WorldWideScience

Sample records for united nations water

  1. Water Management Program: Unit Three, 1985 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual program describes the results of the 1984 water management program for Unit Three at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge and outlines the water regimen...

  2. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 2001-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in...

  3. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 1991-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in...

  4. Water Management Program: Unit Three, 1987 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water management facilities in Unit Three at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge were completed in 1984, providing management capability of over 2500 acres of marsh....

  5. Water Management Program: Unit Three, 1986 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water management facilities in Unit Three at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge were completed in 1984, providing management capability of over 2500 acres of marsh....

  6. Environmental Assessment for the Reestablishment of Water Control Unit 2: Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An environmental assessment for reestablishment of water control in Unit II of the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge was prepared in November, 1985. The Fish and...

  7. An examination of the potential added value of water safety plans to the United States national drinking water legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rachel; Amjad, Urooj; Luh, Jeanne; Bartram, Jamie

    2015-11-01

    National and sub-national governments develop and enforce regulations to ensure the delivery of safe drinking water in the United States (US) and countries worldwide. However, periodic contamination events, waterborne endemic illness and outbreaks of waterborne disease still occur, illustrating that delivery of safe drinking water is not guaranteed. In this study, we examined the potential added value of a preventive risk management approach, specifically, water safety plans (WSPs), in the US in order to improve drinking water quality. We undertook a comparative analysis between US drinking water regulations and WSP steps to analyze the similarities and differences between them, and identify how WSPs might complement drinking water regulations in the US. Findings show that US drinking water regulations and WSP steps were aligned in the areas of describing the water supply system and defining monitoring and controls. However, gaps exist between US drinking water regulations and WSPs in the areas of team procedures and training, internal risk assessment and prioritization, and management procedures and plans. The study contributes to understanding both required and voluntary drinking water management practices in the US and how implementing water safety plans could benefit water systems to improve drinking water quality and human health.

  8. Major Surface-Water Sampling Sites in the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program: 1991 and 1994 Study-Unit Starts - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set shows the 1991 and 1994 National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study units' major surface-water sampling sites. These sites are in NAWQA's fixed...

  9. A national perspective on paleoclimate streamflow and water storage infrastructure in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Michelle; Lall, Upmanu; Sun, Xun; Cook, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Large-scale water storage infrastructure in the Conterminous United States (CONUS) provides a means of regulating the temporal variability in water supply with storage capacities ranging from seasonal storage in the wetter east to multi-annual and decadal-scale storage in the drier west. Regional differences in water availability across the CONUS provides opportunities for optimizing water dependent economic activities, such as food and energy production, through storage and transportation. However, the ability to sufficiently regulate water supplies into the future is compromised by inadequate monitoring of non-federally-owned dams that make up around 97% of all dams. Furthermore, many of these dams are reaching or have exceeded their economic design life. Understanding the role of dams in the current and future landscape of water requirements in the CONUS is needed to prioritize dam safety remediation or identify where redundant dams may be removed. A national water assessment and planning process is needed for addressing water requirements, accounting for regional differences in water supply and demand, and the role of dams in such a landscape. Most dams in the CONUS were designed without knowledge of devastating floods and prolonged droughts detected in multi-centennial paleoclimate records, consideration of projected climate change, nor consideration of optimal operation across large-scale regions. As a step towards informing water supply across the CONUS we present a paleoclimate reconstruction of annual streamflow across the CONUS over the past 555 years using a spatially and temporally complete paleoclimate record of summer drought across the CONUS targeting a set of US Geological Survey streamflow sites. The spatial and temporal structures of national streamflow variability are analyzed using hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and wavelet analyses. The reconstructions show signals of contemporary droughts such as the Dust Bowl (1930s

  10. Generalized boundaries of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 2001-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a GENERALIZED version of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit...

  11. Generalized boundaries of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 1991-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a GENERALIZED version of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit...

  12. The quality of our Nation's waters: water quality in the glacial aquifer system, northern United States, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Kelly L.; Ayotte, Joseph D.

    2015-01-01

    The glacial aquifer system underlies much of the northern United States. About one-sixth (41 million people) of the United States population relies on the glacial aquifer system for drinking water. The primary importance of the glacial aquifer system is as a source of water for public supply to the population centers in the region, but the aquifer system also provides drinking water for domestic use to individual homes and small communities in rural areas. Withdrawals from this aquifer system for public supply are the largest in the Nation and play a key role in the economic development of parts of 26 States. Corn production has increased in the central part of the aquifer system over the last 10 years, and the increased production increases the need for water for agricultural use and the need for increased use of agrochemicals. Additionally, the steady increase in population (15 million people over the last 40 years) in urban and rural areas is resulting in an increased reliance on the glacial aquifer system for high-quality drinking water. The need to monitor, understand, and maintain the water quality of this valuable economic resource continues to grow.

  13. Delineation of Waters of the United States for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R E

    2006-09-25

    This report presents the results of a delineation of waters of the United States, including wetlands, for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 in Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, California. Jones & Stokes mapped vegetation at Site 300 in August, 2001, using Global Positioning System (GPS) data recorders to collect point locations and to record linear features and map unit polygons. We identified wetlands boundaries in the field on the basis of the plant community present. We returned to collect additional information on wetland soils on July 3, 2002. Forty-six wetlands were identified, with a total area of 3.482 hectares (8.605 acres). The wetlands include vernal pools, freshwater seeps, and seasonal ponds. Wetlands appearing to meet the criteria for federal jurisdictional total 1.776 hectares (4.388 acres). A delineation map is presented and a table is provided with information on the type, size, characteristic plant species of each wetland, and a preliminary jurisdictional assessment.

  14. Under water and out of sight: Invasive fishes in the United States - Implications for national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, W.R.; Fuller, P.L.

    2004-01-01

    Introduced for sport fishing, as biological controls or other purposes, and as a result of illegal activity, nonnative fishes occupy national park waters where approximately 118 species now compete with native aquatic organisms.

  15. Marsh and Water Management and Moist Soil Unit Plan: Louisa National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Louisa National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan is...

  16. United nations Orchestra

    CERN Multimedia

    MusiClub

    MusiClub United nations Orchestra www.ungenevaorchestra.ch An organizing committee has taken the initiative to create an Orchestra of the united nations at Geneva. In the context of this initiative, musicians in the following categories are invited to become members of the Orchestra and the Association: Active or retired staff of International organizations in Geneva; Active or retired employees of Permanent Missions to the United Nations at Geneva; as well as children and spouses of the above persons. For enrolment or for additional information, please contact: un.orchestra@yahoo.com

  17. A regional assessment of chemicals of concern in surface waters of four Midwestern United States national parks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M; VanderMeulen, David D

    2017-02-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals and their potential for adverse biological effects raise concern for aquatic ecosystem health in protected areas. During 2013-15, surface waters of four Midwestern United States national parks were sampled and analyzed for wastewater indicators, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides. More chemicals and higher concentrations were detected at the two parks with greater urban influences (Mississippi National River and Recreation Area and Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore) than at the two more remote parks (Apostle Islands National Lakeshore and Isle Royale National Park). Atrazine (10-15ng/L) and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (16-120ng/L) were the only chemicals detected in inland lakes of a remote island national park (Isle Royale National Park). Bisphenol A and organophosphate flame retardants were commonly detected at the other sampled parks. Gabapentin and simazine had the highest observed concentrations (>1000ng/L) in three and two samples, respectively. At the two parks with urban influences, metolachlor and simazine concentrations were similar to those reported for other major urban rivers in the United States. Environmental concentrations of detected chemicals were often orders of magnitude less than standards or reference values with three exceptions: (1) hydrochlorothiazide exceeded a human health-based screening value in seven samples, (2) estrone exceeded a predicted critical environmental concentration for fish pharmacological effects in one sample, and (3) simazine was approaching the 4000ng/L Maximum Contaminant Level in one sample even though this concentration is not expected to reflect peak pesticide use. Although few environmental concentrations were approaching or exceeded standards or reference values, concentrations were often in ranges reported to elicit effects in aquatic biota. Data from this study will assist in establishing a baseline for chemicals of concern in Midwestern national parks and highlight

  18. A regional assessment of chemicals of concern in surface waters of four Midwestern United States national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sarah M.; VanderMeulen, David

    2017-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals and their potential for adverse biological effects raise concern for aquatic ecosystem health in protected areas. During 2013–15, surface waters of four Midwestern United States national parks were sampled and analyzed for wastewater indicators, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pesticides. More chemicals and higher concentrations were detected at the two parks with greater urban influences (Mississippi National River and Recreation Area and Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore) than at the two more remote parks (Apostle Islands National Lakeshore and Isle Royale National Park). Atrazine (10–15 ng/L) and N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (16–120 ng/L) were the only chemicals detected in inland lakes of a remote island national park (Isle Royale National Park). Bisphenol A and organophosphate flame retardants were commonly detected at the other sampled parks. Gabapentin and simazine had the highest observed concentrations (> 1000 ng/L) in three and two samples, respectively. At the two parks with urban influences, metolachlor and simazine concentrations were similar to those reported for other major urban rivers in the United States. Environmental concentrations of detected chemicals were often orders of magnitude less than standards or reference values with three exceptions: (1) hydrochlorothiazide exceeded a human health-based screening value in seven samples, (2) estrone exceeded a predicted critical environmental concentration for fish pharmacological effects in one sample, and (3) simazine was approaching the 4000 ng/L Maximum Contaminant Level in one sample even though this concentration is not expected to reflect peak pesticide use. Although few environmental concentrations were approaching or exceeded standards or reference values, concentrations were often in ranges reported to elicit effects in aquatic biota. Data from this study will assist in establishing a baseline for chemicals of concern in Midwestern national parks and

  19. Yellowstone River Basin study unit boundary, National Water-Quality Assessment Program, scale 1:100,000, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  20. The quality of our Nation's waters: water quality in Principal Aquifers of the United States, 1991-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Leslie A.; McMahon, Peter B.; Rosen, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    About 130 million people in the United States rely on groundwater for drinking water, and the need for high-quality drinking-water supplies becomes more urgent as our population grows. Although groundwater is a safe, reliable source of drinking water for millions of people nationwide, high concentrations of some chemical constituents can pose potential human-health concerns. Some of these contaminants come from the rocks and sediments of the aquifers themselves, and others are chemicals that we use in agriculture, industry, and day-to-day life. When groundwater supplies are contaminated, millions of dollars can be required for treatment so that the supplies can be usable. Contaminants in groundwater can also affect the health of our streams and valuable coastal waters. By knowing where contaminants occur in groundwater, what factors control contaminant concentrations, and what kinds of changes in groundwater quality might be expected in the future, we can ensure the availability and quality of this vital natural resource in the future.

  1. Water-Quality Data for Selected National Park Units within the Southern Colorado Plateau Network, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico, Water Years 2005 and 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jamie P.; Monroe, Stephen A.

