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Sample records for united scrap lead

  1. Lead scrap use and trade patterns in the United States, 1995-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2015-09-22

    Since 1995, domestic production of lead has increasingly shifted from primary mining and smelting to the recovery of lead-bearing scrap by the secondary lead industry, which accounted for 91 percent of U.S. lead production in 2012. Increasingly stringent environmental regulations for lead emissions in the United States have contributed to the closure of primary lead refineries and the consolidation of the secondary lead industry. Domestic production of lead from the primary and secondary sectors in 2012 is essentially unchanged from the amount produced in 1995. The U.S. secondary industry produced an estimated 145,000 metric tons more refined lead in 2012 than it did in 1995, primarily by recovering lead from battery scrap, allowing the U.S. to maintain production at a level sufficient to supply much of the domestic demand for lead.

  2. Research of lead extract method from accumulator scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Юрійович Кушнеров

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of production and consumption of lead from primary and secondary raw material is executed. It is determined that approximately 56 % general world lead production consists of lead-content secondary raw material processing – scrap and wastes of lead and accumulator scrap. Using thermodynamic analysis, it is determined that potassium bicarbonate has an advantage at processing of sulfate constituent of secondary raw material

  3. Investigation of Childhood Lead Poisoning from Parental Take-Home Exposure from an Electronic Scrap Recycling Facility — Ohio, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Nick; Jones, Camille; Page, Elena; Ceballos, Diana; Oza, Aalok

    2015-07-17

    Lead affects the developing nervous system of children, and no safe blood lead level (BLL) in children has been identified. Elevated BLLs in childhood are associated with hyperactivity, attention problems, conduct problems, and impairment in cognition. Young children are at higher risk for environmental lead exposure from putting their hands or contaminated objects in their mouth. Although deteriorating lead paint in pre-1979 housing is the most common source of lead exposure in children, data indicate that ≥30% of children with elevated BLLs were exposed through a source other than paint. Take-home contamination occurs when lead dust is transferred from the workplace on employees' skin, clothing, shoes, and other personal items to their car and home. Recycling of used electronics (e-scrap) is a relatively recent source of exposure to developmental neurotoxicants, including lead. In 2010, the Cincinnati Health Department and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Unit (PEHSU) investigated two cases of childhood lead poisoning in a single family. In 2012, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) learned about the lead poisonings during an evaluation of the e-scrap recycling facility where the father of the two children with lead poisoning worked. This report summarizes the case investigation. Pediatricians should ask about parents' occupations and hobbies that might involve lead when evaluating elevated BLLs in children, in routine lead screening questionnaires, and in evaluating children with signs or symptoms of lead exposure.

  4. Occupational lead poisoning, animal deaths, and environmental contamination at a scrap smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R J; Moore, R M; McLaren, G D; Barthel, W F; Landrigan, P J

    1976-01-01

    Occupational lead poisoning and environmental contamination were evaluated at a lead scrap smelter. Thirty of 37 employees (81 per cent) has blood lead levels of greater than or equal to 80 mug/100 ml, indicating unacceptable absorption, and 35 had free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels greater than 60mug/100ml rbc, indicating toxicity of lead on heme metabolism in red blood cells; eight current and previous employees had been hospitalized with lead colic, and another with encephalopathy. Levels of lead in surface soil (1,800 ppm) and vegetation (20,000 ppm) at the smelter were high and decreased with distance. Animals on nearby pasture had died, and lead levels in the blood, milk, and hair of large and small animals were elevated. Adults living within 100 meters of the smelter had higher blood and hair lead levels than controls, who lived at greater distances, but there was no evidence in them of lead toxicity. PMID:937600

  5. Wastes from the coal-enrichment process as alternative reducers for lead smelting from lead-acid accmulator scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lipart

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, results of the study on a possible utilization of coal-enrichment wastes as alternative reducers for lead smelting from acid-lead accumulator scrap are presented. For the experiments, the following alternative carboniferous reducers were selected: coal slurry, anthracite dust and coal soot. The investigations included both laboratoryscale experiments and semi-industrial tests in a rotary furnace. The findings allowed for a review of the effects of a sample type (loose material or material post a preliminary agglomeration process, loaded into the furnace, on a final process yield.

  6. Innovated application of mechanical activation to separate lead from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenyi; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Qiwu; Saito, Fumio

    2012-04-03

    The disposal of scrap cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass has become a global environmental problem due to the rapid shrinkage of new CRT monitor demand, which greatly reduces the reuse for remanufacturing. To detoxificate CRT funnel glass by lead recovery with traditional metallurgical methods, mechanical activation by ball milling was introduced to pretreat the funnel glass. As a result, substantial physicochemical changes have been observed after mechanical activation including chemical breakage and defects formation in glass inner structure. These changes contribute to the easy dissolution of the activated sample in solution. High yield of 92.5% of lead from activated CRT funnel glass by diluted nitric acid leaching and successful formation of lead sulfide by sulfur sulfidization in water have also been achieved. All the results indicate that the application of mechanical activation on recovering lead from CRT funnel glass is efficient and promising, which is also probably appropriate to detoxificate any other kind of leaded glass.

  7. Lead recovery from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass by hydrothermal sulphidisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wenyi; Meng, Wen; Li, Jinhui; Zhang, Chenglong; Song, Qingbin; Bai, Jianfeng; Wang, Jingwei; Li, Yingshun

    2015-10-01

    This research focused on the application of the hydrothermal sulphidisation method to separate lead from scrap cathode ray tube funnel glass. Prior to hydrothermal treatment, the cathode ray tube funnel glass was pretreated by mechanical activation. Under hydrothermal conditions, hydroxyl ions (OH(-)) were generated through an ion exchange reaction between metal ions in mechanically activated funnel glass and water, to accelerate sulphur disproportionation; no additional alkaline compound was needed. Lead contained in funnel glass was converted to lead sulphide with high efficiency. Temperature had a significant effect on the sulphidisation rate of lead in funnel glass, which increased from 25% to 90% as the temperature increased from 100 °C to 300 °C. A sulphidisation rate of 100% was achieved at a duration of 8 h at 300 °C. This process of mechanical activation and hydrothermal sulphidisation is efficient and promising for the treatment of leaded glass.

  8. Occupational lead poisoning, animal deaths, and environmental contamination at a scrap smelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, R.J.; Moore, R.M. Jr.; LcLaren, G.D.; Barthel, W.F.; Landrigan, P.J.

    1976-06-01

    Occupational lead poisoning and environmental contamination were evaluated at a lead scrap smelter. Thirty of 37 employees (81 percent) had blood lead levels of greater than or equal to 80 ..mu..g/100 ml, indicating unacceptable absorption, and 35 had free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) levels greater than 60 ..mu..g/100 ml rbc, indicating toxicity of lead on heme metabolism in red blood cells; eight current and previous employees had been hospitalized with lead colic, and another with encephalopathy. Levels of lead in surface soil (1,800 ppM) and vegetation (20,000 ppM) at the smelter were high and decreased with distance. Animals on nearby pasture had died, and lead levels in the blood, milk, and hair of large and small animals were elevated. Adults living within 100 meters of the smelter had higher blood and hair lead levels than controls, who lived at greater distances, but there was no evidence in them of lead toxicity.

  9. Obtaining of barium sulfate from solution formed after desulfation of the active mass of scrap lead-acid batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kalko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of literature data about processes for solution utilization formed after desulfation of the active mass of scrap lead-acid batteries is performed. Optimal conditions for obtaining of barium sulfate sediment from ammonium sulfate solute and chemically pure Ba(OH2×8H2O и BaCl2×2H2O were found experimentally. In laboratory the commercial barium sulfate from sulfate solutions, that are waste of recycling process of battery scrap, with application of chloride and barium hydroxide was production. The possibility of using this product were discussed.

  10. Synthesis and Application of Magnetic Photocatalyst of Ni-Zn Ferrite/TiO2 from IC Lead Frame Scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available IC lead frame scraps with about 18.01% tin, 34.33% nickel, and 47.66% iron in composition are industrial wastes of IC lead frame production. The amount of thousand tons of frame scraps in Taiwan each year is treated as scrap irons. Ni-Zn ferrites used in high frequent inductors and filters are produced from Ni-Zn ferrite powders by pressing and sintering. The amount of several ten thousand tons of ferrites of Ni1-XZnXFe2O4 in compositions is consumed annually in the whole world. Therefore, these IC lead frame scraps will be used in this research as raw materials to fabricate magnetic ferrite powders and combined subsequently with titanium sulfate and urea to produce magnetic photocatalysts by coprecipitation for effective waste utilization. The prepared Ni-Zn ferrite powder and magnetic photocatalyst (Ni-Zn ferrite/TiO2 were characterized by ICP, XRF, XRD, EDX, SEM, SQUID, and BET. The photocatalytic activity of synthesized magnetic photocatalysts was tested by FBL dye wastewater degradation. TOC and ADMI measurement for degradation studies were carried out, respectively. Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model of the prepared magnetic TiO2 proved available for the treatments. Wastes are transformed to valuable magnetic photocatalysts in this research to solve the separation problem of wastewater and TiO2 photocatalysts by magnetic field.

  11. Human health risk assessment of lead, manganese and copper from scrapped car paint dust from automobile workshops in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Onyenezi Amuka, John Paul; Onwuka, Jude Chinedu; Udowelle, Nnaemeka Arinze; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2016-10-01

    The economic downturn in Nigeria and Structural Adjustment Programme led to the flooding of Nigerian market with imported used automobiles. Most of these vehicles needed refurbishing and reworking. The present study is a human health risk assessment of metal exposure resulting from reworking of imported used vehicles in Nigeria. Scrap paint dusts from 56 Japanese made cars were collected from 8 different mechanic villages (workshops A-H] in Southeastern Nigeria. Scrap paints were homogenized, mixed, divided into fine particles and digested by standard method. The filtrates were assayed of lead, manganese and copper with atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Workshop B has the highest concentration of Pb (4.26 ± 0.93). Manganese in workshops A and F were (3.31 ± 0.85) and (3.04 ± 0.47) respectively and were higher than the levels from workshops C, B, D, G and H. Copper in workshop D (7.11 ± 0.21) was significantly greater than the other workshops. The highest hazard quotient (HQ) through ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposures in adults were 9.44E-05 (workshop B), 4.20E-01 (workshop B) and 1.08E-05 (workshop D) respectively. The highest values for HQ through ingestion, inhalation and dermal in children were 8.82E-04, 7.61E-01 and 2.86E-05 all in workshop B respectively. For children, the highest carcinogenic risk levels were 7.05E-08, 6.09E-05 and 2.29E-10 for ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposures respectively. In adults, the carcinogenic risk levels were 7.55E-09, 3.39E-05 and 8.67E-10 for ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposures respectively. Chronic exposure to scrap car paint dusts may be of significant public health importance in Nigeria as this may add to the body burden of some heavy metals.

  12. United States copper metal and scrap use and trade patterns, 1995‒2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2016-06-17

    In 1995, China accounted for 10 percent of world copper consumption. By 2014, China accounted for about 49 percent of world copper consumption. This change has affected global copper and copper scrap prices, the sources of copper supply, and U.S. trade of copper-containing materials.

  13. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...... resource recovery is largest. It is clearly shown with the two printed circuit board scrap cases that the currently used copper recycling scenario is environmentally inferior to the tin and lead primary production scenarios. The method is a novelty, since no-one has previously put forward a method...

  14. Recent development of recycling lead from scrap CRTs: A technological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Gong; Tian, Xiang-Miao; Wu, Yu-Feng; Zhe-Tan; Lei-Lv

    2016-11-01

    Cathode ray tubes (CRTs) contain numerous harmful substances with different functions. Lead is found in the funnel glass of CRTs. Improperly treated toxic lead may pose significant risks to human health and the environment. This paper reviews and summarizes existing technological processes on the recycling of lead from waste CRTs, including pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, and product-regeneration. The present situation, advantages, and disadvantages of these techniques are described in detail. Generally, pyrometallurgy shows better practicability in recovery lead from waste CRT than hydrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy, in view of environmental impact, energy-consumption, product formats and safety and maturity of technology. Moreover, the gaps in the existing technologies were identified and recommendations for future research were provided.

  15. The Scrap Map: An Environmental Publication for Grades K-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This document contains materials for a 10-day teaching unit on solid waste recycling for grades K-6. Included are: (1) "The Scrap Map," which shows recycling cycles for metals and paper, and a cryptic word puzzle; (2) three pamphlets on recycling paper, nonferrous scrap metals, and scrap iron and steel; (3) a list of the chapters of the Institute…

  16. Preparing ultrafine PbS powders from the scrap lead-acid battery by sulfurization and inert gas condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Huipeng; Zhan, Lu; Xie, Bing

    2017-02-01

    A novel method for preparing ultrafine PbS powders involving sulfurization combined with inert gas condensation is developed in this paper, which is applicable to recycle Pb from lead paste of spent lead-acid batteries. Initially, the effects of the evaporation and condensation temperature, the inert gas pressure, the condensation distance and substrate on the morphology of as-obtained PbS ultrafine particles are intensively investigated using sulfur powders and lead particles as reagents. Highly dispersed and homogeneous PbS nanoparticles can be prepared under the optimized conditions which are 1223 K heating temperature, 573 K condensation temperature, 100 Pa inert gas pressure and 60 cm condensation distance. Furthermore, this method is successfully applied to recycle Pb from the lead paste of spent lead acid battery to prepare PbS ultrafine powders. This work does not only provide the theoretical fundamental for PbS preparation, but also provides a novel and efficient method for recycling spent lead-acid battery with high added-value products.

  17. ISASMELT™ for the Recycling of E-Scrap and Copper in the U.S. Case Study Example of a New Compact Recycling Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvear Flores, Gerardo R. F.; Nikolic, Stanko; Mackey, Phillip J.

    2014-05-01

    As living standards around the world improve and metal consumption increases, extracting raw materials will likely become more challenging in the future. Although already part of the general metal supply stream, metal recycling has to increase if we are to build a more sustainable society. With the recent widespread adoption of a range of consumer and industrial electronics, the recycling of the so-called electronic scrap ("e-scrap") has also increased in importance. One of the leading technologies for the recycling of e-scrap and copper scrap is the ISASMELT™ Top Submerged Lance technology. This article describes new opportunities for the U.S. recycling industry to yield full value from collected, sorted, and separated waste metals, in particular, e-scrap and lower grade copper scrap by the use of ISASMELT™ technology. The article includes the description of a case study example of a regional, compact ISASMELT™ plant in the United States treating a blend of e-scrap and copper scrap, having a total feed capacity of 75000 t/year of feed. Plants of higher or lower capacity are also discussed.

  18. Start a new journey for iron and steel scrap industry by reforming and leading%突破与引领誊开启废钢铁产业发展新征程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫启平

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, two metal recycling enterprises whose primary business is steel scrap processing and dispatching have ranged among the top 500 Chinese enterprises, which presents the achievements and prospects of iron and steel scrap industry in our country. In order to create a modern industry system of iron and steel scrap with Chinese features, the key enterprise group should play a role of innovation and leading. And the approaches to building large enterprises are expanding the scale, implementing systematic management and taking social responsibilities, while the key impetus lie in reforming and innovation.%2011年两家以废钢加工配送为主业的专业化金属再生资源公司双双跻身于中国企业500强,显现了我国废钢铁产业的成就和希望。指出创造一个具有中国特色的现代化废钢铁产业体系需要大企业骨干群体的创新和引领,打造大企业的着力点在于扩大规模、系统管理及承担社会责任,其动力核心在于突破和创新。

  19. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...... in the metals producing industry is presented and tested on two printed circuit board scrap cases. The underlying idea for the method is that complex scrap should be introduced in the matrix of man-made material flows at recipient points where the scrap constitutes the least environmental problem and where...

  20. 40 CFR 63.10685 - What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control of contaminants from scrap? 63.10685 Section 63.10685 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10685 What are the requirements for the control of contaminants from scrap? (a) Chlorinated plastics, lead, and free organic liquids. For metallic scrap utilized in the EAF at your facility, you...

  1. Scrap is no crap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Scrap is good business for the environment. When we recycle metal - meaning to collect, sort and melt it down - we emit much less CO2 than when we extract metal from the ground. The environmental benefit applies to all metals and is gained every time we recycle them. That is a positive message...

  2. Leading Causes of Death in Males United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What’s this? Submit What’s this? Submit Button Leading Causes of Death in Males and Females, United ... links to current and previous listings for the leading causes of death for males and females in ...

  3. Leading Causes of Death in Females United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety and Health Issues at Work Health Equity Leading Causes of Death in Females Recommend on Facebook ... links to current and previous listings for the leading causes of death in females in the United ...

  4. 7 CFR 30.8 - Scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap. 30.8 Section 30.8 Agriculture Regulations of... AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.8 Scrap.... Scrap which accumulates from handling unstemmed leaf tobacco is known as leaf-scrap, and scrap...

  5. The steel scrap age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauliuk, Stefan; Milford, Rachel L; Müller, Daniel B; Allwood, Julian M

    2013-04-02

    Steel production accounts for 25% of industrial carbon emissions. Long-term forecasts of steel demand and scrap supply are needed to develop strategies for how the steel industry could respond to industrialization and urbanization in the developing world while simultaneously reducing its environmental impact, and in particular, its carbon footprint. We developed a dynamic stock model to estimate future final demand for steel and the available scrap for 10 world regions. Based on evidence from developed countries, we assumed that per capita in-use stocks will saturate eventually. We determined the response of the entire steel cycle to stock saturation, in particular the future split between primary and secondary steel production. During the 21st century, steel demand may peak in the developed world, China, the Middle East, Latin America, and India. As China completes its industrialization, global primary steel production may peak between 2020 and 2030 and decline thereafter. We developed a capacity model to show how extensive trade of finished steel could prolong the lifetime of the Chinese steelmaking assets. Secondary steel production will more than double by 2050, and it may surpass primary production between 2050 and 2060: the late 21st century can become the steel scrap age.

  6. Using Scrap Slides for Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Heather

    1979-01-01

    Using scrap slides for an art lesson can be an exciting, creative experience for people of all ages, and many techniques are applicable in both primary and secondary grades. Scrap slides are an inexpensive means to unique, original, and stimulating discoveries about film as an art form. (Author)

  7. Scrap is no crap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Scrap is good business for the environment. When we recycle metal - meaning to collect, sort and melt it down - we emit much less CO2 than when we extract metal from the ground. The environmental benefit applies to all metals and is gained every time we recycle them. That is a positive message...... in a world where we search for methods to reduce our CO2 emission. And the environmental potential is big: There are no upper limits for how many times we can recycle metals, which makes recycling an important part of the fight against global warming....

  8. Scrap is no crap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Scrap is good business for the environment. When we recycle metal - meaning to collect, sort and melt it down - we emit much less CO2 than when we extract metal from the ground. The environmental benefit applies to all metals and is gained every time we recycle them. That is a positive message...... in a world where we search for methods to reduce our CO2 emission. And the environmental potential is big: There are no upper limits for how many times we can recycle metals, which makes recycling an important part of the fight against global warming....

  9. Method for forming consumable electrodes from metallic chip scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girshov, Vladimir Leonidovich; Podpalkin, Arcady Munjyvich; Treschevskiy, Arnold Nikolayevich; Abramov, Alexey Alexandrovich

    2005-10-11

    The method relates to metallurgical recycling of waste products, preferably titanium alloys chips scrap. Accordingly after crushing and cleaning, the chip scrap is subjected to vacuum-thermal degassing (VTD); the chip scrap is pressed into briquettes; the briquettes are placed into a mould allowing sufficient remaining space for the addition of molten metal alloy; the mould is pre-heated before filling with the molten metal alloy; the mould remaining space is filled with molten metal alloy. After cooling, the electrode is removed from the mould. The method provides a means for 100% use of chip scrap in producing consumable electrodes having increased mechanical strength and reduced interstitial impurities content leading to improved secondary cast alloys.

  10. A note on scrap in the 1992 U.S. input-output tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisko, George M.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction A key concern of industrial ecology and life cycle analysis is the disposal and recycling of scrap. One might conclude that the U.S. input-output tables are appropriate tools for analyzing scrap flows. Duchin, for instance, has suggested using input-output analysis for industrial ecology, indicating that input-output economics can trace the stocks and flows of energy and other materials from extraction through production and consumption to recycling or disposal. Lave and others use input-output tables to design life cycle assessment models for studying product design, materials use, and recycling strategies, even with the knowledge that these tables suffer from a lack of comprehensive and detailed data that may never be resolved. Although input-output tables can offer general guidance about the interdependence of economic and environmental processes, data reporting by industry and the economic concepts underlying these tables pose problems for rigorous material flow examinations. This is especially true for analyzing the output of scrap and scrap flows in the United States and estimating the amount of scrap that can be recycled. To show how data reporting has affected the values of scrap in recent input-output tables, this paper focuses on metal scrap generated in manufacturing. The paper also briefly discusses scrap that is not included in the input-output tables and some economic concepts that limit the analysis of scrap flows.

  11. 48 CFR 245.607 - Scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scrap. 245.607 Section 245.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Inventory 245.607 Scrap....

  12. The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hongyun; Fang, Yuan; Liu, Huan; Yu, Ren; Luo, Guangqian; Liu, Wenqiang; Li, Aijun; Yao, Hong

    2014-02-01

    The fate of sulfur during rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires at temperatures from 673 to 1073K was investigated. Sulfur was predominant in the forms of thiophenic and inorganic sulfides in raw scrap tires. In the pyrolysis process, sulfur in organic forms was unstable and decomposed, leading to the sulfur release into tar and gases. At 673 and 773K, a considerable amount of sulfur was distributed in tar. Temperature increasing from 773 to 973K promoted tar decomposition and facilitated sulfur release into gases. At 1073K, the interactions between volatiles and char stimulated the formation of high-molecular-weight sulfur-containing compounds. After pyrolysis, almost half of the total content of sulfur in raw scrap tires still remained in the char and was mostly in the form of sulfides. Moreover, at temperatures higher than 873K, part of sulfur in the char was immobilized in the sulfates. In the pyrolysis gases, H2S was the main sulfur-containing gas. Increasing temperature stimulated the decomposition of organic polymers in scrap tires and more H2S was formed. Besides H2S, other sulfur-containing gases such as CH3SH, COS and SO2 were produced during the rapid pyrolysis of scrap tires.

  13. Properties of concrete containing scrap-tire rubber--an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Rafat; Naik, Tarun R

    2004-01-01

    Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns in the United States. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in USA each year. Of these, more than 270 million scrap-tires (approximately 3.6 million tons) are generated each year. In addition to this, about 300 million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Several studies have been carried out to reuse scrap-tires in a variety of rubber and plastic products, incineration for production of electricity, or as fuel for cement kilns, as well as in asphalt concrete. Studies show that workable rubberized concrete mixtures can be made with scrap-tire rubber. This paper presents an overview of some of the research published regarding the use of scrap-tires in portland cement concrete. The benefits of using magnesium oxychloride cement as a binder for rubberized concrete mixtures are also presented. The paper details the likely uses of rubberized concrete.

  14. Crushing performance and resource characteristic of printed circuit board scrap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui; GU Guo-hua; QI Yun-feng

    2005-01-01

    The crushing performance of printed circuit board (PCB) was studied on several crushers. The results show that PCB is a material which is difficult to crush. The crushing performance of PCB with disk crusher, especially vibration grinding, which has cut or impact action, excels that of jaw crusher or roller crusher. The PCB scrap is worthwhile to recycle using variety of modern characterization methods. When compared with natural resources, this material stream remains a rich precious metal and nonferrous metals. In PCB scrap, metals account for 47% of the total material composition, in which there exists 19.66% copper, 11.47% iron, 3.93% lead, 300 g/t gold and 5-10 kg/t silver, etc. In addition, the PCB scrap contains 27% of plastics and 26% of refractory oxides.

  15. 7 CFR 29.2529 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2529 Section 29.2529 Agriculture...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2529 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and consists of loose and tangled whole...

  16. 7 CFR 29.6022 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.6022 Section 29.6022 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6022 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3526 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3526 Section 29.3526 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3526 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco Leaf scrap results from...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2277 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.2277 Section 29.2277 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... scrap. A byproduct of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco and...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3034 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.3034 Section 29.3034 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Leaf scrap. A by-product of unstemmed tobacco. Leaf scrap results from handling unstemmed tobacco...

  20. High Value Scrap Tire Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B. D.

    2003-02-01

    The objectives of this project were to further develop and scale-up a novel technology for reuse of scrap tire rubber, to identify and develop end uses for the technology (products), and to characterize the technology's energy savings and environmental impact.

  1. Comparison of the U.S. lead recycling industry in 1998 and 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Since 1998, the structure of the lead recycling industry has changed and trade patterns of the domestic lead recycling industry have shifted. Although the domestic demand for lead has remained relatively constant since 1998, production of lead has increasingly shifted to the domestic secondary lead industry. The last primary lead smelter in the United States closed at the end of 2013, at which time the secondary lead industry became the sole source of domestic lead production. The amount of lead recovered annually from scrap batteries generally increased from about 900,000 metric tons in 1995 to more than 1,100,000 metric tons in 2012. The percentage of total U.S. lead production attributed to battery scrap increased from 65 percent in 1995 to 87 percent in 2012. Since the North American Free Trade Agreement took effect in 1994, trade patterns among the United States, Canada, and Mexico have changed for recycled lead products. In the late 1990s, the principal sources of lead waste and scrap not derived from batteries were Canada, Mexico, and South America; by 2011, the principal sources were Central America and Asia, with decreasing amounts from Canada and South America. Since 1998, the amount of lead derived from imported batteries and scrap from Canada has ranged from 50 to 90 percent, and the amount imported from Mexico has ranged from 3 to 20 percent. Canada received about 50 percent of the lead contained in spent lead-acid batteries and scrap exported from the United States in 1998, and Mexico received about 4 percent. By 2012, however, the amount of lead scrap exported to Canada had decreased to about 10 percent, and the amount of lead-based scrap products, primarily batteries, exported to Mexico from the United States had increased to 47 percent. Vertical integration of the domestic secondary lead industry and higher costs required to implement more stringent ambient air standards in the United States have led some companies to shift lead recycling

  2. 48 CFR 245.7310-7 - Scrap warranty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scrap warranty. 245.7310-7... Scrap warranty. The following condition shall be used whenever property, other than production scrap, is offered for sale as scrap: Scrap Warranty The Purchaser represents and warrants that the property will...

  3. Managing the disposition of potentially radioactive scrap metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S Y

    2006-11-01

    In 2002, the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) issued Report No. 141, Managing Potentially Radioactive Scrap Metal. The report evaluates management policy and related issues regarding scrap metal generated in regulated facilities that have been under radiological control or have radiological concerns. It has been estimated that more than 9 million metric tons of scrap metal of all types that have been associated with the production or use of radioactive materials will be generated during the coming decades at various facilities across the United States. Currently, disposition of such metal has encountered particular obstacles, primarily because of the lack of a consistent disposition policy, systematic regulatory provisions, and, above all, public understanding. Without clarity in the regulatory passage, much of the scrap metal, including metal that has not been contaminated, could be mischaracterized as low-level radioactive waste, resulting in a costly disposition operation. NCRP Report No. 141 identifies this general category of metal as "potentially radioactive scrap metal" (PRSM) and discusses the viable disposition options for facilitating its management. Because much of the PRSM has been found to contain very low residual radioactivity or even none at all, one consideration is to release such metal outside of the radiological control framework. This would require the development and implementation of a set of strict release standards in the United States that would necessarily be risk-based and supported by a comprehensive management scheme. Developing a policy of this kind, however, would entail the resolution of many issues, not the least of which would be public acceptance, including that of the metal industry, of the possible recycling of PRSM in the general commerce.

  4. Soil and groundwater contamination with heavy metals at two scrap iron and metal recycling facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Holm, P. E.; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2000-01-01

    Field studies were performed at two actual scrap iron and metal recycling facilities in order to evaluate the extent of heavy metal migration into subsoil and groundwater caused by more than 25 years of handling scrap directly on the ground without any measures to prevent leaching. Surface soil...... samples, called `scrap dirt', representing the different activities on the two recycling facilities, all showed very high concentrations of lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), high concentrations of cadmium (Cd) , chromium (Cr) and nickel (Ni) and somewhat elevated concentrations of many other metals...

  5. The development of technology for recycling of electronic scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hyo-Shin; Kim, Won-Baek; Sohn, Yong-Uhn [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Electronic devices, especially computer becomes an essential tools for home and industries entering the information era. The number of computers exceed over 100 million, hence, the amount of end of life(EOL) computer and electronic scrap is increasing. These wastes and scraps include products rejected from manufacturing processes and obstacle computers. Owing to a short life cycle of electronic products and rapid growth of electronic industries, the number of domestic EOL computers goes beyond a million and its disposal causes an environmental problems. Therefore, this recycling is considered to play an important role from the viewpoint of environmental preservation as well as reusable resources. The process development for the recovery of valuable materials and minimization of waste from electronic scrap has been carried out. In the first year of three year project, physical separation such as shredding, crushing, and magnetic separation is established to reclaim valuable materials effectively. Then, hydro- and pyrometallurgical processes are employed to recover valuable metals from electronic scrap. First, metallic and nonmetallic portion are separated from PCBs by a newly designed shredder to prevent hazardous organic materials from further chemical treatment. The optimum conditions for each unit process were found in terms of separation ratio, energy consumption, recovery rate, etc. (author). 92 refs., 24 tabs., 39 figs.

  6. Mercury-impacted scrap metal: Source and nature of the mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Molly E; Raymond, Michelle R; Scofield, Marcienne A; Smith, Karen P

    2015-09-15

    The reuse and recycling of industrial solid wastes such as scrap metal is supported and encouraged both internationally and domestically, especially when such wastes can be used as substitutes for raw material. However, scrap metal processing facilities, such as mini-mills, have been identified as a source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. This research aims to better define some of the key issues related to the source and nature of mercury in the scrap metal waste stream. Overall, it is difficult to pinpoint the key mercury sources feeding into scrap metal recycling facilities, quantify their associated mercury concentrations, or determine which chemical forms are most significant. Potential sources of mercury in scrap metal include mercury switches from discarded vehicles, electronic-based scrap from household appliances and related industrial systems, and Hg-impacted scrap metal from the oil and gas industry. The form of mercury associated with scrap metal varies and depends on the source type. The specific amount of mercury that can be adsorbed and retained by steel appears to be a function of both metallurgical and environmental factors. In general, the longer the steel is in contact with a fluid or condensate that contains measurable concentrations of elemental mercury, the greater the potential for mercury accumulation in that steel. Most mercury compounds are thermally unstable at elevated temperatures (i.e., above 350 °C). As such, the mercury associated with impacted scrap is expected to be volatilized out of the metal when it is heated during processing (e.g., shredding or torch cutting) or melted in a furnace. This release of fugitive gas (Hg vapor) and particulates, as well as Hg-impacted bag-house dust and control filters, could potentially pose an occupational exposure risk to workers at a scrap metal processing facility. Thus, identifying and characterizing the key sources of Hg-impacted scrap, and understanding the nature and extent

  7. Removal of copper from ferrous scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blander, Milton; Sinha, Shome N.

    1990-01-01

    A process for removing copper from ferrous or other metal scrap in which the scrap is contacted with a polyvalent metal sulfide slag in the presence of an excess of copper-sulfide forming additive to convert the copper to copper sulfide which is extracted into the slag to provide a ratio of copper in the slag to copper in the metal scrap of at least about 10.

  8. Defense Scrap Yard Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Draw a sharp knife along ing metal. an edge of the sample. Aluminum is a soft metal (3) Place one drop of nitric acid on the and will peel into a...silver alloys and 35 Maize . the range of nickel content to be specified, free of chrome or any other plating material. Leaded nickel silver clippings... peelings , baskets, and/or turnings. Particu- lars regarding physical description, assay, and packaging to be agreed on between buyer and seller. (99

  9. Leachability of heavy metals from scrap dirt sampled at two scrap iron and metal recycling facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Holm, Peter Engelund; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2000-01-01

    Column and batch leaching experiments were performed to quantify leaching of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd and Zn) from scrap dirt representing different activities at two iron scrap and metal recycling facilities. The scrap dirt is often found directly upon the bare unprotected soil at recycling...... facilities. In most cases the leaching of heavy metals was modest, within ®ve times the leaching from reference soils, and the concentrations were usually within a factor of 2 of drinking water criteria. The high pH of the scrap dirt samples seemed to control the leaching. However, scrap dirt from car......, at that level, useful for evaluation of leaching potentials from scrap dirt. The experiments showed that scrap dirt at recycling facilities constitutes only a modest leaching problem, but a long-term soil pollution problem from a land-use perspective. Leaching experiments with compost solution indicated...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1029 - Leaf scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf scrap. 29.1029 Section 29.1029 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1029 Leaf scrap. A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco....

  11. Copper Scrap Industry Remained in Cold Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Beginning from 2012,domestic copper scrap enterprises entered"winter"period,this year the situation further worsened.According to survey,most medium to small sized copper scrap trading enterprises have either closed down,transferred to other businesses,or reduced trading volume,though large trading

  12. 48 CFR 1845.607 - Scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Scrap. 1845.607 Section 1845.607 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal of Contractor Inventory 1845.607 Scrap....

  13. A Pilot Assessment of Occupational Health Hazards in the US Electronic Scrap Recycling Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana M; Gong, Wei; Page, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) surveyed a randomly selected sample of electronic scrap (e-scrap) recycling facilities nationwide to characterize work processes, exposures, and controls. Despite multiple attempts to contact 278 facilities, only 47 responded (17% response rate). Surveyed facilities reported recycling a wide variety of electronics. The most common recycling processes were manual dismantling and sorting. Other processes included shredding, crushing, and automated separation. Many facilities reported that they had health and safety programs in place. However, some facilities reported the use of compressed air for cleaning, a practice that can lead to increased employee dust exposures, and some facilities allowed food and drinks in the production areas, a practice that can lead to ingestion of contaminants. Although our results may not be generalizable to all US e-scrap recycling facilities, they are informative regarding health and safety programs in the industry. We concluded that e-scrap recycling has the potential for a wide variety of occupational exposures particularly because of the frequent use of manual processes. On-site evaluations of e-scrap recyclers are needed to determine if reported work processes, practices, and controls are effective and meet current standards and guidelines. Educating the e-scrap recycling industry about health and safety best practices, specifically related to safe handling of metal dust, would help protect employees.

  14. 7 CFR 29.2666 - Scrap (S Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.2666 Section 29.2666 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.2666 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grades Grade names and specifications S Scrap. Tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed leaves, or...

  15. 7 CFR 29.3157 - Scrap (S Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.3157 Section 29.3157 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3157 Scrap (S Group). A by-product of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grades Grade names and specifications S Scrap. Loose, tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed...

  16. 48 CFR 245.607-70 - Scrap warranty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scrap warranty. 245.607-70... Contractor Inventory 245.607-70 Scrap warranty. (a) If the contractor sells its inventory as scrap to anyone... 1639, Scrap Warranty. (b) The contracting officer may release the contractor from the terms of...

  17. 7 CFR 29.6131 - Scrap (S Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.6131 Section 29.6131 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.6131 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap..., or the web portion of tobacco leaves reduced to scrap by any process. Summary of Standard Grades...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1169 - Scrap (S Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.1169 Section 29.1169 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.1169 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grade, Grade Name and Specifications S—Scrap. Loose, whole, or broken unstemmed leaves; or...

  19. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... determining whether scrap metal will be removed should be the safety of persons coming on the land in...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3652 - Scrap (S Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.3652 Section 29.3652 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.3652 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of stemmed and unstemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. Grades Grade name and specifications S Scrap. Loose, tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2441 - Scrap (S Group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scrap (S Group). 29.2441 Section 29.2441 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Grades § 29.2441 Scrap (S Group). A byproduct of unstemmed and stemmed tobacco. Scrap... stemmeries. U.S. grade Grade name and specifications S Scrap. Tangled, whole, or broken unstemmed leaves,...

  2. A method of separating scrap, and a device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.C.M.; Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a method of and a device for separating scrap comprising scrap items of a first type and of a second type, at least one of said types of scrap comprising metal. According to the invention, the method comprises the steps of passing a spot of light over the surface of a scrap

  3. The growth units and hydrothermal preparation of lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystallites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元如林; 施尔畏; 李汶军; 郑燕青; 吴南春; 仲维卓

    2000-01-01

    The crystal structure of lead tungstate (PbWO4) can be regarded as ordered combination of the tungsten oxide tetrahedrons (WO4) and lead ions (Pb2+). According to the growth unit model, the growth units of lead tungstate are the aggregations of the tungsten oxide tetrahedrons and lead cations with various geometry configurations. It is suggested that the favorable growth units of lead tungstate crystal are pyramidal, tetragonal prism and quadrangular units corresponding to geometric orientations of the simple forms of the crystal. Under low restricted growth conditions, the growth form of lead tungstate crystallites is the aggregation of the geometric configurations of these favorable growth units. The above conclusions are completely confirmed by the experiment on hydrothermal preparation of lead tungstate crystallites.

  4. The growth units and hydrothermal preparation of lead tungstate (PbWO4) crystallites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The crystal structure of lead tungstate (PbWO4) can be regarded as ordered combination of the tungsten oxide tetrahedrons (WO4) and lead ions (Pb2+). According to the growth unit model, the growth units of lead tungstate are the aggregations of the tungsten oxide tetrahedrons and lead cations with various geometry configurations. It is suggested that the favorable growth units of lead tungstate crystal are pyramidal, tetragonal prism and quadrangular units corresponding to geometric orientations of the simple forms of the crystal. Under low restricted growth conditions, the growth form of lead tungstate crystallites is the aggregation of the geometric configurations of these favorable growth units. The above conclusions are completely confirmed by the experiment on hydrothermal preparation of lead tungstate crystallites.

  5. Scrap the NMC, says former trust chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    The Nursing and Midwifery Council should be scrapped and the responsibility for dealing with problems handed to employers, a former NHS trust chair told delegates at the Royal College of Midwives conference.

  6. AIR EMISSIONS FROM SCRAP TIRE COMBUSTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses air emissions from two types of scrap tire combustion: uncontrolled and controlled. Uncontrolled sources are open tire fires, which produce many unhealthful products of incomplete combustion and release them directly into the atmosphere. Controlled combustion...

  7. Quality Evaluation of Remelted A356 Scraps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    C. Yuksel; O. Tamer; E. Erzi; U. Aybarc; E. Cubuklusu; O. Topcuoglu; M. Cigdem; D. Dispinar

    2016-01-01

    .... Since recycling of these scrap is quite important due to the advantages like energy saving and cost reduction in the final product, in this work, the recycling efficiency and casting quality were investigated...

  8. Waste to Wealth; The Utilization of Scrap Tyre as Aggregate in Bituminous Mixes for Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oba, A. L.,

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The problem associated with solid waste management is on the increase both in the industries, urban cities and in the rural areas. In the United States of America, Asia and Europe, there are over hundreds of waste to wealth combustion plants from where solid wastes are incinerated. In Nigeria, amidst the increasing importation of vehicle tyre such plants are scarcely in existence to enhance generation of revenue from waste through the extraction of raw material for the production of light weight aggregates, printing ink, paints, shoe polish, dry cell and battery heads. This research paper seeks to utilize vehicle scrap tyre (VST as aggregates in asphaltic mixture by adopting the dry process to evaluate the effect of rubber-bitumen interaction on asphaltic concrete properties; laboratory investigation using 4.75mm, 2.36mm and 0.600mm chunk tyre particle size modified asphalt mixture containing 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% scrap tyre and 0% tyre content as control mixture. The mixtures were subjected to Marshall Tests where the stability, flow, percentage air void, unit weight, void mineral aggregate, height of specimen and specific gravity were determined. The results obtained shows that as tyre percentage increase the stability, unit weight and specific gravity value decreases. On the other hand, as the tyre content increases, the flow and height of specimen increases while as the tyre content increases the percentage air void and VMA increased for 4.75mm Tyre Particle Size (TPS and 2.36mm TPS while for 0.600mm TPS, reverse is the case. In summary and in comparism with standard specification for road construction material, the Marshall tests conducted on the tyre modified specimens remained intact and by interpretation; material possessing such property indicates good impact resistance when use as surface course in flexible pavement. Conclusively, the use of 10% 4.75mm, 4% 2.36mm or 4% 0.600mm TPS by weight of aggregate in asphaltic concrete is

  9. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  10. Quality Evaluation of Remelted A356 Scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel C.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A356 is one of the widely used aluminium casting alloy that has been used in both sand and die casting processes. Large amounts of scrap metal can be generated from the runner systems and feeders. In addition, chips are generated in the machined parts. The surface area with regard to weight of chips is so high that it makes these scraps difficult to melt. Although there are several techniques evolved to remedy this problem, yet the problem lies in the quality of the recycled raw material. Since recycling of these scrap is quite important due to the advantages like energy saving and cost reduction in the final product, in this work, the recycling efficiency and casting quality were investigated. Three types of charges were prepared for casting: %100 primary ingot, %100 scrap aluminium and fifty-fifty scrap aluminium and primary ingot mixture were used. Melt quality was determined by calculating bifilm index by using reduced pressure test. Tensile test samples were produced by casting both from sand and die moulds. Relationship between bifilm index and tensile strength were determined as an indication of correlation of melt quality. It was found that untreated chips decrease the casting quality significantly. Therefore, prior to charging the chips into the furnace for melting, a series of cleaning processes has to be used in order to achieve good quality products.

  11. Sensitivity of scrap metal prices to global economic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Chindamo, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    The scrap metal industry is part of the broader recycling industry that involves the collection,separation and processing of materials for manufacture into raw materials or new products. The demand for scrap metal is a derived demand – based on the demand for steel because scrap metal is an input to steel production. Steel demand in turn is based on demand by construction,manufacturing and other industrial sectors. Hence prices for scrap metal are a function of prices for steel. Sc...

  12. 2010 Q3 China Copper Scrap Market Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Analysis of price change tendency of copper scrap In Q3 2010, China’s copper scrap price re-bounded. Although the price dropped by 1.2% q-o-q, it rose by 22.07% y-o-y. In September, average price of copper scrap reached RMB 52350/ton.

  13. China Sent Teams to Japan for Metals Scrap Hazard Inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> According to a report frown China NonferrousMetals News, China recently sent 3 teams toJapan for the inspection of some Japanesemetals scrap suppliers who have had someproblems during the registration applicationsfor exporting metals scrap to China. The in-spection targets mainly include the metals scrap

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 12 - Disposition of removed equipment and scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. Sec. 12... CONTRACT-NSA-LUMPSUMREP Sec. 12 Disposition of removed equipment and scrap. (a) Article 8 of the NSA... cause the Contractor to segregate all equipment, salvageable material and scrap, removed from a...

  15. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  16. 48 CFR 1845.607-170 - Contractor's approved scrap procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor's approved scrap... Contractor Inventory 1845.607-170 Contractor's approved scrap procedure. (a) When a contractor has an approved scrap procedure, certain property may be routinely disposed of in accordance with that...

  17. Characterization of shredded television scrap and implications for materials recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jirang; Forssberg, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of TV scrap was carried out by using a variety of methods, such as chemical analysis, particle size and shape analysis, liberation degree analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, sink-float test, and IR spectrometry. A comparison of TV scrap, personal computer scrap, and printed circuit board scrap shows that the content of non-ferrous metals and precious metals in TV scrap is much lower than that in personal computer scrap or printed circuit board scrap. It is expected that recycling of TV scrap will not be cost-effective by utilizing conventional manual disassembly. The result of particle shape analysis indicates that the non-ferrous metal particles in TV scrap formed as a variety of shapes; it is much more heterogeneous than that of plastics and printed circuit boards. Furthermore, the separability of TV scrap using density-based techniques was evaluated by the sink-float test. The result demonstrates that a high recovery of copper could be obtained by using an effective gravity separation process. Identification of plastics shows that the major plastic in TV scrap is high impact polystyrene. Gravity separation of plastics may encounter some challenges in separation of plastics from TV scrap because of specific density variations.

  18. Co-pyrolysis of coal and scrap tyres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuzana Mikulova; Vaclav Roubrek; Kamil Wichterle; Roman Smelik; Jan Pavelka

    2009-07-01

    From the pyrolysis of coal, scrap tyres and their blends, these conclusions may be made: (i) consumption of energy is higher for blends, (ii) addition of scrap tyres increases liquid phase and (iii) addition of scrap tyres increases concentration of some hydrocarbons and value of gross calorific value. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via EBCHR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-11-01

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  20. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 2. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume II contains: Task 1.4, optimization of the vitreous phase for stabilization of radioactive species; Task 1.5, experimental testing of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) wastes; and Task 1.6, conceptual design of a CEP facility.

  1. Recycle of contaminated scrap metal, Volume 1. Semi-annual report, September 1993--January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) has been demonstrated to be a robust, one-step process that is relatively insensitive to wide variations in waste composition and is applicable to a broad spectrum of DOE wastes. Catalytic Processing Unit (CPU) design models have been validated through experimentation to provide a high degree of confidence in our ability to design a bulk solids CPU for processing DOE wastes. Two commercial CEP facilities have been placed in commission and are currently processing mixed low level wastes. These facilities provide a compelling indication of the maturity, regulatory acceptance, and commercial viability of CEP. In concert with the DOE, Nolten Metal Technology designed a program which would challenge preconceptions of the limitations of waste processing technologies: demonstrate the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal could be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP would concentrate the radionuclides in a durable vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP would convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which could be used as an energy source; recover volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system would capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. The execution of this program resulted in all objectives being met. Volume I covers: executive summary; task 1.1 design CEP system; Task 1.2 experimental test plan; Task 1.3 experimental testing.

  2. Radiation accident at Mayapuri scrap market, Delhi, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, A B; Mohanan, Sandeep; Damodaran, Deepak; Soneja, Manish; Jain, Neetu; Mohan, Anant; Vikram, Naval Kishore; Sood, Rita

    2012-10-01

    This article reports the accidental public radiation exposure in a scrap market in Delhi, India, on March 2010. The source, a gamma unit containing Cobalt-60 pencils, was improperly disposed of by a research institution in violation of national regulations for radiation protection and safety of radioactive sources. The unit was sold off to unsuspecting scrap dealers who dismantled the equipment. This event subsequently caused the most severe radiation accident reported in India to date, resulting in seven radiation injuries and one death. The clinical course of five of the patients treated at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences hospital, New Delhi, is summarised in this report. All five patients suffered from the haematological form of the acute radiation syndrome and local cutaneous radiation injury as well. While four patients exposed to doses between 0.6 and 2.8 Gy survived with intensive or supportive treatment, the patient with the highest exposure of 3.1 Gy died due to acute respiratory distress syndrome and multi-organ failure on Day 16 after hospitalisation. The incident highlights the current gaps in the knowledge, infrastructure and legislation in handling radioactive materials. Medical institutions need to formulate individualised triage and management guidelines to immediately respond to future public radiological accidents.

  3. Tungsten recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedd, Kim B.

    2011-01-01

    This report, which is one of a series of reports on metals recycling, defines and quantifies the flow of tungsten-bearing materials in the United States from imports and stock releases through consumption and disposition in 2000, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap). Because of tungsten's many diverse uses, numerous types of scrap were available for recycling by a wide variety of processes. In 2000, an estimated 46 percent of U.S. tungsten supply was derived from scrap. The ratio of tungsten consumed from new scrap to that consumed from old scrap was estimated to be 20:80. Of all the tungsten in old scrap available for recycling, an estimated 66 percent was either consumed in the United States or exported to be recycled.

  4. 46 CFR 148.04-9 - Fishmeal or scrap, ground or pelletized; fishmeal or scrap, ground and pelletized (mixture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fishmeal or scrap, ground or pelletized; fishmeal or scrap, ground and pelletized (mixture). 148.04-9 Section 148.04-9 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Additional Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-9 Fishmeal or scrap, ground or pelletized; fishmeal...

  5. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found? Who is at risk? What are the health effects of lead? Get educational material about lead Get certified as a Lead Abatement Worker, or other abatement discipline Lead in drinking water Lead air pollution Test your child Check and maintain your home ...

  6. Environmental impact of scrapping old cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wee, Bert van; Moll, Henri C.; Dirks, Jessica

    Many countries introduced scrapping programs in the 90s, partly legitimated by environmental impact reductions. However, reducing the age of the current car fleet may result in an increase of life-cycle CO2 emissions. This will probably also be true for cars to be produced in future unless fuel

  7. Vitrification for stability of scrap and residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-05-01

    A conference breakout discussion was held on the subject of vitrification for stabilization of plutonium scrap and residue. This was one of four such sessions held within the vitrification workshop for participants to discuss specific subjects in further detail. The questions and issues were defined by the participants.

  8. Recent Trends in China’s Coppe Scrap Market-Part Ⅰ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Copper scrap is also called scrap copper,based on its source it can be divided into new copper scrap and old copper scrap.New copper scrap refers to waste materials generated in the process of copper industrial production;old copper scrap refers to copper scrap recycled from discarded articles,such as copper wire recycled from old cables,household electrical appliance,electric motor,as well as copper water pipe used in buildings etc.

  9. Characterization of pre-1957 avionic scrap for resource recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, B.W. Jr.; Ambrose, F.

    1980-01-01

    Studies conducted to determine increased recovery and utilization methods of valuable constituents in a wide variety of domestic and industrial wastes are described. In this particular study, 36 units of obsolete electronic equipment from military aircraft were disassembled into their modular components by hand to determine materials distribution. Further modular disassembly into individual parts was used to identify metal composition. After identifying the metals in some of the more difficult to dismantle modules, similar modules were grouped together, shredded, mechanically separated, and using metal composition data from hand separation, classified along with the hand-separated materials. Although this equipment is normally classified as low-value iron-bearing aluminum, data were obtained that indicated the potential for moderately higher value classification. The electronic units were classified as to precious metals, copper, iron, and aluminum contents, and scrap values were estimated.

