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  1. 76 FR 17391 - Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... Applications for New Awards; United States-Brazil Higher Education Consortia Program AGENCY: Office of... Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)--Special Focus Competition: United States (U.S.)- Brazil Higher Education... institution of higher education (IHE) in another country in Latin America (in addition to Brazil) to create...

  2. 76 FR 12337 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... of the Forum. The current U.S. Section term will expire on June 11, 2011. DATES: Applications should...

  3. 78 FR 32239 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... International Trade Administration Request for Applicants for Appointment to the United States- Brazil CEO Forum... 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... representatives to the U.S. Section of the Forum. The term of the current representatives to the U.S. Section will...

  4. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation.

  5. 76 FR 65696 - Request for Applicants for the Appointment to the United States-Brazil CEO Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Forum AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In March 2007, the Governments of the United States and Brazil established the U.S.-Brazil CEO Forum. This... representatives to the current U.S. Section of the Forum. The current U.S. Section term will expire on August 12...

  6. Multiple trends of tertiarization: A comparative input–output analysis of the service sector expansion between Brazil and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kênia Barreiro de Souza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The service sector expansion has shown to be a multiple trend process, producing distinct sectorial compositions. The present paper aims to make a comparison between two large economies in different stages of development with an extensive service sector (Brazil and United States, by focusing on final and intermediary demand changes and sectorial productivity as well. Input–output matrices for Brazil and United States were used and two applications were carried out: structural decomposition analysis and total factor productivity. Main results are as follows. Firstly, the growth in services was fostered by several factors, among which household consumption assumes an important role for both countries. Second, inter-industrial linkages play a major role only for United States. Thirdly, there is now evidence of cost disease for Brazil. Finally, productivity is lower in Brazil, nonetheless labor productivity increased above the average in some service sectors.

  7. Discourses of cyberspace securitization in Brazil and in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUÍSA CRUZ LOBATO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper uses the framework of the Copenhagen School to understand the process of securitization of cyberspace, exploring how something in such sphere becomes a threat. Seeking to contribute to the debate, this study analyses the securitization discourses of Brazil and of the United States from Hansen and Nissenbaum's (2009 theorization about the existence of a specific sector for cybersecurity. To comprehend the securitization of cyberspace in these terms allows not only to identify distinct levels of securitization, but also to capture the dynamics of cyber threats, distinguishing them from those existent in other sectors, as well as to trace distinctions between tendencies of securitization and militarization.

  8. Toxocariasis in children attending a Public Health Service Pneumology Unit in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson V. Guilherme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is the most widely used tool to detect anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies for both serodiagnostic and seroepidemiological surveys on human toxocariasis. In the last eight years a high prevalence of toxocariasis (32.2-56.0% has been reported in children attending public health units from municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the frequency found among the general child population with that of children attending a public pneumology service in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil and describe the laboratorial, clinical and epidemiological findings. The research was conducted at the Consórcio Público Intermunicipal de Saúde do Setentrião Paranaense (CISAMUSEP from July 2009 to July 2010 among children aged between one and 15 years. From a total of 167 children studied, only 4.2% (7/167 tested positive for anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies and presented mild eosinophilia (2/7, increased serum IgE levels (6/7 and a positive allergy test for mites (5/7. The presence of pets (dogs or cats at home did not correlate with the seroprevalence. In conclusion, cases of toxocariasis involving the respiratory tract are rare in children attending a public health pneumology unit in the northwestern region of Paraná State, despite the high prevalence of this type of toxocariasis among the infantile population attending Basic Health Units in the same geographical area.

  9. Toxocariasis in children attending a Public Health Service Pneumology Unit in Paraná State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilherme, Edson V; Marchioro, Ariella A; Araujo, Silvana M; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Adami, Carolina; Falavigna-Guilherme, Gustavo; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is the most widely used tool to detect anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies for both serodiagnostic and seroepidemiological surveys on human toxocariasis. In the last eight years a high prevalence of toxocariasis (32.2-56.0%) has been reported in children attending public health units from municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the frequency found among the general child population with that of children attending a public pneumology service in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil and describe the laboratorial, clinical and epidemiological findings. The research was conducted at the Consórcio Público Intermunicipal de Saúde do Setentrião Paranaense (CISAMUSEP) from July 2009 to July 2010 among children aged between one and 15 years. From a total of 167 children studied, only 4.2% (7/167) tested positive for anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies and presented mild eosinophilia (2/7), increased serum IgE levels (6/7) and a positive allergy test for mites (5/7). The presence of pets (dogs or cats) at home did not correlate with the seroprevalence. In conclusion, cases of toxocariasis involving the respiratory tract are rare in children attending a public health pneumology unit in the northwestern region of Paraná State, despite the high prevalence of this type of toxocariasis among the infantile population attending Basic Health Units in the same geographical area.

  10. How Brazil outpaced the United States when it came to AIDS: the politics of civic infiltration, reputation, and strategic internationalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2011-04-01

    Using a temporal approach dividing the reform process into two periods, this article explains how both Brazil and the United States were slow to respond to AIDS. However, Brazil eventually outpaced the United States in its response due to international rather than democratic pressures. Since the early 1990s, Brazil's success has been attributed to "strategic internationalization": the concomitant acceptance and rejection of global pressure for institutional change and antiretroviral treatment, respectively. The formation of tripartite partnerships among donors, AIDS officials, and nongovernmental organizations has allowed Brazil to avoid foreign aid dependency, while generating ongoing incentives for influential AIDS officials to incessantly pressure Congress for additional funding. Given the heightened international media attention, concern about Brazil's reputation has contributed to a high level of political commitment. By contrast, the United States' more isolationist relationship with the international community, its focus on leading the global financing of AIDS efforts, and the absence of tripartite partnerships have prevented political leaders from adequately responding to the ongoing urban AIDS crisis. Thus, Brazil shows that strategically working with the international health community for domestic rather than international influence is vital for a sustained and effective response to AIDS.

  11. READERS AS GATEKEEPERS OF ONLINE NEWS: Brazil, China, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of online news items is calculated by news sites as afunction of reader behaviors, such as clicking on or reading articles,emailing them to others, commenting on or discussing them, andeven linking to them in blogs. Online news sites often provide rankorderedlists of popular articles that are updated throughout theday. Popularity reflects not only the interest of individuals, butit also can represent communication from an individual reader toother people. In the case of emailed articles, recipients may befriends, family or colleagues. When readers add comments belowan article, they may reach anyone on the internet. When readerscommunicate with other readers, they extend the usual gatekeepingprocess but their selections may not reflect the news values of thejournalists who put the sites together. This study compares thenews values of readers in Brazil, China and the United States.

  12. Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gori Maia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1 a higher level of socioeconomic development in the American occupational structure, reflecting huge socioeconomic differences between these countries; (2 a tenuous convergence between the Brazilian and American occupational structures; (3 a significant decrease in the net impacts of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment (i.e., reduced social stratification in both countries. These results suggest the analytical worth of considering occupational structure as a significant intermediate variable affecting the level of socioeconomic inequality within a country over time, as well as between two countries at a given point in time.

  13. Psychoactive drug advertising: a comparison of technical information from three countries: Brazil, United States and United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Carvalho Mastroianni

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s showed that there were country-dependent disparities in the information given for the same drug in medical advertisements. National and international regulations have been published to do away with such disparities and to foster the rational use of drugs. The purpose of this study was to compare the information contained in psychoactive drug advertisements published in psychiatric journals in Brazil, the United States and the United Kingdom, before and subsequent to the publication of the United States Export Act, in 1986, the WHO criteria, in 1988, and the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance Agency Resolution no. 102, in 2000. TYPE OF STUDY AND SETTING: Content analysis, at Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (Cebrid. METHODS: We gathered advertisements from Brazilian, American and British psychiatry periodicals published before and after each ruling. We analyzed a total of twenty-four Brazilian advertisements that were for the same psychoactive drugs as advertised in American and/or British publications from the same period. RESULTS: We observed that Brazilian advertisements omitted information on usage restrictions, such as contraindications, adverse reactions, interactions, warnings and precautions, and that such information was present in American and British advertisements. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that disparities in the information given for the same drug still persist. The information depends on the country in which each drug is marketed. The legislation is insufficient for eradicating such disparities.

  14. The Meaning of Work and Performance-Focused Work Attitudes among Midlevel Managers in the United States and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, K. Peter; Cornachione, Edgard B., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This survey-based study investigated work meaning and performance-focused work attitudes of some 315 midlevel managers in diverse industries in the United States and Brazil to determine similarities, differences, and relationships among absolute and relative meaning of work, work role identification, desired work outcomes, and job satisfaction,…

  15. Parental Involvement and Home Environment in Music: Current and Former Students from Selected Community Music Programs in Brazil and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Gail V.; DeFreitas, Aureo; Grego, John

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether individuals' perceptions of parental involvement and home environment in music vary with nationality (Brazil/United States) and time frame (past/current). Past and current students from selected community music programs in the United States and Brazil completed the PI-HEM (Parental Involvement and…

  16. Thinking Copenhagen: The Cognitive Dimension of Climate Change Policy Making In Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Langevin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the cognitive dimension of climate change policy making in Brazil and the United States as both countries prepare for the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or COP15 in Copenhagen. The comparative policy analysis is framed by Putnam (1988 and informed by Bazerman (2009, but adapted to explore the cognitive expressions of policymaking through investigation of public opinion, newspaper coverage, and policymaker statements. The analysis reveals key differences in the ways that Brazilian and U.S. citizens, journalists, and policymakers understand global warming and climate change and think through the policy alternatives for addressing this global challenge through national policy and international negotiations. Brazil’s cognitive dimension provides its negotiators with a wide range of strategic positions, allowing this country to play the role of dealmaker. The U.S. administration arrives at Copenhagen with a narrow win-set, limited by the discordant and divisive cognitive expressions that surround policymaking. These differences limit bilateral cooperation and complicate the COP15 negotiations.

  17. Brazil as an Emerging Power: Its Role in the Transition to a Multipolar Order and the Consequences for Its Relations with the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Roy Leatherman III

    2012-01-01

    This master\\'s thesis examines the effects of Brazil\\'s economic and political rise on the nation\\'s ability to have shaped global order through soft balancing during the presidency of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the consequent impact on Brazil\\'s relations with the United States. In order to contextualize the effects of Brazil\\'s soft balancing on international institutions and Brazilian-American relations, this text first reviews the relevant theoretical and empirical literature on the li...

  18. DIFFERENCES OF THE UNDERGRADUATE COURSES OF ADMINISTRATION IN GERMANY, BRAZIL AND UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Dittmar Weise

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of a country is closely linked to its education system. Thus the aim of this article is to present the methods adopted for selection, evaluation and curriculum of the courses of administration in Germany, Brazil and United States of America (USA. This study was conducted through a literature search, where were consulted websites of the Ministry of Education and universities of these countries that served as a reference for this research. The focus of this article is the comparison of administration courses in these three countries, which were explored aspects of the environment that has interaction with studied fact, it was used for the case study. It was made a critical analysis of the material collected, with the limitations of geographical character, because was approached the administration course in only three countries. It was observed that the course presents different qualifications as the curricular structure in the studied countries. Thus, it was found that the universities have the challenges related to compliance of the curricular structure with charges of the market, where it seeks to adapt to the needs of the economy and rapid adaptation to changing scenarios

  19. Resilience skills as emergent phenomena: A study of emergency departments in Brazil and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Priscila; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu; Righi, Angela Weber; Wears, Robert Lewis

    2016-09-01

    Although the use of resilience skills (RSs) by emergency department (ED) front-line staff is ubiquitous, the nature and origin of these skills tend to be taken for granted. This study investigates the research question "where do RSs come from"? Case studies in two EDs were undertaken in order to answer the research question: one in Brazil and the other in the United States. The case studies adopted the same data collection and analysis procedures, involving interviews, questionnaires, observations, and analysis of documents. A model for describing RSs as emergent phenomena is proposed. The model indicates that RSs arise from interactions between: work constraints, hidden curriculum, gaps in standardized operating procedures, organizational support for resilience, and RSs themselves. An instantiation of the model is illustrated by a critical event identified from the American ED. The model allows the identification of leverage points for influencing the development of RSs, instead of leaving their evolution purely to chance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. New Lithostratigraphic Unit Records an Ediacaran Glaciation in Mato Grosso State, Brazil: Serra Azul Formation

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    Francisco Egídio Cavalcante Pinho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A new succession of diamictites and siltstones was found above post-Marinoan carbonates from the Araras Group in the northern Paraguay Belt (Brazil, in discontinuous outcrops. This new stratigraphic unit, named Serra Azul Formation in this work, has a variable thickness reaching up to 300 meters. The diamictites were deposited in the first 70 m and present glacial evidences, while the siltstones represent the upper part of the succession and show some sandstone layers towards the top of the succession. This glacial record is the youngest Neoproterozoic glacial event that has been found on South America and probably is related to Gaskiers Glaciation (582 Ma.

  1. United States and Brazil: the first talks between Barack Obama and Luís Inácio Lula da Silva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Caixeta Arraes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available United States and Brazil are historical allies, despite of certain disagreements from time to time. In the first months of Barack Obama’s government, Brazil tried to keep close ties by trying to be a political mediator in the continent and a valuable economic partner.

  2. Regulation of the synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol in water bodies in Europe, the United States, and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Danieli Lima; da Silva, Samuel Muylaert Camargo; Bila, Daniele Maia; Oliveira, Jaime Lopes da Mota; Sarcinelli, Paula de Novaes; Larentis, Ariane Leites

    2016-03-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17α-ethinylestradiol, the principal component of oral contraceptives, has been identified as one of the main compounds accounting for adverse effects on the endocrine system in various species. This study aimed to analyze the state-of-the-art in legislation and guidelines for the control of this synthetic estrogen in water bodies in Europe and the United States and to draw a parallel with the Brazilian reality. Countries have generally attempted to expand the regulation and monitoring of certain emerging micropollutants not previously covered by legislation. Europe is more advanced in terms of water quality, while in the United States this estrogen is only regulated in water for human consumption. Brazil still lacks legal provisions or standards for this estrogen, which can be explained by the relatively limited maturity of the country's system for controlling water pollutants.

  3. Difference in adult food group intake by sex and age groups comparing Brazil and United States nationwide surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Goldman, Joseph; Rhodes, Donna G; Hoy, Mary Katherine; Moura Souza, Amanda de; Chester, Deirdra N; Martin, Carrie L; Sebastian, Rhonda S; Ahuja, Jaspreet K; Sichieri, Rosely; Moshfegh, Alanna J

    2014-07-21

    International comparisons of dietary intake are an important source of information to better understand food habits and their relationship to nutrition related diseases. The objective of this study is to compare food intake of Brazilian adults with American adults identifying possible dietary factors associated with the increase in obesity in Brazil. This research used cross-national analyses between the United States and Brazil, including 5,420 adults in the 2007-2008 What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and 26,390 adults in the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey, Individual Food Intake. Dietary data were collected through 24 h recalls in the U.S. and through food records in Brazil. Foods and beverages were combined into 25 food categories. Food intake means and percentage of energy contribution by food categories to the population's total energy intake were compared between the countries. Higher frequencies of intake were reported in the United States compared to Brazil for the majority of food categories except for meat, rice and rice dishes; beans and legumes; spreads; and coffee and tea. In either country, young adults (20-39 yrs) had greater reports of meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes; pizza and pasta; and soft drinks compared to older adults (60 + yrs). Meat, poultry and fish mixed dishes (13%), breads (11%), sweets and confections (8%), pizza and pasta (7%), and dairy products (6%) were the top five food category sources of energy intake among American adults. The top five food categories in Brazil were rice and rice dishes (13%), meat (11%), beans and legumes (10%), breads (10%), and coffee and tea (6%). Thus, traditional plant-based foods such as rice and beans were important contributors in the Brazilian diet. Although young adults had higher reports of high-calorie and nutrient-poor foods than older adults in both countries, Brazilian young adults did not consume a diet similar to Americans

  4. Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yangbo

    2007-01-01

    Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

  5. Judges in the Formation of the Nation- State: Professional Experiences, Academic Background and Geographic Circulation of Members of the Supreme Courts of Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Da Ros

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the career profiles of judges from the highest bodies of the Judiciary in Brazil and the United States of America, examining the biographies of all the ministros of the Supreme Court of Justice (Empire and of the Supreme Federal Tribunal (Republic in Brazil, and of all the justices of the Supreme Court of the United States, appointed until 2008 in both cases. Based on the sociology of political elites perspective, the article examines data concerning academic background, geographic circulation and the different professional experiences — legal, political and linked to the administration of the State’s coercive activity (police or military — lived through by future members of the Supreme Courts of Brazil and the United States so as to identify the types of individuals recommended to join the top bodies of the Judiciary in the two countries. In this sense, different State-building processes are identified on the basis of the examination of Brazilian and US judicial elites, suggesting a more fragmented and diverse trajectory in the case of US justices, and greater homogeneity and centralization in the case of their Brazilian counterparts.

  6. Brazil-United States Military Relations in the Early Post-World War II Era Brazil-United States Military Relations in the Early Post-World War II Era

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    Sonny Davis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As estreitas relações militares entre o Brasil e os Estados Unidos deterioraram-se no período imediatamente após à II Guerra Mundial. As divisões associadas à Guerra Fria criaram pressões nacionais e internacionais que levaram a um relacionamento menos preciso e sempre reativo entre os dois gigantes do hemisfério. Quando havia uma convergência de metas, as relações militares refletiam a cooperação amistosa anterior. Quando divergências políticas e institucionais sobre questões bilaterais emergiam, o Brasil recusava-se a seguir a liderança norte-americana. Em larga medida, a política externa no pós-guerra obrigou o Brasil a desenvolver confiança e habilidade para acabar com a prática tradicional de agir como subordinado de um poderoso protetor. O processo começou com a assistência norte-americana para a criação da Escola Superior de Guerra e culminou em 1977 com o fim das relações militares com os EUA (com a denúncia do acordo militar com os EUA. Dessa forma, o Brasil conquistou parte do seu antigo desejo de grandeza.The close military relations between the Brazil and the United States underwent strains in the early post-war era. Cold War divisions created national and international pressures that led to a less precise and often reactive relationship between the hemisphere giants. When there was a convergence of goals, military relations reflected the previous smooth cooperation. When political and institutional divisiveness emerged in the officer corps over bilateral issues, Brazil refused to follow the U.S. lead. To a large degree, the post-war foreign policy forced Brazil and its military establishment to develop the confidence and ability to end the traditional practice of acting as a surrogate for a more powerful patron. The process began with U.S. assistance in creating the Escola Superior de Guerra and culminated in 1977 with the end of formal military relations with the United States. In so doing, Brazil

  7. The United States and Brazil: A Naval Partnership for the Twenty-First Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    World Bank and International Development Bank are pressuring Brazil to cease its deforestation of the Amazon . So far, 5% of the jungle has been 9 2Scott...Monterey, Ca., March 1990, p. 82. 72 deforested and in December of 1988, Chico Mendez, a leading crusader against Amazon development, was killed by...CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUBGROUP Brazil, Brazilian Navy, Combined

  8. Mycelial compatibility and aggressiveness of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from Brazil and the United States

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    Lucimara Junko Koga

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity among Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from Brazil and the USA, assess their aggressiveness variability, and verify the existence of an isolate-cultivar interaction. Isolate variability was determined by mycelial compatibility grouping (MCG, and isolate aggressiveness by cut-stem inoculations of soybean cultivars. Two experiments for MCGs and two for aggressiveness were conducted with two sets of isolates. The first set included nine isolates from the same soybean field in Brazil and nine from the Midwest region of the USA. The second set included 16 isolates from several regions of Brazil and one from the USA. In the first set, 18 isolates formed 12 different MCGs. In the second set, 81% of the isolates from Brazil grouped into a single MCG. No common MCGs were observed among isolates from Brazil and the USA. The isolates showed aggressiveness differences in the first set, but not in the second. Although aggressiveness differed in the first set, soybean cultivars and isolates did not interact significantly. Cultivar rank remained the same, regardless of the genetic diversity, aggressiveness difference, and region or country of origin of the isolate. Results from screening of soybean cultivars, performed by the cut-stem method in the USA, can be used as reference for researchers in Brazil.

  9. Mycelial compatibility and aggressiveness comparison of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from Brazil and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variability of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates collected in Brazil and the USA were determined by mycelial compatibility grouping (MCG) and inoculations of soybean cultivars. Two experiments for MCGs and two for aggressiveness were conducted with two sets of isolates. The first set included nine i...

  10. A Progress Report on the Cooperative Development of a General Histology Program by Several Schools in Brazil and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Norman O.; And Others

    A programed course in general histology was completely developed by dental schools in the United States and Brazil. A group of international experts specified the course objectives, wrote and taped scripts for a series of 28 lectures of 50 minutes each, developed slides to accompany the lectures, prepared microphotographs and scripts to explain…

  11. Security dynamics in the South Atlantic: Brazil and the United States in Africa

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    Pedro Seabra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article acknowledges the international community’s growing concern over the new security dynamics currently brewing in the South Atlantic, and the potential upgrade of this area on the internationalsecurity agenda. By building on both old and new threats in the background interest being displayed by such countries as Brazil and the US towards this specific area, and by highlighting these two countries’ political-strategic interests in Africa, this article provides an accurate portrait of the current security context, which ranges from the chances of competition of all the actors involved to the opportunities for cooperation between them.

  12. Forty Years of the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 (XXX on Zionism and Racism: the Brazilian Vote as an instance of United States - Brazil Relations

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    NORMA BREDA DOS SANTOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1975, Brazil voted in favor of the United Nations General Assembly resolution 3379 (XXX, equating Zionism with a form of racism. Focusing on the decision-making process of president Ernesto Geisel's (1974-1979 foreign policy, "responsible pragmatism", this article discusses how the ultimate decision to vote in favor of resolution was taken taking into account mainly US-Brazil relationship.

  13. A cross-cultural study of gambling disorder: a comparison between women from Brazil and the United States

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    Gustavo C. Medeiros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To perform a cross-cultural comparison of gambling disorder (GD in women from Brazil and the United States, two countries with pronounced social and cultural differences. We hoped to produce insight into the impact of cultural influences on the presentation of GD in women, which may be useful for the development of culturally-sensitive interventions. Method: We assessed 681 women with GD: 406 from a Brazilian sample and 275 from a U.S. sample. We assessed demographic and gambling behavior variables in addition to co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Results: Fewer Brazilian participants were Caucasian (73.3 vs. 91.3%; p = 0.022. Also, Brazilian women had lower levels of education (59.9% with high school or less vs. 44.4%; p < 0.001, and were more likely to have a current partner (54.9 vs. 43.4%; p = 0.003. Brazilian gamblers also reported lower urge scores (6.6±4.3 vs. 11.6±2.4; p < 0.001 and higher chasing rates (89.1 vs. 80.0%; p = 0.002. Brazilian gamblers reported higher rates of bingo gambling (19.2 vs. 5.7%; p < 0.001, but lower rates of card game gambling (5.8 vs. 23.1%; p < 0.001. Finally, Brazilian gamblers were more likely to endorse a history of major depressive disorder (36.9 vs. 24.4%; p = 0.001. Conclusions: This study reinforces the need for further general cross-cultural research on GD and particularly for studies investigating how gender mediates these differences. Finally, the differences noted in this analysis suggest that the findings of predominantly Anglo-Saxon cultures may not be generalizable to other world populations.

  14. United States

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    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  15. The human papillomavirus infection in men study: human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution among men residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Anna R; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L; Flores, Roberto; Salmeron, Jorge; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Papenfuss, Mary R; Abrahamsen, Martha; Jolles, Emily; Nielson, Carrie M; Baggio, Maria Luisa; Silva, Roberto; Quiterio, Manuel

    2008-08-01

    Male sexual behavior influences the rates of cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer, as well as male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease. Unfortunately, little is known regarding male HPV type distribution by age and across countries. In samples combined from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum of 1,160 men from Brazil, Mexico, and the United States, overall HPV prevalence was 65.2%, with 12.0% oncogenic types only, 20.7% nononcogenic types only, 17.8% both oncogenic and nononcogenic, and 14.7% unclassified infections. Multiple HPV types were detected in 25.7% of study participants. HPV prevalence was higher in Brazil (72.3%) than in the United States (61.3%) and Mexico (61.9%). HPV16 (6.5%), HPV51 (5.3%), and HPV59 (5.3%) were the most commonly detected oncogenic infections, and HPV84 (7.7%), HPV62 (7.3%), and HPV6 (6.6%) were the most commonly detected nononcogenic infections. Overall HPV prevalence was not associated with age. However, significant associations with age were observed when specific categories of HPV, nononcogenic, and unclassified HPV infections were considered. Studies of HPV type distribution among a broad age range of men from multiple countries is needed to fill the information gap internationally with respect to our knowledge of HPV infection in men.

  16. [Physical inactivity among adults and elderly living in areas covered by primary healthcare units with and without the Family Health Program in Pernambuco State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Siqueira, Fernando Vinholes; Figueiroa, José Natal; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Silveira, Denise Silva da; Piccini, Roberto Xavier; Tomasi, Elaine; Thumé, Elaine; Hallal, Pedro C

    2010-03-01

    The epidemiological transition in Brazil has been explained partially by the low levels of physical activity. However, few studies have explored physical inactivity in low-income population groups. Within this context, primary healthcare units gain strategic importance. This article describes the prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated factors in a cross-sectional study, including 1,018 adults and 1,010 elderly adults in 10 cities in Pernambuco State. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 37.8% (95%CI: 34.0-40.2) in adults and 68.3% (95%CI: 65.3-71.3) in the elderly. Identification of physical activity as the most important factor for good health was associated with sedentary lifestyle in elderly adults. A lower proportion of sedentary lifestyle among non-elderly adults was associated with good self-reported health status. We concluded that sedentary lifestyle prevalence is high in elderly and non-elderly people covered by primary healthcare units in Pernambuco State as compared to the South of Brazil.

  17. Insect-protected event DAS-81419-2 soybean (Glycine max L.) grown in the United States and Brazil is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Brandon J; Schafer, Ariane C; Johnson, Tempest Y; Potts, Brian L; Herman, Rod A

    2015-02-25

    The transgenic soybean event DAS-81419-2 contains genes that encode the Cry1F, Cry1Ac, and PAT proteins. Cry1F and Cry1Ac provide protection against key lepidopteran insect pests, while PAT confers tolerance to the herbicide glufosinate. To satisfy regulatory requirements for the safety evaluation of transgenic crops, studies were conducted in the United States and Brazil to evaluate the nutrient and antinutrient composition of event DAS-81419-2 soybean. On the basis of the results of these studies, event DAS-81419-2 soybean is compositionally equivalent to nontransgenic soybean. This conclusion concurs with numerous other published studies in soybean and other crops where compositional equivalence between the transgenic crop and its nontransgenic comparator has been demonstrated.

  18. Harm Reduction Unit of the City of Santo André, São Paulo State, Brazil: An Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Moreira da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Harm Reduction Unit (HRU in Santo André (São Paulo State was created to improve the health of people who either live or work on the streets: drug users, commercial sex workers (male and female, men who have sex with men, sexually exploited adolescents, transsexuals, transvestites, lesbians, and women working in brothels. This project was undertaken to evaluate the HRU from the perspective of its users. A semi-structured interview was administered to nineteen users from different segments of the populations served by the unit. The major weaknesses of the HRU were felt to be its inconsistent presence in some areas and the absence of psychologists to provide follow-up care. The unit was seen as promoting better health, increased use of condoms, reduction in drug usage, increased access and use of health care services, and less sharing of equipment used in drug consumption. Users see the HRU as a sympathetic presence whose ongoing work provides them with a sense of security and protection. The impact of the HRU went beyond harm reduction; users reported transformative changes such as increased awareness of their social rights and knowledge about how those rights can be demanded. Users had been given new tools to face their problems and seek access to education, work, and housing. Key words: harm reduction, illegal drugs, health service evaluation, social problems

  19. BRIC in the Backyard: Brazil’s Economic Rise and What it Means for the United States (CSL Issue Paper, Volume 14-11, July 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    seeking expanded trade ties with developing countries, as well as a strengthening of the Common Market of the South – Mercosul ( Mercosur in Spanish...Brazil believes that strengthening Mercosur would grant South America better conditions to fight for more balanced and fairer trade with other regions...Department of State Country Background Notes –Brazil,” http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/ bgn/35640.htm (accessed April 10, 2011) CSL-3 world.12 In 2008 Mercosur

  20. Scanning the macro-environment for liquid biofuels: A comparative analysis from public pocies in Brazil, United States and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talamini, E.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Padula, A.D.; Dewes, H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Macro-environmental scanning is a first step in strategic planning, which is essential in an emerging industry such as liquid biofuels. The purpose of this paper is to identify the dimensions within which the governments of Brazil, the USA and Germany have constructed the macro-environment

  1. Autonomy and hierarchy in two slave communities: the cases of George (Alabama, United States, 1847 and Lino (Vassouras, Brazil, 1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pereira de Carvalho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks argue that the search for autonomy among slaves necessarily created hierarchies within the community where they were inserted. Through two cases compared, George in U.S. and Lino in Brazil, seeks to show that a notion of slave community was built by the social actors who were part of it

  2. Are movies with tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sex, and violence rated for youth?: A comparison of rating systems in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.; Vargas, Rosa; Braun, Sandra; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh; Sevigny, Eric L.; Billings, Deborah L.; Arillo-Santillán, Edna; Navarro, Ashley; Hardin, James

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine between-country differences and changes over time in the portrayal of youth risk behaviors in films rated for youth in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and the United States. Methods Content and ratings were analyzed for 362 films that were popular across all four countries from 2002–2009. Country-specific ratings were classified as either youth or adult, and Generalized Estimating Equations were used to determine between-country differences in the presence of tobacco, alcohol, drugs, sexual content, and violence in youth-rated films. Within-country differences in this content over time were also assessed, comparing films released from 2002–2005 with those released from 2006–2009. Results In the US, films rated for youth were less likely to contain all five risk behaviors than in youth-rated films in Argentina, Brazil, and, when the “15 and older” rating was considered a youth rating, in Mexico. All three Latin American countries “downrated” films that received an adult rating in the US. Nevertheless, tobacco and drug use in youth-rated films declined over time in all countries, whereas moderate to extreme alcohol use and violence involving children or youth increased in all countries. Conclusions Tobacco and drug use have declined in popular US films, but these behaviors are still prevalent in films rated for youth across the Americas. The apparent success of advocacy efforts to reduce tobacco and other drugs in films suggests that similar efforts be directed to reduce alcohol portrayals. PMID:24316001

  3. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  4. Challenges on preparing unitization agreements in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Marilda Rosado de Sa [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Direito; Appi, Valeria Tiriba [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    As a further stage of the new oil and gas industry in Brazil, various challenges are now faced as an outcome from the O and G projects progress, under the legal framework in force in Brazil. Among all are the first unitization processes, which require a set of steps to be performed in order to achieve a unitization agreement. The paper aims at analyzing the legal, technical and drafting issues to be dealt with in such agreements. After a brief introduction to the general issues at stake in the unitization agreements the study shall encompass a follow up of the sequence of events to be complied with. One could mention the settlement of the criteria onto calculations to serve as guidelines for the negotiations will be based on. That, is usually based on concepts as oil in place, possible O and G in the reservoir, or reserve, which must be agreed by all involved parties. Another possible step to be considered is the creation of a common database, in order to permit fast decisions and optimise E and P operations in the unitized area. Other concerns should be addressed, depending on the amount of O and G to be produced from the unitized area, as: the avoidance of multiple redeterminations aiming to decrease unnecessary expenditures, which could jeopardize the arising project profitability; and the recalculations of Government take, royalties and other incumbencies, to be shared by all involved parties. The paper shall also mention the experience of other countries trying to adopt, where applicable and compatible with the best practices of the oil industry, solutions adopted where tradition in oil and gas is more mature. It should be considered that, in each bidding round the Brazilian Concession Agreement has undergone changes, therefore during an unitization process with two different versions of the Concession Agreement differences between corresponding clauses will have to be faced. Comments should also be made about satellite agreements, encompassing O and G buying

  5. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  6. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  7. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  8. Eurabia: Strategic Implications for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    states of North Africa and the Middle East.5 Eurabia was the name of a journal published in the mid-1970s by the European Committee for...have her extradited to Switzerland so she could be prosecuted under Swiss anti- racism statute, Islamic groups successfully prevailed to have her...options. The United States can forge new relationships with emerging powers such as Brazil, Russia, India and China, the so called BRIC countries

  9. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Berceda, 572 F.2d 630 (9th Cir. 1978).. A mere request, such as that made by the defendant, is not sufficient; United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d...a mere request and more than mere speculation that disclosure will be helpful. United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1978), eect. dt...both known and unknown to the Grand Jury, including Lane Boudreau, Scott Willard Holland, James Allen Halperin, Maria Ximena Erlandsen, Derek Adrian

  10. Tabagismo, Modernidade e Direito Regulatório: Brasil e Estados Unidos em perspectiva / Smoking, Modernity and Regulatory Law: Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudino Carneiro Sales

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article evaluates the regulation of the tobacco market, taking into account theories of regulation and the Brazilian legal system and data in a comparative perspective with the US. Methodology/approach/design – Abstract analysis about theories of regulation applicable to the tobacco market in Brazil and the US, with the presentation of a case based on doctrine and legal research. Findings – It presents the main features of two major theories of regulation, focusing on the tobacco market in Brazil and the US, and the national legal system and data relating to Brazil. Practical implications – The theories of regulation and the case described may add subsidies for consideration of how the regulation of the tobacco industry in Brazil should be organized towards a better sectorial design. Originality/value – It analyzes the tobacco market in Brazil from the perspective of theories of regulation widely researched abroad and with still not much implementation in Brazil.

