory-confirmed rabid animals during 2010. Approximately 92% of reported rabid animals were wildlife. Relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,246 raccoons (36.5%), 1,448 skunks (23.5%), 1,430 bats (23.2%), 429 foxes (6.9%), 303 cats (4.9%), 71 cattle (1.1%), and 69 dogs (1.1%). Compared with 2009, number of reported rabid animals decreased across all animal types with the exception of a 1% increase in the number of reported rabid cats. Two cases of rabies involving humans were reported from Louisiana and Wisconsin in 2010. Louisiana reported an imported human rabies case involving a 19-year-old male migrant farm worker who had a history of a vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) bite received while in Mexico. This represents the first human rabies case reported in the United States confirmed to have been caused by a vampire bat rabies virus variant. Wisconsin reported a human rabies case involving a 70-year-old male that was confirmed to have been caused by a rabies virus variant associated with tri-colored bats (Perimyotis subflavus). PMID:21916759

  6. Coccidioidomycosis Outbreaks, United States and Worldwide, 1940-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Michael; Jackson, Brendan R; McCotter, Orion; Benedict, Kaitlin

    2018-03-01

    Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial illness and death in the United States each year. Although most cases are sporadic, outbreaks provide insight into the clinical and environmental features of coccidioidomycosis, high-risk activities, and the geographic range of Coccidioides fungi. We identified reports published in English of 47 coccidioidomycosis outbreaks worldwide that resulted in 1,464 cases during 1940-2015. Most (85%) outbreaks were associated with environmental exposures; the 2 largest outbreaks resulted from an earthquake and a large dust storm. More than one third of outbreaks occurred in areas where the fungus was not previously known to be endemic, and more than half of outbreaks involved occupational exposures. Coccidioidomycosis outbreaks can be difficult to detect and challenging to prevent given the unknown effectiveness of environmental control methods and personal protective equipment; therefore, increased awareness of coccidioidomycosis outbreaks is needed among public health professionals, healthcare providers, and the public.

  7. The political economy of nuclear energy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nivola, P.S.

    2004-05-01

    A tendency among commentators, even experts like the author of the sentence above, is to regard the complicated story of nuclear energy in the United States as exceptionally troubled and frustrating. The root cause of the troubles and frustrations, moreover, is commonly thought to be more political than economic. The promise of nuclear power in this country is said to have been dimmed primarily by an eccentrically risk-averse public and an unusually hostile regulatory climate. Practically nowhere else, it is said, have political and legal institutions been so uncooperative. Supposedly the central governments of most other advanced countries have lent far more support to their nuclear industries. And because those governments are assumed to be more aggressive in combating pollution, including greenhouse gas emissions from burning fossil fuels, surely 'the rest of the world' has been doing much more than America to level the playing field for the development of nuclear energy. The following paper challenges this conventional picture. (author)

  8. Neglected parasitic infections in the United States: toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeffrey L; Parise, Monica E; Fiore, Anthony E

    2014-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings.

  9. Why are we resentment of Mexico in the United States?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Sánchez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay engages into a cultural analysis of Mexico from a populist foreign perspective. The complaints of some Latin Americans on the cultural imposition of Mexico are inserted in this cultural overview. Systematically several cultural aspects that cause resentment against México are discussed throughout the essay. A pattern of cultural “mexicanization” which eventually becomes an imposition by the great masses of Mexicans in Mexico, as well as the ones living in the United States, becomes obvious. It is a matter of the exportation of Mexican culture on the Latin American cultures in a disproportionate manner. It is an exposition of Mexican culture through complaints of Latin-Americans searching for a cultural equilibrium.

  10. Global climate change and introduced species in United States forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simberloff, D. [Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, 37996 Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2000-11-15

    Introduced species already cause billions of dollars of damage annually in United States forests, plus massive ecological damage whose economic value has often not been estimated. The variety of impacts is staggering and includes herbivory, predation, disease, parasitism, competition, habitat destruction, hybridization, and changed disturbance regimes and nutrient cycles. How global climate change will affect these impacts has scarcely been assessed. Range changes of existing introduced species will be prominent, as many species' biogeographic ranges are set primarily by climate. Similarly, some species that might otherwise not have survived will be able to establish populations in a changed climate. It is more difficult to predict what the impacts of the introduced species will be. What is most needed are studies of the combined impacts of changing climate, CO{sub 2}, and nutrients. Certain aspects of the biology of introduced species, such as evolution and autonomous dispersal, greatly complicate the prediction of spread and impact of introduced species.

  11. Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States: Toxoplasmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeffrey L.; Parise, Monica E.; Fiore, Anthony E.

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a leading cause of severe foodborne illness in the United States. Population-based studies have found T. gondii infection to be more prevalent in racial/ethnic minority and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Soil contaminated with cat feces, undercooked meat, and congenital transmission are the principal sources of infection. Toxoplasmosis-associated illnesses include congenital neurologic and ocular disease; acquired illness in immunocompetent persons, most notably ocular disease; and encephalitis or disseminated disease in immunosuppressed persons. The association of T. gondii infection with risk for mental illness is intriguing and requires further research. Reduction of T. gondii in meat, improvements in hygiene and food preparation practices, and reduction of environmental contamination can prevent toxoplasmosis, but more research is needed on how to implement these measures. In addition, screening and treatment may help prevent toxoplasmosis or reduce the severity of disease in some settings. PMID:24808246

  12. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  13. Fungicide rotation schemes for managing Phytophthora fruit rot of watermelon across southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern states produce about 50% of the watermelons in the United States (U.S.) where conditions are optimal for development of Phytophthora fruit rot prevail. Phytophthora fruit rot significantly limits watermelon production by causing serious yield losses to growers before and after harvest. ...

  14. Review of the uranium miner experience in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilberg, A.W.

    1973-01-01

    Mining of uranium ores on a very small scale began in the United States in 1898. In 1948 mining of uranium ores increased significantly as a result of the increasing demands of the atomic energy program, particularly, the weapons program. It was well-known that radioactivity was associated with uranium ore and potential health hazards had been identified as early as 1921. It was then suggested that the large number of lung cancers found in the Schneeberg miners could possibly be caused by ionizing radiation. Radiation exposure to the lungs of uranium ore miners comes about because of varying concentrations of radon decay products in the mine atmosphere. Measurements of the amount of radioactivity in mine atmospheres began in the United States in 1950 and between 1951 and through 1968, approximately 43,000 measurements were made in about 2,500 uranium mines. Periodic medical surveys were made starting in 1950, but it was not until 1954, that a concerted effort was made to examine all miners. At this time an epidemiological study was begun by the U.S. Public Health Service to determine the effects of uranium mining with particular emphasis on the problem of lung cancer induction. The study of the miners, the results of which have been published, revealed a distinct and somewhat dramatic increase in lung cancer. This increase has been ascribed to the radiation exposure to radon-daughters. Because of the presence of a number of other potential occupational carcinogens in the dust of underground mines, there has been some question as to whether radon and radon-daughters constitute the principal cause of increased lung cancer risk among these miners

  15. Ciguatera and scombroid fish poisoning in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennotti, Radha; Scallan, Elaine; Backer, Lorraine; Thomas, Jerry; Angulo, Frederick J