    2006-01-01

    The National Park Service initiated a Level 1 Water-Quality Inventory program to provide water-quality data to park managers so informed natural resource management decisions could be made. Level 1 water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey Arizona Water Science Center at 57 sites in 13 National Park units located in the Southern Colorado Plateau Inventory and Monitoring network in water years 2005 and 2006. These data describe the current water-quality at selected sites within the park units and provide information for monitoring future trends. Water samples were collected three times at each type of site including wells, springs, seeps, tinajas, rivers, a lake, and an irrigation ditch. Field measurements were taken at each site and they included pH, specific conductance, temperature, barometric pressure, dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, turbidity, and discharge rates where applicable. Water samples collected were sent to the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory and analyzed for major ions, trace elements, and nutrients. The National Water Quality Laboratory also analyzed selected samples for mercury and petroleum hydrocarbons. Additional samples at selected sites were collected and analyzed for cyanide, radiochemistry, and suspended sediment by U.S. Geological Survey contract labs. Fecal-indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli) were sampled for at selected sites as another indicator of water quality. Quality control for this study was achieved through proper training of field personnel, use of standard U.S. Geological Survey field and laboratory protocols, collection of sample blanks and replicates, and a thorough review of the water-quality analyses. Measured field pH ranged from 6.0 to 8.8, within normal range for springs and rivers, at most sites. Concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 48 to 8,680 mg/L and the majority of samples had concentrations of dissolved solids below 900 mg/L. Trace-element concentrations at

  2. Quality of rivers of the United States, 1975 water year; based on the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, John C.; Ficke, John F.

    1977-01-01

    The National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) was established by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide a nationally uniform basis for continuously assessing the quality of U.S. rivers. Stations generally are at the downstream end of hydrologic accounting units in order to measure the quantity and quality of water flowing from the units. The 1975 water year was the first year of operation of the network that represents essentially all of the accounting units and thereby describes the water- quality of the entire country. Data are available on a large number of water-quality constituents measured at 345 stations during the 1975 water year. Temperature data (usually continuous or daily measurements) from NASQAN stations were fitted to a first order harmonic equation and the parameters for the harmonic function are reported for each station. Mean temperatures generally range from 5°-10°C in the North to more than 20°C along the southern border of the continental United States and in Hawaii and Puerto Rico; means were less than 10°C at 63 stations and greater than 25°C at only 7 stations. Amplitudes of the temperature curves are greatest (greater than 12°C) for the streams at midlatitudes and in the Great and Central Plains, and they are smallest for the subtropical and cold-climate streams. Considering chemical and biological characteristics of U.S. streams as described by NASQAN data, water quality is best (by many standards) in the Northeast, Southeast, and Northwest. Waters there generally are low in dissolved solids and major and minor chemical constituents, generally are soft (except in Florida), and carry relatively small amounts of sediment. These conditions mainly reflect the geology of the regions and the relatively large amounts of precipitation. However, many of these waters show the effects of pollution and carry moderate or high levels of major nutrients and have correspondingly high populations of attached and floating plants. High counts

  3. Biotic, water-quality, and hydrologic metrics calculated for the analysis of temporal trends in National Water Quality Assessment Program Data in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiele, Stephen M.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Miller, Matthew P.; May, Jason T.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was established by Congress in 1991 to collect long-term, nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater. The NAWQA Program utilizes interdisciplinary and dynamic studies that link the chemical and physical conditions of streams (such as flow and habitat) with ecosystem health and the biologic condition of algae, aquatic invertebrates, and fish communities. This report presents metrics derived from NAWQA data and the U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging network for sampling sites in the Western United States, as well as associated chemical, habitat, and streamflow properties. The metrics characterize the conditions of algae, aquatic invertebrates, and fish. In addition, we have compiled climate records and basin characteristics related to the NAWQA sampling sites. The calculated metrics and compiled data can be used to analyze ecohydrologic trends over time.

  4. Weekend Warriors for Water: Combating Water Scarcity in West Africa with United States Army National Guard and Reserve Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    6 Definitions and Terms...Link Between Poverty , Water, and the Environment ......................................52 Figure 12. Water Scarcity Targets...improve access to clean water across the continent. Water resources are scarce for areas of the population stricken by poverty , and water cleanliness

  5. Prioritization of constituents for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Valder, Joshua F.; Carter, Janet M.; Zogorski, John S.

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2,541 constituents were evaluated and prioritized for national- and regional-scale ambient monitoring of water and sediment in the United States. This prioritization was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in preparation for the upcoming third decade (Cycle 3; 2013–23) of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This report provides the methods used to prioritize the constituents and the results of that prioritization. Constituents were prioritized by the NAWQA National Target Analyte Strategy (NTAS) work group on the basis of available information on physical and chemical properties, observed or predicted environmental occurrence and fate, and observed or anticipated adverse effects on human health or aquatic life. Constituents were evaluated within constituent groups that were determined on the basis of physical or chemical properties or on uses or sources. Some constituents were evaluated within more than one constituent group. Although comparable objectives were used in the prioritization of constituents within the different constituent groups, differences in the availability of information accessed for each constituent group led to the development of separate prioritization approaches adapted to each constituent group to make best use of available resources. Constituents were assigned to one of three prioritization tiers: Tier 1, those having the highest priority for inclusion in ambient monitoring of water or sediment on a national or regional scale (including NAWQA Cycle 3 monitoring) on the basis of their likelihood of environmental occurrence in ambient water or sediment, or likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; Tier 2, those having intermediate priority for monitoring on the basis of their lower likelihood of environmental occurrence or lower likelihood of effects on human health or aquatic life; and Tier 3, those having low or no priority for monitoring on the basis of evidence of nonoccurrence or lack of

  6. Beyond the Water’s Edge: United States National Security & the Ocean Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    study of this dissertation affirms oceanography as a science wedded to security concerns when present day scenarios are considered. Once more the...were subsequently wedded to further research into the long range propagation of low frequency sound conducted under Project Michael - a union which...warm waters of the central Pacific in search of sperm whales. On this voyage Vincennes also stopped at the Hawaiian Islands, the Philippines, and the

  7. Agricultural Water Pricing: United States

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In summary, irrigation costs and prices are rising in most regions of the United States, due to a combination of increasing scarcity, changes in public preferences regarding water allocation among competing uses, increasing budget scrutiny in the national and state legislatures, rising energy prices, and increasing awareness of climate change and the potential implications for rainfall and the availability of surface water resources. These issues likely will continue encouraging public offici...

  8. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  9. National Smart Water Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaulieu, R A

    2009-07-13

    The United States repeatedly experiences floods along the Midwest's large rivers and droughts in the arid Western States that cause traumatic environmental conditions with huge economic impact. With an integrated approach and solution these problems can be alleviated. Tapping into the Mississippi River and its tributaries, the world's third largest fresh water river system, during flood events will mitigate the damage of flooding and provide a new source of fresh water to the Western States. The trend of increased flooding on the Midwest's large rivers is supported by a growing body of scientific literature. The Colorado River Basin and the western states are experiencing a protracted multi-year drought. Fresh water can be pumped via pipelines from areas of overabundance/flood to areas of drought or high demand. Calculations document 10 to 60 million acre-feet (maf) of fresh water per flood event can be captured from the Midwest's Rivers and pumped via pipelines to the Colorado River and introduced upstream of Lake Powell, Utah, to destinations near Denver, Colorado, and used in areas along the pipelines. Water users of the Colorado River include the cities in southern Nevada, southern California, northern Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Indian Tribes, and Mexico. The proposed start and end points, and routes of the pipelines are documented, including information on right-of-ways necessary for state and federal permits. A National Smart Water Grid{trademark} (NSWG) Project will create thousands of new jobs for construction, operation, and maintenance and save billions in drought and flood damage reparations tax dollars. The socio-economic benefits of NWSG include decreased flooding in the Midwest; increased agriculture, and recreation and tourism; improved national security, transportation, and fishery and wildlife habitats; mitigated regional climate change and global warming such as increased carbon capture; decreased salinity in Colorado River water

  10. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States - II) Untreated drinking water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focazio, M.J.; Kolpin, D.W.; Barnes, K.K.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Barber, L.B.; Thurman, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that a variety of manufactured and natural organic compounds such as pharmaceuticals, steroids, surfactants, flame retardants, fragrances, plasticizers and other chemicals often associated with wastewaters have been detected in the vicinity of municipal wastewater discharges and livestock agricultural facilities. To provide new data and insights about the environmental presence of some of these chemicals in untreated sources of drinking water in the United States targeted sites were sampled and analyzed for 100 analytes with sub-parts per billion detection capabilities. The sites included 25 ground- and 49 surface-water sources of drinking water serving populations ranging from one family to over 8 million people.

  11. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  12. 78 FR 64385 - United Nations Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... October 28, 2013 Part V The President Proclamation 9045--United Nations Day, 2013 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9045 of October 23, 2013 United Nations Day..., 68 years after the adoption of the United Nations Charter, we mark United Nations Day by...

  13. ARTICLE 106 OF THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theodore M Cooperstein

    2007-01-01

    Toward that end, Articles 42 and 43 of the United Nations Charter posit that member nations would train and dedicate armed forces to be placed at the disposal of the United Nations security Council...

  14. Design and implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program: a United States example: understanding the limitations of using compliance-monitoring data to assess the water quality of a large river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.

    1997-01-01

    In the 1980s it was determined that existing ambient and compliance-monitoring data could not satisfactorily evaluate the results of hundreds of billions of dollars spent for water-pollution abatement in the United States. At the request of the US Congress, a new programme, the National Water-Quality Assessment, was designed and implemented by government agency, the US Geological Survey (USGS). The Assessment has reported status and trends in surface- and ground-water quality at national, regional, and local scales since 1991. The legislative basis for US monitoring and data-sharing policies are identified as well as the successive phases of the design and implementation of the USGS Assessment. Application to the Danube Basin is suggested. Much of the water-quality monitoring conducted in the United States is designed to comply with Federal and State laws mandated primarily by the Clean Water Act of 1987 and the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986. Monitoring programs generally focus on rivers upstream and downstream of point-source discharges and at water-supply intakes. Few data are available for aquifer systems, and chemical analyses are often limited to those constituents required by law. In most cases, the majority of the available chemical and streamflow data have provided the information necessary to meet the objectives of the compliance-monitoring programs, but do not necessarily provide the information requires for basin-wide assessments of the water quality at the local, regional, or national scale.

  15. 76 FR 66845 - United Nations Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... October 27, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8740--United Nations Day, 2011 #0; #0; #0... Nations Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In 1945, 51 nations in a world shaken by war signed the Charter of the United Nations. Determined to move beyond an era...

  16. Oversight Institutions Within the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2015-01-01

    This article will give a description of the role of internal audit and governance functions within the United Nations system. The United Nations has, during the last 10 years, worked to establish effective oversight services. Oversight, governance and hereunder the internal audit function has been...... a key priority within the United Nations and a crucial ingredient in the Secretary-General’s efforts to reform and strengthen the United Nations to meet the challenges of the 21st century....

  17. Oversight Institutions Within the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2015-01-01

    This article will give a description of the role of internal audit and governance functions within the United Nations system. The United Nations has, during the last 10 years, worked to establish effective oversight services. Oversight, governance and hereunder the internal audit function has been...... a key priority within the United Nations and a crucial ingredient in the Secretary-General’s efforts to reform and strengthen the United Nations to meet the challenges of the 21st century....