  11. Survey on the use of psychotropic drugs by twelve military police units in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sérgio Henrique Nascente; Cunha, Luiz Carlos da; Yonamine, Maurício; Pucci, Liuba Laxor; Oliveira, Fernando Gomes Ferreira; Souza, Camila Gabriela de; Mesquita, Guilherme Alves; Vieira, Ana Paula de Toledo; Vinhal, Ludmilla Barros; Dalastra, Janayna; Leles, Cláudio Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of psychotropic drug use among military police officers in the state of Goiás, Brazil. Study carried out at twelve military police units located in the municipalities of Goiânia and Aparecida de Goiânia between March to October 2008. Volunteers (n=221) were interviewed about drug use using a questionnaire especially designed by the Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID). Descriptive statistics was used to determine the prevalence of licit and illicit drug use in the study sample. The frequency of use was divided into: 1) lifetime use: tobacco-39.9%, alcohol-87.8%, cannabis-8.1%, cocaine-1.8%, stimulants-7.2%, solvents-10.0%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-6.8%, LSD-0.5%, Bentyl®-0.5%, anabolic steroids-5.4%; 2) use in the previous year: tobacco-15.4%, alcohol-72.9%, stimulants-6.3%, solvents-0.5%, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%; 3) use in the previous 30 days: tobacco-14.5%, alcohol-57.5%, stimulants-5.0%, solvents-0.5, sedatives, anxiolytics, antidepressants-3.7%. The high prevalence rate of psychotropic drug use found amoung military police officers in two cities of the state of Goiás in Brazil can be considered an important factor with potential influence on job activities.

  12. Landscape structure in the Pirapó, Paranapanema 3 and 4 Hydrographic Unit, in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, M T; Serra, E; Silveira, H; Terassi, P M B; Bonifácio, C M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to characterize the Pirapó, Paranapanema 3 and 4 Hydrographic Unit, emphasizing its physical attributes and processes of use and occupation, responsible for the structure of the current landscape and the state of its water resources. The recognition of the landscape's spatial structure in the hydrographic unit and its drainage basins was obtained by integrated analysis of the main elements that compose it: geology, landforms (hypsometric and slope), soils, climate and land use. Analysis revealed that within each drainage basin several variations in the spatial structure of the landscape occur which produce an internal compartmentalization. Each compartment is defined by its own geo-ecological structure, physiognomic standards and dynamics, reflected in its potentialities and vulnerabilities and in the conditions of water resources in the wake of occupation and use over time.

  13. Interdependence between government levels in Brazilian health policy: the implementation of Emergency Care Units in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Dias; Machado, Cristiani Veira; O'Dwyer, Gisele; Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares; Konder, Mariana Teixeira

    2015-02-01

    This article addresses policymaking related to Emergency Care Units (ECU) in the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2007 and 2013, duly identifying the relationships between the various levels of government in this process. It prioritized the context of policy formulation, the factors that motivated the inclusion and maintenance of ECUs on the state agenda and the process of how the policy was implemented in the state. The study was based on the literature that defines the agenda and implementation of public policies and on contributions from historic institutionalism. The research involved analysis of documents, secondary data, and 51 interviews with people in positions of authority in state and municipal governments. The priority given to ECUs in the government agenda was the result of a confluence of historical, structural, political and institutional factors, as well as the current context. The results of this study indicate the existence of interdependence between levels of government, however federal coordination problems have prejudiced the integration of the various components of emergency health care in the state.

  14. Media, State and Society in Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Durazo Herrmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I seek to assess the role of the media in ongoing subnational democratization processes from a State-in-society perspective. I use the case of Bahia, a state in North-Eastern Brazil, to assess ownership and social access to the media, the media’s autonomy from both the State and social actors as well as how conflicts between public interest and private profit are solved. We will thus understand the role of subnational media in sustaining pluralism and in providing independent sources of information, two critical dimensions of democracy.

  15. Limno-chemical and microbiology aspects in Uranium Pit Mine Lake (Osamu Utsumi), in Antas and Bortolan reservoirs under the influence of effluent Ore Treatment Unit, Caldas - Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronqui, Leilane B.; Nasciment, Marcos R.L. do; Roque, Claudio V.; Bruschi, Armando; Borba Junior, Palvo J.; Nascimento, Heliana A. F. do, E-mail: leilanebio@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: abruschi@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: jouber_borba@hotmail.com, E-mail: hazevedo@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Almeida, Tito C.M. de, E-mail: titoalmeida2008@gmail.com [Universidade do Vale do Itajai (CTT-Mar/UNIVALI), SC (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Tecnologicas da Terra e do Mar

    2013-07-01

    Due to high natural radioactivity there in Pocos de Caldas Plateau (Minas Gerais State, Brazil) and the existence of the first uranium mine in Brazil (Pit Mine Osamu Utsumi - Mineral Treatment Unit/Brazilian Nuclear Industries, MTU/BNI), which is characterized by an open-pit mine presents as increased environmental liability the formation of acid mine drainage, this study was conducted to evaluate the limno-chemicals and microbiology aspects (protozooplankton and bacterioplankton) belonging to uranium pit mine lake (PM) and evaluate the possible effects of acid effluents treated and discharged by MTU/BNI in Antas reservoir-AR and downstream of this, the Bortolan reservoir-BR. Besides the realization of abiotic and microbiology analysis of protozooplankton and bacterioplankton; was held standardization and deployment of the Fluorescence 'In Situ' Hybridization (FISH) technical using oligonucleotide probes for extremophile Archaea and Bacteria. According to the results, the PM showed the highest values for the chemical variables, lower pH values, lower protozooplankton density, however, protozooplanktonic high biomass showing the presence of tolerant species in this extreme environment. Antas and Bortolan reservoirs showed differences in the abiotic and biotic variables, AR showed suffer greater interference of acid effluents released at P41point and downstream of this at P14 point, lower protozooplankton biomass, lower bacterial density and pollution characteristics of inorganic sources. Using the FISH technique standard in this study to water bodies evaluated, it was possible to detect the presence of the extremophile bacteria of the Archaea domain in the three water bodies. The results of this study contribute to the knowledge of the pit mine lakes limnology which have become a major concern due to increased mining in the open. (author)

  16. Country-specific HPV-related genital disease among men residing in Brazil, Mexico and The United States: The HIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudenga, Staci L; Torres, B Nelson; Fulp, William J; Silva, Roberto; Villa, Luisa L; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Ingles, Donna J; Stoler, Mark; Messina, Jane L; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Salmeron, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Giuliano, Anna R

    2017-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the incidence of histopathologically confirmed condyloma and penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN) and rates of genital HPV infection progression to these lesions differs by country (Brazil, Mexico and the U.S.). At each visit, lesions were biopsied and were categorized by pathologic diagnoses. The Linear Array genotyping method was used to identify HPV genotypes from genital swabs, while the INNO-LiPA HPV Genotyping Extra method was used for tissue specimens. Age-specific analyses were conducted for lesion incidence by country, with Kaplan-Meier estimation of cumulative incidence. The proportion of HPV infections that progressed to condyloma and PeIN, the median time to lesion development and the incidence rates were estimated by country. When comparing demographic and sexual characteristics across the three countries, sexual orientation (p = 0.008) and lifetime number of female sexual partners (p < 0.0001) were differentially associated with lesion incidence in the three countries. Condyloma incidence in Brazil and the U.S. decreased with age, while incidence remained constant across the lifespan in Mexico. There were no differences by country and age for PeIN incidence. HPV types 6 and 11 were the most common types to progress to condyloma and HPV types 16, 6 and 11 were the most common types to progress to PeIN in all three countries. The continuous risk of condyloma and PeIN across all age groups and countries in this study emphasizes the need to ensure that strong HPV immunity, such as that obtained through vaccination, is maintained across the lifespan of men. © 2016 UICC.

  17. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United......

  18. How Does National Culture Impact on Consumers’ Decision-making Styles? A Cross Cultural Study in Brazil, the United States and Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yie Leng

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This empirical article investigates the relationship between national culture and consumer decision-making styles in the purchase of cell phones, a product category that appears to be required by consumers independent of their nationalities. To make the research measurable, we used Hofstede’s four cultural dimensions (power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and masculinity and Sproles and Kendall’s Consumer Style Inventory framework (quality conscious, brand conscious, innovative, recreation, price conscious, impulsive, confused and brand loyal, and tested nine hypotheses through MANOVA in a sample of 108 buyers of the product in Brazil, 104 in the USA, and 107 in Japan, countries ranked in the top ten of the world’s largest cell phone market. Factor Analysis via Principal Component Analysis was conducted to examine the suitability of the eight-factor model in observations from each country. The three nationalities and the eight decision making styles were treated as independent and dependent variables, respectively. Findings showed mixed evidence for the application of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions to decision-making styles. Managerial implications and suggestions for future research are presented to help understand the relationship between national culture and consumer decision-making styles.

  19. Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae), vectors of Leishmania protozoa, at an Atlantic Forest Conservation Unit in the municipality of Nísia Floresta, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Marcos Paulo Gomes; Silva, Marcel Miranda de Medeiros; Silva Júnior, João Batista; da Silva, José Hilário Tavares; Alves, Maria de Lima; Ximenes, Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo

    2016-02-11

    Sand flies are insect vectors of protozoa from the genus Leishmania, causative parasites of visceral and American tegumentary leishmaniases. The present study discusses the bioecological aspects of sand fly species, transmitters of Leishmania protozoa, in different ecotopes of an Atlantic Forest Conservation Unit located in the metropolitan region of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. Two monthly captures were made in 1 year, using CDC light traps, in two anthropized and two preserved environments. A total of 2936 sand flies belonging to the following ten species were captured: Evandromyia walkeri, Evandromyia evandroi, Psychodopygus wellcomei, Sciopemyia sordellii, Psathyromyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Evandromyia lenti, Psathyromyia shannoni, Nyssomyia whitmani and Nyssomyia intermedia. The most common species was E. walkeri (77.6%), followed by E. evandroi (17.5%). Forest was the site with the greatest abundance (32.4%), followed by bamboo grove (26.3%). Sand flies were generally more abundant in the rainy season and L. longipalpis, a vector species of Leishmania infantum, was adapted to anthropized environments. It was confirmed that P. wellcomei, a vector of Leishmania braziliensis in Amazônia, is a species associated with more preserved environments, and occurs only in the rainy season.

  20. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana em centro de treinamento militar localizado na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, Brasil American cutaneous leishmaniasis in military training unit localized in Zona da Mata of Pernambuco State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinval P. Brandão-Filho

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Um surto de leishmaniose tegumentar americana ocorreu em 1996 em unidade de treinamento militar situada na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco, com o registro de 26 casos humanos. Um inquérito epidemiológico foi realizado através da realização de levantamento entomológico e da aplicação do Teste de Montenegro. Lutzomyia choti apresentou predominância de 89,9% dos flebótomos identificados. De 545 homens que participaram de treinamentos no período, 24,1% (incluindo os casos clínicos foram positivo para o Teste de Montenegro.An outbreak of American cutaneous leishmaniasis has been occurred in military training unit localized in 'Zona da Mata' of Pernambuco State, Brazil, where were registered 26 human cases. An epidemiological survey was carried out by entomological investigation and Montenegro skin test (MST. Lutzomyia choti presents predominance (89.9% in sandflies identified. Out of 545 men who realized training activities were 24.12% positive to MST.

  1. Myxomycetes, state of Ceara, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty four genera and 215 species of Myxomycetes are present in northeastern Brazil, covering83 % of families, all subclasses and orders recognized for these microorganisms. Ceará, with an area of148,825,602 km2, is one of the least explored of the nine states in this region of the country, with records of 27species, distributed across 13 genera, occurring in a humid forest environment of the southern mesoregion.The dominant vegetation type is the Caatinga (dry, tree-shrub deciduous vegetation, with patches of Cerrado(savanna-like vegetation, Carrasco (montane deciduous shrub vegetation and fragments of Pluvio-nebularTropical Subperennial Forest and Pluvial Tropical Subdeciduous Forest. In order to better document thediversity of myxomycetes in that state, specimens were collected from the field between 2002-2007 in Ceará’snorthern and northwestern mesoregions. The specimens obtained were deposited at the UFP Herbarium.Eighteen species were recorded, occurring in the Caatinga vegetation and the records of Comatricha, Crateriumand Metatrichia increase the number of genera which comprise Ceará’s myxobiota to 16. Arcyria denudata,Craterium leucocephalum, Badhamia panicea, B. melanospora, Didymium intermedium, Metatrichia vesparia,Physarum rigidum and P. tenerum are new records for Ceará, increasing the number of species known to occurin the state to 37.

  2. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any...

  3. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the...

  4. 7 CFR 1220.615 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.615 Section 1220.615... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures To Request a Referendum Definitions § 1220.615 State and United States. State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District of...

  5. 75 FR 5373 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Pricing for 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. \\TM\\ SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set. The 2010 United States Mint Presidential $1 Coin Proof Set, featuring $1...

  6. Risk factors related to the global burden of disease in Brazil and its Federated Units, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Machado, Ísis Eloah; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier de; Ishitani, Lenice Harumi; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Carneiro, Mariangela; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-05-01

    To analyze the global burden of disease related to disability adjusted life years (DALYs) attributed to selected risk factors in Brazil and its 27 Federated Units. Databases from the Global Burden of Disease study in Brazil and its Federated Units were used, estimating the summary exposure value (SEV) for selected environmental, behavioral, and metabolic risk factors (RFs), and their combinations. The DALYs were used as the main metric. The ranking of major RFs between 1990 and 2015 was compiled, comparing data by sex and states. The analyzed RFs account for 38.8% of the loss of DALYs in the country. Dietary risks was the main cause of DALYs in 2015. In men, dietary risks contributed to 12.2% of DALYs and in women, to 11.1%. Other RFs were high systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, smoking, high fasting plasma glucose and, among men, alcohol and drug use. The main RFs were metabolic and behavioral. In most states, dietary risks was the main RF, followed by high blood pressure. Dietary risks leads the RF ranking for Brazil and its Federated Units. Men are more exposed to behavioral risk factors, and women are more exposed to metabolic ones.

  7. Agricultural Water Pricing: United States

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In summary, irrigation costs and prices are rising in most regions of the United States, due to a combination of increasing scarcity, changes in public preferences regarding water allocation among competing uses, increasing budget scrutiny in the national and state legislatures, rising energy prices, and increasing awareness of climate change and the potential implications for rainfall and the availability of surface water resources. These issues likely will continue encouraging public offici...

  8. 7 CFR 1250.308 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1250.308 Section 1250.308 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.308 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States of the United States of America and the District of Columbia....

  9. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States....

  10. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.313 Section 1205.313 Agriculture... Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.313 United States. United States means the 50 States of the United States of America....

  12. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia,...

  13. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District...

  14. 7 CFR 1150.106 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1150.106 Section 1150.106 Agriculture... Order Definitions § 1150.106 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous States in the continental United States....

  15. Education in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱富奎

    2009-01-01

    As might be expected,educational institutions in the United States reflect the nation's basic values,especially the ideal of equality of opportunity.From elementary school through college,Americans believe that everyone deserves an equal opportunity to get a good education.

  16. United States Navy DL Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    United States Navy DL Perspective CAPT Hank Reeves Navy eLearning Project Director 10 August 2010 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Marine Corps (USMC) Navy eLearning Ongoing Shared with USMC, Coast Guard 9 NeL Help Site https://ile-help.nko.navy.mil/ile/ https://s-ile

  17. Norovirus in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-09

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC epidemiologist specializing in norovirus, discusses the impact of norovirus in the United States.  Created: 9/9/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/17/2013.

  18. Cholera in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-08

    Anna Newton, Surveillance Epidemiologist at CDC, discusses cholera that was brought to the United States during an outbreak in Haiti and the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola).  Created: 11/8/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/8/2011.

  19. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States...

  20. 75 FR 25925 - United States Mint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... United States Mint ACTION: Notification of Citizens Coinage Advisory Committee May 25, 2010 Public Meeting. SUMMARY: Pursuant to United States Code, Title 31, section 5135(b)(8)(C), the United States Mint...: May 25, 2010. Time: 9 a.m. to 12 p.m. Location: 8th Floor Board Room, United States Mint, 801...

  1. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories...

  2. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  3. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  4. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  5. 7 CFR 1212.31 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1212.31 Section 1212.31 Agriculture..., Consumer Education, and Industry Information Order Definitions § 1212.31 United States. “United States... territories and possessions of the United States....

  6. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  7. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  8. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  9. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  10. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  11. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  12. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  13. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  14. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  15. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including...

  16. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  17. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  18. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  19. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  20. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  1. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  2. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States,...

  3. 7 CFR 65.255 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 65.255 Section 65.255 Agriculture..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.255 United States. United States means the 50... United States....

  4. 31 CFR 536.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 536.315 Section 536.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.315 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  5. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  6. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories...

  7. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  8. Ten years of unitization in Brazil; Dez anos de unitizacoes no Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonolo, Daniel Dellamora; Almeida, Mateus Passeri de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The unitization concept, as used by the oil industry, was established in Brazil through Art 27 of the Law 9.478/97, also known as the Petroleum Law, and the first process was initiated in 2002. Within these 10 years, four processes were started and finalized, approved by ANP. These processes were developed in a maturing regulatory environment, which was improved in 2010. This article deals with the peculiarities of these processes, putting in context the regulatory framework and doubts at the time. We also verse about the regulatory scene after 2010, pointing out the main enhancements made. It is concluded that, although essential, an elaborated regulation is not the only important factor for the success of a unitization agreement, but also the agreement between parties, which has been encouraged by ANP.(author)

  9. Dietary recommendations: comparing dietary guidelines from Brazil and the United States Recomendações dietéticas: comparação entre os guias alimentares brasileiro e americano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely Sichieri

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian dietary guidelines are based in part on mainstream United States' recommendations, in spite of the criticisms and shortcomings of the American guidelines. In this paper, Brazilian food guidelines are summarized and discussed in comparison with the USA recommendations. American and Brazilian dietary recommendations are quite similar in many aspects, particularly those related to variety in the diet, the importance of physical activity and weight management. Different to American guidelines, those from Brazil advise people to choose fresh foods, to prefer healthier types of fat, to limit trans fat intake and to eat good sources of protein, but does not recommend the consumption of whole grains. Besides the challenges related to their implementation, indicators for the evaluation of the effectiveness of these guidelines should be established from the beginning, particularly those related to changes in dietary habits and the prevalence of obesity.O guia alimentar brasileiro é baseado parcialmente nas recomendações americanas a despeito das críticas e problemas identificados no documento dos Estados Unidos. Neste artigo, as recomendações alimentares para o Brasil são resumidas e discutidas em comparação com as recomendações estadunidenses. Os guias alimentares brasileiro e americano são bastante similares em diversos aspectos, particularmente aqueles relacionados com a variação da dieta, a importância da atividade física e o gerenciamento do peso. Diferentemente dos Estados Unidos, o guia brasileiro estimula o consumo de alimentos frescos, aconselha o uso de fontes saudáveis de gorduras, a limitação do consumo de gordura trans, o consumo de boas fontes de proteínas, mas não indica o consumo de grãos integrais. Além dos desafios relacionados com a sua implantação, os indicadores para a avaliação da eficácia dos guias alimentares devem ser estabelecidos desde sua implantação, particularmente, os relacionados

  10. Masturbation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aniruddha

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative National Health and Social Life Survey, this study queried the correlates of masturbation in the United States in 1992. Among those aged 18-60, 38% (CI, 35-41) of women and 61% (CI, 57-65) of men reported any masturbation over the preceding year. The system of factors underlying masturbation was similar for both genders, consistent with a convergence in gender patterns of sexual expression in the United States. Among both women and men, masturbation responded to a stable sexualized personality pattern, catalyzed by early-life factors and manifested in current sexual traits. Strikingly, the masturbation-partnered sex linkage, often conceptualized either as compensating for unsatisfying sex or complementing a satisfactory sex life, appeared to be bimodal for both genders. For some, masturbation complemented an active and pleasurable sex life, while among others, it compensated for a lack of partnered sex or satisfaction in sex.

  11. 77 FR 48542 - United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... outside of the `reaches of the public interest'''); see generally United States v. SBC Commc'ns, Inc., 489... judicial power.'' SBC ] Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d at 14-15 (citing Microsoft, 56 F.3d at 1462). With... effect of proposed remedies. See, e.g., KeySpan, 763 F. Supp. 2d at 642; SBC Commc'ns, 489 F. Supp. 2d...

  12. President of the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东丽

    2005-01-01

    President of the United States is the chief executive officer of the federal government, the leader of the executive branch1, and the corn man der-in-chief of the armed forces2. The president has the power to make treaties with other nations, with the advice and consent of two-thirds of the Senate3. The president also appoints4, with Senate's consent, diplomatic representatives ,Supreme Court judges5, and many other officials.

  13. Environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' effort to manage its environment including air, water nature, and biodiversity to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 40 figs., 21 tabs.

  14. 78 FR 60311 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil, China, and the United Arab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... methods; development efforts; ability to increase production (including the shift of production facilities... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From Brazil, China, and the United Arab Emirates... order on polyethylene terephthalate (``PET'') film, sheet, and strip from Brazil, China, and the United...

  15. HIV Testing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS HIV Testing in the United States HIV Testing in the United States Jun 23, 2017 ... States or for refugees. 27 Insurance Coverage of HIV Testing HIV testing that is “medically necessary” – recommended ...

  16. Drought in Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The southwestern United States pined for water in late March and early April 2007. This image is based on data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite from March 22 through April 6, 2007, and it shows the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, or NDVI, for the period. In this NDVI color scale, green indicates areas of healthier-than-usual vegetation, and only small patches of green appear in this image, near the California-Nevada border and in Utah. Larger areas of below-normal vegetation are more common, especially throughout California. Pale yellow indicates areas with generally average vegetation. Gray areas appear where no data were available, likely due to persistent clouds or snow cover. According to the April 10, 2007, update from the U.S. Drought Monitor, most of the southwestern United Sates, including Utah, Nevada, California, and Arizona, experienced moderate to extreme drought. The hardest hit areas were southeastern California and southwestern Arizona. Writing for the Drought Monitor, David Miskus of the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility reported that March 2007 had been unusually dry for the southwestern United States. While California's and Utah's reservoir storage was only slightly below normal, reservoir storage was well below normal for New Mexico and Arizona. In early April, an international research team published an online paper in Science noting that droughts could become more common for the southwestern United States and northern Mexico, as these areas were already showing signs of drying. Relying on the same computer models used in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report released in early 2007, the researchers who published in Science concluded that global warming could make droughts more common, not just in the American Southwest, but also in semiarid regions of southern Europe, Mediterranean northern Africa, and the Middle East.

  17. The developmental state in Brazil: comparative and historical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEN ROSS SCHNEIDER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of successful developmental states in East Asia and the partial successes of developmental states in Latin America suggest several common preconditions for effective state intervention including a Weberian bureaucracy, monitoring of implementation, reciprocity (subsidies in exchange for performance, and collaborative relations between government and business. Although Brazil failed to develop the high technology manufacturing industry and exports that have fueled sustained growth in East Asia, its developmental state had a number of important, and often neglected, successes, especially in steel, automobiles, mining, ethanol, and aircraft manufacturing. Where Brazil's developmental state was less successful was in promoting sectors like information technology and nuclear energy, as well as overall social and regional equality. In addition, some isolated initiatives by state governments were also effective in promoting particular local segments of industry and agriculture. Comparisons with East Asia, highlight the central role of state enterprises in Brazil that in effect internalized monitoring and reciprocity and bypassed collaboration between business and government (that was overall rarer in Brazil.

  18. 7 CFR 1206.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1206.23 Section 1206.23 Agriculture... INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.23 United States. United... Rico, and the territories and possessions of the United States....

  19. 7 CFR 1280.127 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1280.127 Section 1280.127 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Lamb Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1280.127 United States. United States means collectively the 50 States and the District of Columbia....

  20. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  1. 7 CFR 1215.20 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1215.20 Section 1215.20 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... United States. United States means all of the States. Popcorn Board...

  2. 7 CFR 1260.108 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1260.108 Section 1260.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.108 United States. United States means the 50 States and...

  3. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto...

  4. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth...

  5. 7 CFR 1210.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1210.315 Section 1210.315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.315 United States. United States...

  6. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  7. Reflections: Mexico and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Octavio

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates how Mexico and the United States represent two versions of Western civilization that are profoundly different from one another. Concludes that the United States has always ignored minorities in foreign and domestic policy. Suggests that, to conquer its enemies, the United States must first conquer its historical attitude toward…

  8. THE STATE OF RESEARCH ON CLEANER PRODUCTION IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Cardoso Oliveira Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of cleaner production (CP practices in companies is not commonplace in Brazil. Moreover, there are significant difficulties in establishing partnerships among universities, companies, and the government. However, an increase in the number of companies concerned about the impacts of industrial activities on the environment has enabled the development of CP research. Hence, using a literature review and a bibliometric analysis to quantify the scientific production of CP, published in a congress promoted by the Journal of Cleaner Production in Brazil, and an analysis of social networks using UCINET-Draw, this study contributes to the current state of CP research in Brazil. Despite remarkable developments, shareholders and entrepreneurs still lack knowledge about the subsidies/funds to implement CP made available by the government, which would improve the implementation of CP practices. Moreover, university research programs may help companies to generate innovations in this field. This study is one of the first to review CP practices in Brazil, and proposes a framework to promote CP practices in Brazil.

  9. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  10. State-ing the Facts: Exploring the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bay, Jennifer M.; Bledsoe, Ann M.; Reys, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on estimation, scaling, area of nonstandard shapes, algebraic thinking, and real-life situations using the United States of America. These activities make it possible to integrate mathematics and social studies. Uses technology by employing geometry software packages such as The Geometer's Sketchpad, Cabri, and Geometric…

  11. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD27

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1927) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1927 North American Datum within United States.

  12. United States Stateplane Zones - NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — U.S. State Plane Zones (NAD 1983) represents the State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Zones for the 1983 North American Datum within United States.

  13. Death in the United States, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order from the National Technical Information Service NCHS Death in the United States, 2011 Recommend on Facebook ... 2011 SOURCE: National Vital Statistics System, Mortality. Do death rates vary by state? States experience different mortality ...

  14. Filicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Phillip J

    2016-12-01

    In the United States the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education determines the curriculum required for fellows in forensic psychiatry to become board certified as a subspecialist. Areas that must be covered during the one year fellowship include criminal issues, such as insanity; civil issues, such as tort law and Workers' Compensation; legal regulation of psychiatry, such as confidentiality and involuntary hospitalization; and correctional psychiatry issues, such as dual agency and prisoner's rights. Fellows are also expected to have knowledge about juvenile courts, the structure of the legal system, and child custody issues. In addition, fellows are required to analyze complex cases and write forensic reports which are well reasoned. Teaching methods include lectures, storytelling, use of video vignettes, and mock trials. Additional teaching methodologies include group supervision of fellows in their report writing and direct observation of giving testimony. During the year we see fellows evolve and shift their orientation from being an advocate for patients to perceiving their role as serving justice.