    2013-12-01

    Ciguatera and scombroid fish poisonings are common causes of fish-related foodborne illness in the United States; however, existing surveillance systems underestimate the overall human health impact. This study aimed to describe existing data on ciguatera and scombroid fish poisonings from outbreak and poison control center reports and to estimate the overall number of ciguatera and scombroid fish-poisoning illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths in the United States. We analyzed outbreak data from the Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance Systems (FDOSS) from 2000 to 2007 and poison control center call data from the National Poison Data System (NPDS) from 2005 to 2009 for reports of ciguatera and scombroid fish poisonings. Using a statistical model with many inputs, we adjusted the outbreak data for undercounting due to underreporting and underdiagnosis to generate estimates. Underreporting and underdiagnosis multipliers were derived from the poison control call data and the published literature. Annually, an average of 15 ciguatera and 28 scombroid fish-poisoning outbreaks, involving a total of 60 and 108 ill persons, respectively, were reported to FDOSS (2000-2007). NPDS reported an average of 173 exposure calls for ciguatoxin and 200 exposure calls for scombroid fish poisoning annually (2005-2009). After adjusting for undercounting, we estimated 15,910 (90% credible interval [CrI] 4140-37,408) ciguatera fish-poisoning illnesses annually, resulting in 343 (90% CrI 69-851) hospitalizations and three deaths (90% CrI 1-7). We estimated 35,142 (90% CrI: 10,496-78,128) scombroid fish-poisoning illnesses, resulting in 162 (90% CrI 0-558) hospitalizations and 0 deaths. Ciguatera and scombroid fish poisonings affect more Americans than reported in surveillance systems. Although additional data can improve these assessments, the estimated number of illnesses caused by seafood intoxication illuminates this public health problem. Efforts, including education, can reduce

  16. United States Strategy in Colombia: New Opportunities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, Lee C

    2003-01-01

    .... Despite decades of U.S. support to the Government of Colombia, the troika of guerrilla insurgency, civil disorder by paramilitaries, and illegal drug activities has brought Colombia close to becoming a failed State. U.S...

  17. Drug Poisoning Mortality by County: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  18. HIV Testing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing is offered at CDC-funded testing sites (accounting for more than 3 million tests) and in ... text Each state Medicaid program determines its own definition of medical necessity, although it generally refers to ...

  19. Geothermal overviews of the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N.; Axtell, L.H. (comps.)

    1972-01-01

    This compendium presents data on geothermal resources for all those western states with geothermal potential. Individual sections, which have been processed separately for inclusion in the EDB data base, are devoted to each of the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. A separate section is also devoted to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Imperial Valley Project. Maps and references are included for each section. (JGB)

  20. Nations United: The United Nations, the United States, and the Global Campaign Against Terrorism. A Curriculum Unit & Video for Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, Christina; McLeod, Shannon

    This curriculum unit and 1-hour videotape are designed to help students understand the purpose and functions of the United Nations (UN) and explore the relationship between the United Nations and the United States. The UN's role in the global counterterrorism campaign serves as a case study for the unit. The students are asked to develop a basic…

  1. Homosexuality, Manliness and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    units upon completion of basic and advanced training. Nowadays, most servicemembers live in apartment style quarters, where they may share...grown up in an era where differing sexual orientation was far more acceptable than in previous generations, which subsequently leads to the second...changed over time from pre- Victorian to World War I. Focusing the majority of his research on Canadian youth in Ontario during the build-up to World

  2. Homosexuality, Manliness, and the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    units upon completion of basic and advanced training. Nowadays, most servicemembers live in apartment style quarters, where they may share...grown up in an era where differing sexual orientation was far more acceptable than in previous generations, which subsequently leads to the second...changed over time from pre- Victorian to World War I. Focusing the majority of his research on Canadian youth in Ontario during the build-up to World

  3. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  4. 78 FR 46686 - Privacy Act of 1974; Treasury/United States Mint .013-United States Mint National Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... available publicly. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For general questions and privacy issues, please... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Privacy Act of 1974; Treasury/United States Mint .013--United States... Privacy Act of 1974, as amended, 5 U.S.C. 552a, the Department of the Treasury (``Treasury'') and the...

  5. Poisonous plants of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisonous plants cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry throughout the world from death losses, abortions, birth defects, increased veterinary care, and other related factors. This chapter is not intended to be all-inclusive, but provides current research information on importan...

  6. Pine breeding in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Duffield; Palmer Stockwell

    1950-01-01

    Trees fit into the general rule that (the plants and animals which nature gave us have not been considered quite good enough. For millions of years, it is true, nature has developed a breathtaking variety of forms, each wonderfully adapted to its surroundings. Changes in climate or the conformation of the earth's surface have caused the extinction of some forms...

  7. Dengue in the United States of America: A Worsening Scenario?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Añez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is a febrile illness caused by any of the four dengue virus types (DENV-1 to -4, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae mainly transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti. DENV can be transmitted by blood transfusion. Dengue has been historically present in the continental United States (US, in the state of Hawaii, and in the US insular territories in the Caribbean and the Pacific. During the second half of the 20th century, most of the cases reported in the US were imported cases brought to the country by travelers. Since 2009, cases of autochthonous dengue have been recognized in the state of Florida after 75 years of absence, followed by intensification of transmission in endemic places including the US territories of US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico, which experienced a large dengue epidemic in 2010. The widespread distribution of dengue mosquito vectors, deficient mosquito control measures and increased frequency of DENV-infected visitors to the US coming from dengue-endemic locations or places experiencing epidemics appear to be jointly responsible for the emergence and reemergence of dengue in the US and its territories.

  8. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  9. Residential firewood use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, F W; Dungan, J L

    1983-03-25

    An empirical relation between residential firewood use and population density was developed from survey data for 64 counties in New England and was corroborated by data from other states. The results indicate that usage is concentrated in urbanized areas of the Northeast and north central states and that about 9.0 to 11.0 percent of U.S. space heating input is from firewood. No constraints due to the supply of wood were apparent in 1978-1979. These findings have implications for effects on air quality.

  10. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  11. Tuition Reciprocity in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gregory; Wright, Dianne Brown; Kennedy, Angelica

    2008-01-01

    Reciprocity agreements are contracts between two or more parties whereby students pay reduced tuition rates. The rate of reduction is determined by the parameters set forth in each individual state's agreement but may range from a modest reduction in fees to a waiver of full non-resident tuition. In addition to providing tuition relief,…

  12. Surveillance for foodborne disease outbreaks - United States, 1998-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, L Hannah; Walsh, Kelly A; Vieira, Antonio R; Herman, Karen; Williams, Ian T; Hall, Aron J; Cole, Dana

    2013-06-28

    Foodborne diseases cause an estimated 48 million illnesses each year in the United States, including 9.4 million caused by known pathogens. Foodborne disease outbreak surveillance provides valuable insights into the agents and foods that cause illness and the settings in which transmission occurs. CDC maintains a surveillance program for collection and periodic reporting of data on the occurrence and causes of foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States. This surveillance system is the primary source of national data describing the numbers of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths; etiologic agents; implicated foods; contributing factors; and settings of food preparation and consumption associated with recognized foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States. 1998-2008. The Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System collects data on foodborne disease outbreaks, defined as the occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food. Public health agencies in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories, and Freely Associated States have primary responsibility for identifying and investigating outbreaks and use a standard form to report outbreaks voluntarily to CDC. During 1998-2008, reporting was made through the electronic Foodborne Outbreak Reporting System (eFORS). During 1998-2008, CDC received reports of 13,405 foodborne disease outbreaks, which resulted in 273,120 reported cases of illness, 9,109 hospitalizations, and 200 deaths. Of the 7,998 outbreaks with a known etiology, 3,633 (45%) were caused by viruses, 3,613 (45%) were caused by bacteria, 685 (5%) were caused by chemical and toxic agents, and 67 (1%) were caused by parasites. Among the 7,724 (58%) outbreaks with an implicated food or contaminated ingredient reported, 3,264 (42%) could be assigned to one of 17 predefined commodity categories: fish, crustaceans, mollusks, dairy, eggs, beef, game, pork, poultry, grains/beans, oils