  10. Economic and policy instrument analyses in support of the scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-02-01

    Understanding the cost-effectiveness and the role of economic and policy instruments, such as the combined product tax-recycling subsidy scheme or a tradable permit, for scrap tire recycling has been of crucial importance in a market-oriented environmental management system. Promoting product (tire) stewardship on one hand and improving incentive-based recycling policy on the other hand requires a comprehensive analysis of the interfaces and interactions in the nexus of economic impacts, environmental management, environmental valuation, and cost-benefit analysis. This paper presents an assessment of the interfaces and interactions between the implementation of policy instruments and its associated economic evaluation for sustaining a scrap tire recycling program in Taiwan during the era of the strong economic growth of the late 1990s. It begins with an introduction of the management of the co-evolution between technology metrics of scrap tire recycling and organizational changes for meeting the managerial goals island-wide during the 1990s. The database collected and used for such analysis covers 17 major tire recycling firms and 10 major tire manufacturers at that time. With estimates of scrap tire generation and possible scale of subsidy with respect to differing tire recycling technologies applied, economic analysis eventually leads to identify the associated levels of product tax with respect to various sizes of new tires. It particularly demonstrates a broad perspective of how an integrated econometric and engineering economic analysis can be conducted to assist in implementing policy instruments for scrap tire management. Research findings indicate that different subsidy settings for collection, processing, and end use of scrap tires should be configured to ameliorate the overall managerial effectiveness. Removing the existing boundaries between designated service districts could strengthen the competitiveness of scrap tires recycling industry, helping to

  11. Leading-zero anticipator (LZA) in the IBM RISC System/6000 floating-point execution unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hokenek, E.; Montoye, R.K. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (USA). Thomas J. Watson Research Center)

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a technique used in the multiply-add-fused (MAF) unit of the IBM RISC System/6000 (RS/6000) processor for normalizing the floating-point results. Unlike the conventional procedures applied thus far, the so-called leading-zero anticipator (LZA) of the RS/6000 carries out processing of the leading zeros and ones in parallel with floating-point addition. Therefore, the new circuitry reduces the total latency of the MAF unit by enabling the normalization and addition to take place in a single cycle.

  12. Lincoln Co. Scrap Metal, Crab Orchard, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    The City of Crab Orchard, KY (population less than 1,000) received a $200,000 EPA Brownfields cleanup grant in 2010 to cleanup up the Lincoln County ScrapMetal property. The site, a former scrap metal recycler and general junkyard, was located in the middle of downtown. The city has experienced a dramatic decline in growth over the past few years. The abandoned two-acre site is located in the city’s center, directly across the street from City Hall. It is the largest property on Main Street. The property was an eyesore, and posed potential health risks to area residents, and deterred investment. Its blighted status did little to help the commercial and private properties that surround it. The site was also home to a dilapidated building that once served as the Odd Fellows meeting hall.

  13. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  14. Scrap tire ashes in portland cement production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Adriana Trezza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tires are not considered harmful waste, but their stocking and disposal are a potential health and environmental risk. Properly controlled calcinations at high temperatures make tire combustion an interesting alternative due to its high calorific power, comparable to that of fuel-oil. Consequently, using them as an alternative combustible material in cement kilns makes it possible to give it a valuable use. However, it remains to be assured whether the impurities added to the clinker through these fuels do not affect its structure or properties.This paper shows the studies carried out on different clinkers under laboratory conditions with different levels of addition of scrap tire ashes, added by partially replacing traditional fuel in cement kilns.

  15. HTS current lead units prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiohara, K.; Sakai, S.; Ishii, Y. [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Yamada, Y., E-mail: yyamaday@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.j [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Tachikawa, K. [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Koizumi, T.; Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [SWCC Showa Cable System Co., LTD, 4-1-1 Minami-Hashimoto, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1133 (Japan); Tamura, H.; Mito, T. [NIFS National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Two superconducting current lead units have been prepared using ten coated conductors of the Tri-Fluoro-Acetate - Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}(YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (I{sub c}) of about 170 A at 77 K in self-field. The coated conductors are 5 mm in width, 190 mm in length and about 120 {mu}m in overall thickness. The 1.5 {mu}m thick superconducting YBCO layer was synthesized through the TFA-MOD process on Hastelloy{sup TM} C-276 substrate tape with two buffer oxide layers of Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and CeO{sub 2}. The five YBCO coated conductors are attached on a 1 mm thick Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) board and soldered to Cu caps at the both ends. We prepared two 500 A-class current lead units. The DC transport current of 800 A was stably applied at 77 K without any voltage generation in all coated conductors. The voltage between both Cu caps linearly increased with increasing the applied current, and was about 350 {mu}V at 500 A in both current lead units. According to the estimated values of the heat leakage from 77 K to 4.2 K, the heat leakage for the current lead unit was 46.5 mW. We successfully attained reduction of the heat leakage because of improvement of the transport current performance (I{sub c}), a thinner Ag layer of YBCO coated conductor and usage of the GFRP board for reinforcement instead of a stainless steel board used in the previous study. The DC transport current of 1400 A was stably applied when the two current lead units were joined in parallel. The sum of the heat leakages from 77 K to 4.2 K for the combined the current lead units was 93 mW. In comparison with the conventional Cu current leads by gas-cooling, it could be noted that the heat leakage of the current lead is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the Cu current lead.

  16. 48 CFR 45.606-2 - Contractor without an approved scrap procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approved scrap procedure. 45.606-2 Section 45.606-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Contractor without an approved scrap procedure. The contractor shall submit an inventory disposal schedule for all scrap....

  17. The Tax Changes may Let Producers Buy More Copper Scrap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>China’s new tax policy on the import of copper scrap is made to encourage the scrap imports. However, this move will put more pressure on the downward copper price in the futures market. As reported, from January 1, 2007, China’s import tax on copper scrap will be totally removed and traders believe that this new policy change is meant to encourage the import of scrap copper but this will also help to push down the refined copper price in the futures market.

  18. Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Appendix I Appendix II Tables Figures State Programs Alabama Alaska Arizona ... Tool Kit Resources Healthy Homes and Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks File Formats Help: ...

  19. Recent Trends in China’s Copper Scrap Market-Part Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>2.Tianjin Scrap Metal Market In Tianjin,we mainly visited Jinghai Ziy Town scrap market and Binhai New Area’some copper scrap enterprises and enterprise using copper scrap.In Ziya we felt the coppe scrap market was particularly deserted,mos copper scrap enterprises in the town wer closed,industry insiders said in 2012 the plac here was bustling with activity.According to

  20. Reducing Potentially Excess Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death in the Rural United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Macarena C; Faul, Mark; Massetti, Greta; Thomas, Cheryll C; Hong, Yuling; Bauer, Ursula E; Iademarco, Michael F

    2017-01-13

    In 2014, the all-cause age-adjusted death rate in the United States reached a historic low of 724.6 per 100,000 population (1). However, mortality in rural (nonmetropolitan) areas of the United States has decreased at a much slower pace, resulting in a widening gap between rural mortality rates (830.5) and urban mortality rates (704.3) (1). During 1999–2014, annual age-adjusted death rates for the five leading causes of death in the United States (heart disease, cancer, unintentional injury, chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD), and stroke) were higher in rural areas than in urban (metropolitan) areas (Figure 1). In most public health regions (Figure 2), the proportion of deaths among persons aged leading causes that were potentially excess deaths was higher in rural areas compared with urban areas (Figure 3). Several factors probably influence the rural-urban gap in potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes, many of which are associated with sociodemographic differences between rural and urban areas. Residents of rural areas in the United States tend to be older, poorer, and sicker than their urban counterparts (3). A higher proportion of the rural U.S. population reports limited physical activity because of chronic conditions than urban populations (4). Moreover, social circumstances and behaviors have an impact on mortality and potentially contribute to approximately half of the determining causes of potentially excess deaths (5).

  1. Perspective on Lead Toxicity, a Comparison between the United States and Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Amirshahi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a pervasive toxin that has been implicated in human poisonings throughout history.Exposure mitigation strategies in the United States and worldwide have led to a decline in symptomatic poisonings and population blood lead levels; however, lead remains a major health hazard. In this article, we review the history of lead toxicity, clinical manifestations ranging from subclinical and subtle features to life-threatening complications, and thesubsequent public health interventions in the US. In addition, we explore common routes of lead exposure and the unique differences between the US and Iran. Although the US has made significant strides with regard to this public health issue, lead poisoning in both countries continues to be a health hazard in the adult and pediatric populations. It is also critical to consider natural disasters and reconstruction efforts as potential sources of leadcontamination. In conclusion, we make recommendations that both the US and Iranian authorities can implement to eradicate lead as a public health hazard.

  2. Lead-210 contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [Peter Gray and Associates, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Nearly all scrap dealers, smelters and other recyclers routinely monitor for radioactivity in shipments entering their facility. These sensitive radiation gate monitors easily detect radium-226 and most other radioactive nuclides. However, the type of detector normally used, sodium iodide scintillation crystals, will not detect the low energy gamma radiation emitted by lead-210 and its progeny. Since lead-210 is a common radioactive contaminant in certain industries, contaminated scrap metal from these industries may avoid detection at the recycler. Lead-210 is a decay product of radon-222 which is produced in small concentrations with natural gas. As the natural gas liquids, particularly ethane and propane, are separated from the natural gas, the radon concentrates in the ethane/propane fraction. The natural gas industry, particularly gas processing facilities and industries using ethane and propane as feed stocks can be significantly contaminated with the radon decay products, especially lead-210, bismuth-210 and polonium-210. Unless the scrap metal is decontaminated before sending to the recycler, the lead-210 contaminated scrap may be processed, resulting in some degree of radioactive contamination of the recycling facilities. Methods of detecting the low energy gamma radiation associated with lead-210 include the pancake G-M detector and the thin crystal-thin window scintillation detector.

  3. Properties of Concrete Containing Scrap-Tire Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazyad Al-Fadhli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste management is one of the major environmental concerns all over the world and in Kuwait. Over 5 billion tons of non-hazardous solid waste materials are generated in Kuwait each year. Of these, more than 2 million scrap-tires (approximately 2 million tons are generated each year. In addition to this, about seven million scrap-tires have been stockpiled. Due to the increasingly serious environmental problems presented by waste tires, the feasibility of using elastic and flexible tire–rubber particles as aggregate in concrete is investigated in this study. Tire–rubber particles composed of tire chips, crumb rubber, and a combination of tire chips and crumb rubber, were used to replace mineral aggregates in concrete. These particles were used to replace 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% of the total mineral aggregate’s volume in concrete. Cylindrical shape concrete specimens 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height were fabricated and cured. The fresh rubberized concrete exhibited lower unit weight and acceptable workability compared to plain concrete. The results of a uniaxial compressive strain control test conducted on hardened concrete specimens indicate large reductions in the strength and tangential modulus of elasticity. A significant decrease in the brittle behavior of concrete with increasing rubber content is also demonstrated using nonlinearity indices. The maximum toughness index, indicating the post failure strength of concrete, occurs in concretes with 25% rubber content. Unlike plain concrete, the failure state in rubberized concrete occurs gently and uniformly, and does not cause any separation in the specimen. Crack width and its propagation velocity in rubberized concrete are lower than those of plain concrete. Ultrasonic analysis reveals large reductions in the ultrasonic modulus and high sound absorption for tire–rubber concrete.

  4. 48 CFR 45.606 - Disposal of scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disposal of scrap. 45.606 Section 45.606 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Reutilization, and Disposal 45.606 Disposal of scrap....

  5. Scrap of gloveboxes No. 801-W and No. 802-W

    CERN Document Server

    Ohuchi, S; Kurosawa, M; Okane, S; Usui, T

    2002-01-01

    Both gloveboxes No. 801-W for measuring samples of uranium or plutonium and No. 802-W for analyzing the quantity of uranium or plutonium are established at twenty five years ago in the analyzing room No. 108 of Plutonium Fuel Research Facility. It was planned to scrap the gloveboxes and to establish new gloveboxes. This report describes the technical view of the scrapping works.

  6. Reclamation treatment of the chrome leather scrap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A novel method to extract protein and Cr(III) from the chrome leather scrap discarded by leather industry is described.Chrome leather scarp was hydrolyzed under basic condition to remove chromium compound and extract protein. The extracted protein was mixed with substrate and used as feed protein after being dried and ground. The basic residue was treated with sulfuric acid to obtain chrome(III) sulfate which can be used as tanning agent again after adjusting pH with base. The acidic residue was processed and used as flower fertilizer. The safety of the protein powder produced has been by toxicology and nutriology test. This reclamation method has been industrialized.

  7. A Model for Scrap Melting in Steel Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruskopf, Ari

    2015-03-01

    A process model for basic oxygen furnace is in development. The full model will include a 2-D axisymmetric turbulent flow model for iron melt, a steel scrap melting model, and a chemical reaction model. A theoretical basis for scrap melting model is introduced in this paper and an in-house implementation of the model is tested in this article independently from the other parts of the full process model. The model calculates a melting curve for the scrap piece and the heat and carbon mass exchange between the melt and the scrap. A temperature and carbon concentration-dependent material data are used for heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion coefficient. The equations are discretized into a moving grid, which is uncommon in literature in the context of scrap melting. A good agreement is found between the modeling results and experiments from literature. Also a heat transfer correlation for dimensionless Nusselt number is determined using the numerical results.

  8. Overview of flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Scott F.

    2011-01-01

    Metal supply consists of primary material from a mining operation and secondary material, which is composed of new and old scrap. Recycling, which is the use of secondary material, can contribute significantly to metal production, sometimes accounting for more than 50 percent of raw material supply. From 2001 to 2011, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists studied 26 metals to ascertain the status and magnitude of their recycling industries. The results were published in chapters A-Z of USGS Circular 1196, entitled, "Flow Studies for Recycling Metal Commodities in the United States." These metals were aluminum (chapter W), antimony (Q), beryllium (P), cadmium (O), chromium (C), cobalt (M), columbium (niobium) (I), copper (X), germanium (V), gold (A), iron and steel (G), lead (F), magnesium (E), manganese (H), mercury (U), molybdenum (L), nickel (Z), platinum (B), selenium (T), silver (N), tantalum (J), tin (K), titanium (Y), tungsten (R), vanadium (S), and zinc (D). Each metal commodity was assigned to a single year: chapters A-M have recycling data for 1998; chapters N-R and U-W have data for 2000, and chapters S, T, and X-Z have data for 2004. This 27th chapter of Circular 1196 is called AA; it includes salient data from each study described in chapters A-Z, along with an analysis of overall trends of metals recycling in the United States during 1998 through 2004 and additional up-to-date reviews of selected metal recycling industries from 1991 through 2008. In the United States for these metals in 1998, 2000, and 2004 (each metal commodity assigned to a single year), 84 million metric tons (Mt) of old scrap was generated. Unrecovered old scrap totaled 43 Mt (about 51 percent of old scrap generated, OSG), old scrap consumed was 38 Mt (about 45 percent of OSG), and net old scrap exports were 3.3 Mt (about 4 percent of OSG). Therefore, there was significant potential for increased recovery from scrap. The total old scrap supply was 88 Mt, and the overall new-to-old-scrap

  9. Trends in the leading causes of death in the United States, 1970-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemal, Ahmedin; Ward, Elizabeth; Hao, Yongping; Thun, Michael

    2005-09-14

    The decrease in overall death rates in the United States may mask changes in death rates from specific conditions. To examine temporal trends in the age-standardized death rates and in the number of deaths from the 6 leading causes of death in the United States. Analyses of vital statistics data on mortality in the United States from 1970 to 2002. The age-standardized death rate and number of deaths (coded as underlying cause) from each of the 6 leading causes of death: heart disease, stroke, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, accidents (ie, related to transportation [motor vehicle, other land vehicles, and water, air, and space] and not related to transportation [falls, fire, and accidental posioning]), and diabetes mellitus. The age-standardized death rate (per 100,000 per year) from all causes combined decreased from 1242 in 1970 to 845 in 2002. The largest percentage decreases were in death rates from stroke (63%), heart disease (52%), and accidents (41%). The largest absolute decreases in death rates were from heart disease (262 deaths per 100,000), stroke (96 deaths per 100,000), and accidents (26 deaths per 100,000).The death rate from all types of cancer combined increased between 1970 and 1990 and then decreased through 2002, yielding a net decline of 2.7%. In contrast, death rates doubled from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease over the entire time interval and increased by 45% for diabetes since 1987. Despite decreases in age-standardized death rates from 4 of the 6 leading causes of death, the absolute number of deaths from these conditions continues to increase, although these deaths occur at older ages. The absolute number of deaths and age at death continue to increase in the United States. These temporal trends have major implications for health care and health care costs in an aging population.

  10. Hydrogen isotope storage in zircaloy scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. S.; Kuk, I. H.; Chung, H.; Paek, S. W.; Kang, H. S

    1999-08-01

    8 MCi of tritium a year will be produced after wolsong TRF is in operation. The metal hydride form is one of useful tritium storage. The metals in use for metal hydride are uranium, titanium, etc., however uranium is limited to use by regulation, and titanium is relatively costly. Both metals are not produced in country but whole amount is imported. On the other hand 2,000kg of zircaloy scrap is produced by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process, which is also useful for hydrogen storage. The purpose of this study is to evaluation of hydrogen absorption capacity for zircaloy scrap that is produced as waste by CANDU nuclear fuel fabrication process. The sample evacuated for an hour at 1000 deg C. The strip showed higher capacity : 0.7 at 25 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 200 deg C, 2.0 at 400 deg C, respectively. The H/M values for commercial zircaloy sponge were 2.0 at 25 deg C and 2.0 at 400 deg C.

  11. PLC based Segregation of Scrap Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangesh B. Nagapure

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describe segregation of scrap materials using automation system. With the growing population rate, the amount of waste being produced is also increasing at a very faster rate. It is also posing a very serious problem at the industrial and domestic level to manage the wastes being dumped everywhere as landfill waste. So, it is very crucial to have some system to manage waste automatically which is currently not there. Prime Minister Modi’s mission of Swaccha Bharat Abhiyan can also be successfully implemented by the proposed system. The paper proposes a novel method where the provision is given to separate out metal and nonmetal waste into respective bins by the sensing of different sensors incorporated along the conveyor belt. Pieces of glass, paper, wood and metallic materials are separated out from proposed work. Using the segregation, most of the metal and nonmetal components like paper, glass, plastic increases the economic value of the waste to its best. For every scrap separation system, a higher level of automation demands more and more accurate programming device. So, we are using programmable logic controller (PLC as main component

  12. Potentially Preventable Deaths Among the Five Leading Causes of Death - United States, 2010 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Macarena C; Bastian, Brigham; Rossen, Lauren M; Anderson, Robert; Miniño, Arialdi; Yoon, Paula W; Faul, Mark; Massetti, Greta; Thomas, Cheryll C; Hong, Yuling; Iademarco, Michael F

    2016-11-18

    Death rates by specific causes vary across the 50 states and the District of Columbia.* Information on differences in rates for the leading causes of death among states might help state health officials determine prevention goals, priorities, and strategies. CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data to provide national and state-specific estimates of potentially preventable deaths among the five leading causes of death in 2014 and compared these estimates with estimates previously published for 2010. Compared with 2010, the estimated number of potentially preventable deaths changed (supplemental material at https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/42472); cancer deaths decreased 25% (from 84,443 to 63,209), stroke deaths decreased 11% (from 16,973 to 15,175), heart disease deaths decreased 4% (from 91,757 to 87,950), chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) (e.g., asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema) deaths increased 1% (from 28,831 to 29,232), and deaths from unintentional injuries increased 23% (from 36,836 to 45,331). A better understanding of progress made in reducing potentially preventable deaths in the United States might inform state and regional efforts targeting the prevention of premature deaths from the five leading causes in the United States.

  13. 48 CFR 45.606-1 - Contractor with an approved scrap procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... approved scrap procedure. 45.606-1 Section 45.606-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Contractor with an approved scrap procedure. (a) The contractor may dispose of scrap resulting from production or testing under this contract without Government approval. However, if the scrap...

  14. The Global Societal Steel Scrap Reserves and Amounts of Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gauffin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study a newly developed method called the Progressing and Backcasting models were used to evaluate the annual resource utilizations of steel scrap in Sweden and globally. The model results show that it is possible to assess the amounts of steel scrap available for steelmaking at a given point in time, based on statistical dynamic material flow models. By a better mapping of the available amounts of steel scrap reserves on a country basis, it is possible to ease the trade of scrap across country boarders. This in turn can optimize the supply of recyclable metals as a raw material used in the industry. The results for Swedish steel consumption show that export bans used to secure the domestic market of steel scrap do damage the internal market due to increased amounts of losses. This suggests that export bans should be lifted to optimize recycling in countries. The model results also show that the global losses of steel are higher than for an industrialized country such as Sweden. Furthermore, the results show that the Backcasting and Progressing models can be used to calculate robust forecasts on the long term availability of steel scrap assets. This information could be used for future structural plans of scrap consuming steelmaking mills and waste management facilities. Hence, it is possible to contribute to a sustainable industrial development and a circular economy.

  15. Feasibility of re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, S. J.; Smith, K. P.

    1999-10-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) sometimes accumulate inside pieces of equipment associated with oil and gas production and processing activities. Typically, the NORM accumulates when radium that is present in solution in produced water precipitates out in scale and sludge deposits. Scrap equipment containing residual quantities of these NORM-bearing scales and sludges can present a waste management problem if the radium concentrations exceed regulatory limits or activate the alarms on radiation screening devices installed at most scrap metal recycling facilities. Although NORM-contaminated scrap metal currently is not disposed of by re-melting, this form of recycling could present a viable disposition option for this waste stream. Studies indicate that re-melting NORM-contaminated scrap metal is a viable recycling option from a risk-based perspective. However, a myriad of economic, regulatory, and policy issues have caused the recyclers to turn away virtually all radioactive scrap metal. Until these issues can be resolved, re-melting of the petroleum industry's NORM-impacted scrap metal is unlikely to be a widespread practice. This paper summarizes the issues associated with re-melting radioactive scrap so that the petroleum industry and its regulators will understand the obstacles. This paper was prepared as part of a report being prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission's NORM Subcommittee.

  16. Nickel recycling in the United States in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of nickel from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap) and used products (old scrap) in 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of nickel supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of nickel recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the old scrap recycling efficiency for nickel was estimated to be 56.2 percent. In 2004, nickel scrap consumption in the United States was as follows: new scrap containing 13,000 metric tons (t) of nickel (produced during the manufacture of products), 12 percent; and old scrap containing 95,000 t of nickel (articles discarded after serving a useful purpose), 88 percent. The recycling rate for nickel in 2004 was 40.9 percent, and the percentage of nickel in products attributed to nickel recovered from nickel-containing scrap was 51.6 percent. Furthermore, U.S. nickel scrap theoretically generated in 2004 had the following distribution: scrap to landfills, 24 percent; recovered and used scrap, 50 percent; and unaccounted for scrap, 26 percent. Of the 50 percent of old scrap generated in the United States that was recovered and then used in 2004, about one-third was exported and two-thirds was consumed in the domestic production of nickel-containing products.

  17. Recycling metal scrap. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the methods and equipment for recycling metal and steel scrap. Citations discuss automatic scrap recycling, scrap metal reprocessing, contaminated metal scrap, and mass-produced building materials from scrap. The design and evaluation of recycling processes in automotive, aircraft, beverage, electronics, and milling industries are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Hexavalent chromium reduction with scrap iron in continuous-flow system. Part 2: Effect of scrap iron shape and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheju, M; Balcu, I

    2010-10-15

    Hexavalent chromium reduction with scrap iron has the advantage that two wastes are treated simultaneously. The reduction of hexavalent chromium by scrap iron was investigated in continuous system, using as reducing agent the following scrap iron shapes and sizes: (1) spiral fibers, (2) shavings, and (3) powder. The shape and size of scrap iron were found to have a significant influence on chromium and iron species concentration in column effluent, on column effluent pH and on Cr(VI) reduction mechanism. While for large scrap iron particles (spiral fibers) homogeneous reduction is the dominant Cr(VI) reduction process, for small scrap iron particles (powder) heterogeneous reduction appears to be the dominant reaction contributing to Cr(VI) reduction. All three shapes and sizes investigated in this work have both advantages and disadvantages. If found in sufficient quantities, scrap iron powder seem to be the optimum shape and size for the continuous reduction of Cr(VI), due to the following advantages: (1) the greatest reduction capacity, (2) the most important pH increase in column effluent (up to 6.3), (3) no chromium was detected in the column effluent during the first 60 h of the experiment, and (4) the lowest steady-state Cr(VI) concentration observed in column effluent (3.7 mg/L). But, despite of a lower reduction capacity in comparison with powder particles, spiral fibers and shavings have the advantage to result in large quantities from the mechanic processing of steel.

  19. Aqueous processing of U-10Mo scrap for high performance research reactor fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youker, Amanda J.; Stepinski, Dominique C.; Maggos, Laura E.; Bakel, Allen J.; Vandegrift, George F.

    2012-08-01

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Conversion program, which is part of the US government's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), supports the conversion of civilian use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel and targets. The reason for conversion is to eliminate the use of any material that may pose a threat to the United States or other foreign countries. High performance research reactors (HPRRs) cannot make the conversion to a standard LEU fuel because they require a more dense fuel to meet their performance requirements. As a result, a more dense fuel consisting of a monolithic uranium-molybdenum alloy containing 10% (w/w) Mo with Al cladding and a Zr bonding-layer is being considered. Significant losses are expected in the fabrication of this fuel, so a means to recycle the scrap pieces is needed. Argonne National Laboratory has developed an aqueous-processing flowsheet for scrap recovery in the fuel fabrication process for high-density LEU-monolithic fuel based on data found in the literature. Experiments have been performed to investigate dissolution conditions for solutions containing approximately 20 g-U/L and 50 g-U/L with and without Fe(NO3)3. HNO3 and HF concentrations have been optimized for timely dissolution of the fuel scrap and prevention of the formation of the U-Zr2 intermetallic, explosive complex, while meeting the requirements needed for further processing.

  20. Multi-Item EPQ Model with Scrap, Rework and Multi-Delivery using Common Cycle Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.W. Chiu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with determining the optimal common production cycle policy for a multi-item economic production quantity (EPQ model with scrap, rework and multiple deliveries. The classic EPQ model considers the optimal replenishment quantity of single product under a perfect production assumption and a continuous inventory issuing policy. However, in real life production planning, manufacturing firms often plan to have multiple products made in turn on a single machine in order to maximize the machine utilization. Also, dealing with random defective items during the production run seems to be an inevitable task, and the multi-delivery policy is commonly adopted for distributing finished items to customers. In this study, we assume a portion of nonconforming items is scrap and the other portion of them can be reworked and repaired in the same production cycle with additional cost. The objective is to determine an optimal common production cycle time that minimizes the long-run average cost per unit time for such a specific multi-item EPQ model with scrap, rework and multi-delivery policy. Mathematical modeling and analysis is used and a closed-form optimal common cycle time for multi-item production planning is obtained. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the practical usage of research result.

  1. Performance outlook of the SCRAP receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkoll, Matti; von Backström, Theodor W.; Harms, Thomas M.

    2016-05-01

    A combined cycle (CC) concentrating solar power (CSP) plant provides significant potential to achieve an efficiency increase and an electricity cost reduction compared to current single-cycle plants. A CC CSP system requires a receiver technology capable of effectively transferring heat from concentrated solar irradiation to a pressurized air stream of a gas turbine. The small number of pressurized air receivers demonstrated to date have practical limitations, when operating at high temperatures and pressures. As yet, a robust, scalable and efficient system has to be developed and commercialized. A novel receiver system, the Spiky Central Receiver Air Pre-heater (SCRAP) concept has been proposed to comply with these requirements. The SCRAP system is conceived as a solution for an efficient and robust pressurized air receiver that could be implemented in CC CSP concepts or standalone solar Brayton cycles without a bottoming Rankine cycle. The presented work expands on previous publications on the thermal modeling of the receiver system. Based on the analysis of a single heat transfer element (spike), predictions for its thermal performance can be made. To this end the existing thermal model was improved by heat transfer characteristics for the jet impingement region of the spike tip as well as heat transfer models simulating the interaction with ambient. While the jet impingement cooling effect was simulated employing a commercial CFD code, the ambient heat transfer model was based on simplifying assumptions in order to employ empirical and analytical equations. The thermal efficiency of a spike under design conditions (flux 1.0 MW/m2, air outlet temperature just below 800 °C) was calculated at approximately 80 %, where convective heat losses account for 16.2 % of the absorbed radiation and radiative heat losses for a lower 2.9 %. This effect is due to peak surface temperatures occurring at the root of the spikes. It can thus be concluded that the geometric

  2. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a prefused, rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF.sub.2, CaCl.sub.2 or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy.

  3. Fabrication of aluminum foam from aluminum scrap Hamza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Osman1 ,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study the optimum parameters affecting the preparation of aluminum foam from recycled aluminum were studied, these parameters are: temperature, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as foaming agent, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as thickening agent, and stirring time. The results show that, the optimum parameters are the temperature ranged from 800 to 850oC, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 5%, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 3% and stirring time was 45 second with stirring speed 1200 rpm. The produced foam apparent densities ranged from 0.40-0.60 g/cm3. The microstructure of aluminum foam was examined by using SEM, EDX and XRD, the results show that, the aluminum pores were uniformly distributed along the all matrices and the cell walls covered by thin oxide film.

  4. Effect of impurities in industrial salts on aluminum scrap melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, J.; Sahai, Y. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Revet, A. [Kalium Canada, ltd., Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    Aluminum scrap such as Used Beverage Containers (UBC) is melted under a protective molten salt cover. An appropriate salt protects metal from oxidation, promotes coalescence of molten droplets, and separates clean metal from the oxide contamination. Generally, the salt compositions for aluminum scrap recycling are based on equimolar mixtures of NaCl and KCl. A small amount of fluoride is also added in the salt. In the past, laboratory research at universities and industrial laboratories have been limited to pure salts. However, the industrial salts have impurities such as sulfates and other insoluble materials. These impurities have a pronounced effect on the efficiency of the scrap remelting process. In this paper, the role of impurities in industrial salts in terms of their chemical interactions with the metal are summarized. The efficiency of different industrial grade salts containing varying amounts of sulfates and other insoluble impurities for scrap recycling is compared.

  5. Reuse of Lathe Waste Steel Scrap in Concrete Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Shrivastavaa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available These project works assess on the study of the workability and mechanical strength properties of the concrete reinforced with industrialized waste fibers or the recycled fibers. In each lathe industries wastes are available in form of steel scraps are yield by the lathe machines in process of finishing of different machines parts and dumping of these wastes in the barren soil contaminating the soil and ground water that builds an unhealthy environment. Now a day’s these steel scraps as a waste products used by innovative construction industry and also in transportation and highway industry. In addition to get sustainable progress and environmental remuneration, lathe scrap as worn-recycle fibers with concrete are likely to be used. When the steel scrap reinforced in concrete it acquire a term; fiber reinforced concrete and steel fibers in concrete defined as steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC.Different experimental studies are done to identify about fresh and hardened concrete properties of steel scrap fiber reinforced concrete (SSFRC and their mechanical properties are found to be increase due to the addition of steel scrap in concrete i.e. compressive strength, flexural strength, impact strength, fatigue strength and split tensile strength were increased but up to 0.5-2% scrap content . When compared with usual concrete to SSFRC, flexural strength increases by 40% and considerable increases in tensile and compressive strength. These steel scrap also aid to improve the shrinkage reduction, cracking resistance i.e. preventing crack propagation and modulus of elasticity. The workability of fresh SSFRC are carried out by using slump test but it restricted to less scrap contents. This work focuses on the enhancement of structural strength and improvement in fatigue life of concrete pavements by reuse of scrap steel in concrete. These concrete roads with SSFRC promises an appreciably eminent design life, offer superior serviceability and

  6. Analysis of China’s Aluminum Scrap Market in 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    According to customs data,from January to November 2014,China imported a total of2,080,000 tonnes of Aluminum Scrap,down by8.6%on Y-o-Y basis compared with the figure of the same period in the previous year,which is 2,260,000 tonnes.In 2014,the decline in import of overseas scrap material can be attributed to the following reasons:Firstly,

  7. Effect Of Operating Conditions On Scrap Tire Pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Fabiana Scatolim Rombaldo; Antonio Carlos Luz Lisbôa; Manoel Orlando Alvarez Méndez; Aparecido dos Reis Coutinho

    2008-01-01

    The ever growing focus on environmental issues has raised concerns about scrap tires, whose major component - vulcanized rubber - does not degrade easily. When burned, tires release toxic gases containing substantial amounts of sulfur and ammonia in addition to other pollutants. Dumped on empty city lots, tires are also a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Many proposals have been put forward to handle the disposal of scrap tires, but none of them have proved to offer a definitive solution. The ...

  8. Development of a recycling process for tantalum from capacitor scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineta, Kunio; Okabe, Toru H.

    2005-02-01

    A process based on oxidation treatment at elevated temperature, followed by mechanical separation and chemical treatment, was investigated to develop an effective process for recycling tantalum from capacitor scraps. By this process, tantalum oxide powder, free of SiO2 or other impurities, was recovered from capacitor scrap. Tantalum powder with 99 mass% purity was recovered by magnesiothermic reduction of the obtained tantalum oxide powder.

  9. Optimal Lead-lag Controller for Distributed Generation Unit in Island Mode Using Simulated Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akbarimajd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Active and reactive power components of a Distributed Generation (DG is normally controlled by a conventional dq-current control strategy however, after islanding the dq-current which is not able to successfully complete the control task is disabled and a lead-lag control strategy based optimized by simulated annealing is proposed for control of DG unit in islanding mode. Integral of Time multiply by Absolute Error (ITEA criterion is used as cost function of simulated annealing in order to achieve smooth response and robust behavior. The proposed controller improved robust stability margins of the system. Simulations with different load and input operating conditions verify advantages of the proposed controller in comparison with a previously developed classic controller in terms of robustness and response time.

  10. NCHS - Age-adjusted Death Rates for the Top 10 Leading Causes of Death: United States, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Age-adjusted death rates for the top 10 leading causes of death in the United States, including mortality patterns from 1999 through 2013, and by state of residence...

  11. Distillation of granulated scrap tires in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén

    2011-06-15

    This paper reports the pyrolytic treatment of granulated scrap tires (GST) in a pilot distillation unit at moderate temperature (550°C) and atmospheric pressure, to produce oil, char and gas products. Tire-derived oil is a complex mixture of organic C(5)-C(24) compounds, including a very large proportion of aromatic compounds. This oil has a high gross calorific value (∼ 43 MJ kg(-1)) and N and S contents of 0.4% and 0.6%, respectively, falling within the specifications of certain heating fuels. The distillation gas is composed of hydrocarbons; methane and n-butane are the most abundant, investing the distillation gas with a very high gross calorific value (∼ 68 MJ Nm(-3)). This gas is transformed into electric power by a co-generation turbine. The distillation char is mostly made of carbon but with significant inorganic impurities (∼ 12 wt%). The quality of the solid residue of the process is comparable to that of some commercial chars. The quantity of residual solids, and the qualities of the gas, liquid and solid fractions, are similar to those obtained by conventional pyrolytic treatments of waste tires. However, the simplicity of the proposed technology and its low investment costs make it a very attractive alternative. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Solar radiation and the incidence and mortality of leading invasive cancers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Alan B.; Fleischer, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Invasive cancer risk is inversely related to ultraviolet light exposure. This study explores relationships between cancer and the satellite-derived sunlight energy. We obtained the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) daily average sunlight for the continental United States from 1999–2011. US Cancer Statistics age-adjusted-incidence and mortality was also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We found that cancer incidence for all invasive cancers and for 11 of 22 leading cancers significantly decreased with increased solar radiation. Cancer mortality for all invasive cancers was not significantly associated with solar radiation, but for 7 of 22 leading cancers, including cancers of the uterus, leukemias, lung, ovary, and urinary bladder, increased solar radiation predicted decreased mortality. With increasing solar radiation, increased incidence and cancer mortality was observed for liver cancer and increased incidence but not mortality was observed for cervical cancer. The current study confirms studies relating UV radiation to the incidence and mortality of a variety of cancer types. We find associations between solar radiation energy and the incidence and mortality of a number of types of cancers. PMID:27195056

  13. Solar radiation and the incidence and mortality of leading invasive cancers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Alan B; Fleischer, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cancer risk is inversely related to ultraviolet light exposure. This study explores relationships between cancer and the satellite-derived sunlight energy. We obtained the North America Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) daily average sunlight for the continental United States from 1999-2011. US Cancer Statistics age-adjusted-incidence and mortality was also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). We found that cancer incidence for all invasive cancers and for 11 of 22 leading cancers significantly decreased with increased solar radiation. Cancer mortality for all invasive cancers was not significantly associated with solar radiation, but for 7 of 22 leading cancers, including cancers of the uterus, leukemias, lung, ovary, and urinary bladder, increased solar radiation predicted decreased mortality. With increasing solar radiation, increased incidence and cancer mortality was observed for liver cancer and increased incidence but not mortality was observed for cervical cancer. The current study confirms studies relating UV radiation to the incidence and mortality of a variety of cancer types. We find associations between solar radiation energy and the incidence and mortality of a number of types of cancers.

  14. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M. [Molten Metal Technology, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT`s proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE`s inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of DOE sites.

  15. Hexavalent chromium reduction with scrap iron in continuous-flow system Part 1: effect of feed solution pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheju, M; Iovi, A; Balcu, I

    2008-05-01

    The reduction of hexavalent chromium by scrap iron was investigated in continuous system, using long-term column experiments, for aqueous Cr(VI) solutions having low buffering capacities, over the pH range of 2.00-7.30. The results showed that the initial pH of Cr(VI) solution significantly affects the reduction capacity of scrap iron. The highest reduction capacity was determined to be 19.2 mg Cr(VI)/g scrap iron, at pH 2.50, and decreased with increasing the initial pH of Cr(VI) solution. A considerable decrease in scrap iron reduction capacity (25%) was also observed at pH 2.00, as compared to pH 2.50, due to the increased contribution of H(+) ions to the corrosion of scrap iron, which leads to a rapid decrease in time of the scrap iron volume. Over the pH range of 2.50-7.30, hexavalent chromium concentration increases slowly in time after its breakthrough in column effluent, until a steady-state concentration was observed; similarly, over the same pH range, the amount of solubilized Cr(III) in treated column effluent decreases in time, until a steady-state concentration was observed. The steady-state concentration in column effluent decreased for Cr(VI) and increased for Cr(III) with decreasing the initial pH of Cr(VI) solution. No steady-state Cr(VI) or Cr(III) concentrations in column effluent were observed at pH 2.00. Over the entire studied pH range, the amount of Fe(total) in treated solution increases as the initial pH of column influent is decreased; the results show also a continuously decrease in time of Fe(total) concentration, for a constant initial pH, due to a decrease in time of iron corrosion rate. Cr(III) concentration in column effluent also continuously decreased in time, for a constant initial pH, over the pH range of 2.50-7.30. This represents an advantage, because the amount of precipitant agent used to remove Fe(total) and Cr(III) from the column effluent will also decrease in time. The optimum pH for Cr(VI) reduction with scrap iron in

  16. Metal Exposures at three U.S. Electronic Scrap Recycling Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Diana; Beaucham, Catherine; Page, Elena

    2016-12-09

    Many metals found in electronic scrap are known to cause serious health effects, including but not limited to cancer and respiratory, neurologic, renal, and reproductive damage. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention performed three health hazard evaluations at electronic scrap recycling facilities in the U.S. to characterize employee exposure to metals and recommend control strategies to reduce these exposures. We performed air, surface, and biological monitoring for metals. We found one overexposure to lead and two overexposures to cadmium. We found metals on non-production surfaces, and the skin and clothing of workers before they left work in all of the facilities. We also found some elevated blood lead levels (above 10 micrograms per deciliter), however no employees at any facility had detectable mercury in their urine or exceeded 34% of the OELs for blood or urine cadmium. This manuscript focuses on sampling results for lead, cadmium, mercury, and indium. We provided recommendations for improving local exhaust ventilation, reducing the recirculation of potentially contaminated air, using respirators until exposures are controlled, and reducing the migration of contaminants from production to non-production areas. We also recommended ways for employees to prevent taking home metal dust by using work uniforms laundered on-site, storing personal and work items in separate lockers, and using washing facilities equipped with lead-removing cleaning products.

  17. Radiation survey of aircraft and heavy machinery scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Gumaa, Elsadig; Yassin, Abbas; Yousif, E H; Abdel Hamid, Saad Eldeen M; Sam, A K

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted primarily to survey aircraft and heavy machinery at 30 locations within Khartoum State using handheld radiation survey meters to detect and identify any radiation sources that might be present and to estimate radiation dose levels. The survey has resulted in detection of 16 sealed sources of (90)Sr and one of (226)Ra in aircraft scrap. Of course, (90)Sr sources are used in military aircraft as temperature sensors while (226)Ra is used for indicating fuel levels. These sources were found intact without spreading radioactivity contamination; however, none was detected in heavy machine scrap. The levels of radiation dose measured at 0.1m from the source fall within the range of 25.1-40.2 μSv/h with an average value of 33.52 ± 4.06 μSv/h. These orphan sources have been separated from the scrap, tested for possible leakage, conditioned and stored in waste management facility. The result of this study has revealed without doubt that the scrap constitute a serious source of public exposure and highlights the importance of legislation making radiation monitoring of scrap in the country mandatory before it is sold to metal industry for reprocessing.

  18. Feasibility analysis of recycling radioactive scrap steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, F. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Woodland, WA (United States); Balhiser, B. [MSE, Inc., Butte, MT (United States); Cignetti, N. [Cignetti Associates, North Canton, OH (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to: (1) establish a conceptual design that integrates commercial steel mill technology with radioactive scrap metal (RSM) processing to produce carbon and stainless steel sheet and plate at a grade suitable for fabricating into radioactive waste containers; (2) determine the economic feasibility of building a micro-mill in the Western US to process 30,000 tons of RSM per year from both DOE and the nuclear utilities; and (3) provide recommendations for implementation. For purposes of defining the project, it is divided into phases: economic feasibility and conceptual design; preliminary design; detail design; construction; and operation. This study comprises the bulk of Phase 1. It is divided into four sections. Section 1 provides the reader with a complete overview extracting pertinent data, recommendations and conclusions from the remainder of the report. Section 2 defines the variables that impact the design requirements. These data form the baseline to create a preliminary conceptual design that is technically sound, economically viable, and capitalizes on economies of scale. Priorities governing the design activities are: (1) minimizing worker exposure to radionuclide hazards, (2) maximizing worker safety, (3) minimizing environmental contamination, (4) minimizing secondary wastes, and (5) establishing engineering controls to insure that the plant will be granted a license in the state selected for operation. Section 3 provides details of the preliminary conceptual design that was selected. The cost of project construction is estimated and the personnel needed to support the steel-making operation and radiological and environmental control are identified. Section 4 identifies the operational costs and supports the economic feasibility analysis. A detailed discussion of the resulting conclusions and recommendations is included in this section.

  19. Scrap tire recycling: Promising high value applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B.D.; Leskovyansky, P.J.; Drela, H.

    1993-11-01

    Surface modification of scrap tire rubber (rubber particles treated with chlorine gas) show promise for ameliorating the scrap tire problem (the treated rubber can be used as a component in high- performance, expensive polymer systems). The process has been proven in Phase I. Phase II covers market/applications, process development (Forberg-design mixer reactor was chosen), plant design, capital cost estimate, economics environmental/safety/health, and energy impact. Almost of the small amount of chlorine is consumed. The capital costs for a rubber particle treatment facility are attractive, being at least two orders of magnitude less than that of facilities for making new polymer materials. Large volume markets using treated rubber are needed. The amount of scrap rubber available is small compared to the polymers available for replacement. 7 tabs, 16 figs.

  20. [Scrap metal and ionizing radiation hazard: prevention and protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugni, U

    2012-01-01

    The numerous accidents occurred in companies that melt scrap metals have shown that the hazard caused by the presence of radioactive materials--or 'orphan sources'--may have serious consequences on standard production, with great economic and social damage. Italian Legislative Decree No. 100/11 establishes the skills required for the safe management of scrap metals in the whole production cycle, thus requiring the involvement of experts in radiation protection. The paper details the procedures that shall be implemented in the companies that melt scrap metals. Said procedures involve several professional roles: managers, department heads and occupational physicians. The paper describes the general characteristics of the instruments used, staff training programs and the experience gained in 15 years of activity.

  1. Effect of operating conditions on scrap tire pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fabiana Scatolim Rombaldo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The ever growing focus on environmental issues has raised concerns about scrap tires, whose major component - vulcanized rubber - does not degrade easily. When burned, tires release toxic gases containing substantial amounts of sulfur and ammonia in addition to other pollutants. Dumped on empty city lots, tires are also a breeding ground for mosquitoes. Many proposals have been put forward to handle the disposal of scrap tires, but none of them have proved to offer a definitive solution. The study reported here investigated the production of fuel oil and activated carbon from the pyrolysis of scrap tires. The initial mass of rubber yielded approximately 46% of oil, 40% of activated carbon and 14% of gases. The resulting activated carbon displayed a specific surface area of 200 m².g-1.

  2. Million hearts: prevalence of leading cardiovascular disease risk factors--United States, 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Matthew D; Wall, Hilary K; Gillespie, Cathleen; George, Mary G; Jamal, Ahmed

    2014-05-30

    Each year, approximately 1.5 million U.S. adults have a heart attack or stroke, resulting in approximately 30 deaths every hour and, for nonfatal events, often leading to long-term disability. Overall, an estimated 14 million survivors of heart attacks and strokes are living in the United States. In 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, in collaboration with nonprofit and private organizations, launched Million Hearts (http://www.millionhearts.hhs.gov), an initiative focused on implementing clinical and community-level evidence-based strategies to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and prevent a total of 1 million heart attacks and strokes during the 5-year period 2012-2016. From 2005-2006 to the period with the most current data, analysis of the Million Hearts four "ABCS" clinical measures (for aspirin, blood pressure, cholesterol, and smoking) showed 1) no statistically significant change in the prevalence of aspirin use for secondary prevention (53.8% in 2009-2010), 2) an increase to 51.9% in the prevalence of blood pressure control (in 2011-2012), 3) an increase to 42.8% in the prevalence of cholesterol management (in 2011-2012), and 4) no statistically significant change in the prevalence of smoking assessment and treatment (22.2% in 2009-2010). In addition, analysis of two community-level indicators found 1) a decrease in current tobacco product smoking (including cigarette, cigar, or pipe use) prevalence to 25.1% in 2011-2012 and 2) minimal change in mean daily sodium intake (3,594 mg/day in 2009-2010). Although trends in some measures are encouraging, further reductions of CVD risk factors will be needed to meet Million Hearts goals by 2017.

  3. 40 CFR 761.72 - Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scrap metal recovery ovens and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.72 Scrap metal recovery ovens and smelters. Any person... liquids have been removed: (a) In a scrap metal recovery oven: (1) The oven shall have at least...

  4. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the fer

  5. 41 CFR 109-27.5107 - Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... used hypo solution and scrap film. 109-27.5107 Section 109-27.5107 Public Contracts and Property... § 109-27.5107 Recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film. The requirements for the recovery of silver from used hypo solution and scrap film are contained in § 109-45.1003 of this chapter....

  6. Radioactive Material in Scrap Metal | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    Sometimes radioactive materials are disposed of improperly and end up in scrap metal yards. You will probably never come into contact with contaminated scrap metal. If you think you have found contaminated scrap metal, do not touch it. Immediately contact your state radiation control office.

  7. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the

  8. Advanced technologies for decontamination and conversion of scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, T.R.; Shasteen, K.E.; Liby, A.L. [Manufacturing Sciences Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) accumulated large quantities of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) through historic maintenance activities. The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) of major sites formerly engaged in production of nuclear materials and manufacture of nuclear weapons will generate additional quantities of RSM, as much as 3 million tons of such metal according to a recent study. The recycling of RSM is quickly becoming appreciated as a key strategy in DOE`s cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. The work described here has focused on recycle of the concentrated and high-value contaminated scrap metal resource that will arise from cleanup of DOE`s gaseous diffusion plants.

  9. Pilot-Scale Laboratory Instruction for Chemical Engineering: The Specific Case of the Pilot-Unit Leading Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billet, Anne-Marie; Camy, Severine; Coufort-Saudejaud, Carole

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an original approach for Chemical Engineering laboratory teaching that is currently applied at INP-ENSIACET (France). This approach, referred to as "pilot-unit leading group" is based on a partial management of the laboratories by the students themselves who become temporarily in charge of one specific laboratory. In…

  10. Results of chemical decontamination of DOE`s uranium-enrichment scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, R.G.

    1997-02-01

    The CORPEX{reg_sign} Nuclear Decontamination Processes were used to decontaminate representative scrap metal specimens obtained from the existing scrap metal piles located at the Department of Energy (DOE) Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), Piketon, Ohio. In September 1995, under contract to Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, MELE Associates, Inc. performed the on-site decontamination demonstration. The decontamination demonstration proved that significant amounts of the existing DOE scrap metal can be decontaminated to levels where the scrap metal could be economically released by DOE for beneficial reuse. This simple and environmentally friendly process can be used as an alternative, or in addition to, smelting radiologically contaminated scrap metal.

  11. Method and apparatus for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap

    OpenAIRE

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Method for separating a non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from ferrous scrap, wherein the ferrous scrap is conveyed to a processing device for separating the non-ferrous metal-comprising fraction from the remainder of the ferrous scrap. The processing device supplies a beam of water, and the ferrous scrap is conveyed and released into the waterbeam so as to cause that the ferrous scrap is allowed to fall and move further, subject to the forces of gravity and the waterbeam.

  12. China Increased its Imports of Copper and Aluminium Scrap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> Statistics from the Tianjin Customs shows thatin the first 10 months of this year,imports ofcopper scrap through Tianjin port reached565,000 tons with US$430 million in value,which is increased by 21.2 per cent and 11.9per cent respectively compared to the same pe-riod in 2003.

  13. Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.M. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Barriocanal, C., E-mail: carmenbr@incar.csic.es [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Alvarez, R. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pyrolysis of reinforcing fibres obtained from scrap tyres has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results have been compared to scrap tyre granules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A higher temperature is needed for the total decomposition of the fibres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More compounds with heteroatoms (O, N) were found in the oil from the fibres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chars from the fibres exhibit lower BET surface and mesopore volume. - Abstract: The fibres that are used to reinforce tyres can be recovered as a waste in the process of grinding of scrap tyres. In this paper beneficiation through pyrolysis is studied since the fibres are made up of polymers with a small amount of rubber because the latter is difficult to separate. The experiments were performed at three temperatures (400, 550 and 900 Degree-Sign C) in a horizontal oven. The three products - gas, oil and char - obtained from the pyrolysis were investigated. The composition of the gas was analyzed by means of gas chromatography. The oil was studied by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The char porous structure was determined by N{sub 2} adsorption. In addition, the topography of the chars was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products resulting from the pyrolysis of the fibres were compared with those obtained from scrap rubber.

  14. [Optimum of polysaccharide distillation on scrap Cordyceps militaris medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shu-Yu; Zhao, Chun-Yan; Song, Hui-Yi; Zhao, Hao-Lu; Sun, Jun-De

    2008-03-01

    A mass of scrap Cordyceps militaris solid culture medium could not be utilized better. In this test, using orthogonal design the optimal technique parmeter of extracting polysaccharide was 80 degrees C, two times, in twenty times of water, and 120 minutes each time. Temperature was the most important factor. The referenced data could be provided to depurative production of Cordyceps militaris and resource utilization.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE USE OF SCRAP IN STEEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Korneev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the major environmental problems arising from the use of scrap in steelmaking. Presented conditions appearance in the electric furnace emissions of harmful substances and their control measures. Shown the advantages of a preliminary preparation and cleaning impurities of metal as one of the measures to reduce emissions from the furnaces into the atmosphere.