  18. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  19. 77 FR 65459 - United Nations Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8893 of October 24, 2012 United Nations Day, 2012 By the President of the... shadows of war, the 51 founding member states of the United Nations came together to take up the new test of forging a lasting peace. In a decade scarred by genocide, the United Nations chose the hope...

  20. 75 FR 65561 - United Nations Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8589 of October 22, 2010 United Nations Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Sixty-five years ago, 51 nations... peace, justice, and progress. The founders of the United Nations vowed to work together to ensure...

  1. Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) manages multiple water management units. Silver Lake is the largest unit that is utilized primarily as a water storage...

  2. Nation's water picture mixed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nation's water picture for April showed mixed trends: More than half of the index gaging stations reported normal streamflow conditions during the month, while the spring snowmelt boosted streamflow in the Northeast and Northwest to well above normal levels. Parts of the Southeast, however, from West Virginia south to the Carolinas, reported well-below normal streamflow conditions, according to a month-end check on water resources conditions by the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior.After nearly 2 years of drought conditions the three major reservoirs supplying New York City reached full storage capacity and were spilling during April. Combined contents of the three reservoirs on May 1, 1982, was 272 billion gallons, 101% of their full usable capacity. The full reservoirs and the generally good surface and groundwater conditions throughout the Delaware River basin allowed the Delaware River Basin Commission to lift its drought emergency warning on April 27.

  3. 3 CFR - Waiver of Reimbursement Under the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of Reimbursement Under the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur Presidential Documents Other... the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations/African Union Mission in...

  4. Contaminant data for water, sediments, and fish of Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge and the Northern Unit of Innoko National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Studies were conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) between 1986 and 1988 to obtain trace element and water quality data on water, sediments, and...

  5. Water footprints of nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chapagain, Ashok; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    The water footprint concept has been developed in order to have an indicator of water use in relation to consumption of people. The water footprint of a country is defined as the volume of water needed for the production of the goods and services consumed by the inhabitants of the country. Closely

  6. China National United Oil Corporation in Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Dongmei

    1997-01-01

    @@ Approved by the State Council and jointly established by China National Petroleum Corp.(CNPC) and China National Chemicals Import and Export Corp.(Sinochem), China National United Oil Corporation (Chinaoil) is an enterprise integrating trade and industrial production. It established itself on January 8,1993.

  7. The quality of our Nation's waters: water quality in the Upper Floridan aquifer and overlying surficial aquifers, southeastern United States, 1993-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Marian P.; Katz, Brian G.; Kingsbury, James A.; Crandall, Christy A.

    2015-01-01

    About 10 million people rely on groundwater from the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers for drinking water. The Upper Floridan aquifer also is of primary importance to the region as a source of water for irrigation and as a source of crystal clear water that discharges to springs and streams providing recreational and tourist destinations and unique aquatic habitats. The reliance of the region on the Upper Floridan aquifer for drinking water and for the tourism and agricultural economies highlights the importance of long-term management to sustain the availability and quality of these resources.

  8. Stable isotope estimates of evaporation: inflow and water residence time for lakes across the United States as a tool for national lake water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope ratios of water (delta18O and delta2H) can be very useful in large-scale monitoring programs because water samples are easy to collect and isotope ratios integrate information about basic hydrologic processes such as evaporation as a percentage of inflow (E/I) and ...

  9. National water-information clearinghouse activities; ground-water perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, C.A.; Jensen, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS) has functioned for many years as an informal clearinghouse for water resources information, enabling users to access groundwater information effectively. Water resources clearinghouse activities of the USGS are conducted through several separate computerized water information programs that are involved in the collection, storage, retrieval, and distribution of different types of water information. The following USGS programs perform water information clearinghouse functions and provide the framework for a formalized National Water-Information Clearinghouse: (1) The National Water Data Exchange--a nationwide confederation of more than 300 Federal, State, local, government, academic, and private water-oriented organizations that work together to improve access to water data; (2) the Water Resources Scientific Information Center--acquires, abstracts, and indexes the major water-resources-related literature of the world, and provides this information to the water resources community; (3) the Information Transfer Program--develops innovative approaches to transfer information and technology developed within the USGS to audiences in the public and private sectors; (4) the Hydrologic Information Unit--provides responses to a variety of requests, both technical and lay-oriented, for water resources information , and helps efforts to conduct water resources research; (5) the Water Data Storage and Retrieval System--maintains accessible computerized files of hydrologic data collected nationwide, by the USGS and other governmental agencies, from stream gaging stations, groundwater observation wells, and surface- and groundwater quality sampling sites; (6) the Office of Water Data Coordination--coordinate the water data acquisition activities of all agencies of the Federal Government, and is responsible for the planning, design, and inter-agency coordination of a national water data and information network; and (7) the Water Resources Research

  10. The quality of our nation's waters: water quality in the Principal Aquifers of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge regions, eastern United States, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Chapman, Melinda J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Szabo, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    The aquifers of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge regions underlie an area with a population of more than 40 million people in 10 states. The suburban and rural population is large, growing rapidly, and increasingly dependent on groundwater as a source of supply, with more than 550 million gallons per day withdrawn from domestic wells for household use. Water from some of these aquifers does not meet human-health benchmarks for drinking water for contaminants with geologic or human sources. Water from samples in crystalline- and siliciclastic-rock aquifers frequently exceeded standards for contaminants with geologic sources, and samples in carbonate-rock aquifers frequently exceeded standards for contaminants with human sources, most often nitrate and bacteria.

  11. United Nations and Other International Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negaard, Chere; Van Fossen, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 124 items published by the United Nations and 12 other international organizations in 1992-93. Themes addressed include agriculture, development, poverty eradication, trade, privatization, peace, conflict resolution, women's equality, and health issues. (LRW)

  12. US Forest Service National Grassland Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Grassland units designated by the Secretary of Agriculture and permanently held by the Department of Agriculture under...

  13. The United Nations Peacekeeping Current Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu P Spirin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problem of strengthening structures, potential and resources of the United Nations Secretariat forces, realizing peacekeeping activities of the Organization. The special attention is given to the «Brakhimi Group» as well as to the activities of the United Nations Security Council in the context of the search for effective peacekeeping activity of the Organization.

  14. Unit: Plants, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on plants produced as a part of the Australian Science Education Project. The unit consists of an information booklet for students, a booklet for recording student data, and a teacher's guide. The material, designed for use with students in the upper elementary grades, takes from 15 to 20 forty-minute…

  15. Arsenic in Ground Water of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This image shows national-scale patterns of naturally occurring arsenic in potable ground-water resources of the continental United States. The image was generated...

  16. Initial Survey Instructions for management unit water monitoring : level

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Initial survey instructions for 1.08 management unit water monitoring (level) survey on Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This survey is conducted weekly and is...

  17. International boundary experiences by the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, A.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last few decades, the United Nations (UN) has been approached by Security Council and Member States on international boundary issues. The United Nations regards the adequate delimitation and demarcation of international boundaries as a very important element for the maintenance of peace and security in fragile post-conflict situations, establishment of friendly relationships and cross-border cooperation between States. This paper will present the main principles and framework the United Nations applies to support the process of international boundary delimitation and demarcation activities. The United Nations is involved in international boundary issues following the principle of impartiality and neutrality and its role as mediator. Since international boundary issues are multi-faceted, a range of expertise is required and the United Nations Secretariat is in a good position to provide diverse expertise within the multiple departments. Expertise in different departments ranging from legal, political, technical, administrative and logistical are mobilised in different ways to provide support to Member States depending on their specific needs. This presentation aims to highlight some of the international boundary projects that the United Nations Cartographic Section has been involved in order to provide the technical support to different boundary requirements as each international boundary issue requires specific focus and attention whether it be in preparation, delimitation, demarcation or management. Increasingly, the United Nations is leveraging geospatial technology to facilitate boundary delimitation and demarcation process between Member States. Through the presentation of the various case studies ranging from Iraq - Kuwait, Israel - Lebanon (Blue Line), Eritrea - Ethiopia, Cyprus (Green Line), Cameroon - Nigeria, Sudan - South Sudan, it will illustrate how geospatial technology is increasingly used to carry out the support. In having applied a range

  18. Technology for Water Treatment (National Water Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The buildup of scale and corrosion is the most costly maintenance problem in cooling tower operation. Jet Propulsion Laboratory successfully developed a non-chemical system that not only curbed scale and corrosion, but also offered advantages in water conservation, cost savings and the elimination of toxic chemical discharge. In the system, ozone is produced by an on-site generator and introduced to the cooling tower water. Organic impurities are oxidized, and the dissolved ozone removes bacteria and scale. National Water Management, a NASA licensee, has installed its ozone advantage systems at some 200 cooling towers. Customers have saved money and eliminated chemical storage and discharge.

  19. Water-quality, biological, and physical-habitat conditions at fixed sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, Alaska, National Water-Quality Assessment Study Unit, October 1998-September 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2004-01-01

    The Cook Inlet Basin study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program comprises 39,325 square miles in south-central Alaska. Data were collected at eight fixed sites to provide baseline information in areas where no development has taken place, urbanization or logging have occurred, or the effects of recreation are increasing. Collection of water-quality, biology, and physical-habitat data began in October 1998 and ended in September 2001 (water years 1999-2001). The climate for the water years in the study may be categorized as slightly cool-wet (1999), slightly warm-wet (2000), and significantly warm-dry (2001). Total precipitation was near normal during the study period, and air temperatures ranged from modestly cool in water year 1999 to near normal in 2000, and to notably warm in 2001. Snowmelt runoff dominates the hydrology of streams in the Cook Inlet Basin. Average annual flows at the fixed sites were approximately the same as the long-term average annual flows, with the exception of those in glacier-fed basins, which had above-average flow in water year 2001. Water temperature of all streams studied in the Cook Inlet Basin remained at 0 oC for about 6 months per year, and average annual water temperatures ranged from 3.3 to 6.2 degrees Celsius. Of the water-quality constituents sampled, all concentrations were less than drinking-water standards and only one constituent, the pesticide carbaryl, exceeded aquatic-life standards. Most of the stream waters of the Cook Inlet Basin were classified as calcium bicarbonate, which reflects the underlying geology. Streams in the Cook Inlet Basin draining areas with glaciers, rough mountainous terrain, and poorly developed soils have low concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and dissolved organic carbon compared with concentrations of these same constituents in streams in lowland or urbanized areas. In streams draining relatively low-lying areas, most of the suspended sediment

  20. United Nations Illiteracy in America: Thoughts on Integrating the United Nations into the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, John

    2003-01-01

    To provide an international perspective, and to get American students focused on the United Nations (UN) as a legitimate scientific institution, the United Nations and its role in addressing global environmental concerns should be taught in the American science classroom. The target audience for this paper is high school teachers. The United…

  1. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 2002 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2002 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  2. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 2003 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2003 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  3. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 2006 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2006 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  4. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 2004 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2004 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  5. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 2000 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2000 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  6. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 2001 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2001 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  7. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 1999 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1999 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  8. Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge : 2005 Annual Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 2005 Annual Water Management Plan for Pocosin Lakes National Wildlife Refuge is used as aguide to manage the refuge's 4 lakes and 5 moist soil units, for...