  15. Birds, Montane forest, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foster, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys in montane Atlantic forest of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, provided a list of 82 bird species in four sitesvisited. Our protocol relied on standardized use of mist nets and observations. The birds recorded include 40 Atlanticforest endemics, three globally and two nationally Vulnerable species, and two regionally Endangered species. Data onspecies elevation are included and discussed. This work enhances baseline knowledge of these species to assist futurestudies in these poorly understood, but biologically important areas.

  16. United States Department of State Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    targets for worldwide reduction or elimination of the cultiva- tion, production, and commercial-scale import of cocaine, opium, heroin, mari- juana ...international sanctions against state sponsors of terrorism and urges their strict enforcement. State presses state spon- sors to abandon their support for

  17. Breeding and trade of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnen, V V; Remor, J O; Lima, R E M

    2012-02-01

    The wildlife trade is becoming increasingly more relevant in discussions concerning conservation biology and the sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this study was to document the trade and breeding of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, in southern Brazil. Data was collected from annual reports (1996-2008) of wildlife breeders which were sent to IBAMA. By the end of 2008, there were 79 wildlife breeders and 11 wildlife traders distributed in Santa Catarina. Commercial breeding accounted for the highest number of breeders (51%). In total, there are 213 species of wild animals bred in the state: 177 birds, 19 mammals and 17 reptiles. Of these, 48% are native to Santa Catarina, 32% occur in other Brazilian states and 20% are exotic to Brazil. Nine percent of the species bred are vulnerable or endangered. It was observed that some breeders reported breeding unauthorized species. Altogether, 93 species are bred illegally by 19 breeders. Of these species, 48 are native to Santa Catarina and three are classified as vulnerable or in danger of extinction. We hope the data presented in this paper contributes to the development of conservation strategies and conscious use of wildlife resources in Brazil.

  18. Characteristics of Contraceptive Use in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira; Rita Badiani; Amaury Léis Dal Fabbro; Antonio Luiz Rodrigues Junior

    2006-01-01

    Objective To know the characteristics of contraceptive use in Sao Paulo State collected by the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) conducted in 1996.Methods Data of Sao Paulo in 1996 were analyzed compared with the previous DHS carried on in 1986focusing on Sao Paulo State. Contraceptive use among married or cohabiting women by age, number of children and schooling was closely examined.Age and timing of female sterilization were also analyzed.Results The results showed that unlike Brazil there was a stability of female sterilization in Sao Paulo State during 1986 and 1996. There was a pattern in Sao Paulo: up to 30years old the pill was the most used contraceptive, after 30 there was a predominance of female sterilization, which increased with the number of children and decreased with schooling. The use of male methods had also increased in the 1986 and 1996period, being greater in Sao Paulo than in Brazil. Sao Paulo also presented more diversity in the use of reversible contraceptives.Conclusions The predominant two contraceptive methods in Brazil and Sao Paulo changed from 1986 to 1996, I.e. From pill to female sterilization.

  19. Breeding and trade of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VV Kuhnen

    Full Text Available The wildlife trade is becoming increasingly more relevant in discussions concerning conservation biology and the sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this study was to document the trade and breeding of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, in southern Brazil. Data was collected from annual reports (1996-2008 of wildlife breeders which were sent to IBAMA. By the end of 2008, there were 79 wildlife breeders and 11 wildlife traders distributed in Santa Catarina. Commercial breeding accounted for the highest number of breeders (51%. In total, there are 213 species of wild animals bred in the state: 177 birds, 19 mammals and 17 reptiles. Of these, 48% are native to Santa Catarina, 32% occur in other Brazilian states and 20% are exotic to Brazil. Nine percent of the species bred are vulnerable or endangered. It was observed that some breeders reported breeding unauthorized species. Altogether, 93 species are bred illegally by 19 breeders. Of these species, 48 are native to Santa Catarina and three are classified as vulnerable or in danger of extinction. We hope the data presented in this paper contributes to the development of conservation strategies and conscious use of wildlife resources in Brazil.

  20. A profile of scorpionism, including the species of scorpions involved, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cícero Lucinaldo Soares de Oliveira; Fé, Nelson Ferreira; Sampaio, Iracilda; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated scorpionism profile in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Data referring to stinging incidents were obtained from the National Databank of Major Causes of Morbidity. Information on the scorpion species involved was obtained from the Amazonas State health units. Amazonas has a scorpionism rate of 8.14 cases/100,000 inhabitants. Some municipalities (e.g., Apuí) presented higher rates (273 cases/100,000 inhabitants). Most species involved in envenomation belonged to the genus Tityus. Our results reaffirm the notion of scorpionism being a public health hazard and provide data that can guide public policy aimed at scorpionism prevention and treatment.

  1. The United States in the 1980's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Conradie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The era of optimism which prevailed in the United States since the Korean War, came to an abrupt end after the debacle in Vietnam. By the end of the Seventies the United States was no longer the dominant military power. American foreign policy lacked consistence, coherence and a strategic sense. The United States became indecisive. Under these circumstances the Soviet Union successfully enforced its imperialistic designs upon countries far from its shores.

  2. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatlaoui, Tara C; Ewing, Alexander; Mandel, Michele G; Simmons, Katharine B; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen

    2016-11-25

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2013. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2013, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2004-2013. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 664,435 abortions were reported to CDC for 2013. Of these abortions, 98.2% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2004-2013. Among these 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2013 was 12.5 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 200 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2012 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 5%. From 2004 to 2013, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 20%, 21%, and 17%, respectively. In 2013, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2004-2013). In 2013 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2013, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 25.9% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.8 and 18.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.8%, 9.2%, and 3.6% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 11.8, 7.0, and 2

  3. Abortion Surveillance - United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Jamieson, Denise J

    2015-11-27

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2012. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2012, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 47 areas that reported data every year during 2003-2012. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 699,202 abortions were reported to CDC for 2012. Of these abortions, 98.4% were from the 47 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2003-2012. Among these same 47 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2012 was 13.2 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 210 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2011 to 2012, the total number and ratio of reported abortions decreased 4% and the abortion rate decreased 5%. From 2003 to 2012, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 17%, 18%, and 14%, respectively, and reached their lowest level in 2012 for the entire period of analysis (2003-2012). In 2012 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2012, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.8% and 25.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 23.3 and 18.9 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 16.4%, 9.1%, and 3.7% of all abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of

  4. Myxomycetes in Alagoas state (Brazil and notes on its distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2014v27n3p13 The state of Alagoas is located in the northeastern region of Brazil, and covers an area of 27,767 km2. Several different ecosystem types exist in this area, including mangroves forests and Atlantic rainforest on the coast, and Caatinga inland. The literature reports the occurrence of 43 species of Myxomycetes in Alagoas, all of which are recorded in humid forest environments, or in stored sugarcane bagasse. This study is the first one to record members of family Didymiaceae, and the genera Badhamia, Comatricha, Perichaena, Reticularia and Stemonaria in Alagoas. A species key is presented. Licea succulenticola, Reticularia jurana and Stemonaria longa are new references for the Caatinga biome. Licea succulenticola is also reported for the first time in Brazil.

  5. Myxomycetes in Alagoas state (Brazil and notes on its distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carla Caldas Bezerra

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of Alagoas is located in the northeastern region of Brazil, and covers an area of 27,767 km2. Several different ecosystem types exist in this area, including mangroves forests and Atlantic rainforest on the coast, and Caatinga inland. The literature reports the occurrence of 43 species of Myxomycetes in Alagoas, all of which are recorded in humid forest environments, or in stored sugarcane bagasse. This study is the first one to record members of family Didymiaceae, and the genera Badhamia, Comatricha, Perichaena and Stemonaria in Alagoas. A species key is presented. Licea succulenticola, Reticularia jurana and Stemonaria longa are new references for the Caatinga biome. Licea succulenticola is also reported for the first time in Brazil.

  6. Addressing the United States Debt and Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    current government approach to the economy , then examining the current projections for United States’ spending from 2009 through 2019 and examining...manner and thereby strengthen the economy of the United States, this paper concludes with three examples that are predicated on the synergistic benefits associated with small reforms.

  7. United States Strategy for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    17 March 2005. 2 Homero Aridjis, "Survival of Indigenous Cultures in Mexico," 9 April 1998; available from <http://www.klys.se/worldconference/papers...HomeroAridjis.htm>;Internet; accessed 21 November 2004. 3Tania Carrasco, "Indigenous Peoples in the States of Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca ," 2005...analysis by the State representatives from Chiapas, Guerrero and Oaxaca (3 Southern States). The plan reviewed possible options to reduce poverty and

  8. U.S.-Brazil Security Cooperation and the State Partnership Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    C. Security Cooperation with Brazil The U.S. and Brazil have a long and productive history of security cooperation. This appeared to be reaching...For the U.S., it is one of the best methods of gaining influence into a country where other doors may be closed. Brazil as much as any country is...AU/ACSC/MIKAELSEN, D/AY15 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY U.S.- BRAZIL SECURITY COOPERATION AND THE STATE PARTNERSHIP

  9. State Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the State boundaries of the United States, and the boundaries of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by...

  10. Climatography of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Numbered series of NOAA publications that contain environmental information climate summaries and station normals. Each series contains a volume for each state,...

  11. Brazil-Argentina trade and its impacts in brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Haddad

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate a number of spatial aspects of Brazil’s currentcommercial policy, emphasizing those relating to bilateral trade with Argentina,its main trading partner in Mercosur. A national computable general equilibrium modelwas developed and implemented (EFES-ARG —integrated with an interstatetrade model—, in order to evaluate the sectoral/regional impacts of different tradestrategies towards Argentina. The analysis of the short-run regional aspects of Brazil-Argentina trade relations reveals a trend towards concentration of the level of economicactivity in the states of the Brazilian south and southeast.

  12. Sexual dimorphism in the brown vine-snake Oxybelis aeneus from the State of Ceara, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Mattos Dourado de Mesquita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Several different pressures determine the reproductive success among males and females, and that is the reason why morphological differences between the sexes are expected to be found in any given species. Oxybelis aeneus is a tiny and slender arboreal snake that is widely distributed from the United States to southeastern Brazil. The analysis of 102 specimens provided information on sexual dimorphism for this species. Females are longer and heavier than males, while there is no difference in head size and tail length between males and females.

  13. BRYOPHYTES NEW RECORDS FOR MATO GROSSO STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Antunes de Moura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study, a pioneer in the region, is part of the bryoflora survey municipalities of Baron Melgaço, Cuiabá and Chapada dos Guimarães, located in the southern region of Mato Grosso, Brazil. All materials were collected as viewed Yano (1984. In the herbarium of Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT, the materials were compared with the species already identified in its different taxa. In this article, nine species are cited are presented for the first time for the state of Mato Grosso: Calymperes platyloma, Campylopus savannarum, C. surinamensis, Fabronia macroblepharis, Hyophyla involuta, Sematophyllum adnatum, S. demissum, Racopilum tomentosum and Vesicularia vesicularis. The results showed the high occurrence of species collected as first quote for the state of Mato Grosso, whereas sparse samples were collected in three municipalities of the state, demonstrating the wealth of species in the region. Keywords: bryophytes; liver; new records.

  14. 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2010 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  15. Mineral operations outside the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Mineral facilities and operations outside the United States compiled by the National Minerals Information Center of the USGS. This representation combines source...

  16. CNPC Exports Drilling Equipment to United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Petroleum Machinery Plant(BPM) of CNPC and Rowan Drilling Company Inc, one of the most powerful drilling service and driller manufacturing companies in the United States signed a petroleum equipment contract on December 9 in Beijing.

  17. Rest Areas in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Rest areas in the western United States. Data was collected from various data sources including georeferenced locations obtained from other agencies, digitizied...

  18. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  19. Health, United States, 2012: Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disparities Report Healthy People Older Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook NCHS Health, United States, 2015 - Men's Health ... Disparities Report Healthy People Older Americans Health Report Rural-Urban Chartbook File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  20. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  1. Hydrologic landscape regions of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrologic landscape regions (HLRs) in the United States were delineated by using geographic information system (GIS) tools and statistical methods including...

  2. The Grand Strategy of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    United States both militarily and by setting the terms of trade. While cultural and ideological affinities with European democra- cies played...military establishments (Japan, Russia, India, South Korea, Vietnam, Taiwan, Indonesia , Malaysia, Singapore) can check possible military expansion when

  3. TB in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Children Treatment Vaccines Statistics Related Links TB in Children in the United States TB disease in children under ... person with infectious TB disease. Testing for TB in Children In the absence of symptoms, usually the ...

  4. 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2014 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  5. 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2009 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  6. 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2011 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  7. 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2012 United States Automatic Identification System Database contains vessel traffic data for planning purposes within the U.S. coastal waters. The database is...

  8. Terrestrial Ecosystems of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) modeled the distribution of terrestrial ecosystems for the contiguous United States using a standardized, deductive approach to...

  9. Anthropogenic Fragmentation in the western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We evaluated the fragmentation of the western United States by anthropogenic features. The addition of roads, railroads, and power lines to wildlands, and the...

  10. Social Studies: United States. Grade 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E. G.

    This teachers guide attempts to facilitate the study of the United States through a conceptual approach and multimedia instruction in a spiral curriculum. There are five units: 1) Natural Setting --location, climate, terrain, water, soil, and economic and esthetic value, and conservation; 2) Historial Development --North American Indian cultures,…

  11. Party Formation in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is about how political parties formed in the world's first mass democracy, the United States. I trace the process of party formation from the bottom up. First, I ask: How do individuals become engaged in politics and develop political affiliations? In most states, throughout the antebellum era, the county was the primary unit of political administration and electoral representation. Owing to their small size, contiguity, and economic homogeneity, I expect that each county's ...

  12. Drought in Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    May 2007 was a record-setting month in Georgia. Typically a dry month in this southern state, May 2007 was exceptionally so, with many locations setting record-low rainfall records and some receiving no rain at all, said state climatologist David Emory Stooksbury on GeorgiaDrought.org. The lack of rain slowed plant growth, as shown in this vegetation index image. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite collected the data used to make this image between May 9 and May 24, 2007. The image shows vegetation conditions compared to average conditions observed from 2000 through 2006. Areas in which plants are more sparse or are growing more slowly than average are brown, while better-than-average growth is green. Georgia and its neighbors (South Carolina, Alabama, and Florida) are all brown, an indication that the lack of rainfall is suppressing plant growth. The gray area in southern Georgia and northern Florida shows where MODIS could not collect valid vegetation measurements, either because of clouds or smoke. In this case, the area corresponds with land that burned during this period and was probably masked by smoke. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided by Inbal Reshef, Global Agricultural Monitoring Project.

  13. 31 CFR 596.313 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 596.313 Section... General Definitions § 596.313 United States person. The term United States person means any United States... States, or any person in the United States....

  14. Estimated United States Transportation Energy Use 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-11-09

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the transportation sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 31,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of energy were used throughout the United States in transportation activities. Vehicles used in these activities include automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, airplanes, rail, and ships. The transportation sector is powered primarily by petroleum-derived fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet fuel). Biomass-derived fuels, electricity and natural gas-derived fuels are also used. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the transportation sector.

  15. Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.

  16. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Grabois Gadelha

    Full Text Available Abstract: The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS. The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC. They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil.

  17. The anamorphic state of Leveillula taurica recorded on Cleome spinosa in north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos AC

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The anamorphic state of Leveillula taurica was found causing a powdery mildew disease on Cleome spinosa in north-eastern Brazil. Its chasmothecial state was not observed on the collected samples. The fungus is illustrated and described. This report represents the first record of this fungus on Cleome spinosa in Brazil.

  18. Mapping of Phytoecological Units of the ’Cerrados’ of the Central Plateaus of Brazil,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mapping of phytoecological units in the Region of Cerrado , of Brazil, has the purpose of giving a global view of the result obtained through the...mapping of a big extension of the country’s vegetation cover, where predominates the ’ cerrado ’. The phytoecological units represent the close links...which, besides several ’ cerrado ’ physiognomies, some forests were found. On the north of the area it occurs the contact between the dominium of the

  19. 31 CFR 560.314 - United States person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States person. 560.314 Section... § 560.314 United States person. The term United States person means any United States citizen, permanent resident alien, entity organized under the laws of the United States (including foreign branches), or...

  20. CUATRO PAÍSES, DOS TRIÁNGULOS. ARGENTINA Y BRASIL FRENTE A ESTADOS UNIDOS Y GRAN BRETAÑA DURANTE LA DÉCADA DE 1930. HISTORIA, CONDICIONES Y CONSECUENCIAS / FOUR COUNTRIES, TWO TRIANGLES. ARGENTINA AND BRAZIL IN RELATION TO THE UNITED STATES AND GREAT BRITAIN IN THE 1930S. HISTORY, CONDITIONS AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Zícari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo buscará abordar cómo se manejaron las relaciones y vínculos triangulares de Argentina, por un lado, y Brasil, por otro, con las principales potencias capitalistas durante la compleja década de 1930: la declinante Gran Bretaña y la nueva potencia en ascenso, los Estados Unidos, ambos igualmente en crisis. Así, buscaremos analizar cada lado de los respectivos triángulos, primero abordando el vínculo de Argentina con Gran Bretaña y luego de aquella con EE.UU., para después hacer lo propio de la relación de Brasil con las mismas potencias. Finalmente intentaremos comparar las formas de relacionarse, la dinámica y consecuencias de los triángulos, sacando algunas conclusiones al respecto. / This paper attempts to give an account of how the triangular relations between Argentina, Brazil and the major capitalist powers during the complex 1930s were handled: the declining Great Britain and the new emerging power, the United States, both equally in crisis. Thus, we analyze each side of the respective triangles, first addressing the link between Argentina and Great Britain and the link between the former and the US. Then, the triangular link between Brazil and the above-mentioned world powers is analyzed as well. Finally, we compare and reach to conclusions about the different ways of establishing relations between these countries, the dynamics and the consequences of the respective triangles.

  1. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Marlucia da Silva; Bührer-Sékula, Samira; Souza, Alexandra Brito de; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Quincó, Patrícia de Lima; Monte, Rossicleia Lins; Santos, Lucilaide Oliveira; Perez-Porcuna, Tomás Maria; Martinez-Espínosa, Flor Ernestina; Saraceni, Valéria; Cordeiro-Santos, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7%) concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3%) aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%), whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7%) and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%). During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002). The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%), Itamarati (78.1%), and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%). The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD).; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  2. Temporal distribution of tuberculosis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlucia da Silva Garrido

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the infectious diseases that contributes most to the morbidity and mortality of millions of people worldwide. Brazil is one of 22 countries that accounts for 80% of the tuberculosis global burden. The highest incidence rates in Brazil occur in the States of Amazonas and Rio de Janeiro. The aim of this study was to describe the temporal distribution of TB in the State of Amazonas. Between 2001 and 2011, 28,198 cases of tuberculosis were reported in Amazonas, distributed among 62 municipalities, with the capital Manaus reporting the highest (68.7% concentration of cases. Tuberculosis was more prevalent among males (59.3% aged 15 to 34 years old (45.5%, whose race/color was predominantly pardo (64.7% and who had pulmonary TB (84.3%. During this period, 81 cases of multidrug-resistant TB were registered, of which the highest concentration was reported from 2008 onward (p = 0.002. The municipalities with the largest numbers of indigenous individuals affected were São Gabriel da Cachoeira (93%, Itamarati (78.1%, and Santa Isabel do Rio Negro (70.1%. The future outlook for this region includes strengthening the TB control at the primary care level, by expanding diagnostic capabilities, access to treatment, research projects developed in collaboration with the Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation .;Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD.; and financing institutions, such as the project for the expansion of the Clinical Research Center and the creation of a hospital ward for individuals with transmissible respiratory diseases, including TB.

  3. Toll Facilities in the United States - Toll Facilities in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Biennial report containing selected information on toll facilities in the United States that has been provided to FHWA by the States and/or various toll authorities...

  4. Unitization in Brazil: controversial issues; Unitizacao no Brasil: questoes controversas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucheb, Jose Alberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the main consequences of the growing number of the tendered blocks is the increasing probability of the discovery of oil and gas accumulations that extends through more than one concession. In these cases, the Brazilian Petroleum Law determines that the concessionaires of the adjoining blocks shall agree on the unitization of the production. In this context, the negotiations of the first agreements have brought some controversies not yet resolved. The first one is related to the instrument that will define the basis of the unitization process in case of non-agreement within the maximum period established by the ANP. Another issue still in discussion relates to the scope of the unitization process: field, block, vertical prism of indeterminate depth, vertical prism of determinate depth or reservoir (accumulation). Additionally, the unitization involving concessions with different local content commitments is analyzed. (author)

  5. Analysis of United States’ Broadband Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    glass fiber. The light signals are then decoded at the end of the fiber by a special optic decoder /encoder. This allows for the light signal to be...CDMA technology while Cingular offers it through the HSDPA/ GSM technology. One quarter of the United States’ Internet users have a cell phone that...well Cingular 900 Kbps 100 Kbps $79.00 HSDPA/ GSM 1 yr contract Table 13. Unlimited Cellular Broadband Plans in the United States (From PCWorld.com

  6. Natural aggregates of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Crushed stone and sand and gravel are the two main sources of natural aggregates. These materials are commonly used construction materials and frequently can be interchanged with one another. They are widely used throughout the United States, with every State except two producing crushed stone. Together they amount to about half the mining volume in the United States. Approximately 96 percent of sand and gravel and 77 percent of the crushed stone produced in the United States are used in the construction industry. Natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States in a variety of geologic environments. Sand and gravel deposits commonly are the results of the weathering of bedrock and subsequent transportation and deposition of the material by water or ice (glaciers). As such, they commonly occur as river or stream deposits or in glaciated areas as glaciofluvial and other deposits. Crushed stone aggregates are derived from a wide variety of parent bedrock materials. Limestone and other carbonates account for approximately three quarters of the rocks used for crushed stone, with granite and other igneous rocks making up the bulk of the remainder. Limestone deposits are widespread throughout the Central and Eastern United States and are scattered in the West. Granites are widely distributed in the Eastern and Western United States, with few exposures in the Midwest. Igneous rocks (excluding granites) are largely concentrated in the Western United States and in a few isolated localities in the East. Even though natural aggregates are widely distributed throughout the United States, they are not universally available for consumptive use. Some areas are devoid of sand and gravel, and potential sources of crushed stone may be covered with sufficient unconsolidated material to make surface mining impractical. In some areas many aggregates do not meet the physical property requirements for certain uses, or they may contain mineral constituents that react

  7. Understanding human trafficking in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Hunt, Gretchen

    2009-01-01

    The topic of modern-day slavery or human trafficking has received increased media and national attention. However, to date there has been limited research on the nature and scope of human trafficking in the United States. This article describes and synthesizes nine reports that assess the U.S. service organizations' legal representative knowledge of, and experience with, human trafficking cases, as well as information from actual cases and media reports. This article has five main goals: (a) to define what human trafficking is, and is not; (b) to describe factors identified as contributing to vulnerability to being trafficked and keeping a person entrapped in the situation; (c) to examine how the crime of human trafficking differs from other kinds of crimes in the United States; (d) to explore how human trafficking victims are identified; and, (e) to provide recommendations to better address human trafficking in the United States.

  8. Hippeastrum species in areas of restinga in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: pollen characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Suzano Candido

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The order Asparagales comprises 14 families, five of which occur in Brazil. Amaryllidaceae is a family of economic relevance and includes numerous ornamental genera. The genus Hippeastrum is widely distributed in Brazil and comprises 34 species, 11 of which occur in areas of restinga (coastal woodland and Atlantic Forest in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The morphology of Hippeastrum has not been extensively studied in Brazil, where only a few systematic floristic surveys have been carried out with native species. In field studies and reviews of herbarium collections, we identified five Hippeastrum species occurring in areas of restinga in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The five species identified could be distinguished according to the following palynological characteristics: pollen grain size, polarity, pollen units, shape, aperture (number and type, exine sculpture, colpus length and pattern of sexine ornamentation. Of the five species identified, Hippeastrum aulicum Herb. and H. glaucescens (Ker Gawl. Herb. were not identified in the field. Among the three species that were found in the field, H. striatum had the widest distribution in the study area, whereas the distribution of H. reticulatum was restricted to a single area of restinga, in the Jaconé district of the municipality of Saquarema. Through palynological examinations of specimens from herbaria in the state of Rio de Janeiro, we were able to confirm the identity of all five species of Hippeastrum studied. Our data represent a relevant contribution to increasing knowledge of this plant group in the region and will aid in future conservation efforts.

  9. Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ethnocentrism is a problem. Pakistan lost Bangladesh in its 1971 civil war in part because West Pakistanis viewed Bengalis, who are the dominant ethnic...137. 64 Pakistan: Can the United States Secure an Insecure State? in the last few years of rapid growth, consumer price inflation surged to 25

  10. Employers mexican migrants in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fernández Guzmán

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available You might think that by definition the migrant labor plays in less profitable niches and meager social mobility. However, a large group of migrants in different economically developed countries have successfully launched businesses of diverse nature and volume. This is why entrepreneurship of migrants is an issue that has received increasing attention in recent years. Compared to other immigrant groups in the United States, Mexicans show low levels of entrepreneurial activity. The aim of this paper is to, through a general literature review of official statistical data, a preliminary analysis of mexican migrant entrepreneurship in the United States, that is to say in recent years has been growing in importance.

  11. United States Military Presence in Central Asia: Implications of United States Basing for Central Asian Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Europe and reducing the number of military personnel by 40,000 to 60,000. According to United States Air Force General Charles Wald , there are...The Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz is quoted as saying United States presence “…may be more political than actually military” and that

  12. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  13. Following Zhang Wenjin to the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    In 1937,Zhang Ying studied at the Lu Xun Art Institute in Yan’an.After graduation she began working in the art world under Zhou Enlai’s direction.In 1983, she followed her husband Zhang Wenjin to the United States as wife of the ambassador.During her two-year stay in the U.S., she came into close contact with many American women while working to promote mutual understanding and friendship between the people of the two countries.After her retirement in 1991,she sponsored the production of a 10-episode documentary TV program,"Zhou Enlai and the Arts."She also wrote a book about her experience in the United States,Called,Following Zhang Wenjin to the United States—Notes of an Ambassador’s Wife.The following are extracts from the book.

  14. Managing nuclear weapons in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.

    1993-03-16

    This report discusses the management and security of nuclear weapons in the post-cold war United States. The definition of what constitutes security is clearly changing in the US. It is now a much more integrated view that includes defense and the economy. The author tries to bring some semblance of order to these themes in this brief adaptation of a presentation.

  15. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  16. CTS United States experiments. A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, W. H.; Donoughe, P. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results are presented of the United States experiments activity to date. Wide segments of the population are involved in the Experiments Program including the scientific community, other government agencies, industry, and the education and health entities. The experiments are associated with both technological objectives and the demonstration of new community and social services via satellite.

  17. Color Vision Deficiencies in Children. United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Health Statistics (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

    Presented are prevalence data on color vision deficiencies (color blindness) in noninstitutionalized children, aged 6-11, in the United States, as estimated from the Health Examination Survey findings on a representative sample of over 7,400 children. Described are the two color vision tests used in the survey, the Ishihara Test for Color…

  18. Characterizing Hospice Services in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maureen A.; Seplaki, Christopher; Biagtan, Mark; DuPreez, Amanda; Cleary, James

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Although caregivers desire specific information about hospice programs, there is little descriptive information available. We characterized agencies that provide formal or informal hospice care in the United States according to four types of services considered important by caregivers: medications and treatments; rehabilitative care;…

  19. United States Air Force Annual Financial Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    gains and losses NRV = Net Realizable Value O = Other Inventory, Gross Value Revaluation Allowance Inventory, Net 2002 2001 United States Air Force...losses NRV = Net Realizable Value O = Other For the most part, DMAG is using the consumption method of accounting for OM&S, since OM&S is defined in the

  20. Ports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows major ports in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. A port is a city, town, or urban area with a harbor where ships load...

  1. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  2. Major land uses in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a polygon coverage of major land uses in the United States. The source of the coverage is the map of major land uses in the National Atlas, pages 158-159,...

  3. EC 92 and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    34 Rheinischer Merkur (Bonn), January 17, 1992, 5. 17. Robert J. Samuelson, "Europe’s Boom Has Come and Cone," Washington Post, February 12, 1992, A23...34 Rheinischer Merkur (Bonn), January 17, 1992, 5. Riemer, Blanca. "’United States of Europe’? Don’t Hold Your Breath." Business Week, June 17, 1991, 50

  4. Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data were derived from an extract of the Public-Use Airports...

  5. AIDS Pandemic in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Amy H.; Melendez, Barbra S.; Ball, Daniel L.; Morse, Steven T.; Phillips, Geoffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    This project is one of four that were issued to first semester sophomore undergraduates at the United States Military Academy as part of an integrated learning experience at the end of their Calculus II course work. This project was used during a short, seven lesson block of instruction that was intended to capitalize on their recent academic…

  6. Orienteering: Growth Patterns in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Charles F.

    The history of orienteering in the United States includes both military and civilian interest, with the period of greatest growth between 1970 and 1980. To investigate growth patterns in orienteering, questionnaires were mailed to 42 civilian orienteering clubs and 286 universities supporting senior Reserve Office Training Corps (ROTC)…

  7. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL...

  8. Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos Blog Get Involved Shop Ask a question right here... MHAUS On Facebook Now view more On Twitter Now view more Tweets by @ ... Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States. All rights reserved. ... advertiser and not necessarily the views or opinions of MHAUS, its staff or its ...

  9. The United States and VIetnam: 1787 - 1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    almost totally unproductive ceremony and haggling with the Cochinchinese authorities. During his stay there, White developed an appreciation of the...British and French involvement with the warring sides in the United States and with French adventures in Mexico , not with events in far-off

  10. Social science findings in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2015-01-01

    The rising number of acres burned annually and growing number of people living in or adjacent to fire-prone areas in the United States make wildfire management an increasingly complex and challenging problem. Given the prominence of social issues in shaping the current challenges and determining paths forward, it will be important to have an accurate understanding of...

  11. United States: Exploring the Marriage Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Julie H.

    2004-01-01

    As citizens of the United States respond to legislative and judicial actions that have challenged the prohibition against same-sex couples receiving marriage licenses, schools have a timely opportunity to engage students on this most important debate. Educators can help their students understand the full significance of this issue by encouraging…

  12. Geology of the Coterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital version of the Geologic Map of the United States, originally published at a scale of 1:2,500,000 (King and Beikman, 1974b). It excludes Alaska and Hawaii.

  13. Immigration, parasitic infection, and United States religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jaimie N; Shackelford, Todd K

    2012-04-01

    Fincher & Thornhill (F&T) present a powerful case for the relationship between parasite-stress and religiosity. We argue, however, that the United States may be more religious than can be accounted for by parasite-stress. This greater religiosity might be attributable to greater sensitivity to immigration, which may hyperactivate evolved mechanisms that motivate avoidance of potential carriers of novel parasites.