  16. Extraction Factor Of Pure Ammonium Paratungstate From Tungsten Scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pee J.-H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Typical oxidation process of tungsten scraps was modified by the rotary kiln with oxygen burner to increase the oxidation rate of tungsten scraps. Also to accelerate the solubility of solid oxidized products, the hydrothermal reflux method was adapted. By heating tungsten scraps in rotary kiln with oxygen burner at around 900° for 2hrs, the scraps was oxidized completely. Then oxidized products (WO3 and CoWO4 was fully dissolved in the solution of NaOH by hydrothermal reflux method at 150° for 2hrs. The dissolution rate of oxidized products was increased with increasing the reaction temperature and concentration of NaOH. And then CaWO4 and H2WO4 could be generated from the aqueous sodium tungstate solution. Ammonium paratungstate (APT also could be produced from tungstic acid using by aqueous ammonium solution. The morphologies (cubic and plate types of APT was controlled by the stirring process of purified solution of ammonium paratungstate.

  17. Lead, Allergen, and Pesticide Levels in Licensed Child Care Centers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The First National Environmental Health Survey of Child Care Centers was conducted to provide information about lead, allergens, and pesticide levels in licensed U.S. child care centers. Lead levels were measured in settled dust, paint, and play area soil; indoor allergen levels ...

  18. Learning to Lead: J. Lawton Collin’s Mastery of Large-Unit Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Collins embarked on a sixteen-year venture as a student and instructor in the US Army’s school system.12 This interwar education included...128 Collins, Lightning Joe, 233-235; Kent Roberts Greenfield , Robert R. Palmer, and Bell I. Wiley, United States Army in World War...Landmark Battle. New York: Penguin, 1992. Greenfield , Kent Roberts, Palmer, Robert R., and Wiley, Bell I. United States Army in World War II: The Army

  19. Recycling of Al-Si die casting scraps for solar Si feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kum-Hee; Jeon, Je-Beom; Youn, Ji-Won; Kim, Suk Jun; Kim, Ki-Young

    2016-05-01

    Recycling of aluminum die-casting scraps for solar-grade silicon (SOG-Si) feedstock was performed successfully. 3 N purity Si was extracted from A383 die-casting scrap by using the combined process of solvent refining and an advanced centrifugal separation technique. The efficiency of separating Si from scrap alloys depended on both impurity level of scraps and the starting temperature of centrifugation. Impurities in melt and processing temperature governed the microstructure of the primary Si. The purity of Si extracted from the scrap melt was 99.963%, which was comparable to that of Si extracted from a commercial Al-30 wt% Si alloy, 99.980%. The initial purity of the scrap was 2.2% lower than that of the commercial alloy. This result confirmed that die-casting scrap is a potential source of high-purity Si for solar cells.

  20. Recovery of Co(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ) from hydrochloric acid solution of alloy scrap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yong-feng; XUE Wen-ying; NIU Wen-yong

    2008-01-01

    A hydrometallurgical process was developed for recovery of nickel and cobalt from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution of alloy scraps. The process consists of five major unit operations: 1) leaching with 6 mol/L hydrochloric acid under the L/S ratio of 10:1 at 95 ℃ for 3 h; 2) copper replacement by iron scraps under pH value of 2.0 at 80 ℃, and stirring for 1 h; 3) removal of iron and chromium by chemical precipitation: iron removal under pH value of 2.0 at 90 ℃ by dropwise addition of sodium chlorate and 18% sodium carbonate solution, then chromium removal under pH value of 4.0 at 70 ℃ by addition of nickel carbonate solution, stirred by air flow for 2 h; 4) selective separation of cobalt from nickel by extraction using 30% trialkyl amine+50% kerosene (volume fraction) and tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) as a phase modifier with the O/A ratio of 2:1, and stripping of cobalt with 0.01 mol/L HC1; 5) crystallization of nickel chloride and electrodeposition of cobalt. It is found that the nickel recovery of 95% and the cobalt recovery of approximately 60% with purity over 99.9% are obtained by this process.

  1. Scrap automotive electronics: A mini-review of current management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchiella, Federica; D'Adamo, Idiano; Rosa, Paolo; Terzi, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    End-of-life vehicles, together with waste from electric and electronic equipment, are known as an important source of secondary raw materials. For many years, their recovery has allowed the restoring of great amounts of metals for new cars production. This article provides a comprehensive mini-review on the end-of-life vehicles recycling topic between 2000 and 2014, with a particular focus on automotive electronics recycling. In fact, in the last years, experts focused their attention on a better exploitation of automotive shredder residue fraction, but not sufficiently on eventual electronic scraps embedded in it. Hence, studies assessing the value embedded in these scraps are rarely available in literature, causing an important gap in both recycling policies and research. The fact that, at present, the management of electronic control units (the most valuable component among automotive electronic equipment) is, as yet, off the radar in both end-of-life vehicles and waste from electric and electronic equipment Directives demonstrates the theory. Of course, their recycling would not contribute in a relevant way to reach the weighted-based recycling and recovery targets characterising current regulations, but would be very important under a critical raw materials recovery view. Results coming from the literature analysis confirm these assumptions.

  2. Process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Fraunholcz, O.N.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet, wherein a mixture of said liberated ferrous and not liberated ferrous fragments is fed onto a continuous conveyor belt whic

  3. Process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Fraunholcz, O.N.

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to a process and device for the separation of fragments of liberated ferrous scrap from not liberated ferrous scrap fragments by means of a static magnet, wherein a mixture of said liberated ferrous and not liberated ferrous fragments is fed onto a continuous conveyor belt

  4. Leading Causes of Death in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas- United States, 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Ernest; Garcia, Macarena C; Bastian, Brigham; Rossen, Lauren M; Ingram, Deborah D; Faul, Mark; Massetti, Greta M; Thomas, Cheryll C; Hong, Yuling; Yoon, Paula W; Iademarco, Michael F

    2017-01-13

    Higher rates of death in nonmetropolitan areas (often referred to as rural areas) compared with metropolitan areas have been described but not systematically assessed. 1999-2014 DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Mortality data for U.S. residents from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate age-adjusted death rates and potentially excess deaths for nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas for the five leading causes of death. Age-adjusted death rates included all ages and were adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population by the direct method. Potentially excess deaths are defined as deaths among persons aged leading causes were higher in nonmetropolitan areas than in metropolitan areas. For example, approximately half of deaths from unintentional injury and chronic lower respiratory disease in nonmetropolitan areas were potentially excess deaths, compared with 39.2% and 30.9%, respectively, in metropolitan areas. Potentially excess deaths also differed among and within public health regions; within regions, nonmetropolitan areas tended to have higher percentages of potentially excess deaths than metropolitan areas. Compared with metropolitan areas, nonmetropolitan areas have higher age-adjusted death rates and greater percentages of potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes of death, nationally and across public health regions. Routine tracking of potentially excess deaths in nonmetropolitan areas might help public health departments identify emerging health problems, monitor known problems, and focus interventions to reduce preventable deaths in these areas.

  5. Pyrolysis of a waste from the grinding of scrap tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, A M; Barriocanal, C; Alvarez, R

    2012-02-15

    The fibres that are used to reinforce tyres can be recovered as a waste in the process of grinding of scrap tyres. In this paper beneficiation through pyrolysis is studied since the fibres are made up of polymers with a small amount of rubber because the latter is difficult to separate. The experiments were performed at three temperatures (400, 550 and 900°C) in a horizontal oven. The three products - gas, oil and char - obtained from the pyrolysis were investigated. The composition of the gas was analyzed by means of gas chromatography. The oil was studied by gas chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. The char porous structure was determined by N(2) adsorption. In addition, the topography of the chars was studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The products resulting from the pyrolysis of the fibres were compared with those obtained from scrap rubber.

  6. Studies on Scrap Tyre Added Concrete for Rigid Pavements

    OpenAIRE

    Eldhose C.; Dr. Soosan T. G

    2014-01-01

    Waste tyre treatment is now global threat. Waste tyre dumping, disposal of these materials or burning these tyres cause serious environmental and health problems. This paper investigate the wide range of physical and mechanical properties of concrete containing waste tyre aggregates and assess its suitability as a construction material. Waste tyres are powdered into fine particles of various sizes and are used to replace the fine aggregate used in concrete. The fine scrap...

  7. Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Wastes from plutonium conversion and scrap recovery operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, D.C.; Bowersox, D.F.; McKerley, B.J.; Nance, R.L.

    1988-03-01

    This report deals with the handling of defense-related wastes associated with plutonium processing. It first defines the different waste categories along with the techniques used to assess waste content. It then discusses the various treatment approaches used in recovering plutonium from scrap. Next, it addresses the various waste management approaches necessary to handle all wastes. Finally, there is a discussion of some future areas for processing with emphasis on waste reduction. 91 refs., 25 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    2017-08-08

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  10. A Low Power Front End Analog Multiplexing Unit for 12 Lead ECG Signal Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Hari Priya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of CMOS analog circuitry for acquiring 12 lead ECG is presented. The existing methods employ separate multiplexers and associated circuitry for signal acquisition operating at typical voltage of ± 5V. The proposed system employs dynamic threshold logic to achieve low power, wide dynamic range good linearity with a supply voltage of 0.4V. The power dissipation obtained was 22.12µW. Utilizing the dynamic threshold logic the proposed circuitry is implemented with 0.18µm CMOS technology. This ECG signal processor is highly suitable for wearable applications of long term cardiac monitoring.

  11. A Low Power Front End Analog Multiplexing Unit for 12 Lead ECG Signal Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The design of CMOS analog circuitry for acquiring 12 lead ECG is presented. The existing methods employ separate multiplexers and associated circuitry for signal acquisition operating at typical voltage of ± 5V. The proposed system employs dynamic threshold logic to achieve low power, wide dynamic range good linearity with a supply voltage of 0.4V. The power dissipation obtained was 22.12µW. Utilizing the dynamic threshold logic the proposed circuitry is implemented with 0.18µm CMOS technolog...

  12. A Low Power Front End Analog Multiplexing Unit for 12 Lead ECG Signal Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Hari Priya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The design of CMOS analog circuitry for acquiring 12 lead ECG is presented. The existing methods employ separate multiplexers and associated circuitry for signal acquisition operating at typical voltage of ± 5V. The proposed system employs dynamic threshold logic to achieve low power, wide dynamic range good linearity with a supply voltage of 0.4V. The power dissipation obtained was 22.12µW. Utilizing the dynamic threshold logic the proposed circuitry is implemented with 0.18µm CMOS technology. This ECG signal processor is highly suitable for wearable applications of long term cardiac monitoring.

  13. Disability Status, Mortality, and Leading Causes of Death in the United States Community Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman-Hoffman, Valerie L.; Ault, Kimberly L.; Anderson, Wayne L.; Weiner, Joshua M.; Stevens, Alissa; Campbell, Vincent A.; Armour, Brian S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the effect of functional disability on all-cause mortality and cause-specific deaths among community-dwelling US adults. Methods We used data from 142,636 adults who participated in the 1994–1995 National Health Interview Survey-Disability Supplement eligible for linkage to National Death Index records from 1994 to 2006 to estimate the effects of disability on mortality and leading causes of death. Results Adults with any disability were more likely to die than adults without disability (19.92% vs. 10.94%; hazard ratio = 1.51, 95% confidence interval, 1.45–1.57). This association was statistically significant for most causes of death and for most types of disability studied. The leading cause of death for adults with and without disability differed (heart disease and malignant neoplasms, respectively). Conclusions Our results suggest that all-cause mortality rates are higher among adults with disabilities than among adults without disabilities and that significant associations exist between several types of disability and cause-specific mortality. Interventions are needed that effectively address the poorer health status of people with disabilities and reduce the risk of death. PMID:25719432

  14. Characterization and recovery of polymers from mobile phone scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Angela C; Bernardes, Andréa M; Veit, Hugo M

    2011-07-01

    Electronic scrap is part of a universally wide range of obsolete, defective, or used materials that need to be disposed of or recycled in an ecologically friendly manner. The present study focused on the polymers present in mobile phone scrap. In mobile phones, polymers are found in frames and in printed circuit boards (PCBs). The frames are mainly made of polymers whereas PCBs use a variety of material (polymers, ceramics, and metals) which makes recycling more difficult. As a first step, mobile phones were collected, separated by manufacturer/model, and weighed, and the principal polymer types identified. The frames and PCBs were processed separately. The metals in PCBs were separated out by an electrostatic separation process. The resulting polymeric material was identified and mixed with the polymers of frames to fabricate the samples. Two types of samples were made: one with polymeric frames, and the other with a mixture of frames and polymeric fraction from the PCBs. Both kinds of sample were fabricated by injection moulding. The samples were evaluated by mechanical tests (tensile, impact, and hardness) to verify the feasibility of recycling the polymers present in mobile phone scrap. The results demonstrated the technical viability of recovering polymers using mechanical processing followed by an injection process.

  15. Process for simultaneously processing of used metal and/or metal scrap and scrap containing halogenated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dapper, G.; Kirchner, W.; Sloterdijk, W.; Verbraak, C.A.

    1982-03-02

    A process is presened for reducing environmental pollution resulting from disposal of waste containing halogenated hydrocarbons by simultaneous treatment with used metal and/or metal scrap at elevated temperatures. The halogenated hydrocarbons are pyrolyzed and the resulting hydrogen halide containing gas is brought into contact with the used metal and/or metal scrap at elevated temperatures so as to form metal halogenides that are volatile under the conditions applied. The volatile metal halogenides are largely separated from the gaseous mixture formed, and at least part of the remaining gaseous mixture and/or hydrocarbon residue is used as fuel to maintain the required temperature. The waste feed compositions and process conditions can be chosen to effect separation between various metals by selective halogenation and condensation, and substantially all of the hydrogen halide can be tied up and recovered as metal halogenides.

  16. Predictive monitoring for respiratory decompensation leading to urgent unplanned intubation in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Matthew T; Vergales, Brooke D; Paget-Brown, Alix O; Smoot, Terri J; Lake, Douglas E; Hudson, John L; Delos, John B; Kattwinkel, John; Moorman, J Randall

    2013-01-01

    Infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and especially those born with very low birth weight (VLBW; endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Intubation and mechanical ventilation are associated with increased morbidity, particularly in urgent unplanned cases. We tested the hypothesis that the systemic response associated with respiratory decompensation can be detected from physiological monitoring and that statistical models of bedside monitoring data can identify infants at increased risk of urgent unplanned intubation. We studied 287 VLBW infants consecutively admitted to our NICU and found 96 events in 51 patients, excluding intubations occurring within 12 h of a previous extubation. In order of importance in a multivariable statistical model, we found that the characteristics of reduced O(2) saturation, especially as heart rate was falling; increased heart rate correlation with respiratory rate; and the amount of apnea were all significant independent predictors. The predictive model, validated internally by bootstrap, had a receiver-operating characteristic area of 0.84 ± 0.04. We propose that predictive monitoring in the NICU for urgent unplanned intubation may improve outcomes by allowing clinicians to intervene noninvasively before intubation is required.

  17. U.S. Forest Service Leads Climate Change Adaptation in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halofsky, J.; Peterson, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Effective climate change engagement on public lands is characterized by (1) an enduring science-management partnership, (2) involvement of key stakeholders, (3) consideration of broad landscapes with multiple landowners, (4) science-based, peer-reviewed assessments of sensitivity of natural resources to climate change, (5) adaptation strategies and tactics developed by resource managers, (6) leadership and a workforce motivated to implement climate-smart practices in resource planning and project management. Using this approach, the U.S. Forest Service, in partnership with other organizations, has developed climate change vulnerability assessments and adaptation plans for diverse ecosystems and multiple resources in national forests and other lands in the western United States, although implementation (step 6) has been slow in some cases. Hundreds of meetings, strategies, plans, and panels have focused on climate change adaptation over the past decade, but only direct engagement between scientists and resource managers (less research, less planning, more action) has resulted in substantive outcomes and increased organizational capacity for climate-smart management.

  18. Investigation of the Potential Hazard in Releasing Scrap Steel Contaminated with Uranium to Commercial Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blatz, Hanson; Harley, John H.; Eisenbud, Merril

    1951-06-15

    Tests were conducted on a laboratory and semi-plant scale to determine the effect of permitting scrap grossly contaminated with uranium to be used in steel manufacture. It was found the most of the uranium is removed with the slag. Steel made with this scrap would have a uranium constituent so little above that made with uncontaminated scrap as to be hardly significant. The slag itself would not present any hazard in handling or normal use. It is recommended, therefore, that in the future steel with only surface uranium contamination be released through normal scrap channels.

  19. Role of molten salt flux in melting of used beverage container (UBC) scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, J.; Sahai, Y. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Recycling of aluminum scrap, such as Used Beverage Container (UBC) scrap is steadily increasing. In secondary remelting of such scrap, it is a common practice to use protective molten salt cover. An appropriate salt protects metal from oxidation, promotes coalescence of the suspended metal droplets, and separates clean metal from the oxide contamination. The molten salt also reacts with metal. This causes metal loss and change of resulting metal composition. In this paper, role of molten salt fluxes in melting of UBC scrap is discussed, and selection criteria for molten salt are provided.

  20. Extraction Factor Of Tungsten Sources From Tungsten Scraps By Zinc Decomposition Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    J.-H. Pee; G.H. Kim; H.Y. Lee; Y.J. Kim

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition promoting factors and extraction process of tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders in the zinc decomposition process of tungsten scraps which are composed mostly of tungsten carbide...

  1. Reasons that lead mothers looking for a pre-hospital unit as a first option for attendance - Sorocaba/SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Helena Campos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to verify the reasons lead mothers to seek the Pre- hospital Unit of Sorocaba Western Zone (UPH-ZO as first option of attendance and quantify the inappropriate motives for this search. Method: it is an exploratory study with quantitative analyze performed at UPH-ZO through the emergence bulletin (BE and the mothers or guardians interview. Results: nine hundred mothers and guardians were interviewed. Four reasons prevailed as motivation for search the UPH-ZO by first option: better and quick resolution with technological resources provided; restrict period for attendance at the Basic Health Unit (UBS; delay for appointment in the UBS; lack of Pediatrician in this Unit. The prevalent diagnostic hypothesis in the sample was acute gastroenterocolitis and superior aerial way infections. Conclusions: for the 68.8% of the sample the looking for UPH-ZO was adequate; 31.2% referred reasons that could be solved at the UBS. This Unit must just be the entrance for the users of the Health Unique System (SUS.

  2. Parent Misidentification Leading to the Breastfeeding of the Wrong Baby in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Charles W; Marc-Aurele, Krishelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 2 month Final Diagnosis: 2 month old 32 weeks’ gestational age preterm infant Symptoms: Prematurity Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Accidental breastfeeding of the wrong baby Specialty: Pediatrics and Neonatology Objective: Diagnostic/therapeutic accidents Background: Because there are clear benefits to breast milk over formula for infants, the goal of the World Health Organization is to increase breastfeeding rates. As more women are breastfeeding and providing breast milk to newborns in hospitals, there is increased risk for administration error. Case Report: A hospitalized preterm infant was breastfed by the wrong mother when the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Nurse failed to properly identify the mother. An infectious disease workup done on the donor mother was negative, but the recipient infant was positive for cytomegalovirus (CMV). Since the donor mother who accidentally breastfed the wrong infant was CMV-negative, the baby in our case had likely been exposed to CMV from his biological mother. The attending physician apologized to all of the family members involved, but the father of one infant continued to express anger. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first case of accidental breastfeeding in a hospital setting to be described in the literature. Parental misidentification and a language barrier led to the error. An infectious disease workup did not find any evidence of disease transmission from this event. Increased attention to minimize breast milk errors is needed. Despite a long history of wet nursing, unregulated breast milk sharing and cross nursing is not recommended. Instead, if a mother cannot provide breast milk herself, pasteurized donor breast milk from breast milk banks is encouraged. PMID:27515898

  3. Continual Decrease in Blood Lead Level in Americans: United States National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Man-Fung; Cheung, Ching-Lung; Cheung, Tommy Tsang; Cheung, Bernard Man Yung

    2016-11-01

    Lead is toxic and affects neurodevelopment in children even at low levels. There has been a long-term effort in the United States to reduce exposure to lead in the environment. We studied the latest US population blood lead levels and analyzed its trend. Blood lead levels in 63,890 participants of the National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey 1999-2014 were analyzed using SPSS Complex Samples v22.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). Mean blood lead levels and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.65 μg/dL (1.62-1.68), 1.44 μg/dL (1.42-1.47), 1.43 μg/dL (1.40-1.45), 1.29 μg/dL (1.27-1.32), 1.27 μg/dL (1.25-1.29), 1.12 μg/dL (1.10-1.14), 0.97 μg/dL (0.95-0.99), and 0.84 μg/dL (0.82-0.86) in 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014, respectively. Blood lead levels decreased significantly (P lead level ≥5 μg/dL were 9.9% (95% CI, 7.5-12.9), 7.4% (95% CI, 5.9-9.4), 5.3% (95% CI, 4.1-6.9), 2.9% (95% CI, 2.1-3.9), 3.1% (95% CI, 2.0-4.8), 2.1% (95% CI, 1.5-3.1), 2.0% (95% CI, 1.0-3.6), and 0.5% (95% CI, 0.3-1.0) in 1999-2000, 2001-2002, 2003-2004, 2005-2006, 2007-2008, 2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2013-2014, respectively. The decreasing trend was significant (P lead level was 3.48 μg/dL. Blood lead levels have been decreasing in the US population. The reference level also should decrease. It is still important to monitor blood lead levels in the population, especially among pregnant women and children aged 1 to 5 years. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of lead and cadmium in counterfeit cigarettes seized in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yi; von Lampe, Klaus; Wood, Laura; Kurti, Marin

    2015-07-01

    Information of toxic elements such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in counterfeit cigarettes offers insight on the potential public health impact of consuming counterfeit cigarettes and the technology used by counterfeiters in the illicit cigarette trade. In this study, the concentration of Pb and Cd in twenty-three packs of counterfeit cigarettes seized in the US by various law enforcement agencies were evaluated and compared with their genuine equivalents using microwave digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Both Pb and Cd concentration in counterfeit cigarettes were markedly higher than those in their genuine equivalents, and exhibited greater sample to sample variability. The average Pb and Cd mass fraction values in counterfeit cigarettes were (5.13 ± 2.50) mg/kg (n = 23) and (5.13 ± 1.95) mg/kg (n = 23) respectively, compared with (0.59 ± 0.08) mg/kg (n = 9) and (1.08 ± 0.08) mg/kg (n = 9) respectively in the genuine equivalents. Results suggest that counterfeit cigarettes may impose higher risks to public health. Studying these toxic elements could provide important information regarding the illicit trade, including the level of organization among counterfeiters, who broker between availability of supplies and consumer demand for a cheaper product that is assumed to be genuine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Aqueous processing of U-10Mo scrap for high performance research reactor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youker, Amanda J., E-mail: youker@anl.gov [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Stepinski, Dominique C.; Maggos, Laura E.; Bakel, Allen J.; Vandegrift, George F. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GTRI program supports conversion from HEU to LEU. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High performance research reactors require a dense LEU fuel such as U-10Mo foils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dissolution conditions for U-10Mo foils in acidic media have been optimized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Solvent-extraction processing can be used to recover U lost in fuel fabrication. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flowsheets were developed using Argonne-design contactors but other contactors can be used as well. - Abstract: The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Conversion program, which is part of the US government's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), supports the conversion of civilian use of highly enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU) for reactor fuel and targets. The reason for conversion is to eliminate the use of any material that may pose a threat to the United States or other foreign countries. High performance research reactors (HPRRs) cannot make the conversion to a standard LEU fuel because they require a more dense fuel to meet their performance requirements. As a result, a more dense fuel consisting of a monolithic uranium-molybdenum alloy containing 10% (w/w) Mo with Al cladding and a Zr bonding-layer is being considered. Significant losses are expected in the fabrication of this fuel, so a means to recycle the scrap pieces is needed. Argonne National Laboratory has developed an aqueous-processing flowsheet for scrap recovery in the fuel fabrication process for high-density LEU-monolithic fuel based on data found in the literature. Experiments have been performed to investigate dissolution conditions for solutions containing approximately 20 g-U/L and 50 g-U/L with and without Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. HNO{sub 3} and HF concentrations have been optimized for timely dissolution of the fuel scrap and prevention of the formation of the U-Zr{sub 2} intermetallic, explosive complex, while

  6. Trace metal concentrations and lead isotopic composition in surface waters of the Northeast Pacific along the United States - Mexico boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. (Inst. of Marine Science, Santa Cruz, CA (United States))

    1990-01-09

    To evaluate the magnitude of heavy metal contamination along the United States - Mexico boundary, trace metal concentrations (Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, and Zn) and lead isotopic composition ([sup 204]Pb, [sup 206]Pb, [sup 207]Pb, and [sup 208]Pb) were measured along four surface water transects across the continental shelf off the Baja California Coast. The stations were located between 2 to 45 km offshore, including both coastal and open ocean locations. All the metal distributions along the transects were characterized by offshore concentration gradients. The highest trace metal concentrations occurred in coastal waters in association with high salinities and nutrient concentrations. There was also a longshore gradient in trace metal concentrations. Trace element concentrations were lower in the southern locations than along the United States - Mexico boundary, and were comparable to typical open ocean values. The relative enrichment of metals in surface waters off the northern part of Baja California was primarily associated with advection/upwelling processes, not with anthropogenic inputs. Mass balance calculations indicated that about 1% of Cd and 13% of Zn were from urban discharges. The low metal levels measured in coastal waters off the central part of Baja California were attributed to the intrusion of open ocean waters, based on hydrographic data, satellite images and lead isotopic compositions.

  7. Lead batteries. Citations from the NTIS data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnaro, D. M.

    1980-07-01

    The design, development, components, fabrication, chemistry, and testing of lead batteries are cited in this compilation of federally-funded research. Specific applications for spacecraft, consumer products, and electric vehicles are covered. Studies on lead recovery from battery scrap are covered. Several abstracts on lead toxicity in industrial plants are also cited.

  8. Overview of China’s Copper Scrap Market in Q3 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>In Q32009,the domestic copper scrap prices(taking 1# copper scrap as an example,see be-low)were shaken as were copper prices;never-theless,Q309 prices were much lower thanthat in the same period last year.

  9. Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Yu, Qilin; Xu, Zibin; Quan, Xie

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates.

  10. Removal of contaminants in leachate from landfill by waste steel scrap and converter slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byung-Taek; Lee, Jai-Young; Yoon, Jeyong

    2007-08-01

    This study may be the first investigation to be performed into the potential benefits of recycling industrial waste in controlling contaminants in leachate. Batch reactors were used to evaluate the efficacy of waste steel scrap and converter slag to treat mixed contaminants using mimic leachate solution. The waste steel scrap was prepared through pre-treatment by an acid-washed step, which retained both zero-valent iron site and iron oxide site. Extensive trichloroethene (TCE) removal (95%) occurred by acid-washed steel scrap within 48 h. In addition, dehalogenation (Cl(-) production) was observed to be above 7.5% of the added TCE on a molar basis for 48 h. The waste steel scrap also removed tetrachloroethylene (PCE) through the dehalogenation process although to a lesser extent than TCE. Heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) were extensively removed by both acid-washed steel scrap and converter slag through the adsorption process. Among salt ions (NH (4)(+) , NO (3)(-) , and PO (4)(3-) ), PO (4)(3-) was removed by both waste steel scrap (100% within 8 h) and converter slag (100% within 20 min), whereas NO (3)(-) and NH (4)(+ ) were removed by waste steel scrap (100% within 7 days) and converter slag (up to 50% within 4 days) respectively. This work suggests that permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with waste steel scrap and converter slag might be an effective approach to intercepting mixed contaminants in leachate from landfill.

  11. 40 CFR 63.10885 - What are my management practices for metallic scrap and mercury switches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... suppliers throughout the scrap supply chain the need to promote the removal of mercury switches from end-of... the scrap supply chain the need to promote the removal or mercury switches from end-of-life vehicles... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are my management practices...

  12. 16 CFR 300.29 - Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. 300.29 Section 300.29 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... Labeling § 300.29 Garments or products composed of or containing miscellaneous cloth scraps. (a) For...

  13. Improving of ecological characteristics of technology on pyrolysis of scrap tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana A. Vovk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available  This article is devoted to the problem of looking for new alternative energy sources. Mutually beneficial integration of alternative energy searches with utilization of scrap tire is considered. Concerned processing line on scrap tires treatment is environment  friendly and economically sound.

  14. Nickel powders recycled from invar scrap by magnesiothermic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Lee, Dong-Won; Lee, Hak-Sung; Yun, Jung-Yeul; Wang, Jei-Pil

    2014-12-01

    A study on the recovery of nickel from Fe-Ni alloy scrap was conducted using molten magnesium by dissolving only Ni component and then removing Mg using vacuum distillation method. The recovering faction of nickel higher than 99% was achieved at temperatures above 1,073 K and 99.5% of purity level of nickel was successfully obtained under vacuum degree of 10(-5) torr at temperatures above 1,273 K. The purity, phase, and recovery rate of nickel were examined by scanning electron microscopy, elemental analyser, and X-ray diffraction.

  15. Scrap tire process turns waste into fuel. [USA - New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tesla, M.R. (New York State Electric and Gas Corporation, Binghamton, NY (United States). Alternate Fuels Development)

    1994-05-01

    New York State Electric Gas Corp. (NYSEG) has in the last three years burned more than 1.3 million tyres to generate power, saving more than 16,000 tons of coal. The article describes how at the 73 MW Jennison power station scrap tires are chopped into 2x2 in. chips prior to mixing with coal near the coal pile (in a 20.80 tire chip to coal ratio) and combustion in stoker boilers with travelling chain grates. NYSEG has also test burned other alternative fuels such as creosote-treated wood and coal tar soils. 6 photos.

  16. The Benefit of Being Scrap in Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossama Elhadary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author used Structure Equation Modeling to study Gold auctions in eBay. The author was able to show that scrap gold (per gram fetches higher price than useable gold. This discrepency might imply that there is stronger competition for scrap gold and/or willingness of buyers to bid a higher price for it. This seems to run against common sense, because while scrap gold can only be used for investment, useable Gold can be used both as an investment and as wearble jewery. One explanation of this might be the fact that testing the purity of gold can result in some damage to the item being tested. While this clearly might not be an issue with scrap gold, it might be a serious issue when trying to return a useable item to the seller after testig it because the item can not be claimed to be in the same condition any more. While previous studies have found that the number of bids in an auction positively influence the final selling price, in this paper on the other hand, this relationship was found to be significant but negative. This implies that since gold is bought primarily as an investment and because the potential buyers seem to be already aware of the actual gold value of the item, they tend to bid more conservatively when they see a lot bids on the item. The actual dynamics are a bit complicated though, because although the number of bids is negatively influencing the selling price, the number of bidders seems to positively influence the price. And adding to the complexity, the number of bids will positively influence the number of bidders which seems to imply a herd behavior. Accordingly, one additional bid will directly have a negative effect on the price but indirectly (through the number of bidders have a positive effect. Also, unlike previous research, this study was not able to show that there is any relationship between the shipping cost and the final selling price

  17. 29 CFR 570.63 - Occupations involved in the operation of paper-products machines, scrap paper balers, and paper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... machines, scrap paper balers, and paper box compactors (Order 12). 570.63 Section 570.63 Labor Regulations... involved in the operation of paper-products machines, scrap paper balers, and paper box compactors (Order..., scrap paper baler, paper box compactor, or vertical slotter. (ii) Platen die-cutting press,...

  18. The Militarization of the Prairie: Scrap Drives, Metaphors, and the "Omaha World-Herald's" 1942 "Nebraska Plan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimble, James J.

    2007-01-01

    In WW II, there was no nationwide shortage of scrap on the home front. In backyards, attics, barns, ditches, garages, and factory storage sheds across the country, all sorts of scrap material awaited transport and eventual conversion to arms. Yet the public's awareness of the scrap, and the national willpower necessary to collect it, seemed to be…

  19. High Purity Tungsten Spherical Particle Preparation From WC-Co Spent Hard Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Chulwoong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was recycled to obtain high purity spherical tungsten powder by a combined hydrometallurgy and physical metallurgy pathway. Selective leaching of tungsten element from hard metal scrap occurs at solid / liquid interface and therefore enlargement of effective surface area is advantageous. Linear oxidation behavior of Tungsten carbide-cobalt and the oxidized scrap is friable to be pulverized by milling process. In this regard, isothermally oxidized Tungsten carbide-cobalt hard metal scrap was mechanically broken into particles and then tungsten trioxide particle was recovered by hydrometallurgical method. Recovered tungsten trioxide was reduced to tungsten particle in a hydrogen environment. After that, tungsten particle was melted and solidified to make a spherical one by RF (Ratio Frequency thermal plasma process. Well spherical tungsten micro-particle was successfully obtained from spent scrap. In addition to the morphological change, thermal plasma process showed an advantage for the purification of feedstock particle.

  20. Study of Properties of PP/PE-g-MAH/Scrap Leather Fiber Composites%PP/PE-g-MAH/废皮革纤维复合材料性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世鹏; 宋正辉; 王亚娟; 李亚; 邵双喜; 姚利辉; 段景宽; 秦林

    2015-01-01

    利用马来酸酐(MAH)接枝聚乙烯(PE)(PE-g-MAH)作为增容剂,以废弃的皮革纤维为增韧剂,通过物理机械共混方法,制备一种可生物降解的PP/PE-g-MAH/废皮革纤维复合材料。研究了PP/PE-g-MAH/废皮革纤维复合材料的微观结构和力学性能之间的关系。结果表明,PE-g-MAH与废皮革纤维之间存在着化学反应,有利于废皮革纤维在PP基体中的分散,同时提高了废皮革纤维与PP基体之间的作用力,改善了PP/PE-g-MAH/废皮革纤维复合材料的力学性能。PP/PE-g-MAH/废皮革纤维复合材料的力学性能与废皮革纤维的用量和废皮革纤维在PP基体中的分散状态有关。%Polypropylene(PP)/maleic anhydride (MAH) grafted polyethylene(PE)/scrap leather fiber biodegradable composites were prepared by means of physical mechanical blending method and PE-g-MAH and scrap leather fiber were used as compatibility agent and toughening agent respectively. The relationships between micro-structure and mechanical properties of PP/PE-g-MAH/s crap leather fiber composites were studied. The experiment results show that the existence of chemical reaction between PE-g-MAH and scrap leather fiber was in favor of the good dispersion of scrap leather fiber in PP matrix,meanwhile increases the force between scrap leather fiber and PP matrix,which lead to the improvement of mechanical properties of PP/PE-g-MAH/scrap leather fiber composites. The mechanical properties of PP/PE-g-MAH/scrap leather fiber composites are related to the amount of scrap leather fiber and scrap leather fiber dispersed state in PP matrix.

  1. Driver Assistance System for Passive Multi-Trailer Vehicles with Haptic Steering Limitations on the Leading Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Reina

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Driving vehicles with one or more passive trailers has difficulties in both forward and backward motion due to inter-unit collisions, jackknife, and lack of visibility. Consequently, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS for multi-trailer combinations can be beneficial to accident avoidance as well as to driver comfort. The ADAS proposed in this paper aims to prevent unsafe steering commands by means of a haptic handwheel. Furthermore, when driving in reverse, the steering-wheel and pedals can be used as if the vehicle was driven from the back of the last trailer with visual aid from a rear-view camera. This solution, which can be implemented in drive-by-wire vehicles with hitch angle sensors, profits from two methods previously developed by the authors: safe steering by applying a curvature limitation to the leading unit, and a virtual tractor concept for backward motion that includes the complex case of set-point propagation through on-axle hitches. The paper addresses system requirements and provides implementation details to tele-operate two different off- and on-axle combinations of a tracked mobile robot pulling and pushing two dissimilar trailers.

  2. Environmental risk related to specific processes during scrap computer recycling and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhui; Shi, Pixing; Shan, Hongshan; Xie, Yijun

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to achieve a better understanding of the generation of toxic chemicals related to specific processes in scrap computer recycling and disposal, such as thermal recycling of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and the landfilling or dumping of cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Tube furnace pyrolysis was carried out to simulate different thermal treatment conditions for the identification of the by-products and potential environmental risk from thermal recycling ofPCBs. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a column test were used to study the leaching characteristics of lead from waste CRT glass, which is one of the most important environmental concerns arising from the disposal of e-waste. The results indicate that more attention should be paid to the benzene series when recycling PCBs under thermal conditions, especially for workers without any personal protection equipment. The impact of immersion on the leaching of lead from CRT leaded glass was more effective than the impact of washing only by acid rain. Thus when waste leaded glass has to be stored for some reason, the storage facility should be dry.

  3. Continuous Extraction of Nickel from Superalloy Scraps Using Zinc Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Ryohei; Okabe, Toru H.

    2017-02-01

    A novel technique for the continuous extraction of nickel (Ni) from Ni-based superalloy scraps using molten zinc (Zn) has been proposed, and its feasibility was experimentally demonstrated. The newly developed approach allows for extraction of Ni metal directly from superalloy scraps with simultaneous separation of the Zn from the resulting Zn-Ni alloy. The optimal conditions for the extraction of Ni and separation of valuable elements such as rhenium (Re), tantalum (Ta), and tungsten (W) were determined by varying major process parameters including the reaction time and configuration of the reaction chamber. The proposed method has been successfully utilized for the production of the superalloy containing 62.8 mass pct of Ni and 15.5 mass pct of refractory metals (Re, W, and Ta). Under certain conditions, 41 pct of the Ni contained in the superalloy could be extracted at 1173 K (900 °C) over 48 hours, producing an alloy containing 84.0 mass pct of Ni and 0.2 mass pct of the refractory metals.

  4. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-12-01

    Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  5. Remelting of Aluminium by Continuous Submersion of Rolled Scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farner, Snorre

    2000-12-01

    When remelting aluminium scrap, metal losses due to dross generation is a common problem. Reduction of these losses will give substantial economic and environmental benefits. Dross is generated when aluminium metal oxidizes and films of oxide envelope molten metal. When a cold metal object is immersed in a melt, the heat of the melt around this is transferred so rapidly into the object that a shell of melt often solidifies to the surface of the object. When scrap with low bulk density is charged to a melt, solidification of melt on the cold scrap prevents melt from entering the cavities in the bulk of the scrap, and the bulk density remains low. Thus the scrap tends to float on the melt surface. Submersion of this scrap is important to avoid oxidation and subsequent dross generation. One solution to this is to roll scrap to a strip and feed it into the melt. This system has been examined by studying feeding of a continuous, thin aluminium plate into molten aluminium. Also, the effect of lacquer was considered, as well as feeding the plate into a launder with melt flowing along the surface of the plate. An analytical, one-dimensional, steady-state model has been developed to describe the melting and the melting mechanisms. It is based on a shell solidifying on the plate surface and a gap introducing a thermal resistance 1/h{sub g} between the shell and the plate. The thermal resistance 1/h{sub l} of the boundary layer of the melt is included. Depending on these resistances, the initial temperature of the plate and the melt temperature, a shell will form, and the plate will penetrate a distance P into the melt before it melts away. An experimental apparatus was designed and constructed to feed aluminium plate from a coil into a melt bath at a specified velocity. The plate could be withdrawn rapidly to ''freeze'' the situation like it was below the melt surface. The penetration depth P of the plate could be measured and shell formation observed

  6. Development of a compact HTS lead unit for the SC correction coils of the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Zhanguo, E-mail: zhanguo.zong@kek.jp; Ohuchi, Norihito; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Arimoto, Yasushi

    2016-09-11

    Forty-three superconducting (SC) correction coils with maximum currents of about 60 A are installed in the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system. Current leads to energize the SC correction coils should have an affordable heat load and fit the spatial constraints in the service cryostat where the current leads are installed. To address the requirements, design optimization of individual lead was performed with vapor cooled current lead made of a brass material, and a compact unit was designed to accommodate eight current leads together in order to be installed with one port in the service cryostat. The 2nd generation high temperature SC (HTS) tape was adopted and soldered at the cold end of the brass current lead to form a hybrid HTS lead structure. A prototype of the compact lead unit with HTS tape was constructed and tested with liquid helium (LHe) environment. This paper presents a cryogenic measurement system to simulate the real operation conditions in the service cryostat, and analysis of the experimental results. The measured results showed excellent agreement with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. In total, 11 sets of the compact HTS lead units were constructed for the 43 SC correction coils at KEK. One set from the mass production was tested in cryogenic conditions, and exhibited the same performance as the prototype. The compact HTS lead unit can feed currents to four SC correction coils simultaneously with the simple requirement of controlling and monitoring helium vapor flow, and has a heat load of about 0.762 L/h in terms of LHe consumption. - Highlights: • The requirements of the SC correction coils on current leads are introduced. • The optimum design of the brass vapor cooled current lead is described. • The compact structure of eight leads with HTS tape is presented. • The theoretical, numerical, and experimental results are compared. • The current lead heat load is evaluated for cryogenic system.

  7. Copper Recycling in the United States in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of copper from production through distribution and use, with particular emphasis on the recycling of industrial scrap (new scrap1) and used products (old scrap) in the year 2004. This materials flow study includes a description of copper supply and demand for the United States to illustrate the extent of copper recycling and to identify recycling trends. Understanding how materials flow from a source through disposition can aid in improving the management of natural resource delivery systems. In 2004, the U.S. refined copper supply was 2.53 million metric tons (Mt) of refined unalloyed copper. With adjustment for refined copper exports of 127,000 metric tons (t) of copper, the net U.S. refined copper supply was 2.14 Mt of copper. With this net supply and a consumer inventory decrease of 9,000 t of refined copper, 2.42 Mt of refined copper was consumed by U.S. semifabricators (brass mills, wire rod mills, ingot makers, and foundries and others) in 2004. In addition to the 2.42 Mt of refined copper consumed in 2004, U.S. copper semifabricators consumed 853,000 t of copper contained in recycled scrap. Furthermore, 61,000 t of copper contained in scrap was consumed by noncopper alloy makers, for example, steelmakers and aluminum alloy makers. Old scrap recycling efficiency for copper was estimated to be 43 percent of theoretical old scrap supply, the recycling rate for copper was 30 percent of apparent supply, and the new-scrap-to-old-scrap ratio for U.S. copper product production was 3.2 (76:24).

  8. Detection and decontamination of residual energetics from ordnance and explosives scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Carina M; Newcombe, David A; Crawford, Don L; Crawford, Ronald L

    2004-02-01

    Extensive manufacturing of explosives in the last century has resulted in widespread contamination of soils and waters. Decommissioning and cleanup of these materials has also led to concerns about the explosive hazards associated with residual energetics still present on the surfaces of ordnance and explosives scrap. Typically, open burning or detonation is used to decontaminate ordinance and explosive scrap. Here the use of an anaerobic microbiological system applied as a bioslurry to decontaminate energetics from the surfaces of metal scrap is described. Decontamination of model metal scrap artificially contaminated with 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and of decommissioned mortar rounds still containing explosives residue was examined. A portable ion mobility spectrometer was employed for the detection of residual explosives residues on the surfaces of the scrap. The mixed microbial populations of the bioslurries effectively decontaminated both the scrap and the mortar rounds. Use of the ion mobility spectrometer was an extremely sensitive field screening method for assessing decontamination and is a method by which minimally trained personnel can declare scrap clean with a high level of certainty.

  9. Regional Logistics of Procurement of the Ferrous Scrap by the Iron-and-Steel Companies of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aleksandrovna Ivanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the relevant problem of iron-and-steel companies saving on purchasing the scrap metal. The analysis of the current state of the ferrous scrap market in the Russian Federation, trends of its development, led the authors to an opportunity to reduce the cost for purchasing scrap trough the optimal distribution of the regions between Russian iron-and-steel companies where they purchase ferrous scrap. The optimization of the regional structure of the scrap procurement taking into account the regional volumes of its generation and consumption results from using the linear programming methods applying three variants of the problem statement: minimizing the total cost of the scrap delivery to the factory, minimizing the total cost of the scrap at the “export parity” price with delivery, minimizing the total cost of the scrap at the actual prices with delivery. The authors have developed software for performing the calculations. The source are the database of the JSC Russian Railways, which provides information about the transportation of the ferrous scrap between stations of the Russian Federation by railroad; railway rates guide between railway stations of the Russian Federation; statistical data on the prices for scrap metal of the type 3A in “export windows”; actual purchasing prices for the scrap of the 3A type for the range of separate companies of the Russian Federation for several years. As a result, the authors have obtained the optimal regional structure of scrap purchasing for customers in the Russian Federation. We have formulated the recommendations for individual companies regarding the optimal routes of the procurement with scrap. The study has confirmed the possibility to decrease expanses for purchasing the scrap metal for all iron-and-steel factories of the Russian Federation through the optimization of the regional structure of procurement. It is also has allowed to estimate the possibility to cut expenses

  10. Voltammetric study of lead electrodeposition in the presence of sorbitol and morphological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, I. A.; Siqueira, J. L. P.; Finazzi, G. A.; de Almeida, M. R. H.

    The potentiodynamic electrodeposition of lead on a 1010 steel substrate from a new electrolytic solution was studied in order to establish whether sorbitol additive is suitable for the production of lead film for use in lead batteries and whether this polyalcohol can be used in lead scrap recycling. It was observed that the presence of sorbitol in the plating bath proved to be critical, since in its absence it was impossible to prepare solutions of plumbite in NaOH sorbitol reduced the lead dendritic growth more significantly than glycerol additive and that this new electrolytic solution could be used to recycle lead scrap.

  11. A discussion about public health, lead and Legionella pneumophila in drinking water supplies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Michael B; Pokhrel, Lok R; Weir, Mark H

    2017-07-15

    Lead (Pb) in public drinking water supplies has garnered much attention since the outset of the Flint water crisis. Pb is a known hazard in multiple environmental matrices, exposure from which results in long-term deleterious health effects in humans. This discussion paper aims to provide a succinct account of environmental Pb exposures with a focus on water Pb levels (WLLs) in the United States. It is understood that there is a strong correlation between WLLs and blood Pb levels (BLLs), and the associated health effects. However, within the Flint water crisis, more than water chemistry and Pb exposure occurred. A cascade of regulatory and bureaucratic failures culminated in the Flint water crisis. This paper will discuss pertinent regulations and responses including their limitations after an overview of the public health effects from Pb exposure as well as discussion on our limitations on monitoring and mitigating Pb in tap water. As the Flint water crisis also included increased Legionnares' disease, caused by Legionella pneumophila, this paper will discuss factors influencing L. pneumophila growth. This will highlight the systemic nature of changes to water chemistry and public health impacts. As we critically analyze these important aspects of water research, we offer discussions to stimulate future water quality research from a new and systemic perspective to inform and guide public health decision-making.

  12. AN INNOVATIVE METHOD FOR FORMING BALLS FROM SCRAP RAIL HEADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Pater

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a new method for forming grinding media balls from scrap rail heads. This forming method involves the following operations: cutting the rail head to the desired length combined with lateral pressing of the produced workpiece; flashless die forging and sizing of balls in a helical impression. The proposed method was verified by numerical simulation which involved the modeling of a forming process for producing 80 mm diameter balls. As a result of the modeling, it was possible to examine the changes in the workpiece shape during each forming operation, the variations in loads and torques, as well as the distribution of temperatures enabling performing another forming operation, i.e. quenching. The results confirm that the designed method can be used to produce balls.

  13. 20 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE WITH SCRAP PREHEATING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je. Apfel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more countries worldwide implement new rules and regulations to improve energy efficiency and cut CO2 and hazardous off-gas emissions. Thus electric steelmakers need technology that keeps costs low, increases productivity and helps them adhere to environmental regulations. Decades of knowledge in preheating technology, and several different innovative applications which had been solution for many unique cases have been brought together and announced in 2010. EAF Quantum was designed as a pragmatic solution that meets requirements for high energy and cost efficiency, increased productivity and lowest emissions. Whether scrap, partly hot metal or direct-reduced iron (DRI is charged, EAF Quantum is the solution for highly productive electric steelmaking at extra low conversion costs.

  14. Recycling of metal bearing electronic scrap in a plasma furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Piotr; Małecki, Stanisław; Gargul, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    The recycling of electronic waste and the recovery of valuable components are large problems in the modern world economy. This paper presents the effects of melting sorted electronic scrap in a plasma furnace. Printed circuit boards, cables, and windings were processed separately. The characteristics of the obtained products (i.e., alloy metal, slag, dust, and gases) are presented. A method of their further processing in order to obtain commercial products is proposed. Because of the chemical composition and physical properties, the waste slag is environmentally inert and can be used for the production of abrasives. Process dusts containing large amounts of carbon and its compounds have a high calorific value. That makes it possible to use them for energy generation. The gas has a high calorific value, and its afterburning combined with energy recovery is necessary.

  15. Kinetics of scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gartzen; Aguado, Roberto; Olazar, Martín; Arabiourrutia, Miriam; Bilbao, Javier

    2009-10-01

    Scrap tyre pyrolysis under vacuum is attractive because it allows easier product condensation and control of composition (gas, liquid and solid). With the aim of determining the effect of vacuum on the pyrolysis kinetics, a study has been carried out in thermobalance. Two data analysis methods have been used in the kinetic study: (i) the treatment of experimental data of weight loss and (ii) the deconvolution of DTG (differential thermogravimetry) curve. The former allows for distinguishing the pyrolysis of the three main components (volatile components, natural rubber and styrene-butadiene rubber) according to three successive steps. The latter method identifies the kinetics for the pyrolysis of individual components by means of DTG curve deconvolution. The effect of vacuum in the process is significant. The values of activation energy for the pyrolysis of individual components of easier devolatilization (volatiles and NR) are lower for pyrolysis under vacuum with a reduction of 12K in the reaction starting temperature. The kinetic constant at 503K for devolatilization of volatile additives at 0.25atm is 1.7 times higher than that at 1atm, and that corresponding to styrene-butadiene rubber at 723K is 2.8 times higher. Vacuum enhances the volatilization and internal diffusion of products in the pyrolysis process, which contributes to attenuating the secondary reactions of the repolymerization and carbonization of these products on the surface of the char (carbon black). The higher quality of carbon black is interesting for process viability. The large-scale implementation of this process in continuous mode requires a comparison to be made between the economic advantages of using a vacuum and the energy costs, which will be lower when the technologies used for pyrolysis require a lower ratio between reactor volume and scrap tyre flow rate.