  9. Cooperative purchasing within the United Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo

    2005-01-01

    To support cooperative purchasing within the United Nations we carried out an empirical study in 2004, mainly to define cooperation forms, and to identify and rank motives and critical factors for cooperation. Important reasons to work together turn out to be lower prices and transaction costs, shar

  10. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  11. Sustainable Procurement in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Costa, Nives

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the integration of economic, social and environmental criteria into the purchasing practices of the United Nations (UN) system--also known as the UN engagement in sustainable procurement (SP). We argue that the debates about the pros and cons of the UN engaging in SP...

  12. An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Wickham; Timothy Wade; Kurt Riitters

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States...

  13. United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI)

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, M; Steffens, H; Balogh, W; Haubold, H J; Othman, M; Doi, T

    2015-01-01

    The Human Space Technology Initiative was launched in 2010 within the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications implemented by the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations. It aims to involve more countries in activities related to human spaceflight and space exploration and to increase the benefits from the outcome of such activities through international cooperation, to make space exploration a truly international effort. The role of the Initiative in these efforts is to provide a platform to exchange information, foster collaboration between partners from spacefaring and non-spacefaring countries, and encourage emerging and developing countries to take part in space research and benefit from space applications. The Initiative organizes expert meetings and workshops annually to raise awareness of the current status of space exploration activities as well as of the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications. The Initiative is also carrying out primary ...

  14. Bayesian Population Projections for the United Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Adrian E; Alkema, Leontine; Gerland, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    The United Nations regularly publishes projections of the populations of all the world's countries broken down by age and sex. These projections are the de facto standard and are widely used by international organizations, governments and researchers. Like almost all other population projections, they are produced using the standard deterministic cohort-component projection method and do not yield statements of uncertainty. We describe a Bayesian method for producing probabilistic population projections for most countries that the United Nations could use. It has at its core Bayesian hierarchical models for the total fertility rate and life expectancy at birth. We illustrate the method and show how it can be extended to address concerns about the UN's current assumptions about the long-term distribution of fertility. The method is implemented in the R packages bayesTFR, bayesLife, bayesPop and bayesDem.

  15. The quality of our Nation's waters: water quality in the Mississippi embayment-Texas coastal uplands aquifer system and Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, south-central United States, 1994-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Katz, Brian G.; Welch, Heather L.; Tollett, Roland W.; Fahlquist, Lynne S.

    2015-01-01

    About 8 million people rely on groundwater from the Mississippi embayment—Texas coastal uplands aquifer system for drinking water. The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer also provides drinking water for domestic use in rural areas but is of primary importance to the region as a source of water for irrigation. Irrigation withdrawals from this aquifer are among the largest in the Nation and play a key role in the economy of the area, where annual crop sales total more than $7 billion. The reliance of the region on both aquifers for drinking water and irrigation highlights the importance of long-term management to sustain the availability and quality of these resources.

  16. Is water in dental units microbiologically safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Michałkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water supplied to the dental units must be of sufficient quality. The article presents the results of the microbiological analysis of cold municipal water which flows into a patient’s disposable mouthwash cup, and demineralized water which flows through a waterline into the tool panel of a dental unit from the tank placed in the water group. Material and Methods: In order to assess the degree of purity (impurities of water used in dental units, 2 series of microbiological tests were carried out in 6 dental surgeries from April to June, 2013. The water samples for microbiological testing were collected into sterile microbiological bottles in accordance with the current methodology. The water for the tests was collected from a sterile cup-filling tap (municipal water and from an air/water syringe (demineralized water. The bacteria were cultured according to the Polish Standards – PN-EN ISO 6222, PN-EN ISO 9308-1, and PN-EN ISO 16266. Results: In the tested samples of water numerous psychrophilic bacteria (max 29 100 CFU/ml and mesophilic bacteria (max 24 700 CFU/ml, including single coliforms, were found. Conclusions: The results show that water delivered to a dental unit should be periodically tested bacteriologically and in terms of physical and chemical properties. Water systems of dental units should also be periodically disinfected to eliminate bacteria and biofilm. Med Pr 2015;66(6:763–770

  17. The Origin of the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yordan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explica los orígenes de sistema global antiterrorista de las Naciones Unidas. Nosotros argüimos que tres factores determinan las características de un sistema descentralizado y de estados centralizados. El primero es la reacción de la ONU contra los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001. El segundo factor es la cada vez mayor relevancia de las redes de gobierno transnacional. La tercera fuerza son los intereses y los asuntos del Consejo de Seguridad permanente, que últimamente determina la arquitectura del sistema.9/11, United Nations, Security Council, transnacional governance networks,counter-terrorism system.___________________________ABSTRACT:This article explains the origins of the United Nations’ global counter-terrorism system. We argue that three factors shaped the system’s decentralized and state-centered characteristics. The first is the UN’s reactions to terrorism prior to the attacks of 11 September 2001. The second factor is the growing relevance of transnational governance networks. The third force is the interests and concerns of the Security Council’s permanent representative interests, which ultimately shaped the system’s architecture.Keywords: 9/11; United Nations; Security Council; transnacional governance networks; counter-terrorism system

  18. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubold, Hans; Balogh, Werner

    2014-05-01

    The basic space science initiative was a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis, particularly in developing nations. Basic space science workshops were co-sponsored and co-organized by ESA, JAXA, and NASA. A series of workshops on basic space science was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://neutrino.aquaphoenix.com/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. Through the lead of the National Astronomical Observatory Japan, astronomical telescope facilities were inaugurated in seven developing nations and planetariums were established in twenty developing nations based on the donation of respective equipment by Japan.Pursuant to resolutions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations (COPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the preparations for and the follow-ups to the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, South Korea 2009; www.unoosa.org/oosa/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html). IHY's legacy is the current operation of 16 worldwide instrument arrays with more than 1000 instruments recording data on solar-terrestrial interaction from coronal mass ejections to variations of the total electron content in the ionosphere (http://iswisecretariat.org/). Instruments are provided to hosting institutions by entities of Armenia, Brazil, France, Israel, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States. Starting in 2010, the workshops focused on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as mandated in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of COPUOS. Workshops on ISWI

  19. Solar power water distillation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  20. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Werner; Miyoshi, Takanori

    2016-07-01

    The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (OOSA) launched the Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) in 2010 within the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, based on relevant recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III). The activities of HSTI are characterized by the following "Three Pillars": International Cooperation, Outreach, and Capacity-building. For International Cooperation, OOSA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) jointly launched a new programme entitled "KiboCUBE". KiboCUBE aims to provide educational or research institutions located in developing countries with opportunities to deploy cube satellites of their own design and manufacture from Japanese Experiment Module "Kibo" on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The Announcement of Opportunity was released on 8 September 2015 and the selected institution is to be announced by 1 August 2016. OOSA is also collaborating with WHO and with the COPUOS Expert Group on Space and Global Health to promote space technologies and ground- and space-based research activities that can contribute to improving global health. For Outreach, OOSA and the government of Costa Rica are jointly organising the United Nations/Costa Rica Workshop on Human Space Technology from 7 to 11 March 2016. Participants will exchange information on achievements in human space programmes and discuss how to promote international cooperation by further facilitating the participation of developing countries in human space exploration-related activities. Also, it will address the role of space industries in human space exploration and its related activities, considering that they have become significant stakeholders in this field. For Capacity-building, OOSA has been carrying out two activities: the Zero-Gravity Instrument Project (ZGIP) and the Drop Tower Experiment Series (DropTES). In ZGIP, OOSA has annually distributed

  1. United Nations International Drug Control Programme responds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Platzer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] We would like to reply to the article written by Axel Klein entitled, "Between the Death Penalty and Decriminalization: New Directions for Drug Control in the Commonwealth Caribbean" published in NWIG 75 (3&4 2001. We have noted a number of factual inaccuracies as well as hostile comments which portray the United Nations International Drug Control Programme in a negative light. This reply is not intended to be a critique of the article, which we find unbalanced and polemical, but rather an alert to the tendentious statements about UNDCP, which we feel should be corrected.

  2. National facilities survey. Water treatment technology report No. 12 (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, D.H.

    1994-09-01

    This report is a survey of publicly and privately owned laboratories, facilities, and pilot plant equipment in the United States capable of undertaking water research and technology development. The survey was initiated by the National Water Research Institute and the Bureau of Reclamation as its first step in the development of the National Centers for Separation and Thermal Systems Research (Centers). The Centers concepts will facilitate water purification research through optimization of use of research resources, including facilities, making existing resources, facilities, and equipment available for investigators to conduct research. The survey contains information on 66 facilities in the United States.

  3. US Forest Service National Forest System Land Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Forest Service land units. An NFS Land Unit is nationally significant classification of Federally owned forest, range,...

  4. California Tribal Nations Technical Water Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben, C; Coty, J

    2005-08-15

    This research focused on identifying the key technical water issues of federally recognized California Native American tribes, the context within which these water issues arise for the tribes, and an appropriate format for potentially opening further dialogue on water research issues between the tribes and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists. At LLNL, a Water Quality and Resource Management Issues Workshop held in January of 2003 resulted in multiple recommendations, one proposing a LLNL dialogue with California tribes to further inform LLNL's prioritization of water issues based on identified needs across national sectors. The focus of this aforementioned Water Quality and Resource Management Issues Workshop was to identify national and international priority water research issues with which LLNL may align their research efforts and contribute to resolving these needs. LLNL staff researched various sectors to delineate the key water issues associated with each. This preliminary water issue research included diverse entities such as international water agencies, federal and state agencies, industry, non-governmental agencies, and private organizations. The key (identified) water issues across these sectors were presented to workshop attendees and used during workshop debates and sessions. However, the key water issues of federally recognized Native American tribes remained less understood, resulting in a workshop proposal for additional research and LLNL potentially hosting a dialog with representatives of these tribes. Federally recognized Native American tribes have a unique government-to-government relationship with the United States (U.S.) government, in contrast to other sectors researched for the workshop. Within the U.S., the number of federally recognized tribes currently stands at 562 and, in addition to this large number of tribes, much diversity across these tribes exists. For the purposes of this preliminary research and report

  5. Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2009-09-01

    Produced water volume generation and management in the United States are not well characterized at a national level. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory to compile data on produced water associated with oil and gas production to better understand the production volumes and management of this water. The purpose of this report is to improve understanding of produced water by providing detailed information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the ways in which produced water is disposed or reused. As the demand for fresh water resources increases, with no concomitant increase in surface or ground water supplies, alternate water sources, like produced water, may play an important role. Produced water is water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil or gas production. Because the water has been in contact with hydrocarbon-bearing formations, it contains some of the chemical characteristics of the formations and the hydrocarbons. It may include water from the reservoir, water previously injected into the formation, and any chemicals added during the production processes. The physical and chemical properties of produced water vary considerably depending on the geographic location of the field, the geologic formation, and the type of hydrocarbon product being produced. Produced water properties and volume also vary throughout the lifetime of a reservoir. Produced water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. Previous national produced water volume estimates are in the range of 15 to 20 billion barrels (bbl; 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gallons) generated each year in the United States (API 1988, 2000; Veil et al. 2004). However, the details on generation and management of produced water are not well understood on a national scale. Argonne National Laboratory developed detailed national-level information on the volume of produced

  6. EnviroAtlas - Agricultural Water Demand by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national agricultural water demand metric provides insight into the amount of water currently used for agricultural irrigation in the contiguous United States....