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Indian Gaming in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, William V.; Bunch, Rick L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on Indian gaming in South Dakota discovered very restrictive and unfavorable tribal-state compacts that appear to border on economic racism. This article expands this previous research by exploring the influence of tribal-state Indian gaming compacts for the Indian casinos located in the contiguous United States. The purpose is…

  14. United States - Japanese nuclear relations: implications for the pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttmeier, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    The initiation of a new approach to non-proliferation policy by the United States in 1977 was the most upsetting development in the history of US-Japanese nuclear relations. The policy has seemingly altered Japanese views of its own nuclear future very little, yet it has altered the tone of the nuclear relationship with the United States. Recent Japanese nuclear power developments, both technical and administrative, are outlined and the prospects for the future of the United States-Japanese nuclear relationship and for Pacific regional cooperation assessed. Issues of importance in the relationship include reprocessing - enrichment, plutonium management, spent fuel and waste management and uranium supplies

  15. NCHS - Drug Poisoning Mortality by State: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset describes drug poisoning deaths at the U.S. and state level by selected demographic characteristics, and includes age-adjusted death rates for drug...

  16. Modeling HIV transmission and AIDS in the united states

    CERN Document Server

    Hethcote, Herbert W

    1992-01-01

    The disease that came to be called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first identified in the summer of 1981. By that time, nearly 100,000 persons in the United States may have been infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By the time the routes of transmission were clearly identified and HIV was established as the cause of AIDS in 1983, over 300,000 people may have been infected. That number has continued to increase, with approximately 1,000,000 Americans believed to be infected in 1991. The epidemic is of great public health concern because HlV is infectious, causes severe morbidity and death in most if not all of those infected, and often occurs in relatively young persons. In addition, the cost of medical care for a person with HIV disease is high, and the medical care needs of HIV-infected persons place a severe burden on the medical care systems in many areas. Understanding and controlling the HIV epidemic is a particularly difficult challenge. The long and variable period between H...

  17. Contribution from the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finck, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    It is expected that replacement of UO 2 fuel by MOX fuel in the core of BN type reactor would not be a major difficulty for standard Sn codes and ENDF data library. Replacement of the blanket by stainless steel would cause some difficulties although experience exists with ZPR-3, EBR-II and CIRANO reactors. Major difficulties that are expected are concerned with data and methods (high order 3-D transport calculations with anisotropic scattering). The effects on transients would not necessarily be large, as effects are local. A calculational scheme which would enable easy intercomparison includes US and European codes for both ENDFB-V, ENDFB-VI and JEF2 data processing; neutron calculations are to be compared to Monte Carlo calculations used as benchmark

  18. Level III and IV Ecoregions of the Continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information and downloadable maps and datasets for Level III and IV ecoregions of the continental United States. Ecoregions are areas of general similarity in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources.

  19. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) Inventory (Building)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1093 - Possession of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment... figuring your net earnings from self-employment, the term possession of the United States shall be deemed...

  1. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended

  2. 2014 Highlights of Ferry Operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Based on information provided by operators who responded to the 2014 National Census of Ferry Operators (NCFO), the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) conservatively estimates that ferries in the United States carried just over 115 million pas...

  3. Psychotropic Medication Use among Adolescents: United States, 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... no. 12–3929. 2010. Pratt LA, Brody DJ. Depression in the United States household population, 2005–2006. NCHS data brief, no 7. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2008. Akinbami LJ, Liu X, Pastor PN, Reuben ...

  4. NCHS - Births to Unmarried Women by Age Group: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes number of births to unmarried women by age group in the United States since 1940. Methods for collecting information on marital status changed...

  5. United States Coast Pilot (volume 1 through 9)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Coast Pilot is a series of 9 nautical books that cover a wide variety of information important to navigators of U.S. coastal and intercoastal...

  6. United States Air Force Nurse Crops Captains' Perceived Leadership Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randall, Marjorie

    1998-01-01

    ... effectiveness of nurses who lacked the additional training. Two hundred and seventy-nine United States Air Force Nurse Corps Captains with management experience completed Kouzes and Posner's Leadership Practice Inventory-Self (LPI...

  7. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  8. Barack Obama’s infrastructure policies for the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The new president of the United States, Barack Obama, has set his policies on infrastructures. To carry them out, he will resort mostly to economics incentives and, to a lesser extent, regulatory constraints.

  9. United States Earthquake Intensity Database, 1638-1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Earthquake Intensity Database is a collection of damage and felt reports for over 23,000 U.S. earthquakes from 1638-1985. The majority of...

  10. Inventory of power plants in the United States, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  11. Nigeria and the United States: An Analysis of National Goals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, John M

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, the continent of Africa has regained its importance to the United States and other developed nations, primarily due to its vast amounts of untapped resources...

  12. United States Japan Industry and Technology Management Training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gercik, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    .... The intellectual focus of the Program is to integrate the research methodologies of the social sciences, the humanities, and technology to approach issues confronting the United States and Japan...

  13. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) (Lease)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  14. The Rising Tiger (United States Policy Consideration towards Southeast Asia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Douglas, Carla; Pagliano, Gary; Rosner, Elliot J

    1997-01-01

    .... soldiers Island-hopped through the Philippines enjoying ultimate victory in the Pacific theater, while during the Vietnam War, the United States experienced policy failures and conflicts in the nation's will...

  15. United States Foreign Policy and the Second Liberian Civil War

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2013-09-28

    Sep 28, 2013 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2013 .... Diaspora groups based in the United States to intervene in the war. Ulti- .... take security sector reform as required by the Abuja II Peace Accord.

  16. Precipitation Frequency Atlas of the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Precipitation Frequency of the Western United States publication is an eleven volume set held in the archives. It was the culmination of many years of...

  17. HTGR development in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The status of high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) development in the United States of America is described, including the organizational structure for the development support, HTGR development programme, and plans for future activities in the field

  18. Health care in the United States: organization, management, and policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenwald, Howard P

    2010-01-01

    "Health Care in the United States discusses the basic structures and operations of the U.S. health system. This resource includes examples, tables, and a glossary with key terms and acronyms to help understand important concepts...

  19. United States Air Force Nurse Crops Captains' Perceived Leadership Effectiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randall, Marjorie

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine perceived leadership effectiveness of nurses who attended the United States Air Force Nursing Service Management residence course with the perceived leadership...