  16. Advanced technologies for decomtamination and conversion of scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie MacNair; Steve Sarten; Thomas Muth; Brajendra Mishra

    1999-05-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) faces the task of decommissioning much of the vast US weapons complex. One challenge of this effort includes the disposition of large amounts of radioactively contaminated scrap metal (RSM) including but not limited to steel, nickel, copper, and aluminum. The decontamination and recycling of RSM has become a key element in the DOE's strategy for cleanup of contaminated sites and facilities. Recycling helps to offset the cost of decommissioning and saves valuable space in the waste disposal facilities. It also reduces the amount of environmental effects associated with mining new metals. Work on this project is geared toward finding decontamination and/or recycling alternatives for the RSM contained in the decommissioned gaseous diffusion plants including approximately 40,000 tons of nickel. The nickel is contaminated with Technetium-99, and is difficult to remove using traditional decontamination technologies. The project, titled ``Advanced Technologies for Decontamination and Conversion of Scrap Metal'' was proposed as a four phase project. Phase 1 and 2 are complete and Phase 3 will complete May 31, 1999. Stainless steel made from contaminated nickel barrier was successfully produced in Phase 1. An economic evaluation was performed and a market study of potential products from the recycled metal was completed. Inducto-slag refining, after extensive testing, was eliminated as an alternative to remove technetium contamination from nickel. Phase 2 included successful lab scale and pilot scale demonstrations of electrorefining to separate technetium from nickel. This effort included a survey of available technologies to detect technetium in volumetrically contaminated metals. A new process to make sanitary drums from RSM was developed and implemented. Phase 3 included a full scale demonstration of electrorefining, an evaluation of electro-refining alternatives including direct dissolution, melting of nickel into anodes, a

  17. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  18. Leaching of DOC, DN, and inorganic constituents from scrap tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbes, Meric; Yilmaz, Ozge; Khan, Abdul A; Karanfil, Tanju

    2015-11-01

    One concern for recycle and reuse of scrap tires is the leaching of tire constituents (organic and inorganic) with time, and their subsequent potential harmful impacts in environment. The main objective of this study was to examine the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved nitrogen (DN), and selected inorganic constituents from scrap tires. Different sizes of tire chips and crumb rubber were exposed to leaching solutions with pH's ranging from 3.0 to 10.0 for 28days. The leaching of DOC and DN were found to be higher for smaller size tire chips; however, the leaching of inorganic constituents was independent of the size. In general, basic pH conditions increased the leaching of DOC and DN, whereas acidic pH conditions led to elevated concentrations of metals. Leaching was minimal around the neutral pH values for all the monitored parameters. Analysis of the leaching rates showed that components associated with the rubbery portion of the tires (DOC, DN, zinc, calcium, magnesium, etc.) exhibited an initial rapid followed by a slow release. On the other hand, a constant rate of leaching was observed for iron and manganese, which are attributed to the metal wires present inside the tires. Although the total amounts that leached varied, the observed leaching rates were similar for all tire chip sizes and leaching solutions. Operation under neutral pH conditions, use of larger size tire chips, prewashing of tires, and removal of metal wires prior to application will reduce the impact of tire recycle and reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of a compact HTS lead unit for the SC correction coils of the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Zhanguo; Ohuchi, Norihito; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Arimoto, Yasushi

    2016-09-01

    Forty-three superconducting (SC) correction coils with maximum currents of about 60 A are installed in the SuperKEKB final focusing magnet system. Current leads to energize the SC correction coils should have an affordable heat load and fit the spatial constraints in the service cryostat where the current leads are installed. To address the requirements, design optimization of individual lead was performed with vapor cooled current lead made of a brass material, and a compact unit was designed to accommodate eight current leads together in order to be installed with one port in the service cryostat. The 2nd generation high temperature SC (HTS) tape was adopted and soldered at the cold end of the brass current lead to form a hybrid HTS lead structure. A prototype of the compact lead unit with HTS tape was constructed and tested with liquid helium (LHe) environment. This paper presents a cryogenic measurement system to simulate the real operation conditions in the service cryostat, and analysis of the experimental results. The measured results showed excellent agreement with the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. In total, 11 sets of the compact HTS lead units were constructed for the 43 SC correction coils at KEK. One set from the mass production was tested in cryogenic conditions, and exhibited the same performance as the prototype. The compact HTS lead unit can feed currents to four SC correction coils simultaneously with the simple requirement of controlling and monitoring helium vapor flow, and has a heat load of about 0.762 L/h in terms of LHe consumption.

  20. Bioleaching of metals from electronic scrap by moderately thermophilic acidophilic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilyas, Sadia; Anwar, Munir A.; Niazi, Shahida B.; Ghauri, M. Afzal

    2007-01-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the bioleachability of metals from electronic scrap by the selected moderately thermophilic strains of acidophilic chemolithotrophic and acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria. These included Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans and an unidentified acidophilic hetero

  1. The Research of Scrapped Automobiles Recycling and Disassembling Industry Development Based on Auto Industry Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    linhua Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of China’s scrapped car is on an explosively growing trend, and the development of scrapped car recycling industry has a golden prospect. The current scrapped car recycling system is not perfect in our country, because related industries driven by market develop slowly, and there are some outstanding problems such as potential safety risks, environmental pollution and resource waste. The paper analyzes and studies the existing problems and countermeasures to investigate the development strategy of scrapped car recycling industry according to the whole automobile industry chain construction, technology and equipment conditions, policy guidance, etc. and at last explore the new industrial development pattern of serving automobile reverse design.

  2. Scrap metals' role in circular economy in Ghana, using Sunyani as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... The findings of the study shows that scrap metal industry is growing in the Sunyani ... Also, it is recommended that transfer, recycling and foundry stations should be built to prevent ...

  3. The recycling of standard quality wrought aluminum alloys from low-grade contaminated scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkjjan, Varužan

    2010-08-01

    In recent decades an increasingly large fraction of the world’s wrought aluminum alloys supply has come from the aluminum scrap recovered from industrial waste and discarded post-consumer items. However, replacing even a minor part of primary aluminum in wrought alloys with recycled counterpart originated from lower grades of scrap (typically scrap contaminated with various non-metallic impurities) without influencing the quality of the allay is very demanding from a metallurgical point of view. This article discusses the two approaches for achieving the requested chemical composition of wrought alloys made from recycled aluminum: (i) before melting, by combining the appropriate qualities and quantities of scrap, primary aluminum, and the alloying elements and (ii) during melting, by diluting impurity content with primary aluminum to the needed level and adding, at the same time, the necessary amount of alloying elements for achieving their standard concentration in diluted melts.

  4. REMOVING ZINC FROM GALVANIZED STEEL SCRAP TO FEASIBLE THE BOF SLUDGE RECYCLING

    OpenAIRE

    Mônica Marques Caetano de Lima; Luciana Cerqueira Souza Solimani; Marco Antônio Quintela

    2013-01-01

    Galvanized steel scraps generated at Usiminas Ipatinga are recycled in BOF converters. Although they are noble products, they contain a significant quantity of zinc that escapes from the bath due to its high vapor pressure and is captured by the gas control system, appearing in BOF sludge. As BOF sludge contains high iron content, it could be recycled to the process, but due to its zinc content, it is disposed in landfills. For this reason, this study aimed to treat these scraps t...

  5. Closed loop recycling of lead/acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bied-Charreton, B.

    The traditional lead/acid battery is a recycleable product, irrespective whether it is of an automotive, traction or standby design. The product benefits from the traditional lead metallurgy that has been developed for both primary (mines) and secondary (recycling) smelting. Secondary smelting accounts for 60% of total lead production in Europe, and this market lead the most effectively metal. In secondary smelters, scrapped batteries are crushed and smelted. The polypropylene from the boxes is recycled to produce secondary plastic for battery, automotive, or other miscellaneous uses. The lead metal is refined to be re-used in the battery industry. The acid is retreated. Recycling requires a collection network. The lead/acid battery benefits from the traditional collection network that has been established for scrap-iron and non-ferrous metal scrap. In Western Europe, the recycling rate for scrapped batteries is estimated to be 80 to 90%. All participants in the battery recycling loop agree that the process must be a clean cycle for it to be credible. The collection organization is improving the quality of storage and transportation, especially with regard to the acid that can only be neutralized in correctly-controlled facilities, generally located at the smelters. The smelters themselves tend, through local regulations, to run at the optimum level of protection of the environment.

  6. Management of MSW in Spain and recovery of packaging steel scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayibi, Hanan; Peña, Carmen; López, Félix A; López-Delgado, Aurora

    2007-01-01

    Packaging steel is more advantageously recovered and recycled than other packaging material due to its magnetic properties. The steel used for packaging is of high quality, and post-consumer waste therefore produces high-grade ferrous scrap. Recycling is thus an important issue for reducing raw material consumption, including iron ore, coal and energy. Household refuse management consists of collection/disposal, transport, and processing and treatment - incineration and composting being the most widely used methods in Spain. Total Spanish MSW production exceeds 21 million tons per year, of which 28.1% and 6.2% are treated in compost and incineration plants, respectively. This paper presents a comprehensive study of incineration and compost plants in Spain, including a review of the different processes and technologies employed and the characteristics and quality of the recovered ferrous scrap. Of the total amount of packaging steel scrap recovered from MSW, 38% comes from compost plants and 14% from incineration plants. Ferrous scrap from incineration plants presents a high degree of chemical alteration as a consequence of the thermal process to which the MSW is subjected, particularly the conditions in which the slag is cooled, and accordingly its quality diminishes. Fragmentation and magnetic separation processes produce an enhancement of the scrap quality. Ferrous scrap from compost plants has a high tin content, which negatively affects its recycling. Cleaning and detinning processes are required prior to recycling.

  7. Cost-Effective Consolidation of Fine Aluminum Scrap for Increased Remelting Effieciency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Van Geertruyden

    2005-09-22

    The main objective of this research was to develop a new re-melting process for fine or light gauge aluminum scrap products that exhibits dramatic improvements in energy efficiency. Light gauge aluminum scrap in the form of chips, turnings, and borings has historically been underutilized in the aluminum recycling process due to its high surface area to volume ratio resulting in low melt recovery. Laboratory scale consolidation experiments were performed using loose aluminum powder as a modeling material as well as shredded aluminum wire scrap. The processing parameters necessary to create consolidated aluminum material were determined. Additionally, re-melting experiments using consolidated and unconsolidated aluminum powder confirmed the hypothesis that metal recovery using consolidated material will significantly improve by as much as 20%. Based on this research, it is estimated that approximately 495 billion Btu/year can be saved by implementation of this technology in one domestic aluminum rolling plant alone. The energy savings are realized by substituting aluminum scrap for primary aluminum, which requires large amounts of energy to produce. While there will be an initial capital investment, companies will benefit from the reduction of dependence on primary aluminum thus saving considerable costs. Additionally, the technology will allow companies to maintain in-house alloy scrap, rather than purchasing from other vendors and eliminate the need to discard the light gauge scrap to landfills.

  8. The Basel Convention: effect on the Asian secondary lead industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, J. W.

    The Basel Convention has had a dramatic effect on the world trade in scrap materials. The scope of implementation is broader than was originally intended. This is due mainly to uncertainties created by a failure to distinguish between waste for disposal and waste destined for recycling. Spent lead/acid batteries and other lead scrap flows from OECD to non-OECD countries have been restricted to the point where secondary lead production is being affected. Export-import flows between OECD members have also changed as recycling is being contained within those countries. The economics of recycling in OECD countries may result in a smaller percentage of scrap being recycled. The established lead/acid battery industry in the Asian region, which relies heavily on imported scrap, will now be forced to import more finished metal, to maintain output. With strong economic growth forecast for the region, and no substitute for the lead-based battery, the supply situation is unlikely to ease.

  9. Project W.U.L.P.: Wetland Understanding Leading to Protection. A Comprehensive, Multidisciplinary Wetlands Unit for Middle Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Dave; And Others

    This multidisciplinary, progressional unit involves students in discovering wetlands and why such areas are important, and in learning they can make a difference in saving wetlands. The unit is designed to be taught with two options: (1) entirely in the classroom; and (2) a combination of classroom and field experience. Fourteen classroom lessons…

  10. Therapeutic milestone: stroke declines from the second to the third leading organ- and disease-specific cause of death in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towfighi, Amytis; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2010-03-01

    Stroke mortality rates declined for much of the second half of the 20th century, but recent trends and their relation to other organ- and disease-specific causes of death have not been characterized. Using the National Center for Health Statistics mortality data, leading organ- and disease-specific causes of death were assessed for the most recent 10-year period (1996 to 2005) in the United States with a specific focus on stroke deaths. Age-adjusted stroke death rates declined by 25.4%; as a result, lung cancer (which only declined by 9.2%) surpassed stroke as the second leading cause of death in 2003. Despite a 31.9% decline in age-adjusted ischemic heart disease death rates, it remains the leading cause of death. Stroke is now the fifth leading cause of death in men and the fourth leading cause of death in whites but remains the second leading cause of death in women and blacks. With stroke death rates decreasing substantially in the United States from 1996 to 2005, stroke moved from the second to the third leading organ- and disease-specific cause of death. Women and blacks may warrant attention for targeted stroke prevention and treatment because they continue to have disproportionately high stroke death rates.

  11. The lifecycle of silver in the United States in 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2014-01-01

    Because silver is highly sought after for its properties, which make it eminently suitable for new technology applications, a clear understanding of the flow of materials in the economy, the historical context, and trends for the future can help project the future of silver in the economy of the United States. Silver has many properties that are desired in today’s economy. It has superior electrical and heat conductivity, chemical stability, high-temperature strength, malleability, and other characteristics that make it important in high-tech electronic and other industrial applications. Because it is relatively scarce as a natural resource and is easily coined, silver historically has been an important monetary metal. As knowledge of silver chemistry has increased, many industrial end uses have been developed. This study reviews the flows of silver into various end uses and examines the nature of the end use with respect to the silver properties desired and the ability of the end use to produce recyclable end-of-life materials. For the most part, silver can be profitably recycled, but the recycling activity is helped by tipping fees (fees imposed on scrap generators by scrap collectors for taking the material) for materials that might otherwise be regulated as hazardous wastes. New high-technology applications use silver in nanolevel amounts, leading to a potential for dissipative loss and reduced recycling capability.

  12. Resource recovery of scrap silicon solar battery cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Hwa; Hung, Chi-En; Tsai, Shang-Lin; Popuri, Srinivasa R; Liao, Ching-Hua

    2013-05-01

    In order to minimize pollution problems and to conserve limited natural resources, a hydrometallurgical procedure was developed in this study to recover the valuable resources of silicon (Si), silver (Ag) and aluminum (Al) from scrap silicon solar battery cells. In this study, several methods of leaching, crystallization, precipitation, electrolysis and replacement were employed to investigate the recovery efficiency of Ag and Al from defective monocrystalline silicon solar battery cells. The defective solar battery cells were ground into powder followed by composition analysis with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. The target metals Ag and Al weight percentage were found to be 1.67 and 7.68 respectively. A leaching process was adopted with nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sodium hydroxide as leaching reagent to recover Ag and Al from a ground solar battery cell. Aluminum was leached 100% with 18N H2SO4 at 70°C and Ag was leached 100% with 6N HNO3. Pure Si of 100% was achieved from the leaching solution after the recovery of Ag and Al, and was analyzed by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectroscopy. Aluminum was recovered by crystallization process and silver was recovered by precipitation, electrolysis and replacement processes. These processes were applied successfully in the recovery of valuable metal Ag of 98-100%.

  13. Reductive denitrification of nitrate by scrap iron filings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Zhi-wei; XU Xin-hua; WANG Da-hui

    2005-01-01

    Reduction of nitrate by zero-valent iron is a highly exergonic reaction that has long been known to occur. Use of scrap iron filings (SIF) as the PRB (Permeable Reactive Barrier) material can be used to recycle certain by-products, and identify cheaper replacements for expensive conventional PRB materials, especially pure metallic iron. The feasibility of reductive denitrification of nitrate by SIF was studied by batch experiments. Operational parameters such as pH value, SIF dosage and initial concentration of nitrate were investigated. The removal efficiency of nitrate reached 80% under the conditions of pH of 2.5, nitrate initial concentration of 45 mg/L and SIF dosage of 100 g/L within 4 h. Results indicated that nitrate removal is inversely related to pH. Low pH value condition favors for the nitrate transformation. Different from the results of others who studied nitrate reduction using iron powder, we found that there was a lag time before nitrate reduction occurs, even at low pH. Finally, the possible mechanism of nitrate reduction by Fe0 is discussed.

  14. Microwave induced fast pyrolysis of scrap rubber tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ani, Farid Nasir; Mat Nor, Nor Syarizan

    2012-06-01

    Pyrolysis is the thermal degradation of carbonaceous solid by heat in the absence of oxygen. The feedstocks, such as biomass or solid wastes are heated to a temperature between 400 and 600°C, without introducing oxygen to support the reaction. The reaction produces three products: gas, pyro-fuel oil and char. This paper presents the techniques of producing pyro-oil from waste tires, as well as investigation of the fuel properties suitable for diesel engine applications. In this study, microwave heating technique is employed to pyrolyse the used rubber tires into pyro-oil. Thermal treatment of as received used rubber tires is carried out in a modified domestic microwave heated fixed bed technology. It has been found that, rubber tires, previously used by various researchers, are poor microwave absorbers. Studies have shown that an appropriate microwave-absorbing material, such as biomass char or activated carbon, could be added to enhance the pyrolysis process; thus producing the pyro-oil. The characteristics of pyro-oil, as well as the effect of microwave absorber on its yield, are briefly described in this paper. The temperature profiles during the microwave heating process are also illustratively emphasized. The study provides a means of converting scrap tires into pyro-oil and pyrolytic carbon black production. The proposed microwave thermal conversion process therefore has the potentials of substantially saving time and energy.

  15. On the pyrolysis kinetics of scrap automotive tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J H; Chen, K S; Tong, L Y

    2001-06-01

    Pyrolysis kinetics of scrap tires of passenger car and truck have been investigated thermogravimetrically under heating rates of 5, 10, 20 and 30K/min and temperature range 373-1273K in nitrogen. The results show that the initial reaction temperatures are 482-521K for the tire of passenger car and 458-511K for truck tire. Both tires exhibit similar behaviors that the initial reaction temperature decreases, but reaction range and reaction rate increase when heating rate is increased. The overall rate equation for each tire can be modeled satisfactorily by a simple one equation from which the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (E), the pre-exponential factor (A), and the reaction order (n) of unreacted material based on Arrhenius form are determined using Friedman's method. The results show that two tires behave similarly and the average kinetic parameters of two tires are E = 147.95 +/- 0.21kJ/mol, A = (6.295 +/- 1.275)x10(10)min(-1), and n = 1.81 +/- 0.18. The predicted rate equations compare fairly well with the measured data.

  16. Scraps and Sketches: Miscellaneity, Commodity Culture and Comic Prints, 1820-40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Maidment

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers the emergent significance in the 1820s and 1830s of the market for engraved or lithographed images intended for use in albums and scrapbooks. Part of a wider development of the consumer culture for prints, scraps were a characteristic product in publishers' attempts to find a more varied and profitable market for their products. Largely derided by scholarly historians as trivial representatives of the debased and vulgar tastes consequent upon the democratization of the print market in the second quarter of the nineteenth century, the market in scraps nonetheless offers an important insight into the ways in which visual culture adapted to change in this period. In particular, scraps drew women more extensively into the market place for prints, and were crucial in the development of an illustrated periodical literature. After offering a brief overview of the scraps trade and some description of the ways in which images were assembled and deployed in albums, this essay goes on to consider the reasons for the lowly critical reputation of scraps in an attempt to reinsert this genre more adequately into the historical narrative of print culture.

  17. Assessment of DOE radioactive scrap metal disposition options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, C.R.; Kasper, K.M. [Waste Policy Institute, Morgantown, WV (United States); Bossart, S.J. [Department of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The DOE has amassed a large amount of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM) as a result of past operations and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The volume of RSM will continue to increase as a result of the D&D of more than 6,000 surplus facilities and many of the 14,000 operating facilities in the DOE complex. RSM can be either surface contaminated or volumetrically contaminated, or both, with varying amounts of radioactivity. Several options exist for the disposition of this RSM, including disposal as radioactive waste, recycling by decontamination and free-release for unrestricted use, or recycling for restricted reuse inside a DOE controlled area. The DOE Office of Science and Technology (EM-50) has been actively investing in technology and strategy development in support of restricted-reuse RSM recycling for the past several years. This paper will assess the nature of the RSM recycling issue, review past investment by DOE to develop technologies and strategies to recycle RSM, and then discuss some recommendations concerning future investments in support of RSM management. Available information on the supply of RSM will be presented in Section II. The regulatory and policy framework concerning recycling RSM will be presented in Section III. A review of DOE investment in RSM recycling technology and current programs will be presented in Section IV. The current and projected industrial capacity will be described in Section V. And, finally, a discussion of issues and recommendations regarding DOE technology development interests in RSM recycling will be presented in Section VI and VII, respectively.

  18. Blood Lead Concentrations of Children in the United States: A Comparison of States Using Two Very Large Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Keneil K; Oleske, James M; Gomez, Hernan F; Davidow, Amy L; Bogden, John D

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether there are substantial differences by state between 2 large datasets in the proportion of children with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs); to identify states in which the percentage of elevated BLLs is high in either or both datasets; and to compare the percentage of elevated BLLs in individual states with those of children living in Flint, Michigan, during the months when these children were exposed to lead-contaminated drinking water. Tables of BLLs for individual states from the Quest Diagnostics and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention datasets for 2014-2015, containing more than 3 million BLLs of young children?lead exposure (primary prevention) and identify children with elevated BLLs (secondary prevention). Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effects of mechanical milling on the carbothermal reduction of oxide of WC/Co hardmetal scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Geun; Ha, Gook-Hyun

    2016-03-01

    The effects of mechanical milling on the carbothermal reduction of oxidized WC/Co hardmetal scrap with solid carbon were examined. Mixed powders were manufactured by milling the WC/Co hard metal scrap oxide and carbon powder in either a tumbler-ball mill or a planetary-ball mill. The milling type affected the carbothermal reduction of the oxide owing to the differing collision energies (mechanical milling energies) in the mills. The hardmetal scrap oxide powder (WO3, CoWO4) milled at high energy was more greatly reduced and at a lower temperature than that milled at lower mechanical energy. The formation of WC by the carburization reaction with solid carbon reached completion at a lower temperature after higher-energy milling than after lower-energy milling. The WC/Co composite particles synthesized by the combined oxidationmechanical milling-carbothermal reduction process were smaller when the initial powder was milled at higher mechanical energy.

  20. A study on the recycling of scrap integrated circuits by leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Hwa; Tang, Li-Wen; Popuri, Srinivasa R

    2011-07-01

    In order to minimize the problem of pollution and to conserve limited natural resources, a method to recover the valuable metals such as gold, silver and copper) present in the scrap integrated circuits (ICs) was developed in the present study. Roasting, grinding, screening, magnetic separation, melting and leaching were adopted to investigate the efficiency of recovery of gold, silver and copper from scrap ICs. The collected scrap IC samples were roasted at 850 °C to destroy their plastic resin sealing material, followed by screening and magnetic separation to separate the metals from the resin residue. The non-ferrous materials (0.840 mm) were mainly composed of copper and could be melted into a copper alloy. Non-ferrous materials containing gold (860.05 ppm), silver (1323.12 ppm) and copper (37259.7 ppm) (size less than 50 mesh) were recovered 100% by a leaching process and thiourea was used as a leaching reagent.

  1. Domestic Polymerization Inhibitor BL-628B Used in High-Pressure Depropanizer of Ethylene Unit Commands an International Leading Position

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The high-pressure depropanizer of the 180 kt/a ethylene unit at the SINOPEC's Zhongyuan Petrochemical Limited Liability Company has been smoothly operating for three years since the adoption of the polymerization inhibitor BL-62B manufactured by the Beijing Sparrow Science and Technology Company to achieve first in China the target on a threeyear long-cycle,overloaded and stable operation.The large ethylene unit at PetroChina's Lanzhou Petrochemical Company will shortly apply this polymerization inhibitor to substitute for the imported additive,symbolizing the indigenous mature technology for inhibiting polymerization in the HP depropanizer by means of the multifunctional additive under high load with the product quality reaching the internationally advanced level.

  2. Thermogravimetric characteristics and kinetics of scrap tyre and Juglans regia shell co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, B B; Yaman, E

    2014-10-01

    The degradation kinetics of Juglans regia shell, scrap tyre and their blends were investigated using a thermogravimetric analysis method. Experiments were performed under dynamic conditions and a nitrogen atmosphere in the range 293 to 973 K at different heating rates. During pyrolysis of J. regia shell three mass loss zones were specified as removal of water, decomposition of hemicelluloses and cellulose, and decomposition of lignin. The degradation curves of scrap tyre showed merely one stage which was due to decomposition of styrene butadiene rubber. The kinetic parameters were calculated using both Arrhenius and Coats-Redfern methods. By adopting the Arrhenius method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blends were found to be 69.22, 71.48 and 47.03 kJ mol(-1), respectively. Additionally, by using the Coats-Redfern method, the average value of activation energies of J. regia shell, scrap tyre and their 1 : 1 blend were determined as 99.85, 78.72 and 63.81 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The addition of J. regia shell to scrap tyre caused a reduction in the activation energies. The difference of weight loss was measured to examine interactions between raw materials. The maximum difference between experimental and theoretical mass loss was 5% at about 648 K with a heating rate of 20 K min(-1). These results indicated a significant synergistic effect was available during co-pyrolysis of J. regia shell and scrap tyre in the high temperature region.

  3. A model for recovery of scrap monolithic uranium molybdenum fuel by electrorefining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kleeck, Melissa A.

    The goal of the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors program (RERTR) is toreduce enrichment at research and test reactors, thereby decreasing proliferation risk at these facilities. A new fuel to accomplish this goal is being manufactured experimentally at the Y12 National Security Complex. This new fuel will require its own waste management procedure,namely for the recovery of scrap from its manufacture. The new fuel is a monolithic uraniummolybdenum alloy clad in zirconium. Feasibility tests were conducted in the Planar Electrode Electrorefiner using scrap U-8Mo fuel alloy. These tests proved that a uranium product could be recovered free of molybdenum from this scrap fuel by electrorefining. Tests were also conducted using U-10Mo Zr clad fuel, which confirmed that product could be recovered from a clad version of this scrap fuel at an engineering scale, though analytical results are pending for the behavior of Zr in the electrorefiner. A model was constructed for the simulation of electrorefining the scrap material produced in the manufacture of this fuel. The model was implemented on two platforms, Microsoft Excel and MatLab. Correlations, used in the model, were developed experimentally, describing area specific resistance behavior at each electrode. Experiments validating the model were conducted using scrap of U-10Mo Zr clad fuel in the Planar Electrode Electrorefiner. The results of model simulations on both platforms were compared to experimental results for the same fuel, salt and electrorefiner compositions and dimensions for two trials. In general, the model demonstrated behavior similar to experimental data but additional refinements are needed to improve its accuracy. These refinements consist of a function for surface area at anode and cathode based on charge passed. Several approximations were made in the model concerning areas of electrodes which should be replaced by a more accurate function describing these areas.

  4. An assessment of the human health impact of seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using disability adjusted life years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scallan, E; Hoekstra, R M; Mahon, B E; Jones, T F; Griffin, P M

    2015-10-01

    We explored the overall impact of foodborne disease caused by seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using the disability adjusted life year (DALY). We defined health states for each pathogen (acute illness and sequelae) and estimated the average annual incidence of each health state using data from public health surveillance and previously published estimates from studies in the United States, Canada and Europe. These pathogens caused about 112 000 DALYs annually due to foodborne illnesses acquired in the United States. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (32 900) and Toxoplasma (32 700) caused the most DALYs, followed by Campylobacter (22 500), norovirus (9900), Listeria monocytogenes (8800), Clostridium perfringens (4000), and Escherichia coli O157 (1200). These estimates can be used to prioritize food safety interventions. Future estimates of the burden of foodborne disease in DALYs would be improved by addressing important data gaps and by the development and validation of US-specific disability weights for foodborne diseases.

  5. Investigation of fatigue and mechanical properties of the pipe grade poly(vinyl chloride using recycled scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J-M. Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of using pre-consumer PVC scraps on static and long-term mechanical properties is studied. The degradation characteristics of mixing virgin PVC with crushed pre-consumer and PVC pipe scraps are analyzed using various tools including Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, X-ray fluorescence (XRF and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The variation of static mechanical properties as a function of adding pre-consumer PVC pipe scraps is investigated using the degradation analyses of recycled PVC scraps. In addition, fatigue tests are executed to evaluate the long-term durability of blending virgin PVC and recycled PVC scraps, and the fracture surface is investigated in detail to reveal the variation of the fracture mechanisms.

  6. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  7. Recycling and processing of several typical crosslinked polymer scraps with enhanced mechanical properties based on solid-state mechanochemical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Xinxing; Zhang, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-05-22

    The partially devulcanization or de-crosslinking of ground tire rubber (GTR), post-vulcanized fluororubber scraps and crosslinked polyethylene from cable scraps through high-shear mechanochemical milling (HSMM) was conducted by a modified solid-state mechanochemical reactor. The results indicated that the HSMM treated crosslinked polymer scraps can be reprocessed as virgin rubbers or thermoplastics to produce materials with high performance. The foamed composites of low density polyethylene/GTR and the blend of post-vulcanized flurorubber (FKM) with polyacrylate rubber (ACM) with better processability and mechanical properties were obtained. The morphology observation showed that the dispersion and compatibility between de-crosslinked polymer scraps and matrix were enhanced. The results demonstrated that HSMM is a feasible alternative technology for recycling post-vulcanized or crosslinked polymer scraps.

  8. China Rescinds the Export Tax on Aluminium Alloys Made by Scrap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>According to an official from the Tax Regulations Office under China’s State Council, from July 1st 2005, China will rescind the 5 per cent export tax on the aluminium alloys produced by using aluminium alloys scrap. An official from the State Council’s office said that through investigation they found that most aluminium alloys produced from aluminium scrap are not that energy consuming compared to primary aluminium. Starting from January 1st 2005, China decided to collect 5 per cent export tax on aluminium so as to control the industry development connected with high energy cost.

  9. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via electron beam cold hearth refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-12-15

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6%-niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using Virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  10. Progress toward uranium scrap recycling via Electron Cold Hearth Refining (EBCHR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKoon, R.H.

    1994-12-22

    A 250 kW electron beam cold hearth refining (EBCHR) melt furnace at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been in operation for over a year producing 5.5 in.-diameter ingots of various uranium alloys. Production of in-specification uranium-6% - niobium (U-6Nb) alloy ingots has been demonstrated using virgin feedstock. A vibratory scrap feeder has been installed on the system and the ability to recycle chopped U-6Nb scrap has been established. A preliminary comparison of vacuum arc remelted (VAR) and electron beam (EB) melted product is presented.

  11. Investigation of Causes of Scrap Occurrence in Thread Cutting on Steel Sleeves for Motorcar Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić, V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies causes of scrap occurrence, wear and breakage of cutters during thread cutting of steel sleeves poured in Al die castings of motor car engine components. It was concluded that the reason for occurrence of problems with thread cutting of sleeves most probably should be attributed to the fact whether hardness value reaches 200 HB or over 250 HB. The most probable reason for over wear and consequently to breakage of cutters and scrap occurrence, although castings display top quality, lies in the fact that the internal diameter of sleeves frequently falls down under minimally allowed tolerances for threaded sleeves.

  12. Recycle of scrap plutonium-238 oxide fuel to support future radioisotope applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, L.D.; Espinoza, J.M.; Ramsey, K.B.; Rinehart, G.H.; Silver, G.L.; Purdy, G.M.; Jarvinen, G.D.

    1997-11-01

    The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel by HNO{sub 3}/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. A sufficient quantity of purified {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments allowing more time for neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 to precipitate resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water-soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel.

  13. A New Biology for the 21st Century; Ensuring the United States Leads the Coming Biology Revolution. Final committee report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-05-10

    In July, 2008, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF), and Department of Energy (DOE) asked the National Research Council’s Board on Life Sciences to convene a committee to examine the current state of biological research in the United States and recommend how best to capitalize on recent technological and scientific advances that have allowed biologists to integrate biological research findings, collect and interpret vastly increased amounts of data, and predict the behavior of complex biological systems. From September 2008 through July of 2009, a committee of 16 experts from the fields of biology, engineering and computational science undertook to delineate those scientific and technological advances and come to a consensus on how the U.S. might best capitalize on them. This report, authored by the Committee on a New Biology for the 21st Century, describes the committee’s work and conclusions.

  14. Preliminary lead isotope investigations of brine from the Red Sea, Galena from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and galena from United Arab Republic (Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delevaux, M.H.; Doe, B.R.; Brown, G.F.

    1967-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lead in Red Sea chloride brine containing 0.5 ppm Pb is found to be similar to that of some Cenozoic ore leads such as galena at Rabigh in Saudi Arabia that may have formed during mineralization accompanying Tertiary rifting. Bir Ranga galena in Miocene sediments from United Arab Republic (Egypt) is also isotopically similar to lead in Red Sea brine. The chlorine brine must be considered a possible mineralizing fluid. Lead isotopes show promise for use in mineral prospect evaluation in that galena from Samrah is isotopically similar to that from Mahd adh Dhahab, which has been the only ore producer in Saudi Arabia since 1945. Drilling at Samrah does indicate a possible economic mineralization. The lead isotope data coupled with available geologic knowledge and geochronometry are used to tentatively divide the ore prospects of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia into relative categories of mineralization age. Two Mesozoic and Cenozoic mineralizations are distinguished on the basis of a 207Pb/204Pb difference; an early Paleozoic mineralization grouping is outlined; and a late Precambrian mineralization period is suggested. ?? 1967.

  15. Optimization of a heterogeneous catalytic hydrodynamic cavitation reactor performance in decolorization of Rhodamine B: application of scrap iron sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri Parsa, Jalal; Ebrahimzadeh Zonouzian, Seyyed Alireza

    2013-11-01

    A low pressure pilot scale hydrodynamic cavitation (HC) reactor with 30 L volume, using fixed scrap iron sheets, as the heterogeneous catalyst, with no external source of H2O2 was devised to investigate the effects of operating parameters of the HC reactor performance. In situ generation of Fenton reagents suggested an induced advanced Fenton process (IAFP) to explain the enhancing effect of the used catalyst in the HC process. The reactor optimization was done based upon the extent of decolorization (ED) of aqueous solution of Rhodamine B (RhB). To have a perfect study on the pertinent parameters of the heterogeneous catalyzed HC reactor, the following cases as, the effects of scrap iron sheets, inlet pressure (2.4-5.8 bar), the distance between orifice plates and catalyst sheets (submerged and inline located orifice plates), back-pressure (2-6 bar), orifice plates type (4 various orifice plates), pH (2-10) and initial RhB concentration (2-14 mg L(-1)) have been investigated. The results showed that the highest cavitational yield can be obtained at pH 3 and initial dye concentration of 10 mg L(-1). Also, an increase in the inlet pressure would lead to an increase in the ED. In addition, it was found that using the deeper holes (thicker orifice plates) would lead to lower ED, and holes with larger diameter would lead to the higher ED in the same cross-sectional area, but in the same holes' diameters, higher cross-sectional area leads to the lower ED. The submerged operation mode showed a greater cavitational effects rather than the inline mode. Also, for the inline mode, the optimum value of 3 bar was obtained for the back-pressure condition in the system. Moreover, according to the analysis of changes in the UV-Vis spectra of RhB, both degradation of RhB chromophore structure and N-deethylation were occurred during the catalyzed HC process.

  16. [Reasons for the changes in anthropogenic lead flows of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lan; Mao, Jian-Su

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, accompanied by a series of comprehensive improvement actions on lead pollution, anthropogenic lead flows of China have somewhat changed; by exploring the reasons, some references can be provided for further improvement in resource utilization and environment quality. In this paper, based on the framework of lead flow analysis, the causes of changes in lead flows were identified and divided into scale factors and technical factors. Based on that and taking indices such as the quantities of lead production and recovered lead scraps, and lead recycling rate and emission rates as the scale and technical indices, respectively, the reasons for the changes of lead flow in our country were analyzed from the aspects of consumption, trade, technology, management and so on. The results showed: the domestic consumption of lead products has been gro wing quickly at an average annual rate of 24.7%, which pulled the growth of domestic lead consumption; The growth of lead consumption further increased the growth of lead production at an average annual rate of 14.2%, which finally pulled the growth of domestic lead ore resource consumption, lead concentrates net imports and lead scraps recovering; The increases in domestic consumption ratio of final lead products promoted the improvement of the lead recycling rate; As national management was strengthened, most lead-enterprises with small scale and old-dated technologies were closed, meanwhile, some advanced technologies were encouraged to be employed, thus the general resource utilization rate was improved and environmental lead emissions rate was reduced.

  17. Process for removing and detoxifying cadmium from scrap metal including mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    Cadmium-bearing scrap from nuclear applications, such as neutron shielding and reactor control and safety rods, must usually be handled as mixed waste since it is radioactive and the cadmium in it is both leachable and highly toxic. Removing the cadmium from this scrap, and converting it to a nonleachable and minimally radioactive form, would greatly simplify disposal or recycling. A process now under development will do this by shredding the scrap; leaching it with reagents which selectively dissolve out the cadmium; reprecipitating the cadmium as its highly insoluble sulfide; then fusing the sulfide into a glassy matrix to bring its leachability below EPA limits before disposal. Alternatively, the cadmium may be recovered for reuse. A particular advantage of the process is that all reagents (except the glass frit) can easily be recovered and reused in a nearly closed cycle, minimizing the risk of radioactive release. The process does not harm common metals such as aluminum, iron and stainless steel, and is also applicable to non-nuclear cadmium-bearing scrap such as nickel-cadmium batteries.

  18. MUTAGENICITY OF EMISSIONS FROM THE SIMULATED OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP RUBBER TIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes a follow-up to a small-scale combustion study to collect, identify, and quantify products emitted during the simulated open combustion of scrap tires. The initial study found that total estimated emissions of semi-volatile organics ranged from 10 to 50 g/kg o...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF EMISSIONS FROM THE SIMULATED OPEN BURNING OF SCRAP TIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a small-scale combustion study, designed to collect, identify, and quantify products emitted during the simulated open burning of scrap tires. Fixed combustion gas, volatile and semi-volatile organic, particulate, and airborne metals data were collecte...

  20. Improvements in separation of non-ferrous scrap metals using an electromagnetic sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesina, M.B.; De Jong, T.P.R.; Dalmijn, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a new method for identification and separation of non-ferrous scrap metals using an electromagnetic sensor that is based on the eddy current principle. The electromagnetic sensor (EMS) is a prototype system that has been developed by Delft University of Technology in co-operat

  1. US Department of Energy`s weapons complex scrap metal inventory. Research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duda, J.R.

    1993-07-01

    Two tasks comprise the thrust of this contracted effort. Task 1 is the development of a Source List and is based on determining a list of public documents pertaining to contaminated/uncontaminated scrap metals, equipment, and other materials of value, were they not contaminated or could they be decontaminated. Task 2 is to develop an inventory of such materials from the Task 1 list of public documentation. In more detail, the Task 2 Inventory Report is based upon fulfillment of the following requirement to prepare and submit an Inventory Report based on the information obtained in the Source List. The Inventory Report shall define the type, quantity, and location of used equipment, scrap metal, and other materials existing within DOE`s system. The Inventory Report shall list: the site where the equipment, scrap metal, or other material resides; the type and size of equipment; the type and volume and/or weight of scrap metal or other material; its source; the type and level of contamination; its accessibility; the current annual rate of generation; and the projected annual rate of generation of the material.

  2. Separation of matrix alloy and reinforcement from aluminum metal matrix composites scrap by salt flux addition

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Ravi; R M Pillai; B C Pai; M Chakraborty

    2007-08-01

    Separation of matrix alloy and reinforcements from pure Al–SiCp composite scrap by salt flux addition has been theoretically predicted using interface free energies. Experiments performed confirm the theoretical prediction. Complete separation of matrix aluminum and reinforcement from metal matrix composites (MMCs) scrap has been achieved by addition of 2.05 wt% of equimolar mixture of NaCl–KCl salt flux with a metal and particle yield of 84 and 50%, respectively. By adding 5 wt% of NaF to equimolar mixture of NaCl–KCl, metal and particle yield improved to 91 and 73%, respectively. Reusability of both the matrix aluminum and the SiC separated from Al–SiCp scraps has been analysed using XRD, SEM and DTA techniques. The matrix alloy separated from Al–SiCp scraps can be used possibly as a low Si content Al–Si alloy. However, the interfacial reaction that occurred during the fabrication of the composites had degraded the SiC particles.

  3. Evaluation of copper for divider subassembly in MCO Mark IA and Mark IV scrap fuel baskets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1997-09-29

    The K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) subprojection eludes the design and fabrication of a canister that will be used to confine, contain, and maintain fuel in a critically safe array to enable its removal from the K Basins, vacuum drying, transport, staging, hot conditioning, and interim storage (Goldinann 1997). Each MCO consists of a shell, shield plug, fuel baskets (Mark IA or Mark IV), and other incidental equipment. The Mark IA intact and scrap fuel baskets are a safety class item for criticality control and components necessary for criticality control will be constructed from 304L stainless steel. It is proposed that a copper divider subassembly be used in both Mark IA and Mark IV scrap baskets to increase the safety basis margin during cold vacuum drying. The use of copper would increase the heat conducted away from hot areas in the baskets out to the wall of the MCO by both radiative and conductive heat transfer means. Thus copper subassembly will likely be a safety significant component of the scrap fuel baskets. This report examines the structural, cost and corrosion consequences associated with using a copper subassembly in the stainless steel MCO scrap fuel baskets.

  4. 碎纸片的拼接复原%Recovery of Scraps of paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘啸泽; 李璞; 陈香

    2014-01-01

    本文通过使用Euclidean距离来衡量两张碎纸片之间的相似程度来实现碎纸片的拼接还原问题。首先使用贪心模型和TSP模型来分别完成仅纵切的碎纸片的还原问题并相互印证结果。然后又推广使用了TSP模型并完成了同时纵切和横切的碎纸片拼接复原。%In this paper,by using the Euclidean distance to measure the similarity between the two pieces of scraps of paper to realize mosaic scraps of paper reduction problem.First use the reduction problem greedy model and TSP model respectively complete the scraps of paper only longitudinal and corroborated the results.Then use the TSP model and finished at the same time scraps of paper splicing longitudinal and transverse restoration.

  5. Extraction Factor Of Tungsten Sources From Tungsten Scraps By Zinc Decomposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pee J.-H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition promoting factors and extraction process of tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders in the zinc decomposition process of tungsten scraps which are composed mostly of tungsten carbide and cobalt were evaluated. Zinc volatility was suppressed by the enclosed graphite crucible and zinc volatilization pressure was produced in the reaction graphite crucible inside an electric furnace for ZDP (Zinc Decomposition Process. Decomposition reaction was done for 2hours at 650°, which 100% decomposed the tungsten scraps that were over 30 mm thick. Decomposed scraps were pulverized under 75μm and were composed of tungsten carbide and cobalt identified by the XRD (X-ray Diffraction. To produce the WC(Tungsten Carbide powder directly from decomposed scraps, pulverized powders were reacted with hydrochloric acid to remove the cobalt binder. Also to produce the tungstic acid, pulverized powders were reacted with aqua regia to remove the cobalt binder and oxidize the tungsten carbide. Tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders were identified by XRD and chemical composition analysis.

  6. Noneconomic factors influencing scrap metal disposition decisions at DOE and NRC-licensed nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewen, M.D.; Robinson, L.A.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently developing radiation protection standards for scrap metal, which will establish criteria for the unconditional clearance of scrap from nuclear facilities. In support of this effort, Industrial Economics, Incorporated is assessing the costs and benefits attributable to the rulemaking. The first step in this analysis is to develop an in-depth understanding of the factors influencing scrap disposition decisions, so that one can predict current and future practices under existing requirements and compare them to the potential effects of EPA`s rulemaking. These baseline practices are difficult to predict due to a variety of factors. First, because decommissioning activities are just beginning at many sites, current practices do not necessarily provide an accurate indicator of how these practices may evolve as site managers gain experience with related decisions. Second, a number of different regulations and policies apply to these decisions, and the interactive effects of these requirements can be difficult to predict. Third, factors other than regulatory constraints and costs may have a significant effect on related decisions, such as concerns about public perceptions. In general, research suggests that these factors tend to discourage the unconditional clearance of scrap metal.

  7. Improvements in separation of non-ferrous scrap metals using an electromagnetic sensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesina, M.B.; De Jong, T.P.R.; Dalmijn, W.L.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a new method for identification and separation of non-ferrous scrap metals using an electromagnetic sensor that is based on the eddy current principle. The electromagnetic sensor (EMS) is a prototype system that has been developed by Delft University of Technology in

  8. Trends in the leading causes of injury mortality, Australia, Canada, and the United States, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Karin; Clapperton, Angela; Macpherson, Alison; Sleet, David; Newton, Donovan; Murdoch, James; Mackay, J Morag; Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Wilkins, Natalie; Marr, Angela; Ballesteros, Michael; McClure, Roderick

    2017-06-16

    The aim of this study was to highlight the differences in injury rates between populations through a descriptive epidemiological study of population-level trends in injury mortality for the high-income countries of Australia, Canada and the United States. Mortality data were available for the US from 2000 to 2014, and for Canada and Australia from 2000 to 2012. Injury causes were defined using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision external cause codes, and were grouped into major causes. Rates were direct-method age-adjusted using the US 2000 projected population as the standard age distribution. US motor vehicle injury mortality rates declined from 2000 to 2014 but remained markedly higher than those of Australia or Canada. In all three countries, fall injury mortality rates increased from 2000 to 2014. US homicide mortality rates declined, but remained higher than those of Australia and Canada. While the US had the lowest suicide rate in 2000, it increased by 24% during 2000-2014, and by 2012 was about 14% higher than that in Australia and Canada. The poisoning mortality rate in the US increased dramatically from 2000 to 2014. Results show marked differences and striking similarities in injury mortality between the countries and within countries over time. The observed trends differed by injury cause category. The substantial differences in injury rates between similarly resourced populations raises important questions about the role of societal-level factors as underlying causes of the differential distribution of injury in our communities.

  9. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs.

  10. History of Nutrition: The Long Road Leading to the Dietary Reference Intakes for the United States and Canada123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Yates, Allison A; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Barr, Susan I; Dwyer, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are reference values to guide the planning and assessing of nutrient intakes in the United States and Canada. The DRI framework was conceptualized in 1994, and the first reports were issued from 1997–2004, based on work by expert panels and subcommittees under the guidance of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. Numerous conventions, challenges, and controversies were encountered during the process of defining and setting the DRIs, including the definition of the framework, the use of chronic disease endpoints, lack of data on requirements for children and youth, and methods for addressing nonessential bioactive substances with potential health benefits. DRIs may be used to plan and assess the nutrient intakes of both individuals and population groups, but the new paradigm particularly improved methods used for groups. It is now possible to estimate both the prevalence of inadequate intake and the prevalence of potentially excessive intake within a group. The DRIs have served as a potent influence on national nutrition policies, including those related to dietary guidance, food labeling, nutrition monitoring, food assistance programs, and military nutrition standards. Because of this important impact on nutrition policy, the DRIs must be based on the best possible and most up-to-date science. Unfortunately, no updates to specific DRIs are currently planned. Despite the long and challenging road that led to the current DRIs, it must not finish in a dead end. Monetary resources and political will are crucial to maintaining and continuously updating the DRIs. PMID:27180379

  11. Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) emissions from scrap processing steel plants with electric-arc furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Mustafa; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Elbir, Tolga; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2017-01-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) emissions of scrap iron processing steel plants were explored by measuring concentrations in stack gases of five plants, in the atmosphere (n=11) at a site close to those plants, and in soil at several sites in the region (n=40) in Aliaga, Izmir, Turkey. Observed stack-gas Σ32PCN levels from the plants without scrap preheating (189±157ngNm(-3), average±SD, n=4) showed that they are substantial PCN emitting sources. Stack-gas Σ32PCN level for the plant with scrap preheating was considerably higher (1262ngNm(-3)). Similarly, Σ32PCN emission factor for this plant was substantially higher (11.9mgton(-1)) compared to those without scrap preheating (1.30±0.98mgton(-1)). Results have also suggested that the investigated steel plants emit large quantities of fugitive particle-phase PCNs. Measured soil Σ32PCN concentrations that are considered to be representative of the atmospheric levels were greatly variable in the region, ranging between 0.003 and 10.02μgkg(-1) (dry wt). Their spatial distribution showed that main PCN sources in the region were the iron-steel plants. Ambient air levels (1620±800pgm(-3)) were substantially higher than ones observed around the world and in the study area verifying that the steel plants with electric arc furnaces (EAFs) are important PCN sources. Investigation of possible mechanisms suggested that the combustion processes also contribute to emissions from EAFs in addition to evaporation of PCNs present in the scrap iron.

  12. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  13. Processing of wastes from lead/acid battery production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivianny, I. R.; Rusin, A. I.; Lata, V. A.; Khegay, L. D.; Nourjigitov, S. T.

    Experience in the recovery of scrap and wastes from lead/acid battery production suggests that an electrothermal method has good prospects. This process is characterized by a high degree of lead and antimony (approx 98%) extraction, by effective gas cleaning and dust collection, and by full dust returning to the furnace. The electrothermal method is also distinguished by the high reliability of electric furnaces, the useability of any type of secondary lead battery scrap and wastes, and the possibility of process mechanization and control. In this paper, a description is given of the main technical and economical factors of soda-reduction smelting in an electric furnace, a technological scheme for wastes recovery, and the charge composition and features of the process.

  14. Analysis for Scrapping of Injection Device in Squeeze Casting Based on FEM%基于有限元的挤压铸造压射机构卡擦分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋雷; 邵明

    2015-01-01

    压射机构是挤压铸造设备中的核心零部件之一,卡擦现象是导致压射机构失效和压室寿命缩短的关键技术难题。利用有限元方法计算了压室与冲头的半径方向的变形值,并对压射机构卡擦现象进行了定性分析。结果表明:压射过程中压室和冲头之间的配合间隙变小是导致主要卡擦发生的主要原因。%Injection device is one of key parts of Squeeze Casting Machine, and scrapping phenomena is the pivotal knot of lead⁃ing to injection device�s malfunction and lifetime cutting of shot sleeve. The transfiguration values of shot sleeve and plunger tip in radi⁃us direction were computed out through FEM, and qualitative analysis was made on scrapping phenomena of the injection device. The results show that the clearance decreased between shot sleeve and plunger tip during injection process is the main reason leading to the scrapping.

  15. Influence of bone porcelain scraps on the physical characteristics and phase composition of a hard porcelain body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodeh, A.A.