  14. Women's Music in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lont, Cynthia M.

    The purpose of this presentation was to: (1) describe the history of women's music in the United States; (2) define women's music; (3) report on the status of the large women's recording companies; and (4) focus on a recent controversy in the women's music industry involving the desire for political purity versus the need for economic security.…

  15. Nursing continuing education in the united states

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, B.

    1981-01-01

    THE discussion of nursing continuing education in the United States is approached by a consideration of the following aspects: Definition and Background Evolution of the Concept Administration of the Process Teaching Techniques Range of Subjects Evaluation of the Program Issues and Problems: Mandatory vs. Voluntary Participation Control of the Accreditation Process Responsibility for Participation Program Cost/Availability

  16. Nursing continuing education in the united states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Robert

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available THE discussion of nursing continuing education in the United States is approached by a consideration of the following aspects: Definition and Background Evolution of the Concept Administration of the Process Teaching Techniques Range of Subjects Evaluation of the Program Issues and Problems: Mandatory vs. Voluntary Participation Control of the Accreditation Process Responsibility for Participation Program Cost/Availability

  17. Dengue Fever in the United States

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-04-09

    Dr. Amesh Adalja, an associate at the Center for Biosecurity and clinical assistant professor at the University of Pittsburgh School, of Medicine, discusses dengue fever outbreaks in the United States.  Created: 4/9/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/16/2012.

  18. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  19. Ilusão desfeita: a "aliança especial" Brasil-Estados Unidos e o poder naval brasileiro durante e após a Segunda Guerra Mundial Fool's paradise: an overview of the "special alliance"; between Brazil and The United States regarding brazilian naval power during and after the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vágner Camilo Alves

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O americanismo foi a principal idéia norteadora da diplomacia brasileira na primeira metade do século XX. Os anos 40 constituíram o apogeu e o declínio desta idéia. A análise da política naval brasileira no período mostra o quanto ela foi influenciada pela aliança formal com os Estados Unidos dos tempos de guerra, e como se sonhou que a supremacia naval do Brasil no cone sul seria atingida como auxílio norte-americano. O fracasso desta política, entretanto, foi explicitado logo no início dos anos 50. A idéia da aliança especial contaminou todos os elementos inerentes ao poder nacional, e o caso da Marinha do Brasil serve para referendar este achado.The americanism was the main idea guiding Brazilian diplomacy in the twentieth century. The forties were the idea apogee and decline. The Brazilian naval policy analysis shows how much it was influenced by the war's formal alliance with the United States, and how they dreamed with Brazil's naval supremacy in the southern cone with American help. The failure of this policy came in the very beginning of the fifties. The special alliance idea ingrained in every aspect of the national power, and the Brazilian's navy case is showed to support this statement.

  20. CPAFFC Working Group Visits the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>From April 13 to 21, a CPAFFC working group led by Yao Mingyu, director general of the Department of American and Oceanian Affairs of the CPAFFC, visited the United States, attended the 18th Forum on US-China Relations sponsored by the US-China Peoples Friendship Association (USCPFA) and had talks with the USCPFA, the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace Foundation, the Richard Nixon Centre, the Sister Cities International of the U.S., the National Conference of State Legislatures, the Council of State

  1. Hepatitis B and C in the hemodialysis unit of Tocantins, Brazil: serological and molecular profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla P Souza

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in the hemodialysis population of the state of Tocantins, Brazil, aiming to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV infections, to analyze associated risk factors, and also to investigate these viruses genotypes distribution. During January and March 2001, all patients (n = 100 were interviewed at the unique dialysis unit in Tocantins. Blood samples were collected and serum samples were screened for HBV serological markers. Hepatitis B surface antigen positive samples were tested for HBV DNA. All samples were also tested for anti-HCV antibodies and HCV RNA. An overall prevalence of 45% was found for HBV infection (4% were HBsAg/anti-HBc positive, 2% were anti-HBc only and 39% had anti-HBc/anti-HBs markers. Concerning HCV infection, anti-HCV and HCV RNA were detected in 13% and 14% of the subjects, respectively. Three patients were HCV RNA positive and anti-HCV negative, resulting in an overall HCV prevalence of 16%. Univariate analysis of risk factors showed that only shift and length of time on hemodialysis were associated with HBV and HCV positivity, respectively. Among the four HBsAg-positive samples, HBV DNA was detected in three of them, which were identified as genotype A by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis. All 14 HCV RNA-positive samples were genotyped by INNO-LiPA. Genotypes 1a and 3a were found in 85% and 15%, respectively. The present data show low HBsAg and HCV prevalence rates. The risk factors associated with HBV and HCV positivity suggest that nosocomial transmission may influence in spreading these viruses in the dialysis unit studied.

  2. MEDICINAL HERBS USED BY CLIENTS ATTENDING CLINICAL UNITS OF SANTA MARCELINA, PORTO VELHO RO BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano, Rosemeiry Soares; FACULDADE SÃO LUCAS; de Souza, Ana Cristina Ramos; FACULDADE SÃO LUCAS; Feitoza, Leiliane Ferreira; FACULDADE SÃO LUCAS

    2014-01-01

    Many people are currently using medicinal herbs as a therapeutic alternative. Current paper tries to recover and analyze popular lore on the use of medicinal plants to cure diseases. Methodology consists of data collection by interviews with clients of clinical units of the Santa Marcelina Community in Porto Velho RO Brazil. Seventy-nine species and 46 botanic families were identified with special reference to Asteraceae and Lamiaceae with 10 and 8 species each. The most mentioned species wer...

  3. The Roles and Functions of Occupational Health Nurses in Brazil and in the United States Los papeles y funciones del enfermero de salud laboral en Brasil y en los Estados Unidos de America Atribuições e funções dos enfermeiros do trabalho no Brasil e nos Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Palucci Marziale

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cross-sectional exploratory research developed to outline the roles and functions of occupational health nurses (OHNs in Brazil and compare them with those in the United States. The sample consisted of 154 Brazilian occupational health nurses. First, the instrument Job Analysis Survey of Occupational Health Nursing Practice was translated into Portuguese, followed by data collection and data analysis, comparing the results of the proposed study in Brazil with the findings of a job delineation study conducted in the United States. It was found that most were women, white, between 41 and 50 years of age and working primarily at hospitals or medical centers as clinicians and managers/administrators. Besides, it was found that most Brazilian OHNs spend more time in managerial roles, followed by consultant and educator responsibilities while, in the United States, OHNs spend significantly more time in education/advisory roles.Investigación transversal realizada con el objetivo de definir los papeles y funciones de los enfermeros de salud laboral (ESLs en Brasil y compararles con los de los Estados Unidos de América (EUA. La muestra fue compuesta por ciento cincuenta y cuatro enfermeros de salud laboral brasileños. Primero, fue realizada la traducción de lo instrumento Job Analysis Survey of Occupational Health Nursing Practice para el Portugués, seguido de la recolecta y análisis de los datos, comparándolos con los hallazgos de un estudio conducido en los EUA. Se encontró que la mayoría eran mujeres, blancas, entre 41 y 50 años e trabajan en hospitales y centros médicos como enfermeros clínicos y administradores. También se encontró que ESLs brasileños dedican más tiempo en funciones administrativas, seguidas de responsabilidades de consultoría y educador, mientras en los EUA los ESLs dedican significativamente más tiempo en funciones educativas y de asesoría.Estudo transversal desenvolvido com o objetivo de delinear as

  4. Antiabortion violence in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Jennefer A; Schumacher, Kristin L; Creinin, Mitchell D

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine if an association exists between the amount of harassment and violence directed against abortion providers and the restrictiveness of state laws relating to family planning. We used responses from a July 2010 survey of 357 abortion providers in 50 states to determine their experience of antiabortion harassment and violence. Their responses were grouped and analyzed in relation to a published grading of state laws in the United States (A, B, C, D and F) as they relate to restrictions on family planning services. Group by group comparison of respondents illustrates that the difference in the number of reported incidents of minor vandalism by group is statistically significant (A vs. C, p=.07; A vs. D, p=.017; A vs. F, p=.0002). Incidents of harassment follow a similar pattern. There were no differences noted overall for violence or major vandalism. Major violence, including eight murders, is a new occurrence in the last two decades. Harassment of abortion providers in the United States has an association with the restrictiveness of state abortion laws. In the last two decades, murder of abortion providers has become an unfortunate part of the violence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of the palm Euterpe edulis martius in landscape units managed by migrants of German origin in Southern Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Milanesi, Lucas de Souza; Peroni, Nivaldo; dos Reis, Maurício Sedrez

    2013-01-01

    .... This study investigated the presence of the palm Euterpe edulis and its current and past importance in landscape units established by a community of German descendants located in southern Brazil...

  6. Demographic determinants of survival of people living with HIV attending an outpatient reference unit in the city of Três Lagoas, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the period 1984-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angelina da Silva Zuque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While the incidence of HIV infection and AIDS is increasing in small Brazilian cities, epidemiological studies are often conducted in large urban centers. METHODS: Our group conducted a retrospective analysis of survival determinants among 358 patients who attended a reference unit in a small city. RESULTS: Death risk was lower among men that had sex with men, patients with an HIV-seropositive partner, and those admitted after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART was available. CONCLUSIONS: The study documents the striking beneficial effect of HAART. The finding of other groups with improved survival may aid in the development of programmatic strategies.

  7. 45 CFR 212.7 - Repayment to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repayment to the United States. 212.7 Section 212... UNITED STATES CITIZENS RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 212.7 Repayment to the United States. (a) An..., any or all of the cost of such assistance to the United States, except insofar as it is...

  8. 31 CFR 592.305 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... General Definitions § 592.305 Importation into the United States. The term importation into the United States means the bringing of goods into the United States....

  9. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for...

  10. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Korea... ``Korea'') signed the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter ``UKFTA'' or the ``Agreement...

  11. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers...

  12. 32 CFR 575.6 - Catalogue, United States Military Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Catalogue, United States Military Academy. 575.6... ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.6 Catalogue, United States Military Academy. The latest edition of the catalogue, United States Military Academy, contains additional information...

  13. 75 FR 13345 - Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for Certain United States Mint Products AGENCY: United States Mint, Department of the Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Mint is announcing the price of...

  14. 77 FR 27612 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK11 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... or clearing agency do not constitute United States property. These regulations affect United States...)) that invests certain earnings and profits in United States property (U.S. property) ``on the...

  15. Uranium isotopes in groundwater occurring at Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Márcio Luiz; Bonotto, Daniel Marcos

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the behavior of the dissolved U-isotopes (238)U and (234)U in groundwater providing from 15 cities in Amazonas State, Brazil. The isotope dilution technique accompanied by alpha spectrometry were utilized for acquiring the U content and (234)U/(238)U activity ratio (AR) data, 0.01-1.4µgL(-1) and 1.0-3.5, respectively. These results suggest that the water is circulating in a reducing environment and leaching strata containing minerals with low uranium concentration. A tendency to increasing ARs values following the groundwater flow direction is identified in Manaus city. The AR also increases according to the SW-NE directions: Uarini→Tefé; Manacapuru→Manaus; Presidente Figueiredo→São Sebastião do Uatumã; and Boa Vista do Ramos→Parintins. Such trends are possibly related to several factors, among them the increasing acid character of the waters. The waters analyzed are used for human consumption and the highest dissolved U content is much lower than the maximum established by the World Health Organization. Therefore, in view of this radiological parameter they can be used for drinking purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Perkinsus beihaiensis (Perkinsozoa) in oysters of Bahia State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, M S A; Carvalho, F S; Oliveira, H C; Boehs, G

    2017-08-17

    This study reports the pathogen Perkinsus beihaiensis in oysters of the genus Crassostrea on the coast of the State of Bahia (Brazil), its prevalence, infection intensity and correlation with salinity. Oysters (n = 240) were collected between October and December 2014 at eight sampling stations between latitudes 13°55'S and 15°42'S. The laboratory procedures included macroscopic analysis, histology, culture in Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium (RFTM), Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. PCR and sequencing have been used for the genetic identification of oysters as well. Two species of oysters have been identified: Crassostrea rhizophorae and C. brasiliana. In both oyster species P. beihaiensis was the only Perkinsus species detected. In C. rhizophorae, the average prevalence was 82.8% by histology and 65.2% by RFTM. In C. brasiliana, the prevalences were 70.5% and 35.7%, respectively. The higher prevalence of P. beihaiensis in C. rhizophorae was probably influenced by salinity, with which was positively correlated (r> 0.8). In both oysters, P. beihaiensis was located mainly in the gastric epithelium. The infection was generally mild or moderate, without apparent harm to the hosts, but in cases of severe infection, there was hemocytical reaction and tissue disorganization. The generally high prevalence in the region suggests that oysters should be monitored with respect to this pathogen, especially in growing areas.

  17. [Human neurocysticercosis in Baixada Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Ernani Costa; da Silva, Scintilla Santos; Fonseca, Edson Alexandre La' Terza; de Souza, Hilana Regina Ribeiro; de Carvalho, Raimundo Wilson

    2005-12-01

    The objective of this manuscript was to know the neurocysticercosis prevalence and some epidemiological aspects in Baixada Fluminense, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The data came from the service of computerized tomography of the Nova Iguaçu General Hospital from 1996 to 2002 and from neuroimage "D'IMAGEM" Center from 1992 to 2002. We analyzed 36,379 tomographies identifying 72 cases of the parasitoses, the majority in women (62.5%, p>0.05) and in the chronic phase (93.1%). The neurocysticercosis had occurred in all age groups and increase with age (r=0.84, p<0.05), being that 45.8% of them up to 50 years. The 20 interviewed cases were origin from several municipal districts of Baixada Fluminense, the monthly per capita income was 366 R dollars. The growing urbanization, deficient sanitary vigilance, absence of sewage systems and sanitary education are the main factors that potentially the transmission of cysticercosis and taeniasis in the Baixada Fluminense.

  18. Snakebites in southwestern Goiás State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. P. Pacheco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated snakebite cases recorded by the Southwest II Regional Health Bureau [Regional de Saúde Sudoeste II], Goiás State, Brazil. The following data were analyzed: accident period; patient's age and gender; bite site; envenomation severity; and time elapsed between the bite and medical treatment. We evaluated 211 cases recorded between January 2002 and December 2005, which resulted in an incidence coefficient of 32.4/100,000 inhabitants. Most accidents were due to the bite of snakes from the Bothrops genus (78.2%. The months between January and April had a larger number of accidents (93%-44.1%, although no significant differences were observed. Only one death occurred, resulting in a mortality rate of 0.5%. The lower limbs were the most frequently affected (66.3%. The majority of the victims were male (75.1%. The age group of most of the patients was from 21 to 30 years (20.8%. The accidents were classified as mild, moderate and severe, representing 44.9%, 47.6% and 7.5% of the cases, respectively. The time elapsed between the accident and medical treatment was less than 3h in most of the cases (80.7%, reflecting the high frequency of mild and moderate accidents (92.5% as well as the large number of healed patients.

  19. [Schistosomiasis in an ecotourism area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Amaral, Graciela Larissa; Caldeira, Roberta Lima; Drummond, Sandra Costa; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses schistosomiasis transmission in São José da Serra, a village with a population of 500 in the county of Jaboticatubas, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The area receives thousands of visitors a year for ecotourism. The study was motivated by a case of acute schistosomiasis involving a couple that spent the 2007 Carnival (Mardi Gras) holiday in the area. Stool tests from 268 local residents (53.6% of the population) showed that 35 (13%) were positive for the infection. A comparison with a previous survey (2005) in the same location showed an increase in the schistosomiasis-positive rate from 9.6% to 12.5%, among the 56 individuals who participated in both surveys. A malacological survey of 65 Biomphalaria glabrata snails showed one specimen (1.5%) eliminating cercariae. In a similar survey in 2005, no positive snail specimens were found. The study indicates that active schistosomiasis transmission is occurring in the area, and that integrated educational programs are needed for both the local community and tourists.

  20. The State of Homeless Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabler, Brenda; Weinstein, Elana

    2009-01-01

    Across America, the numbers of homeless children and families are growing as a result of many factors including the recent economic crisis, home foreclosures, and natural disasters. Because of an increase in the number of homeless children throughout the United States, this population has unmet needs that can be targeted in school settings under…

  1. [Evaluation of the Mobile Emergency Care Service in Santa Catarina State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiga, Angela Maria Blatt; Lacerda, Josimari Telino de; Natal, Sonia; Calvo, Maria Cristina Marino

    2016-12-15

    This case study evaluated the Mobile Emergency Care Service (SAMU) in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2013/2014. The theoretical log frame and evaluation matrix were validated by expert consensus workshops. Two dimensions were proposed: emergency care management and emergency care, analyzed with 22 indicators. Data collection used interviews, direct observation in the eight regional SAMU dispatches, and a questionnaire sent to the coordinators of the municipal SAMU. The analysis and value judgment according to separate dimensions, sub-dimensions, and indicators allowed identifying strengths and weaknesses amenable to intervention. No regional dispatch performed well in both dimensions; all were classified as "fair" in emergency care and "bad" in emergency management. An important strength was agile communication with callers for help, standardization, and external support for care. The mechanisms for internal and external linkage and communication need to be effectively implemented. The quality of advanced support units requires improvement.

  2. Re-evaluation of the basic procedures involved in the storage of measles vaccine in public health units of the municipality of Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange A. Oliveira

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available Four years after the first visit seventeen public health units were visited again and evaluated as to standards of storage recommended by the Brazilian Immunization Programme. In 100% of the units, refrigerators and proper inside location of vaccines in the refrigerator were adequatety or regularfy maintained and checked, respectively. However, when control of temperature was checked, onfy 64.7% presented adequate storage conditions. In 94.1 % of the units, health workers complained of lack of immediate technical support in emergency situations. In 55.2 % the titers vaccine samples of were under the minimal recommended potency. It is necessary that the factors concerning the cold chain be continualfy evaluated so that the quality of the vaccines that will be used is not affected.Quatro anos após a primeira visita, dezessete Unidades Sanitárias do Município de Niterói - RJ foram visitadas novamente e reavaliadas de acordo com as normas técnicas específicas estabelecidas pelo Programa Nacional de Imunização. Constatou-se que em 100% das Unidades visitadas os cuidados com os refrigeradores e a arrumação das vacinas no interior dos aparelhos eram adequados ou regulares mas quanto ao controle de temperatura dos refrigeradores este percentual caía para 64,7%. De todos os itens avaliados, o mais problemático foi o apoio técnico imediato frente a situações de emergência, considerado insuficiente em 94,1% dos casos. Em 55,2% das amostras vacinais recolhidas das unidades sanitárias, os títulos estavam abaixo da potência mínima preconizada para tal produto no momento da aplicação. Verifica-se, deste modo, a necessidade de uma contínua avaliação dos fatores que intervém na cadeia de frio evitando-se, assim, que seja comprometida a qualidade das vacinas a serem utilizadas.

  3. [Undocumented migrant labor in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinand, J

    1985-09-01

    The author identifies two factors contributing to the increase in the number of illegal migrant workers in the United States. The first is the complex system of legal immigration, which contributes to massive evasion. The second is the preference by many employers for hiring illegal aliens. The author concludes that the proposed changes in U.S. immigration laws, even though they include employer sanctions, are likely to prove as ineffective as previous measures adopted in several states some 10 years ago that also penalized employers hiring illegal aliens. It is suggested that the economic pressures leading to large-scale labor immigration will prove stronger than political pressures to control such immigration

  4. Inclusive Education in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    C. Kenneth Tanner; Deborah Jan Vaughn Linscott; Susan Allan Galis

    1996-01-01

    School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States) study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive ed...

  5. Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    incidence of drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP) strains in the United States has created an emerging public health challenge. CDC...only 1,280 cases of Legionnaires’ disease were reported through NNDSS in 1993, data from recent prospective pneumonia studies suggest that between...surveillance data from 1992 indicated that the prevalence of pneumococcal strains that are highly resistant to penicillin increased 60-fold (from 0.02% to 1.3

  6. The United States Military and Humanitarian Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    stated that, "The wave of the future will be putting together task forces that will be able to respond to crisis management or humanitarian...examine three options for the military’s role in humanitaria operations at home and abroad. Option 1: Virtually Eliminate Anv Military Role This is the...humanitarian aid in almost any crisis .36 The military resists the creation of specially designated units because such specialization reduces the

  7. Energy Security in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    increase the domestic price of those 41. Coal gasification is a process that converts solid coal—through several energy-intensive steps—into gasoline and...for switching to other fuels or reducing consumption of transportation fuels . In con- trast, electricity can be produced from several sources of...the prices of those fuels in the United States. Although the global nature of the market for oil makes U.S. consumers vulnerable to price

  8. West Coast, United States and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    This view shows the west coast of the United States and Mexico (32.5N, 118.0W) and gives an indication of the range of view from orbital altitude. The visual range of this particular scene is from Skammon's Lagoon on Baja to the northern tip of California's Central Valley and Sierra Nevada, a range of over 15 degrees of latitude. Coastal fog drapes over southern California and northern Baja California. White Sands, New Mexico is at far right center.

  9. Continental United States Military Housing Inspections Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-24

    standards. 3. Work with the privatized housing partner to ensure that fire protection inspection and maintenance plans are achieved. Deputy Assistant...Secretary stated that Hunt Military Communities and Patrick AFB civil engineers were working to correct all of the other fire protection system...create a plan for the performance of ongoing inspection and maintenance of all housing units to applicable electrical codes and standards. 3. Work

  10. United States of Europe, Dream or Possibility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    center between the United States and the Soviet Union. The method chosen to examine this trend is to review three major politico-military problems...de France, pp. 3-7. ൫ Supra-nationalism must go! De Gaulle’s heir presumptive, Georges Pompidou , has given voice to de Gaulle’s thoughts on... Pompidou said: Certainly we do not believe in integration as a method of approach to European unity, precisely because we believe that there can be no

  11. OECD environmental performance reviews: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This book presents OECD assessments and recommendations regarding the United States' efforts to manage its environment including air, water, nature, and biodiversity; to do this in a sustainable manner; and to do this in co-operation with its global neighbours. In particular, it assesses progress made since 1996, when OECD's previous review on the US was done. 47 figs., 20 tabs.

  12. Toxic plants of the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Karyn; Smith, Mary C

    2011-07-01

    This article lists commonly encountered toxic plants that affect ruminants in the Northeastern United States. Livestock are at risk for ingestion of a large variety of toxic plants. Plant poisonings are likely to be underdiagnosed because tests for most plant toxins are not routinely available at veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Prevention of access to poisonous plants is usually more effective and economical than treatment of plant poisonings. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxocariasis in children attending a Public Health Service Pneumology Unit in Paraná State, Brazil Toxocaríase em crianças atendidas em Unidade de Pneumologia do Serviço de Saúde Pública, Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson V. Guilherme

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA is the most widely used tool to detect anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies for both serodiagnostic and seroepidemiological surveys on human toxocariasis. In the last eight years a high prevalence of toxocariasis (32.2-56.0% has been reported in children attending public health units from municipalities in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the frequency found among the general child population with that of children attending a public pneumology service in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil and describe the laboratorial, clinical and epidemiological findings. The research was conducted at the Consórcio Público Intermunicipal de Saúde do Setentrião Paranaense (CISAMUSEP from July 2009 to July 2010 among children aged between one and 15 years. From a total of 167 children studied, only 4.2% (7/167 tested positive for anti-Toxocara spp. IgG antibodies and presented mild eosinophilia (2/7, increased serum IgE levels (6/7 and a positive allergy test for mites (5/7. The presence of pets (dogs or cats at home did not correlate with the seroprevalence. In conclusion, cases of toxocariasis involving the respiratory tract are rare in children attending a public health pneumology unit in the northwestern region of Paraná State, despite the high prevalence of this type of toxocariasis among the infantile population attending Basic Health Units in the same geographical area.O teste imunoenzimático (ELISA constitui a ferramenta mais utilizada no diagnóstico individual da toxocaríase humana e/ou em inquéritos soroepidemiológicos para pesquisa de anticorpos IgG anti-Toxocara spp. Tendo em vista a elevada freqüência da toxocaríase (32,2% e 56,0% observada em crianças atendidas em Unidades Básicas de Saúde de municípios do noroeste do Paraná, durante pesquisas realizadas ao longo dos últimos oito anos, o objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar estas frequências em crian

  14. DENGUE OUTBREAK IN MATO GROSSO STATE, MIDWESTERN BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEINEN, Letícia Borges da Silva; ZUCHI, Nayara; CARDOSO, Belgath Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; NOGUEIRA, Mauricio Lacerda; DEZENGRINI-SLHESSARENKO, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT. PMID:27049702

  15. VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN PETROLINA, STATE OF PERNAMBUCO, BRAZIL, 2007-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARAUJO, Andreina de Carvalho; GONÇALVES, Nara Nagle Vieira Matos; DANTAS-TORRES, Filipe; FERREIRA, Fernando; HORTA, Mauricio Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a life-threatening disease of great public health relevance in Brazil. The municipality of Petrolina is an endemic area in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. This study was designed to assess the recent expansion of VL in the municipality of Petrolina, Pernambuco. Patients data were obtained from the Brazilian National Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN). A total of 111 records from 2007 to 2013 were investigated, of which 69 were residents in Petrolina. The disease has predominantly affected 1-4 year old children (34.8%). Most of the patients were males (59.4%). Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus occurred in 14.5% of the cases. The criterion most frequently used was the clinical and epidemiological confirmation (59.4%), with clinical cure in 78.3% of cases and one fatal outcome. Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in Petrolina with transmission levels varying from moderate to high. The present study has shown the precariousness of the use of diagnostic tests in primary healthcare units, and this misuse has interfered with the diagnosis and treatment of cases. PMID:27074323

  16. PERMITTING LEADERSHIP IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Nemeth

    2002-09-01

    In accordance with the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) proposal, as incorporated into NETL/DE-FC26-97FT34199, the objective of this agreement is to streamline the environmental technology permitting process site-to-site, state-to-state, and industry-to-industry to achieve remediation and waste processing faster, better and cheaper. SSEB is working with member Governors, legislators and regulators to build consensus on streamlining the permitting process for new and innovative technologies for addressing the legacy of environmental problems from 50 years of weapons research, development and production. This report reviews mechanisms whereby industry consortiums and the Department of Energy (DOE) have been working with State regulators and other officials in technology deployment decisions within the DOE complex. The historic development of relationships with State regulators is reviewed and the current nature of the relationships examined. The report contains observations from internal DOE reviews as well as recommendations from the General Accounting Office (GAO) and other external organizations. The report discusses reorganization initiatives leading up to a DOE Top-to-Bottom review of the Environmental Management (EM) Program and highlights points of consideration for maintaining effective linkages with State regulators. It notes how the proposed changes will place new demands upon the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and how NETL can leverage its resources by refocusing existing EM efforts specifically to states that have DOE facilities within their borders (host-states). Finally, the report discusses how SSEB's Permitting Leadership in the United States (PLUS) program can provide the foundation for elements of NETL's technical assistance program that are delivered to regulators and other decision- makers in host-states. As a regional compact commission, SSEB provides important direct linkages to regulators and stakeholders who need

  17. Human prion diseases in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Holman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prion diseases are a family of rare, progressive, neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals. The most common form of human prion disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD, occurs worldwide. Variant CJD (vCJD, a recently emerged human prion disease, is a zoonotic foodborne disorder that occurs almost exclusively in countries with outbreaks of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. This study describes the occurrence and epidemiology of CJD and vCJD in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of CJD and vCJD deaths using death certificates of US residents for 1979-2006, and those identified through other surveillance mechanisms during 1996-2008. Since CJD is invariably fatal and illness duration is usually less than one year, the CJD incidence is estimated as the death rate. During 1979 through 2006, an estimated 6,917 deaths with CJD as a cause of death were reported in the United States, an annual average of approximately 247 deaths (range 172-304 deaths. The average annual age-adjusted incidence for CJD was 0.97 per 1,000,000 persons. Most (61.8% of the CJD deaths occurred among persons >or=65 years of age for an average annual incidence of 4.8 per 1,000,000 persons in this population. Most deaths were among whites (94.6%; the age-adjusted incidence for whites was 2.7 times higher than that for blacks (1.04 and 0.40, respectively. Three patients who died since 2004 were reported with vCJD; epidemiologic evidence indicated that their infection was acquired outside of the United States. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Surveillance continues to show an annual CJD incidence rate of about 1 case per 1,000,000 persons and marked differences in CJD rates by age and race in the United States. Ongoing surveillance remains important for monitoring the stability of the CJD incidence rates, and detecting occurrences of vCJD and possibly other novel prion diseases in the United States.

  18. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  19. Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Brazil's population in 1985 was 135 million, with an annual growth rate (1982) of 2.3%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 92/1000, and life expectancy stood at 62.8 years. 76% of the adult population was literate. Brazil is a federal republic which recognizes 5 political parties. 55% of the population is Portuguese, Italian, German, Japanese, African, or American Indian; 38% is white. Of the work force of 50 million, 35% are engaged in agriculture, 25% work in industry, and 40% are employed in services. Trade union membership totals 6 million. The agricultural sector accounts for 12% of the GDP and 40% of exports. Brazil is largely self-sufficient in terms of food. The GDP was US$218 billion in 1984, with an annual growth rate of 4%. Per capita GDP was US$1645. Brazil's power, transportation, and communications systems have improved greatly in recent years, providing a base for economic development. High inflation rates have been a persistent problem.

  20. Molecular characterisation of Bartonella species in cats from São Luís, state of Maranhão, north-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Socorro Costa de Oliveira Braga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that predominantly infect mammalian erythrocytes and endothelial cells and cause long-lasting bacteraemia in their reservoir hosts. Reports that describe the epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil are limited. This study aimed to detect and characterise Bartonella spp DNA from cat blood samples in São Luís, Maranhão, north-eastern Brazil. Among 200 cats tested for multiple genes, nine (4.5% were positive for Bartonella spp: six cats for Bartonella henselae and three for Bartonella clarridgeiae. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of four genes, the B. henselae strain matched strains previously observed in Brazil and was positioned in the same clade as B. henselae isolates from the United States of America. Moreover, sequence alignment demonstrated that the B. clarridgeiae strain detected in the present study was the same as the one recently detected in cats from southern Brazil.