  20. Comparison between the United States Soil Conservation Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-10-26

    Oct 26, 2005 ... The United States Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method is used to estimate rainfall .... Precipitation is an important element in many engineering ... National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  1. Neglected infections of poverty in the United States of America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Hotez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, there is a largely hidden burden of diseases caused by a group of chronic and debilitating parasitic, bacterial, and congenital infections known as the neglected infections of poverty. Like their neglected tropical disease counterparts in developing countries, the neglected infections of poverty in the US disproportionately affect impoverished and under-represented minority populations. The major neglected infections include the helminth infections, toxocariasis, strongyloidiasis, ascariasis, and cysticercosis; the intestinal protozoan infection trichomoniasis; some zoonotic bacterial infections, including leptospirosis; the vector-borne infections Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, trench fever, and dengue fever; and the congenital infections cytomegalovirus (CMV, toxoplasmosis, and syphilis. These diseases occur predominantly in people of color living in the Mississippi Delta and elsewhere in the American South, in disadvantaged urban areas, and in the US-Mexico borderlands, as well as in certain immigrant populations and disadvantaged white populations living in Appalachia. Preliminary disease burden estimates of the neglected infections of poverty indicate that tens of thousands, or in some cases, hundreds of thousands of poor Americans harbor these chronic infections, which represent some of the greatest health disparities in the United States. Specific policy recommendations include active surveillance (including newborn screening to ascertain accurate population-based estimates of disease burden; epidemiological studies to determine the extent of autochthonous transmission of Chagas disease and other infections; mass or targeted treatments; vector control; and research and development for new control tools including improved diagnostics and accelerated development of a vaccine to prevent congenital CMV infection and congenital toxoplasmosis.

  2. Tobacco Product Use Among Adults - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Elyse; Wang, Teresa W; Husten, Corinne G; Corey, Catherine G; Apelberg, Benjamin J; Jamal, Ahmed; Homa, David M; King, Brian A

    2017-11-10

    Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States (1). Despite declining cigarette smoking prevalence among U.S. adults, shifts in the tobacco product landscape have occurred in recent years (2,3). Previous estimates of tobacco product use among U.S. adults were obtained from the National Adult Tobacco Survey, which ended after the 2013-2014 cycle. This year, CDC and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) assessed the most recent national estimates of tobacco product use among adults aged ≥18 years using, for the first time, data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), an annual, nationally representative, in-person survey of the noninstitutionalized U.S. civilian population. The 2015 NHIS adult core questionnaire included 33,672 adults aged ≥18 years, reflecting a 55.2% response rate. Data were weighted to adjust for differences in selection probability and nonresponse, and to provide nationally representative estimates. In 2015, 20.1 % of U.S. adults currently (every day or some days) used any tobacco product, 17.6% used any combustible tobacco product, and 3.9% used ≥2 tobacco products. By product, 15.1% of adults used cigarettes; 3.5% used electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes); 3.4% used cigars, cigarillos, or filtered little cigars; 2.3% used smokeless tobacco; and 1.2% used regular pipes, water pipes, or hookahs.* Current use of any tobacco product was higher among males; persons aged product was 47.2% among adults with serious psychological distress compared with 19.2% among those without serious psychological distress. Proven population-level interventions that focus on the diversity of tobacco product use are important to reducing tobacco-related disease and death in the United States (1).

  3. Insurance coverage for male infertility care in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupree, James M

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common condition experienced by many men and women, and treatments are expensive. The World Health Organization and American Society of Reproductive Medicine define infertility as a disease, yet private companies infrequently offer insurance coverage for infertility treatments. This is despite the clear role that healthcare insurance plays in ensuring access to care and minimizing the financial burden of expensive services. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how male infertility care is covered by insurance in the United States. We begin with an appraisal of the costs of male infertility care, then examine the state insurance laws relevant to male infertility, and close with a discussion of why insurance coverage for male infertility is important to both men and women. Importantly, we found that despite infertility being classified as a disease and males contributing to almost half of all infertility cases, coverage for male infertility is often excluded from health insurance laws. Excluding coverage for male infertility places an undue burden on their female partners. In addition, excluding care for male infertility risks missing opportunities to diagnose important health conditions and identify reversible or irreversible causes of male infertility. Policymakers should consider providing equal coverage for male and female infertility care in future health insurance laws.

  4. Restaurant Food Allergy Practices - Six Selected Sites, United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Taylor J; Brown, Laura G; Faw, Brenda; Hedeen, Nicole; Matis, Bailey; Perez, Priscela; Viveiros, Brendalee; Ripley, Danny

    2017-04-21

    Food allergies affect an estimated 15 million persons in the United States (1), and are responsible for approximately 30,000 emergency department visits and 150-200 deaths each year (2). Nearly half of reported fatal food allergy reactions over a 13-year period were caused by food from a restaurant or other food service establishment (3). To ascertain the prevalence of food allergy training, training topics, and practices related to food allergies, CDC's Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net), a collaborative forum of federal agencies and state and local health departments with six sites, interviewed personnel at 278 restaurants. Fewer than half of the 277 restaurant managers (44.4%), 211 food workers (40.8%), and 156 servers (33.3%) interviewed reported receiving food allergy training. Among those who reported receiving training, topics commonly included the major food allergens and what to do if a customer has a food allergy. Although most restaurants had ingredient lists for at least some menu items, few had separate equipment or areas designated for the preparation of allergen-free food. Restaurants can reduce the risk for allergic reactions among patrons by providing food allergy training for personnel and ingredient lists for all menu items and by dedicating equipment and areas specifically for preparing allergen-free food.

  5. The New Migrants from Asia: Vietnamese in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hien Duc

    1996-01-01

    Presents instructional materials for a unit of study reexamining the effects of the Vietnam War on the Vietnamese migration to the United States. These materials discuss the historical background of this migration as well as the development of Vietnamese American communities and their relationship to other Asian American communities. (MJP)

  6. Immigrants to the United States and Adult Education Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrotta, Clarena

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes documented and undocumented immigrant populations in the United States. It discusses salient factors influencing their status as immigrants as well as adult education services available to them through publicly funded programs, social units, and community centers, especially churches and libraries.

  7. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ...-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into...-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter ``UKFTA'' or the ``Agreement''). On December 3, 2010, the United...

  8. Overview of causes and costs of injuries in Massachusetts: a methodology for analysis of state data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, M; Cohen, B B; Rodgers, C G; Walker, D K; Friedman, D J; Ozonoff, V V

    1995-01-01

    Massachusetts has developed the first State profile of the causes and costs of injury based on the national study, "Cost of Injury in the United States: A Report to Congress." Incidence of fatal injuries is based on Massachusetts data; nonfatal hospitalized injuries, on Massachusetts age and sex rates and U.S. cause data; and nonhospitalized injuries, on U.S. rates applied to Massachusetts census data. Lifetime costs per injured person are based on national data adjusted for higher personal health care expenditures and for higher mean annual earnings in Massachusetts. The estimated total lifetime cost for the 1.4 million injuries that occurred in 1989 is $4.4 billion--$1.7 billion for health care and $2.7 billion for lost earnings. Injuries attributed to motor vehicles and falls account for more than half of the total cost. The other cause categories are poisonings, fire-burns, firearms, drowings-near drownings, and other. For every person who dies from an injury, 17 people are hospitalized, and an estimated 535 people require outpatient treatment, consultation, or restricted activity. Development of a State-based cost report can be useful in monitoring the contribution of injuries to health status and in planning effective injury prevention strategies in a community-based health care system. The methodology described in this paper can be replicated by other States through accessing their State-specific mortality and hospital discharge data bases. PMID:7610211

  9. The United States initiative for international radioactive source management (ISRM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraine, N.; Karhnak, J.