  7. Model United Nations comes to CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    From 20 to 22 January pupils from international schools in Switzerland, France and Turkey came to CERN for three days of "UN-type" conferences.   The MUN organisers, who are all pupils at the Lycée international in Ferney-Voltaire, worked tirelessly for weeks to make the event a real success. The members of the MUN/MFNU association at the Lycée international in Ferney-Voltaire spent several months preparing for their first "Model United Nations" (MUN),  a simulation of a UN session at which young "diplomats" take on the role of delegates representing different nations to discuss a given topic. And as their chosen topic was science, it was only natural that they should hold the event at CERN. For three days, from 20 to 22 January, no fewer than 340 pupils from 12 international schools* in Switzerland, France and Turkey came together to deliberate, consult and debate on the importance of scientific progress fo...

  8. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This data...

  9. National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — National scope of NAWQA water-quality sample- and laboratory-result data and other supporting information obtained from NWIS systems hosted by individual Water...

  10. NOAA Point Shapefile - 100m2 Fish Density of Flower Gardens National Marine Sanctuary, United States,R/V Manta, Shallow water Dive Cruise, August 2011, WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The design of this field mission is three fold: (1) to spatially characterize the distribution, abundance and size of both reef fishes and macro invertebrates within...

  11. Land and Water Conservation; Hawaii Volcanoes National Park; Little Rock Central High School; and Arches National Park. Hearing on S. 1333, S. 2106, S. 2129, S. 2232, H.R. 2283 before the Subcommittee on National Parks, Historic Preservation, and Recreation of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

    A Senate hearing considered five bills related to the national parks. Of interest to the education community is S. 2232, which would establish Little Rock Central High School National Historic Site in Arkansas as a unit of the National Park Service. In 1957 the school became a center of controversy over school desegregation when nine African…

  12. Y-12 National Security Complex Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Shana E.; Bassett, P.; McMordie Stoughton, Kate

    2010-11-01

    The Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sponsored a water assessment at the Y 12 National Security Complex (Y 12) located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Driven by mandated water reduction goals of Executive Orders 13423 and 13514, the objective of the water assessment is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the current water-consuming applications and equipment at Y 12 and to identify key areas for water efficiency improvements that could be applied not only at Y-12 but at other Federal facilities as well. FEMP selected Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to coordinate and manage the water assessment. PNNL contracted Water Savers, LLC to lead the technical aspects of the water assessment. Water Savers provided key technical expertise in water auditing, metering, and cooling systems. This is the report of that effort, which concluded that the Y-12 facility could realize considerable water savings by implementing the recommended water efficiency opportunities.

  13. Water-controlled wealth of nations

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations on the basis of calculations of the virtual ...

  14. Perspectives on Inclusive Education with Reference to United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores inclusive education and explains the role of United Nations for imparting it to different nations. Undoubtedly, the UN and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) strive for all children to have equitable access to education as a basic human right. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) combined with the Convention…

  15. Technical report: Water quality and metal and metalloid contaminants in sediments, and fish of Koyukuk, Nowitna, and the Northern Unit of Innoko National Wildlife Refuges, Alaska, 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was conducted by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologists during 1991. The study goals were to monitor water quality and concentrations of metals and...

  16. USGS Water Use Data for the Nation - National Water Information System (NWIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Use Information Program is responsible for compiling and disseminating the nation's water-use data. The USGS works in...

  17. NOAA Water Level Predictions Stations for the Coastal United States and Other Non-U.S. Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Ocean Service (NOS) maintains a long-term database containing water level measurements and derived tidal data for coastal waters of the United States...

  18. NOAA Water Level (Tidal) Data of 205 Stations for the Coastal United States and Other Non-U.S. Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Ocean Service (NOS) maintains a long-term database containing water level measurements and derived tidal data for coastal waters of the United States...

  19. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  20. Virtual water controlled demographic growth of nations

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, Samir; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations based on calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-run sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects throu...

  1. 78 FR 66813 - Visas: Regulatory Exception to Permit Compliance With the United Nations Headquarters Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Compliance With the United Nations Headquarters Agreement and Other International Obligations and... Compliance With the United Nations Headquarters Agreement and Other International Obligations and... Agreement between the United States and the United Nations Regarding the Headquarters of the United...

  2. Evolution Dilemma of the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuneyt M. Yenigun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations (UN, despite some successful stories, has largely failed to safeguard international peace and security, particularly in the Middle East since its establishment. The UN’s inability to effectively resolve international conflicts is due to the Security Council (UNSC’s decision making-process. The power to block any initiatives that do not fit the interest of any of the five permanent members (P5: US, UK, France, Russia, China have impeded the UN’s ability to take effectively take actions where it is needed in safeguarding security in the Middle East. The nature of the veto power no longer reflects the reality of the 21st century; the UN is frozen in the context of the post-Second World War era and has failed to evolve with the international community.  Double standards in the International Court of Justice's decrees and infirmity of purpose of the UNSC overshadow the legitimacy of the organization, jeopardizing its security mission, and clashes with the democratic values in world public opinion. The UN should change to earn legitimacy and efficiency of preserving international peace and security by amending decision making system in the UNSC or changing decision-making organ within the UN. The Secretary General’s diplomatic activism and attempts to fill the gap left by the P5 infightings could not succeed because of the resistance of the UNSC’s permanent members to change and lack of integrity among the other states. To ensure democratic transformation of the UN today, all states, NGOs and think tanks should work together. This study discusses the system's current shortcomings and suggests some alternative paths for the effective transformation of the UN as a supranational security institution.

  3. Strategic Value of Water to the National Guard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    per energy unit11 Gasoline 5 gallons of water to produce 1 gallon Nuclear 720 gallons per MW Subcritical Pulverized Coal 520...to 990 gallons per MW Supercritical Pulverized Coal 450 to 840 gallons per MW Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle 310 to 450 gallons per MW...or position of the Department of the Army, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. STRATEGIC VALUE OF WATER TO THE NATIONAL GUARD BY

  4. Data resource profile: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Colleen; Newby, Holly

    2012-12-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) plays a leading role in the collection, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data to inform sound policies, legislation and programmes for promoting children's rights and well-being, and for global monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. UNICEF maintains a set of global databases representing nearly 200 countries and covering the areas of child mortality, child health, maternal health, nutrition, immunization, water and sanitation, HIV/AIDS, education and child protection. These databases consist of internationally comparable and statistically sound data, and are updated annually through a process that draws on a wealth of data provided by UNICEF's wide network of >150 field offices. The databases are composed primarily of estimates from household surveys, with data from censuses, administrative records, vital registration systems and statistical models contributing to some key indicators as well. The data are assessed for quality based on a set of objective criteria to ensure that only the most reliable nationally representative information is included. For most indicators, data are available at the global, regional and national levels, plus sub-national disaggregation by sex, urban/rural residence and household wealth. The global databases are featured in UNICEF's flagship publications, inter-agency reports, including the Secretary General's Millennium Development Goals Report and Countdown to 2015, sector-specific reports and statistical country profiles. They are also publicly available on www.childinfo.org, together with trend data and equity analyses.

  5. Data Resource Profile: United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Colleen; Newby, Holly

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) plays a leading role in the collection, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data to inform sound policies, legislation and programmes for promoting children’s rights and well-being, and for global monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. UNICEF maintains a set of global databases representing nearly 200 countries and covering the areas of child mortality, child health, maternal health, nutrition, immunization, water and sanitation, HIV/AIDS, education and child protection. These databases consist of internationally comparable and statistically sound data, and are updated annually through a process that draws on a wealth of data provided by UNICEF’s wide network of >150 field offices. The databases are composed primarily of estimates from household surveys, with data from censuses, administrative records, vital registration systems and statistical models contributing to some key indicators as well. The data are assessed for quality based on a set of objective criteria to ensure that only the most reliable nationally representative information is included. For most indicators, data are available at the global, regional and national levels, plus sub-national disaggregation by sex, urban/rural residence and household wealth. The global databases are featured in UNICEF’s flagship publications, inter-agency reports, including the Secretary General’s Millennium Development Goals Report and Countdown to 2015, sector-specific reports and statistical country profiles. They are also publicly available on www.childinfo.org, together with trend data and equity analyses. PMID:23211414

  6. Science, Technology and Innovation for Achieving United Nations Millennium Development Goals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In September 2000, 147 heads of State and Government, and 189 nations intotal,committed themselves by year 2015 to roduce significantly global poverty and the related problems of illiteracy,hunger,discrimination against women, unsafe drinking water,and degraded environments and ecosystems,through the United Nations Millennium Declaration[A/RES/55/2].

  7. DESALINATION AND WATER TREATMENT RESEARCH AT SANDIA NATIONAL LABORATORIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Altman, Susan J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Biedermann, Laura [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kuzio, Stephanie P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nenoff, Tina M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rempe, Susan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Water is the backbone of our economy - safe and adequate supplies of water are vital for agriculture, industry, recreation, and human consumption. While our supply of water today is largely safe and adequate, we as a nation face increasing water supply challenges in the form of extended droughts, demand growth due to population increase, more stringent health-based regulation, and competing demands from a variety of users. To meet these challenges in the coming decades, water treatment technologies, including desalination, will contribute substantially to ensuring a safe, sustainable, affordable, and adequate water supply for the United States. This overview documents Sandia National Laboratories' (SNL, or Sandia) Water Treatment Program which focused on the development and demonstration of advanced water purification technologies as part of the larger Sandia Water Initiative. Projects under the Water Treatment Program include: (1) the development of desalination research roadmaps (2) our efforts to accelerate the commercialization of new desalination and water treatment technologies (known as the 'Jump-Start Program),' (3) long range (high risk, early stage) desalination research (known as the 'Long Range Research Program'), (4) treatment research projects under the Joint Water Reuse & Desalination Task Force, (5) the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership Program, (6) water treatment projects funded under the New Mexico Small Business Administration, (7) water treatment projects for the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), (8) Sandia- developed contaminant-selective treatment technologies, and finally (9) current Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) funded desalination projects.

  8. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1995 water year. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barks, R. [ed.; Shaull, D.A.; Alexander, M.R.; Reynolds, R.P.

    1996-08-01

    The principle investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 15 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory. The United States Department of Interior Geological Survey, Water Resources Division, operates two of the stations under a subcontract; these are identified in the station manuscripts. Included in this report are data from one seepage run conducted in Los Alamos Canyon during the 1995 water year.