  1. Molecular characterisation of Bartonella species in cats from São Luís, state of Maranhão, north-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Maria do Socorro Costa de Oliveira; Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; André, Marcos Rogério; Bortoli, Caroline Plácidi de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2012-09-01

    Bartonella species are fastidious bacteria that predominantly infect mammalian erythrocytes and endothelial cells and cause long-lasting bacteraemia in their reservoir hosts. Reports that describe the epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil are limited. This study aimed to detect and characterise Bartonella spp DNA from cat blood samples in São Luís, Maranhão, north-eastern Brazil. Among 200 cats tested for multiple genes, nine (4.5%) were positive for Bartonella spp: six cats for Bartonella henselae and three for Bartonella clarridgeiae. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of four genes, the B. henselae strain matched strains previously observed in Brazil and was positioned in the same clade as B. henselae isolates from the United States of America. Moreover, sequence alignment demonstrated that the B. clarridgeiae strain detected in the present study was the same as the one recently detected in cats from southern Brazil.

  2. Duration of temporary catheter use for hemodialysis: an observational, prospective evaluation of renal units in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonfante Gisele MS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For chronic hemodialysis, the ideal permanent vascular access is the arteriovenous fistula (AVF. Temporary catheters should be reserved for acute dialysis needs. The AVF is associated with lower infection rates, better clinical results, and a higher quality of life and survival when compared to temporary catheters. In Brazil, the proportion of patients with temporary catheters for more than 3 months from the beginning of therapy is used as an evaluation of the quality of renal units. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors associated with the time between the beginning of hemodialysis with temporary catheters and the placement of the first arteriovenous fistula in Brazil. Methods This is an observational, prospective non-concurrent study using national administrative registries of all patients financed by the public health system who began renal replacement therapy (RRT between 2000 and 2004 in Brazil. Incident patients were eligible who had hemodialysis for the first time. Patients were excluded who: had hemodialysis reportedly started after the date of death (inconsistent database; were younger than 18 years old; had HIV; had no record of the first dialysis unit; and were dialyzed in units with less than twenty patients. To evaluate individual and renal unit factors associated with the event of interest, the frailty model was used (N = 55,589. Results Among the 23,824 patients (42.9% who underwent fistula placement in the period of the study, 18.2% maintained the temporary catheter for more than three months until the fistula creation. The analysis identified five statistically significant factors associated with longer time until first fistula: higher age (Hazard-risk - HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00; having hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.9-0.98 as the cause of chronic renal disease; residing in capitals cities (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.9-0.95 and certain regions in Brazil - South (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0

  3. Duration of temporary catheter use for hemodialysis: an observational, prospective evaluation of renal units in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante, Gisele M S; Gomes, Isabel C; Andrade, Eli Iola G; Lima, Eleonora M; Acurcio, Francisco A; Cherchiglia, Mariângela L

    2011-11-17

    For chronic hemodialysis, the ideal permanent vascular access is the arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Temporary catheters should be reserved for acute dialysis needs. The AVF is associated with lower infection rates, better clinical results, and a higher quality of life and survival when compared to temporary catheters. In Brazil, the proportion of patients with temporary catheters for more than 3 months from the beginning of therapy is used as an evaluation of the quality of renal units. The aim of this study is to evaluate factors associated with the time between the beginning of hemodialysis with temporary catheters and the placement of the first arteriovenous fistula in Brazil. This is an observational, prospective non-concurrent study using national administrative registries of all patients financed by the public health system who began renal replacement therapy (RRT) between 2000 and 2004 in Brazil. Incident patients were eligible who had hemodialysis for the first time. Patients were excluded who: had hemodialysis reportedly started after the date of death (inconsistent database); were younger than 18 years old; had HIV; had no record of the first dialysis unit; and were dialyzed in units with less than twenty patients. To evaluate individual and renal unit factors associated with the event of interest, the frailty model was used (N = 55,589). Among the 23,824 patients (42.9%) who underwent fistula placement in the period of the study, 18.2% maintained the temporary catheter for more than three months until the fistula creation. The analysis identified five statistically significant factors associated with longer time until first fistula: higher age (Hazard-risk - HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.99-1.00); having hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.9-0.98) as the cause of chronic renal disease; residing in capitals cities (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.9-0.95) and certain regions in Brazil - South (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.8-0.87), Midwest (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0

  4. Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from dental office environments and units in Barretos, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and analysis of their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs Isolamento de cepas de Pseudomonas aeruginosa provenientes do meio ambiente e de equipos dentarios em clinicas dentarias em Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil; analises da susceptibilidade das cepas a drogas antimicrobianas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Claudia de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A wide variety of opportunistic pathogens has been detected in the tubing supplying water to odontological equipment, in special in the biofilm lining of these tubes. Among these pathogens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, is frequently found in water lines supplying dental units. In the present work, 160 samples of water, and 200 fomite samples from forty dental units were collected in the city of Barretos, State of São Paulo, Brazil and evaluated between January and July, 2005. Seventy-six P. aeruginosa strains, isolated from the dental environment (5 strains and water system (71 strains, were tested for susceptibility to six antimicrobial drugs most frequently used against P. aeruginosa infections. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, followed by meropenem was the predominant profile. The need for effective means of reducing the microbial burden within dental unit water lines is emphasized, and the risk of exposure and cross-infection in dental practice, in special when caused by opportunistic pathogens like P. aeruginosa, are highlighted.Uma ampla variedade de patógenos oportunistas tem sido detectadas nos tubos de alimentação de água dos equipos odontológicos, particularmente no biofilme formado na superfície do tubo. Entre os patógenos oportunistas encontrados nos tubos de água, Pseudomonas aeruginosa é reconhecida como uma das principais causadoras de infecções nosocomiais. Foram coletadas 160 amostras de água e 200 amostras de fomites em quarenta clinicas odontológicas na cidade de Barretos, São Paulo, Brasil, durante o período de Janeiro a Julho de 2005. Setenta e seis cepas de P. aeruginosa, isoladas a partir dos fomites (5 cepas e das amostras de água (71 cepas, foram analisadas quanto à susceptibilidade à seis drogas antimicrobianas freqüentemente utilizadas para o tratamento de infecções provocadas por P. aeruginosa. As principais suscetibilidades observadas foram para a

  5. The state of amphibians in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, E.; Adams, M.J.; Grant, E.H.C.; Miller, D.; Corn, P.S.; Ball, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, scientists began to identify unexplained declines in amphibian populations around the world. Much has been learned since then, but amphibian declines have not abated and the interactions among the various threats to amphibians are not clear. Amphibian decline is a problem of local, national, and international scope that can affect ecosystem function, biodiversity, and commerce. This fact sheet provides a snapshot of the state of the amphibians and introduces examples to illustrate the range of issues in the United States.

  6. 22 CFR 22.3 - Remittances in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remittances in the United States. 22.3 Section...-DEPARTMENT OF STATE AND FOREIGN SERVICE § 22.3 Remittances in the United States. (a) Type of remittance. Remittances shall be in the form of: (1) Check or bank draft drawn on a bank in the United States; (2)...

  7. Maximum floodflows in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippen, John R.; Bue, Conrad D.

    1977-01-01

    Peak floodflows from thousands of observation sites within the conterminous United States were studied to provide a guide for estimating potential maximum floodflows. Data were selected from 883 sites with drainage areas of less than 10,000 square miles (25,900 square kilometers) and were grouped into regional sets. Outstanding floods for each region were plotted on graphs, and envelope curves were computed that offer reasonable limits for estimates of maximum floods. The curves indicate that floods may occur that are two to three times greater than those known for most streams.

  8. United States/Canada electricity exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

  9. Coordinating the United States Interagency Partnering Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    stage over the last 6 years.7 The DoD is on the cutting edge of partnering and there have been valuable lessons learned at the tactical and...global stage . “3D are the three pillars that provide the foundation for promoting and protecting U.S. national security interests abroad.”33 DoD, DoS...operations now will mean throwing 18 away hard-fought gains, and expose the United States to new risks from across the globalising

  10. Contraceptive failure in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, James

    2011-05-01

    This review provides an update of previous estimates of first-year probabilities of contraceptive failure for all methods of contraception available in the United States. Estimates are provided of probabilities of failure during typical use (which includes both incorrect and inconsistent use) and during perfect use (correct and consistent use). The difference between these two probabilities reveals the consequences of imperfect use; it depends both on how unforgiving of imperfect use a method is and on how hard it is to use that method perfectly. These revisions reflect new research on contraceptive failure both during perfect use and during typical use.

  11. Mobile satellite service in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Carson E.; Bhagat, Jai; Hopper, Edwin A.; Kiesling, John D.; Exner, Michael L.; Melillo, Lawrence; Noreen, Gary K.; Parrott, Billy J.

    1988-05-01

    Mobile satellite service (MSS) has been under development in the United States for more than two decades. The service will soon be provided on a commercial basis by a consortium of eight U.S. companies called the American Mobile Satellite Consortium (AMSC). AMSC will build a three-satellite MSS system that will offer superior performance, reliability and cost effectiveness for organizations requiring mobile communications across the U.S. The development and operation of MSS in North America is being coordinated with Telesat Canada and Mexico. AMSC expects NASA to provide launch services in exchange for capacity on the first AMSC satellite for MSAT-X activities and for government demonstrations.

  12. Wind Lidar Activities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Newman, Jennifer; St. Pe, Alexandra; Iungo, G. Valerio; Wharton, Sonia; Herges, Tommy; Filippelli, Matthew; Pontbriand, Philippe; Osler, Evan

    2017-06-28

    IEA Wind Task 32 seeks to identify and mitigate the barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. This work is partly achieved by sharing experience across researchers and practitioners in the United States and worldwide. This presentation is a short summary of some wind lidar-related activities taking place in the country, and was presented by Andrew Clifton at the Task 32 meeting in December 2016 in his role as the U.S. Department of Energy-nominated country representative to the task.

  13. Geothermal power generation in United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Gerald W.; McCluer, H. K.

    1993-03-01

    Geothermal energy is an indigenous environmentally benign heat source with the potential for 5000-10,000 GWe of power generation in the United States. Approximately 2535 MWe of installed capacity is currently operating in the U.S. with contracted power costs down to 4.6 cents/kWh. This paper summarizes: 1) types of geothermal resources; 2) power conversion systems used for geothermal power generation; 3) environmental aspects; 4) geothermal resource locations, potential, and current power plant development; 5) hurdles, bottlenecks, and risks of geothermal power production; 6) lessons learned; and 7) ongoing and future geothermal research programs.

  14. Health and innovation: economic dynamics and Welfare State in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Carlos Augusto Grabois; Braga, Patrícia Seixas da Costa

    2016-11-03

    The effective enforcement of the access to healthcare as fundamental right requires an important theoretical and political effort at linking the often contradictory economic and social dimensions of development. This study suggests the need for a systemic view of policies related to the industrial base and innovation in health and the construction of the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). The authors investigate the relations between health, innovation, and development, seeking to show and update the political, economic, and social determinants of the recent Brazilian experience with the Health Economic-Industrial Complex (HEIC). They discuss how the agenda for innovation and domestic industrial production in health gained a central place in the project for construction of the SUS. The article thus seeks to link inherent issues from the agenda for development, production, and innovation to social policy in healthcare, as observed in recent years, and based on this analysis, points to political and conceptual challenges for implementing the SUS, especially as regards strengthening its technological and industrial base. As a byproduct, the article develops an analytical and factual focus on the consolidation of the HEIC in Brazil, both as a dynamic vector of industrial development, generating investment, income, employment, and innovations, and as a decisive element for reducing vulnerability and structural dependence in health. The authors aim to show that strengthening the SUS and orienting it to social needs is an essential part of building a social Welfare State in Brazil. Resumo: A efetivação da saúde como um direito fundamental exige importante esforço, teórico e político, de articulação das dimensões econômicas e sociais, por vezes contraditórias, do desenvolvimento. Este trabalho indica a necessidade de um olhar sistêmico das políticas relacionadas à base produtiva e de inovação em saúde e à construção do Sistema Único de Sa

  15. The regulation of visitors conduction activity in the State System os Brazilian Conservation Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Alves Nascimento

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Beyond to conserving biodiversity, conservation units must promote public use in contact with nature, assisting in increasing the economic resource of the area, approximating the society to nature and promoting their sustainable use. In Brazil, there are rules of the Ministry of Environment and Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation that regulate the conduction of visitors in federal conservation units. Remains to know how the activity is regulated in other spheres of the National Conservation Units System. Therefore, this article purpose to identify the legal basis for the conduction of visitors in the state conservation units and their adherence to guidelines of the Ministry of Environment. The methodology consisted in documentary research and data survey of the legal basis, done through visits to websites and sending e-mails to state management agencies. Adherence to the guidelines of the regulations was done through the evaluation to fulfillment or not from them. Legal basis were found in 18.5% of federal units of Brazil, being that only Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro meet almost all of the guideline. The conclusion was that there is a long way to go forward as the creation of rules and procedures that simultaneously encourage visitation accompanied to qualified conductors and biodiversity conservation. It is recommended greater efforts of state management agencies for the development of these legal basis, promoting improvements in desenvolviment of the activity and awareness of society.

  16. State of stress in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoback, Mary Lou; Zoback, Mark

    1980-11-01

    Inferring principal stress directions from geologic data, focal mechanisms, and in situ stress measurements, we have prepared a map of principal horizontal stress orientations for the conterminous United States. Stress provinces with linear dimensions which range between 100 and 2000 km were defined on the basis of the directions and relative magnitude of principal stresses. Within a given province, stress orientations appear quite uniform (usually within the estimated range of accuracy of the different methods used to determine stress). Available data on the transition in stress direction between the different stress provinces indicate that these transitions can be abrupt, occurring over characterized by high levels of seismicity and generally high heat flow, the stress pattern is complex, but numerous stress provinces can be well delineated. Despite relative tectonic quiescence in the eastern and central United States, a major variation in principal stress orientation is apparent between the Atlantic Coast and midcontinent areas. Most of the eastern United States is marked by predominantly compressional tectonism (combined thrust and strike slip faulting), whereas much of the region west of the southern Great Plains is characterized by predominantly extensional tectonism (combined normal and strike slip faulting). Deformation along the San Andreas fault and in parts of the Sierra Nevada is nearly pure strike slip. Exceptions to this general pattern include areas of compressional tectonics in the western United States (the Pacific Northwest, the Colorado Plateau interior, and the Big Bend segment of the San Andreas fault) and the normal growth faulting along the Gulf Coastal Plain. Sources of stress are constrained not only by the orientation and relative magnitude of the stresses within a given province but also by the manner of transition of the stress field from one province to another. Much of the modern pattern of stress in the western United States can be

  17. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI 1.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950

  18. Mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance in Haematobia irritans (Muscidae) from Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Horn fly resistance to pyrethroid insecticides occurs throughout Brazil, but knowledge about the involved mechanisms is still in an incipient stage. This survey was aimed to identify the mechanisms of horn fly resistance to cypermethrin in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Impregnated filter paper bioassays using cypermethrin, synergized or not with piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP), were conducted from March 2004 to June 2005 in horn fly populations (n = 33) from all ove...

  19. Envenomation caused by Latrodectus geometricus in São Paulo state, Brazil: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramb Almeida

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Widow spiders (Latrodectus spp., also known as "black widows", have a worldwide distribution and can cause latrodectism. To the best of our knowledge, in Brazil, only one case of Latrodectus geometricus (Koch, 1841 envenomation in a human has been reported. The aim of the present report is to describe a spider bite caused by Latrodectus geometricus in a patient who lives in Paranapanema, São Paulo state, Brazil.

  20. Western United States beyond the Four Corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The breathtaking beauty of the western United States is apparent in this image from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer on NASA's Terra spacecraft. Data from 16 different swaths acquired between April 2000 and September 2001by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were used to create this cloud-free natural-color image mosaic. The image is draped over a 100-meter (328-foot)shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey.Among the prominent features are the snow-capped Rocky Mountains traversing Montana, Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico. In the northern portion of the image, the Columbia Plateau stretches across Washington, Oregon and Idaho. Many major rivers originate in this region, including the Missouri to the east of the Continental Divide, the Snake to the west, and the Colorado which wends across Utah and Arizona. The Colorado Plateau and vibrant red-colored rocks of the Painted Desert extend south from Utah into Arizona. In the southwestern portion of the image, California's San Joaquin Valley and the Mojave Desert of California and Nevada give way to the Los Angeles basin and the Pacific Ocean.The Terra spacecraft is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long-term research and technology program designed to examine Earth's land, oceans, atmosphere, ice and life as a total integrated system.

  1. Renewable energy atlas of the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J.A.; Hlava, K.Greenwood, H.; Carr, A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-05-01

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. It is designed for the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) and other federal land management agencies to evaluate existing and proposed renewable energy projects. Much of the content of the Atlas was compiled at Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to support recent and current energy-related Environmental Impact Statements and studies, including the following projects: (1) West-wide Energy Corridor Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) (BLM 2008); (2) Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2010); (3) Supplement to the Draft PEIS for Solar Energy Development in Six Southwestern States (DOE/BLM 2011); (4) Upper Great Plains Wind Energy PEIS (WAPA/USFWS 2012, in progress); and (5) Energy Transport Corridors: The Potential Role of Federal Lands in States Identified by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Section 368(b) (in progress). This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software; describes each of the components of the Atlas; lists the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and provides a brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies.

  2. Prevalence of health promotion programs in primary health care units in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Gomes, Grace Angélica de Oliveira; Bracco, Mário M; Florindo, Alex Antonio; Mielke, Gregore Iven; Parra, Diana C; Lobelo, Felipe; Simoes, Eduardo J; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Assessment of prevalence of health promotion programs in primary health care units within Brazil’s health system. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study based on telephone interviews with managers of primary care units. Of a total 42,486 primary health care units listed in the Brazilian Unified Health System directory, 1,600 were randomly selected. Care units from all five Brazilian macroregions were selected proportionally to the number of units in each region. We examined whether any of the following five different types of health promotion programs was available: physical activity; smoking cessation; cessation of alcohol and illicit drug use; healthy eating; and healthy environment. Information was collected on the kinds of activities offered and the status of implementation of the Family Health Strategy at the units. RESULTS Most units (62.0%) reported having in place three health promotion programs or more and only 3.0% reported having none. Healthy environment (77.0%) and healthy eating (72.0%) programs were the most widely available; smoking and alcohol use cessation were reported in 54.0% and 42.0% of the units. Physical activity programs were offered in less than 40.0% of the units and their availability varied greatly nationwide, from 51.0% in the Southeast to as low as 21.0% in the North. The Family Health Strategy was implemented in most units (61.0%); however, they did not offer more health promotion programs than others did. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed that most primary care units have in place health promotion programs. Public policies are needed to strengthen primary care services and improve training of health providers to meet the goals of the agenda for health promotion in Brazil. PMID:25372175

  3. The United States and Brazil: Opening a New Dialogue,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    to reduce its dependency on foreign sources. In 1969, Empresa Brasileira de Aeronautica (EMBRAER) was founded as a result of the movement to de- velop...Silo Paulo, 4 Septcsmber 1982, p. 20; "Chanceler Quer Recursos Para 0 Programa Antdirtlco [Chancellor Wants Resources for Antarctic Program]," 0 Giobo

  4. Brazil, the United States, and the Missile Technology Control Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-19

    Constitution Ave., NW Washington, DC 20230 Dr. David V. Fleischer Departamento de Ciencia Politica e Relaq6es Internacionais (REL) Universidade de...Miyamoto Departamento de Cifncia Politica Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho Avenida Hygino Muzzi Filho, 737 Caixa Postal 420 17.500

  5. Restoring the Unwritten Alliance in Brazil -- United States Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    accessed February 4, 2012). 24 Frederic Wehrey, “Bringing Libya Under Control,” New York Times, February 24, 2012, ttp://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/25...August, 2011), 132, 163. 54 Nancy Brune, “The Brazil—Africa Narco Nexus ,” Americas Quarterly,” no. 3 (Fall 2011): 59-62. 55 Antonio Maria Costa

  6. A Governança econômica global e os desafios do G-20 pós-crise financeira: análise das posições de Estados Unidos, China, Alemanha e Brasil The global economic Governance and the challenges of the G-20 after the financial crisis: an analysis of the positions of the United States, China, Germany and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Ramos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A crise financeira de 2008 teve impactos significativos no capitalismo global, sendo um de seus reflexos na estrutura da governança global a constituição e evolução do G-20. Neste contexto, o objetivo do artigo é analisar tais mudanças e, em especial, as posições de quatro dos principais atores nas cúpulas do G-20, a saber: Estados Unidos, China, Alemanha e Brasil.The 2008 financial crisis catalyzed transformations in the global capitalism that predicted the débâcle of the Anglo-American financial power bloc. One of the repercussions of such transformations is the evolution of the G-20. In this context, this article aims to analyze such transformations and, particularly, the role of four of the most important actors on G-20 summits: United States, China, Germany and Brazil.

  7. United States 2030 Food Loss and Waste Reduction Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 16, 2015, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the first ever domestic goal to reduce food loss and waste by half by the year 2030.

  8. Average annual runoff in the United States, 1951-80

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a line coverage of average annual runoff in the conterminous United States, 1951-1980. Surface runoff Average runoff Surface waters United States

  9. 78 FR 61446 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United States....

  10. Coal Fields of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  11. Abortion Policy in Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francome, Colin

    1980-01-01

    Compares the number of legal abortions performed in the United States and Britain. Reveals that the rate of abortion in the United States is more than twice that of Britain. Analyzes the reasons for the different rates. (Author)

  12. Satellite View of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of the United States. Vegetation is generally...

  13. Comparison of Constitutional Spirit Between United States and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琅琅

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the differences in constitutional spirit between United States and China, and then brings out the influence of the constitutional spirit in United States to the constitutional spirit in China.

  14. Weather pattern climatology of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.; Davis, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    In this study the geographic domain covered the 48 conterminous states of the United States. The daily synoptic weather pattern was classified into nine types for the 10-year period January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1978. Weather pattern types were defined relative to the classical polar front model of a mid-latitude cyclonic storm system and its associated air masses. Guidelines for classifying weather patterns on an operational basis were developed. These were applied to 3652 daily surface weather maps to produce a time series of weather pattern type at 120 grid points of a 160 point, 3/sup 0/ latitude by 4/sup 0/ longitude array over the United States. Statistics on the frequency of occurrence, persistence and alternation of weather patterns were calculated for each grid point. Summary statistics for the entire grid and for six regions were also presented. Frequency of occurrence and persistence were found to depend on the size and speed of movement of the weather pattern. Large, slow moving air masses had higher frequency of occurrence and longer persistence than small (fronts) or rapidly moving (or changing) features (fronts, storm centers). Some types showed distinct regional preferences. The subtropical maritime high occurred mainly in the south central and southeast. An indeterminate weather pattern type accounted for those weather patterns that did not fit the polar front model or were too disorganized to be classified. The intermountain thermal low of the desert southwest was one such feature that dominated both frequency of occurrence and persistence in this region. Alternation from one weather pattern to another followed the polar front model of a moving cyclonic storm. The tendency for anticyclonic weather patterns to become disorganized as they weakened was seen in the high percentage of these patterns that changed to an indeterminate pattern as they aged.

  15. 27 CFR 479.89 - Transfers to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Transfers to the United States. A firearm may be transferred to the United States or any department... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transfers to the United States. 479.89 Section 479.89 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL,...

  16. 46 CFR 67.97 - United States built.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false United States built. 67.97 Section 67.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Build Requirements for Vessel Documentation § 67.97 United States built. To be considered built in the United States a vessel...

  17. 26 CFR 1.993-7 - Definition of United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of United States. 1.993-7 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Domestic International Sales Corporations § 1.993-7 Definition of United States. Under section 993(g), the term “United States” includes the States, the District of Columbia,...

  18. 31 CFR 593.411 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... TAYLOR SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 593.411 Importation into the United States. With respect to the prohibitions set forth in § 593.205, the term importation into the United States...

  19. 32 CFR 150.21 - Appeals by the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeals by the United States. 150.21 Section 150... the United States. (a) Restricted filing. Only a representative of the government designated by the Judge Advocate General of the respective service may file an appeal by the United States under...

  20. 31 CFR 545.304 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 545.304 Importation into the United States. (a) With respect to goods, software, or technology, the term importation into the United States means the bringing of any...

  1. 26 CFR 1.953-2 - Actual United States risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Actual United States risks. 1.953-2 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Controlled Foreign Corporations § 1.953-2 Actual United States risks. (a) In general. For purposes of paragraph (a) of § 1.953-1, the term “United States risks” means risks described...

  2. 31 CFR 539.307 - Importation into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Importation into the United States... CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 539.307 Importation into the United States. The term importation into the United States means: (a) With respect to goods or technology, the bringing of any goods...

  3. 78 FR 70275 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board. SUMMARY: The Department of Commerce is currently seeking applications for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The purpose of the...

  4. 78 FR 77103 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade... on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board. SUMMARY: On November 25, 2013, the Department... 70275) soliciting applications for membership on the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board...

  5. Framework for Naval Cooperation between Vietnam and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    the Vietnam-United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership... platform for future relationship between Vietnam and the United States. Finally, this research suggests a framework for naval cooperation between Vietnam...United States relationship has taken giant steps forward in virtually every aspect, especially solidified by a Comprehensive Partnership Agreement signed

  6. 31 CFR 515.334 - United States national.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States national. 515.334 Section 515.334 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... of the United States, and which has its principal place of business in the United States....

  7. 76 FR 68067 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... to trade in textile and apparel goods between Peru and the United States. The provisions within...] RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... of the United States- Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Interim rule effective November 3, 2011...

  8. 77 FR 27669 - Modifications to Definition of United States Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BK10 Modifications to Definition of United States Property... clearing agency do not constitute United States property. The text of the temporary regulations also serves... Federal Register establish an exception to the definition of United States property (within the meaning...

  9. China, Southeast Asia, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lowell Dittmer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Asia has historically been a meeting point between East Asia and South Asia before Western colonialism opened the region to the West and to the winds of global modernization. Since Japan’s coercive decolonization during the Second World War, the dominant outside influences have come from the United States and from the People’s Republic of China. The post-Cold War era began with a withdrawal of both China’s and US power projection from Southeast Asia, facilitating the configuration of a triangular ménage à trios, with ASEAN expanding to include all of Southeast Asia and introducing a number of extended forums intended to socialize the rest of East Asia into the ASEAN way. The “rise of China” occurred within this friendly context, though beginning around 2010 its strategic implications began to appear more problematic with the mounting dispute over the issue of the South China Sea.

  10. Inclusive Education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kenneth Tanner

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available School reform issues addressing inclusive education were investigated in this nationwide (United States study. A total of 714 randomly selected middle school principals and teachers responded to concerns about inclusion, "degree of change needed in" and "importance of" collaborative strategies of teaching, perceived barriers to inclusion, and supportive activities and concepts for inclusive education. There was disagreement among teachers and principals regarding some aspects of inclusive education and collaborative strategies. For example, principals and special education teachers were more positive about inclusive education than regular education teachers. Collaboration as an instructional strategy for "included" students was viewed as a high priority item. Responders who had taken two or more courses in school law rated the identified barriers to inclusive education higher than those with less formal training in the subject.

  11. Detailed gravimetric geoid for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, W. E.; Vincent, S. F.; Berry, R. H.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid was computed for the United States using a combination of satellite-derived spherical harmonic coefficients and 1 by 1 deg mean gravity values from surface gravimetry. Comparisons of this geoid with astrogeodetic geoid data indicate that a precision of plus or minus 2 meters has been obtained. Translations only were used to convert the NAD astrogeodetic geoid heights to geocentric astrogeodetic heights. On the basis of the agreement between the geocentric astrogeodetic geoid heights and the gravimetric geoid heights, no evidence is found for rotation in the North American datum. The value of the zero-order undulation can vary by 10 to 20 meters, depending on which investigator's station positions are used to establish it.

  12. Electric trade in the United States 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1994, the wholesale trade market totaled 1.9 trillion kilowatthours, about 66% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1994 (ELECTRA), is the fifth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1994.

  13. Renewable Energy Atlas of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiper, J. [Environmental Science Division; Hlava, K. [Environmental Science Division; Greenwood, H. [Environmentall Science Division; Carr, A. [Environmental Science Division

    2013-12-13

    The Renewable Energy Atlas (Atlas) of the United States is a compilation of geospatial data focused on renewable energy resources, federal land ownership, and base map reference information. This report explains how to add the Atlas to your computer and install the associated software. The report also includes: A description of each of the components of the Atlas; Lists of the Geographic Information System (GIS) database content and sources; and A brief introduction to the major renewable energy technologies. The Atlas includes the following: A GIS database organized as a set of Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS Personal GeoDatabases, and ESRI ArcReader and ArcGIS project files providing an interactive map visualization and analysis interface.

  14. Industry economics in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Demand for medical equipment in the United States (US) is projected to grow by 8% between 2001 and 2006, to reach 105 billion dollars. In 2001,the market was valued at 71.4 billion dollars, based on an annual growth of 7.5% between 1996 and 2001, according to The Freedonia Group. Product innovation and the growing ageing population is driving the industry, despite health-care cost containment measures. Medical and surgical instruments continue to be the largest sector, which is expected to grow to 30.5 billion dollars in 2006. However, electromedical/electrotherapeutic apparatus will remain the fastest growing sector, with annual gains of 10.8% predicted for this period.

  15. Birth Defects in Newborns: Spina Bifida Index at Rio Grande Do Norte State in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo CM Junior

    2014-08-01

    Conclusion: Northeast region is the one that has the major incidence of SB in Brazil country, but RN state has a number lower than others states from its region. It was made an update about therapeutic options to minimize the morbidity and mortality in newborn with SB congenital defects. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2014; 2(4.000: 217-223

  16. New records of Simuliidae (Diptera, Nematocera in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Pepinelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult and immature Simuliidae were studied in 31 streams of 8 regions of the State of São Paulo. Among the 25 species collected, seven are new records for the State of São Paulo, and one of them, Simulium shewellianum Coscarón, 1985 for Brazil as well.

  17. Eye on China and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mahyari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available United States strives to force the Chinese into agreement of increasing the value of their exchange rate to help the USA avoid inflation As China did not come into an agreement with the USA, Tariffs are being put on Chinese products entering USA. However China as began to add tariff on poultry received from the US as well. China was previously not named in the legislation permitting US to add tariff on their goods. But recently a bill was passed giving the commerce department the ability to place important tariffs on all countries to undervalue their currency. The bill passed in legislation had the support of 99 republicans. China has been managing their currency in a manner that makes their goods cheaper to sell and American goods more expensive. The Chinese manipulation of their currency has been quite expensive for the USA, as it has cost them $1.5 billion jobs increasing the percentage of unemployment greatly and significantly. This imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods could result in effecting $300 billion dollars worth of their products. It is obvious that the Americans are attempting to improve and acknowledge their growth and power. As predictions have developed over this conflict, arguing the fact that China will not negotiate with the USA at this point rather fight back and also approach in adding tariffs on USimports. However, this reaction by the Chinese will only worsen the scenario and result in the possible inflation of the US economy or worldwide trade war. This is a very sensitive time for the United States as their biggest hopes are dependent on the Chinese. But it doesn’t look like they will be too satisfied with the outcome.