    1999-01-01

    The United States takes seriously the potential problems from uncontrolled radioactive sources. To address these problems, the United States Department of State is leading the development of an initiative for International Radioactive Source Management (ISRM). The Department of State, through a number of Federal and state agencies, regulatory bodies and private industry, will endeavor to provide coordinated support to the international community, particularly through IAEA, to assist in the development and implementation of risk-based clearance levels to support import/export of radioactive contaminated metals and the tracking, management, identification, remediation, and disposition of 'lost sources' entering nation states and targeted industries. The United States believes that the international control of radioactive sources is critical in avoiding wide-spread contamination of the world metal supply. Thus the initiative has four objectives: (1) Protect sources from becoming lost (Tracking management); (2) Identify primary locations where sources have been lost (Stop future losses); (3) Locate lost sources (monitor and retrieve); and (4) Educate and train (deploy knowledge and technology). A number of efforts already underway in the United States support the overall initiative. The EPA has provided a grant to the Conference of Radiation Program Control Directors (CRCPD) to develop a nation-wide program for the disposition of orphaned radioactive sources. This program now has internet visibility and a toll-free telephone number to call for assistance in the disposal of sources. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department of Energy (DOE), and other government agencies as well as private companies are assisting CRCPD in this program. The NRC has begun a program to improve control of radioactive sources in the United States, and also intends to promulgate a regulation defining conditions for the release of materials from licensed facilities. The DOE is

  10. Neotectonic studies in the northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definitions of contemporary regional and local stress regimes which explain neotectonism are based on data derived from (1) gross crustal patterns suggested by plate tectonic theory, (2) vertical crustal movements, (3) earthquake focal mechanism solutions, which usually lack known geologic control at (focal) depths of concern, (4) instrumental measurements which, for all practical purposes, are near-surface measurements, (5) and the character and orientation of Quaternary (surficial) geologic features. It has been suggested that principal stress vectors vary widely within regions and reflect the interaction of whatever stress mechanisms are present at a particular locale as imposed on particular rock media. Recent studies on the tectonism of northern and southeastern New York state are summarized and interpretations of the available data are offered which present an explanation for the observed neotectonism. (author)

  11. Status of the breeder fuel cycle in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the status and plans for the fast reactor fuel cycle in the United States. The United States is undertaking a complete reexamination of its entire breeder program strategy, and the direction of the new program is not yet clear. Studies in progress to examine the associated fuel cycle strategies as they relate to the overall emerging breeder strategy are described. The present status of and recent developments in the fuel cycle R and D programs are summarized

  12. The Energy Puzzle Between the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    securing China’s status as a great power.2 As of 2011, China is the second largest consumer of natural resources (oil, liquefied petroleum gas ( LPG ...pursuit of natural resources, (oil, natural gas , coal or renewable energy sources) is reshaping the world’s energy security. The United States is...pursuit of natural resources, (oil, natural gas , coal or renewable energy sources) is reshaping the world’s energy security. The United States is

  13. Complexity Leadership Theory: A United States Marine Corps Historical Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    DD-MM-YYYY) 23-04-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Complexity...Monograph Title : Complexity Leadership Theory : A United States Marine Corps Historical Overlay Approved by...General Ridgway’s Success in Korea.” Master’s thesis , United States Army Command and General Staff College, 2010. Diana, Gabriel. “Vision, Education

  14. Declining urban and community tree cover in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2018-01-01

    Paired aerial photographs were interpreted to assess recent changes (c. 2009–2014) in tree, impervious and other cover types within urban/community and urban land in all 50 United States and the District of Columbia. National results indicate that tree cover in urban/community areas of the United States is on the decline at a rate of about 175,000 acres per year, which...

  15. An Introduction to Retail Electricity Choice in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Retail electricity choice in the United States allows end-use customers (including industrial, commercial, and residential customers) to buy electricity from competitive retail suppliers. This brochure offers an overview of retail electricity choice in the United States, and its impact on prices and renewable energy procurement. It concludes with three lessons learned from the U.S. retail market experience that may serve as a reference for other countries and regions taking steps towards retail electricity market liberalization.

  16. Thermic insulation in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaon, G. (Ambassade de France a New York (USA)); Atlas, O. (Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, (USA))

    1984-01-30

    At present, thermic insulation accounts for 13% of the savings which have been made and this percentage should increase substantially in the future. The ideal insulation material must have low thermic conductivity, but also be light, have a low dilatation coefficient, good mechanical resistance and be fireproof and non-toxic. Rock wool and above all glass wool have the major portion in the insulation market with about 75% of the total. The prospects for an increase in sales are average: 6 to 7% per year until 1990 with a stabilization or a decrease after this date. Production is concentrated in the hands of about ten producers. The insulation with a cellulose base -with the addition of a combustion inhibitor, usually borax- represent about 15% of the market. Manufacturers are numerous and the production units are small. Any serious evaluation of the future of this product is difficult to make. However, it should be noted that combustion inhibition is one of the main factors of success of this product and constitutes a relatively active field of research. Perlite and vermiculite have a marginal part of the market which is concentrated in the hands of a few dozen producers. Their future seems promising and their production should double between now and the end of the century. There is also the field of plastics which has to be considered and notably polystyrene, polyurethanes and polyisocyanates. These can be injected and moulded in situ. To the extent that toxicity studies can definitively conclude that they are not harmful (urea-formol resins have just been prohibited), their future is brillant and their growth rate could reach about 200% per year. The big chemical and pharmaceutical companies are interested in these products and their portion of the market can rapidly go beyond their present 6 to 8%.

  17. UNITED STATES DURING THE COLD WAR 1945-1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novita Mujiyati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available United States and the Soviet Union is a country on the part of allies who emerged as the winner during World War II. However, after reaching the Allied victory in the situation soon changed, man has become an opponent. United States and the Soviet Union are competing to expand the influence and power. To compete the United States strive continuously strengthen itself both in the economic and military by establishing a defense pact and aid agencies in the field of economy. During the Cold War the two are not fighting directly in one of the countries of the former Soviet Union and the United States. However, if understood, teradinya the Korean War and the Vietnam War is a result of tensions between the two countries and is a direct warfare conducted by the United States and the Soviet Union. Cold War ended in conflict with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as the winner of the country.