  9. INDUSTRIAL-ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND THE UNITED NATIONS: A PARTNERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Sall, English; Clayton, Ann-marie; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    Since the United Nations began in 1945, it has reached out to experts in many fields, and in many parts of the world, to cooperate in its global work. Our field of organizational psychology has an important role to play at the United Nations, but this has begun only recently, in the past few years. This report offers a concise picture of I-O psychology at the United Nations today, and ways that I-O psychologists in the USA and other nations may learn more details on this

  10. Water Sample Points, Navajo Nation, 2000, USACE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This point shapefile presents the locations and results for water samples collected on the Navajo Nation by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for the US...

  11. Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge water management alternatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an assessment of alternatives to water management issues on Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge. Marsh productivity has been declining due to salts...

  12. Unit: Cells, Inspection Set, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This trial version of a unit is the series being produced by the Australian Science Education Project provides instructions for students to prepare a variety of cell types and examine them with microscopes. It also gives some information about the variety and function of cells. The core of the unit, which all students are expected to complete,…

  13. Water-controlled wealth of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, Samir; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2013-03-12

    Population growth is in general constrained by food production, which in turn depends on the access to water resources. At a country level, some populations use more water than they control because of their ability to import food and the virtual water required for its production. Here, we investigate the dependence of demographic growth on available water resources for exporting and importing nations. By quantifying the carrying capacity of nations on the basis of calculations of the virtual water available through the food trade network, we point to the existence of a global water unbalance. We suggest that current export rates will not be maintained and consequently we question the long-term sustainability of the food trade system as a whole. Water-rich regions are likely to soon reduce the amount of virtual water they export, thus leaving import-dependent regions without enough water to sustain their populations. We also investigate the potential impact of possible scenarios that might mitigate these effects through (i) cooperative interactions among nations whereby water-rich countries maintain a tiny fraction of their food production available for export, (ii) changes in consumption patterns, and (iii) a positive feedback between demographic growth and technological innovations. We find that these strategies may indeed reduce the vulnerability of water-controlled societies.

  14. 31 CFR 515.334 - United States national.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States national. 515.334 Section 515.334 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... of the United States, and which has its principal place of business in the United States....

  15. National Curriculum for Physical Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junghwan; Graber, Kim C.

    2017-01-01

    Since the publication of "A Nation at Risk," some scholars have argued that a national curriculum and national testing are necessary to hold school personnel accountable for student achievement and, ultimately, to raise educational standards. The idea of developing a nationwide curriculum has been widely debated in the United States,…

  16. National Atlas of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Atlas contributes to our knowledge of the environmental, resource, demographic, economic, social, political, and historical dimensions of American...

  17. National Atlas of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Atlas contributes to our knowledge of the environmental, resource, demographic, economic, social, political, and historical dimensions of American life....

  18. Waste water treatment in Triglav national park

    OpenAIRE

    PETERLIN, BLAŽ

    2012-01-01

    The thesis presents the pollution problems caused by municipal waste water in the protected area of the Triglav National Park. Although most people are not detecting the problem, the consequences of water pollution in the area are clearly visible in the mountain lakes and downstream springs. Water resources near the mountain huts and agricultural land show obvious signs of nurient overload. Non- native plant and animal species recklessly discharged into the natural environment also pose a thr...

  19. Analysis of Serbian Military Riverine Units Capability for Participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Radojevic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses required personnel, training capacities and equipment for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations with the riverine elements. In order to meet necessary capabilities for engagement in United Nations peacekeeping operations, Serbian military riverine units have to be compatible with the issued UN requirements. Serbian Armed Forces have the potential to reach such requirements with the River Flotilla as a pivot for the participation in UN missions. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational and training program in accordance with the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses. Serbian Military Academy has opportunities for education and training military riverine units for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations. Moreover, Serbia has Multinational Operations Training Center and Peacekeeping Operations Center certified to provide selection, training, equipping and preparations of individuals and units to the United Nations multinational operations.

  20. Water security-National and global issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Campbell, Andrew A.

    2010-01-01

    Potable or clean freshwater availability is crucial to life and economic, environmental, and social systems. The amount of freshwater is finite and makes up approximately 2.5 percent of all water on the Earth. Freshwater supplies are small and randomly distributed, so water resources can become points of conflict. Freshwater availability depends upon precipitation patterns, changing climate, and whether the source of consumed water comes directly from desalination, precipitation, or surface and (or) groundwater. At local to national levels, difficulties in securing potable water sources increase with growing populations and economies. Available water improves living standards and drives urbanization, which increases average water consumption per capita. Commonly, disruptions in sustainable supplies and distribution of potable water and conflicts over water resources become major security issues for Government officials. Disruptions are often influenced by land use, human population, use patterns, technological advances, environmental impacts, management processes and decisions, transnational boundaries, and so forth.

  1. The role of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization-International Hydro-logical Programme in sustainable water resources management in East Asian countries%联合国教科文组织国际水文计划项目在东亚可持续水资源管理中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段小丽; 刘可

    2009-01-01

    For over 30 years, IHP (International Hydrological Programme) has been actively operating as a UNESCO's (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) international scientific cooperative programme in water research, water resources manage- ment, education and capacity-building, and the only broadly-based science programme of the UN (United Nations) system in this region. By a number of initiatives and networks, the IHP has progressively carried out activities on the quantity and quality of global/regional wate resources, transboundary water resources management, mitigation of water related hazard, and water education. While addressing comprehensive areas over water challenges, greater emphasis has been placed on the role of water resources management for sustainable de- velopment and with respect to the expected changes in climate and environmental conditions. WWAP (World Water Assessment Programme) and its major product WWDR (World Water Development Report) in East Asia are under the framework of IHP which supports field ori- ented activities on monitoring freshwater, developing case studies, enhancing national as- sessment capacity, and facilitating decision making processes. In light of transboundary wa- ters in IHP, RSC (Regional Steering Committee) plays a focal role for facilitating regional cooperation in the Southeast and East Asia and Pacific States. Furthermore, ISI (International Sediment Initiative) and IFI (International Flood Initiative) have significant roles, respectively, for the management of erosion and sedimentation in line with river system or reservoir man- agement, and for the flood management focusing on capacity building of each country in East Asia. There are other major areas of concern under UNESCO's IHP programme in East Asia, specifically in aspects including, mitigating water conflicts on transboundary aquifers through ISARM (International Shared Aquifer Resources Management), water management of arid areas

  2. Surface-water sampling stations, National Water-Quality Assessment, Yellowstone River Basin, Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program, an investigation of the Yellowstone River Basin study unit is being conducted to...

  3. National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 640 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The...

  4. The challenges of preventive diplomacy: The United Nations' post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    examines the challenges faced by the United Nations as it practises PD with specific reference to .... During the leadership of Dag Hammarskjöld as UN Secretary-General, the ... and encourage the role of women in preventive diplomacy.

  5. EPA's Role in the United Nations Economic and Social Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) considers the world’s economic, social, and environmental challenges. ECOSOC is composed of subsidiary bodies, including the recently concluded Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD).

  6. Proposal for a United Nations Basic Space Technology Initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, W R

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Programme on Space Applications, implemented by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, promotes the benefits of space-based solutions for sustainable economic and social development. The Programme assists Member States of the United Nations to establish indigenous capacities for the use of space technology and its applications. In the past the Programme has primarily been focusing on the use of space applications and on basic space science activities. However, in recent years there has been a strong interest in a growing number of space-using countries to build space technology capacities, for example, the ability to develop and operate small satellites. In reaction to this development, the United Nations in cooperation with the International Academy of Astronautics has been organizing annual workshops on small satellites in the service of developing countries. Space technology related issues have also been addressed as part of various other activities of the Programme on Space ...

  7. The United Nations University and Sustainable Mountain Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Itaru Yasui

    2005-01-01

    @@ The United Nations University (UNU) is an international community of scholars engaged in research, postgraduate training and knowledge dissemination on the pressing global problems of human survival, development and welfare that are concerns of the United Nations, its peoples and member states. UNU works through a global network of its own research and training centers and programmes, and of associated and collaborating institutions and scholars.

  8. Water Quality in the Nation's Streams and Aquifers Overview of Selected Findings, 1991-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

    2004-01-01

    This report accompanies the publication of the last 15 of 51 river basin and aquifer assessments by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program during 1991?2001. It highlights selected water-quality findings of regional and national interest through examples from river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. Forthcoming reports in the USGS series ?The Quality of Our Nation?s Waters? will present comprehensive national syntheses of information collected in the 51 study units on pesticides in water, sediment, and fish; volatile organic compounds in major aquifers used for domestic and public supply; nutrients and trace elements in streams and ground water; and aquatic ecology. This report, summaries of the 51 water-quality assessments, and a 1999 national synthesis of information on nutrients and pesticides, are available free of charge as USGS Circulars and on the World Wide Web at http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/nawqa_sumr.html.

  9. Du Yuzhou Art Exhibition Will Open in the United Nations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    From June 5th to 15th 2007,the headquarters of the United Nations will enjoy a show time of Du Yuzhou works,where works of photograph and painting will be exhibited. Mr.Yuzhou Du,President of the China National

  10. Identifying future electricity-water tradeoffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sovacool, Kelly E. [Department of Geography, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Researchers for the electricity industry, national laboratories, and state and federal agencies have begun to argue that the country could face water shortages resulting from the addition of thermoelectric power plants, but have not attempted to depict more precisely where or how severe those shortages will be. Using county-level data on rates of population growth collected from the US Census Bureau, utility estimates of future planned capacity additions in the contiguous United States reported to the US Energy Information Administration, and scientific estimates of anticipated water shortages provided from the US Geologic Survey and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, this paper highlights the most likely locations of severe shortages in 22 counties brought about by thermoelectric capacity additions. Within these areas are some 20 major metropolitan regions where millions of people live. After exploring the electricity-water nexus and explaining the study's methodology, the article then focuses on four of these metropolitan areas - Houston, Texas; Atlanta, Georgia; Las Vegas, Nevada; New York, New York - to deepen an understanding of the water and electricity challenges they may soon be facing. It concludes by identifying an assortment of technologies and policies that could respond to these electricity-water tradeoffs. (author)

  11. Resources for National Water Savings for Outdoor Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melody, Moya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dunham, Camilla [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    In support of efforts by the U.S. Environmental Agency's (EPA's) WaterSense program to develop a spreadsheet model for calculating the national water and financial savings attributable to WaterSense certification and labeling of weather-based irrigation controllers, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory reviewed reports, technical data, and other information related to outdoor water use and irrigation controllers. In this document we categorize and describe the reviewed references, highlighting pertinent data. We relied on these references when developing model parameters and calculating controller savings. We grouped resources into three major categories: landscapes (section 1); irrigation devices (section 2); and analytical and modeling efforts (section 3). Each category is subdivided further as described in its section. References are listed in order of date of publication, most recent first.

  12. 75 FR 52069 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations, International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    .... Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations, International Maritime Dangerous... Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations, International Maritime Dangerous Goods... the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air, and the United Nations Recommendations on the...