    2017-07-01

    Hard porcelain is constituted in the alkali oxides-alumina-silica ternary system, and produced by a mixture of clay-feldspar and silica. The most important properties of this porcelain are high mechanical strength, translucency and whiteness. These properties depend on quality of raw material, firing temperature and soaking time. In bone porcelain bone ash was added to body composition up to 50wt.%. Generally hard porcelain and bone porcelain scrap cannot be reused in body composition. Whereas using these scrap could help natural resources. In this research using bon porcelain scraps in hard porcelain body have been investigated. Results show, this substitution decrease firing temperature, linear expansion and increase glass, probability of deformation and total shrinkage. Using 6wt.% bone porcelain scraps to hard porcelain body composition besides improving some properties, increases 1340°C firing mechanical strength two times and helps natural resources. (Author)

  16. Comparative Study of Mechanical Properties of Self - Healing Concrete Using Industrial Waste Steel Scrap and Polyethylene Fiber

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Siva Kumar.T; Sasikumar.A; Santhosh Raja.V

    2016-01-01

    ... – healing agent and its self-healing capability was confirmed by UPV test. In that self – healing concrete, Industrial Waste Steel Scrap and Polyethylene fiber were added to evaluate its mechanical properties...

  17. Radiation protection aspects in importing metallic scraps; Problemi di radioprotezione connessi con l`importazione di rottami metallici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risica, S.; Di Ciacco, P. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Laboratorio di Fisica

    1996-09-01

    The meeting deals with radiation protection problems caused by the possibility that radioactive metal scraps or radioactive sources hidden in the scraps, may arrive in a foundry. The importance of this issue and of rational and systematic solutions is showed by several accidents, happened in the past in numerous countries, by many signals in Italy and by some papers published in international scientific journals or reports issued by authorities and institutions in different countries.

  18. Securing the metal recycling chain for the steel industry by detecting orphan radioactive sources in scrap metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesente, S.; Vanini, S.; Benettoni, M.; Bonomi, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Conti, E.; Gonella, F.; Nebbia, G.; Squarcia, S.; Viesti, G.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2010-08-01

    Experimental tests are reported for the detection of the heavy metal shielding of orphan sources hidden inside scrap metal by using a recently developed muon tomography system. Shielded sources do not trigger alarm in radiation portal commonly employed at the entrance of steel industry using scrap metal. Future systems integrating radiation portals with muon tomography inspection gates will substantially reduce the possibility of accidental melting of radioactive sources securing the use of recycled metal.

  19. The Effectof Underwater Explosion on the Kinetics of Alkaline Leaching of Roasted Tungsten Carbide Scraps for Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    BAIK, Seung Woo; Shibayama, Atsushi; Murata, Kenji; Fujita, Toyohisa

    2004-01-01

    Wasted tungsten scraps are important resources for recycling, however, the mechanical recycle process of tungsten has a difficulty for recycling due to its mechanical strength. Underwater explosion fracturing technique was designed for solving this problem. The kinetics for alkaline leaching of roasted tungsten alloy scraps with different size distribution prepared by two ways of crushing technique has been investigated to evaluate the effect of the underwater explosion-crushing. The merit of...

  20. Application of adsorption process by activated carbon derived from scrap tires for Pb+2 removal from aqueous solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Edris Hoseinzadeh; Ali Reza Rahmani; Ghorban Asgari; Mohamad Taghi Samadi; Ghodratollah Roshanaei; Mohammad Reza Zare

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim: Heavy metals have been recognized as very poisonous elements and their discharge into water sources can cause damaging effects on human and environmental health. The present study aimed at producing activated carbon from scrap tires and using it in removing Pb+2 from synthetic aqueous solutions. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, activated carbon powder was derived from scrap tires under laboratory conditions. The effect of Pb (II) ions wi...

  1. Functional units and lead topologies: a hierarchical framework for observing and modeling the interplay of structures, storage dynamics and integral mass and energy flows in lower mesoscale catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Erwin; Jackisch, Conrad; Blume, Theresa; Haßler, Sibylle; Allroggen, Niklas; Tronicke, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The CAOS Research Unit recently proposed a hierarchical classification scheme to subdivide a catchment into what we vaguely name classes of functional entities that puts the gradients driving mass and energy flows and their controls on top of the hierarchy and the arrangement of landscape attributes controlling flow resistances along these driving gradients (for instance soil types and apparent preferential pathways) at the second level. We name these functional entities lead topology classes, to highlight that they are characterized by a spatially ordered arrangement of landscape elements along a superordinate driving gradient. Our idea is that these lead topology classes have a distinct way how their structural and textural architecture controls the interplay of storage dynamics and integral response behavior that is typical for all members of a class, but is dissimilar between different classes. This implies that we might gain exemplary understanding of the typical dynamic behavior of the class, when thoroughly studying a few class members. We propose that the main integral catchment functions mass export and drainage, mass redistribution and storage, energy exchange with the atmosphere, as well as energy redistribution and storage - result from spatially organized interactions of processes within lead topologies that operate at different scale levels and partly dominate during different conditions. We distinguish: 1) Lead topologies controlling the land surface energy balance during radiation driven conditions at the plot/pedon scale level. In this case energy fluxes dominate and deplete a vertical temperature gradient that is build up by depleting a gradient in radiation fluxes. Water is a facilitator in this concert due to the high specific heat of vaporization. Slow vertical water fluxes in soil dominate, which are driven by vertical gradients in atmospheric water potential, chemical potential in the plant and in soil hydraulic potentials. 2) Lead topologies

  2. Impact of Basel convention on secondary-lead industry in economies in transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, V. R.

    Substantial trade in scrap and waste is not merely an exercise in waste management, but more importantly an element in efficient materials utilization, that has significant impact on the economy. In fact, it is an environmentally desirable and friendly activity and economically worthwhile pursuing for developing countries. Secondary recycling of materials and re-integrating them into the economy is crucial in reducing the overall demand for virgin materials for the developing economies. Scrap, ash and residues generated indigenously need to be recycled. Otherwise their disposal/dispersal will undoubtedly pose greater hazard in the future. Further, recycling of scraps and residues avoids degradation of the environment. Environmental control and monitoring in lead operations will require assiduous implementation to ensure that transportation, handling and processing are managed with greater care and the entire operation is environmental friendly.

  3. Preparation of oxide powder by continuous oxidation process from recycled Fe-77Ni alloy scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, J. Y.; Park, D. H.; Jung, G. J.; Wang, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The oxidation behavior of Fe-77Ni alloy scrap was studied under a 0.2 atm oxygen partial pressure at the temperature range of 400°C to 900°C. The oxidation rate was found to be increased with an increase of temperature and followed the parabolic rate law with linearly proportional to temperature. Microstructure and cross-sectional area of the oxide layer were examined by SEM, EDX, and XRD. It could be speculated that rate-limiting step was controlled by diffusion through either the spinel structure or the NiO layer, both of which were present in this alloy during oxidation at elevated temperatures. In the long run, oxide powder less than 10 μm from Fe-77Ni alloy scrap was obtained using ball-milling and sieving processes and recovery ratio approached up to 97% for 15 hours.

  4. Kinetics of the Thermal Degradation of Granulated Scrap Tyres: a Model-free Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix A. LÓPEZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis is a technology with a promising future in the recycling of scrap tyres. This paper determines the thermal decomposition behaviour and kinetics of granulated scrap tyres (GST by examining the thermogravimetric/derivative thermogravimetric (TGA/DTG data obtained during their pyrolysis in an inert atmosphere at different heating rates. The model-free methods of Friedman, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa and Coats-Redfern were used to determine the reaction kinetics from the DTG data. The apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor for the degradation of GST were calculated. A comparison with the results obtained by other authors was made.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.2947

  5. Purification of scrap aluminum foil and aluminum melt covering and protecting & atomic purification theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪红军; 孙宝德; 刘满平; 丁文江

    2003-01-01

    A new flux, JDN-I, including rare earth compounds, for purification of the scraps of 99.99% aluminum foil was introduced. The experimental results indicate that its function of degassing and deoxidizing is excellent. The hydrogen content of the scrap aluminum foil melt purified by JDN-I flux decreases greatly from 4.5 mL/kg to 1.2 mL/kg at 720 ℃. The tensile strength of the samples refined with JDN-I flux increases by 19.2% and the elongation increases by 38.3% in comparison with those without flux. The purification mechanism of JDN-I was discussed and a theory of covering, protecting & atomic purification was also put forward.

  6. An assessment on the recycling opportunities of wastes emanating from scrap metal processing in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauthoor, Sumayya; Mohee, Romeela; Kowlesser, Prakash

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents an assessment on the wastes namely slag, dust, mill scale and sludge resulting from scrap metal processing. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that there are various ways via which scrap metal processing wastes can be reused or recycled in other applications instead of simply diverting them to the landfill. These wastes are briefly described and an overview on the different areas of applications is presented. Based on the results obtained, the waste generation factor developed was 349.3 kg per ton of steel produced and it was reported that slag represents 72% of the total wastes emanating from the iron and steel industry in Mauritius. Finally the suitability of the different treatment and valorisation options in the context of Mauritius is examined.

  7. Scrap Tyre Management Pathways and Their Use as a Fuel—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Rowhani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a review of different methods for managing waste tyres. Around 1.5 billion scrap tyres make their way into the environmental cycle each year, so there is an extreme demand to manage and mitigate the environmental impact which occurs from landfilling and burning. Numerous approaches are targeted to recycle and reuse the tyre rubber in various applications. Among them, one of the most important methods for sustainable environmental stewardship is converting tyre rubber components into bio-oil. In this study, scrap tyre management techniques including landfill, retreading, recycling, combustion, and conversion to liquid fuels was reviewed (including gasification, hydrothermal liquefaction, and pyrolysis. The effects of parameters such as reactor types, pyrolysis temperature, and catalyst on the oil, gas and solid products in pyrolysis process were investigated.

  8. Pyrolysis process for the treatment of scrap tyres: preliminary experimental results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvagno, S; Casu, S; Casabianca, T; Calabrese, A; Cornacchia, G

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work is the evaluation, on a pilot scale, of scrap tyre pyrolysis process performance and the characteristics of the products under different process parameters, such as temperature, residence time, pressure, etc. In this frame, a series of tests were carried out at varying process temperatures between 550 and 680 degrees C, other parameters being equal. Pyrolysis plant process data are collected by an acquisition system; scrap tyre samples used for the treatment, solid and liquid by-products and produced syngas were analysed through both on-line monitoring (for gas) and laboratory analyses. Results show that process temperature, in the explored range, does not seem to seriously influence the volatilisation reaction yield, at least from a quantitative point of view, while it observably influences the distribution of the volatile fraction (liquid and gas) and by-products characteristics.

  9. Possibilities for utilizing scrap rubber conveyor belts in manufacturing mine cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owinski, A.; Furmanik, K.

    1985-01-01

    Utilization of scrap conveyor belts removed due to wear in manufacturing mine cars used in underground coal mines is evaluated. Tests show that rubber packs (sandwiches) consisting of conveyor belt elements successfully replace springing in mine cars. The rubber packs are bent at an angle of 90 or 120 degrees to increase their damping properties. Evaluations show that service life of rubber springing is longer than 3 years. Replacing steel springs in car buffers with rubber belt packs is a further possibility. The rubber packs in car buffers absorb up to 35% of shock energy. Sections of scrap belts could also be used to reduce buildup of coal in mine cars. Belt sections are fastened to the bottom of mine cars. Belt deformation during car self-dumping (or unloading in a rotary tippler) reduces coal adhesion to the car body and prevents buildup. 4 references.

  10. Effect of Acid Dissolution Conditions on Recovery of Valuable Metals from Used Plasma Display Panel Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chan-Mi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this particular study was to recover valuable metals from waste plasma display panels using high energy ball milling with subsequent acid dissolution. Dissolution of milled (PDP powder was studied in HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4 acidic solutions. The effects of dissolution acid, temperature, time, and PDP scrap powder to acid ratio on the leaching process were investigated and the most favorable conditions were found: (1 valuable metals (In, Ag, Mg were recovered from PDP powder in a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl:H2O = 50:50; (2 the optimal dissolution temperature and time for the valuable metals were found to be 60°C and 30 min, respectively; (3 the ideal PDP scrap powder to acid solution ratio was found to be 1:10. The proposed method was applied to the recovery of magnesium, silver, and indium with satisfactory results.

  11. Efficient One-Step Electrolytic Recycling of Low-Grade and Post-Consumer Magnesium Scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam C. Powell, IV

    2012-07-19

    Metal Oxygen Separation Technologies, Inc. (abbreviated MOxST, pronounced most) and Boston University (BU) have developed a new low-cost process for recycling post-consumer co-mingled and heavily-oxidized magnesium scrap, and discovered a new chemical mechanism for magnesium separations in the process. The new process, designated MagReGenTM, is very effective in laboratory experiments, and on scale-up promises to be the lowest-cost lowest-energy lowest-impact method for separating magnesium metal from aluminum while recovering oxidized magnesium. MagReGenTM uses as little as one-eighth as much energy as today's methods for recycling magnesium metal from comingled scrap. As such, this technology could play a vital role in recycling automotive non-ferrous metals, particularly as motor vehicle magnesium/aluminum ratios increase in order to reduce vehicle weight and increase efficiency.

  12. Direct regeneration of recycled cathode material mixture from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuelei; Zhang, Jin; Song, Dawei; Song, Jishun; Zhang, Lianqi

    2017-03-01

    A new green recycling process (named as direct regeneration process) of cathode material mixture from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries is designed for the first time. Through this direct regeneration process, high purity cathode material mixture (LiFePO4 + acetylene black), anode material mixture (graphite + acetylene black) and other by-products (shell, Al foil, Cu foil and electrolyte solvent, etc.) are recycled from scrapped LiFePO4 batteries with high yield. Subsequently, recycled cathode material mixture without acid leaching is further directly regenerated with Li2CO3. Direct regeneration procedure of recycled cathode material mixture from 600 to 800 °C is investigated in detail. Cathode material mixture regenerated at 650 °C display excellent physical, chemical and electrochemical performances, which meet the reuse requirement for middle-end Li-ion batteries. The results indicate the green direct regeneration process with low-cost and high added-value is feasible.

  13. Fuzzy chance constrained linear programming model for scrap charge optimization in steel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Lahdelma, Risto

    2008-01-01

    the uncertainty based on fuzzy set theory and constrain the failure risk based on a possibility measure. Consequently, the scrap charge optimization problem is modeled as a fuzzy chance constrained linear programming problem. Since the constraints of the model mainly address the specification of the product......, the crisp equivalent of the fuzzy constraints should be less relaxed than that purely based on the concept of soft constraints. Based on the application context we adopt a strengthened version of soft constraints to interpret fuzzy constraints and form a crisp model with consistent and compact constraints...... for solution. Simulation results based on realistic data show that the failure risk can be managed by proper combination of aspiration levels and confidence factors for defining fuzzy numbers. There is a tradeoff between failure risk and material cost. The presented approach applies also for other scrap...

  14. Evaluation of surface water quality indices and ecological risk assessment for heavy metals in scrap yard neighbourhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojekunle, Olusheyi Z; Ojekunle, Olurotimi V; Adeyemi, Azeem A; Taiwo, Abayomi G; Sangowusi, Opeyemi R; Taiwo, Adewale M; Adekitan, Adetoun A

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of surface water with heavy metals from industrial activities especially those from scrap yard has caused a major threat to human life exposing man to series of hazard, diseases, disability and consequently death. This study focuses on water quality indices of Owode-Onirin and Lafenwa scrap yard with respect to its physicochemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations by evaluating Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI), Metal Index (MI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Fifteen water samples were selected randomly from two locations by purposive sampling methods. Five heavy metals which includes Nickel (Ni), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) were analyzed using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and standard analytical procedure were follow to ensure accuracy. One way analysis of variance was carried out to analyse the data. The concentrations of the heavy metals were significantly different between sampling locations. However, the mean concentrations of Cd (0.0121 mg/L) were found to be above the highest permissible value of Standard Organization of Nigeria standards for drinking water (SON 2007) and WHO (Guidelines for drinking water quality: incorporating 1st and 2nd Addlenda. World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004) for drinking water. Although Pb was present in two out of the fifteen water samples with a mean value of (0.0324 mg/L) which was also above the highest permissible value. The mean concentrations of Zn (0.2149 mg/L) and Cu (0.0341 mg/L) are found to be below the highest permissible value of the mentioned guideline while no trace of Ni was found in the water samples across the two sampling locations. The mean HPI 518.55 is far above the critical value of 100, indicates that selected water samples are critically polluted with heavy metals. MI revealed low quality water with mean value 4.83, suggests that the selected water is seriously affected with the present of heavy metal. The Hakanson PERI indicated that of the

  15. Casting of Motorcycle Piston from Aluminium Piston Scrap using Metallic Mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Uchenna OZIOKO

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The casting of motorcycle piston was carried out using metallic mould. The prepared piston sand core was positioned in the mould to provide casting with contours and cavities. The molten metal of required composition was poured into the metallic mould, allowed to solidify and take the desired shape of the cavity. Aluminium silicon piston scraps were used as the casting material. Melting of the aluminium piston scraps was achieved using local crucible furnace and finally pouring the molten metal into the metallic mould having the prepared piston sand core in place to obtain the piston. After fettling and cleaning, the casting was found to be good. The composition test revealed that the scrap piston was made from LM29 aluminium alloy. The cast piston was machined and subjected to performance rating test in a Jincheng AX100 motorcycle engine. The rating used was based on a scale from 1 to 10. The higher the rating, the better the evaluation of the piston in the specific area rated. Deposits are evaluated by appearance, ranging from 10 (clean - absence of deposits to 0.0 (maximum deposits. In spite of various production constraints the result of the performance test was good. The rating showed that the locally cast piston compared favourably with imported piston.

  16. Recovery of Nickel from Nickel-Based Superalloy Scraps by Utilizing Molten Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Ryohei; Okabe, Toru H.

    2017-02-01

    With the purpose of developing a new process for recycling nickel (Ni) directly from superalloy scraps, a fundamental study on the extraction and separation of Ni was carried out using molten zinc (Zn) as the extraction medium. In order to examine the reaction between molten Zn and the Ni-based superalloy, superalloy samples and Zn shots were heated at 1173 K (900 °C) for 6 hours. After heating, the superalloy samples fully reacted with Zn and dissolved in molten Zn. The Zn-alloyed sample obtained by slow cooling consisted of two separated upper and lower phases. In the upper part of the sample, only Zn and the Zn-Ni alloys were found; in the lower part, an intermetallic alloy consisting of refractory metals such as rhenium (Re) and tantalum (Ta) was found. This result shows that Ni and refractory metals contained in the scrap can be separated by utilizing the density differences between the Zn-Ni alloy and the refractory metals in molten Zn. Vacuum treatment of the upper part of the Zn-alloyed sample at 1173 K (900 °C) reduced the concentration of Zn in the sample from 97.0 to 0.4 mass pct. After Zn removal, a Ni alloy containing Ni with a purity of 85.3 to 86.1 mass pct and negligible quantities (scraps without the consumption of Zn or the generation of toxic wastes solutions.

  17. Caltrans use of scrap tires in asphalt rubber products: a comprehensive review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiping Zhou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans has been using scrap tire rubber in asphalt pavements since the 1970s in chip seals and the 1980s in rubberized hot mix asphalt(RHMA. Both the wet (field blend and dry processes were used in early trials. Caltrans has also used rubber modified binders containing both crumb rubber modifier and polymer modifier that could be manufactured at a refinery facility, a terminal blend wet process. Since the beginning of this century, Caltrans increased the use of scrap tire rubber in paving projects and invested considerable resources in developing technically sound, cost effective, and environmentally friendly strategies for using scrap tire rubber in roadway applications. By the end of year 2010, approximately 31%of all hot mix asphalt (HMA placed by Caltrans was rubberized HMA, roughly 1.2 million tons. Caltrans efforts in using asphalt rubber products were also demonstrated in its research and technology development. These included the construction of two full-scale field experiments, five warranty projects, and an accelerated pavement study using a heavy vehicle simulator. Additionally, terminal blend asphalt rubber and rubberized warm mix asphalts began to be experimented on trial basis. This paper provides a comprehensive review of Caltrans experience over four decades with asphalt rubber products. Current practices and future outlook are also discussed.

  18. Influence of the steel scrap classes on the liquid steel output molten in electric steel processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Janiszewski

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This is why we have analysed in the paper, using statistical analysing methods, the influence of use in the electric arc furnace charges of steel scrap of different qualities on the index of liquid steel output from a melt.Design/methodology/approach: The used research methodology consists in analytical simulation of variations in mass of liquid steel obtained from melts differing in steel scrap content in the metallic charge and statistical analyses of industrial results acquired from the corresponding process documentation (so called melt cards.Findings: Basing on the analytical and statistical analyses carried out we have determine resulting variations in the liquid steel per melt ratios depending on the content of steel scrap in the metallic charge.Research limitations/implications: The research results obtained can be utilized in each steelmaking facility, which employs the Electric Steelmaking process, in order to “design” the metallic charge compositions, having in view the quality and economic aspects.Practical implications: The research results presented in the paper can be used for steel production of high purity steels.Originality/value: The results presented in this paper are directed to the steelmakers employing the Electric Steelmaking process and constitute the authors’ original study.

  19. An assessment on the recycling opportunities of wastes emanating from scrap metal processing in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauthoor, Sumayya, E-mail: sumayya.mauthoor@umail.uom.ac.mu [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius); Mohee, Romeela [Professor of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, National Research Chair in Solid Waste Management, Mauritius Research Council (Mauritius); Kowlesser, Prakash [Solid Waste/Beach Management Unit, Ministry of Local Government and Outer Islands (Mauritius)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Scrap metal processing wastes. • Areas of applications for slag, electric arc furnace dust, mill scale and wastewater sludge. • Waste generation factor of 349.3 kg per ton of steel produced. • Waste management model. - Abstract: This paper presents an assessment on the wastes namely slag, dust, mill scale and sludge resulting from scrap metal processing. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that there are various ways via which scrap metal processing wastes can be reused or recycled in other applications instead of simply diverting them to the landfill. These wastes are briefly described and an overview on the different areas of applications is presented. Based on the results obtained, the waste generation factor developed was 349.3 kg per ton of steel produced and it was reported that slag represents 72% of the total wastes emanating from the iron and steel industry in Mauritius. Finally the suitability of the different treatment and valorisation options in the context of Mauritius is examined.

  20. REMOVING ZINC FROM GALVANIZED STEEL SCRAP TO FEASIBLE THE BOF SLUDGE RECYCLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Marques Caetano de Lima

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Galvanized steel scraps generated at Usiminas Ipatinga are recycled in BOF converters. Although they are noble products, they contain a significant quantity of zinc that escapes from the bath due to its high vapor pressure and is captured by the gas control system, appearing in BOF sludge. As BOF sludge contains high iron content, it could be recycled to the process, but due to its zinc content, it is disposed in landfills. For this reason, this study aimed to treat these scraps to remove zinc layer using a thermal treatment process. The samples were fed to a rotative furnace in an inert ambient. It was tested the hot dip galvanized and eletrogalvanized scraps, varying the zinc coating weight between 20g/m2 and 150g/m2, temperature between 700°C and 900°C and time between 3 minutes and 10 minutes. Considering these conditions, it is verified that more than 70% of the zinc layer is removed at 700°C, in 10 minutes. Dust captured is about 60% of metallic zinc and 40% as zinc oxide. Based on these results, the recycling of BOF sludge can be feasible to the ironmaking process.

  1. 转炉熔池中废钢的运动%Movement of Scrap in the Bath of Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文远; 张先贵; 王明林; 高卫涛; 崔怀周; 白宇

    2013-01-01

    根据相似原理计算了水模喷吹参数,第一次模拟并拍照了在不同熔池搅拌能量条件下,转炉熔池中废钢运动的实际情况,使炼钢工作者对废钢在熔池中的运动有了清楚的了解.测量了废钢对熔池混匀时间和喷溅的影响,大型转炉炼钢熔池中有10%废钢,熔池混匀时间较无废钢时平均延长35.3%,铁水脱磷预处理转炉有10%废钢,熔池混匀时间平均延长62.8%.定量地研究了熔池中不同质量废钢块与悬浮能量之间的关系,为使废钢熔化有良好的动力学条件,应使熔池的搅拌能量不低于大块废钢的悬浮能量.丰富了废钢熔化的基础知识,为转炉合理地利用废钢和优化转炉吹炼工艺提供依据.%The injection parameter of water mold was calculated based on similarity principle. The actual situation of the movement of scrap in molten bath of the converter was simulated for the first time. The impact of scrap on mixing time and splashing was measured. If there are 10% scrap in large converter, the molten bath mixing time is longer 35. 3% than no scrap in converter. In hot metal dephosphorization pretreatment converter, 10% scrap will prolong bath mixing time 62. 8%. The relationship between the weight of scrap and suspended energy in bath was quantitatively studied. In order to be in good dynamics condition for scrap melting, the stirring energy of the bath should not be less than a large piece of scrap suspension energy. These could supplement the basic knowledge of scrap melting and provide the guidance for the use of scrap in the converter and the optimization of the converter blowing process.

  2. Effect of Proportion of Home and External Scrap on the Mechanical Properties of Recycled PVC: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jalal Uddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Raw material powder mixtures have been prepared with PVC resin, unplasticized polyvinylchloride (uPVC scrap and additives. A twin screw extruder has been used to make pipe for sample preparation from the mixture. Domestic and external uPVC scrap were formulated and blended with PVC resin to form melt compound. Domestic samples designated as DS-10, DS-20, DS-30, DS-40, DS-50 and DS-100 have been prepared by blending 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 phr and 100% uPVC domestic scrap with PVC resin and various additives, followed by extrusion, flattening and machining. Following a similar procedure, external samples such as ES-10, ES-20, ES-30, ES-40, ES-50 and ES-100 have been prepared using external uPVC scrap. The effects of the proportions of uPVC scrap in the raw material mix on the mechanical properties such as break stress (BS, % elongation at break, flexural yield strength [1], impact strength (IS and Shore hardness were investigated. The maximum decrease in break stress is 11.40% for 20 phr domestic scrap, while in samples containing external scrap this decrease is 15.71% for 40 phr scrap. The minimum and maximum reduction in IS values of DS are recorded 1.0% for DS-10 and 27.4% for DS-40, respectively, whereas the minimum and maximum decrease in IS values of ES recorded are 9.6% for ES-10 and 39.2% for ES-50, respectively. The minimum and maximum increase in hardness values of DS are recorded as 0.07% for DS-40 and 2.8% for DS-10, respectively, whereas the minimum and maximum reduction in hardness values of ES are recorded as 1.2% for ES-50 and 2.2% for ES-20, respectively. The mechanical properties of samples were found to deteriorate with increasing quantity of scrap in the raw material mix, the effects of external scrap being more prominent.

  3. 轻薄型金属材料破碎模式研究%Study on Shredding Modes of Light Metal Scrap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘剑雄; 杨邦成; 李自良; 葛夏文; 侯杰; 彭军涛; 李胜军

    2011-01-01

    To find solutions to recovery and reuse of end-of-life vehicles and household appliances (ELV and ELHA), on the basis of the working principle of shredders and dynamic model of shredding process, the experimental shredding installation for light metal scrap is constructed.By way of test and analysis, the mechanical characteristics of the marterial of test specimen are obtained.With the help of a photoelectrical microscope with 50× magnification, the feature of light metal scrap surface appearance, including surface scratches, is acquired before and after testing, respectively.Through analysis and investigation of experimental results, some conclusions are reached.Under the action of continuous impact by shredding tools, the initial surface defects and small cracks of the light metal scrap with most concentrated stress and strain, take the lead in loss of stability, extension, connection and perforation until large fragments (200 mm×200 mm) are torn off from the light metal scrap.On this basis, by combining theoretical analysis with simulation, the shredding process of light metal scrap is further studied, the shredding damage law is theoretically clarified, and the corresponding shredding modes are presented, which lays the foundation for the establishment of the theoretical system of light metal shredding with independent intellectual property rights.%为解决报废汽车及家用电器的高效循环再生利用问题,根据摆锤式破碎机的工作原理及破碎过程力学模型,构建轻薄型回收金属破碎试验装置;借助检测分析,得到所选回收金属材料的力学性能参数;利用放大50倍的光学显微镜,获取所选轻薄型回收金属破碎试验前、后的表面外观形貌;通过试验研究,得出如下研究结果:轻薄型回收金属在破碎工具持续冲击作用下,应力应变最为集中的初始表面缺陷及微细裂纹率先失稳、扩展、联片、贯穿,直至大块回收金属碎片(200mm×200mm)被从其

  4. Low carbon economy and scrap application%低碳经济与废钢铁利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫启平; 李银雪

    2011-01-01

    Scrap industry is a new and developing industry of scrap cycle use as a metallic resource in China and plays an important role in enegy-saving, low carbon and environment protection , and reuse of the metallic resource. In this paper, the utilization value of scrap in the age of low carbon economy, the situation and evolvement of supply and requirement for scrap since 2000, the developing trend of scrap market of our country in 2010, the prediction of scrap market for supply and requirement in 2011 are analyzed. In addition, a planning target of the scrap industry of our country in the period of “Twelfth Five-Year” Plan and the technical route are also discussed.%我国废钢铁产业是1个新兴的钢铁资源循环利用产业,其节能减排、低碳环保和不可替代的钢铁原料功效十分显著.阐述了废钢铁在低碳经济时期的应用价值,21世纪以来我国废钢铁供需状况及发展趋势,分析了2010年我国废钢铁市场运行态势,预测了2011年我国废钢铁供需市场走势,并提出我国废钢铁产业"十二五"规划目标及技术路线.

  5. Characterization of ground SBR scraps from shoe industry

    OpenAIRE

    Marinês Massarotto; Janaina da Silva Crespo; Ademir José Zattera; Mara Zeni

    2008-01-01

    Expanded poly(butadiene-co-styrene) (SBR), a residue of the shoe industry of Rio Grande do Sul, is a crosslinked material. For further utilization in recycling and reclaiming processes this residue was ground under ambient conditions. The obtained powder (SBR-r) was physically, thermally and chemically characterized and the results were analyzed as for its suitability for reuse methods. This characterization provides a better understanding of the SBR residue components, which may lead to econ...

  6. Titanium recycling in the United States in 2004, chap. Y of Sibley, S.F., ed., Flow studies for recycling metal commodities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the titanium metal fraction of the titanium economy, which generates and uses titanium metal scrap in its operations. Data for 2004 were selected to demonstrate the titanium flows associated with these operations. This report includes a description of titanium metal supply and demand in the United States to illustrate the extent of titanium recycling and to identify recycling trends. In 2004, U.S. apparent consumption of titanium metal (contained in various titanium-bearing products) was 45,000 metric tons (t) of titanium, which was distributed as follows: 25,000 t of titanium recovered as new scrap, 9,000 t of titanium as titanium metal and titanium alloy products delivered to the U.S. titanium products reservoir, 7,000 t of titanium consumed by steelmaking and other industries, and 4,000 t of titanium contained in unwrought and wrought products exported. Titanium recycling is concentrated within the titanium metals sector of the total titanium market. The titanium market is otherwise dominated by pigment (titanium oxide) products, which generate dissipative losses instead of recyclable scrap. In 2004, scrap (predominantly new scrap) was the source of roughly 54 percent of the titanium metal content of U.S.-produced titanium metal products.

  7. Lead and tap water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  8. Solutions to the scrap iron problem around the scrap cutter in trimming die%修边模废料切刀产生铁屑的解决方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周厚保; 段彦宾

    2015-01-01

    The reason of scrap iron happening in the trimming die for automobile outer pan⁃el was analyzed. The external, floating and compression type scrap cutter without produc⁃ing scrap iron were respectively presented in terms of the structure principle, design points, application range and the advantages and disadvantages, in which the scrap iron problem around the scrap cutter in the trimming die was resolved.%分析了汽车外覆盖件修边模产生铁屑的原因,分别介绍了不产生铁屑的外置式废料切刀、浮动式废料切刀和压缩式废料切刀的结构原理、设计要点、适用范围以及优缺点,解决了修边模废料切刀位置产生铁屑的问题,对汽车外覆盖件修边类模具设计具有一定的参考作用。

  9. Characterization and recovery of rare earth elements from electronic scrap

    OpenAIRE

    Bristøl, Lene Marie Lysgaard

    2012-01-01

    The rare earth elements are a group of 17 elements consisting of the lantahnide series, scandium and yttrium. The application with the largest rare earth consumption is the permanent rare earth magnets. The neodymium-iron-boron magnets are the strongest permanent magnetic material known and are widely used. There is a concern that there will be a shortage in Nd-Fe-B magnets in short time. This has lead to an increased interest in the recycling of the rare earth magnets in the world.This proje...

  10. Characterization of ground SBR scraps from shoe industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Massarotto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Expanded poly(butadiene-co-styrene (SBR, a residue of the shoe industry of Rio Grande do Sul, is a crosslinked material. For further utilization in recycling and reclaiming processes this residue was ground under ambient conditions. The obtained powder (SBR-r was physically, thermally and chemically characterized and the results were analyzed as for its suitability for reuse methods. This characterization provides a better understanding of the SBR residue components, which may lead to economic and environmental advantages. The SBR-r (3548 mesh is composed by 22.2% of SBR and 77.8% of filler. The elastomeric fraction has 71.4% of crosslinked material. The results demonstrate that SBR can be recycled for use in microcellular composites.

  11. Evaluating awareness and practices pertaining to radioactive waste management among scrap dealers in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Nayani; Chandra, Tany; Agrawal, Prachi; Bansal, Harshit; Singh, Simranjeet; Anand, Tanu; Gupta, Mannan Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    With nuclear technology rapidly taking the spotlight in the last 50 years, radiation accidents seem to be a harsh reality of the modern world. The Mayapuri Radiation accident of 2010 was the worst radiation accident India has yet dealt with. Two years thereafter, we designed a study to assess the awareness and practices regarding radioactive waste among scrap dealers aiming to assess deficiencies in radiation disaster preparedness. A community based cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 209 volunteers (from 108 scrap dealerships) including 108 shop-owners and 101 workers segregated as Group A consisting of 54 dealerships in Mayapuri and Group B of 54 dealerships from the rest of the city. Subjects were then interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Awareness about radioactive waste varied significantly with level of education (p = 0.024), Kuppuswamy's socio-economic scale (p = 0.005), age of the scrap dealer (p = 0.049) and his work experience (p = 0.045). The larger dealerships in Mayapuri were more aware about radioactive waste (p = 0.0004), the accident in 2010 (p = 0.0002), the symbol for radiation hazard (p = 0.016), as well as the emergency guidelines and the agencies to contact in the event of a radiation accident. Our findings seem to signify that while governmental and non-governmental agencies were successful in implementing prompt disaster response and awareness programs, the community continues to be inadequately prepared. These go on to suggest that though concerted awareness and training programs do benefit the affected community, economic and social development is the key to disaster prevention and mitigation.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL DEVICES OF PRODUCING SCRAP RUBBER POWDER WITH WAVE CRYOGENIC TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A system of producing scrap rubber powder with wave cryogenic technology is put forward. Main equipments such as wave refrigerator, vortex pulverizer and fluidized cooler are presented. The key techniques about silica gel refreshing in desiccators and system drying are discussed. The potential improvement of the system is pointed out. The manufacturing cost is lower than the cost of liquid nitrogen cryogenic method, and the quality is better than that of normal temperature milling. Moreover, wave refrigerators have several advantages over turbine expenders applied in the cryogenic milling system.

  13. Nutritional characterisation of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. produced using paper scraps as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ângela; Barros, Lillian; Martins, Anabela; Herbert, Paulo; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-15

    Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. is the third most produced edible mushroom worldwide, due to its ability to colonise and degrade a large variety of lignocellulosic substrates. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of fruiting bodies of P. ostreatus grown on blank and printed paper substrates, in comparison with samples grown on oat straw (control). The nutritional properties of the control sample were similar to values reported in the literature, while the chemical composition of the samples obtained using paper scraps, either blank or printed, was highly satisfactory. The results obtained validated the nutritional characteristics of the samples, highlighting a profitable means to recycle paper.

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-suppressive compounds from scrap cultivation beds of the mushroom Hericium erinaceum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Keiko; Kodani, Shinya; Kubo, Masakazu; Masuno, Kazuhiko; Sekiya, Atsushi; Nagai, Kaoru; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2009-08-01

    Four compounds were isolated from scrap cultivation beds of the mushroom, Hericium erinaceum. Compounds 1-4 were identified as methyl 4-hydroxy-3-(3-methylbutanoyl) benzoate, 2-chloro-1,3-dimethoxy-5-methylbenzene, methyl 4-chloro-3,5-dimethoxybenzoate, and 4-chloro-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde by an interpretation of the NMR and MS data, respectively. This is the first reported isolation of 1 from a natural source. All the compounds showed protective activity against endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent cell death.

  15. Evaluation of the electrorefining technique for the processing of radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessinger, G.F.

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the results of a literature study performed to identify applications of the electrorefining technique to the decontamination of radioactively-contaminated scrap metal (RSM). Upon the completion of the literature search and the review of numerous references, it was concluded that there were applications of this technique that were appropriate for the decontamination of some types of RSM, especially when the desired product is a pure elemental metal of high purity. It was also concluded that this technique was not well-suited for the decontamination of RSM stainless steels and other alloys, when it was desired that the metallurgical characteristics of the alloy be present in the decontaminated product.

  16. CDC National Health Report: leading causes of morbidity and mortality and associated behavioral risk and protective factors--United States, 2005-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicole Blair; Hayes, Locola D; Brown, Kathryn; Hoo, Elizabeth C; Ethier, Kathleen A

    2014-10-31

    Although substantial progress has been made in improving the health of persons in the United States, serious problems remain to be solved. Life expectancy is increasing, and the rates of the leading causes of death are improving in many cases; however, numerous indicators (i.e., measures of observed or calculated data on the status of a condition) of the health and safety of the U.S. population remain poor. This report reviews population health in the United States and provides an assessment of recent progress in meeting high-priority health objectives. The health status indicators described in this report were selected because of their direct relation to the leading causes of death and other substantial sources of morbidity and mortality and should be the focus of prevention efforts. Data are reported starting in 2005 (or the earliest available year since 2005) through the current data year. Because data sources and specific indicators vary regarding when data are available, the most recent year for which data are available might range from 2010 to 2013. Data were obtained from 17 CDC surveys or surveillance systems and three non-CDC sources to provide a view of this particular point of time in the nation's health and trends in recent years. Data from the following CDC surveillance systems and surveys were used: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS); Emerging Infections Program/Active Bacterial Core surveillance (EIP/ABCs); Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet); Internet Panel Surveys: Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Health-Care Personnel and Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women; National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS); National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES); National Health Interview Survey (NHIS); National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN); National HIV Surveillance System; National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS); National Immunization Survey (NIS); National Immunization Survey

  17. Pre-operational safety appraisal Tritiated Scrap Recovery Facility, Mound facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauby, J.J.; Flanagan, T.M.; Metcalf, L.W.; Rhinehammer, T.B.

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify, assess, and document the hazards which are associated with the proposed operation of the Tritiated Scrap Recovery Facility at Mound Facility. A Pre-operational Safety Appraisal is a requirement as stated in Department of Energy Order 5481.1, Safety Analysis and Review System. The operations to be conducted in the new Tritiated Scrap Waste Recovery Facility are not new, but a continuation of a prime mission of Mound`s i.e. recovery of tritium from waste produced throughout the DOE complex. The new facility is a replacement of an existing process started in the early 1960`s and incorporates numerous design changes to enhance personnel and environmental safety. This report also documents the safety of a one time operation involving the recovery of tritium from material obtained by the Department of Energy from the State of Arizona. This project will involve the processing of 240,000 curies of tritium contained in glass ampoules that were to be used in items such as luminous dial watches. These were manufactured by the now defunct American Atomics Corporation, Tucson, Arizona.

  18. Failure Mechanisms and Structural Optimization of Shredder Hammer for Metal Scraps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xianyan; HU Zhili; TAO Yijun; QIN Xunpeng; HUA Lin

    2016-01-01

    Recycling retired cars can relieve the environmental pollution and resource waste efficiently. However, a few publications can be found on the failure mechanisms and optimization method of recycling equipment, shredders. Thus, the failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammers for retired cars are studied aiming improving shredding efficiency and reducing cost. Failure types of shredder hammer are studied theoretically, and it is found that wear failure and fatigue failure are the two main failure types of shredder hammer. The shredding process of metal scraps is analyzed by finite element method, and it can be divided into four stages based on the stress states: initial stage, collision stage, grinding stage and separation stage. It is proved that the shredding efficiency can be improved by increasing cutouts on the hammer head. Finally, it is determined that the hammer with two cutouts is the optimal structure for metal scraps, which can improve the shredding efficiency by 20% and lengthen the hammer life by 15%. This study provides scientific basis for the industry application and theoretical foundation for further research.

  19. Biological control of mosquitoes in scrap tires in Brownsville, Texas, USA and Matamoros, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uejio, Christopher K; Hayden, Mary H; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Lopez, Jose Luis Robles; Barrera, Roberto; Amador, Manuel; Thompson, Gregory; Waterman, Stephen H

    2014-06-01

    Dengue periodically circulates in southern Texas and neighboring Tamaulipas, Mexico; thus, a closer examination of human and vector ecology at the northern limits of North American transmission may improve prevention activities. Scrap tires produce large mosquito populations and increase the risk of dengue transmission. Some households choose not to pay tire disposal fees, and many tires are illegally dumped in residential areas. Biological control may provide low-cost and environmentally friendly mosquito control. This pilot study evaluated the ability of Mesocyclops longisetus to reduce mosquito populations in existing residential scrap tire piles. Mosquito populations were measured by the number of all mosquito pupae within tires or adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus near piles. Mesocyclops longisetus treated piles did not significantly reduce total mosquito pupae (P = 0.07) in Matamoros, Mexico. The study also evaluated the efficacy of native Toxorhynchites moctezuma which preferentially colonized tire piles under vegetation cover in Brownsville, TX. Toxorhynchites moctezuma larvae significantly reduced total mosquito pupae, but the strength of control diminished over time.

  20. In-situ molybdenum nano-attached particle synthesis from spent Mo scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chulwoong; Kim, Byungmoon; Choi, Hanshin

    2014-10-01

    Radio frequency thermal plasma is a versatile process for engineering powder preparation owing to its high energy density and reactivity. Molybdenum powders were prepared from molybdenum sheet scrap by RF thermal plasma in association with powder comminution process. Molybdenum scrap which was used in high temperature environment was friable enough to be broken into micropowders by hammer milling. Spherical molybdenum micro-powder was obtained from the hammer milled powders were treated via thermal plasma. On the other hand, vaporization and condensation pathway for nanoparticle synthesis is largely dependent on both thermo-physical properties and thermal plasma properties. In this regard, molybdenum trioxide was chosen for the feedstock of nanoparticle synthesis. Additional reactivity of argon-hydrogen thermal plasma, oxide feedstock was fully reduced to bcc molybdenum. Considering different reaction pathway of each feedstock, molybdenum nanoparticle attached molybdenum spherical micro-powder could be effectively synthesized by feeding a blended feedstock of molybdenum micro-powder and molybdenum trioxide micro-powder into argon-hydrogen thermal plasma.

  1. Immunomodulatory properties of nanoparticles obtained by ultrasonic spray pirolysis from gold scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokić, Jelena; Rudolf, Rebeka; Tomić, Sergej; Stopić, Srećko; Friedrich, Bernd; Budic, Bojan; Anzel, Ivan; Colić, Miodrag

    2012-06-01

    We prepared 5 different fractions of nanoparticles from the gold scrap, by using a new technology, Ultrasonic Spray Pirolysis (USP). The aim of this study was to characterize the microstructure and cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles along with their immunomodulatory properties, using Concanavaline A (ConA)-treated rat splenocytes as a model of activated immune cells. Fractions 1 and 2, composed of pure gold nanoparticles, although non-cytotoxic, reduced cellular proliferation. Fraction 2, containing particles smaller in size and lesser agglomerated than fraction 1, up- and down-regulated the production of IL-2 and IL-10, respectively, by activated splenocytes. Fraction 3, containing nanoparticles composed of Au and up to 3 at.% Cu, was non-cytotoxic, but reduced IL-2 production and cell proliferation. Fractions 4 and 5, contaminated with alloying elements from the gold scrap, were cytotoxic. The extent of cytotoxicity and subsequent reduction of cytokine production, as well as the mode of cell death, depended on their composition. In conclusion, we showed that USP enables the synthesis of gold nanoparticles, which could be suitable for various biological applications, and that ConA-treated splenocytes represent a reliable model for fast and accurate evaluation of the immunotoxicological profiles of these particles. However, it is necessary to improve this technology and investigate further some of the immunomodulatory mechanisms using more specific immunological tests.

  2. Failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammer for metal scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xianyan; Hu, Zhili; Tao, Yijun; Qin, Xunpeng; Hua, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Recycling retired cars can relieve the environmental pollution and resource waste efficiently. However, a few publications can be found on the failure mechanisms and optimization method of recycling equipment, shredders. Thus, the failure mechanisms and structural optimization of shredder hammers for retired cars are studied aiming improving shredding efficiency and reducing cost. Failure types of shredder hammer are studied theoretically, and it is found that wear failure and fatigue failure are the two main failure types of shredder hammer. The shredding process of metal scraps is analyzed by finite element method, and it can be divided into four stages based on the stress states: initial stage, collision stage, grinding stage and separation stage. It is proved that the shredding efficiency can be improved by increasing cutouts on the hammer head. Finally, it is determined that the hammer with two cutouts is the optimal structure for metal scraps, which can improve the shredding efficiency by 20% and lengthen the hammer life by 15%. This study provides scientific basis for the industry application and theoretical foundation for further research.

  3. A Single-Producer Multi-Retailer Integrated Inventory System with Scrap in Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singa Wang Chiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the replenishment-distribution policy for a single-producer multi-retailer integrated inventory system with scrap rate in production. The objective is to find the optimal lot-size and number of shipments that minimizes the total expected costs for such a specific system. It is assumed that an item is manufactured by a producer and then delivered to its n different retailers for sale. Each retailer has its own annual product demand and the demand will be satisfied by synchronized multiple shipments during each production cycle. Unlike the classic Finite Production Rate (FPR model assuming perfect production and a continuous inventory issuing policies, the proposed system assumes that there is an inevitable random defective rate in production and all nonconforming items are scrap and delivery of product is under a practical multiple shipment policy. Mathematical modeling is employed and the renewal reward theorem is used to cope with the variable cycle length. Then the expected system cost function is derived and the convexity of this function is proved. Finally, a closed-form optimal replenishmentdistribution policy for such a specific single-producer multi-retailer integrated system is obtained. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the practical usage of the obtained results.

  4. Collection and recycling of electronic scrap: a worldwide overview and comparison with the Brazilian situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Camila Reis; Bernardes, Andréa Moura; Gerbase, Annelise Engel

    2012-08-01

    Recycling and the related issue of sustainable development are increasing in importance around the world. In Brazil, the new National Policy on Solid Wastes has prompted discussion on the future of electronic waste (e-waste). Over the last 10 years, different e-waste collection systems and recycling processes have been applied globally. This paper presents the systems used in different countries and compares the world situation to the current Brazilian reality. To establish a recycling process, it is necessary to organize efficient collection management. The main difficulty associated with the implementation of e-waste recycling processes in Brazil is the collection system, as its efficiency depends not only on the education and cooperation of the people but also on cooperation among industrial waste generators, distributors and the government. Over half a million waste pickers have been reported in Brazil and they are responsible for the success of metal scrap collection in the country. The country also has close to 2400 companies and cooperatives involved in recycling and scrap trading. On the other hand, the collection and recycling of e-waste is still incipient because e-wastes are not seen as valuable in the informal sector. The Brazilian challenge is therefore to organize a system of e-waste management including the informal sector without neglecting environmentally sound management principles.

  5. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2015-08-18

    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  6. Energy Recovery from Scrap Tires: A Sustainable Option for Small Islands like Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie N. Laboy-Nieves

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Puerto Rico generates and disposes nearly five million/year scrap tires (ST, of which 4.2% is recycled and 80% is exported. The Island has one of the world highest electrical service tariff ($0.28 kWh, because of its dependency on fossil fuels for power generation. The Government has not considered ST for electricity production, despite more than 13,000 ST are generated daily, and paradoxically exported for that purpose. Theoretically, if ST recycling increases to 10% and assuming that the caloric value of ST be 33 MJ/kg, it was estimated that scrap tires processed with pyrolysis can supply annually about 379 MWh, a potential value that shall not be unnoticed. This paper is a literature review to describe the legal, technical, and economic framework for the viability of ST for power generation in Puerto Rico using pyrolysis, the most recommended process for ST energy recovery. Data of ST from Puerto Rico was used to model the potential of ST for pyrolytic energy conversion. The herein article is intended to invite other insular countries and territories, to join efforts with the academic and scientific community, and with the energy generation sector, to validate ST as a sustainable option for energy generation.

  7. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the pyrolysis of scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shui-Jen; Su, Hung-Bin; Chang, Juu-En; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Huang, Yi-Chu; Lin, Wen-Yinn; Lin, Chih-Chung

    This work investigated the PAHs generated in a waste-tire pyrolysis process and the PAHs removal by a wet scrubber (WSB) and a flare. IND, DBA, and BaP were found to dominate in the powders of scrap tires before the pyrolysis. The PAHs in the carbon blacks formed in the pyrolysis were mainly 2-, 3-, 6-, and 7-ring PAHs. Nap was the most predominant water-phase PAH in the WSB effluent. About 40% of the water-phase total-PAHs in the WSB effluent were contributed by nine carcinogenic PAHs. NaP, IND, and COR displayed higher mean gas- and particulate-phase concentrations than the other PAHs in the flare exhaust. The mean removal efficiencies of individual PAHs, total-PAHs, and high carcinogenic BaP+IND+DBA were 39.1-90.4%, 76.2%, and 84.9%, respectively for the WSB. For the flare, the mean removal efficiencies of gaseous, particulate, and combined (gaseous+particulate) total-PAHs were 59.8%, 91.2%, and 66.8%, respectively, whereas the removal efficiencies were 91.0%, 80.1%, and 89.1%, respectively for the total-BaPeq. However, the gaseous BaA displayed a negative mean removal efficiency. The total PAH emission rate and factor estimated for the scrap tire pyrolysis plant were 42.3 g d -1 and 4.00 mg kg-tire -1, respectively.

  8. [Health risk assessment in the metal scrap recycle: the case of Brescia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, G B; Gabusi, V; Pilisi, A

    2012-01-01

    The recycle of metal scraps is one of the most important industrial activity of Brescia: almost 40% of the metal scraps produced in Italy are reprocessed in this Province. The melting process currently used produces air emissions containing dioxins, PCB and other pollutants which are dispersed in the atmosphere giving a contribution to the general environment pollution. This contribution has been and is being extensively studied in terms of air concentration and soil deposition but, because of its complexity and the difficulty to gather the necessary data, very little investigation has been made up to now on its impact on the health of workers and population. The difficulties are overcome by RAMET, a research Consortium established and financed by the main 24 metallurgical and siderurgical companies of Brescia, which can take advantage of the availability of the production facilities of its shareholders as pilot plants and has access to their database and experience. Starting from this unique favourable condition and in collaboration with the University of Brescia, RAMET is working on a research project having as main objective the assessment of the POPs dose adsorbed and the relevant consequences on workers and public health. The general scheme and organization of this project are given in this paper together with the outlines and the results of the main activities already completed or in progress.