  18. Epidemiology and Transmission of Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Infections in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Megan G; Foster, Monique A; Teshale, Eyasu H

    2018-04-30

    There are many similarities in the epidemiology and transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt)3 infections in the United States. Both viruses are enterically transmitted, although specific routes of transmission are more clearly established for HAV than for HEV: HAV is restricted to humans and primarily spread through the fecal-oral route, while HEV is zoonotic with poorly understood modes of transmission in the United States. New cases of HAV infection have decreased dramatically in the United States since infant vaccination was recommended in 1996. In recent years, however, outbreaks have occurred among an increasingly susceptible adult population. Although HEV is the most common cause of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries, it is rarely diagnosed in the United States. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  19. Waterborne Transportation Lines of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    5.:01 6.01 1 5801 25.0100MS OC2&O 1 I I150Of.01 2.01 1.01 I I I I I I I I (5A 440 AI ,.l;. :, 2) ARARAT MARINE, tNC. I I I ! : 16 I -660 I9A~ o * 16... MONT CATNEIMEN M 3103 3 1333 31 0.1.39003 3 ...M 3AM ME#CNIMAN it 1907 of M1M 94311041 3 0730303 77.71 22.73 14.03 18003 1 40.0180MIR 3K ETCNtMAN 1 197...903D MONTE & STATES U=16 MCI. I I I I I fts me Is"M 1 19624asat #Q.ot 11.11 6.61 - t 41111 13.618M ILA MY I SM I 1",211 61.61 11.21 1.01 1 1KW9Ift, I

  20. Radiation processing in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjolfsson, A.

    1986-01-01

    In animal feeding studies, including the huge animal feeding studies on radiation sterilized poultry products irradiated with sterilizing dose of 58 kGy revealed no harmful effects. This finding is corroborated by the very extensive analysis of the radiolytic products, which indicated that the radiolytic products could not in the quantity found in the food be expected to produce any toxic effect. It thus appears to be proven with reasonable certainty that no harm will result from the proposed use of the process. Accordingly, FDA is moving forward with approvals while allowing the required time for hearings and objection. On July 5, 1983 FDA permitted gamma irradiation for control of microbial contamination in dried spices and dehydrated vegetable seasoning at doses up to 10 kGy; on June 19, 1984 the approval was expanded to cover insect infection; and additional seasonings and irradiation of dry or dehydrated enzyme preparations were approved on February 12 and June 4, respectively, 1985. In addition, in July 1985, FDA cleared irradiation of pork products with doses of 0.3 to 1 kGy for eliminating trichinosis. Approvals of other agencies, including Food and Drug Administration, Department of Agriculture, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Department of Transportation, Environmental Protection Agency, and States and local communities, are usually of a technological nature and can then be obtained if the process is technologically feasible. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Small Hydropower in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Kurt [Telluride Energy, Telluride, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Small hydropower, defined in this report as hydropower with a generating capacity of up to 10 MW typically built using existing dams, pipelines, and canals has substantial opportunity for growth. Existing small hydropower comprises about 75% of the current US hydropower fleet in terms of number of plants. The economic feasibility of developing new small hydropower projects has substantially improved recently, making small hydropower the type of new hydropower development most likely to occur. In 2013, Congress unanimously approved changes to simplify federal permitting requirements for small hydropower, lowering costs and reducing the amount of time required to receive federal approvals. In 2014, Congress funded a new federal incentive payment program for hydropower, currently worth approximately 1.5 cents/kWh. Federal and state grant and loan programs for small hydropower are becoming available. Pending changes in federal climate policy could benefit all renewable energy sources, including small hydropower. Notwithstanding remaining barriers, development of new small hydropower is expected to accelerate in response to recent policy changes.

  2. Inching toward incrementalism: federalism, devolution, and health policy in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparer, Michael S; France, George; Clinton, Chelsea

    2011-02-01

    In the United States, the recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 envisions a significant increase in federal oversight over the nation's health care system. At the same time, however, the legislation requires the states to play key roles in every aspect of the reform agenda (such as expanding Medicaid programs, creating insurance exchanges, and working with providers on delivery system reforms). The complicated intergovernmental partnerships that govern the nation's fragmented and decentralized system are likely to continue, albeit with greater federal oversight and control. But what about intergovernmental relations in the United Kingdom? What impact did the formal devolution of power in 1999 to Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland have on health policy in those nations, and in the United Kingdom more generally? Has devolution begun a political process in which health policy in the United Kingdom will, over time, become increasingly decentralized and fragmented, or will this "state of unions" retain its long-standing reputation as perhaps the most centralized of the European nations? In this article, we explore the federalist and intergovernmental implications of recent reforms in the United States and the United Kingdom, and we put forward the argument that political fragmentation (long-standing in the United States and just emerging in the United Kingdom) produces new intergovernmental partnerships that, in turn, produce incremental growth in overall government involvement in the health care arena. This is the impact of what can be called catalytic federalism.

  3. Ebola Crisis in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Raghunath Patwardhan M.D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is about readiness of the U.S. health care system to deal with crises. Using the Ebola crisis as a reference, first it examines the response to the current challenge. However, that is the smaller objective of the article. Lately, we are also being challenged to deal with other kinds of epidemics like obesity, mental health diseases, and violence. These crises are not dramatic like the Ebola crisis. However, these are no less insidious than Ebola. If we are not ready for them, then these crises have the potential to undermine the long-term health and prosperity of our society. In this context, and therefore mainly, this article is about two major long-standing systemic problems in the U.S. health care system that the unfolding of the Ebola crisis has bared. One is about how the inherent problem in the design of American federalist system regarding state autonomy on health matters is creating a dysfunctional health care system. The other is about the inertia of the research industry in the health care system in clinging to an archaic outdated inefficient mind-set and methodology that fails to generate the right information required for an appropriate decision making in matters of health care delivery, including crises. These problems are not small, nor their solutions easy. However, no matter how uncomfortable and tedious, facing them is necessary and inevitable. The discussions and arguments in this article are to outline their nature broadly and to make a call to further a dialogue.

  4. Counter Narco-Terrorism Program Building Force Capacity of Guatemalan Kaibiles Assisted by the United States Special Operations Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    ultimately the United States. Due to its geographical , and multiple international borders, including access to both Atlantic and Pacific littorals...therefore achieving freedom of movement causing further instability throughout the region. Because of that reason , United States has the Counter-Narco

  5. Inventory of Power Plants in the United States, October 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-27

    The Inventory of Power Plants in the United States is prepared annually by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of this publication is to provide year-end statistics about electric generating units operated by electric utilities in the United States (the 50 States and the District of Columbia). The publication also provides a 10-year outlook of future generating unit additions. Data summarized in this report are useful to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Data presented in this report were assembled and published by the EIA to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The report is organized into the following chapters: Year in Review, Operable Electric Generating Units, and Projected Electric Generating Unit Additions. Statistics presented in these chapters reflect the status of electric generating units as of December 31, 1992.

  6. Archaeomagnetic research in the United States midcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Stacey Nicole

    This dissertation combines archaeomagnetic and independent chronometric data from 240 archaeological features to develop a regional secular variation curve for the U.S. midcontinent. These data were obtained from features located between 31.5--40.5° N latitude and 82.5--93.5° W longitude that have been dated to between 60 and 10,700 cal BP. The archaeomagnetic samples were collected from 41 sites within this region over the past 35 years under the direction of four different researchers: Robert DuBois (University of Oklahoma), Daniel Wolfman (University of Arkansas and New Mexico State Museum), Wulf Gose (University of Texas at Austin), and myself. In this project, the data are initially smoothed through the moving windows method to form the first approximation of the curve. Outlier analyses and pairwise statistical comparisons are utilized to refine the smoothed curve, and the results are compared to other Holocene-aged secular variation records from North America. These analyses indicate that the final curve should be treated as three distinct segments with different precision and use recommendations. First, the 850--75 cal BP segment can be used to date archaeomagnetic sample from the project area with expected temporal precision of 100--200 years. Second, the 2528--850 cal BP segment can be used cautiously to date archaeomagnetic samples with an expected temporal precision of 200--300 years. Third, the 9755--4650 cal BP segment should be used for contextual dating purposes only, in that an undated sample can be put into a regional context through comparison with the segment's constituent samples. Finally, three archaeological problems are addressed through the archaeomagnetic data. First, archaeomagnetic data are used to resolve the temporal conflict between an eastern Tennessee structure's morphology and a much earlier radiocarbon date obtained for the structure. Then, archaeomagnetic data are used to address a number of internal chronology questions

  7. CEDAW in the Eyes of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Shraideh Saleh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of reservations registered by Member countries, making it one of the, if not the, most heavily reserved human rights treaties; the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW has managed to achieve a very high rate of states’ membership [1]. Currently, 187 countries out of the 193 United Nations Members are parties to CEDAW [2]. What is strange to digest, however, is the fact that the United States is one of the seven countries that are yet to ratify the Convention [3]. This article provides an insight into the position of the United States from the ratification of CEDAW. It examines the merits of arguments made for and against the ratification and their rationale to provide a better understanding that explains what is considered by many as a buzzling stand of the United States from the Convention.