  13. Effects of Proposed Water Control Structure at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The United States Fish and Wildlife Service is studying the feasibility of constructing a water control structure on the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge. The...

  14. The quality of our Nation's waters: Water quality in basin-fill aquifers of the southwestern United States: Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah, 1993-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiros, Susan A.; Paul, Angela P.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The Southwest Principal Aquifers consist of many basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. Demands for irrigation and drinking water have substantially increased groundwater withdrawals and irrigation return flow to some of these aquifers. These changes have increased the movement of contaminants from geologic and human sources to depths used to supply drinking water in several basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest.

  15. Continental United States Military Housing Inspection National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    lead, copper, microbial (total coliform ) contamination, and chlorine residue. The water samples were collected from buildings selected at random...selected locations from 23 accompanied housing and 4 units in the barracks for lead, copper, total coliform , E. Coli, and residual chlorine. The... coliform and E. Coli bacteria. All drinking water quality test results were below applicable action levels for community water suppliers. The same 27

  16. Successful Army National Guard units: A guard perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Saulsbury, J.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Schexanayder, S.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-10-01

    This project sought to identify factors contributing to a healthy Army National Guard (ARNG) unit. Its results were intended to contribute to a computerized forecasting model under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model, the ARNG Regional Recruiting Potential Model (RRPM), forecasts locations of successful new or modified Guard units. The study was expected to enhance the understanding of what constituents a healthy Guard unit. A Delphi approach was used to define criteria for healthy Guard units and to elicit rankings of those criteria. Two sets of telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 102 individuals-two battalion-level administrative officers, or their equivalents, in each state in Washington, DC. During these telephone calls, the phrase unit supportability'' was used to express the notion of a healthy unit. The first set of interviews obtained background information and respondents' ideas of the criteria that lead to unit supportability and to a lack of supportability. The data were analyzed to develop a list of ten criteria for unit supportability. In the second interview, the same respondents were asked to rank those criteria in order of importance.

  17. Successful Army National Guard units: A guard perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanayder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This project sought to identify factors contributing to a healthy Army National Guard (ARNG) unit. Its results were intended to contribute to a computerized forecasting model under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model, the ARNG Regional Recruiting Potential Model (RRPM), forecasts locations of successful new or modified Guard units. The study was expected to enhance the understanding of what constituents a healthy Guard unit. A Delphi approach was used to define criteria for healthy Guard units and to elicit rankings of those criteria. Two sets of telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 102 individuals-two battalion-level administrative officers, or their equivalents, in each state in Washington, DC. During these telephone calls, the phrase ``unit supportability`` was used to express the notion of a healthy unit. The first set of interviews obtained background information and respondents` ideas of the criteria that lead to unit supportability and to a lack of supportability. The data were analyzed to develop a list of ten criteria for unit supportability. In the second interview, the same respondents were asked to rank those criteria in order of importance.

  18. Successful Army National Guard units: A guard perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Saulsbury, J.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Schexanayder, S.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-10-01

    This project sought to identify factors contributing to a healthy Army National Guard (ARNG) unit. Its results were intended to contribute to a computerized forecasting model under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model, the ARNG Regional Recruiting Potential Model (RRPM), forecasts locations of successful new or modified Guard units. The study was expected to enhance the understanding of what constituents a healthy Guard unit. A Delphi approach was used to define criteria for healthy Guard units and to elicit rankings of those criteria. Two sets of telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 102 individuals-two battalion-level administrative officers, or their equivalents, in each state in Washington, DC. During these telephone calls, the phrase unit supportability'' was used to express the notion of a healthy unit. The first set of interviews obtained background information and respondents' ideas of the criteria that lead to unit supportability and to a lack of supportability. The data were analyzed to develop a list of ten criteria for unit supportability. In the second interview, the same respondents were asked to rank those criteria in order of importance.

  19. Successful Army National Guard units: A guard perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanayder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This project sought to identify factors contributing to a healthy Army National Guard (ARNG) unit. Its results were intended to contribute to a computerized forecasting model under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model, the ARNG Regional Recruiting Potential Model (RRPM), forecasts locations of successful new or modified Guard units. The study was expected to enhance the understanding of what constituents a healthy Guard unit. A Delphi approach was used to define criteria for healthy Guard units and to elicit rankings of those criteria. Two sets of telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 102 individuals-two battalion-level administrative officers, or their equivalents, in each state in Washington, DC. During these telephone calls, the phrase ``unit supportability`` was used to express the notion of a healthy unit. The first set of interviews obtained background information and respondents` ideas of the criteria that lead to unit supportability and to a lack of supportability. The data were analyzed to develop a list of ten criteria for unit supportability. In the second interview, the same respondents were asked to rank those criteria in order of importance.

  20. Contribution of UHV Grid to United National Power Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Lei; Wei Bin; Ma Li; Cheng Wen

    2010-01-01

    @@ Power market construction is an important part of the marketization reform in China's electric power industry and an essential part of the economic system reform in China. With the social and economic development, the contradiction between distribution of energy resources and development of regional economies gets increasingly noticeable, and a united national power market is consequentially required to optimize the allocation of energy resources over the whole country. Analyses indicate that the development of UHV grid will provide a strong material support for the united national power market by expanding market coverage, lowering load fluctuation and promoting diversification of power resources.

  1. Review of Labour Statistics for the United Nations Statistical Commission

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Barham

    2008-01-01

    Describes the Review, whose recommendations will be taken forward by UN Statistical Division and the International Labour OrganisationEarly in 2007, the Office for National Statistics was asked by United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) to carry out a Review of Labour Statistics on behalf of the UK. The Review was carried out during 2007 and was presented at the annual UN Statistics Commission session in February 2008 in New York. The Review was very well received and recommendations in the...

  2. Beyond Flint: National Trends in Drinking Water Quality Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, M.; Wu, H.; Lall, U.

    2016-12-01

    Ensuring safe water supply for communities across the U.S. represents an emerging challenge. Aging infrastructure, impaired source water, and strained community finances may increase vulnerability of water systems to quality violations. In the aftermath of Flint, there is a great need to assess the current state of U.S. drinking water quality. How widespread are violations? What are the spatial and temporal patterns in water quality? Which types of communities and systems are most vulnerable? This is the first national assessment of trends in drinking water quality violations across several decades. In 2015, 9% of community water systems violated health-related water quality standards. These non-compliant systems served nearly 23 million people. Thus, the challenge of providing safe drinking water extends beyond Flint and represents a nationwide concern. We use a panel dataset that includes every community water system in the United States from 1981 to 2010 to identify factors that lead to regulatory noncompliance. This study focuses on health-related violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act. Lasso regression informed selection of appropriate covariates, while logistic regressions modeled the probability of noncompliance. We find that compliance is positively associated with private ownership, purchased water supply, and greater household income. Yet, greater concentration of utility ownership and violations in prior years are associated with a higher likelihood of violation. The results suggest that purchased water contracts, which are growing among small utilities, could serve as a way to improve regulatory compliance in the future. However, persistence of violations and ownership concentration deserve attention from policymakers. Already, the EPA has begun to prioritize enforcement of persistent violators. Overall, as the revitalization of U.S. water infrastructure becomes a growing priority area, results of this study are intended to inform investment and

  3. Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Sandstone Unit : Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rice Lake (including the Sandstone Unit) and Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2002...

  4. Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge : Sandstone Unit : Fiscal year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rice Lake (including the Sandstone Unit) and Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2003...

  5. Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge : Sandstone Unit : Fiscal year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rice Lake (including the Sandstone Unit) and Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2004...

  6. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, G.

    2003-03-17

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 square miles and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL's drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey's Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency's Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a this vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL's Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL's 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-1, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead

  7. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 2009 Water Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Book has been developed monitor water levels at all units in the Refuge Complex. Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby...

  8. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 2012 Water Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Book has been developed monitor water levels at all units in the Refuge Complex. Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby...

  9. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 2010 Water Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Book has been developed monitor water levels at all units in the Refuge Complex. Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby...

  10. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 2011 Water Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Book has been developed monitor water levels at all units in the Refuge Complex. Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby...

  11. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 2014 Water Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Book has been developed monitor water levels at all units in the Refuge Complex. Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby...

  12. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 2013 Water Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Book has been developed monitor water levels at all units in the Refuge Complex. Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby...

  13. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 2005 Water Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Book has been developed monitor water levels at all units in the Refuge Complex. Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby...

  14. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 2008 Water Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Book has been developed monitor water levels at all units in the Refuge Complex. Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby...

  15. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 2007 Water Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Book has been developed monitor water levels at all units in the Refuge Complex. Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby...

  16. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 2015 Water Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Book has been developed monitor water levels at all units in the Refuge Complex. Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, the...

  17. Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby Division, Navarre Division) : 2006 Water Book

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge Complex Water Book has been developed monitor water levels at all units in the Refuge Complex. Ottawa NWR, Cedar Point NWR, Darby...

  18. Data Delivery and Mapping Over the Web: National Water-Quality Assessment Data Warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard W.; Williamson, Alex K.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began its National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991, systematically collecting chemical, biological, and physical water-quality data from study units (basins) across the Nation. In 1999, the NAWQA Program developed a data warehouse to better facilitate national and regional analysis of data from 36 study units started in 1991 and 1994. Data from 15 study units started in 1997 were added to the warehouse in 2001. The warehouse currently contains and links the following data: -- Chemical concentrations in water, sediment, and aquatic-organism tissues and related quality-control data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS), -- Biological data for stream-habitat and ecological-community data on fish, algae, and benthic invertebrates, -- Site, well, and basin information associated with thousands of descriptive variables derived from spatial analysis, like land use, soil, and population density, and -- Daily streamflow and temperature information from NWIS for selected sampling sites.

  19. 50 CFR 600.320 - National Standard 3-Management Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Wherever practicable, an FMP should seek to manage interrelated stocks of fish. (c) Unity of management... management exits or is planned for a separate geographic area or for a distinct use of the stocks, or if the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Standard 3-Management Units....

  20. A review of United Nations tests for explosivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, A.K.; Mak, W.A.; Whitmore, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    In attempting to develop a closed pressure vessel test for assessing explosivity, arising from propagation of detonation, deflagration or thermal explosion, some difficulties were encountered in relation to United Nations test methods. This led to a review of these methods and comparisons of their p

  1. Model United Nations and Deep Learning: Theoretical and Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Susan; Pallas, Josh; Lambert, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the purposeful subject design, incorporating a Model United Nations (MUN), facilitated deep learning and professional skills attainment in the field of International Relations. Deep learning was promoted in subject design by linking learning objectives to Anderson and Krathwohl's (2001) four levels of knowledge or…

  2. The United Nations at 70: The Journey so Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftau, Rufai

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the United Nations in maintaining peace and harmonious relationship amongst its members is not in doubt, this being the primary functions as contained in its Charter of 1945. Since that time till date, it has recorded some tremendous achievements in this direction, though not without some challenges. These challenges among others…

  3. Current issues of space law before the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1974-01-01

    The United Nations' activities in the area of space law and the accomplishments of the Outer Space Committee are discussed. Two draft conventions, the draft treaty on the moon and the draft treaty on the registration of space objects are considered. Other issues covered include the direct broadcast by satellite, the boundary between air space and outer space, and remote sensing from space.