  9. Recycling of AZ40 Magnesium Alloy Scraps by Hydriding-Dehydriding and Subsequent Consolidation Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiping, Zhou; Lianxi, Hu; Yu, Sun; Heng, Wang

    2015-09-01

    The hydriding-dehydriding process was used to recycle AZ40 magnesium (Mg) alloy scraps, and the microstructure nanocrystallization was realized. X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were carried out to characterize the microstructure. After mechanically milling in hydrogen for 72 h, matrix Mg was completely turned into nanocrystalline MgH2, with an average crystallite size of about 10 nm. And then, the MgH2 phase was completely transformed into Mg again through vacuum dehydriding treatment at 300 °C for 192 min, with an average crystallite size of about 20 nm. In addition, the nanocrystalline alloy powders were hot-pressed and extruded into bars. The average grain size of the bars was about 500 nm, which had reached the size of ultrafine-grain. Meanwhile, the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the as-extruded bars reached about 312 and 497 MPa, respectively. The results indicate that hydriding-dehydriding process is a feasible method for recycling of Mg alloy scraps, and it is expected to have a good application prospect in preparing ultrafine-grain Mg alloys.

  10. Valorization of aluminum scrap via an acid-washing treatment for reductive removal of toxic bromate from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Lin, Jia-Yin; Lien, Hsing-Lung

    2017-04-01

    Aluminum scrap (AS) is adopted for the first time as a readily available aluminum source to prepare zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) for removing bromate from water via a reductive reaction. Since aluminum is easily oxidized to aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on exposure to air, an acid-washing pretreatment on AS is developed to remove the layer of Al2O3. HCl is found as the most effective acid to pretreat AS and the HCl-pretreated or acid-washed AS (AWAS) is able to remove bromate from water and convert it to bromide. Factors, such as temperature, pH, co-existing anions, and particle size, which influence the bromate removal using AWAS are also investigated. The mechanism of bromate removal by AWAS can be attributed to both reduction and adsorption. The elevated temperature also significantly improves bromate removal capacity of AWAS as well as the reaction kinetics. The bromate removal capacity of AWAS is substantially improved under acidic conditions. However, the basic conditions and co-existing anions suppress or interfere with the interaction between bromate and AWAS, leading to much lower removal capacities. The recyclability of AWAS is also evaluated and the acid-washing regeneration is necessary to restore its capacity. However, the mass of AWAS can gradually decrease due to multi-cycle acid-washing regeneration. Through this study, the valorization of AS via acid-washing is demonstrated and optimization of acid-washing parameters is presented. Our findings reveal that the acid-washing is a useful technique to utilize AS as an inexpensive and efficient material for removing bromate from water.

  11. Leading Causes of Death Contributing to Decrease in Life Expectancy Gap Between Black and White Populations: United States, 1999-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochanek, Kenneth D; Anderson, Robert N; Arias, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    Life expectancy at birth has increased steadily since 1900 to a record 78.8 years in 2013. But differences in life expectancy between the white and black populations still exist, despite a decrease in the life expectancy gap from 5.9 years in 1999 to 3.6 years in 2013. Differences in the change over time in the leading causes of death for the black and white populations have contributed to this decrease in the gap in life expectancy. Between 1999 and 2013, the decrease in the life expectancy gap between the black and white populations was mostly due to greater decreases in mortality from heart disease, cancer, HIV disease, unintentional injuries, and perinatal conditions among the black population. Similarly, the decrease in the gap between black and white male life expectancy was due to greater decreases in death rates for HIV disease, cancer, unintentional injuries, heart disease, and perinatal conditions in black males. For black females, greater decreases in diabetes death rates, combined with decreased rates for heart disease and HIV disease, were the major causes contributing to the decrease in the life expectancy gap with white females. The decrease in the gap in life expectancy between the white and black populations would have been larger than 3.6 years if not for increases in death rates for the black population for aortic aneurysm, Alzheimer’s disease, and maternal conditions. For black males, the causes that showed increases in death rates over white males were hypertension, aortic aneurysm, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and kidney disease, while the causes that showed increases in death rates for black females were Alzheimer’s disease, maternal conditions, and atherosclerosis. This NCHS Data Brief is the second in a series of data briefs that explore the causes of death contributing to differences in life expectancy between detailed ethnic and racial populations in the United States. The first data brief focused on the racial differences in life

  12. Effect of the steelmaking benefit taken by the scrap price and scrap rate%废钢价格与废钢比对炼钢经济效益的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春武; 李智; 封伟华; 陈建辉; 陈洪智; 徐永斌

    2015-01-01

    通过冶炼过程中物料和能量平衡计算获得炼钢的主要物料消耗指标,提出了冶炼工序效益的概念及其计算方法。在此基础上,计算了废钢价格和废钢比的变化对转炉和电炉吨钢成本及工序效益的影响,通过比较分析,得到转炉采取高废钢比冶炼来提高工序效益的废钢价格范围及电炉效益优于转炉效益的废钢价格范围,并给出了转炉合理废钢比及电炉合理铁水比的大致范围。%The main material consumption indexes were gained by material and energy balance in the process of smel-ting steel and the concept of efficiency of smelting process and its calculation method was put forward.On this ba-sis,the effect of change in price of scrap steel and scrap ratio on process efficiency and cost of per ton steel of con-verter and electric furnace had been calculated.Through the comparative analysis,the scrap steel prices range that high scrap ratio of converter smelting can improve the efficiency of the process and that electric furnace efficiency ex-ceed that of converter were figured out.And the approximate scope of reasonable steel scrap ratio in converter and reasonable furnace hot metal ratio in electric furnace were also given.

  13. Leaching behaviour of different scrap materials at recovery and recycling companies: full-, pilot- and lab-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel, E; Chys, M; Depuydt, V; Folens, K; Du Laing, G; Verliefde, A; Van Hulle, S W H

    2014-12-01

    Scrap material recovery and recycling companies are confronted with waste water that has a highly fluctuating flow rate and composition. Common pollutants, such as COD, nutrients and suspended solids, potentially toxic metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and poly chlorinated biphenyls can exceed the discharge limits. An analysis of the leaching behaviour of different scrap materials and scrap yard sweepings was performed at full-scale, pilot-scale and lab-scale in order to find possible preventive solutions for this waste water problem. The results of these leaching tests (with concentrations that frequently exceeded the Flemish discharge limits) showed the importance of regular sweeping campaigns at the company, leak proof or covered storage of specific scrap materials and oil/water separation on particular leachates. The particulate versus dissolved fraction was also studied for the pollutants. For example, up to 98% of the polyaromatic hydrocarbons, poly chlorinated biphenyls and some metals were in the particulate form. This confirms the (potential) applicability of sedimentation and filtration techniques for the treatment of the majority of the leachates, and as such the rainwater run-off as a whole.

  14. Options for a test protocol in the Netherlands for the detection of radioactive scrap using gateway detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Overwater, R M W

    2002-01-01

    There are various possibilities for radioactive sources to end up in a shipment of scrap metal. These sources could be artificial ones or for instance tubing from the oil and gas extraction industry containing natural radioactive deposits. In any case, it is undesirable that these sources end up in a smelter or blast-furnace and be mixed with clean material in some new ironwork.Beside the fact that scrap metal dealers do not like to encounter radioactivity in their scrap, the government makes it mandatory starting 2003 for some of the larger traders to examine the incoming shipments. If scrap is delivered by truck this inspection usually is carried out using gate monitors. The truck slowly drives through a corridor with several detectors. If activity is detected an alarm is given. To get a better overview of the gate monitors installed, and to check whether they conform to some minimal requirements or not, an intercomparison campaign is under development. On the basis of measurements with some gate monitors a...

  15. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from the char produced in the thermolysis of granulated scrap tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, F A; Centeno, T A; Rodríguez, O; Alguacil, E J

    2013-05-01

    The char produced in the thermolysis of granulated scrap tyres has few market outlets, reducing the economic viability of the thermolytic process. This paper reports the potential of this char as a low-cost precursor of porous carbons. The tyre-derived char was demineralized in either alkaline or acidic media to reduce its ash, zinc, sulfur, and silica contents. The lowest impurity content was achieved with an HNO3/H2O treatment. The resulting demineralized char was then subjected to activation by KOH or CO2. The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-specific surface area of the activated carbon produced by the KOH treatment was 242 m2/g, whereas that of the CO2-activated carbon was 720 m2/g. The textural properties of the latter product were similar to those of some commercial activated carbons. The use of tyre-derived char as a precursor of porous carbons could render the thermolytic treatment of scrap tyres more economically attractive. Char produced in thermolysis of granulated scrap tyres has a few market outlets; in this paper an alternative for its use is presented. The char was converted into activated carbon with textural properties similar to those of some commercial activated carbons. This process could render the thermolytic treatment of scrap tyres more economically attractive.

  16. Lithium Carbonate Recovery from Cathode Scrap of Spent Lithium-Ion Battery: A Closed-Loop Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenfang; Zhang, Xihua; Zheng, Xiaohong; Lin, Xiao; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Zhi

    2017-02-07

    A closed-loop process to recover lithium carbonate from cathode scrap of lithium-ion battery (LIB) is developed. Lithium could be selectively leached into solution using formic acid while aluminum remained as the metallic form, and most of the other metals from the cathode scrap could be precipitated out. This phenomenon clearly demonstrates that formic acid can be used for lithium recovery from cathode scrap, as both leaching and separation reagent. By investigating the effects of different parameters including temperature, formic acid concentration, H2O2 amount, and solid to liquid ratio, the leaching rate of Li can reach 99.93% with minor Al loss into the solution. Subsequently, the leaching kinetics was evaluated and the controlling step as well as the apparent activation energy could be determined. After further separation of the remaining Ni, Co, and Mn from the leachate, Li2CO3 with the purity of 99.90% could be obtained. The final solution after lithium carbonate extraction can be further processed for sodium formate preparation, and Ni, Co, and Mn precipitates are ready for precursor preparation for cathode materials. As a result, the global recovery rates of Al, Li, Ni, Co, and Mn in this process were found to be 95.46%, 98.22%, 99.96%, 99.96%, and 99.95% respectively, achieving effective resources recycling from cathode scrap of spent LIB.

  17. Railroading Scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakela, Peter

    1975-01-01

    This article focuses on the environmental benefits of recycling mainly iron and steel, as well as the current status of such recycling processes. It also examines some of the economic constraints working against recycling, and offers suggestions for correcting the problem. (Author/MA)

  18. 刮痧疗法治疗肩周炎52例%Treating 52 cases of frozen shoulder by the scrapping therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈果

    2016-01-01

    To investigate clinical efficacy of the scrapping therapy on frozen shoulder. 52 patients were treated by the scrapping therapy; and the total efficiency was 94.2%. So the scrapping therapy on frozen shoulder shows a good effect, and is worthy of promotion.%探讨刮痧疗法治疗肩周炎的临床疗效。对52例肩周炎患者行刮痧治疗,总有效率为94.2%。故可知刮痧疗法治疗肩周炎疗效佳,值得推广。

  19. Immobilisation of Cu, Pb and Zn in Scrap Metal Yard Soil Using Selected Waste Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamari, A; Putra, W P; Yusoff, S N M; Ishak, C F; Hashim, N; Mohamed, A; Isa, I M; Bakar, S A

    2015-12-01

    Immobilisation of heavy metals in a 30-year old active scrap metal yard soil using three waste materials, namely coconut tree sawdust (CTS), sugarcane bagasse (SB) and eggshell (ES) was investigated. The contaminated soil was amended with amendments at application rates of 0 %, 1 % and 3 % (w/w). The effects of amendments on metal accumulation in water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) and soil metal bioavailability were studied in a pot experiment. All amendments increased biomass yield and reduced metal accumulation in the plant shoots. The bioconcentration factor and translocation factor values of the metals were in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb. The addition of ES, an alternative source of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), has significantly increased soil pH and resulted in marked reduction in soil metal bioavailability. Therefore, CTS, SB and ES are promising low-cost immobilising agents to restore metal contaminated land.

  20. Water Treatment Residuals and Scrap Tire Rubber as Green Sorbents for Removal of Stormwater Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yang; Morris, Ciapha; Rakshit, Sudipta; Landa, Edward; Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu

    2016-06-01

    Bench scale tests were performed to evaluate two recycled wastes, water treatment residuals (WTR) and scrap tire rubber (STR), for adsorption of selected metals from urban stormwater, and assess their release from used sorbents. Aluminum-WTR alone could rapidly and effectively remove Cu, Pb, and Zn, while STR alone continuously released Zn accompanied with Cu and Pb adsorption. Zn leaching from STR was significantly reduced in the presence of WTR. Very little metals released from used combined adsorbents in NaNO3 solution, and only part of them were extracted with EDTA (a strong chelating agent), suggesting that metal release is not a concern in a typical stormwater condition. A combination of WTR and STR is a new, effective method for mitigation of urban stormwater metals-WTR can inhibit the STR leaching, and STR improves the hydraulic permeability of WTR powders, a limiting factor for stormwater flow when WTR is used alone.

  1. Managing DOE scrap metal inventories: Implementation of a market-based approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meehan, R.W. [DOE Oak Ridge Operations, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The author describes the program objectives of the National Center for RSM Recycle. Objectives include: investment recovery; active inventory management; consistent characterization; creation of a `virtual` scrapyard; development of economies of scale in processing and sales; encouragement of commercial participation; promotion of site reutilization; waste minimization and environmental stewardship. There are significant quantities of high value metals, often dispersed over scattered sites. Inventories need to be made, including material segregation by type and contamination, which will allow lotting of materials to meet possible demand or economics of scale for cost effective processing. This center is a unique approach to the problem, and allows access to advantages of economics of scale, provides a single point of focus for large customers, and can attract the use of multiple technologies to process the contaminated scrap.

  2. Application of activated carbon derived from scrap tires for adsorption of Rhodamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Shuangxi; Zhu, Tan

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon derived from solid hazardous waste scrap tires was evaluated as a potential adsorbent for cationic dye removal. The adsorption process with respect to operating parameters was investigated to evaluate the adsorption characteristics of the activated pyrolytic tire char (APTC) for Rhodamine B (RhB). Systematic research including equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic studies was performed. The results showed that APTC was a potential adsorbent for RhB with a higher adsorption capacity than most adsorbents. Solution pH and temperature exert significant influence while ionic strength showed little effect on the adsorption process. The adsorption equilibrium data obey Langmuir isotherm and the kinetic data were well described by the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The adsorption process followed intra-particle diffusion model with more than one process affecting the adsorption process. Thermodynamic study confirmed that the adsorption was a physisorption process with spontaneous, endothermic and random characteristics.

  3. Recovery of gold from computer circuit board scrap using aqua regia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Peter P; Etsell, Thomas H

    2007-08-01

    Computer circuit board scrap was first treated with one part concentrated nitric acid and two parts water at 70 degrees C for 1 h. This step dissolved the base metals, thereby liberating the chips from the boards. After solid-liquid separation, the chips, intermixed with some metallic flakes and tin oxide precipitate, were mechanically crushed to liberate the base and precious metals contained within the protective plastic or ceramic chip cases. The base metals in this crushed product were dissolved by leaching again with the same type of nitric acid-water solution. The remaining solid constituents, crushed chips and resin, plus solid particles of gold, were leached with aqua regia at various times and temperatures. Gold was precipitated from the leachate with ferrous sulphate.

  4. Thermochemical recycling of mixture of scrap tyres and waste lubricating oil into high caloric value products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdul-Raouf, Manar E.; Maysour, Nermine E.; Abdul-Azim, Abdul-Azim A. [Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Amin, Mahasen S. [Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha (Egypt)

    2010-06-15

    Scrap tyres and used lubricating oils represent together growing environmental problem because they are not biodegradable and their components cannot readily be recovered. In the present investigation, the thermochemical recycling of mixture of old tyres with waste lubricating oil by pyrolysis and the value of the products obtained have been studied. First, thermobalance experiments were carried out, studying the influence of the following variables: temperature, type of catalyst and catalyst concentration on the pyrolysis reaction of a mixture of 1/1 wt./wt. oil/tyre ratio. These thermobalance results were thoroughly investigated to study the effect of the main process variables on yields of derived products: oils, gases and solid residue. (author)

  5. Characteristics of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticle ink-coated layers recycled from ITO scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seung-Jae; Hong, Sung-Jei; Lee, Jae Yong

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ink layer that includes nanoparticles synthesized from ITO target scraps. The particle size of the ITO nanoparticle was less than 15 nm, and the crystal structure was cubic with a (222) preferred orientation. Also, the composition ratio of In to Sn was 92.7 to 7.3 in weight. The ITO nanoparticles were well dispersed in the ink solvent to formulate a 20-wt% ITO nanoparticle ink. Furthermore, the ITO nanoparticle ink was coated onto a glass substrate, followed by heat-treatment at 600 °C. The layer showed good sheet resistances below 400 Ω/□ and optical transmittances higher than 88% at 550 nm. Thus, we can conclude that the characteristics of the layer make it highly applicable to a transparent conductive electrode.

  6. Influence of the Scrap Tyre Processing Techniques on the Physical Properties of the Crumb Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem Aziz Memon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The processing mechanism of scrap tyres to produce CR (Crumb Rubber has a great influence on the properties of the CRMB (Crumb Rubber Modified Bitumen. A fair amount of research was observed in the literature on the bitumen modified by CR processed cryogenically and ambiently. However, little or no work has been done on the CR processed by the other methods such as the Aquablast processing technique, which is a relatively a new waste tyre rubber processing technique within the CR industry. In this study, CR obtained from the two sources; ambient and Aquablast grinding techniques were primarily assessed with a helium pycnometer and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy for their physical properties and appearance respectively. Observations from this laboratory study indicated: (1 the density of the ambient CR was slightly higher than the CR obtained from Aquablast technique; (2 difference in physical appearance was found insignificant.

  7. Gold and palladium adsorption from leached electronic scrap using ordered mesoporous carbon nanoscaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Rocklan; Dutech, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Ordered mesoporous carbon (OMC) nanoscaffolds are engineered agglomerates of carbon nanotubes held together by small carbon nanofibers with uniform pore sizes, high pore volume, and high channel permeability. These materials exhibit very high affinity for the adsorption of gold from aqueous acidic mixtures. The efficiency of gold recovery is comparable to those typically accomplished using biopolymer-based adsorbents. The adsorption efficiency for other precious metals such as palladium and platinum is lower. Studies on the precious metal (Au, Pd) adsorption on OMC materials from actual liquors of leached electronics will be presented. Adsorption properties will be compared for several different sorbents used for the recovery of precious metals. The leach liquor compositions for three different types of electronic scrap materials (personal computer board, cell phone and tv input/output board) will be presented. The sorption efficiencies for Au, Pd, together with a spectrum of competing and non-competing metals, from such leach mixtures will be compared.

  8. Gasification of the char derived from distillation of granulated scrap tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Félix A; Centeno, Teresa A; Alguacil, Francisco José; Lobato, Belén; López-Delgado, Aurora; Fermoso, Javier

    2012-04-01

    This work reports the effect of pressure on the steam/oxygen gasification at 1000°C of the char derived from low temperature-pressure distillation of granulated scrap tyres (GST). The study was based on the analysis of gas production, carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency and the high heating value (HHV) of the product. For comparison, similar analyses were carried out for the gasification of coals with different rank. In spite of the relatively high ash (≈12 wt.%) and sulphur (≈3 wt.%) contents, the char produced in GST distillation can be regarded as a reasonable solid fuel with a calorific value of 34MJkg(-1). The combustion properties of the char (E(A)≈50 kJ mol(-1)), its temperature of self-heating (≈264°C), ignition temperature (≈459°C) and burn-out temperature (≈676°C) were found to be similar to those of a semi-anthracite. It is observed that the yield, H(2) and CO contents and HHV of the syngas produced from char gasification increase with pressure. At 0.1 MPa, 4.6 Nm(3)kg(char)(-1) of syngas was produced, containing 28%v/v of H(2) and CO and with a HHV around 3.7 MJ Nm(-3). At 1.5 MPa, the syngas yield achieved 4.9N m(3)kg(char)(-1) with 30%v/v of H(2)-CO and HHV of 4.1 MJ Nm(-3). Carbon conversion significantly increased from 87% at 0.1 MPa to 98% at 1.5 MPa. It is shown that the char derived from distillation of granulated scrap tyres can be further gasified to render a gas of considerable heating value, especially when gasification proceeds at high pressure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Discussion of Water Pollution in the United States and Mexico; with High School Laboratory Activities for Analysis of Lead, Atrazine, and Nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Grundman, Julie; Hage, David S.; Carr, James D.; Castro-Acuna, Carlos Mauricio

    1997-01-01

    Presents discussions on sources, health impacts, methods of analysis as well as lengthy discussions of lead, nitrates, and atrazine as related to water pollution and the interdisciplinary nature of the modern chemistry curriculum. (DKM)

  10. A Discussion of Water Pollution in the United States and Mexico; with High School Laboratory Activities for Analysis of Lead, Atrazine, and Nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelter, Paul B.; Grundman, Julie; Hage, David S.; Carr, James D.; Castro-Acuna, Carlos Mauricio

    1997-01-01

    Presents discussions on sources, health impacts, methods of analysis as well as lengthy discussions of lead, nitrates, and atrazine as related to water pollution and the interdisciplinary nature of the modern chemistry curriculum. (DKM)

  11. Lead poisoning in cattle, horses, cats, and dogs as reported by 11 colleges of veterinary medicine in the United States and Canada from July, 1968, through June 1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priester, W.A.; Hayes, H.M.

    1974-04-01

    During the 4-year period July 1, 1968, through June 30, 1972, 162 diagnoses of lead poisoning in domesticated animals were made at 11 colleges of veterinary medicine in the US and Canada. Although significant differences were not seen in relative frequency of lead poisoning among the 4 years included, there were significant differences between the 11 schools; however, a regular pattern of geographic distribution was not identified.

  12. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  13. 中国共产党领导统一战线的基本经验%The Basic Experience of the United Front Leaded by Communist Party of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟宪琴

    2011-01-01

    The united front run through the whole process of Chinese revolution and construction.It is extremely important for Chinese revolution and construction.United front leaded by CPC continuously has been growing.Valuable experience has been accumulated.%统一战线贯穿于中国革命和建设的全过程,对于中国革命和建设具有极其重要的意义。中国共产党领导的统一战线不断发展壮大,积累了宝贵的经验。

  14. Selenium Recycling in the United States in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Micheal W.; Wagner, Lorie A.

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of selenium consumption in the United States is in dissipative uses, such as alloys, animal feeds, fertilizers, glass decolorizer, and pigments. The nondissipative use as a photoreceptor for xerographic copiers is declining. As a result of a lack of a substantial supply of selenium-containing scrap, there are no longer selenium recycling facilities in the United States. Selenium-containing materials collected for recycling, primarily selenium-containing photocopier drums, are exported for processing in other countries. Of the estimated 350 metric tons (t) of selenium products that went to the U.S. market in 2004, an estimated 300 t went to dissipative uses. An estimated 4 t was recovered from old scrap and exported for recycling.

  15. 浅谈废铝再生的可持续发展%Consideration on Sustainable Development of Al Scraps Recycling Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙德勤

    2013-01-01

    再生铝是可持续发展的需要,而提高生产效能以及控制二次污染是废铝再生行业的发展要求.健全废铝回收体系、提高废铝原料分拣水平、加强工艺控制以及先进技术的应用是实现再生铝良性发展的保证.%Al scraps reproduction is the need of sustainable development, and the development demand of Al scraps recycling industry is the improvement of productive efficiency and minimizing pollution. To insure the benign development of Al scraps recycling industry, must establish and strengthen the Al scraps collecting system, improve the inclusions separation technology, enhance the processing control and introduce advanced techniques and equipments.

  16. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including some imported jewelry. What are the health effects of lead? • More commonly, lower levels of lead in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or behavioral issues. • Lead also affects other ...

  17. Exposures to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities.

  18. Mathematical Modeling and Algebraic Technique for Resolving a Single-Producer Multi-Retailer Integrated Inventory System with Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Shyi Peter Chiu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study uses mathematical modeling along with an algebraic technique to resolve the production-distribution policy for a single-producer multi-retailer integrated inventory system with scrap in production. We assume that a product is manufactured through an imperfect production process where all nonconforming items will be picked up and scrapped in each production cycle. After the entire lot is quality assured, multiple shipments will be delivered synchronously to m different retailers in each cycle. The objective is to determine the optimal replenishment lot size and optimal number of shipments that minimizes total expected costs for such a specific supply chains system. Conventional method is by the use of differential calculus on system cost function to derive the optimal policy (Chiu et al al., 2012c, whereas the proposed algebraic approach is a straightforward method that enables practitioners who may not have sufficient knowledge of calculus to understand and manage more effectively the real-life systems.

  19. Optimization of a microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment using recycled scrap metals as a cost-effective cathode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Olivier; Tan, Zi; Shen, Yujia; Ng, How Y

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) for wastewater treatment is still hindered by the prohibitive cost of cathode material, especially when platinum is used to catalyze oxygen reduction. In this study, recycled scrap metals could be used efficiently as cathode material in a specially-designed MFC. In terms of raw power, the scrap metals ranked as follows: W/Co > Cu/Ni > Inconel 718 > carpenter alloy; however, in terms of cost and long term stability, Inconel 718 was the preferred choice. Treatment performance--assessed on real and synthetic wastewater--was considerably improved either by filling the anode compartment with carbon granules or by operating the MFC in full-loop mode. The latter option allowed reaching 99.7% acetate removal while generating a maximum power of 36 W m(-3) at an acetate concentration of 2535 mg L(-1). Under these conditions, the energy produced by the system averaged 0.1 kWh m(-3) of wastewater treated.

  20. Refusion of zircaloy scraps by VAR (vacuum arc remelting): preliminary results; Fusao de cavacos de zircaloy por VAR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.A.T.; Mucsi, C.S.; Sato, I.M.; Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G., E-mail: lgallego@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, H.P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel elements and structural components of the core of PWR nuclear reactors are made in zirconium alloys known as Zircaloy. Machining chips and shavings resulting from the manufacturing of these components can not be discarded as scrap, once these alloys are strategic materials for the nuclear area, have high costs and are not produced in Brazil on an industrial bases and, consequently, are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. The reuse of Zircaloy chips has economic, strategic and environmental aspects. In this work is proposed a process for recycling Zircaloy scraps using a VAR (vacuum arc remelting) furnace in order to obtain ingots suitable for the manufacture of components of the reactors. The ingots obtained are being studied in order to verify the influence of processing on composition and microstructure of the remelted material. In this work are presented preliminary results of the composition of obtained ingots compared to start material and the resulting microstructure. (author)

  1. Reutilization of waste scrap tyre as the immobilization matrix for the enhanced bioremoval of a monoaromatic hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether, and chlorinated ethenes mixture from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qihong; de Toledo, Renata Alves; Xie, Fei; Li, Junhui; Shim, Hojae

    2017-04-01

    BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, ortho-, meta-, and para-xylenes), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), and trichloroethylene (TCE) are among the major soil and groundwater contaminants frequently co-existing, as a result of their widespread uses. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida was immobilized on waste scrap tyre to remove these contaminants mixture from synthetic contaminated water. The microbial activity was enhanced in the immobilized system, shown by the higher colony forming units (CFUs) (40%), while BTEX were used as growth substrates. The adsorption capacity of tyres toward contaminants reached a maximum within one day, with BTEX (76.3%) and TCE (64.3%) showing the highest sorption removal capacities, followed by cis-DCE (30.0%) and MTBE (11.0%). The adsorption data fitted the Freundlich isotherm with a good linear correlation (0.989-0.999) for the initial contaminants concentration range applied (25-125mg/L). The monoaromatic hydrocarbons were almost completely removed in the immobilized system and the favourable removal efficiencies of 78% and 90% were obtained for cis-DCE and TCE, respectively. The hybrid (biological, immobilization/physical, sorption) system was further evaluated with the contaminants spiked intermittently for the stable performance. The addition of mineral salt medium further enhanced the bioremoval of contaminants by stimulating the microbial growth to some extent.

  2. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lead is of microscopic size, invisible to the naked eye. More often than not, children with elevated ... majority of the childhood lead poisoning cases we see today. Children and adults too can get seriously ...

  3. Booster Manufacture by Scrap Ammunition Recycling%废弹药再利用制造起爆具

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王高宏; 蔺庆元; 任流润; 郭新春; 刘大维

    2013-01-01

    利用起爆具的基本配方与制造工艺,在熔化TNT后的混制工序中将废弹药拆分所得猛炸药和熔化TNT混合,经搅拌制备成混合炸药,浇注入放置传爆药柱的壳体中,制成起爆具.试验结果表明,利用废弹药所配制的混合炸药性能优越,进而制成的起爆具完全能满足用户需求.这种拆分废弹药再利用,既节约了资源,降低了处理成本,又改善了环境,实现了资源循环利用.%Based on its basic formula and manufacturing process, the booster was successfully fabricated by mixing high explosive from the scrap ammunition with melt TNT, stirring of mixed explosives, and casting of mixed explosives into the case, in which a booster charge was prepositioned. The experimental results show that the mixed explosive prepared by using the scrap ammunition has superior performance, and the corresponding booster could fully satisfy the requirments of clients. The recycling of scrap ammunition has the advantages of resource saving, disposal cost reduction, environment im-provment, and circulation of resources.

  4. Spark Plasma Sintering As a Solid-State Recycling Technique: The Case of Aluminum Alloy Scrap Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimos Paraskevas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, “meltless” recycling techniques have been presented for the light metals category, targeting both energy and material savings by bypassing the final recycling step of remelting. In this context, the use of spark plasma sintering (SPS is proposed in this paper as a novel solid-state recycling technique. The objective is two-fold: (I to prove the technical feasibility of this approach; and (II to characterize the recycled samples. Aluminum (Al alloy scrap was selected to demonstrate the SPS effectiveness in producing fully-dense samples. For this purpose, Al alloy scrap in the form of machining chips was cold pre-compacted and sintered bellow the solidus temperature at 490 °C, under elevated pressure of 200 MPa. The dynamic scrap compaction, combined with electric current-based joule heating, achieved partial fracture of the stable surface oxides, desorption of the entrapped gases and activated the metallic surfaces, resulting in efficient solid-state chip welding eliminating residual porosity. The microhardness, the texture, the mechanical properties, the microstructure and the density of the recycled specimens have been investigated. An X-ray computed tomography (CT analysis confirmed the density measurements, revealing a void-less bulk material with homogeneously distributed intermetallic compounds and oxides. The oxide content of the chips incorporated within the recycled material slightly increases its elastic properties. Finally, a thermal distribution simulation of the process in different segments illustrates the improved energy efficiency of this approach.

  5. Removal of chromium from Cr(VI) polluted wastewaters by reduction with scrap iron and subsequent precipitation of resulted cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheju, M; Balcu, I

    2011-11-30

    This work presents investigations on the total removal of chromium from Cr(VI) aqueous solutions by reduction with scrap iron and subsequent precipitation of the resulted cations with NaOH. The process was detrimentally affected by a compactly passivation film occurred at scrap iron surface, mainly composed of Cr(III) and Fe(III). Maximum removal efficiency of the Cr(total) and Fe(total) achieved in the clarifier under circumneutral and alkaline (pH 9.1) conditions was 98.5% and 100%, respectively. The optimum precipitation pH range which resulted from this study is 7.6-8.0. Fe(total) and Cr(total) were almost entirely removed in the clarifier as Fe(III) and Cr(III) species; however, after Cr(VI) breakthrough in column effluent, chromium was partially removed in the clarifier also as Cr(VI), by coprecipitation with cationic species. As long the column effluent was free of Cr(VI), the average Cr(total) removal efficiency of the packed column and clarifier was 10.8% and 78.8%, respectively. Our results clearly indicated that Cr(VI) contaminated wastewater can be successfully treated by combining reduction with scrap iron and chemical precipitation with NaOH.

  6. Air quality impact due to scrap-metal handling on a sea port: A wind tunnel experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Costa, A. M.; Amorim, J. H.; Santos, P.; Sardo, J.; Lopes, M.; Miranda, A. I.

    Emissions from cargo unloading and handling activities in sea ports can be of special importance, particularly in case of proximity to dense urban populations. In this sense, the main purpose of this work was to develop and implement a set of technical solutions intended to reduce the emissions and dispersion of particles resulting from scrap-metal handling on one of the most important Portuguese sea ports. The analysis of the atmospheric flow within the discharging berth was carried out in the Wind Tunnel Laboratory of the Department of Environment and Planning, at the University of Aveiro (Portugal). Laser sheet and hot wire anemometry techniques were applied. Two possible solutions were proposed, consisting in the use of windbreaks located upwind of the scrap-metal piles and a barrier of containers positioned downwind. Both flow visualisation and velocity-measuring techniques confirm a higher efficiency in the reduction of suspended particulate matter by using the containers plus the windbreaks. This combined solution is responsible for an important reduction on the emissions from the scrap-metal piles under typical meteorological conditions for this area, offering a good compromise between cost, time needed for implementation and efficiency.

  7. Comparative Study of Mechanical Properties of Self - Healing Concrete Using Industrial Waste Steel Scrap and Polyethylene Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Kumar.T

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cracks in concrete are the main reason for a decreased service life of concrete structures. It is therefore more advisable and economical to restrict the development of early age small cracks the moment they appear, than to repair them after they have developed to large cracks. A promising way is to pre-add healing agents (Methyl methacrylate to the concrete to heal early age cracks when they appear, i.e. the so-called self-healing approach. By this approach, Methyl methacrylate was used as self – healing agent and its self-healing capability was confirmed by UPV test. In that self – healing concrete, Industrial Waste Steel Scrap and Polyethylene fiber were added to evaluate its mechanical properties. The experimental results shown that the self – healing concrete can yield high compressive strength when Polyethylene fiber was added and also yield high tensile strength by adding Industrial waste steel scrap. Also, it is found to be economical by adding steel scrap in self – healing concrete instead of steel fiber

  8. Study on hydrolysis of scrap leather stuff%废旧皮革制品水解工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓蒙; 梁卫士; 闫皓; 王天贵

    2015-01-01

    In order to address potential environmental contamination of scrap leather stuffs and make those be useful resources, orthogonal experiments were conducted by using a hydrothermal reactor to investigate the effect of temperature, time, ratio of liquid to solid, catalysts and their amount, on hydrolysis yield of the leather. Experimen-tal results show that the temperature, time and catalysts have substantial impact on the leather hydrolysis. Under optimal conditions, over 80 percent of the scrap leather can be hydrolyzed by oxalic acid catalysis and up to 76 percent of the scrap leather can be hydrolyzed by sodium hydroxide catalysis.%为了解决废旧皮革制品潜在的污染环境问题并使其资源化,采用正交实验的方法,利用水热反应釜通过加压水解研究了温度、时间、液固比、催化剂种类和用量对皮革水解率的影响。实验结果表明,温度、时间与催化剂都对水解率有较大影响。在最佳条件下,草酸催化废皮革水解率可达82%,NaOH催化废皮革水解率可达76%。

  9. Relational Leading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    This first chapter presents the exploratory and curious approach to leading as relational processes – an approach that pervades the entire book. We explore leading from a perspective that emphasises the unpredictable challenges and triviality of everyday life, which we consider an interesting......, relevant and realistic way to examine leading. The chapter brings up a number of concepts and contexts as formulated by researchers within the field, and in this way seeks to construct a first understanding of relational leading....

  10. Safe and Effective Deactivation of Metallic Sodium Filled Scrap and Cold Traps From Sodium-cooled Nuclear Reactor D and D - 12176

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nester, Dean [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company - CHPRC (United States); Crocker, Ben [Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. (United States); Smart, Bill [IMPACT Services, Inc. (United States)

    2012-07-01

    As part of the Plateau Remediation Project at US Department of Energy's Hanford, Washington site, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) contracted with IMPACT Services, LLC to receive and deactivate approximately 28 cubic meters of sodium metal contaminated debris from two sodium-cooled research reactors (Enrico Fermi Unit 1 and the Fast Flux Test Facility) which had been stored at Hanford for over 25 years. CHPRC found an off-site team composed of IMPACT Services and Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc., with the facilities and technological capabilities to safely and effectively perform deactivation of this sodium metal contaminated debris. IMPACT Services provided the licensed fixed facility and the logistical support required to receive, store, and manage the waste materials before treatment, and the characterization, manifesting, and return shipping of the cleaned material after treatment. They also provided a recycle outlet for the liquid sodium hydroxide byproduct resulting from removal of the sodium from reactor parts. Commodore Advanced Sciences, Inc. mobilized their patented AMANDA unit to the IMPACT Services site and operated the unit to perform the sodium removal process. Approximately 816 Kg of metallic sodium were removed and converted to sodium hydroxide, and the project was accomplished in 107 days, from receipt of the first shipment at the IMPACT Services facility to the last outgoing shipment of deactivated scrap metal. There were no safety incidents of any kind during the performance of this project. The AMANDA process has been demonstrated in this project to be both safe and effective for deactivation of sodium and NaK. It has also been used in other venues to treat other highly reactive alkali metals, such as lithium (Li), potassium (K), NaK and Cesium (Cs). (authors)

  11. Nurses' Perceptions and Practices Toward Clinical Alarms in a Transplant Cardiac Intensive Care Unit: Exploring Key Issues Leading to Alarm Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh Khaled; Tarriela, Albert Fajardo; Gomez, Tiffany Michelle; Reed, Charles Calhoun; Rapp, Kami Marie

    2015-03-16

    Intensive care units (ICUs) are complex work environments where false alarms occur more frequently than on non-critical care units. The Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal .06.01.01 targeted improving the safety of clinical alarm systems and required health care facilities to establish alarm systems safety as a hospital priority by July 2014. An important initial step toward this requirement is identifying ICU nurses' perceptions and common clinical practices toward clinical alarms, where little information is available. Our aim was to determine perceptions and practices of transplant/cardiac ICU (TCICU) nurses toward clinical alarms and benchmark the results against the 2011 Healthcare Technology Foundation's (HTF) Clinical Alarms Committee Survey. A quality improvement project was conducted on a 20-bed TCICU with 39 full- and part-time nurses. Nurses were surveyed about their perceptions and attitudes toward and practices on clinical alarms using an adapted HTF clinical alarms survey. Results were compared to the 2011 HTF data. Correlations among variables were examined. All TCICU nurses provided usable responses (N=39, 100%). Almost all nurses (95%-98%) believed that false alarms are frequent, disrupt care, and reduce trust in alarm systems, causing nurses to inappropriately disable them. Unlike the 2011 HTF clinical alarms survey results, a significantly higher percentage of our TCICU nurses believed that existing devices are complex, questioned the ability and adequacy of the new monitoring systems to solve alarm management issues, pointed to the lack of prompt response to alarms, and indicated the lack of clinical policy on alarm management (Palarms and poor usability of the cardiac monitors. A lack of standardized approaches exists in changing patients' electrodes and individualizing parameters. Around 60% of nurses indicated they received insufficient training on bedside and central cardiac monitors. A correlation also showed the need for training

  12. Polymerase chain reaction with lesion scrapping for the diagnosis of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneide Aparecida Sabaini Venazzi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using lesion scrapping with other conventional techniques for the diagnosis of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL. For this, patients with cutaneous lesions suspected to be ATL were studied. The DNA was amplified with the MP1L/MP3H primers. From the 156 studied patients, 79 (50.6% presented positive parasite direct search (PD, 81 (51.9% had positive Montenegro skin test (MST, and 90 (57.7% presented PD and/or MST positive. The PCR was positive in all of the positive-PD patients (100% sensitivity, in 91.1% of the positive PD and/or MST patients, and in 27.3% of the patients that presented negative PD and positive MST. The PCR positivity was similar to the PD (P = 0.2482 and inferior to the MST (P = 0.0455, and to the PD/MST association (P = 0.0133. The high PCR sensitivity, and positivity in those cases where the PD was negative, highlights the importance of this technique as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of ATL.

  13. Polymerase chain reaction with lesion scrapping for the diagnosis of human American tegumentary leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venazzi, Eneide Aparecida Sabaini; Roberto, Andréa Claudia Bekner Silva; Barbosa-Tessmann, Ione Parra; Zanzarini, Paulo Donizeti; Lonardoni, Maria Valdrinez Campana; Silveira, Thaís Gomes Verzignassi

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this work was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using lesion scrapping with other conventional techniques for the diagnosis of the American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL). For this, patients with cutaneous lesions suspected to be ATL were studied. The DNA was amplified with the MP1L/MP3H primers. From the 156 studied patients, 79 (50.6%) presented positive parasite direct search (PD), 81 (51.9%) had positive Montenegro skin test (MST), and 90 (57.7%) presented PD and/or MST positive. The PCR was positive in all of the positive-PD patients (100% sensitivity), in 91.1% of the positive PD and/or MST patients, and in 27.3% of the patients that presented negative PD and positive MST. The PCR positivity was similar to the PD (P = 0.2482) and inferior to the MST (P = 0.0455), and to the PD/MST association (P = 0.0133). The high PCR sensitivity, and positivity in those cases where the PD was negative, highlights the importance of this technique as an auxiliary tool for the diagnosis of ATL.

  14. Mathematical Model of Sorption Kinetics of Crude Oil by Rubber Particles from Scrap Tyres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix A. AISIEN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper present an insight into how rubber particles from scrap tyres can be utilized to clean up oil spillages as well as how the process of sorption of crude oil by rubber particles can be stimulated based on sorption kinetics. Crude oil sorption tests using recycled rubber particles (a model absorbent were designed for investigating crude oil concentration profiles. The model based on a linear driving force (LDF was developed using a set of experimental data and multiple regression analysis. The crude oil sorption performance tests were conducted under various operating conditions by varying parameters such as rubber particle size and absorption temperature. The predictive capacity of the kinetic model was evaluated under conditions significantly different from those that have already been measured. The experimental results obtained previously were correlated with the first order sorption kinetics model developed. The results showed that the first order kinetics model accurately correlate the experimental data generated. Also, satisfactory results were obtained from simulation of other operating conditions; hence the crude oil sorption kinetics is first order.

  15. Production of Magnesium and Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys from Recycled Secondary Aluminum Scrap Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesing, Adam J.; Das, Subodh K.; Loutfy, Raouf O.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental proof of concept was demonstrated for a patent-pending and trademark-pending RE12™ process for extracting a desired amount of Mg from recycled scrap secondary Al melts. Mg was extracted by electrorefining, producing a Mg product suitable as a Mg alloying hardener additive to primary-grade Al alloys. This efficient electrorefining process operates at high current efficiency, high Mg recovery and low energy consumption. The Mg electrorefining product can meet all the impurity specifications with subsequent melt treatment for removing alkali contaminants. All technical results obtained in the RE12™ project indicate that the electrorefining process for extraction of Mg from Al melt is technically feasible. A techno-economic analysis indicates high potential profitability for applications in Al foundry alloys as well as beverage—can and automotive—sheet alloys. The combination of technical feasibility and potential market profitability completes a successful proof of concept. This economical, environmentally-friendly and chlorine-free RE12™ process could be disruptive and transformational for the Mg production industry by enabling the recycling of 30,000 tonnes of primary-quality Mg annually.

  16. Carbon dioxide capture utilizing zeolites synthesized with paper sludge and scrap-glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejel-Ayala, F; Corella, R Chora; Pérez, A Morales; Pérez-Hernández, R; Ramírez-Zamora, R M

    2014-12-01

    The present work introduces the study of the CO2 capture process by zeolites synthesized from paper sludge and scrap glass. Zeolites ZSM-5, analcime and wairakite were produced by means of two types of Structure Directing Agents (SDA): tetrapropilamonium (TPA) and ethanol. On the one hand, zeolite ZSM-5 was synthesized using TPA; on the other hand, analcime and wairakite were produced with ethanol. The temperature programmed desorption (TPD) technique was performed for determining the CO2 sorption capacity of these zeolites at two sorption temperatures: 50 and 100 °C. CO2 sorption capacity of zeolite ZSM-5 synthesized at 50 °C was 0.683 mmol/g representing 38.2% of the value measured for a zeolite ZSM-5 commercial. Zeolite analcime showed a higher CO2 sorption capacity (1.698 mmol/g) at 50 °C and its regeneration temperature was relatively low. Zeolites synthesized in this study can be used in the purification of biogas and this will produce energy without increasing the atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

  17. Design and development of indoor device for recycling of domestic vegetable scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshitha, Jampala; Krupanidhi, Sreerama; Kumar, Sunil; Wong, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Since the municipal waste management and community garbage-treating systems are in vogue, there is a growing need for the waste minimization to keep our vicinity clean and green. Therefore, a feasible indoor device is designed for recycling domestic vegetable scrap by adopting the principle of soil ecosystem. To arrive at the composting process control parameters in the proposed device, the soil from landfill and quarry along with supplements namely sawdust, cow dung/yeast and the resident thermophilic bacteria are analysed. The soil parameters namely pH, electrical conductivity, Organic carbon, P, K, Fe, moisture content and the presence of thermophilic bacteria varied significantly between negative control sample (NCS) and positive control sample (PCS) and post-treatment positive control group with dried cow dung (PPC-C)-derived compost is soft-textured and homogenous. Furthermore, the double-compartment-based device would be more feasible and appealing as a recycling bin rather than as a refuse storage bin primarily due to the inclusion of dish-plantation. The standardization of composting control parameters is discussed in this article.

  18. Direct Electrochemical Preparation of Cobalt, Tungsten, and Tungsten Carbide from Cemented Carbide Scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiangjun; Xi, Xiaoli; Nie, Zuoren; Zhang, Liwen; Ma, Liwen

    2017-02-01

    A novel process of preparing cobalt, tungsten, and tungsten carbide powders from cemented carbide scrap by molten salt electrolysis has been investigated in this paper. In this experiment, WC-6Co and NaCl-KCl salt were used as sacrificial anode and electrolyte, respectively. The dissolution potential of cobalt and WC was determined by linear sweep voltammetry to be 0 and 0.6 V ( vs Ag/AgCl), respectively. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of cobalt and tungsten ions was investigated by a variety of electrochemical techniques. Results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square-wave voltammetry show that the cobalt and tungsten ions existed as Co2+ and W2+ on melts, respectively. The effect of applied voltage, electrolysis current, and electrolysis times on the composition of the product was studied. Results showed that pure cobalt powder can be obtained when the electrolysis potential is lower than 0.6 V or during low current and short times. Double-cathode and two-stage electrolysis was utilized for the preparation of cobalt, tungsten carbide, and tungsten powders. Additionally, X-ray diffraction results confirm that the product collected at cathodes 1 and 2 is pure Co and WC, respectively. Pure tungsten powder was obtained after electrolysis of the second part. Scanning electron microscope results show that the diameters of tungsten, tungsten carbide, and cobalt powder are smaller than 100, 200, and 200 nm, respectively.

  19. Evaluation of the Sanitary Conditions of Head Meat, Esophagus, Diaphragm Meat, and Boning Scrap Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Caroline Celestina dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli counts are important hygiene indicators and may be pathogenic. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine microbiological contamination in head meat, the esophagus, diaphragm, and boning scraps and evaluate the hygienic conditions of the processing of these products. The Petrifilm® (3M method for determining Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and E. coli was applied for 104 samples. APHA, European Union, PAHO/WHO, and Brazil/MAPA recommendations were followed. Bleeding and skinning knives were contaminated with E. coli (61.5%. Regarding the meat cuts, 30.76% samples from head meat, the esophagus and the boning flap showed the presence of E. coli in counts up to 2 log CFU/g, while 15.3% of the diaphragm samples showed up to 1.85 log CFU/g. The analyzed comminuted meat was, therefore, shown to be contaminated with E. coli during processing, indicating that end-products from this raw material can offer biological risks.

  20. Recovering metals from printed circuit board scrap by a mechanical separation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Min; LI Guang-ming; HE Wen-zhi; LI Hui

    2008-01-01

    A mechanical separation process was developed for recovering metals from printed circuit board (PCB) scrap; it included three steps: impact crushing, sieving and fluidization separation. The mechanism of the technique was based on the difference in the crushabilities of metallic and nonmetallic materials in the PCBs that led to the concentrated distribution of metals in particles of larger sizes and nonmetals mostly in particles of smaller sizes. It was found that crushed PCB particles from 0.125 mm to 1.000 mm contained about 80% of metals in the PCBs. Metals acquired satisfactory liberation in particles smaller than 0.800 mm. The crushed PCB particles were sieved into fractions of different size ranges. Each fraction separately went through a gas-solid fluidized bed operating at a selected optimal gas velocity for the specific size range. Approximately 95% of metals in printed circuit board particles from 0.125 mm to 0.800 mm was recovered by the gas-fluidized bed separator at the selected optimal gas velocity. However, separation of metals from particles smaller than 0.125 mm was not satisfactory. Further study is needed on metal recovery from fine particles.

  1. Radioactive scrap metal (RSM) inventory & tracking system and prototype RSM field survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, T.R.

    1994-09-01

    Based on very preliminary information, it has been estimated that the radioactive scrap metal (RSM) inventories at DOE facilities amount to about 1.5 million tons and a much larger amount will be generated from decontamination and decommissioning of surplus DOE facilities. To implement a national DOE program for beneficial reuse of RSM, it will be necessary to known the location and characteristics of RSM inventories that are available and will be generated to match them with product demands. It is the intent of this task to provide a standardized methodology via a RSM database for recording, tracking, and reporting data on RSM inventories. A multiple relational database in dBASE IV was designed and a PC-based code was written in Clipper 5.0 syntax to expedite entry, editing, querying, and reporting of RSM survey data. The PC based-code, the multiple relational database files, and other external files used by the code to generate reports and queries constitute a customized software application called the RSM Inventory & Tracking System (RSM I&TS). A prototype RSM field survey was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to demonstrate the field use of the RSM I&TS and logistics of conducting the survey. During the demonstration, about 50 tons of RSM were sized, characterized, sorted, and packaged in transport containers.