  8. Conservation status of crayfishes of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Taylor; Melvin L. Warren; J. F. Fitzpatrick; Horton H. Hobbs; Raymond F. Jezerinac; William L. Pflieger; Henry W. Robinson

    1996-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) Endangered Species Committee herein provides a list of all crayfishes (families and Cambaridae) in the United States and Canada that includes state provincial distributions; a comprehensive review of the conservation status of all taxa; and references on biology, conservation, and...

  9. Characterizing the sustainable forestry issue network in thc United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverson O. Moffat; Frederick W. Cubbage; Thomas P. Holmes; Elizabethann O' Sullivan

    2001-01-01

    Issue network analysis techniques were applied to the issue sustainable forestry in the United States to identify potential public and private outcomes for the issue. A quantitative approach based on work by Laumann and Knoke [(The Organizational State (1987)] was utilized in conjunction with the Delphi method. Results suggest that the parity in the distribution of...

  10. Some Spatial Aspects of Southeastern United States Climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Peter T.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the climatology of an eight-state region in the southern and southeastern United States. Discusses general controls of climate and spatial patterns of various climatic averages. Examines mapped extremes as a means of fostering increased awareness of the variability that exists for climatic conditions in the region. (CMK)

  11. Counselor Preparation in Nigeria and the United States of America ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares and contrast counsellor-training programs in two institutions from different cultures. The University of Ilorin, Nigeria and The Pennsylvania State University. While the United States is. an industrialized western nation, Nigeria is a developing African nation. A comparative inquiry of this nature is likely to ...

  12. 76 FR 14637 - State Medicaid Fraud Control Units; Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ...] State Medicaid Fraud Control Units; Data Mining AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION... and analyzing State Medicaid claims data, known as data mining. To support and modernize MFCU efforts... (FFP) in the costs of defined data mining activities under specified conditions. In addition, we...

  13. 78 FR 60191 - United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States- Colombia Trade Promotion... States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (``CTPA'' or ``Agreement''), and on June 28, 2007, the Parties...

  14. Widespread Rotavirus H in Commercially Raised Pigs, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Kurt; Culhane, Marie; Goyal, Sagar; Collins, Jim; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nelson, Martha; Ciarlet, Max

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the presence in US pigs of rotavirus H (RVH), identified in pigs in Japan and Brazil. From 204 samples collected during 2006–2009, we identified RVH in 15% of fecal samples from 10 US states, suggesting that RVH has circulated in the United States since 2002, but probably longer. PMID:24960190

  15. GEOPOLITICS AND TRANSPORTATION. UNITED STATES AND PANAMA CANAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benea Ciprian Beniamin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the great connection which exists between the realization of Panama Canal and the rising power on United States; and how this state, after the construction of this canal, could promote efficiently at global level its interests.

  16. Supporting Young English Learners in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lisa; Markman-Pithers, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Simply put, children with poor English skills are less likely to succeed in school and beyond. What's the best way to teach English to young children who aren't native English speakers? In this article, Lisa Barrow and Lisa Markman-Pithers examine the state of English learner education in the United States and review the evidence behind different…

  17. Executive Summary: Forests of the Northern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Nianfu Song; Susan I. Stewart; David J. Nowak; Dale D. Gormanson; W. Keith Moser; Sherri Wormstead; Eric J. Greenfield

    2012-01-01

    This executive summary provides an overview of the 200-page report, Forests of the Northern United States, which covers in detail current forest conditions, recent trends, issues, threats and opportunities in the forests in the 20 Northern States. It provides a context for subsequent Northern Forest Futures Project analyses that will forecast alternative future...

  18. Federal Policies and Higher Education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisco, Anne; Hurley, Alicia D.; Carton, Thomas C; Richardson, Richard C., Jr.

    The purpose of this report is to describe U.S. federal policies that have helped to shape the context within which state systems of higher education operated during the past decade. It also presents descriptive statistics about the higher education enterprise in the United States, including available performance data. The report is based on the…

  19. Recent results of clinical therapeutic trials for gastrointenstinal malignancies conducted in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, D.L.; Schein, P.S.; Macdonald, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States, causing more than 100,000 deaths a year. Carcinoma of the pancreas is increasing in incidence in the United States. Carcinoma of the stomach has progressively decreased in incidence. Because of the high rate of primary unresectability and recurrence after resection most patients at some time in their course become candidates for therapy directed at locoregional or metastatic disease. Recent clinical research in the United States has been aimed at identifying and confirming the activity of chemotherapy or combined modality treatments for patients with advanced metastatic disease for future application in the locoregional or surgical adjuvant setting. The purpose of this report is to highlight the pertinent recent data and outline ongoing studies of interest. (orig./BWU)

  20. Critical Concerns for Oral Communication Education in the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Richard

    2011-01-01

    An examination of oral communication education in the United States (U.S.) and United Kingdom (U.K.) identified four critical concerns: (1) Today's college students are not getting adequate oral communication education; (2) Oral communication education is being relegated to a "module" in another discipline-specific course; (3) When an…

  1. Information Literacy in Postsecondary Education in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    This comparison seeks to determine if the three documents addressing information literacy skills and competence developed by professional library associations for postsecondary education in four predominantly English-speaking countries--the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand--have similar or varying conceptions of…

  2. Promoting "Academic Entrepreneurship" in Europe and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.; Bagley, Constance E.

    2016-01-01

    and business thereby contributing to the development of the knowledge based economy.” As the European Commission has recognized, the European Union (“EU”) needs to take action to “unlock the potential of IPRs [intellectual property rights] that lie dormant in universities, research institutes and companies...... States (“U.S.”). Our comparative analysis of the EU and U.S. approaches to translational medicine shows that there are lessons to be shared. The EU can apply the experiences from the U.S. Bayh-Dole Act and PPPPs in the United States, and the United States can emulate certain of the open innovation...

  3. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  4. Green electricity policies in the United States: case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, Fredric C.

    2005-01-01

    While there has been interest in promoting the use of renewable energy in electricity production for a number of years in the United States, the market share of non-hydro renewable energy sources in electricity production has remained at about 2 percent over the past decade. The paper reviews the principal energy resources used for electricity production, considers the changing regulatory environment for the electricity industry, and describes government policies that have been used to promote green electricity in the United States, with an emphasis on measures adopted by state governments. Factors influencing the development of green power markets are also discussed, including underlying economic issues, public policy measures, the regulatory environment, external costs, and subsidies. Without significant increases in fossil fuel prices, much more stringent environmental regulations, or significant changes in electricity customer preferences, green electricity markets are likely to develop slowly in the United States

  5. 76 FR 68271 - To Modify the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... the Convention and do not run counter to the national economic interest of the United States. I have... United States obligations under the Convention and do not run counter to the national economic interest of the United States. 7. On June 6, 2003, the United States and Chile entered into the United States...