  18. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  19. Eye on China and United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Mahyari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available United States strives to force the Chinese into agreement of increasing the value of their exchange rate to help the USA avoid inflation As China did not come into an agreement with the USA, Tariffs are being put on Chinese products entering USA. However China as began to add tariff on poultry received from the US as well. China was previously not named in the legislation permitting US to add tariff on their goods. But recently a bill was passed giving the commerce department the ability to place important tariffs on all countries to undervalue their currency. The bill passed in legislation had the support of 99 republicans. China has been managing their currency in a manner that makes their goods cheaper to sell and American goods more expensive. The Chinese manipulation of their currency has been quite expensive for the USA, as it has cost them $1.5 billion jobs increasing the percentage of unemployment greatly and significantly. This imposition of tariffs on Chinese goods could result in effecting $300 billion dollars worth of their products. It is obvious that the Americans are attempting to improve and acknowledge their growth and power. As predictions have developed over this conflict, arguing the fact that China will not negotiate with the USA at this point rather fight back and also approach in adding tariffs on US
    imports. However, this reaction by the Chinese will only worsen the scenario and result in the possible inflation of the US economy or worldwide trade war. This is a very sensitive time for the United States as their biggest hopes are dependent on the Chinese. But it doesn’t look like they will be too satisfied with the outcome.

  20. Wet deposition in the northeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J; Mohnen, V; Kadlecek, J

    1980-12-01

    Attempts are made to examine concentration and wet deposition of pollutant material at selected stations within the northeastern United States and to characterize as many events as possible with respect to air mass origin. Further attempts are made to develop a regional pattern for the deposition of dominant ion species. MAP3S (US Multistate Atmospheric Power Production Pollution Study) data for 1977 to 1979 are used to determine concentration and deposition on an event basis from which monthly, seasonal, annual, and cumulative averages are developed. The ARL-ATAD trajectory model is used to characterize individual events as to air mass origin. Case studies are examined to illustrate variability in the chemical composition of precipitation originating from distinctly different air mass trajectories. A difference in concentration of pollution-related ions in precipitation is noted between Midwest/Ohio Valley and Great Lakes/Canadian air mass origins for carefully selected cases. Total deposition of the major ions is examined in an effort to develop a regional pattern for deposition over a period of at least one year. For that purpose, total deposition is normalized to remove the variability in precipitation amounts for inter-station comparison. No marked gradient is noted in the normalized deposition totals within the northeast of the United States. The Adirondack region exhibited the lowest normalized ion deposition value, while the Illinois station showed the highest of the MAP3S network. The data analysis suggest that the acid rain phenomena covers the entire northeast. The concept of large scale mixing emerges to account for the lack of a significant gradient in the normalized deposition.

  1. Cheese yield in Brazil: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    SALES,Danielle Cavalcanti; RANGEL,Adriano Henrique do Nascimento; Urbano,Stela Antas; BORGES,Kátia Cristina; ANDRADE NETO,Júlio César de; Bruna Maria Emerenciano CHAGAS

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This literature review discusses the concepts and factors that influence industrial cheese yield and compiles the latest studies conducted in Brazil involving this theme. In seeking to support managerial decision-making, cheese yield can be measured at the end of processing or estimated prior to this. In research and industry, measuring and estimating yield can be evaluated under the effect of processing, from different proportions and characteristics of ingredients (mainly milk qual...

  2. THE STATE OF RESEARCH ON CLEANER PRODUCTION IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo Cardoso Oliveira Neto; Fábio Ytoshi Shibao; Moacir Godinho Filho

    2016-01-01

    The application of cleaner production (CP) practices in companies is not commonplace in Brazil. Moreover, there are significant difficulties in establishing partnerships among universities, companies, and the government. However, an increase in the number of companies concerned about the impacts of industrial activities on the environment has enabled the development of CP research. Hence, using a literature review and a bibliometric analysis to quantify the scientific production o...

  3. 78 FR 3398 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). The Board will meet to present...

  4. 78 FR 70274 - United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... International Trade Administration United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board: Meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce... meeting of the United States Travel and Tourism Advisory Board (Board). This will be the last meeting of...

  5. Radium mass balance and submarine groundwater discharge in Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Christian J.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.; Moore, Willard S.

    2012-11-01

    Radium-226 and 228Ra activities were determined in water samples from within and adjacent to Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro State (Brazil) in 1998, 2005 and 2007. Surface waters in Sepetiba Bay were substantially higher in 226Ra and 228Ra compared to ocean end member samples. Using the residence time of water in the bay we calculated the flux required to maintain the observed enrichment over the ocean end members. We then applied a radium mass balance to estimate the volume of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) into the bay. The estimates of SGD into Sepetiba Bay (in 1010 L day-1) were 2.56, 3.75, and 1.0, respectively for 1998, 2005, and 2007. These estimates are equivalent to approximately 1% of the total volume of the bay each day or 50 L m-2 day-1. It is likely that a substantial portion of the SGD in Sepetiba Bay consists of infiltrated seawater. This large flux of SGD has the potential to supply substantial quantities of nutrients, carbon and metals into coastal waters. The SGD found here is greater than what is typically found in SGD studies along the eastern United States and areas with similar geologic characteristics. Considering there are many coastal areas around the world like Sepetiba Bay, this could revise upward the already important contribution of SGD to coastal as well as oceanic budgets.

  6. Brackish groundwater in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Anning, David W.; Brown, Craig J.; Moore, Richard B.; McGuire, Virginia L.; Qi, Sharon L.; Harris, Alta C.; Dennehy, Kevin F.; McMahon, Peter B.; Degnan, James R.; Böhlke, John Karl

    2017-04-05

    For some parts of the Nation, large-scale development of groundwater has caused decreases in the amount of groundwater that is present in aquifer storage and that discharges to surface-water bodies. Water supply in some areas, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, is not adequate to meet demand, and severe drought is affecting large parts of the United States. Future water demand is projected to heighten the current stress on groundwater resources. This combination of factors has led to concerns about the availability of freshwater to meet domestic, agricultural, industrial, mining, and environmental needs. To ensure the water security of the Nation, currently [2016] untapped water sources may need to be developed.Brackish groundwater is an unconventional water source that may offer a partial solution to current and future water demands. In support of the national census of water resources, the U.S. Geological Survey completed the national brackish groundwater assessment to better understand the occurrence and characteristics of brackish groundwater in the United States as a potential water resource. Analyses completed as part of this assessment relied on previously collected data from multiple sources; no new data were collected. Compiled data included readily available information about groundwater chemistry, horizontal and vertical extents and hydrogeologic characteristics of principal aquifers (regionally extensive aquifers or aquifer systems that have the potential to be used as a source of potable water), and groundwater use. Although these data were obtained from a wide variety of sources, the compiled data are biased toward shallow and fresh groundwater resources; data representing groundwater that is at great depths and is saline were not as readily available.One of the most important contributions of this assessment is the creation of a database containing chemical characteristics and aquifer information for the known areas with brackish groundwater

  7. Two new species of Cyclocephala (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Melolonthidae) from Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Paschoal C; Santos, Mariana D; Almeida, Lúcia M

    2016-02-09

    Two new species of Cyclocephala constituting a new species group in the genus, Cyclocephala machadoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CERPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, São Gonçalo do Rio Preto municipality, Parque Estadual do Rio Preto) and C. everardoi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CERPE: Brazil, Minas Gerais State, 8 km north of Cristália municipality), are here described and illustrated. The only two males known were collected with light traps and have antennal lamellae much larger than other South American species, along with large eyes and a quadrate narrow clypeal apex.

  8. The Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, as a segmented internationalization territory of the national space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolmar A. Rückert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes recent scenarios of the territorial restructuring and the new roles of territories as links of the global society, specially limited to the case of the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The constitutional reform of the Brazilean economy southeast portion of the country - particularly in Rio Grande do Sul, a southern state that borders Argentina and Uruguay. The above process has redefined the role of borders from defensive to articulating, focusing the strategic infrastructure and the industrial economy's dynamic nuclei toward the geoeconomical core Mercosur. This has led to deepening of the interreglonal inequalities in southeastern and southern Brazil, as well as internally amongthe Federation states.

  9. First report of Rhodnius montenegrensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae in the State of Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionatas Ulises de Oliveira Meneguetti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This paper reports, for the first time, the presence of Rhodnius montenegrensis in the State of Acre, Brazil. METHODS: Two female R. montenegrensis were collected in a dwelling in the rural area of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. RESULTS: The occurrence of this species was confirmed, and the number of Triatominae species in the State of Acre increased from four to five. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies should be performed to reach a clearer understanding of the ecology of this arthropod, its possible role in transmitting Chagas' disease and rangeliosis, and its current geographical distribution in the region.

  10. Flora of the State of Paraíba, Brazil: Loranthaceae Juss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Carla Leite de Vasconcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The family Loranthaceae Juss., characterized by its parasitic habit, is rarely studied in Brazil. Current research provides a taxonomic survey of Loranthaceae in the State of Paraiba, northeastern Brazil, in which ten species belonging to four genera have been recorded: Passovia (one species, Psittacanthus (two species, Pusillanthus (one species and Struthanthus (six species. Struthanthus concinnus Mart. was found for the first time in the state of Paraíba. A key to the species identification and taxonomic descriptions is presented, with images, geographic distribution and host data.

  11. Análise da infra-estrutura existente em unidades de produção agrícola para processamento de mel na região do Vale do Paraíba-SP Analysis of production unit infrastructure of honey processing agricultural in the Paraiba Valley, São Paulo state-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eugênio Veneziani Pasin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho analisar a existência de infra-estrutura para processamento de mel, em Unidades de Produção Agrícola-UPAs na região do Vale do Paraíba-SP. Para a realização desse trabalho utilizou-se o método de levantamento dos dados primários através de questionário. No período de janeiro de 2005 a março de 2006 realizou-se o trabalho com a amostra de 116 UPAs, que representam 33,7% do total de unidades onde há atividade apícola. Para avaliar-se a associação e a relação de dependência entre as variáveis equipamentos, casa do mel, escolaridade, tempo na atividade e número de colméias na UPA, utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado X² . Os resultados revelaram que a centrífuga está presente em 58,6% das UPAs e a casa do mel em 29,3% das UPAs das unidades da região. O nível de escolaridade, tempo de permanência do apicultor na atividade e o número de colméias são variáveis que estabelecem relações significativas com a existência de centrífuga e de casa do mel na UPA.The aim of this paper is to analyze the infrastructure for honey process in Agricultural Production Units (UPAs located in the Paraíba Valley (São Paulo state, Brazil. For this study to be carried out, the search of primary data method using a questionnaire was applied. From January 2005 to March 2006, 116 UPAs samples, representing 33.7% of all bee-related UPAs were used. For the association and relation of dependence among the equipment variables, "casa do mel", staff education level, time in the activity and number of bee-hives in the UPA, the chi-square (X² statistical tests were applied. The results revealed that centrifuges were present in 58.6% of UPAs, while the type of "casa do mel" occured in 29.3% of UPAs in the region. The staff education level, time in the activity and number of bee-hives are variables which are important when considering the existence of centrifuges and "casa do mel" in the UPA.

  12. Characterization of floods in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharia, Manabendra; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vergara, Humberto; Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Floods have gained increasing global significance in the recent past due to their devastating nature and potential for causing significant economic and human losses. Until now, flood characterization studies in the United States have been limited due to the lack of a comprehensive database matching flood characteristics such as peak discharges and flood duration with geospatial and geomorphologic information. The availability of a representative and long archive of flooding events spanning 78 years over a variety of hydroclimatic regions results in a spatially and temporally comprehensive flood characterization over the continental U.S. This study, for the first time, employs a large-event database that is based on actual National Weather Service (NWS) definitions of floods instead of the frequently-adopted case study or frequentist approach, allowing us to base our findings on real definitions of floods. It examines flooding characteristics to identify how space and time scales of floods vary with climatic regimes and geomorphology. Flood events were characterized by linking flood response variables in gauged basins to spatially distributed variables describing climatology, geomorphology, and topography. The primary findings of this study are that the magnitude of flooding is highest is regions such as West Coast and southeastern U.S. which experience the most extraordinary precipitation. The seasonality of flooding varies greatly from maxima during the cool season on the West Coast, warm season in the desert Southwest, and early spring in the Southeast. The fastest responding events tend to be in steep basins of the arid Southwest caused by intense monsoon thunderstorms and steep terrain. The envelope curves of unit peak discharge are consistent with those reported for Europe and worldwide. But significant seasonal variability was observed in floods of the U.S. compared to Europe that is attributed to the diversity of causative rainfall ranging from synoptic

  13. Pessoas com deficiência no mercado de trabalho: considerações sobre políticas públicas nos Estados Unidos, União Europeia e Brasil People with disabilities in the labor market: issues related to public policies in United States, European Union and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marileide Antunes de Oliveira

    2009-08-01

    depends on profound changes, and requires that society provide the necessary support so as to guarantee accessibility to all resources available in the social environment and also to living conditions that do not exclude them. In this sense, an important issue is the development of employment policies for people with disabilities. Even though employment accessibility is considered one of the most important civil rights for the individual, people with disabilities still find many barriers when they attempt to enter the labor market. Based on these arguments, this paper aimed to discuss some of the main aspects related to employment policies adopted in the United States, the European Union and Brazil to enable people with disabilities to participate in the labor market. Three official documents, one Brazilian and two others from the United States and the European Union, were analyzed according to: a year of publication; b; objectives; c definitions of disability; and d strategies for inserting people with disabilities in the labor market. The analysis showed advances as well as different positions in employment policies and it also showed that policies are different depending on the characteristics of each context; however, there is a common interest in guaranteeing employment opportunities for people with disabilities.

  14. Invasive cancer incidence - United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, S Jane; Singh, Simple; King, Jessica; Wilson, Reda; Ryerson, Blythe

    2014-03-28

    Cancer has many causes, some of which can, at least in part, be avoided through interventions known to reduce cancer risk. Healthy People 2020 objectives call for reducing colorectal cancer incidence to 38.6 per 100,000 persons, reducing late-stage breast cancer incidence to 41.0 per 100,000 women, and reducing cervical cancer incidence to 7.1 per 100,000 women. To assess progress toward reaching these Healthy People 2020 targets, CDC analyzed data from U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS) for 2010. USCS includes incidence data from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System. In 2010, a total of 1,456,496 invasive cancers were reported to cancer registries in the United States (excluding Arkansas and Minnesota), an annual incidence rate of 446 cases per 100,000 persons, compared with 459 in 2009. Cancer incidence rates were higher among men (503) than women (405), highest among blacks (455), and ranged by state from 380 to 511 per 100,000 persons. Many factors, including tobacco use, obesity, insufficient physical activity, and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, contribute to the risk for developing cancer, and differences in cancer incidence indicate differences in the prevalence of these risk factors. These differences can be reduced through policy approaches such as the Affordable Care Act, which could increase access for millions of persons to appropriate and timely cancer preventive services, including help with smoking cessation, cancer screening, and vaccination against HPV.

  15. 20 CFR 404.1093 - Possession of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of the United States. 404.1093... Income § 404.1093 Possession of the United States. In using the exclusions from gross income provided under section 931 of the Code (relating to income from sources within possessions of the United...

  16. 26 CFR 400.5-1 - Redemption by United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Redemption by United States. 400.5-1 Section... by United States. (a) Scope. The purpose of this section is to prescribe rules with respect to the provisions contained in section 7425(d), relating to redemption of real property by the United...

  17. 75 FR 41927 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... United States Sentencing Commission is an independent agency in the judicial branch of the United States..., and judicial branches of government, and other interested parties, to study the manner in which United... might be appropriate in light of the information obtained from that study. (12) Resolution of...

  18. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  19. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  20. Derecho Hazards in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Walker S.; Mote, Thomas L.

    2005-11-01

    Convectively generated wind-storms occur over broad temporal and spatial scales; however, the more widespread and longer lived of these windstorms have been given the name "derecho." Utilizing an integrated derecho database, including 377 events from 1986 to 2003, this investigation reveals the amount of insured property losses, fatalities, and injuries associated with these windstorms in the United States. Individual derechos have been responsible for up to 8 fatalities, 204 injuries, forest blow-downs affecting over 3,000 km2 of timber, and estimated insured losses of nearly a $500 million. Findings illustrate that derecho fatalities occur more frequently in vehicles or while boating, while injuries are more likely to happen in vehicles or mobile homes. Both fatalities and injuries are most common outside the region with the highest derecho frequency. An underlying synthesis of both physical and social vulnerabilities is suggested as the cause of the unexpected casualty distribution. In addition, casualty statistics and damage estimates from hurricanes and tornadoes are contrasted with those from derechos to emphasize that derechos can be as hazardous as many tornadoes and hurricanes.

  1. Romantic Love in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor C. de Munck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We seek to advance cultural models theory by contributing to issues related to theory, methods, and testing the external validity of a cultural model. We propose that cultural models are learned as if they were truly properties of collectivities but have no primary existence except in individual representations of them. The shared aspect of cultural models also implies collective awareness of the if–then entailments of cultural models. We use inductive ethnographic methods of freelisting (n = 80 and pile sorting (n = 39 to derive a cultural model of romantic love in the United States. From these tasks, we developed a cultural model of successful romantic love consisting of normative scenarios. For successful romantic love relations, a person would feel excited about meeting their beloved; make passionate and intimate love as opposed to only physical love; feel comfortable with the beloved, behaving in a companionable, friendly way with one’s partner; listen to the other’s concerns, offering to help out in various ways if necessary; and, all the while, keeping a mental ledger of the degree to which altruism and passion are mutual. Our model is supported through an examination of two extended case studies. Further research is required, of course, but we believe we have a rather novel and dynamic cultural model that is falsifiable and predictive of successful love relationships. The model is unique in that it combines passion with comfort and friendship as properties of romantic love.

  2. Health System Reform in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E McDonough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA. Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider.

  3. United States and world energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, L.L.; Baird, L.M.; Varanini, E.E. III (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    This volume examines the economic, political, and social implications of the oil-dependence dilemma facing the United States. Most of the contributors are energy consultants in the public or private sector. Their analyses of the changing oil situation and its impact on other energy policies reflect either an international, national, or regional perspective with a unique combination of pragmatic insights and academic analyses of these complex issues. While examining the various aspects of the energy dependence dilemma presented here, one critical theme will probably recur to the reader. That is, given the inadequate nature of the US response to the 1973 and 1979 shortfalls in foreign oil supplies, how will we manage the projected future shortages in foreign oil supplies. The 18 papers of this volume were presented at a conference at Los Angeles in July 1980 and cosponsored by the University of Southern California and the California Energy Commission; a separate abstract was prepared for each paper. See also EAPA 7:3231 and Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) 6:18036.

  4. The United Mexican States: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R; Aguirre, E J

    1988-09-01

    Although the popular North American opinion of Mexico is one that paints a picture of a poor, disadvantaged country, South America sees Mexico has a richer more prosperous nation. It is observed that only in the Latin American countries of Venezuela, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago do consumers have higher incomes than Mexican consumers. Moreover, while millions of Mexicans migrate to the United States to seek a better standard of living, several thousand Central American refugees illegally migrate to Mexico in search of a better life. This better life includes an increased age of lie expectancy from 51 years in the 1950s to 64 years in the late 1970s. There have also been improvements in health care and school enrollments and in the low cost availability of education. Tourism and the prospect of the manufacturing of energy are significant, positive factors working in favor of an improved Mexican economy and a higher overall quality of life. However, Mexico faces serious problems such as a mounting foreign debt. Also rising is Mexico's population which has doubled since 1964 and which continues to grow at a rate of 1.9%. Economic programs and reforms and family development planning have been instituted in response to the countries' current recession and population growth and have begun to show positive results.

  5. United States Holocaust Museums: Pathos, Possession, Patriotism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Baum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of United States holocaust museums in directing (American knowledge and memory of World War II, and demonstrates how signifiers of race, colour and Jewishness are played out and theatricalised. Erected in two principal U.S. cities of Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., the Holocaust Museum and Museum of Tolerance uphold very different mandates: the first dedicated to revealing European civilian tragedies during WWII; the latter dealing with Jewish persecution and the L.A. Riots of 1991, with references to other cultural catastrophes. While these projects are different, they are not opposed; both museums locate the American perspective of events and their meanings at the forefront. American holocaust museums seem to challenge spaces between memory and its direction, vision and revision. Within the gruesome context of holocaust portrayal, interrogate the valences of memory’s play and expose American holocaust museums as theatres of pornographic memory. The seduction of feeling does not invite change so much as purgation, what Aristotle identified as catharsis — an emotional and physical release, unfortunately replicating the seductive techniques used by Goebbels for the glorification of Hitler. Through manipulation of viewers as automatic audiences, these museums function as centres for pathos I question the policy and polity of presenting genocide as an entertainment leading to catharsis, recognizing that the final act of purgation is all too easily negation.

  6. USEEIO: a New and Transparent United States ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    National-scope environmental life cycle models of goods and services may be used for many purposes, not limited to quantifying impacts of production and consumption of nations, assessing organization-wide impacts, identifying purchasing hot spots, analyzing environmental impacts of policies, and performing streamlined life cycle assessment. USEEIO is a new environmentally extended input-output model of the United States fit for such purposes and other sustainable materials management applications. USEEIO melds data on economic transactions between 389 industry sectors with environmental data for these sectors covering land, water, energy and mineral usage and emissions of greenhouse gases, criteria air pollutants, nutrients and toxics, to build a life cycle model of 385 US goods and services. In comparison with existing US input-output models, USEEIO is more current with most data representing year 2013, more extensive in its coverage of resources and emissions, more deliberate and detailed in its interpretation and combination of data sources, and includes formal data quality evaluation and description. USEEIO was assembled with a new Python module called the IO Model Builder capable of assembling and calculating results of user-defined input-output models and exporting the models into LCA software. The model and data quality evaluation capabilities are demonstrated with an analysis of the environmental performance of an average hospital in the US. All USEEIO f

  7. Electric trade in the United States, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Wholesale trade in electricity plays an important role for the US electric utility industry. Wholesale, or bulk power, transactions allow electric utilities to reduce power costs, increase power supply options, and improve reliability. In 1996, the wholesale trade market totaled 2.3 trillion kilowatthours, over 73% of total sales to ultimate consumers. This publication, Electric Trade in the United States 1996 (ELECTRA), is the sixth in a series of reports on wholesale power transactions prepared by the Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA). The electric trade data are published biennially. The first report presented 1986 data, and this report provides information on the electric power industry during 1996. The electric trade data collected and presented in this report furnish important information on the wholesale structure found within the US electric power industry. The patterns of interutility trade in the report support analyses of wholesale power transactions and provide input for a broader understanding of bulk power market issues that define the emerging national electric energy policies. The report includes information on the quantity of power purchased, sold, exchanged, and wheeled; the geographical locations of transactions and ownership classes involved; and the revenues and costs. 1 fig., 43 tabs.

  8. United States orbital transfer vehicle programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Charles R.

    The United States will rely on five orbital transfer vehicles to carry spacecraft to higher energy orbits than achievable by the Space Shuttle or various Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV). These vehicles are the Payload Assist Module-Delta (PAM-D), an upgraded version designated PAM-DII, the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS), and the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV). Development of these vehicles have evolved through contrasting cultures of government and commercial management. The spectrum of their capabilities range from providing spacecraft with only a preprogrammed perigee velocity additions to man-in-the-loop remote controlled spacecraft rendezvous, docking, retrieval and return to a space base; either the Shuttle or the Space Station Freedom. The PAM-D, PAM-DII, and IUS are now nearing maturity. Their characteristics, flight record, costs, and projected future uses are defined. The TOS and OMV are currently in development with first uses scheduled in 1992 and 1993, respectively. The TOS is being commercially developed while the OMV is government developed. The TOS and OMV capabilities, constraints, and costs are reviewed.

  9. Russian: United States Environmental Restoration Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Russian - United States Environmental Restoration Workshop, held in Washington, D.C., and Richland, Washington, from April 5 through 18, 1993, was the first extended collaborative information exchange between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Russian scientists at the site level. In addition to the Russian scientists, workshop participants included scientists and staff from DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), the US Environmental Training Institute (USETI), universities, and the private sector. The first week (April 5 through 10) of the workshop took place in Washington, D.C., where the Russian and US participants were presented with a US perspective on environmental restoration and remediation issues from representatives in DOE and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second week (April 11 through 18) occurred in Richland, Washington, where the participants were presented with site-specific environmental restoration and remediation issues related to Hanford Site cleanup. This report is a compilation of the presentations, discussions, and experiences shared during the second week of the workshop in Richland, Washington.

  10. United States Air Force Summary, Sixth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    Cost F-15 and F-16 Program Cost AIM-7F/M and AIM-9L/M Program Cost ALCM and GLCM Program Cost IIR Maverick (AGM-65D) and DSCS III (Space Segment... Malaysia Philippines South Korea Taiwan Thailand Other Latin America Argentina Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Peru Uruguay Venezuela Other Middle East...IIR MAVERICK (AGM-65D) PROGRAMCOST SECTION (Dollars In Ml111ons) AS OF DATE: 31 Decentler 1979 BASE YEAR: 1975 8AR 5 • PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT CURRENT

  11. Brazil - Poverty Reduction, Growth, and Fiscal Stability in the State of Ceara : A State Economic Memorandum, Volume 1. Policy Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    Although the State of Ceara, in Brazil, is a model of good economic, and fiscal performance given its poverty status, recent analysis show poverty remains severe, in spite of significant reductions over the last decade. The combination of good governance, and sound fiscal management, industrial promotion, and public investments have been successful, but the report questions whether differe...

  12. 77 FR 60005 - Schedule of Charges Outside the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Schedule of Charges Outside the United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation... of charges for services of FAA Flight Standards Aviation Safety Inspectors outside the United...

  13. Continental Divide of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Continental Divide of the United States. The map layer was created by extracting Hydrologic Unit Boundary line features from an existing...

  14. Global Map: Ports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing ferry ports in the United States and Puerto Rico. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of the United...

  15. Cities and Towns of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes cities in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. These cities were collected from the 1970 National Atlas of the United...

  16. United States Military in Central Asia: Beyond Operation Enduring Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-23

    Malinowski , advocacy director for Human Rights Watch, stated, “the United States is most effective in promoting liberty around the world when people...26 U.S. President, The National Security Strategy of the United States of America, page? 27 Thomas Malinowski , “Testimony

  17. Environmental Assessment: Interim Western United States C-17 Landing Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    RESEARCH STATE CLEARINGHOUSE AND PLANNING UNIT ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER GOVERNOR January 7, 2008 Doug Allbright U.S. Air Force Headquarters Air...STATE OF CALIFORNIA GoVERNOR’S OFFICE of PLANNING AND RESEARCH STATE CLEARINGHOUSE AND PLANNING UNIT ARNOLD SCHWARZENBGGER. CYNTHJABRYANT DIRECTOR

  18. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.

  19. 26 CFR 31.3121(e)-1 - State, United States, and citizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State, United States, and citizen. 31.3121(e)-1... § 31.3121(e)-1 State, United States, and citizen. (a) When used in the regulations in this subpart, the... is used in a geographical sense. The term “citizen of the United States” includes a citizen of the...

  20. OCCURRENCE OF NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN CAPYBARAS (HYDROCHAERIS HYDROCHAERIS) FROM SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris) is a large rodent distributed throughout tropical America. Antibodies to Neospora caninum in 213 feral capybaras from 11 counties of the State of São Paulo, Brazil were assessed using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (titer '1:25) and found in 20 (9.4...

  1. Glanders in donkeys (Equus asinus in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinaldo Aparecido Mota

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, anatomical and histopatological findings of glanders diagnosis in donkeys in the state of Pernambuco-Brazil are reported. The animals were euthanized and necropsied, and evaluated for lesions in respiratory and lymphatic systems, confirming the disease by isolation of Burkholderia mallei and Strauss test.

  2. Glanders in donkeys (Equus Asinus) in the state of pernambuco, Brazil: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; da Fonseca Oliveira, Andréa Alice; da Silva, Andréa Marques Vieira; Junior, José Wilton Pinheiro; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; de Farias Brito, Marilene; Rabelo, Silvana Suely Assis

    2010-01-01

    The clinical, anatomical and histopatological findings of glanders diagnosis in donkeys in the state of Pernambuco-Brazil are reported. The animals were euthanized and necropsied, and evaluated for lesions in respiratory and lymphatic systems, confirming the disease by isolation of Burkholderia mallei and Strauss test.

  3. Description of a new species of Microglanis (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae) from the Amazon basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Ribeiro Jarduli; Oscar Akio Shibatta

    2013-01-01

    The first species of Microglanis from the rio Amazonas, Amazonas State, Brazil is described. This species differs from all congeners by the forked caudal fin, and color pattern of the supraoccipital region consisting of two elliptical and juxtaposed pale spots, besides a combination of morphometrics characters.

  4. Description of a new species of Microglanis (Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the Amazon basin, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ribeiro Jarduli

    Full Text Available The first species of Microglanis from the rio Amazonas, Amazonas State, Brazil is described. This species differs from all congeners by the forked caudal fin, and color pattern of the supraoccipital region consisting of two elliptical and juxtaposed pale spots, besides a combination of morphometrics characters.

  5. [Occurrence of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in the state of Maranhão, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lemos, Raimunda N S; da Silva, Gilson S; Araújo, José R G; Das Chagas, Evandro F; Moreira, Aldenise A; Soares, Ana T M

    2006-01-01

    Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby in citrus and mango crops in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, is recorded. Samples of 2003 and 2004 from several counties were identified and deposited in the Insect Collection of the Laboratório de Entomologia of the Núcleo de Biotecnologia Agronômica, Universidade Estadual do Maranhão.