  2. Pyrolysis characteristics of the mixture of printed circuit board scraps and coal powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Juan; Wang, Haifeng; Chen, Shuhe; Cai, Bin; Ge, Linhan; Xia, Wencheng

    2014-10-01

    Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and infrared spectroscopy were used to analyze the pyrolysis characteristics of printed circuit board scraps (PCBs), coal powder and their mixtures under nitrogen atmosphere. The experimental results show that there is a large difference between waste PCBs and coal powder in pyrolysis processing. The pyrolysis properties of the mixing samples are the result of interaction of the PCBs and coal powder, which is influenced by the content of mixture. The degree of pyrolysis and pyrolysis properties of the mixture are much better than that of the single component. The TG and the differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves of the PCBs mixed with coal powder move towards the high-temperature zone with increasing amount of coal powder and subsequently the DTG peak also becomes wider. The Coats-Redfern integral method was used to determine the kinetic parameters of pyrolysis reaction mechanism with the different proportion of mixture. The gas of pyrolysis mainly composes of CO2, CO, H2O and some hydrocarbon. The bromide characteristic absorption peak has been detected obviously in the pyrolysis gas of PCBs. On the contrary, the absorption peak of the bromide is not obvious in pyrolysis gas of the PCBs samples adding 40% coal powder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct Electrochemical Preparation of Cobalt, Tungsten, and Tungsten Carbide from Cemented Carbide Scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiangjun; Xi, Xiaoli; Nie, Zuoren; Zhang, Liwen; Ma, Liwen

    2016-10-01

    A novel process of preparing cobalt, tungsten, and tungsten carbide powders from cemented carbide scrap by molten salt electrolysis has been investigated in this paper. In this experiment, WC-6Co and NaCl-KCl salt were used as sacrificial anode and electrolyte, respectively. The dissolution potential of cobalt and WC was determined by linear sweep voltammetry to be 0 and 0.6 V (vs Ag/AgCl), respectively. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of cobalt and tungsten ions was investigated by a variety of electrochemical techniques. Results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square-wave voltammetry show that the cobalt and tungsten ions existed as Co2+ and W2+ on melts, respectively. The effect of applied voltage, electrolysis current, and electrolysis times on the composition of the product was studied. Results showed that pure cobalt powder can be obtained when the electrolysis potential is lower than 0.6 V or during low current and short times. Double-cathode and two-stage electrolysis was utilized for the preparation of cobalt, tungsten carbide, and tungsten powders. Additionally, X-ray diffraction results confirm that the product collected at cathodes 1 and 2 is pure Co and WC, respectively. Pure tungsten powder was obtained after electrolysis of the second part. Scanning electron microscope results show that the diameters of tungsten, tungsten carbide, and cobalt powder are smaller than 100, 200, and 200 nm, respectively.

  4. Minimizing Waste from the Oil Industry: Scale Treatment and Scrap Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, M.

    2002-02-26

    Naturally occurring radioactive material is technologically concentrated in the piping in systems in the oil and gas industry, especially in the offshore facilities. The activity, mainly Ra-226, in the scales in the systems are often at levels classified as low level radioactive waste (LSA) in the industry. When the components and pipes are descaled for maintenance or recycling purposes, usually by high-pressure water jetting, the LSA scales arising constitute a significant quantity of radioactive waste for disposal. A new process is under development for the treatment of scales, where the radioactive solids are separated from the inactive. This would result in a much smaller fraction to be deposited as radioactive waste. The radioactive part recovered from the scales will be reduced to a stable non-metallic salt and because the volume is significantly smaller then the original material, will minimize the cost for disposal. The pipes, that have been cleaned by high pressure water jetting can either be reused or free released by scrapping and melting for recycling.

  5. High Purity Germanium Gamma-PHA Assay of Uranium Scrap Cans Used in 321-M Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaymeh, S. R.; Dewberry, R. A.; Casella, V.

    2001-12-01

    The Analytical Development Section of SRTC was requested by the Facilities Disposition Division (FDD) to determine the holdup of enriched uranium in the 321-M facility as part of an overall deactivation project of the facility. The 321-M facility was used to fabricate enriched uranium fuel assemblies, lithium-aluminum target tubes, neptunium assemblies, and miscellaneous components for the production reactors. The facility also includes the 324-M storage building and the passageway connecting it to 321-M. The results of the holdup assays are essential for determining compliance with the Solid Waste's Waste Acceptance Criteria, Material Control & Accountability, and to meet criticality safety controls. This report describes and documents the use of a portable HPGe detector and EG&G DART system that contains a high voltage power supply, signal processing electronics, a personal computer with Gamma-Vision software, and space to store and manipulate multiple 4096-channel gamma-ray spectra to assay for 235U content. The system was used to assay a large number of scrap cans used to store highly enriched uranium (HEU) chips and filings. This report includes a description of two efficiency calibration configurations and also the results of the assay. A description of the quality control checks is included as well.

  6. Recycle for Sludge Scrap of Nd-Fe-B Sintered Magnet as Isotropic Bonded Magnet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masahiro Itoh; Masahiro Masuda; Shunji Suzuki; Ken-ichi Machida

    2004-01-01

    The reduction diffusion method was performed for the sludge scrap of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets with adding Ca metal to recover the oxidized Nd-Fe-B phase. After washing the resultant powders to remove Ca metal component, the powders obtained were recycled as an isotropic magnetic powder by the melt spinning method. The magnetic properties of powders as recycled were inferior, especially for the coercivity value, due to the deletion of rare earth metals during the washing process. The adjustment of metal composition, i.e., the addition of Nd metal, at the melt spinning process improved the magnetic properties to be Br=~0.75 T, Hcj=~0.93 mA·m-1, and(BH)max=~91 kJ·m-3. The magnetic properties of the bonded magnets prepared from the composition-adjusted powders were Br=~0.66 T, Hcj=~0.92 mA·m-1, and(BH)max=~70 kJ·m-3, which are approximately comparable to the commercially available MQPB boned one(Br=~0.73 T, Hcj=~0.79 mA·m-1, and(BH)max=~86 kJ·m-3).

  7. Beneficial reuse `96: The fourth annual conference on the recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    From October 22-24, 1996 the University of Tennessee`s Energy, Environment and Resources Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Center for Risk Management cosponsored Beneficial Reuse `96: The Fourth Annual Conference on the Recycle and Reuse of Radioactive Materials. Along with the traditional focus on radioactive scrap metals, this year`s conference included a wide range of topics pertaining to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and contaminated concrete reuse applications. As with previous Beneficial Reuse conferences, the primary goal of this year`s conference was to bring together stakeholder representatives for presentations, panel sessions and workshops on significant waste minimization issues surrounding the recycle and reuse of contaminated metals and other materials. A wide range of industry, government and public stakeholder groups participated in this year`s conference. An international presence from Canada, Germany and Korea helped to make Beneficial Reuse `96 a well-rounded affair. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  8. Melting of Grey Cast Iron Based on Steel Scrap Using Silicon Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojczew A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the issue of synthetic cast iron production in the electric induction furnace exclusively on the steel scrap base. Silicon carbide and synthetic graphite were used as carburizers. The carburizers were introduced with solid charge or added on the liquid metal surface. The chemical analysis of the produced cast iron, the carburization efficiency and microstructure features were presented in the paper. It was stated that ferrosilicon can be replaced by silicon carbide during the synthetic cast iron melting process. However, due to its chemical composition (30% C and 70% Si which causes significant silicon content in iron increase, the carbon deficit can be partly compensated by the carburizer introduction. Moreover it was shown that the best carbon and silicon assimilation rate is obtained where the silicon carbide is being introduced together with solid charge. When it is thrown onto liquid alloy surface the efficiency of the process is almost two times less and the melting process lasts dozen minutes long. The microstructure of the cast iron produced with the silicon carbide shows more bulky graphite flakes than inside the microstructure of cast iron produced on the pig iron base.

  9. Does Stigmatized Social Risk Lead to Denialism? Results from a Survey Experiment on Race, Risk Perception, and Health Policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Yarrow; Lieberman, Evan S; Snell, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we report findings from an original survey experiment investigating the effects of different framings of disease threats on individual risk perceptions and policy priorities. We analyze responses from 1,946 white and African-American participants in a self-administered, web-based survey in the United States. We sought to investigate the effects of: 1) frames emphasizing disparities in the racial prevalence of disease and 2) frames emphasizing non-normative (blameworthy or stigmatized) behavioral risk factors. We find some evidence that when treated with the first frame, African-Americans are more likely to report higher risk of infection (compared to an African-American control group and to whites receiving the same treatment); and that whites are more likely to report trust in government data (compared to a White control group and to African-Americans receiving the same treatment). Notwithstanding, we find no support for our hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of providing both frames, which was a central motivation for our study. We argue that this may be due to very large differences in risk perception at baseline (which generate limits on possible treatment effects) and the fact that in the context of American race relations, it may not be possible to fully differentiate racialized and stigmatized frames.

  10. Does Stigmatized Social Risk Lead to Denialism? Results from a Survey Experiment on Race, Risk Perception, and Health Policy in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarrow Dunham

    Full Text Available In this article, we report findings from an original survey experiment investigating the effects of different framings of disease threats on individual risk perceptions and policy priorities. We analyze responses from 1,946 white and African-American participants in a self-administered, web-based survey in the United States. We sought to investigate the effects of: 1 frames emphasizing disparities in the racial prevalence of disease and 2 frames emphasizing non-normative (blameworthy or stigmatized behavioral risk factors. We find some evidence that when treated with the first frame, African-Americans are more likely to report higher risk of infection (compared to an African-American control group and to whites receiving the same treatment; and that whites are more likely to report trust in government data (compared to a White control group and to African-Americans receiving the same treatment. Notwithstanding, we find no support for our hypotheses concerning the interactive effects of providing both frames, which was a central motivation for our study. We argue that this may be due to very large differences in risk perception at baseline (which generate limits on possible treatment effects and the fact that in the context of American race relations, it may not be possible to fully differentiate racialized and stigmatized frames.

  11. Magnesium recycling in the United States in 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    As concern for the environment has grown in recent years, the importance of recycling has become more evident. The more materials that are recycled, the fewer natural resources will be consumed and the fewer waste products will end up in landfills, the water, and the air. As one of a series of reports on metals recycling, this report discusses the 1998 flow of magnesium in the United States from extraction through its uses with particular emphasis on recycling. In 1998, the recycling efficiency for magnesium was estimated to be 33 percent--almost 60 percent of the magnesium that was recycled came from new scrap, primarily waste from die-casting operations. The principal source of old scrap was recycled aluminum beverage cans.

  12. Empiric therapy of sepsis in the surgical intensive care unit with broad-spectrum antibiotics for 72 hours does not lead to the emergence of resistant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namias, N; Harvill, S; Ball, S; McKenney, M G; Salomone, J P; Sleeman, D; Civetta, J M

    1998-11-01

    It is our practice to treat suspected sepsis with imipenem/cilastatin and gentamicin (IMP/GENT) for 72 hours while awaiting culture results. We wanted to determine if this practice engenders antimicrobial resistance. Review of prospectively collected data regarding use of IMP/GENT and microbial sensitivity to imipenem/cilastatin during the first and last 7 months of a 19-month study period (October 1, 1995, to April 30, 1997). The susceptibility of appropriate organisms to imipenem/cilastatin was 76% in the early period and 80% in the late period (p = 0.42). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more susceptible in the late period (88 vs. 62%; p = 0.007). Resistance to gentamicin (30% early vs. 21% late; p = 0.02) and representative cephalosporins (cefoxitin, 52% early vs. 61% late; p = 0.35; ceftazidime, 26% early vs. 23% late; p = 0.76) did not develop during the study period. The incidence of fungemia was the same in both periods (4 of 467 admissions vs. 3 of 599 admissions; p = 0.48). This protocol did not lead to the emergence of resistant bacteria.

  13. Lead Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... months, and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of age. A blood lead level test should be done only if the risk ... recommended if the person is symptomatic at any level below 70 mcg/dL. Because lead will pass through the blood to an unborn child, pregnant ...

  14. Consideration and Suggestions on Medical Equipment Scrapping%医疗设备报废相关问题的思考与建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹侃; 徐勤; 邢昊昱

    2016-01-01

    目前各家医院对高新医疗设备的需求愈来愈大,在大量购置新设备投入使用的背后,医疗设备的报废管理也变得愈来愈重要。本文从健全报废管理制度,完善报废论证体系,规范报废流程等方面探讨加强医疗设备报废管理的方法,结合实际情况,提出了改进意见。%As the demand of high-tech medical equipment is increasing in hospitals and new equipment is put into use, the scrapping management on medical equipment becomes more and more important. This paper puts forward improvement suggestions to reinforce the scrap management of medical equipment from the following aspects: the improvement of scrapping system, the perfection of scrapping assessment, the standardization of scrapping procedures.

  15. Discussion on scrap steel operating and processing at port%港口废钢作业及加工处理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林星铭; 唐洲

    2015-01-01

    针对废钢具体特性,提出港口提高废钢卸船和堆场作业效率方式。同时,基于港口便捷的集疏运条件,提出在港口配套建设废钢加工配送中心,开展废钢加工处理,以进一步提高废钢运输和作业效率,使港口和钢铁企业取得双赢。%For the specific characteristics of scrap steel, we proposed the way for enhancing the ship-unloading and yard oper-ating efficiency of scrap steel at the port. Based on the convenient condition of collection and distribution at the port, we sug-gested constructing a supporting scrap steel processing and distribution center at the port to develop the scrap steel processing, and then to further promoting the efficiency of scrap steel transportation and operation. The port enterprise can make a win-win situation with steel enterprise.

  16. Quality- and dilution losses in the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life passenger cars: input-output analysis under explicit consideration of scrap quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinichiro; Kondo, Yasushi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nakajima, Kenichi; Tasaki, Tomohiro; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2012-09-04

    Metals can in theory be infinitely recycled in a closed-loop without any degradation in quality. In reality, however, open-loop recycling is more typical for metal scrap recovered from end-of-life (EoL) products because mixing of different metal species results in scrap quality that no longer matches the originals. Further losses occur when meeting the quality requirement of the target product requires dilution of the secondary material by adding high purity materials. Standard LCA usually does not address these losses. This paper presents a novel approach to quantifying quality- and dilution losses, by means of hybrid input-output analysis. We focus on the losses associated with the recycling of ferrous materials from end-of-life vehicle (ELV) due to the mixing of copper, a typical contaminant in steel recycling. Given the quality of scrap in terms of copper density, the model determines the ratio by which scrap needs to be diluted in an electric arc furnace (EAF), and the amount of demand for EAF steel including those quantities needed for dilution. Application to a high-resolution Japanese IO table supplemented with data on ferrous materials including different grades of scrap indicates that a nationwide avoidance of these losses could result in a significant reduction of CO(2) emissions.

  17. Isotopic signatures suggest important contributions from recycled gasoline, road dust and non-exhaust traffic sources for copper, zinc and lead in PM10 in London, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shuofei; Ochoa Gonzalez, Raquel; Harrison, Roy M.; Green, David; North, Robin; Fowler, Geoff; Weiss, Dominik

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to improve our understanding of what controls the isotope composition of Cu, Zn and Pb in particulate matter (PM) in the urban environment and to develop these isotope systems as possible source tracers. To this end, isotope ratios (Cu, Zn and Pb) and trace element concentrations (Fe, Al, Cu, Zn, Sb, Ba, Pb, Cr, Ni and V) were determined in PM10 collected at two road sites with contrasting traffic densities in central London, UK, during two weeks in summer 2010, and in potential sources, including non-combustion traffic emissions (tires and brakes), road furniture (road paint, manhole cover and road tarmac surface) and road dust. Iron, Ba and Sb were used as proxies for emissions derived from brake pads, and Ni, and V for emissions derived from fossil fuel oil. The isotopic composition of Pb (expressed using 206Pb/207Pb) ranged between 1.1137 and 1.1364. The isotope ratios of Cu and Zn expressed as δ65CuNIST976 and δ66ZnLyon ranged between -0.01‰ and +0.51‰ and between -0.21‰ and +0.33‰, respectively. We did not find significant differences in the isotope signatures in PM10 over the two weeks sampling period and between the two sites, suggesting similar sources for each metal at both sites despite their different traffic densities. The stable isotope composition of Pb suggests significant contribution from road dust resuspension and from recycled leaded gasoline. The Cu and Zn isotope signatures of tires, brakes and road dust overlap with those of PM10. The correlation between the enrichments of Sb, Cu, Ba and Fe in PM10 support the previously established hypothesis that Cu isotope ratios are controlled by non-exhaust traffic emission sources in urban environments (Ochoa Gonzalez et al., 2016). Analysis of the Zn isotope signatures in PM10 and possible sources at the two sites suggests significant contribution from tire wear. However, temporary additional sources, likely high temperature industrial emissions, need to be invoked

  18. Lead Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... OTHERS: Lead has recently been found in some plastic mini-blinds and vertical blinds which were made ...

  19. Gold recycling in the United States in 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, Earle B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, 175 metric tons (t) of refined gold was recovered by U.S. refiners from old and new scrap. The overall recycling rate was 29 percent when scrap consumption was compared with apparent domestic supply. Sources of old scrap includes discarded jewelry, dental materials, plating solutions, and electronic equipment. A very high old scrap recycling efficiency of 96 percent was reached in 1998, the supply of old scrap peaked, gold prices were at an 18-year low, and substantial amounts of old scrap were exported. U.S. net exports of old scrap had a gold content of 28 t.

  20. Blood biomarkers in metal scrap workers accidentally exposed to ionizing radiation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M L; Srivastava, N N; Dutta, S; Shukla, S K; Dutta, A; Verma, S; Devi, M

    2013-12-01

    The detrimental effect of nuclear accidents due to localized or whole body radiation exposure results in severe cellular damage. The current study was carried out to evaluate radiation-mediated variability in blood components of metal scrap workers exposed accidently to cobalt-60 source. Blood samples collected initially from five hospitalized patients, coded P1-P5, were processed for total leukocyte counts (TLC), platelet (PLT) counts, haemoglobin, estimation of DNA double strand breaks by measuring phosphorylated form of H2AX (γ-H2AX) and chromosomal aberrations (dicentrics). Blood cells count (TLC), in all the patients except P2, was found decreased. Dicentrics increased in all the five patients. γ-H2AX was found significantly elevated in patients P2 and P4. After 3 days, 21 subjects working in close vicinity of accident site were evaluated for the above-mentioned markers to confirm their possibility of radiation exposure; however, all the parameters in these subjects were found within normal limits. Blood from patients P1-P5 was collected again after 11 days. Studies revealed exorbitant increase in γ-H2AX in lymphocytes and monocytes of patients P1, P4 and P5. TLC and PLT count in these patients had fallen further. Dicentrics declined with time in all the five patients. Based on the studied blood biomarkers, we conclude that the five subjects showed signs of radiation exposure. Measurement on radiation dose could not be performed in the current study; however, the generated data particularly on dicentrics provide ample evidence of radiation exposure.

  1. Recycling of radioactively contaminated scrap from the nuclear cycle and spin-off for other application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quade, U.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980ies, Siempelkamp foundry in Krefeld, Germany, developed a process to melt medium and slightly radioactive metals from decommissioning and maintenance works in nuclear power plants. Since 1989, in the CARLA melting plant which is licensed according to the German radiation protection ordinance (StrlSchV, metals are being molten which, for the largest part, can be reused. Since 1998, in a second plant, the GERTA melting plant, metals with a content of mercury up to 1 weight %, natural radioactivity up to 500 Bq/g and other chemical contaminations are being molten and completely decontaminated, so that these metals can be reused in the steel cycle. The following text is describing the melting process, acceptance criteria for contaminated scrap and recycling paths for the produced ingots and slags.

    La fundición Siempelkamp en Krefeld, Alemania, desarrolló, en los años 80, un proceso para fundir metales mediana y levemente radioactivos, procedentes de reparaciones o desmantelamiento de plantas nucleares. En la planta de fundición CARLA, que cumple los requisitos del decreto de protección contra radiaciones de la República Federal de Alemania, se funden metales desde 1989, de los cuales la mayor parte puede ser utilizada nuevamente. Desde 1998, en una segunda planta, fundición GERTA, se funden y descontaminan totalmente, metales de hasta un 1 % de peso de mercurio, con una radioactividad natural de hasta 500 Bq/g y con otros contaminantes químicos. De este modo los metales pueden ser nuevamente utilizados en el ciclo metálico. El texto adjunto describe el método para el fundido, los criterios para aceptar chatarra contaminada y las vías de utilización para los bloques de metal y escorias generadas en el proceso.

  2. Adsorbed natural gas storage with activated carbons made from Illinois coals and scrap tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jielun; Brady, T.A.; Rood, M.J.; Lehmann, C.M.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Activated carbons for natural gas storage were produced from Illinois bituminous coals (IBC-102 and IBC-106) and scrap tires by physical activation with steam or CO2 and by chemical activation with KOH, H3PO4, or ZnCl2. The products were characterized for N2-BET area, micropore volume, bulk density, pore size distribution, and volumetric methane storage capacity (Vm/Vs). Vm/Vs values for Illinois coal-derived carbons ranged from 54 to 83 cm3/cm3, which are 35-55% of a target value of 150 cm3/cm3. Both granular and pelletized carbons made with preoxidized Illinois coal gave higher micropore volumes and larger Vm/Vs values than those made without preoxidation. This confirmed that preoxidation is a desirable step in the production of carbons from caking materials. Pelletization of preoxidized IBC-106 coal, followed by steam activation, resulted in the highest Vm/Vs value. With roughly the same micropore volume, pelletization alone increased Vm/Vs of coal carbon by 10%. Tire-derived carbons had Vm/Vs values ranging from 44 to 53 cm3/cm3, lower than those of coal carbons due to their lower bulk densities. Pelletization of the tire carbons increased bulk density up to 160%. However, this increase was offset by a decrease in micropore volume of the pelletized materials, presumably due to the pellet binder. As a result, Vm/Vs values were about the same for granular and pelletized tire carbons. Compared with coal carbons, tire carbons had a higher percentage of mesopores and macropores.

  3. 液态锂铅回路冷阱过滤芯捕集效率数值分析%Numerical analysis on collection efficiency of the cold trap filter unit of liquid lithium lead loop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云龙; 黄群英; 朱志强; 高胜; 吴庆生

    2012-01-01

    液态锂铅纯化技术是聚变堆锂铅包层关键技术之一,冷阱是锂铅在线纯化的常用装置.鉴于冷阱过滤芯捕集杂质的效率难以在线测量,本文利用Fluent中离散相模型(DPM模型)对某些影响过滤芯捕集效率因素进行了数值模拟,得出了三种规格单层过滤芯周围的离散相浓度场分布及捕集效率.结果显示:在考虑杂质结晶析出速度的前提下,增大流体速度和降低过滤芯孔隙率可以提高过滤芯对杂质的捕集效率,且速度增大到一定数值之后,过滤芯对杂质捕集的效率增速减缓.相关结果可为冷阱过滤芯的的优化设计及液态金属流速的确定提供理论依据与参考.%Liquid LiPb (lithium-lead) purification technology was one of the key technologies on liquid LiPb breeder blankets for fusion reactors. Cold trap was commonly used in the lithium-lead-line purification devices. Since the cold trap filter unit collection efficiency is difficult to be measured on-line, the discrete phase model (PDM) was used to simulate the impurity trapped efficiency factors of filter by fluent in this paper. It analyzed discrete phase concentration distribution and collection efficiency on three different sizes of singlE-layer filter unit. The results indicated that increasing fluid velocity and reducing the filter unit porosity can increase the impurities collection efficiency at the premise of considering impurities crystallization rate. When the velocity increased to the certain value, the growth of collection efficiency became slowly. The analysis results were useful for the optimization design of cold trap filter unit and determination of liquid metal flow velocity through the cold trap filter unit.

  4. 2012年我国废钢铁将继续供不应求%Continuous shortage of steel scrap in 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫启平

    2012-01-01

    概述了2011年我国废钢铁市场和进口废钢市场的运行情况,对我国废钢铁资源酌供需形势进行分析,预测了2012年我国废钢铁市场的发展趋势;并针对目前废钢铁市场供不应求的局面,提出几点建议。%A survey was made on domestic and import market of steel scrap in 2011. The supply-demand situation of steel scrap market was analyzed, and the develop trend in 2012 was predicated. Some suggestions on shortage in steel scrap market were put forward.

  5. 欧盟各国废钢铁用量和国际贸易%Consumption and international trade of iron scrap in European Union

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢开慧

    2012-01-01

    近年来,欧盟各国的废钢铁贸易十分活跃。根据《欧盟27国废钢铁贸易统计》2012的统计,列出欧盟各国2010年的粗钢产量、炼钢用废钢量、国际贸易量以及欧盟成员国之间的废钢铁贸易量,供行业参考。%In recent years, the trade of iron scrap flourishes in European Union. According to the statistics from Statistics of Iron Scrap Trade among EU Member States 2012, the paper demonstrated the amount of crude steel, iron scrap furnace charge, international trade and the trade among members, in order to provide some reference for the iron scarp industry.

  6. What’s in a Dog’s Breakfast? Considering the Social, Veterinary and Environmental Implications of Feeding Food Scraps to Pets Using Three Australian Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrilly Thompson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverting food waste away from landfills is one way to minimise its serious environmental impact. Given that over a third of Australian households have at least one pet, the feeding of food waste to dogs constitutes one potentially significant waste diversion path. However, the proportion of dog owners that feed food waste to their pets is unknown. Moreover, there has been no investigation into any relationship between practices of feeding scraps to pets and the animals’ body condition, living arrangements (inside or outside and exercise regime. To provide some insight, this paper presents findings from three surveys across two Australian studies. The first reports both pet and dog-specific findings from two surveys within a wider food waste research project (n = 1017, establishing that 28% of respondents fed leftovers to pets as a main food waste minimization strategy, yet in only 5% of households did this constitute more than half of the household’s food scraps. This modest diversion of food scraps from landfill to feeding pets was reflected in the finding that there was no significant difference seen in the claimed level of food discards to the waste stream for households feeding food scraps to dogs and those that did not. The second—a dog owner specific study (n = 355—found that almost half (44% of respondents reported feeding table scraps to dogs. They were more likely to be females, owners of medium sized dogs, and in larger households. There was no significant difference in self-rated dogs’ body condition scores between respondents who fed table scraps to their dog and those who did not. Further multidisciplinary research is recommended to reconcile the social, veterinary and environmental risks and benefits of feeding food waste to animals.

  7. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  8. Leading men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes

    2016-01-01

    Through a systematic comparison of c. 50 careers leading to the koinarchate or high priesthood of Asia, Bithynia, Galatia, Lycia, Macedonia and coastal Pontus, as described in funeral or honorary inscriptions of individual koinarchs, it is possible to identify common denominators but also...

  9. Lead grids

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    One of the 150 lead grids used in the multiwire proportional chamber g-ray detector. The 0.75 mm diameter holes are spaced 1 mm centre to centre. The grids were made by chemical cutting techniques in the Godet Workshop of the SB Physics.

  10. The effect of lead time to treatment and of age of onset on developmental outcome at 4 years in infantile spasms: evidence from the United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Finbar J K; Lux, Andrew L; Darke, Katrina; Edwards, Stuart W; Hancock, Eleanor; Johnson, Anthony L; Kennedy, Colin R; Newton, Richard W; Verity, Christopher M; Osborne, John P

    2011-07-01

    Infantile spasms is a severe infantile seizure disorder. Several factors affect developmental outcome, especially the underlying etiology of the spasms. Treatment also affects outcome. Both age at onset of spasms and lead time to treatment (the time from onset of spasms to start of treatment) may be important. We investigated these factors. Developmental assessment using Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) at 4 years of age in infants enrolled in the United Kingdom Infantile Spasms Study. Date of or age at onset of spasms was obtained prospectively. Lead time to treatment was then categorized into five categories. The effects of lead time to treatment, age of onset of spasms, etiology, and treatment on developmental outcome were investigated using multiple linear regression. Age of onset ranged (77 infants) from 2 months in 21 and not known in 6. Each month of reduction in age at onset of spasms was associated with a 3.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-5.5, p = 0.03] decrease, and each increase in category of lead time duration associated with a 3.9 (95% CI 7.3-0.4, p = 0.014) decrease in VABS, respectively. There was a significant interaction between treatment allocation and etiology with the benefit in VABS in those allocated steroid therapy being in children with no identified etiology (coefficient 29.9, p=0.004). Both prompt diagnosis and prompt treatment of infantile spasms may help prevent subsequent developmental delay. Younger infants may be more at risk from the epileptic encephalopathy than older infants. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  11. A preliminary investigation of unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation at industrial scrap metal recycling parks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Minghui; Liu, Guorui; Liu, Wenbin; Lv, Pu; Zhang, Bing; Su, Guijin; Gao, Lirong; Xiao, Ke

    2012-05-15

    Thermal wire reclamation is considered to be a potential source of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (unintentional POPs). In this study, unintentional POP concentrations, including PCDD/Fs, dioxin like PCBs (dl-PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) and pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), were quantified in flue gas and residual ash emissions from thermal wire reclamation at scrap metal dismantling parks in Zhejiang Province, China. The total average TEQ emissions of the investigated unintentional POPs from flue gas and residual ash in two typical scrap metal recycling plants ranged from 13.1 to 48.3ngTEQNm(-3) and 0.08 to 2.8ngTEQg(-1), respectively. The dominant PCDD/F congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD, OCDF and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, while PCB-126 and PCB-169 were the main contributors to the toxicity of the dl-PCBs. There were clear differences in the distribution dl-PCBs congeners contributing to the TEQ concentrations in the flue gas samples from the two plants. The PCN TEQs were dominated by PCN-66/67 and PCN-73. Although thermal wire reclamation in incinerators has been proposed as an alternative to open burning, there are still considerable environmental risks associated with regulated incinerators, and unintentional POP emissions from thermal wire reclamation sites need to be controlled by local government agencies.

  12. Combined removal of a BTEX, TCE, and cis-DCE mixture using Pseudomonas sp. immobilized on scrap tyres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qihong; de Toledo, Renata Alves; Xie, Fei; Li, Junhui; Shim, Hojae

    2015-09-01

    The simultaneous aerobic removal of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o,m,p-xylene (BTEX); cis-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE); and trichloroethylene (TCE) from the artificially contaminated water using an indigenous bacterial isolate identified as Pseudomonas plecoglossicida immobilized on waste scrap tyres was investigated. Suspended and immobilized conditions were compared for the removal of these volatile organic compounds. For the immobilized system, toluene, benzene, and ethylbenzene were completely removed, while the highest removal efficiencies of 99.0 ± 0.1, 96.8 ± 0.3, 73.6 ± 2.5, and 61.6 ± 0.9% were obtained for o-xylene, m,p-xylene, TCE, and cis-DCE, respectively. The sorption kinetics of contaminants towards tyre surface was also evaluated, and the sorption capacity generally followed the order of toluene > benzene > m,p-xylene > o-xylene > ethylbenzene > TCE > cis-DCE. Scrap tyres showed a good capability for the simultaneous sorption and bioremoval of BTEX/cis-DCE/TCE mixture, implying a promising waste material for the removal of contaminant mixture from industrial wastewater or contaminated groundwater.

  13. Disposition of Unirradiated Sodium Bonded EBR-II Driver Fuel Elements and HEU Scrap: Work Performed for FY 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karen A Moore

    2007-04-01

    Specific surplus high enriched uranium (HEU) materials at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) will be transferred to a designated off-site receiving facility. The DOE High Enriched Uranium Disposition Program Office (HDPO) will determine which materials, if any, will be prepared and transferred to an off-site facility for processing and eventual fabrication of fuel for nuclear reactors. These surplus HEU materials include approximately 7200 kg unirradiated sodium-bonded EBR-II driver fuel elements, and nearly 800 kg of HEU casting scrap from the process which formed various sodium-bonded fuels (including the EBR-II driver elements). Before the driver fuel can be packaged for shipment, the fuel elements will require removal of the sodium bond. The HEU scrap will also require repackaging in preparation for off-site transport. Preliminary work on this task was authorized by BWXT Y-12 on Nov 6, 2006 and performed in three areas: • Facility Modifications • Safety Documentation • Project Management

  14. Sucata vira brinquedo: tradução a partir de restos Scraps turn into toys: translations made from rubbish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Aranha de Queiroz e Melo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, chamamos a atenção para a necessidade de assumirmos a responsabilidade sobre o destino de nosso lixo, propondo para ele uma nova utilização. Tomamos a Teoria Ator-Rede como instrumento teórico metodológico para seguir a ação desenvolvida por uma das equipes da Brinquedoteca da Universidade no que chamamos de Projeto Sucata cujo objetivo tem sido transformar sucata em brinquedo com um grupo de crianças de uma comunidade de baixo poder aquisitivo de uma cidade mineira, tendo os conceitos de tradução e mediação como suportes para a descrição das transformações operadas nas partes envolvidas.In this article we call attention to the necessity of taking responsibility for the destination of the waste we generate, proposing an alternative use. The Actor-Network Theory was used as a theoretical methodological instrument for the Projeto Sucata (Scrap Project developed by the staff of the Brinquedoteca da Universidade (University's Toy Library and whose goal has been to transform waste scraps into toys with the participation of children from a low-income neighborhood of a city in Minas Gerais. Translation and mediation were used as concepts for describing the process of transformation that occurred among all the parts involved.

  15. Who Leads China's Leading Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Futao

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to identify the major characteristics of two different groups of institutional leaders in China's leading universities. The study begins with a review of relevant literature and theory. Then, there is a brief introduction to the selection of party secretaries, deputy secretaries, presidents and vice presidents in leading…

  16. Mineral resource of the month: lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gerald R.

    2004-01-01

    The United States is a major producer and consumer of refined lead, representing almost one quarter of total world production and consumption. Two mines in Alaska and six in Missouri accounted for 97 percent of domestic lead production in 2002. The United States also imports enough refined lead to satisfy almost 20 percent of domestic consumption. Other major producers or consumers of refined lead in the world are Australia, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan and the United Kingdom.

  17. Leading Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogner, Karl-Heinz

    2017-01-01

    and technical engineering; Smart Cities) is very prominent in the traditional mass media discourse, in PR / PA of tech companies and traditional municipal administrations; whereas the second one (participation; Livable Cities) is mostly enacted in social media, (local) initiatives, movements, (virtual......) communities, new forms of urban governance in municipal administration and co-competitive city networks. Both forms seem to struggle for getting voice and power in the discourses, negotiations, struggles, and conflicts in Urban Governance about the question how to manage or lead (in) a city. Talking about...

  18. Ludvig Juhti USA-karjääri algus tema scrap-book'ide põhjal / Alo Põldmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldmäe, Alo, 1945-

    2009-01-01

    Väljavõtteid koos autoripoolsete kommentaaridega Eesti Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumis Ludvig Juhti isikukogus olevast väljalõigete albumist (scrap-book) , mille on koostanud L. Juht ise. Materjalide muuseumi jõudmisest, L. Juhti USAsse minekust, tegevusest aastatel 1933-1936, tööst Bostoni sümfooniaorkestris, Ruggeri kontrabassi omandamisest

  19. Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  20. Ludvig Juhti USA-karjääri algus tema scrap-book'ide põhjal / Alo Põldmäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Põldmäe, Alo, 1945-

    2009-01-01

    Väljavõtteid koos autoripoolsete kommentaaridega Eesti Teatri- ja Muusikamuuseumis Ludvig Juhti isikukogus olevast väljalõigete albumist (scrap-book) , mille on koostanud L. Juht ise. Materjalide muuseumi jõudmisest, L. Juhti USAsse minekust, tegevusest aastatel 1933-1936, tööst Bostoni sümfooniaorkestris, Ruggeri kontrabassi omandamisest

  1. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyer, R.A. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  2. Application status and trends of steel scrap in China%中国废钢铁的应用现状及发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    介绍分析了中国废钢铁资源和钢铁工业废钢铁消耗现状,行业管理、产业改革发展、规范建设的历程,废钢铁的循环利用对发展绿色钢铁和节能减排的重要意义,国家对废钢铁产业发展的扶助和支持,近年来国际、国内经济环境对废钢铁产业发展的影响,行业发展遇到的主要问题,"十三五"时期面临的机遇和挑战,废钢铁产业"十三五"发展思路和目标.%The situation of the resources and consumption of iron and steel scrap in the steel industry,the industry man-agement,the reform and development and the construction specifications in China were introduced in the current paper. Scrap recycling is important for the development of green steel industry and energy conservation,for that the state as-sists and supports for the scrap industry. Simultaneously the main content analyzes the effects of economic conditions at home and broad on the scrap industry and the main problems encountered in the process of development.The opportuni-ties and challenges in the following period of"Thirteenth Five-Year"and the development ideas and goals of the scrap in-dustry were also described.

  3. An Edge Joint Method of the Equal Size Rectangular Scraps%一种等大小矩形碎纸片拼接还原方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玉成; 田娇

    2014-01-01

    引入边缘相似度概念,利用贪婪算法,解决中英文文件纵向切割后的碎纸片拼接还原问题。对于同时发生纵横向切割的中英文碎纸片,先利用着色反转法对碎纸片文字部分进行反转处理,再利用行聚类筛选法对碎纸片按行匹配度进行分类,最后对每一类碎纸片利用贪婪算法并辅之以人工干预,将碎纸片拼接还原。单面英文碎纸片拼接还原结果表明,该方法人工干预次数少,还原效率高、效果好。%A new conception of the edge similarity is introduced. When a file with Chinese or English font is cut into scraps in the vertical direction, the Greedy Algorithm is an efficient method to restore the file by the edge similarity. When a file is cut into many scraps in both vertical and horizontal directions, it can be recovered in this process. First, the Reversed Tinting Method ( RTM) is applied to reverse the body-size parts on the scraps. Second, all the scraps is classified into some sets by the Row Clustering and Screening( RCS) . Last, using the Greedy Algorithm and with the help of artificial interventions , the scraps in every set can be edge joined into a well orderd line. It shows that this edge joined method has the advantage of fewer times artificial interventions, more efficiency and better effect.

  4. 血站降低不合格血液报废率的探讨%To investigate the unqualified blood scrap rate reduced blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚卢清

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACt: Objective: to analyze and evaluate the blood of unqualified blood scrap reason, summarize the reduce the unqualiifed blood scrap rate measures.Methods: retrospective analysis of 2013 January –2014 year in December my station of unqualiifed blood discarding, statistical unreasonable blood scrap rate.Results: ALT is a major project for blood unqualiifed, and plasma and red cell class class scrap rate high, decreased year by year. Conclusion: according to the blood bank blood discarding unreasonable, blood internal quality management should be strengthened, regulate the blood collection and supply behavior, thereby reducing the unqualiifed blood scrap rate, promote the healthy development ofChina’s cause of blood.%目的:分析和探讨血站不合格血液报废的原因,总结降低不合格血液报废率的措施。方法回顾性分析我站2013年1月—2014年12月不合格血液报废情况,统计不合理血液报废率。结果 ALT是血站血液不合格的主要项目,且血浆类与红细胞类报废率较高,呈逐年下降趋势。结论针对血站不合理血液报废情况,血站内部应加强质量管理,规范采供血行为,从而降低不合格血液报废率,促进我国血液事业健康发展。

  5. Energy conservation in reheating furnaces by reducing scrap and scale formation; Kuumamuokkauksen energiasaeaestoet romun maeaeraeae ja hilseilyae vaehentaemaellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivivuori, S.; Savolainen, P.; Fredriksson, J.; Paavola, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1996-12-31

    The main objective of the project `Energy Savings in Reheating Furnaces by Reducing Scrap and Scale Formation` is to reduce energy consumption and environmental harms in reheating and rolling of steel. This was done by analysing the different atmospheres in reheating furnaces of the steel companies participating in this project. These atmospheres were then simulated in a laboratory furnace. Scale formation tests with different steel grades were then carried out in these atmospheres. Scale removal tests were done to some steel grades too. The results showed that lower oxygen content - as expected - decreases oxidation despite the even higher carbondioxide content in the atmosphere. Lower oxygen content may cause difficulties in scale removal. This however is highly dependent on the steel grade. Heat treatment tests showed the effect of increased temperature and furnace time on decarburization. Some energy savings was obtained in fuel consumption by optimising the operation parameters and the atmosphere steadier in different reheating furnaces. (orig.)

  6. Scrap tyre recycling process with molten zinc as direct heat transfer and solids separation fluid: A new reactor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedewald, Frank; Goode, Kieran; Sexton, Aidan; Sousa-Gallagher, Maria J

    2016-01-01

    Every year about 1.5 billion tyres are discarded worldwide representing a large amount of solid waste, but also a largely untapped source of raw materials. The objective of the method was to prove the concept of a novel scrap tyre recycling process which uses molten zinc as the direct heat transfer fluid and, simultaneously, uses this media to separate the solids products (i.e. steel and rCB) in a sink-float separation at an operating temperature of 450-470 °C. This methodology involved: •construction of the laboratory scale batch reactor,•separation of floating rCB from the zinc,•recovery of the steel from the bottom of the reactor following pyrolysis.

  7. Palladium and gold removal and recovery from precious metal solutions and electronic scrap leachates by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Neil J; Baxter-Plant, Victoria S; Henderson, John; Potter, M; Macaskie, Lynne E

    2006-09-01

    Biomass of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans was used to recover Au(III) as Au(0) from test solutions and from waste electronic scrap leachate. Au(0) was precipitated extracellularly by a different mechanism from the biodeposition of Pd(0). The presence of Cu(2+) ( approximately 2000 mg/l) in the leachate inhibited the hydrogenase-mediated removal of Pd(II) but pre-palladisation of the cells in the absence of added Cu(2+) facilitated removal of Pd(II) from the leachate and more than 95% of the Pd(II) was removed autocatalytically from a test solution supplemented with Cu(II) and Pd(II). Metal recovery was demonstrated in a gas-lift electrobioreactor with electrochemically generated hydrogen, followed by precipitation of recovered metal under gravity. A 3-stage bioseparation process for the recovery of Au(III), Pd(II) and Cu(II) is proposed.

  8. Organic Matter and Barium Absorption by Plant Species Grown in an Area Polluted with Scrap Metal Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Aparecida Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of organic matter addition on Ba availability to Helianthus annuus L., Raphanus sativus L., and Ricinus communis L. grown on a Neossolo Litólico Chernossólico fragmentário (pH 7.5, contaminated with scrap residue was evaluated. Four rates (0, 20, 40, and 80 Mg ha−1, organic carbon basis of peat or sugar cane filter, with three replicates, were tested. Plant species were grown until the flowering stage. No effect of organic matter addition to soil on dry matter yield of oilseed radish shoots was observed, but there was an increase in sunflower and castor oil plant shoots when sugar cane filter cake was used. The average Ba transferred from roots to shoots was more than 89% for oilseed radish, 71% for castor oil plants, and 59% for sunflowers. Organic matter treatments were not efficient in reducing Ba availability due to soil liming.

  9. Standards for nurse staffing in critical care units determined by: The British Association of Critical Care Nurses, The Critical Care Networks National Nurse Leads, Royal College of Nursing Critical Care and In-flight Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Kate; Wren, Ian; Baldwin, Andrea; St Ledger, Una; Gibson, Vanessa; Goodman, Sheila; Walsh, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Since 1967 the gold standard for nurse staffing levels in intensive care and subsequently critical care units has been one nurse for each patient. However, critical care has changed substantially since that time and in recent years this standard has been challenged. Previously individual nursing organisations such as the British Association of Critical Care Nurses (BACCN) and the Royal College of Nursing have produced guidance on staffing levels for critical care units. This paper represents the first time all three UK Professional Critical Care Associations have collaborated to produce standards for nurse staffing in critical care units. These standards have evolved from previous works and are endorsed by BACCN, Critical Care Networks National Nurse Leads Group (CC3N) and the Royal College of Nursing Critical Care and In-flight Forum. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the much more detailed document 'Standards for Nurse Staffing in Critical Care', which can be found on the BACCN web site at www.baccn.org.uk. The full paper has extensively reviewed the evidence, whereas this short paper provides essential detail and the 12 standard statements. Representation was sort from each of the critical care associations. The authors extensively reviewed the literature using the terms: (1) critical care nursing, (2) nursing, (3) nurse staffing, (4) skill mix, (5) adverse events, (6) health care assistants and critical care, (7) length of stay, (8) critical care, (9) intensive care, (10) technology, (11) infection control. Comprehensive review of the evidence has culminated in 12 standard statements endorsed by BACCN, CC3N and the Royal College of Nursing Critical Care and In-flight Forum. The standards act as a reference for nursing staff, managers and commissioners associated with critical care to provide and support safe patient care. The review of the evidence has shown that the contribution of nursing can be difficult to measure and consequently support

  10. Highly efficient and selective leaching of silver from electronic scrap in the base-activated persulfate - ammonia system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyk, Wojciech; Kitka, Konrad

    2017-02-01

    A system composed of persulfate salt and ammonia in highly alkaline aqueous solution is developed and examined for leaching metallic silver from elements of the electronic waste materials (e-scrap). Strong base activates persulfate ions providing in situ generation of highly reactive oxygen molecules. The oxidized metal forms then well soluble complex ions with ammonia ligands. The kinetic studies of the leaching process were performed for pure metallic silver. They revealed that the efficiency of the process is affected by the type of the persulfate salt. By employing potassium persulfate one obtains significantly (more than 50% for silver plates and more than 100% for silver powder) increased efficiency of silver dissolution compared to the solution composed of either sodium or ammonium persulfates. In the range of persulfate concentrations between 0.02 and 0.23mol/L the apparent reaction order with respect to the persulfate concentration was similar for all persulfate salts and was estimated to be around 0.5. The room temperature (22±2°C) seems to be an optimal temperature for the leaching process. An increase in the temperature resulted in the significant drop in the silver dissolution rate due to the decreased solubility of oxygen. Based on these results a possible mechanism of dissolving silver is discussed and the optimal composition of the leaching solution is formulated. The obtained formulation of the leaching solution was applied for the extraction of silver coatings of Cu-based e-waste scrap and the obtained results revealed an important effect of copper in the mechanism of the leaching process. The regression analysis of the leaching curve indicated that each gram of base-activated potassium persulfate under the specified conditions may leach almost 100mg of silver coatings in a form of well soluble diamminesilver (I) complex. The silver complex can be relatively easy reduced to metallic silver. The method developed is relatively cheap, low toxic and

  11. Vanadium recycling in the United States in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of vanadium in the U.S. economy in 2004. This report includes a description of vanadium supply and demand in the United States and illustrates the extent of vanadium recycling and recycling trends. In 2004, apparent vanadium consumption, by end use, in the United States was 3,820 metric tons (t) in steelmaking and 232 t in manufacturing, of which 17 t was for the production of superalloys and 215 t was for the production of other alloys, cast iron, catalysts, and chemicals. Vanadium use in steel is almost entirely dissipative because recovery of vanadium from steel scrap is chemically impeded under the oxidizing conditions in steelmaking furnaces. The greatest amount of vanadium recycling is in the superalloy, other-alloy, and catalyst sectors of the vanadium market. Vanadium-bearing catalysts are associated with hydrocarbon recovery and refining in the oil industry. In 2004, 2,850 t of vanadium contained in alloy scrap and spent catalysts was recycled, which amounted to about 44 percent of U.S. domestic production. About 94 percent of vanadium use in the United States was dissipative (3,820 t in steel/4,050 t in steel+fabricated products).

  12. 电弧炉中废钢料的元素监测%Elemental monitoring of steel scrap loading an electrical arc furance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STURM Volker; EILERS Daniel; WERHEIT Patrick; CHIAROTTI Ugo; VOLPONI Vincenzo; DE MIRANDA Uggero; ZANI Marco; MAKOWE Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The use of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for scrap analysis has been evaluated for elemental monitoring of steel scrap loading an electrical arc furnace (EAF). A LIBS prototype was developed and installed during a field test above a pendulum conveying trough between the scrap charging area and the EAF, approx. 25 m from the EAF. The width and depth of the conveying trough filled with the scrap are approx. 2 m and 1 m, respectively. The average scrap velocity is adjusted to the EAF loading requirements within a range of 0. 3 to 5. 5 m/min, resulting in a scrap throughput of 100 tons per hour, typically. At the installation site, primarily, the detection of a high content of silicon in the low-alloy steel scrap is of interest for an improved control of the EAF. The on-line LIBS measurement showed the capability of detecting high silicon scrap in an industrial environment, although the developed prototype detected only a fraction of the scrap load surface due to the restricted measuring volume of 600 X 600 X 180 mm3. Increasing the measuring volume should further improve the performance in order to exploit it for charging/process control and management.%评估了激光诱导击穿光谱(LIBS)在废钢料分析中的使用,以用于电弧炉中废钢料的元素监测.开发了一个LIBS原型用于现场试验,并将其安装在位于废钢料填充区和电弧炉之间的钟摆式输送槽上.LIBS原型距离电弧炉大约25 m.废钢料填充的钟摆式输送槽的宽度和深度分别为大约2m和1 m.调整废钢料的平均速率在0.3~5.5 m/min的范围内,使之满足电弧炉的装填要求,从而使废钢料的生产能力达到100 t/h.在安装地点,低合金废钢料中高含量硅的检测基本上对电弧炉控制的改进很有帮助.由于测量体积受限在600×600×180mm3,研发的原型仅检测了一小部分的钢料表面.但是,在线LIBS测量还是显示了在工业环境下测定高硅废钢料样品的能力.为了拓展

  13. 我国社会废钢回收量预测%Forecast of Society's Scrap Steel Recovery Amount in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董丽伟; 邢奕; 刘景洋; 乔琦

    2011-01-01

    依据统计数据,采用SPSS软件分析得到全社会固定资产投资总额与钢材表观消费量相关系数最高.依据各省市固定资产投资总额,采用插值法推测得2006-2008年我国各省市(不包含港澳台地区)社会废钢回收量,其加和值与统计值平均误差为5.9%.2011-2015年我国各省市社会废钢回收量均呈上升趋势,2015年各省市社会废钢回收量平均值是2011年的1.8倍;2011-2015年我国东、中、西部地区社会废钢回收量呈递减趋势,2015年东、中、西部地区社会废钢回收量分别为5 683 × 104,4 190×104和3 148 × 104t;预计到2015年我国钢材表观消费量将达到8.8 × 108t;假设2015年钢材表观消费量保持在8.8×108t水平,则2011-2018年加工废钢回收量高于折旧废钢回收量,并且从2019年起折旧废钢回收量将超过加工废钢回收量.%Using statistical data, the correlation coefficient of societal fixed asset investment and apparent consumption of steel was analyzed using SPSS and determined to be the highest. Based on the total societal fixed asset investment in each province, the recovery amount of society's scrap steel in each province(except the regions of Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan) was forecasted using the interpolation method from 2006 to 2008. The average error of the statistical and additive value was 5. 9% . The average recovery amount of society's scrap steel in each province was forecasted to have a rising trend from 2011 to 2015. The recovery amount of society's scrap steel in each province in 2015 would be 1. 8 times that in 2011. The recovery amount of society's scrap steel in eastern, middle and western China showed a declining trend from 2011 to 2015. The recovery amount of society's scrap steel was highest in eastern China, followed by middle and western China, which were 56. 83 million tons, 41. 90 million tons and 31.48 million tons respectively in 2015. The apparent consumption of steel would reach a steady

  14. Two novel lead(II) complexes of 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine: a threefold diamondoid supramolecular network based on Pb4O4 cores and a two-dimensional (4,4) network based on Pb2O2 units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Pan, Yu-Peng; Wang, Suna; Dou, Jian-Min

    2013-04-01

    Reactions of 2-(hydroxymethyl)pyridine (Hhmp) with PbCl2 and Pb(NO3)2 at room temperature led to the formation of two novel compounds, namely tetrakis[μ3-(pyridin-2-yl)methanolato]-tetrahedro-tetrakis[chloridolead(II)], [Pb4(C6H6NO)4Cl4], (I), and poly[(μ2-nitrato)[μ2-(pyridin-2-yl)methanolato]lead(II)], [Pb(C6H6NO)(NO3)]n, (II). Compound (I) exhibits a tetranuclear Pb4O4 cubane structure, which is connected through π-π stacking interactions between the pyridine groups of the (pyridin-2-yl)methanolate (hmp(-)) ligands and through C-H···Cl interactions to form an interesting threefold diamondoid network. Compound (II) possesses two-dimensional (4,4)-sql topology based on a Pb2O2 unit, which is further extended into a three-dimensional supramolecular network through π-π stacking interactions between adjacent pyridine rings and through C-H···O interactions between the pyridine C atoms of the hmp(-) ligands and the nitrate anions.