  6. 75 FR 10561 - Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful QuartersTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters\\TM\\ Two-Roll Set, etc. AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint America...

  7. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain 2010 United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain 2010 United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin and First Spouse Medal...

  8. 75 FR 10345 - Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Proof Set, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for 2010 United States Mint America the Beautiful Quarters Proof Set, etc. AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the prices of the 2010 United States Mint America the...

  9. Integrating concerns about wood production and sustainable forest management in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.W. Haynes

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) in the United States is strongly influenced by U.S. forest products markets and the numerous management decisions made by individual landowners and managers. These decisions are influenced by a mix of market incentives and regulatory actions reducing predictability in assessing progress towards SFM and causing...

  10. Widespread molecular detection of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 in cold water taps across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States 3,522 cases of legionellosis were reported to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in 2009. Of these reports, it is estimated that 84% are caused by the microorganism Legionella pneumophila Serogroup (Sg) 1. Legionella spp. have been isolated and r...

  11. Media Messages and Perception of Risk for Ebola Virus Infection, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Tara Kirk; Boddie, Crystal; McGinty, Emma E; Pollack, Keshia; Smith, Katherine Clegg; Burke, Thomas A; Rutkow, Lainie

    2017-01-01

    News media have been blamed for sensationalizing Ebola in the United States, causing unnecessary alarm. To investigate this issue, we analyzed US-focused news stories about Ebola virus disease during July 1-November 30, 2014. We found frequent use of risk-elevating messages, which may have contributed to increased public concern.

  12. Priority research and management issues for the imperiled Great Basin of the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Michael J. Wisdom

    2009-01-01

    Like many arid and semiarid regions, the Great Basin of the western United States is undergoing major ecological, social, and economic changes that are having widespread detrimental effects on the structure, composition, and function of native ecosystems. The causes of change are highly interactive and include urban, suburban, and exurban growth, past and present land...

  13. Conceptual framework for improved wind-related forest threat assessment in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; John A. Stanturf

    2010-01-01

    In the Southeastern United States, forests are subject to a variety of damage-causing wind phenomena that range in scale from very localized (downbursts and tornadoes) to broad spatial scales (hurricanes). Incorporating the threat of wind damage into forest management plans requires tools capable of assessing risk across this range of scales. Our conceptual approach...

  14. Status of vaccines for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) emerged in the United States as a rapidly spreading epidemic causing dramatic death losses in suckling piglets. Neonatal piglets are most vulnerable to clinical disease and their only protection is passive immunity from their dam. At the end of the thi...

  15. Influence of winter season climate variability on snow-precipitation ratio in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Safeeq; Shraddhanand Shukla; Ivan Arismendi; Gordon E. Grant; Sarah L. Lewis; Anne Nolin

    2015-01-01

    In the western United States, climate warming poses a unique threat to water and snow hydrology because much of the snowpack accumulates at temperatures near 0 °C. As the climate continues to warm, much of the region's precipitation is expected to switch from snow to rain, causing flashier hydrographs, earlier inflow to reservoirs, and reduced spring and summer...

  16. A Fresh Look at Graduate Programs in Teacher Leadership in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Jack; Petta, Katherine; Porter, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Teacher leadership has been studied in the United States for 30 years, but less is known about American graduate programs that purport to prepare teacher leaders. Furthermore, the federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 prompted a closer look at teacher effectiveness, which then shifted the definition of teacher leadership and caused some…

  17. Invasive Potential of Cattle Fever Ticks in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    For >100 years cattle production in the southern United States has been threatened by cattle fever. It is caused by an invasive parasite-vector complex that includes the protozoan hemoparasites Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, which are transmitted among domestic cattle via Rhipicephalus tick vectors ...

  18. Vertebrate species introductions in the United States and its territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Gary W.; Fuller, Pam L.

    2011-01-01

    At least 1,065 introduced vertebrate species have been introduced in the United States and its territories, including at least 86 mammalian, 127 avian, 179 reptilian/amphibian, and 673 fish species. Examples in each major taxonomic group include domestic cat, small Indian mongoose, red fox, goat, pig, rabbit, rats, house mouse, gray squirrel, nutria, starling, Indian common myna, red-vented bulbul, brown treesnake, red-eared slider, brown trout, tilapia, and grass carp. We briefly review some of these species and the types of damage they cause. We then review the basic types of methods used for control or eradication of each taxonomic group, including physical, chemical, biological, and cultural methods. We discuss some of the challenges in managing these species, including issues with the use of toxicants, land access, public attitudes, and monitoring difficulties. Finally, we list some ongoing research and future research needs, including improved detection methods, improved attractants, improved barriers, improved capture methods, fertility control, and risk assessment methods.

  19. Estimated use of water in the United States in 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Charles Richard; Reeves, E. Bodette

    1972-01-01

    Estimates of water use in the United States in 1970 indicate that an average of about 370 bgd (billion gallons per day)about 1,800 gallons per capita per day--was withdrawn for the four principal off-channel uses which are (1) public-supply (for domestic, commercial, and industrial uses), (2) rural (domestic and livestock), (3) irrigation, and (4) self-supplied industrial (including thermoelectric power). In 1970, withdrawals for these uses exceeded by 19 percent the 310 bgd estimated for 1965. Increases in the various categories of off-channel water use since 1965 were: approximately 25 percent for self-supplied industry (mainly in electric-utility thermoelectric plants), 13 percent for public supplies, 13 percent for rural supplies, and 8 percent for irrigation. Industrial water withdrawals included 54 bgd of saline water, a 20 percent increase in 5 years. The fifth principal withdrawal use, hydroelectric power (an in-channel use), amounted to 2,800 bgd, a 5-year increase of 22 percent. In computing total withdrawals, recycling within a plant (reuse) is not counted, but withdrawal of the same water by a downstream user (cumulative withdrawals) is counted. The quantity of fresh water consumed--that is, water made unavailable for further possible withdrawal because of evaporation, incorporation in crops and manufactured products, and other causes--was estimated to average 87 bgd for 1970, an increase of about 12 percent since 1965.

  20. Vertebrate species introductions in the United States and its territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W. WITMER, Pam L. FULLER

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available At least 1,065 introduced vertebrate species have been introduced in the United States and its territories, including at least 86 mammalian, 127 avian, 179 reptilian/amphibian, and 673 fish species. Examples in each major taxonomic group include domestic cat, small Indian mongoose, red fox, goat, pig, rabbit, rats, house mouse, gray squirrel, nutria, starling, Indian common myna, red-vented bulbul, brown treesnake, red-eared slider, brown trout, tilapia, and grass carp. We briefly review some of these species and the types of damage they cause. We then review the basic types of methods used for control or eradication of each taxonomic group, including physical, chemical, biological, and cultural methods. We discuss some of the challenges in managing these species, including issues with the use of toxicants, land access, public attitudes, and monitoring difficulties. Finally, we list some ongoing research and future research needs, including improved detection methods, improved attractants, improved barriers, improved capture methods, fertility control, and risk assessment methods [Current Zoology 57 (5: 559–567, 2011].