  6. Opportunistic screening for skin cancer using a mobile unit in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazquez Vinicius L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the white population worldwide. In Brazil, the National Cancer Institute (INCA estimates that in 2010 there will be 119,780 and 5,930 new cases of non-melanoma skin cancer and melanoma, respectively. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a mobile unit in the diagnosis and treatment of skin cancer in several poor regions of Brazil. Methods The diagnosis of skin cancer was accomplished through active medical screening in the prevention Mobile Unit (MU of Barretos Cancer Hospital (BCH. The study population consisted of patients examined in the MU between 2004 and 2007, and their suspicious lesions were subjected to histopathological evaluation. Data were collected prospectively from standardized forms and analyzed. Results During the screening, 17,857 consultations were carried out. A total of 2012 (11.2% cases of skin cancer were diagnosed. The predominant histological type reported was basal cell carcinoma (n = 1,642 or 81.6%, followed by squamous cell carcinoma (n = 303 or 15.1%, Bowen's disease (n = 25 or 1.2%, malignant melanoma (n = 23 or 1.1%, basosquamous cell carcinoma (n = 3 or 0.1%, miscellaneous lesions (12 or 0.6%, and metatypical carcinoma (n = 4 or 0.2%. Only 0.6% of lesions were stage III. There were no stage IV non-melanoma skin lesions, as well as no melanomas stages III and IV, found. Conclusions It was observed that the MU can be a useful tool for early skin cancer diagnosis and treatment. This program probably is important, especially in developing countries with inadequate public health systems and social inequality.

  7. State Support in Brazil for a Local Turn to Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Matei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The local turn to food is often claimed to be a way to increase the value-added component retained by primary producers and to provide healthy, fresh and affordable food to consumers. Rio do Grande do Sul in Brazil has several governmental support programs that aim to empower family farmers and open up new market opportunities for them. This article examines these programs, investigates how small-scale farmers engage with them and the resultant changes in farming and marketing practices that ensue. The article uses cluster and content analysis to identify and interpret the extent, and the different ways, in which these farmers engage with and make use of the local knowledge and innovation system. The results provide useful insights into how policy instruments improve the performance of family agribusinesses, helping them to make better use of the resources available to them, encouraging farm diversification, and strengthening local interrelations between producers and consumers.

  8. Complicações crônicas dos diabéticos tipo 2 atendidos nas Unidades de Saúde da Família, Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil Chronic complications of type 2 diabetic attended at Family Health Units in the City of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Ramos Vieira Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar as complicações associadas ao diabetes tipo 2 em pacientes atendidos pelas Unidades de Saúde da Família. MÉTODOS: estudo realizado nas Unidades de Saúde da Família dos seis distritos sanitários de Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, com uma amostra de 1374 prontuários de diabéticos cadastrados no Programa de Saúde da Família. As variáveis utilizadas foram: ocorrência de complicações macro e microvasculares, idade, sexo, anos de estudo, consumo de álcool, tabagismo, primeira e última glicemia registrada. RESULTADOS: observou-se uma freqüência de complicações mais elevada em mulheres (71,5% quando comparada a dos homens (29,5%. Do total, 58,9% apresentava pelo menos uma complicação. As complicações macrovasculares corresponderam a 95,6%. A doença vascular periférica foi responsável por 92,1%, quando considerada como complicação única. Verificou-se associação entre a faixa etária de 66 anos a mais e complicações macrovasculares, com uma prevalência de 37,8%. As complicações microvasculares nas mulheres correspondem à metade daquelas encontradas para os homens (3,6 x 6,4, sendo significante esta diferença (p=0,04. O tabagismo mostrou-se associado a complicações microvasculares (pOBJECTIVES: to analyze the complications associated with type 2 diabetes in patients seen by Family Health Units. METHODS: a study was conducted of the Family Health Units of the six health districts of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, with a sample of 1374 records of diabetic patients registered on the Family Health Program. The variables used were: the occurrence of macro-and microvascular complications, age, sex, years of schooling, alcohol consumption, smoking, first and last glucose recorded. RESULTS: there was a higher rate of complications in women (71.5% compared to men (29.5%. Of the total, 58.9% had at least one complication. The macrovascular complications corresponded to 95.6%. The peripheral

  9. Airport geomagnetic surveys in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berarducci, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the United States military have requirements for design, location, and construction of compass calibration pads (compass roses), these having been developed through collaboration with US Geological Survey (USGS) personnel. These requirements are detailed in the FAA Advisory Circular AC 150/5300-13, Appendix 4, and in various military documents, such as Handbook 1021/1, but the major requirement is that the range of declination measured within 75 meters of the center of a compass rose be less than or equal to 30 minutes of arc. The USGS Geomagnetism Group has developed specific methods for conducting a magnetic survey so that existing compass roses can be judged in terms of the needed standards and also that new sites can be evaluated for their suitability as potentially new compass roses. First, a preliminary survey is performed with a total-field magnetometer, with differences over the site area of less than 75nT being sufficient to warrant additional, more detailed surveying. Next, a number of survey points are established over the compass rose area and nearby, where declination is to be measured with an instrument capable of measuring declination to within 1 minute of arc, such as a Gurley transit magnetometer, DI Flux theodolite magnetometer, or Wild T-0. The data are corrected for diurnal and irregular effects of the magnetic field and declination is determined for each survey point, as well as declination range and average of the entire compass rose site. Altogether, a typical survey takes about four days to complete. ?? 2006 Springer.

  10. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Wiederhold, Nathan; Robert, Vincent A. R. G.; Crous, Pedro W.; Geiser, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs). Three of the FSSC species (Fusarium falciforme, Fusarium keratoplasticum, and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12) accounted for four-fifths of the veterinary strains (38/47) and STs (27/33) within this clade. Most of the F. falciforme strains (12/15) were recovered from equine keratitis infections; however, strains of F. keratoplasticum and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12 were mostly (25/27) isolated from marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Our sampling suggests that the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), with eight mycoses-associated species, may represent the second most important clade of veterinary relevance within Fusarium. Six of the multilocus STs within the FSSC (3+4-eee, 1-b, 12-a, 12-b, 12-f, and 12-h) and one each within the FIESC (1-a) and the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (ST-33) were widespread geographically, including three STs with transoceanic disjunctions. In conclusion, fusaria associated with veterinary mycoses are phylogenetically diverse and typically can only be identified to the species level using DNA sequence data from portions of one or more informative genes. PMID:27605713

  11. HIV-1 genetic diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance among individuals from Roraima state, northern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Renato Augusto Carvalho; Granja, Fabiana; Naveca, Felipe Gomes

    2017-01-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic in Brazil has spread towards the Northern country region, but little is known about HIV-1 subtypes and prevalence of HIV strains with resistance mutations to antiretrovirals in some of the Northern states. HIV-1 protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) sequences were obtained from 73 treatment-naive and -experienced subjects followed between 2013 and 2014 at a public health reference unit from Roraima, the northernmost Brazilian state. The most prevalent HIV-1 clade observed in the study population was the subtype B (91%), followed by subtype C (9%). Among 12 HIV-1 strains from treatment-naïve patients, only one had a transmitted drug resistance mutation for NNRTI. Among 59 treatment-experienced patients, 12 (20%) harbored HIV-1 strains with acquired drug resistance mutations (ADRM) that reduce the susceptibility to two classes of antiretroviral drugs (NRTI and NNRTI or NRTI and PI), and five (8%) harbored HIV-1 strains with ADRM that reduced susceptibility to only one class of antiretroviral drugs (NNRTI or PI). No patients harboring HIV strains with reduced susceptibility to all three classes of antiretroviral drugs were detected. A substantial fraction of treatment-experienced patients with (63%) and without (70%) ADRM had undetectable plasma viral loads (<40 copies/ml) at the time of sampling. Among treatment-experienced with plasma viral loads above 2,000 copies/ml, 44% displayed no ADRM. This data showed that the HIV-1 epidemic in Roraima displayed a much lower level of genetic diversity and a lower prevalence of ADRM than that described in other Brazilian states. PMID:28301548

  12. Indonesian and United States of American Economic Partnership Agreement Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajerin Tajerin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes fisheries trade effects from the implementation of Indonesian and the UnitedStates of American Economic Partnership Agreement (IUSEPA. The analysis is performed on theintegrated world trade databases owned by World Trade Organization, United Nations Conferenceon Trade and Development, and United Nations Statistics Division, using Wits software packagedeveloped by the World Bank. The result indicates that in the future, Indonesian government as aparty that will conduct bilateral economic partnership agreement with the United states, needs topropose or negotiate fishery import tariffs that imposed by the United States ranges from 0 to 7percent.Keywords: Bilateral economic agreement, fisheries, trade effect

  13. United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    UNITED STATES FEDERAL GUIDANCE ON WITNESS PROTECTION IN HUMAN TRAFFICKING A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army...JUN 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...United States needs overarching federal guidance on witness protection for human trafficking victims/witnesses in order to enhance their safety and

  14. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Monte Goncalves

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  15. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  16. Spatial distribution of specialized cardiac care units in the state of Santa Catarina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirino, Silviana; Lima, Fabiana Santos; Gonçalves, Mirian Buss

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the methodology used for assessing the spatial distribution of specialized cardiac care units. METHODS A modeling and simulation method was adopted for the practical application of cardiac care service in the state of Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, using the p-median model. As the state is divided into 21 health care regions, a methodology which suggests an arrangement of eight intermediate cardiac care units was analyzed, comparing the results obtained using data from 1996 and 2012. RESULTS Results obtained using data from 2012 indicated significant changes in the state, particularly in relation to the increased population density in the coastal regions. The current study provided a satisfactory response, indicated by the homogeneity of the results regarding the location of the intermediate cardiac care units and their respective regional administrations, thereby decreasing the average distance traveled by users to health care units, located in higher population density areas. The validity of the model was corroborated through the analysis of the allocation of the median vertices proposed in 1996 and 2012. CONCLUSIONS The current spatial distribution of specialized cardiac care units is more homogeneous and reflects the demographic changes that have occurred in the state over the last 17 years. The comparison between the two simulations and the current configuration showed the validity of the proposed model as an aid in decision making for system expansion.

  17. Antibody levels to hantavirus in inhabitants of western Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, William Marciel de; Machado, Alex Martins; Disner, Geonildo Rodrigo; Boff, Everton; Machado, Aline Rafaela da Silva Rodrigues; Padua, Michelly de; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes; Miranda, Gustavo Borba de

    2012-08-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is an infectious disease caused by hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae, and is transmitted by aerosols of excreta of infected rodents. The aim of the present study was to determine antibody levels to hantavirus in the population that lives at frontier of Brazil and Argentina. Participated of the study 405 individuals living in the municipalities of Bandeirante, Santa Helena, Princesa and Tunapolis, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. IgG antibodies to hantavirus were analyzed in sera by an ELISA that uses a recombinant N protein of Araraquara hantavirus as antigen. The results were also confirmed by immunofluorescent test. Eight individuals showed antibodies to hantavirus (1.97% positivity), with serum titers ranging from 100 to 800. Six seropositives were males, older than 30 years and farmers. Our results reinforce previous data on hantavirus circulation and human infections in the southern border of Brazil with Argentina.

  18. Occurrence of female sexual hormones in the Iguazu river basin, Curitiba, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Scurupa Machado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Female sexual hormones have attracted the attention of the scientific community due to the effects that they cause by interfering in the endocrine system. Many contemporary studies have sought to monitor some of the main female sexual hormones in surface waters in Brazil. Current article evaluates the presence of 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethinylestradiol, estrone and progesterone in the surface waters of Curitibaand the surrounding metropolitan area in the state of Paraná, Brazil, by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, performed at 7 different sites. The study revealed that a range of concentrations between 0.07 and 13.45 µg L-1 of female sexual hormones was extant; higher values than these were found in other regions ofBrazil and in other countries. Higher concentrations have been attributed to the region´s sanitation due to large sewage amounts. Sewage discharge has also been confirmed by results of limnological parameters.

  19. Echovirus 30 associated with cases of aseptic meningitis in state of Pará, Northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyla Maria Oeiras de Castro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the aetiology of viral meningitis in Brazil is most often restricted to cases that occur in the Southern and Southeastern Regions; therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe the viral meningitis cases that occurred in state of Pará, Northern Brazil, from January 2005-December 2006. The detection of enterovirus (EV in cerebrospinal fluid was performed using cell culture techniques, RT-PCR, nested PCR and nucleotide sequencing. The ages of the 91 patients ranged from 60 years old (median age 15.90 years. Fever (87.1%, headache (77.0%, vomiting (61.5% and stiffness (61.5% were the most frequent symptoms. Of 91 samples analyzed, 18 (19.8% were positive for EV. Twelve were detected only by RT- PCR followed by nested PCR, whereas six were found by both cell culture and RT-PCR. From the last group, five were sequenced and classified as echovirus 30 (Echo 30. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Echo 30 detected in Northern Brazil clustered within a unique group with a bootstrap value of 100% and could constitute a new subgroup (4c according to the phylogenetic tree described by Oberste et al. (1999. This study described the first molecular characterization of Echo 30 in Brazil and this will certainly contribute to future molecular analyses involving strains detected in other regions of Brazil.

  20. 1:2,000,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set has been superseded by huc2m. This file contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the conterminous United States along with Alaska, Hawaii,...

  1. (SUPERSEDED) 1:2,000,000-scale Hydrologic Units of the United States (SUPERSEDED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains hydrologic unit boundaries and codes for the conterminous United States along with Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. It was...

  2. Abortion surveillance--United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazol, Karen; Creanga, Andreea A; Zane, Suzanne B; Burley, Kim D; Jamieson, Denise J

    2012-11-23

    Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2009. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2009, data were received from 48 reporting areas. For the purpose of trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from the 45 areas that reported data every year during 2000-2009. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculated abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 784,507 abortions were reported to CDC for 2009. Of these abortions, 772,630 (98.5%) were from the 45 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2000-2009. Among these same 45 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2009 was 15.1 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 227 abortions per 1,000 live births. Compared with 2008, the total number and rate of reported abortions for 2009 decreased 5%, representing the largest single year decrease for the entire period of analysis. The abortion ratio decreased 2%. From 2000 to 2009, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 6%, 7%, and 8%, respectively, to the lowest levels for 2000-2009. In 2009 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates, whereas women aged ≥30 years accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2009, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.7% and 24.4% of all abortions, respectively, and had an abortion rate of 27.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 years and 20.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 25-29 years. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years

  3. New mosses records (Bryophyta) for Goiás and Tocantins states, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta,Denilson Fernandes; Bordin,Juçara; Yano, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Sixty-five moss taxa are new records for Goiás and Tocantins States. Of these, 44 are new records (40 - Goiás; four - Tocantins) and 23 are new sites in each of the states (19 -Goiás; four - Tocantins). Ptychostomum pallescens (Schleich. ex Schwägr.) Spence and Philonotis fontana (Hedw.) Brid. are new records for Brazil, and are illustrated.

  4. The United States of America country update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Boyd, Tonya L.; Renner, Joel

    2005-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  5. The United States of America Country Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W. (1); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (2); Boyd, Tonya L. (1); Renner, Joel (3); (1) Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR; (2) Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA; (3) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID

    0001-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source (geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes

  6. The Human Rights Record of the United States in 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THE INFORMATION OFFICE OF THE STATE COUNCIL OF THE

    2007-01-01

    @@ EDITOR'S NOTE: On March 8, the Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China published a document entitled the Human Rights Record of the United States in 2006. Following is the full text.

  7. 1990 County Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the 1990 State and county boundaries of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting...

  8. Major Roads of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the major roads in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The file was produced by joining the individual State roads...

  9. NCHS - Births and General Fertility Rates: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes crude birth rates and general fertility rates in the United States since 1909. The number of states in the reporting area differ historically....

  10. 2000 County Boundaries of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the 2000 State and county boundaries of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting...

  11. "Calling a state a state": feminist politics and the policing of violence against women in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautzinger, S

    1997-01-01

    This document reports on a 1990 case study of one of Brazil's 80 police stations established for the protection of women in response to feminist pressure to address excessively high levels of violence against women. These police stations, staffed by women to respond exclusively to complaints lodged by women, are an unusual institutional response to such violence. The study examines the station established in Salvador in 1986 to reveal which interests were served by the creation of the specialized stations. The first section of the article addresses the fact that Salvador's policewomen have gained little from the creation of the specialized stations and continue to suffer job-related sexual discrimination. Next, conceptions of gender identity among policewomen are analyzed, and the ideologies of "femininity" and "feminism" in the Brazilian context are discussed. The final section compares views on the abuse of women with views on police brutality and relays incidences when the policewomen beat male prisoners. It is argued that certain forms of violence are actually considered necessary to maintain social order and enact justice. It is concluded that all of the involved parties, the state, the feminists, the female citizenry, and Salvador's female police, benefit in part from the existence of the specialized police stations but that there are serious problems also, especially the fact that the policewomen involved are given little or no special training and no career incentives.

  12. Landfills in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations of landfills and waste transfer stations in 11 western states. Data was obtained from state and federal agencies in GIS, tabular, and map format.

  13. Cheese yield in Brazil: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Cavalcanti SALES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This literature review discusses the concepts and factors that influence industrial cheese yield and compiles the latest studies conducted in Brazil involving this theme. In seeking to support managerial decision-making, cheese yield can be measured at the end of processing or estimated prior to this. In research and industry, measuring and estimating yield can be evaluated under the effect of processing, from different proportions and characteristics of ingredients (mainly milk quality, to processing factors involving the steps of the actual production (handling of the raw material and the curd coagulation conditions, salting, maturation, etc. and the equipment. The number of Brazilian studies that have sought to answer questions about this topic in recent years was reasonable. The vast majority of them considered yield in its most basic aspect, which is obtained by measuring what was produced. Few studies used the perspective of prediction, indicating that there is room for a more empirical approach that allows for obtaining other types of answers regarding efficiency in the production of cheese, and which is shown as an opportunity for Brazilian research to advance.

  14. Principal thorium resources in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staatz, Mortimer Hay; Armbrustmacher, T.J.; Olson, J.C.; Brownfield, I.K.; Brock, M.R.; Lemons, J.F.; Coppa, L.V.; Clingan, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    Resources were assessed for thorium in the higher grade and better known deposits in the United States in: (1) veins, (2) massive carbonatites, (3) stream placers of North and South Carolina, and (4) disseminated deposits. Thorium resources for the first three categories were divided into reserves and probable potential resources. Each of these then were separated into the following cost categories: (1) the amount of ThO2 producible at less than $15 per pound, (2) the amount producible at between $15 and $30 per pound, and (3) the amount producible at more than $50 per pound. The type of mining and milling needed at each deposit determines the capital, operating, and fixed costs of both mining and milling. Costs start with the clearing of land and are carried through to the final product, which for all deposits is ThO2. Capital costs of mining are affected most by the type of mining and the size of the mine. Those of milling are affected most by the kind of mill, its size, and whether or not extra circuits are needed for the separation of rare earths or some other byproduct. Veins, massive carbonatites, and stream placers of North and South Carolina have reserves of 188,000 short tons of ThO2 and probable potential resources of 505,000 tons of ThO2. Approximately half of the reserves and probable potential resources can be produced at less than $30 per pound of ThO2. Veins are the highest grade source in the United States and have total reserves of 142,000 tons of ThO2 and probable potential resources of 343,000 tons. About 90 percent of the reserves and 91 percent of the probable potential resources can be produced at less than $15 per pound of ThO2. Seven vein districts were evaluated: (1) Lemhi Pass, Mont.-Idaho, (2) Wet Mountains, Colo., (3) Powderhorn, Colo., (4) Hall Mountain, Idaho, (5) Diamond Creek, Idaho, (6) Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyo. and (7) Mountain Pass, Calif. Eighty-seven percent of the total reserves and probable potential resources are in the

  15. Smoking Prevalence Among Users of Primary Healthcare Units in Brazil: The Role of Religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Giglio, Flávia Masili; Terada, Natalia Akemi Yamada; da Silva, Anderson Soares; Zucoloto, Miriane Lucindo

    2017-03-24

    The objective of this cross-sectional study is to examine the association between religious involvement and tobacco use in a large representative sample of users of primary healthcare units of Ribeirão Preto, Southeast Brazil. Current and past smoking habits were determined among 1055 users of primary healthcare units. Participants' religiosity was measured using the DUREL questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking among men was 16.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.0-22.5] and among women was 12.6% (95% CI 10.4-15.0). Among the current smokers, 40.9% were light smokers, 24.6% were moderate smokers, and 34.5% were heavy smokers. The mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was 13.5. Respondents who have a religion had a lower smoking prevalence than people who had no religion. Current smoking prevalence tended to be higher among people who do not practice their religion than people who practice their religion. Smoking status is also associated with self-reported religiosity, organizational religious activity and some aspects of intrinsic religiosity. Religiosity is an important factor in influencing the smoking behavior in Brazilian users of the public health services.

  16. Epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections among patients from a hemodialysis unit in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Eduara Kennerly de Albuquerque

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients submitted to hemodialysis are at a high risk for healthcare-associated infections (HAI. Presently there are scarce data to allow benchmarking of HAI rates in developing countries. Also, most studies focus only on bloodstream infections (BSI or local access infections (LAI. Our study aimed to provide a wide overview of HAI epidemiology in a hemodialysis unit in southeastern Brazil. We present data from prospective surveillance carried out from March 2010 through May 2012. Rates were compared (mid-p exact test and temporally analyzed in Shewhart control charts for Poisson distributions. The overall incidence of BSI was 1.12 per 1000 access-days. The rate was higher for patients performing dialysis through central venous catheters (CVC, either temporary (RR = 13.35, 95% CI = 6.68-26.95 or permanent (RR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.09-4.13, as compared to those with arteriovenous fistula. Control charts identified a BSI outbreak caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in April 2010. LAI incidence was 3.80 per 1000 access-days. Incidence rates for other HAI (per 1000 patients-day were as follows: upper respiratory infections, 1.72; pneumonia, 1.35; urinary tract infections, 1.25; skin/soft tissues infections, 0.93. The data point out to the usefulness of applying methods commonly used in hospital-based surveillance for hemodialysis units.

  17. Making the Poor Count Takes More than Counting the Poor: A Quick Poverty Assessment of the State of Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Verner, Dorte

    2004-01-01

    The state of Bahia, Brazil has made progress in reducing poverty and improving social indicators in the past decade. Despite this progress, Bahia's poverty is among the highest and its social indicators are among the lowest in Brazil. Currently, 41 percent of Bahia's population live in households below the poverty level, a drop of 14 percentage points since 1993. Moreover, poverty is less ...

  18. Dictyoceratida (Porifera: Demospongiae) from Tropical Southwestern Atlantic (Northeastern Brazil, Sergipe State) and the description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandes, Joana; Pinheiro, Ulisses

    2014-07-21

    Five species of dictyoceratid sponges were collected from trawling on the continental shelf of Sergipe State, Northeastern Brazil, of which three are new to science: Ircinia sergipana sp. nov., Ircinia repens sp. nov., Ircinia strobilina, Hyattella cavernosa and Smenospongia ramosa sp. nov., the latter the first record of the genus Smenospongia from Brazil

  19. Stigma, deforming metaphors and patients' moral experience of multibacillary leprosy in Sobral, Ceará State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, Marilyn K; Lira, Geison Vasconcelos; Catrib, Ana Maria Fontenelle

    2009-06-01

    In response to the call for a new Science of Stigma, this anthropological study investigates the moral experience of patients diagnosed with severe multibacillary leprosy. From 2003 to 2006, fieldwork was conducted in the so-called 'United-States-of-Sobral', in Ceará State, Northeast Brazil. Sobral is highly endemic for leprosy, despite intensified eradication efforts and a 30% increase in primary care coverage since 1999. Of 329 active leprosy cases at two public clinics, 279 multibacillary patients were identified and six information-rich cases selected for in-depth ethnographic analysis, utilizing illness narratives, key-informant interviews, home visits, participant-observation of clinical consultations and semi-structured interviews with physicians. A 'contextualized semantic interpretation' revealed four leprosy metaphors: a repulsive rat's disease, a racist skin rash, a biblical curse and lethal leukemia. Far from value-free pathology, the disease is imbued with moral significance. Patients' multivocalic illness constructions contest physicians' disease discourse. 'Skin Spot Day' discriminates more than educates. Patients' 'non-compliance' with effective multi-drug therapy is due to demoralizing stigma more than a rejection of care. 'Social leprosy' in Northeast Brazil deforms patients' moral reputations and personal dignity.

  20. Prevalência de pé diabético e fatores associados nas unidades de saúde da família da cidade do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil, em 2005 Prevalence of diabetic foot and associated factors in the family health units of the city of Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Ramos Vieira-Santos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Uma das mais importantes complicações crônicas do diabetes mellitus é o pé diabético. Por sua gravidade, pode levar a amputações de extremidades inferiores. Entretanto, por apresentar uma evolução lenta, permite o desenvolvimento de ações de prevenção e controle. A abrangência do Programa Saúde da Família, quanto a possibilidade de diagnóstico precoce tanto do diabetes como desta complicação favorece a condução de estudos epidemiológicos visando conhecer sua magnitude. Este artigo objetivou determinar a proporção de portadores de pé diabético atendidos nas unidades de saúde da família da cidade do Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil. Desenvolveu-se um levantamento epidemiológico, com amostra probabilística dos prontuários de pacientes com diabetes cadastrados nos seis distritos sanitários do município. Foram analisadas relações entre as variáveis sócio-econômicas, condições de saúde e ocorrência de amputação a partir de 1.374 prontuários. Observou-se uma prevalência de 9% de portadores de pé diabético. Encontrou-se associação positiva e estatisticamente significativa com as variáveis: alcoolismo e ocorrência de amputação (p One of the most important chronic complications of diabetes mellitus is diabetic foot. Severe progression of diabetes can lead to lower limb amputations. However, since evolution of the disease is slow, it is possible to implement prevention and control measures. The scope of the Family Health Program (in terms of the possibility of early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and diabetic foot favors epidemiological studies to determine the problem's magnitude. This article aimed to identify the proportion of individuals with diabetic foot treated at family health units in the city of Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil. An epidemiological survey was conducted with a probabilistic sample of medical charts of diabetic patients (N = 1,374 enrolled in six health districts in the city

  1. Ferns and lycophytes of Pernambuco State, Brazil: Metaxyaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Carneiro Leão Barros

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper elucidates part of the fern flora of Pernambuco State. Metaxyaceae is native to the state and is represented by a single species, Metaxya rostrata (Kunth C. Presl. Descriptions and illustrations, as well as geographical distribution and habitats, are presented.

  2. 78 FR 27857 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Final... United States Standards for Wheat under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) to change the definition of Contrasting classes (CCL) in the class Hard White wheat. This change will help facilitate the...

  3. 12 CFR 561.53 - United States Treasury General Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Treasury General Account. 561.53 Section 561.53 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.53 United States Treasury General Account. The...

  4. 76 FR 18198 - European Union-United States Atlantis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... European Union-United States Atlantis Program AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of... (IFLE): Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE)--Special Focus Competition: European Union-(EU) United States (U.S.) Atlantis Program Notice inviting applications for new awards for...

  5. 19 CFR 10.46 - Articles for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles for the United States. 10.46 Section 10... THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Articles for Institutions § 10.46 Articles for the United States. Pursuant to subheadings 9808.00.10 and...

  6. Foreign Students and Scholars and the United States Tax System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David, II.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1992-93 school year more than 425,000 foreign students were studying in the United States. In addition, hundreds of foreign nationals were in the United States as visiting research scholars, lecturers, and professors. Offers a guide to help foreign nationals comply with the tax system while affording them the least possible tax…

  7. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  8. The United States Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    Black and white maps, graphs and tables that may be reproduced are presented in this volume focusing on the United States. Some of the features of the United States depicted are: size, population, agriculture and resources, manufactures, trade, citizenship, employment, income, poverty, the federal budget, energy, health, education, crime, and the…

  9. United States’ Interests in the Horn of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-23

    while Haile Selassie intended to ensure that the United States had a vested interest in the survival of his regime. "There was never an alliance between...company; and he sent troops to fight in Korea. Emperor Haile Selassie’s political manuevering achieved the establishment of a United States vested

  10. 7 CFR 65.260 - United States country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States country of origin. 65.260 Section 65.260..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.260 United States country of origin....

  11. Immigration to the United States: 1996 Update. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuffel, Eric; Pemberton, Alissa

    Immigration, both legal and illegal, has a profound impact on the United States. The public policy implications of immigration include the impact on population growth, employment, wages, taxes, and social spending. In 1994, a net total of between 900,000 and 1.1 million immigrants were added to the foreign-born population of the United States.…

  12. 31 CFR 560.319 - United States depository institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States depository institution. 560.319 Section 560.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... associations, credit unions, trust companies and United States bank holding companies)....

  13. Civic Engagement in the United States: Roots and Branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imel, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The adult education and civic education movements are not synonymous, but the two were intertwined during the early years of adult education's formation as a field in the United States. This chapter traces the development of adult civic education in the United States, focusing on the 1920s through the 1950s. First, the roots of civic education…

  14. Pine Engraver, Ips pini, in the Western United States (FIDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra J. Kegley; R. Ladd Livingston; Kenneth E. Gibson

    1997-01-01

    The pine engraver, Ips pini (Say), is one of the most common and widely distributed bark beetles in North America. It occurs from southern Appalachia north to Maine and Quebec, westward across the northern United States and Canada, into the interior of Alaska, throughout the Pacific Coast States and the Rocky Mountain region, to northern Mexico. In the western United...

  15. The Organization of Paralympic Sport in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Joe; Mushett, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, Paralympic sport is governed by the United States Olympic Committee (USOC), as set forth in the Ted Stevens Olympic and Amateur Sports Act of 1998. The USOC formed a dedicated Paralympic Division in 2001 to manage this responsibility in close cooperation with other USOC divisions and many of the sport-specific national…

  16. Preparation of School Psychologists in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    School psychology in the United States continues to evolve in response to shifts in the country's demographic characteristics, an increasing focus on the importance of child mental health, together with health and education reforms. The landscape of school psychological services in the United States also is shaped through the changing roles and…

  17. Preparation of School Psychologists in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce-Beaulieu, Diana; Rossen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    School psychology in the United States continues to evolve in response to shifts in the country's demographic characteristics, an increasing focus on the importance of child mental health, together with health and education reforms. The landscape of school psychological services in the United States also is shaped through the changing roles and…

  18. 78 FR 26425 - Sentencing Guidelines for United States Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ..., the simple movement of a stolen trade secret within a domestic multinational company (e.g., from a United States office to an overseas office of the same company) may not pose the same risks or harms. More generally, the Commission heard that foreign actors increasingly target United States companies...