  15. Assessment of Undiscovered Deposits of Gold, Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc in the United States: A Portable Document (PDF) Recompilation of USGS Open-File Report 96-96 and Circular 1178

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey National Mineral Resource Assessment Team Recompiled by Schruben, Paul G.

    2002-01-01

    This publication contains the results of a national mineral resource assessment study. The study (1) identifies regional tracts of ground believed to contain most of the nation's undiscovered resources of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc in conventional types of deposits; and (2) includes probabilistic estimates of the amounts of these undiscovered resources in most of the tracts. It also contains a table of the significant known deposits in the tracts, and includes descriptions of the mineral deposit models used for the assessment. The assessment was previously released in two major publications. The conterminous United States assessment was published in 1996 as USGS Open-File Report 96-96. Subsequently, the Alaska assessment was combined with the conterminous assessment in 1998 and released as USGS Circular 1178. This new recompilation was undertaken for several reasons. First, the graphical browser software used in Circular 1178 was ONLY compatible with the Microsoft Windows operating system. It was incompatible with the Macintosh operating system, Linux, and other types of Unix computers. Second, the browser on Circular 1178 is much less intuitive to operate, requiring most users to follow a tutorial to understand how to navigate the information on the CD. Third, this release corrects several errors and numbering inconsistencies in Circular 1178.

  16. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury Recommend on Facebook ... Treated in Hospital Emergency Departments, United States – 2014 Leading Causes of Death Charts Causes of Death by ...

  17. Presumption on gross and available amount of iron scrap in 2015%2015年我国废钢铁总资源及可获量的推定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢开慧

    2012-01-01

    A survey of expert opinions was made about the current situation and prospects of iron scrap in our country. And the gross and available amount of iron scrap in 2015 was presumed.%概述了国内资深专家对我国废钢铁资源现状和发展前景的看法,并对我国2015年废钢铁总资源及可获量进行推定。

  18. Effects of operational parameters and common ions on the reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by scrap copper-modified cast iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jin-Hong; Wang, Hong-Wu

    2015-07-01

    Scrap Cu-modified cast iron (CMCI) is a potent material for the reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) by a surface-mediated reaction. However, the effects of operational parameters and common ions on its reduction and final rate are unknown. Results show that the 2,4-DNT reduction was significantly affected by Cu:Fe mass ratio and the optimum m(Cu:Fe) was 0.25%. The slight pH-dependent trend of 2,4-DNT reduction by CMCI was observed at pH 3 to 11, and the maximum end product, 2,4-diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), was generated at pH 7. Dissolved oxygen (DO) in the water reduced the 2,4-DNT degradation and the formation of 2,4-DAT. CMCI effectively treated high concentrations of 2,4-DNT (60 to 150 mg L(-1)). In addition, varying the concentration of (NH4)2SO4 from 0.001 to 0.1 mol L(-1) improved the efficiency of the reduction process. The green rust-like corrosion products (GR-SO4 (2-)) were also effective for 2,4-DNT reduction, in which Na2CO3 (0.01 to 0.2 mol L(-1)) significantly inhibited this reduction. The repeated-use efficiency of CMCI was also inhibited. Moreover, 2,4-DNT and its products, such as 4A2NT, 2A4NT, and 2,4-DAT, produced mass imbalance (<35%). Hydrolysis of Fe(3+) and CO3 (2-) leading to the generation of Fe(OH)3 and conversion to FeOOH that precipitated on the surface and strongly adsorbed the products of reduction caused the inhibition of CO3 (2-). The 2,4-DNT reduction by CMCI could be described by pseudo-first-order kinetics. The operational conditions and common ions affected the 2,4-DNT reduction and its products by enhancing the corrosion of iron or accumulating a passive oxide film on the reactivity sites.

  19. 国内废钢行业概况及废钢价格关联因素的量化研究%An overview of domestic scrap steel industry and quantitative research on correlative influencing factors of scrap steel price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆明希; 张浩

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduced the scrap steel industry development in our country in the Tenth and Eleventh Five- Year periods, and demonstrated the recycling and supply, as well as consumption of scrap steel. A mathematics model was established about the correlative influencing factors of the scrap steel price to qualify the impact of the factors. This research could be helpful to the scrap steel market analysis.%介绍了“十五”和“十一五”时期国内废钢行业发展概况,重点阐述废铜行业的回收供应以及消耗情况,并对影响废钢价格的因素进行数学建模,对关联程度大小进行量化,对更好地分析废钢市场走势有较好的指导意义。

  20. Chemical structure of extracted copper from scrap Cu/ITO thin films in a room temperature ionic liquid containing iodine/iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Liang; Huang, Hsin-Hung; Wei, Yu Jhe

    2016-05-01

    A RTIL (room temperature ionic liquid) containing iodine/iodide (RTIL-I) was studied to determine its coated copper extraction efficiency on the surface of scrap Cu/indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films. According to the X-ray absorption near edge structural spectra and transmission electron microscopy observations, about 95% of Cu with the size of 80 nm was stripped from scrap Cu/ITO thin film into the RTIL-I and then formed 90 nm of α-CuI and CuI2- within 30 min at 298 K. The 31P NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectra suggests [PF6]- of the RTIL-I may enhance the extraction of nanoparticles into the RTIL-I.

  1. Analysis on the causes of blood scrapped during the preparation of component%成分制备过程中血液报废原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张捷

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the causes of blood scrapped during the preparation of component, in order to reduce the waste of blood resources and reduce the blood scrapped rate. Methods 20 844 bags of blood collected in our central blood station from January to December 2012 were selected as the research subjects. In addition to the normal qualified blood samples, for normal and abnormal blood scrapped phenomena, the blood collection, transportation, storage and preparation aspects were specially examined for problems and the causes of blood samples scrapped were analyzed, classified and recorded. Results The statistical results of different varieties blood scrapped for the 20 844 bags of blood samples showed that there were 19 385 bags of qualified blood that accounted for 93%of the total study samples, and 1459 bags of unqualified scrapped blood that accounted for 7%of the total study samples, of which in the unqualified scrapped blood samples, there were 459 bags caused by abnormal blood fat, anti-HIV, anti-HCV that accounted for 2.2% of the total samples, and 1000 bags caused by lipemia, insufficient collection amount that accounted for 4.8%of the total samples. Conclusion In the course of the blood supply, only taking the effective measures, strengthening the blood collection quality management, controlling the blood preservation conditions strictly and improving the level of component preparation can reduce the blood scrapped rate, save the blood resources.%目的:对成分制备的过程中出现血液报废的情况进行原因分析,以减少血液资源浪费和降低血液报废率。方法采取2012年1~12月一整年期间血站采集的20844袋血液作为研究对象,除正常合格血液样本外,针对正常报废和非正常报废等现象设立专人检查血液采集、运输、储存、制备等各个环节是否存在问题,并对样本血液报废的原因进行分析、归类和记录。结果针对20844袋试验样本中出现的不同

  2. Leaching Behavior of Al, Co and W from the Al-Alloying Treated WC-Co Tool as a New Recycling Process for WC Hard Scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeryeong Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Al-alloying treated tungsten carbide (WC-Co tool was subjected to grinding using a jaw crusher and planetary mill followed by three wet chemical treatment steps to establish an effective recycling process for WC scraps, especially those generated as bulky and hard scrap. This alloyed WC tool was readily ground to a powder of 1 mm or less and divided into two portions that were 150 µm in size. The wet chemical treatments enabled us to recover W to 69.44% from the under-sized 150 µm and also obtain WC powders from the over-sized 150 µm with a high purity of 98.9% or more.

  3. Analysis of the bearing capacity of unbound granular mixtures with rubber particles from scrap tyres when used as sub-ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hidalgo-Signes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scrap tyres are a problematic waste material. As a method for recycling large quantities of rubber from scrap tyres, this paper analyses the use of unbound granular mixtures with varying percentages of rubber particles as sub-ballast in railway lines. Bearing capacity for such mixtures is studied in laboratory and field tests using static and dynamic plate load tests, as well as cyclic triaxial tests. It is found that adding rubber increases permanent and resilient strain and that none of the mixtures suffer plastic creep after 2.5 million cycles. Considering the usual bearing capacity requirements, the optimum rubber content is 2.5% (by weight. This percentage increases resistance to degradation while ensuring sufficient bearing capacity.

  4. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Building 221-H, B-Line, Scrap Recovery Facility (Supplement 2A): Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-07-01

    The now HB-Line is located an top of the 221-H Building on the fifth and sixth levels and is designed to replace the aging existing HB-Line production facility. The new HB-Line consists of three separate facilities: the Scrap Recovery Facility, Neptunium Facility, and Plutonium Oxide Facility. The Scrap Recovery Facility is designed to routinely generate nitrate solutions of {sup 235}U{sup 239}Pu and Pu-238 fromscrap for purification by anion exchange or by solvent extraction in the canyon. The now facility incorporates improvements in: (1) engineered controls for nuclear criticality, (2) cabinet integrity and engineered barriers to contain contamination and minimize personnel exposure to airborne contamination, (3) shielding and remote operations to decrease radiation exposure, and (4) equipment and ventilation design to provide flexibility and improved process performance.

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY OF COMPOSITE SCRAP%复合材料废弃物回收技术发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟; 袁琨

    2013-01-01

    介绍了国内外复合材料废弃物的回收再利用方法,即化学回收、能量回收及物理回收.重点论述了流化床技术、热裂解技术和溶剂解离回收技术的化学回收工艺流程和研究现状.指出在国家政策指引下,应大力发展能耗小、回收率高的复合材料废弃物工业化回收工艺,实现废弃物的资源化回收利用.%In this paper, three methods of composite scrap recycling technology including mechanical recycling , thermal recycling and chemical recycling were introduced. The current development of the fluidised bed, py-rolysis, and solvent solution of the chemical technology to recycle and reuse composite scrap at domestic and abroad were briefly elaborated. Under the guidance of the policies of china, new technologies of low power consumption and high recovery of fiber should be greatly developed to recycle and reuse composite scrap.

  6. Activated carbons from waste of oil-palm kernel shells, sawdust and tannery leather scraps and application to chromium(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Suarez, Sergio; Colpas-Castillo, Fredy; Meza-Fuentes, Edgardo; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Johana; Fernandez-Maestre, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Phenol, chromium, and dyes are continuously dumped into water bodies; the adsorption of these contaminants on activated carbon is a low-cost alternative for water remediation. We synthesized activated carbons from industrial waste of palm oil seed husks (kernel shells), sawdust, and tannery leather scraps. These materials were heated for 24 h at 600, 700 or 800°C, activated at 900°C with CO2 and characterized by proximate analysis and measurement of specific surface area (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Langmuir), and microporosity (t-plot). Isotherms showed micropores and mesopores in activated carbons. Palm seed activated carbon showed the highest fixed carbon content (96%), and Langmuir specific surface areas up to 1,268 m2/g, higher than those from sawdust (581 m2/g) and leather scraps (400 m2/g). The carbons were applied to adsorption of Cr(VI), phenol, and methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions. Phenol adsorption on activated carbons was 78-82 mg/g; on palm seed activated carbons, Cr(VI) adsorption at pH 7 was 0.35-0.37 mg/g, and methylene blue adsorption was 40-110 mg/g, higher than those from sawdust and leather scraps. Activated carbons from palm seed are promising materials to remove contaminants from the environment and represent an alternative application for vegetal wastes instead of dumping into landfills.

  7. Electronic scraps--recovering of valuable materials from parallel wire cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Mishene Christie Pinheiro Bezerra; Chaves, Arthur Pinto; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano; Tenório, Jorge Alberto Soares

    2008-11-01

    Every year, the number of discarded electro-electronic products is increasing. For this reason recycling is needed, to avoid wasting non-renewable natural resources. The objective of this work is to study the recycling of materials from parallel wire cable through unit operations of mineral processing. Parallel wire cables are basically composed of polymer and copper. The following unit operations were tested: grinding, size classification, dense medium separation, electrostatic separation, scrubbing, panning, and elutriation. It was observed that the operations used obtained copper and PVC concentrates with a low degree of cross contamination. It was concluded that total liberation of the materials was accomplished after grinding to less than 3 mm, using a cage mill. Separation using panning and elutriation presented the best results in terms of recovery and cross contamination.

  8. Industrial Characteristics and Employment of Older Manufacturing Workers in the Early-Twentieth-Century United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chulhee

    2015-01-01

    This study explores how industry-specific technological, organizational, and managerial features affected the employment of old male manufacturing workers in the early twentieth-century United States. Industrial characteristics favorably related to the employment of old industrial workers include high labor productivity, less capital- and material-intensive production, short workdays, low intensity of work, high job flexibility, and formalized employment relationship. Results show that aged industrial workers were heavily concentrated in “unfavorable” industries, suggesting that the contemporary argument of “industrial scrap heap” was applicable for most of the manufacturing workers in the early twentieth century United States. PMID:26989273

  9. Solvent Extraction of Co, Ni and Mn from NCM Sulfate Leaching Solution of Li(NCMO2 Secondary Battery Scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Hyun Seon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the study on recycling Li(NCMO2 lithium-ion battery scraps, solvent extraction experiments were performed using different extraction agents such as PC88A, Cyanex272 and D2EHPA to separate Co, Ni and Mn from the leaching solution. When the ratio of Mn to Ni was about 0.4 in the leaching solution, the separation factor for Co and Mn was found to be less than 10 so that the separation of Co and Ni was insufficient. When solvent extraction was done using the solution with the lower Mn/Ni ratio of 0.05 where Mn was removed by potassium permanganate and chlorine dioxide, more than 99% of Mn could be extracted through five courses of extraction using 30vol% D2EHPA while the extraction rates of Co and Ni were around 17% and 11%, respectively. In the case that Mn was removed from the solution, the extraction rate of Co was higher than 99% whereas less than 7% Ni was extracted using Cyanex272 suggesting that Co and Ni elements were effectively separated.

  10. ITO nanoparticles reused from ITO scraps and their applications to sputtering target for transparent conductive electrode layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Jei; Song, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Byeong Jun; Lee, Jae-Yong; Kim, Young-Sung

    2017-09-01

    In this study, ITO nanoparticles (ITO-NPs) were reused from ITO target scraps to synthesize low cost ITO-NPs and to apply to make sputtering target for transparent conductive electrodes (TCEs). By controlling heat-treatment temperature as 980 °C, we achieved reused ITO-NPs having Brunauer, Emmett and Teller specific surface area (BET SSA) and average particle size 8.05 m2/g and 103.8 nm, respectively. The BET SSA decreases along with increasing heat-treatment temperature. The ITO-NPs were grown as round mound shape, and highly crystallized to (222) preferred orientations. Also, applying the reused ITO-NPs, we achieved an ITO target of which density was 99.6%. Using the ITO target, we achieved high quality TCE layer of which sheet resistance and optical transmittance at 550 nm were 29.5 Ω/sq. and 82.3%. Thus, it was confirmed that the reused ITO-NPs was feasible to sputtering target for TCEs layer.

  11. An extended EPQ-based problem with a discontinuous delivery policy, scrap rate, and random breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Singa Wang; Lin, Hong-Dar; Song, Ming-Syuan; Chen, Hsin-Mei; Chiu, Yuan-Shyi P

    2015-01-01

    In real supply chain environments, the discontinuous multidelivery policy is often used when finished products need to be transported to retailers or customers outside the production units. To address this real-life production-shipment situation, this study extends recent work using an economic production quantity- (EPQ-) based inventory model with a continuous inventory issuing policy, defective items, and machine breakdown by incorporating a multiple delivery policy into the model to replace the continuous policy and investigates the effect on the optimal run time decision for this specific EPQ model. Next, we further expand the scope of the problem to combine the retailer's stock holding cost into our study. This enhanced EPQ-based model can be used to reflect the situation found in contemporary manufacturing firms in which finished products are delivered to the producer's own retail stores and stocked there for sale. A second model is developed and studied. With the help of mathematical modeling and optimization techniques, the optimal run times that minimize the expected total system costs comprising costs incurred in production units, transportation, and retail stores are derived, for both models. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the applicability of our research results.

  12. A joint lot-sizing and marketing model with reworks, scraps and imperfect products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Fathollah Bayati

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish an economic production quantity (EPQ based inventory model by considering various types of non-perfect products .We classify products in four groups of perfect, imperfect, defective but reworkable and non-reworkable defective items. The demand is a power function of price and marketing expenditure and production unit cost is considered to be a function of lot size. The objective of this paper is to determine lot size, marketing expenditure, selling price, set up cost and inventory holding cost, simultaneously. The problem is modeled as a nonlinear posynomial geometric programming and an optimal solution is derived. The implementation of the proposed method is demonstrated using a numerical example and the sensitivity analysis is also performed to study the behavior of the model.

  13. Lead Poisoning in Wild Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Lesanna L.; Franson, J. Christian

    2009-01-01

    Lead in its various forms has been used for thousands of years, originally in cooking utensils and glazes and more recently in many industrial and commercial applications. However, lead is a potent, potentially deadly toxin that damages many organs in the body and can affect all animals, including humans. By the mid 1990s, lead had been removed from many products in the United States, such as paint and fuel, but it is still commonly used in ammunition for hunting upland game birds, small mammals, and large game animals, as well as in fishing tackle. Wild birds, such as mourning doves, bald eagles, California condors, and loons, can die from the ingestion of one lead shot, bullet fragment, or sinker. According to a recent study on loon mortality, nearly half of adult loons found sick or dead during the breeding season in New England were diagnosed with confirmed or suspected lead poisoning from ingestion of lead fishing weights. Recent regulations in some states have restricted the use of lead ammunition on certain upland game hunting areas, as well as lead fishing tackle in areas frequented by common loons and trumpeter swans. A variety of alternatives to lead are available for use in hunting, shooting sports, and fishing activities.

  14. Spent lithium-ion battery recycling - Reductive ammonia leaching of metals from cathode scrap by sodium sulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaohong; Gao, Wenfang; Zhang, Xihua; He, Mingming; Lin, Xiao; Cao, Hongbin; Zhang, Yi; Sun, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    Recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries has attracted wide attention because of their high content of valuable and hazardous metals. One of the difficulties for effective metal recovery is the separation of different metals from the solution after leaching. In this research, a full hydrometallurgical process is developed to selectively recover valuable metals (Ni, Co and Li) from cathode scrap of spent lithium ion batteries. By introducing ammonia-ammonium sulphate as the leaching solution and sodium sulphite as the reductant, the total selectivity of Ni, Co and Li in the first-step leaching solution is more than 98.6% while it for Mn is only 1.36%. In detail understanding of the selective leaching process is carried out by investigating the effects of parameters such as leaching reagent composition, leaching time (0-480min), agitation speed (200-700rpm), pulp density (10-50g/L) and temperature (323-353K). It was found that Mn is primarily reduced from Mn(4+) into Mn(2+) into the solution as [Formula: see text] while it subsequently precipitates out into the residue in the form of (NH4)2Mn(SO3)2·H2O. Ni, Co and Li are leached and remain in the solution either as metallic ion or amine complexes. The optimised leaching conditions can be further obtained and the leaching kinetics is found to be chemical reaction control under current leaching conditions. As a result, this research is potentially beneficial for further optimisation of the spent lithium ion battery recycling process after incorporating with metal extraction from the leaching solution.

  15. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  16. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us As ... and protect aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Lead (Pb) Air Pollution Lead Air Pollution Basics How does lead get ...

  17. Archives of Atmospheric Lead Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Dominik; Shotyk, William; Kempf, Oliver

    Environmental archives such as peat bogs, sediments, corals, trees, polar ice, plant material from herbarium collections, and human tissue material have greatly helped to assess both ancient and recent atmospheric lead deposition and its sources on a regional and global scale. In Europe detectable atmospheric lead pollution began as early as 6000years ago due to enhanced soil dust and agricultural activities, as studies of peat bogs reveal. Increased lead emissions during ancient Greek and Roman times have been recorded and identified in many long-term archives such as lake sediments in Sweden, ice cores in Greenland, and peat bogs in Spain, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. For the period since the Industrial Revolution, other archives such as corals, trees, and herbarium collections provide similar chronologies of atmospheric lead pollution, with periods of enhanced lead deposition occurring at the turn of the century and since 1950. The main sources have been industry, including coal burning, ferrous and nonferrous smelting, and open waste incineration until c.1950 and leaded gasoline use since 1950. The greatest lead emissions to the atmosphere all over Europe occurred between 1950 and 1980 due to traffic exhaust. A marked drop in atmospheric lead fluxes found in most archives since the 1980s has been attributed to the phasing out of leaded gasoline. The isotope ratios of lead in the various archives show qualitatively similar temporal changes, for example, the immediate response to the introduction and phasing out of leaded gasoline. Isotope studies largely confirm source assessments based on lead emission inventories and allow the contributions of various anthropogenic sources to be calculated.

  18. 我国进口可再生利用废塑料的现状与发展%Current status and development of import recyclable plastics scrap in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丛志

    2012-01-01

    论述了进口可再生利用废塑料在环保、节能减排等国民经济领域中的重要意义。通过分析统计数据。阐明了我国由于资源匮乏,进口可再生利用废塑料的必要性和迫切性,并简述了我国政府对废塑料进口的监管措施。%The significance of importing recyclable plastic scrap in environment protection, energy-saving and emission-reducing was introduced. The necessity and urgency of importing recyclable plastic scrap for resource deficiency were demonstrated. The supervision measures of plastic scrap were also introduced.

  19. 机采血小板报废原因分析%Analysis the cause of the scrap of apheresis-collected platelet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚瑞英

    2015-01-01

    目的:统计我站几年间机采血小板报废情况,分析报废原因。方法对2010年1月~2014年10月机采血小板报废情况进行统计和分析。结果9617例机采血小板中检测结果不合格33例,占0.34%。其中ALT检测不合格22例,占0.23%,不合格率最高。2010~2014年献血次数淘汰率呈逐年下降趋势。22例ALT项目报废的机采血小板献血者中,男性多于女性,年龄段集中于25~40岁。结论强化试剂进入的质量控制,严格控制血小板采集到应用的各个环节,避免机采血小板资源的浪费。%Objective To summarize the data of scrap of apheresis-collected platelet in our station in few years,and to analyze the causes of scrap.MethodsThe data of scrap of apheresis-collected platelet from 2010 January to 2014 October were summarized and analyzed.Results 33 cases of apheresis-collected platelet in total 9617 cases were tested unqualified, accounting for 0.34%,which included 22 cases of the unqualified ALT detection,accounting for 0.23%,that was the highest unqualified rate.Blood donation elimination rate assumed a declining trend year by year from 2010 to 2014.There were more men than women in 22 cases of ALT scrap,who were concentrated in the 25 to 40 years of age.Conclusion It's to strengthen quality control of reagent entering,and to control strictly all steps from collection of platelets to application,so as to avoid the waste of resources of apheresis platelets.

  20. 废旧轮胎回收利用行业循环经济评价指标体系%Evaluation Index System of Circular Economy in Scrap Tire Recycling Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金国平; 朱坦; 宋晖

    2009-01-01

    废旧轮胎是具有高再生价值的产品类废弃物,具备环境污染潜在性和资源性的双重性质.充分回收利用废旧轮胎既能缓解橡胶资源紧缺,又能解决废旧轮胎的环境污染问题.在调研的基础上,分析了我国废旧轮胎回收利用体系;初步构建了废旧轮胎回收利用行业循环经济评价指标体系,阐明了评价指标的含义,确定了评价的方法,并针对行业统计工作提出建议.%Scrap tire is a kind of wastes with high regenerative value which have dual natures of potential environmental pollution and resource. Over years, the disposal of scrap tire has become one of serious problems in environment. Recycling of scrap tire sufficiently can not only relieve the shortage of rubber resource, but also solve the problem of environmental pollution caused by scrap tire. On the basis of investigation, the scrap tire recycling system in China was analyzed in this paper. Preliminary evaluation index system was constructed, the meaning of indexes was clarified and evaluating method was ascertained. Finally, some suggestions for statistical work in scrap tire recycling industry were put forward.

  1. Lead Aprons Are a Lead Exposure Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin M; Shoag, Jamie M; Kahlon, Sukhraj S; Parsons, Patrick J; Bijur, Polly E; Taragin, Benjamin H; Markowitz, Morri

    2017-05-01

    To determine whether lead-containing shields have lead dust on the external surface. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this descriptive study of a convenience sample of 172 shields. Each shield was tested for external lead dust via a qualitative rapid on-site test and a laboratory-based quantitative dust wipe analysis, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The χ(2) test was used to test the association with age, type of shield, lead sheet thickness, storage method, and visual and radiographic appearance. Sixty-three percent (95% confidence interval [CI]: 56%-70%) of the shields had detectable surface lead by FAAS and 50% (95% CI: 43%-57%) by the qualitative method. Lead dust by FAAS ranged from undetectable to 998 μg/ft(2). The quantitative detection of lead was significantly associated with the following: (1) visual appearance of the shield (1 = best, 3 = worst): 88% of shields that scored 3 had detectable dust lead; (2) type of shield: a greater proportion of the pediatric patient, full-body, and thyroid shields were positive than vests and skirts; (3) use of a hanger for storage: 27% of shields on a hanger were positive versus 67% not on hangers. Radiographic determination of shield intactness, thickness of interior lead sheets, and age of shield were unrelated to presence of surface dust lead. Sixty-three percent of shields had detectable surface lead that was associated with visual appearance, type of shield, and storage method. Lead-containing shields are a newly identified, potentially widespread source of lead exposure in the health industry. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lead and the Romans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who…

  3. Lead and the Romans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Aravind; Braun, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning has been a problem since early history and continues into modern times. An appealing characteristic of lead is that many lead salts are sweet. In the absence of cane and beet sugars, early Romans used "sugar of lead" (lead acetate) to sweeten desserts, fruits, and sour wine. People most at risk would have been those who consumed the…

  4. Kinetics of Silver Dissolution in Nitric Acid from Ag-Au0.04-Cu0.10 and Ag-Cu0.23 Scraps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.K.Sadrnezhaad; E.Ahmadi; M.Mozammel

    2006-01-01

    Kinetics of dissolution of silver present in precious metal scraps in HNO3 was studied in temperature range of 26~85℃. Dissolution rate of silver was much faster than that of copper at all temperatures. Effects of particle size, stirring speed, acid concentration and temperature on the rate of dissolving of silver were evaluated.Dissolution rate decreases with particle size and increases with temperature. Dissolving was accelerated with acid concentrations less than 10 mol/L. Concentrations greater than 10 mol/L resulted in slowing down of the dissolution rate. Shrinking core model with internal diffusion equation t/τ=1-3(1-x)2/3+2(1-x)could be used to explain the mechanism of the reaction. Silver extraction resulted in activation energies of 33.95 k J/mol for Ag-Au0.04-Cu0.10 and 68.87 k J/mol for Ag-Cu0.23 particles. Inter-diffusion of silver and nitrate ions through the porous region of the insoluble alloying layer was the main resistance to the dissolving process. Results were tangible for applications in recycling of the material from electronic silver-bearing scraps, dental alloys,jewelry, silverware and anodic slime precious metal recovery.

  5. Characteristics of the calibration curves of copper for the rapid sorting of steel scrap by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy under ambient air atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2013-01-01

    For the rapid and precise sorting of steel scrap with relatively high contents of copper, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a promising method. It has several advantages such that it can work under ambient air atmospheres, and specimens can be tested without any pretreatment, such as acid digestion, polishing of the surface of the specimens, etc. For the application of LIBS for actual steel scrap, we obtained emission spectra by an LIBS system, which was mainly comprised of an Nd:YAG laser, an Echelle-type spectrometer, and an ICCD detector. The standard reference materials (SRMs) of JISF FXS 350-352, which are Fe-Cu binary alloy and have certified concentrations of copper, were employed for making calibration lines. Considering spectral interferences from the emission lines of the iron matrix in the alloys, Cu I lines having wavelengths of 324.754 and 327.396 nm could be chosen. In five replicate measurements of each SRM, shorter delay times after laser irradiation and longer gate widths for detecting the transient emission signal are suggested to be the optimal experiment parameters. In the determination process, utilizing the calibration line from Cu I 327.396 nm was better because of less spectral interference. By using 200 pulsed laser shots for the measurement sequence, a limit of detection of 0.004 Cu at% could be obtained.

  6. Use of scrap in recycling alloys for structural applications in automotive engineering; Einsatz von Schrotten in Recyclinglegierungen fuer Strukturanwendungen im Automobilbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fragner, Werner [AMAG casting GmbH, Ranshofen (Austria). Prozessoptimierung; Hummel, Marc [AUDI AG, N/EK-111, Neckarsulm (Germany). Technologie-/Eigenschaftsentwicklung Metalle; Boesch, Dominik [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Allgemeine Werkstoffeigenschaften

    2013-01-15

    While the CO{sub 2} emissions of vehicles are further reduced by automotive companies, additionally the reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions during manufacturing of a car following a holistic approach is pursued by OEMs. As one of the first of them, Audi AG examines together with AMAG Casting GmbH the production of structural parts, which are made so far out of primary alloys. Components of this momentarily strong growing segment demand high mechanical properties, especially high elongation values in order to absorb as much energy as possible in a crash situation. In addition to iron, recycling alloys usually have further tramp elements, which occur inevitably by processing scrap. Besides of Cu and Zn, elements such as Cr, Pb, Bi, Sn etc. have to be considered, since they can negatively influence the alloy properties. The results of this article show that skilled scrap input and handling during alloy manufacturing can greatly reduce these negative effects in order to be negligible. It can be shown that a standardized, time saving gravity casting test can give a good measure to the behavior of an alloy in pressure die casting conditions and therefore account for an efficient alloy development. (orig.)

  7. Jinde Lead lead smelting project starts construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On Dec.20,the lead smelting project of Jiangxi Jinde Lead started construction in Dexin as a technical renovation project on environmental treatment of Jiangxi Metallurgical Group.The project is the one with the largest investment of Provincial Metallurgical Group in non-ferrous

  8. Polymorphism of lead oxoborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyulyupa, A.G. [Middle School, Sablinskoe, Stavropol region, 356322 (Russian Federation); Voronov, V.V. [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Fedorov, P.P., E-mail: ppfedorov@yandex.ru [A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute RAS, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-20

    Highlights: • Pb{sub 4}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} melt undergoes statistical undercooling. • Orthorhombic nonlinear optical crystal Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is the metastable γ-polymorph. • Temperature of metastable melting of γ-Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is equal to 530 °C. - Abstract: The study of lead borate melt crystallization by differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that, for Pb{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} (or 4PbO·B{sub 2}O{sub 3}) stoichiometric compound, its well-known orthorhombic modification (non-centrosymmetric Aba2 space symmetry group (SSG), a = 15.472(1), b = 10.802(1), c = 9.9486(6) Å unit cell parameters) is metastable. It forms from the undercooled melt and has a melting point of 530 ± 5 °C.

  9. Lead - nutritional considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead poisoning - nutritional considerations; Toxic metal - nutritional considerations ... Markowitz M. Lead poisoning. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, ... Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. ...

  10. Intervención ambiental en sitios contaminados por plomo: la experiencia en los Estados Unidos de América Environmental intervention in sites contaminated by lead: the United States of America experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Ceto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante una década, los organismos estatales y federales han trabajado de manera conjunta con las comunidades a lo largo del territorio estadounidense, con el objeto de valorar el riesgo a la salud que implica la contaminación por plomo en las zonas residenciales. A menudo dichas comunidades han estado vinculadas con instalaciones destinadas anteriormente a actividades como la minería y la metalurgia; sin embargo, existen otras industrias como por ejemplo la fabricación de pinturas y el reciclaje de baterías, también identificadas como fuentes de contaminación por este metal. La vasta experiencia en las tareas de limpieza de los sitios contaminados ha puesto de manifiesto que los amplios programas destinados a identificar y manejar las vías de exposición pueden ayudar, de manera efectiva, a disminuir los niveles de plomo en sangre de las poblaciones más suceptibles, como la de los de niños en edades tempranas. Los programas de intervención ambiental son más efectivos cuando en las localidades afectadas se ejecutan programas de educación/intervención en salud, orientados al desarrollo de estrategias individualizadas para manejar el riesgo que implica la presencia de dicho metal en el ambiente.For a decade, state and federal agencies have worked jointly with communities throughout the USA, with the objective of measuring the health-risk from lead pollution in residential zones. Often these communities have been linked with facilities previously associated with activities like mining and metallurgy; nevertheless, there are other industries like paint manufacturing and battery recycling, that have also been identified as lead pollution sources. The vast experience in cleaning up the contaminated sites has shown that ample programs designed to identify and handle the exposure routes can help, in an effective manner, to diminish blood lead levels (BLL in susceptible populations, such as in young children. Environmental intervention

  11. Cryogenic current leads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizek, F.

    1982-01-01

    Theoretical, technical and design questions are examined of cryogenic current leads for SP of magnetic systems. Simplified mathematical models are presented for the current leads. To illustrate modeling, the calculation is made of the real current leads for 500 A and three variants of current leads for 1500 A for the enterprise ''Shkoda.''

  12. Learn about Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... old and younger are most susceptible to the effects of lead. Children Even low levels of lead in the blood ... simple blood test to check you or your child for lead exposure. You may also want to test your home for sources ... and Technology Lead Laws and Regulations Outreach and Grants En ...

  13. DEFINITION OF CAUSES OF DESTRUCTION OF KNIVES FOR THE CHOPPING OF SCRAP METAL ON RS-1200 PRESS SCISSORS IN DROP-HAMMER PLANT OF THE JSC «BELARUSIAN STEEL WORKS – MANAGEMENT COMPANY OF HOLDING «BMС»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kovaleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches of the reasons of broken knives for the chopping of scrap metal of RS-1200 press scissors are conducted, the reasons of breakage are defined and it is established that premature failure of knives is connected with low values of hardness steel which have been a result of violations of technology of heat treatment at the producer’ plant.

  14. COMPOSITION OF DIE STEEL 5HVMFS WITH INCREASED WEAR RESISTANCE AND THE SCHEME OF ITS SMELTING WITH USE OF UNDIVIDED SCRAP OF STEELS R6M5 AND 45

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Fedulov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological scheme of the new tool steel 5HVMFS smelting by means of electroslag casting method with the use of different combinations of steel scrap of R6M5 and CH5 steels and dressing the chemical composition directly in the bowl and also filling into metal bowl is developed.

  15. 带废钢预热电弧炉烟气中的二(口恶)英的产生及抑制%The Dioxin Producing and Restraint in Fume from EAF during Scrap Preheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯祥松

    2011-01-01

    The dioxin producing mechanism in EAF, especially the dioxin producing mechanism in EAF with scrap preheat is analyzed. It is shown that the scrap preheat will induce significant increment of dioxin in the fume. Some special methods should be adopted during design as scrap sorting controlling the fume temperature after scrap preheat, spraying lime, quickening cooling velocity in waste heat boiler. The dioxin deprivation device is necessary sometimes in order to satisfy the criteria.%介绍了电炉炼钢烟气中二(口恶)英的产生机理,特别介绍其废钢预热系统将使其烟气中二(口恶)英浓度显著增加的成因,提出了带废钢预热的电炉炼钢时,应充分考虑采取废钢的分选净化、烟气有效收集和采用除脱设备等措施,特别是采用控制预热后烟气温度、喷石灰、加快余热锅炉冷却速度等合理的工艺及技术,以抑制电炉炼钢烟气中二(口恶)英的持续生成.

  16. Can Schools Scrap Paper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how close America's schools are to becoming paperless by converting to computing devices and up-to-the-minute software programs. Examples of how some schools have approached their own conversion to paperless, the benefits derived, and difficulties encountered are highlighted. (GR)

  17. Scrapping Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On March 5,in his government report to the annual session of the country's top legislature,the National People's Congress,Premier Wen Jiabao set the goal to reduce the agricultural tax rate by more than one percentage point each year,

  18. Food Scrap Generators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Here you will find Vermont businesses and institutions (such as restaurants, grocery stores, markets, hospitals, schools, food manufacturers, assisted living...

  19. A study on the oxidation characteristic of UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} pellet for recycling of burnable absorber pellet scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. S.; Song, K. W.; Kang, K. W.; Yang, J. H.; Kim, J. H

    2001-04-01

    The development of recycling process of defective (U,Gd)O{sub 2} scrap is one of the important subject in this project. Among the several burnable absorbers, Gd has a very large neutron absorption cross-section. Therefore, gadolinia bearing UO{sub 2} fuel, (U,Gd)O{sub 2}, has been widely used as a burnable absorber in light water reactors. During the pellet fabrication process, fairly amount of defective (U,Gd)O{sub 2} pellets are produced and it is necessary to recycle the scraps. Generally, the defective scraps are powdered through the oxidation in air in the temperature range of 450 to 550 deg C and then mixed with co-milled powder, and further processed to fabricate (U,Gd)O{sub 2} pellets. In addition, the sintered pellet properties are closely depend on the powder property of oxidized M{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder. Therefore, the careful investigate of oxidation kinetics and related powder property of (U,Gd)O{sub 2} is very important. The oxidation behavior of UO{sub 2}-6wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and UO{sub 2}-12wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been studied in the temperature range from 350 to 700 deg C using TGA and XRD techniques in air. UO{sub 2} was necessarily oxidized to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} regardless of oxidation temperature and its weight gain was 4wt%. However, (U,Gd)O{sub 2} exhibit a different oxidation behavior ; The final phase and saturated weight gain depends on oxidation temperature. The saturated weight gain increases with oxidation temperature up to 500deg C and thereafter decreases with temperature. In addition, the amount of weight gain obtained at 500 deg C was smaller in UO{sub 2}-12wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} than in UO{sub 2}-6wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the final phase at the saturated weight gain was M{sub 3}O{sub 8} in UO{sub 2}-6wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} but the mixture of M{sub 4}O{sub 9} and M{sub 3}O{sub 8} in UO{sub 2}-12wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It is supposed that Gd substitution for U decreases the equilibrium O/M ratio and thereby enhance the stability of M

  20. 天然胶/公共网络/废胶粉互穿聚合物网络%Interpenetrating Polymer Networks Constituted by Scrap Rubber Powder / Natural Rubber / Public Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莉; 邱贤华

    2012-01-01

    通过互穿聚合物网络技术成功制备了天然橡胶/公共网络/废胶粉共轭三组分,并测定了力学性能和微观形态.结果表明:当A/B摩尔比为2/1、AB含量为4.5%、废胶粉粒径为60目、废胶粉含量为15%时,体系的力学性能最好,共轭三组分天然橡胶/公共网络/废胶粉体系的磨耗体积明显低于两组分天然橡胶/废胶粉体系的磨耗体积.界面共轭互穿改善了界面结合,可减少反复压缩过程中的相间摩擦生热和变形.%The natural rubber/public network/scrap rubber powder conjugated three-component interpenetrating polymer network was prepared through interpenetrating polymer network technology, and determined the mechanical performance and the microscopic shape. Results indicated that the mechanical performance for system was best when the A/B mole ratio was 2/1 with the AB content of 4.5%, the particle size of 60 item for scrap rubber powder, the content of 15% for scrap rubber powder, the abrasion volume of conjugated three-component natural rubber/public network/scrap rubber powder system was clearly lower than that of two -component natural rubber/scrap rubber powder system. The interface conjugated interpenetration improved the interface union, which might reduce the interphase friction-generated heat and distortion in the repeated process.

  1. Lead contamination in Uruguay: the "La Teja" neighborhood case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañay, Nelly; Cousillas, Adriana Z; Alvarez, Cristina; Heller, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    recyclers, leaded gasoline (before December 2003), lead water pipes in old houses, and scrap and smelter solid wastes, among others. Nonoccupational lead exposure usually results from living in or near current or former manufacturing areas or improper handling of lead-containing materials or solid wastes (a particularly important health risk for children). In this chapter, we reviewed available studies published or reported after the pollution events first announced in 2001. These studies include data on exposure, health, and actions taken to mitigate or prevent lead exposure from pollution events in Uruguay. Uruguay adopted CDC's 10 microg/dL as the reference BLL for children (CDC 1991) and a BLL of 30 microg/dL for workers (from the ACGIH standard). Environmental authorities adopted the Canadian reference concentrations for soil: residential and playgrounds (> 140 mg/kg) or industrial areas (> 600 mg/kg) (CCME 2006). Most studies reviewed addressed soil pollution as the main source of lead exposure. Results of thousands of analyses indicated that most children had BLL above reference intervention limits. A significant decrease in BLL was also found over time in the study results, demonstrating the importance of medical intervention, nutrition, and environmental education. The severity of lead pollution discovered required official governmental actions, both to reduce sources of lead contamination and to address the health implications for children who had been exposed to environmental or industrial lead pollution. Dogs were discovered to be useful sentinels for environmental lead pollution; they had higher BLL than children when exposed to the same polluted environment and developed symptoms of lead intoxication earlier and at lower BLL than did children. This same pattern was also observed in families with children and pet dogs living in the La Teja neighborhood. This discovery renders dogs prospectively useful in lead pollution monitoring and diagnosis, particularly in

  2. Lead poisoning by contaminated flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershko, C; Eisenberg, A; Avni, A; Grauer, F; Acker, C; Hamdallah, M; Shahin, S; Moreb, J; Richter, E; Weissenberg, E

    1989-01-01

    Between October 1982 and June 1983, 43 patients were identified with symptomatic lead poisoning in three Arab villages of the Nablus district. Because of the clustering of clinical poisoning by household units, investigation was focussed on potential sources common to all members of the households. After excluding water, olive oil and a variety of foodstuff, lead in high concentrations was discovered in locally ground flour in all affected households. The source of poisoning was lead poured into the fissures between the metal housing and the driveshaft of the millstone. Significant lead contamination of freshly ground flour was demonstrated in 23% of the 146 community flour mills operating in West Bank villages. Since the completion of these studies, similar outbreaks of lead poisoning caused by contaminated flourmills have been identified in the Upper Galilee and in Spain. As the methods of milling in the Mediterranean area are similar, a coordinated international effort is needed in order to eliminate this health hazard from countries where similar community stone mills are still in use.

  3. Deaths: leading causes for 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2012-10-26

    This report presents final 2009 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2009. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2009, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for approximately 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2009 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  4. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2016-02-16

    This report presents final 2013 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2013," the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2013. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2013, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Cerebrovascular diseases; Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2013 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Sudden infant death syndrome; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as

  5. Deaths: leading causes for 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2013-12-20

    This report presents final 2010 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements the Division of Vital Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2010. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2010, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; Influenza and pneumonia; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These 10 causes accounted for 75% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2010 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Necrotizing enterocolitis of newborn. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and post-neonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source

  6. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-08-31

    This report presents final 2012 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2012," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2012. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2012, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer's disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). These causes accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2012 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods.

  7. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Melonie

    2015-07-27

    This report presents final 2011 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements ‘‘Deaths: Final Data for 2011,’’ the National Center for Health Statistics’ annual report of final mortality statistics. Data in this report are based on information from all death certificates filed in the 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2011. Causes of death classified by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD–10) are ranked according to the number of deaths assigned to rankable causes. Cause-of-death statistics are based on the underlying cause of death. In 2011, the 10 leading causes of death were, in rank order: Diseases of heart; Malignant neoplasms; Chronic lower respiratory diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Alzheimer’s disease; Diabetes mellitus; Influenza and pneumonia; Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome and nephrosis; and Intentional self-harm (suicide). They accounted for 74% of all deaths occurring in the United States. Differences in the rankings are evident by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant death for 2011 were, in rank order: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities; Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight, not elsewhere classified; Sudden infant death syndrome; Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy; Accidents (unintentional injuries); Newborn affected by complications of placenta, cord and membranes; Bacterial sepsis of newborn; Respiratory distress of newborn; Diseases of the circulatory system; and Neonatal hemorrhage. Important variations in the leading causes of infant death are noted for the neonatal and postneonatal periods. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission

  8. Lead and Your Baby

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who works with lead, like in auto repair, construction or in a plant that makes paint, batteries, ... who works with lead, like in auto repair, construction or in a plant that makes paint, batteries, ...

  9. Rapid Lead Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vitro Diagnostics Tests Used In Clinical Care Rapid Lead Screening Test Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reducing the need for a follow-up visit. Lead Risk Links Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ...

  10. Lead Poisoning (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... organs and tissues that need it, thus causing anemia. Most lead ends up in the bone, where it causes ... vomiting or nausea constipation pallor (pale skin) from ... look for lead poisoning or other health problems. Treatment Treatment for ...

  11. Technology Characteristics and Control Methods of Carbon Increment for Scrap%废钢增碳工艺的特点和控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔炜; 何春华; 黄和江

    2012-01-01

    废钢增碳工艺可以降低炉料成本,但是工艺本身在熔化效率、铁液和材料性能、原材料和炉衬寿命方面有自身的特点和不同,需要在生产中调整和控制.本文将以实际生产经验和控制对上述三个方面予以阐述.%The technology of carbon increment for scrap can reduce charging cost, however there are each own characteristics and difference with process itself in melting efficiency, molten iron and the material properties, raw materials and lining life which need to be adjusted and controlled in production, of which elaborating has been done with practical experiences in production and control of the above mentioned.

  12. NA49: lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    This is an image of an actual lead ion collision taken from tracking detectors on the NA49 experiment, part of the heavy ion project at CERN. These collisions produce a very complicated array of hadrons as the heavy ions break up. It is hoped that one of these collisions will eventually create a new state of matter known as quark-gluon plasma.

  13. Occupational lead poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Augusto V; Médico del Trabajo. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.

    2013-01-01

    Lead, a ubiquitous heavy metal, has been found in places as unlikely as Greenland’s fossil ice. Egyptians and Hebrews used it. In Spain, Phoenicians c. 2000 BC worked ores of lead. At the end of the XX century, occupational lead’s poisoning became a public health problem in developed countries. In non-developed countries occupational lead poisoning is still frequent. Diagnosis is directed to recognize lead existence at the labor environment and good clinical and occupational documentation. Di...

  14. Lead Poisoning in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, A. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Early symptoms of lead poisoning in children are often overlooked. Lead poisoning has its greatest effects on the brain and nervous system. The obvious long-term solution to the lead poisoning problem is removal of harmful forms of the metal from the environment. (JN)

  15. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  16. Mercury recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, William E.; Matos, Grecia R.

    2005-01-01

    mercury is estimated because it is a low-volume commodity and its production, use, and disposal is difficult to track. The prices and volumes of each category of mercury-containing material may change dramatically from year to year. For example, the average price of mercury was approximately $150 per flask from 2000 until 2003 and then rose sharply to $650 per flask in fall 2004 and approximately $850 per flask in spring 2005. Since 1927, the common unit for measuring and pricing mercury has been the flask in order to conform to the system used at Almaden, Spain (Meyers, 1951). One flask weighs 34.5 kilograms, and 29 flasks of mercury are contained in a metric ton. In the United States, the chlorine-caustic soda industry, which is the leading end-user of elemental mercury, recycles most of its mercury in-plant as home scrap. Annual purchases of replacement mercury by the chlorine-caustic soda industry indicate that some mercury may be lost through evaporation to the environment, put into a landfill as industrial waste, or trapped within pipes in the plant. Impending closure of domestic and foreign mercury-cell chlorine-caustic soda plants and the shift to nonmercury technology for chlorine-caustic soda production could ultimately result in a significant volume of elemental mercury for recycling, sale, or storage. Globally, mercury is widely used in artisanal, or small-scale, gold mining. Most of that mercury is lost to the environment and is not recycled. The recycling rate for mercury was not available owing to insufficient data in 2000, and the efficiency of mercury recycling was estimated to be 62 percent.

  17. Editorial: Lead Risk Assessment and Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Howard W

    2016-06-14

    In 1980, Clair C. Patterson stated: "Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century". We live in the near future about which this quote expressed concern. This special volume of 19 papers explores the status of scientific evidence regarding Dr. Patterson's statement on the habitability of the environments of communities. Authors from 10 countries describe a variety of lead issues in the context of large and small communities, smelter sites, lead industries, lead-based painted houses, and vehicle fuel treated with lead additives dispersed by traffic. These articles represent the microcosm of the larger health issues associated with lead. The challenges of lead risk require a concerted global action for primary prevention.

  18. Editorial: Lead Risk Assessment and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard W. Mielke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1980, Clair C. Patterson stated: “Sometime in the near future it probably will be shown that the older urban areas of the United States have been rendered more or less uninhabitable by the millions of tons of poisonous industrial lead residues that have accumulated in cities during the past century”. We live in the near future about which this quote expressed concern. This special volume of 19 papers explores the status of scientific evidence regarding Dr. Patterson’s statement on the habitability of the environments of communities. Authors from 10 countries describe a variety of lead issues in the context of large and small communities, smelter sites, lead industries, lead-based painted houses, and vehicle fuel treated with lead additives dispersed by traffic. These articles represent the microcosm of the larger health issues associated with lead. The challenges of lead risk require a concerted global action for primary prevention.

  19. ALICE: Simulated lead-lead collision

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    This track is an example of simulated data modelled for the ALICE detector on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, which will begin taking data in 2008. ALICE will focus on the study of collisions between nuclei of lead, a heavy element that produces many different particles when collided. It is hoped that these collisions will produce a new state of matter known as the quark-gluon plasma, which existed billionths of a second after the Big Bang.

  20. The problem of lead in mexican pottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielholtz, G I; Kaplan, F S

    1980-11-01

    Much public attention has been focused in the United States on utilitarian Mexican pottery as a source of lead poisoning. Our work demonstrates that, if a firing temperature of at least 1150 degrees is used, lead-glazed earthenware is made safe for the storage and preparation of foods. Examination by d.c. arc emission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction shows that the lead then remains in crystalline form. An exchange-equilibrium for lead between solutions and earthenware material is postulated.