  19. Inpatient Financial Burden of Atopic Dermatitis in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Narla, Shanthi; Hsu, Derek Y; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the inpatient burden of atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to determine the risk factors and financial burden of hospitalizations for AD in the United States. Data were analyzed from the 2002-2012 National Inpatient Sample, including a 20% representative sample of all......, there is a substantial inpatient financial burden of AD in the United States....

  20. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  1. Structural and Deformation Analysis of Clasts in the Sedimentary Units of the Camarinha Formation, Paraná State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentary units of Camarinha Formation (Paraná State, Southern Brazil are affected by the Lancinha TranscurrentShear Zone, and show brittle and brittle-ductile features such as folds, fractures, tilted and truncated layers, cataclasticfoliation, fracture cleavage, and stretched clasts. Analysis of these features revealed their compatibility with theRiedel Model and confi rms the right-lateral movement of the Lancinha Fault. Low values of the X-axis plunge are typicalof transcurrent zones.

  2. Does racism affect health? Evidence from the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter; Murphy, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Blacks have worse overall health than whites in both the United States and the United Kingdom. However, the relative difference in health between the two groups within each cultural context differs between each context. In this article, we attempt to glean insights into these health disparities. We do so by first examining what is currently known about differences in morbidity and mortality for blacks and whites in the United States and the United Kingdom. We then turn to medical examination data by race and country of birth in an attempt to further untangle the complex interplay of socioeconomic status (SES), race, and racism as determinants of health in the United States and the United Kingdom. We find that (1) longer exposure of blacks to the recipient country is a risk for mortality in the United States but not in the United Kingdom; (2) adjustment for SES matters a good deal for mortality in the United States, but less so in the United Kingdom; (3) morbidity indicators do not paint a clear picture of black disadvantage relative to whites in either context; and (4) were one to consider medical examination data alone, differences between the two groups exist only in the United States. Taken together, we conclude that it is possible that the "less racist" United Kingdom provides a healthier environment for blacks than the United States. However, there remain many mysteries that escape simple explanation. Our findings raise more questions than they answer, and the health risks and health status of blacks in the United States are much more complex than previously thought.

  3. Leveling of Tuberculosis Incidence - United States, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jorge L; Mindra, Godwin; Haddad, Maryam B; Pratt, Robert; Price, Sandy F; Langer, Adam J

    2016-03-25

    After 2 decades of progress toward tuberculosis (TB) elimination with annual decreases of ≥0.2 cases per 100,000 persons (1), TB incidence in the United States remained approximately 3.0 cases per 100,000 persons during 2013-2015. Preliminary data reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System indicate that TB incidence among foreign-born persons in the United States (15.1 cases per 100,000) has remained approximately 13 times the incidence among U.S.-born persons (1.2 cases per 100,000). Resuming progress toward TB elimination in the United States will require intensification of efforts both in the United States and globally, including increasing U.S. efforts to detect and treat latent TB infection, strengthening systems to interrupt TB transmission in the United States and globally, accelerating reductions in TB globally, particularly in the countries of origin for most U.S.

  4. Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States with Special Emphasis on the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Kellison

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of Eucalyptus spp. into the United States from Australia on a significant scale resulted from the gold rush into California in 1849. Numerous species were evaluated for fuel, wood products, and amenity purposes. The first recorded entry of eucalyptus into the southern United Stated was in 1878. Subsequent performance of selected species for ornamental purposes caused forest industry to visualize plantations for fiber production. That interest led the Florida Forestry Foundation to initiate species-introduction trials in 1959. The results were sufficiently promising that a contingent of forest products companies formed a cooperative to work with the USDA Forest Service, Lehigh Acres, FL, USA, on genetic improvement of selected species for fiber production. The Florida initiative caused other industrial forestry companies in the upper South to establish plantations regardless of the species or seed source. The result was invariably the same: failure. Bruce Zobel, Professor of Forestry, North Carolina State University, initiated a concerted effort to assess the potential worth of eucalyptus for plantation use. The joint industrial effort evaluated 569 sources representing 103 species over a 14-year period. The three levels of testing, screening, in-depth, and semioperational trials led to identification of some species and sources that offered promise for adaptation, but severe winter temperatures in late 1983 and early 1984 and 1985 terminated the project. Despite the failed attempt valuable silvicultural practices were ascertained that will be beneficial to other researchers and practitioners when attempts are again made to introduce the species complex into the US South.

  5. Forest Resources of the United States, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; Patrick D. Miles; John S. Vissage; Scott A. Pugh

    2004-01-01

    Forest resource growth, harvests, and land use conversion can change inventories within States, among regions, and even among countries, and can significantly influence the future performance of resources. This could affect the State, regional, and national economies that depend on the affected resources, as well as the resource environments. Periodic surveys provide...

  6. Competitive Electricity Market Regulation in the United States: A Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, Mackay [National Grid, Warwick (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    The electricity system in the United States is a complex mechanism where different technologies, jurisdictions and regulatory designs interact. Today, two major models for electricity commercialization operate in the United States. One is the regulated monopoly model, in which vertically integrated electricity providers are regulated by state commissions. The other is the competitive model, in which power producers can openly access transmission infrastructure and participate in wholesale electricity markets. This paper describes the origins, evolution, and current status of the regulations that enable competitive markets in the United States.

  7. Clinical Profiles and Factors Associated with Death in Adults with Dengue Admitted to Intensive Care Units, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amâncio, Frederico Figueiredo; Heringer, Tiago Pires; de Oliveira, Cristina da Cunha Hueb Barata; Fassy, Liliane Boaventura; de Carvalho, Frederico Bruzzi; Oliveira, Daniela Pagliari; de Oliveira, Claudio Dornas; Botoni, Fernando Otoni; Magalhães, Fernanda do Carmo; Lambertucci, José Roberto; Carneiro, Mariângela

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to describe the clinical profile of dengue-infected patients admitted to Brazilian intensive care units (ICU) and evaluate factors associated with death. A longitudinal, multicenter case series study was conducted with laboratory-confirmed dengue patients admitted to nine Brazilian ICUs situated in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2013. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data; disease severity scores; and mortality were evaluated. A total of 97 patients were studied. The in-ICU and in-hospital mortality rates were 18.6% and 19.6%, respectively. Patients classified as having severe dengue according to current World Health Organization classifications showed an increased risk of death in a univariate analysis. Nonsurvivors were older, exhibited lower serum albumin concentrations and higher total leukocyte counts and serum creatinine levels. Other risk factors (vomiting, lethargy/restlessness, dyspnea/respiratory distress) were also associated with death in a univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis indicated that in-hospital mortality was significantly associated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score. The ICU and in-hospital mortality observed in this study were higher than values reported in similar studies. An increased frequency of ICU admission due to severe organ dysfunction, higher severity indices and scarcity of ICU beds may partially explain the higher mortality. PMID:26090676

  8. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  9. State Transfers, Taxes and Income Inequality in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Medeiros

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Using a factor decomposition of the Gini coefficient, we measure the contribution to inequality of direct monetary income flows to and from the Brazilian State. The income flows from the State include public sector workers' earnings, Social Security pensions, unemployment benefits, and Social Assistance transfers. The income flows to the State comprise direct taxes and employees' social security contributions. Data come from the Brazilian POF 2008–09. We do not measure indirect contributions to inequality of subsidies granted to and taxation of companies, nor the in-kind provision of goods and services. The results indicate that the State contributes to a large share of family per capita income inequality. Incomes associated with work in the public sector—wages and pensions—are concentrated and regressive. Components related to the private sector are also concentrated, but progressive. Contrary to what has been found in European countries, public spending associated with work and social policies is concentrated in an elite group of workers and, taken as a whole, tends to increase income inequality. Redistributive mechanisms that could reverse this inequality, such as taxes and social assistance, are very progressive but proportionally small. Consequently, their effect is completely offset by the regressive income flows from the State.

  10. 76 FR 5822 - Orange Juice From Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... to consider include technology; production methods; development efforts; ability to increase... COMMISSION Orange Juice From Brazil AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of a five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on certain orange juice from Brazil...

  11. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    8. 42Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the Albanian State was created but with only one-half of the Albanian population...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, THE UNITED STATES, AND INTERNATIONAL LEGITIMACY A Monograph by MAJ Mark Van Gelder...North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The United States, and International Legitimacy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  12. Geothermal overviews of the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.N.; Axtell, L.H. (comps.)

    1972-01-01

    This compendium presents data on geothermal resources for all those western states with geothermal potential. Individual sections, which have been processed separately for inclusion in the EDB data base, are devoted to each of the following states: Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. A separate section is also devoted to the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Imperial Valley Project. Maps and references are included for each section. (JGB)

  13. United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States Automotive Materials Partnership

    2011-01-31

    The United States Automotive Materials Partnership LLC (USAMP) was formed in 1993 as a partnership between Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, and General Motors Corporation. Since then the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has supported its activities with funding and technical support. The mission of the USAMP is to conduct vehicle-oriented research and development in materials and materials processing to improve the competitiveness of the U.S. Auto Industry. Its specific goals are: (1) To conduct joint research to further the development of lightweight materials for improved automotive fuel economy; and (2) To work with the Federal government to explore opportunities for cooperative programs with the national laboratories, Federal agencies such as the DOE and universities. As a major component of the DOE's Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies Program (FCVT) collaboration with the USAMP, the Automotive Lightweighting Materials (ALM) program focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce automotive vehicle body and chassis weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost. The FCVT was announced in FY 2002 and implemented in FY 2003, as a successor of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), largely addressed under the first Cooperative Agreement. This second USAMP Cooperative Agreement with the DOE has expanded a unique and valuable framework for collaboratively directing industry and government research efforts toward the development of technologies capable of solving important societal problems related to automobile transportation. USAMP efforts are conducted by the domestic automobile manufacturers, in collaboration with materials and manufacturing suppliers, national laboratories, universities, and other technology or trade organizations. These interactions provide a direct route for implementing newly

  14. Toxaphene in the United States: 1. Usage gridding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. F.

    2001-08-01

    Toxaphene, as a general-purpose insecticide, was widely used in the United States. The use of toxaphene in the United States can be divided into four different periods between 1947 and 1986, with total usage of about 490 kt, and total production around 720 kt. Inventories of gridded usage of toxaphene in the United States with 1/6° by 1/4° latitude/longitude resolution have been created by using different gridded cropland and cattle as surrogate data. The intensive use of toxaphene on croplands was concentrated in the southeastern part of the United States with the highest usage of 2 kt per grid cell. The results show that the state of Alabama was the largest user of toxaphene, reaching as much as 87 kt, followed by Mississippi at 60 kt. The total usage in the top 10 states is 410 kt, 84% of the national usage in the United States. The use in the first six states, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, Arkansas, Texas, and South Carolina, is 350 kt, 71% of the national usage in the United States.

  15. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of Alagoas state, northeast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade Filho, José D; Brazil, Reginaldo P

    2009-01-01

    The phlebotomine sandflies of the state of Alagoas are poorly known, with more than 40 years since the last report on sandflies in the state. In here, Psathyromyia brasiliensis (Costa Lima), Micropygomyia quinquefer (Dyar,) and Evandromyia termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva) are registered for the first time in Alagoas. This report increases to nine the number of species collected in the state, including Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), Migonemyia migonei (França), Nyssomyia whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) and Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva), all vectors of Leishmania in Brazil.

  16. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  17. Snake envenomations in northwest counties of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Tinoco

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of envenoming in Northwest counties of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, from 1995 to 2000 was evaluated. Reports from the Municipal Secretariat of Health of these counties were used. The results demonstrated that, from 1997 to 1999, there was a shortage of notification, and 40 cases of envenomations caused by Bothrops snakes were registered. These cases were more common from February to October, and the lower limbs of male peasants were the mainly affected areas.

  18. Distribution of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of medical importance in Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; Missawa,Nanci Akemi; Zeilhofer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Intense environmental impacts, causing alterations of the natural habitats of fauna, including those of sandfly disease vectors are observed in Mato Grosso State, Central Brazil. Entomologic survey of phlebotomines was based on light trap and was carried out by entomological nucleus of the FUNASA and SES in the period between 1996 and 2001. Eighty eight species were identified, including the following sandflies with medical importance to leishmaniasis: Lutzomyia amazonensis, L. anduzei, L. an...

  19. The sarsaparilla market in the state of Sao Paulo (Brazil) and the challenges of cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, MKM; Martins, AR; MONTANARI, I.; Figueira, GM; ZUCCHI, MI; Bajay, MM; Appezzato-da-Gloria, B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present information about the sarsaparilla sold in establishments in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, assess the genetic diversity of Smilax brasiliensis Spreng., Smilacaceae, and examine the growing conditions and productivity of five species of Smilax. The amount of sarsaparilla sold per month at most pharmacies was 0.4 kg on average. Herbal stores and markets sold averages of 9 kg and 8 kg per month, respectively. The weight of the underground biomass of S. fluminensis (...

  20. Characterization of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum isolates using differential cultivars of common bean in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Celeste Gonçalves-Vidigal; Claudia Thomazella; Pedro Soares Vidigal Filho; Marcus Vinícius Kvitschal; Haroldo Tavares Elias

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 and 2004, 32 isolates of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum obtained from the infected plants of field-grown common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Santa Catarina state, Brazil were analyzed based on the virulence to 12 differential cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Thirteen distinct races were identified, six of which had not been reported previously in Santa Catarina. This is the first report of the occurrence of 67, 83,101,103,105, and 581 races of C. lindemuthianum. Race 65 was most ...

  1. Microbial diversity of soils on the banks of the Solimões and Negro rivers, state of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Karla Nobre dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of bacterial diversity in soils along the banks of the Solimões and Negro rivers, state of Amazonas, Brazil, was by partial sequencing of the genes codifying the rDNA16S region. Diversity of operational taxonomic units (OTU and of the divergent sequences obtained were applied in comparative analysis of microbiological diversity in the two environments, based on richness estimators and OTU diversity indices. The higher OTU diversity in the Solimões was based on the higher number of parameters that evoke this. The interaction between the nucleotide sequences of bacteria inhabiting the two riverine environments indicated that the two microrganism communities are similar in composition.

  2. Progress toward sodium reduction in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, Jessica; Cogswell, Mary; Curtis, Christine J; Gunn, Janelle; Neiman, Andrea; Angell, Sonia Y

    2012-10-01

    The average adult in the United States of America consumes well above the recommended daily limit of sodium. Average sodium intake is about 3 463 mg/day, as compared to the 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans recommendation of sodium reduction policies and programs in the United States at the federal, state, and local levels; efforts to monitor the health impact of sodium reduction; ways to assess consumer knowledge, attitudes, and behavior; and how these activities depend on and inform global efforts to reduce sodium intake. Reducing excess sodium intake is a public health opportunity that can save lives and health care dollars in the United States and globally. Future efforts, including sharing successes achieved and barriers identified in the United States and globally, may quicken and enhance progress.

  3. Myxomycetes, State of Piauí, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponte, M. P. M. P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no record in the literature about collections of Myxomycetes in the State of Piauí before 1997. This check-list intends to cover all currently reported taxa from savanna (cerrado, deciduous mixed forest, riverine forest, and urban zone environments of Piauí between 1998-2005. It contains a classification of the genera in order of families, followed by a list of species and lower taxa set out in alphabetical order within each genus. The three subclasses and six orders of the Class Myxomycetes are represented by eight families, 20 genera, 50 species, and two varieties. Liceaceae, represented by Licea biforis, is reported for the first time for the State of Piauí.

  4. 76 FR 697 - United States-Oman Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... States--Oman Free Trade Agreement AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland... Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Sultanate of Oman. DATES: Interim rule...'') entered into the U.S.--Oman Free Trade Agreement (``OFTA'' or ``Agreement''). The stated objectives of the...

  5. A Comparative Analysis of Indian Gaming in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, William V.; Bunch, Rick L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on Indian gaming in South Dakota discovered very restrictive and unfavorable tribal-state compacts that appear to border on economic racism. This article expands this previous research by exploring the influence of tribal-state Indian gaming compacts for the Indian casinos located in the contiguous United States. The purpose is…

  6. Babesiosis among Elderly Medicare Beneficiaries, United States, 2006–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Steven A.; Izurieta, Hector S.; Kumar, Sanjai; Burwen, Dale R.; Gibbs, Jonathan; Kropp, Garner; Erten, Tugce; MaCurdy, Thomas E.; Worrall, Christopher M.; Kelman, Jeffrey A.; Walderhaug, Mark O.

    2012-01-01

    We used administrative databases to assess babesiosis among elderly persons in the United States by year, sex, age, race, state of residence, and diagnosis months during 2006–2008. The highest babesiosis rates were in Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, and Massachusetts, and findings suggested babesiosis expansion to other states. PMID:22257500

  7. An evaluation of the Sinan health information system as used by the Hansen's disease control programme, Pernambuco State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Paulo Roberto Silva; Ferreira, Andréa Torres; Maciel, Maria Das Graças Galvão; De Almeida, Rejane Pereira; Hinders, Duane; Schreuder, Pieter A M; Kerr-Pontes, Lígia Regina S

    2008-06-01

    Since the introduction of the national notifiable diseases information system (SINAN) in Pernambuco State, Brazil, in 1994, many problems have been encountered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the SINAN software, quality of data input, the transfer of the computerised data from the municipality to state levels, human resources and other factors associated with the health information system infrastructure (HIS). A cross-sectional study was carried out in Pernambuco state, North-eastern Brazil, in 2005. A sample of health regions and municipalities was chosen. SINAN forms from those municipalities were analysed and the flow of notifications followed from municipal level to the regional and finally to the state. Professionals from health units, district, municipal and regional Hansen's Disease Control Programme (HDCP) and Epidemiological Surveillance System (ESS) coordinators, health secretaries and managers of the municipalities and health regions selected were interviewed. SINAN software is functioning up to expectation. However, at all levels of the health system, serious weaknesses not related to the SINAN software were found, varying from lack of human resources (limited number of staff and staff development), lack of infrastructure (office space, computers, supplies, etc.) to an absence of effective coordination, management and supervision of the HIS. Lack of reliable, complete and timely information, and especially the lack of widespread analysis and use of available information in planning and management of health services were the main weaknesses found. Many areas need urgent attention: the quality of patient examination, recording and reporting, the timely processing of quality data, the coordination and management of disease control programmes, and the use of HIS reports by the health services and health managers. Regular feedback, supportive supervision visits and annual reviews are essential to monitor the system and make sure that essential

  8. Long-term aridity changes in the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Edward R; Woodhouse, Connie A; Eakin, C Mark; Meko, David M; Stahle, David W

    2004-11-01

    The western United States is experiencing a severe multiyear drought that is unprecedented in some hydroclimatic records. Using gridded drought reconstructions that cover most of the western United States over the past 1200 years, we show that this drought pales in comparison to an earlier period of elevated aridity and epic drought in AD 900 to 1300, an interval broadly consistent with the Medieval Warm Period. If elevated aridity in the western United States is a natural response to climate warming, then any trend toward warmer temperatures in the future could lead to a serious long-term increase in aridity over western North America.

  9. Use of antibacterial agents in an intensive care unit in a hospital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F. dos Santos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to monitor the utilisation of antibacterial drugs in order to establish appropriate measures for their control. The pattern of usage of antibacterial drugs, and its association with indicators of hospital infection, has been investigated in a non-specialized adult intensive care unit (ICU located in Santa Luzia Hospital (Brasília, DF, Brazil. The study was conducted between January 2001 and June 2004. Data concerning the utilisation of systemic antibacterial drugs, classified according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical/Defined Daily Dose (ATC/DDD system, and indicators of hospital infection, defined according to the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS system, were obtained from appropriate hospital archives. During the study period, the average utilisation of antibacterial drugs was 1918.5 DDD units per 1000 patient-day (DDD1000. The three most used drugs were penicillins/beta-lactamase inhibitors (535.3 DDD1000, third generation cephalosporins (239.1 DDD1000 and quinolones (212.5 DDD1000. The total utilisation of antibacterial drugs was correlated significantly with the incidence of hospital infection (R = 0.62; p < 0.01 and the index of invasive procedures (R = 0.41; p < 0.01. Furthermore, the latter two indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the use of recently commercialised, broad spectrum antibacterial drugs (except for carbapenems. It is concluded that improved infection control procedures, together with more rigorous criteria regarding the use of invasive procedures, should be implemented by the ICU studied in order to diminish the utilisation of antibacterial drugs.

  10. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  11. Geothermal Energy Potential in Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryde, Philip R.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews types of geothermal energy sources in the western states, including hot brine systems and dry steam systems. Conversion to electrical energy is a major potential use of geothermal energy, although it creates environmental disruptions such as noise, corrosion, and scaling of equipment. (AV)

  12. Forest Resources of the United States, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad, tech. coord. Smith; Patrick D., data coord. Miles; Charles H., map coord. Perry; Scott A., Data CD coord. Pugh

    2009-01-01

    Forest resource statistics from the 2000 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment were updated to provide current information on the Nation's forests. Resource tables present estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Current resource data and trends are analyzed...

  13. Forest Resources of the United States, 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith; John S. Vissage; David R. Darr; Raymond M. Sheffield

    2001-01-01

    Forest resource statistics from the 1987 Resources Planning Act (RPA) Assessment were updated to 1997 to provide current information on the Nation`s forests. Resource tables present estimates of forest area, volume, mortality, growth, removals, and timber products output in various ways, such as by ownership, region, or State. Current resource data are analyzed and...

  14. The state reform , regulation, fiscalization and support to the film industry in Brazil: the ANCINE and ANCINAV case

    OpenAIRE

    Fomazari, Fabio Kobol

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to analyses policies of public regulation, fiscalization and support to the film industry in Brazil, regarding the establishment of ANCINE - National Agency of Cinema, studied under the perspective of contemporary shifts in the institutional framework of the Brazilian State. It is studied the specific role of an independent regulatory agency for such a policy; the historic prospect of the relationship between State and cinema in Brazil; the data, outcome and strategic meaning ...

  15. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Maria das Graças Gomes; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Rocha, Lívia Laura dos Santos; Monte, Rossicléia Lins; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Bastos, Michele de Souza; Santos, Marcelo Cordeiro dos; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Guerra, Marcus Vinitius de Farias; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães de

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. Since the 1970s, the (currently named) Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD)] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  16. Epidemiology of infectious meningitis in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Gomes Saraiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the State of Amazonas, particularly in the capital Manaus, meningitis has affected populations of different cultures and social strata over the years. Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different species and represents a major issue of public health importance. The present study reports the meningitis case numbers with different etiologies in Amazonas from January 1976 to December 2012. METHODS: Since the 1970s, the (currently named Tropical Medicine Foundation of Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado [Fundação de Medicina Tropical Doutor Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD] has remained a reference center in Amazonas for the treatment of meningitis through the diagnosis and notification of cases and the confirmation of such cases using specific laboratory tests. RESULTS: The foundation has achieved coverage of over 90% of the state medical records for many years. Between 1990 and 2012, meningitis cases caused by Haemophilus influenzae decreased with the introduction of the H. influenzae vaccine. Meningococcal disease previously had a higher frequency of serogroup B disease, but starting in 2008, the detection of serogroup C increased gradually and has outpaced the detection of serogroup B. Recently, surveillance has improved the etiological definition of viral meningitis at FMT-HVD, with enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and varicella zoster virus (VZV prevailing in this group of pathogens. With the advent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, cryptococcal meningitis has become an important disease in Amazonas. Additionally, infectious meningitis is an important burden in the State of Amazonas. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the epidemiological profile for the different etiology-defined cases are the result of continuous epidemiological surveillance and laboratory capacity improvements and control measures, such as Haemophilus influenzae vaccination.

  17. Explaining the United States-Israel Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    influxes of Ethiopian Jews during and Soviet Jews after the Cold War. Loan guarantees have been 77...and Saudi Arabia .88 President Bill Clinton stated that America’s interests in the Middle East are: “pursuing a comprehensive breakthrough to Middle...been, at least to some extent, an asset to the Arab regimes, as a strategic counterweight to radicalism.”136 Saudi Arabia and the members of the Gulf

  18. Patterns of sediment dispersion coastwise the State of Bahia - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABÍLIO CARLOS DA SILVA PINTO BITTENCOURT

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the average directions of the main wave-fronts which approach the coast of Bahia State - coinciding with that of the main wind occurring in the area - and of their periods, we define a wave climate model based on the construction of refraction diagrams. The resulting model of sediment transport was able to reproduce, in a general way, the sediment dispersion patterns furnished by geomorphic indicators of the littoral drift. These dispersion patterns control the generation of different types of sediment accumulations and of coastal stretches under erosion. We demonstrate that the presence of the Abrolhos and Corumbaú Point coral reefs is an important factor controlling the sediment dispersion patterns, since them act as a large protection against the waves action.

  19. MANAGEMENT OF Amburana cearensis var. acreana IN ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814586This work has as its objectives: a to assess the geographical distribution and population structure of Amburana cearensis var. acreana; b to calculate sustainable cutting rates, according to stipulated cutting cycles, and c to simulate the projected recovery potential in volume based on the calculated cutting rate. It was used data from sustainable forest management plans, and the results will contribute for future decisions about its endangered condition. The results did not corroborate the information that Amburana cearensis var. acreana is endangered in Acre state. However the management sustainability will only be feasible if considered the ideal remaining population structure and the estimative of the optimal cutting rate according to the cutting cycle.

  20. United States Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Food Loss and Waste 2030 Champions are businesses and organizations that have made a public commitment to reduce food loss and waste in their own operations in the United States by 50 percent by the year 2030.

  1. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) (Lease)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  2. 1:100,000-scale Counties of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the county boundaries of the conterminous United States (AK, HI and Puerto Rico are available separately). The lines were extracted from U.S....

  3. National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 640 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The...

  4. Sand and Gravel Operations in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  5. Quaternary Fault and Fold Database of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Quaternary Fault and Fold Database contains the results of thousands of scientific assessments of faults and associated folds in the United States that...

  6. Plant and Animal Phenology Data for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As of January 1, 2013, the dataset contains phenology data on 591 species of plants and animals, with 7,512 locations registered across the United States. Protocols...

  7. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 2000-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 2000-2004. Parameter-elevation...

  8. United States Coast Pilot (volume 1 through 9)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Coast Pilot is a series of 9 nautical books that cover a wide variety of information important to navigators of U.S. coastal and intercoastal...

  9. Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Technical Information Service NCHS Use of the Internet for Health Information: United States, 2009 Recommend on ... more likely than men to have used the Internet for health information. Women were more likely than ...

  10. Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) Inventory (Building)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Real Estate Across the United States (REXUS) is the primary tool used by PBS to track and manage the government's real property assets and to store inventory data,...

  11. Global Map: Railroad Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing Amtrak intercity railroad terminals in the United States. The data are a modified version of the National Atlas of...

  12. Costly Regional Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains information on costly regional landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. The extents of the regional events were drawn from...

  13. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  14. US Forest Service Forest Carbon Stocks Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — Through application of a nearest-neighbor imputation approach, mapped estimates of forest carbon density were developed for the contiguous United States using the...

  15. Indian Lands of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows Indian lands of the United States. Only areas of 640 acres or more are included. Federally-administered lands within a reservation are included...

  16. Barack Obama’s infrastructure policies for the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    The new president of the United States, Barack Obama, has set his policies on infrastructures. To carry them out, he will resort mostly to economics incentives and, to a lesser extent, regulatory constraints.

  17. United States Mortality Database, 1988-1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains mortality information for United States Health Service Areas (805 groups of counties). Included are mortality rates by sex and race (white...

  18. Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Protected Areas Database of the United States (PAD-US) is the nation's inventory of protected areas, including public open space and voluntarily provided,...

  19. Human Population in the Western United States (1900 - 2000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Map containing historical census data from 1900 - 2000 throughout the western United States at the county level. Data includes total population, population density,...

  20. Adult Cigarette Smoking in the United States: Current Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults in the United States Recommend on ... reported smoking every day or some days. Current Smoking Among Adults in 2015 (Nation) By Gender 2 ...

  1. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Topographic Moisture Potential of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated topographic moisture potential classes for the contiguous United States. These topographic moisture potential classes...

  2. Map service: United States Decadal Production History Cells

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service displays present and past oil and gas production in the United States, as well as the location and intensity of exploratory drilling outside...

  3. Streamflow Gaging Stations of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  4. Premature death rates diverge in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI press release on a study that shows premature death rates have declined in the United States among Hispanics, blacks, and Asian/Pacific Islanders but increased among whites and American Indian/Alaska Natives.

  5. Elevation in the Western United States (90 meter DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation in the western United States obtained from the National Elevation Dataset. Data was converted from float point to integer format and resampled from 30m...

  6. Territorial Acquisitions of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the major acquisitions of territory by the United States of America. Only areas in North America, the Caribbean, and Hawaii are included....

  7. 1990 point population coverage for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a point coverage of the 1990 Census of Population and Housing for the conterminous United States. (Alaska and Hawaii are available separately). The coverage...

  8. Streams and Waterbodies of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows areal and linear water features of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The original file was produced by joining the...

  9. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Surficial Lithology of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated a new classification and map of the lithology of surficial materials for the contiguous United States. This was...

  10. United States Earthquake Intensity Database, 1638-1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Earthquake Intensity Database is a collection of damage and felt reports for over 23,000 U.S. earthquakes from 1638-1985. The majority of...

  11. NCHS - Births to Unmarried Women by Age Group: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes number of births to unmarried women by age group in the United States since 1940. Methods for collecting information on marital status changed...

  12. Base-flow index grid for the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This 1-kilometer raster (grid) dataset for the conterminous United States was created by interpolating base-flow index (BFI) values estimated at U.S. Geological...

  13. United States Average Annual Precipitation, 2005-2009 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows polygons of average annual precipitation in the contiguous United States, for the climatological period 2005-2009. Parameter-elevation...

  14. Seismic Hazard Map for the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows seismic hazard in the United States. The data represent a model showing the probability that ground motion will reach a certain level. This map...

  15. Global Map: Airports of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer includes Global Map data showing airports in the United States, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The data are a modified version of the...

  16. United States Crimes Database 1994-2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 1994-2000, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  17. United States Crimes Database 2001-2002 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows crime statistics for the United States for the years 2001-2002, drawn from the Uniform Crime Reporting Program data compiled by the Federal...

  18. Public Land Survey System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set portrays the Public Land Surveys of the United States, including areas of private survey, Donation Land Claims, and Land Grants and Civil Colonies....

  19. United States Tornado Touchdown Points 1950-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows tornado touchdown points in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, from 1950 to 2004. Statistical data were obtained from...

  20. Costly Landslide Events in the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows point locations of costly individual landslide events in the 50 United States and Puerto Rico. Landslide locations were determined from...