  4. The indigenous space and marginalized peoples in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens

    For more than 20 years, Jens Dahl has observed and now analyzed how a relatively independent space, the Indigenous Space, has been constructed within the confines of the United Nations. In the UN, indigenous peoples have achieved more than any other group of people, minorities included. The book...

  5. Understanding United Nations targeted sanctions: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giumelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    United Nations sanctions have undergone profound transformations in the past two decades. In 1990, the UN Security Council imposed a general, comprehensive embargo on Iraq after its invasion of Kuwait. In 2015, there are 16 Sanctions Committees managing regimes that have little in common with the on

  6. Trinta anos da United Nations International Force in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUFYAN DROUBI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como foco o “United Nations International Force in Lebanon”, uma das mais tradicionais missões de paz da ONU. Analisar-se-á seus objetivos, eficácia e desenvolvimento histórico.

  7. Malaysia’s Participation in a United Nations Standing Force: A Question of National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    future challenges so that Malaysia will continue to exist and sustain itself as a developed nation. As a multiracial nation, the Malaysian government...Amali bin Ahmad, Malaysian Army, 76 pages This thesis investigates whether Malaysia , as a small state, should participate in a United Nations (UN...many parties. In analyzing whether Malaysia should participate in a UN standing force, this paper explores the concept of comprehensive security to

  8. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge water regime map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water regime map for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This map of water regimes on the refuge was created along with the National Vegetation Classification...

  9. National Irrigation Water Quality Program data-synthesis data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    Under the National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP) of the U.S. Department of the Interior, researchers investigated contamination caused by irrigation drainage in 26 areas in the Western United States from 1986 to 1993. From 1992 to 1995, a comprehensive relational data base was built to organize data collected during the 26-area investigations. The data base provided the basis for analysis and synthesis of these data to identify common features of contaminated areas and hence dominant biologic, geologic, climatic, chemical, and physiographic factors that have resulted in contamination of water and biota in irrigated areas in the Western United States. Included in the data base are geologic, hydrologic, climatological, chemical, and cultural data that describe the 26 study areas in 14 Western States. The data base contains information on 1,264 sites from which water and bottom sediment were collected. It also contains chemical data from 6,903 analyses of surface water, 914 analyses of ground water, 707 analyses of inorganic constituents in bottom sediments, 223 analyses of organochlorine pesticides in bottom sediments, 8,217 analyses of inorganic constituents in biota, and 1,088 analyses for organic constituents in biota. The data base is available to the public and can be obtained at the NIWQP homepage http://www.usbr.gov/niwqp as dBase III tables for personal-computer systems or as American Standard Code for Information Exchange structured query language (SQL) command and data files for SQL data bases.

  10. Estimating irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate accounting of irrigation water use is an important part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Use Information Program and the WaterSMART initiative to help maintain sustainable water resources in the Nation. Irrigation water use in the humid eastern United States is not well characterized because of inadequate reporting and wide variability associated with climate, soils, crops, and farming practices. To better understand irrigation water use in the eastern United States, two types of predictive models were developed and compared by using metered irrigation water-use data for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops in Georgia and turf farms in Rhode Island. Reliable metered irrigation data were limited to these areas. The first predictive model that was developed uses logistic regression to predict the occurrence of irrigation on the basis of antecedent climate conditions. Logistic regression equations were developed for corn, cotton, peanut, and soybean crops by using weekly irrigation water-use data from 36 metered sites in Georgia in 2009 and 2010 and turf farms in Rhode Island from 2000 to 2004. For the weeks when irrigation was predicted to take place, the irrigation water-use volume was estimated by multiplying the average metered irrigation application rate by the irrigated acreage for a given crop. The second predictive model that was developed is a crop-water-demand model that uses a daily soil water balance to estimate the water needs of a crop on a given day based on climate, soil, and plant properties. Crop-water-demand models were developed independently of reported irrigation water-use practices and relied on knowledge of plant properties that are available in the literature. Both modeling approaches require accurate accounting of irrigated area and crop type to estimate total irrigation water use. Water-use estimates from both modeling methods were compared to the metered irrigation data from Rhode Island and Georgia that were used to

  11. 76 FR 82163 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous... United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods: Model Regulations (UN Model... and from the United States. In this document, PHMSA responds to administrative appeals,...

  12. 75 FR 54871 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The.... Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Water Security Division (Mail...

  13. Microbiological monitoring for the US Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Myers, Donna N.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2000-01-01

    Data to characterize the microbiological quality of the Nation?s fresh, marine, and estuarine waters are usually collected for local purposes, most often to judge compliance with standards for protection of public health in swimmable or drinkable waters. Methods and procedures vary with the objectives and practices of the parties collecting data and are continuously being developed or modified. Therefore, it is difficult to provide a nationally consistent picture of the microbial quality of the Nation?s waters. Study objectives and guidelines for a national microbiological monitoring program are outlined in this report, using the framework of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. A national program is designed to provide long-term data on the presence of microbiological pathogens and indicators in ground water and surface water to support effective water policy and management. Three major groups of waterborne pathogens affect the public health acceptability of waters in the United States?bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Microbiological monitoring in NAWQA would be designed to assess the occurrence, distribution, and trends of pathogenic organisms and indicators in surface waters and ground waters; relate the patterns discerned to factors that help explain them; and improve our understanding of the processes that control microbiological water quality.

  14. Building Human Rights, Peace and Development within the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guillermet Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available War and peace have perpetually alternated in history. Consequently, peace has always been seen as an endless project, even a dream, to be in brotherhood realized by everyone across the earth. Since the XVII century the elimination of war and armed conflict has been a political and humanitarian objective of all nations in the world. Both the League of Nations and the United Nations were conceived with the spirit of eliminating the risk of war through the promotion of peace, cooperation and solidarity among Nations. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the subsequent human rights instruments were drafted with a sincere aspiration of promoting the value of peace and human rights worldwide. International practice shows the close linkage between the disregard of human rights and the existence of war and armed conflict. It follows that the role of human rights in the prevention of war and armed conflict is very important. Since 2008 the Human Rights Council has been working on the ‘Promotion of the Right of Peoples to Peace.’ Pursuant resolutions 20/15 and 23/16 the Council decided firstly to establish, and secondly to extend the mandate of the Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG aimed at progressively negotiating a draft United Nations declaration on the right to peace. The OEGW welcomed in its second session (July 2014 the approach of the Chairperson-Rapporteur, which is basically based on the relationship between the right to life and human rights, peace and development.

  15. Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge : 1983 Water Management Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes water management on Benton Lake NWR during 1983. The effects of water levels on marsh units, water elevations, and a pumping report are...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1130 - Is commercial fishing authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authorized in the marine waters of Glacier Bay National Park? 13.1130 Section 13.1130 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1130 Is...

  17. Water Management Plan: Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water management on the Parker River National Wildlife Refuge includes two divergent types: impounded fresh water and natural saltmarsh, open salt water, and tidal...

  18. Annual Water Program 1970 : Pungo National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual water program covers water management activities for Pungo National Wildlife Refuge for calendar year 1970. The plan covers water flow regime,...

  19. Annual Water Management Program Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the effects of the 1989 water levels, water supply and water use on the ecology at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 1990. The report also...

  20. Hydrography - MO 2014 Outstanding National Resource Water Watersheds (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This feature class contains watersheds associated with Missouri's use designations for waters listed in Table D - Outstanding National Resource Waters of the Water...

  1. Annual Water Management Program Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the effects of the 1998 water levels, water supply and water use on the ecology at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 1999. The report also...

  2. Annual Water Management Program Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the effects of the 1988 water levels, water supply and water use on the ecology at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 1989. The report also...

  3. Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge : Long Range Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Long-Range Water Management Plan for Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge begins with a history of precipitation, water levels, wildlife use, disease, water...

  4. Long Range Water Management Plan : Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Long-Range Water Management Plan for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge begins with a history of precipitation, water levels, wildlife use, disease, water...

  5. Annual Water Management Program Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the effects of the 2002 water levels, water supply and water use on the ecology at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 2003. The report also...

  6. Annual Water Management Program Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the effects of the 1999 water levels, water supply and water use on the ecology at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 2000. The report also...

  7. Annual Water Management Program Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the effects of the 1987 water levels, water supply and water use on the ecology at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 1988. The report also...

  8. CERN’s new seat at the United Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    At the end of December, the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York granted CERN Observer status. As the only science organisation to acquire this prestigious status in the Assembly, CERN hopes to be able to raise awareness about the importance of fundamental science for society more effectively.   “Both CERN and the United Nations are committed to promoting science as a driving element for society. Both organisations promote dialogue between different cultures and can propose concrete models for peaceful cooperation towards objectives that benefit society as a whole,” says Maurizio Bona, CERN's officer in charge of relations with international organisations. Although the basic motivations are clear, obtaining the prestigious status from the UN was a long process that required negotiations and diplomatic work. Following some preliminary contacts with Switzerland starting in spring 2012, the resolution to grant observer status to CERN was jointly submitted...

  9. Concert | United Nations Orchestra at CERN | 19 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Orchestra will give a concert on the occasion of CERN’s 60th anniversary.   Under the baton of conductor and artistic director Antoine Marguier, the Orchestra will have the pleasure to accompany the soloist Maestro Matteo Fedeli, who, under the patronage of the Permanent Mission of Italy to the United Nations, will perform on a Stradivarius violin. The programme for the concert comprises: Jacques Offenbach, Orpheus in the Underworld Overture Franz von Suppé, Poet and Peasant Overture Camille Saint-Saëns, Introduction & Rondo Capriccioso for solo violin and orchestra Georges Bizet, Carmen Suite No. 1 Franz Lehár, Gold and Silver Waltz Gioachino Rossini, William Tell Overture   Doors open at 6 p.m. The concert will take place in a marquee behind the Globe of Science and Innovation, CERN Book your ticket here.

  10. Concert | United Nations Orchestra at CERN | 19 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Orchestra will give a concert on the occasion of CERN’s 60th anniversary.   Under the baton of conductor and artistic director Antoine Marguier, the Orchestra will have the pleasure to accompany the soloist Maestro Matteo Fedeli, who, under the patronage of the Permanent Mission of Italy to the United Nations, will perform on a Stradivarius violin. The programme for the concert comprises: Jacques Offenbach, Orpheus in the Underworld Overture Franz von Suppé, Poet and Peasant Overture Camille Saint-Saëns, Introduction & Rondo Capriccioso for solo violin and orchestra Georges Bizet, Carmen Suite No. 1 Franz Lehár, Gold and Silver Waltz Gioachino Rossini, William Tell Overture   Doors open at 6 p.m. The concert will take place in a marquee behind the Globe of Science and Innovation, CERN Book your ticket here.

  11. Revitalizing the United Nations. Anticipation and Prevention as Primary Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Novosseloff

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In tackling the on-going topic of UN reform, one should be honest with the analysis of the problems at stakes. It is necessary to first take into account the profound changes that have occurred since the end of the Cold War, as well as acknowledging the limits of an international organization and the shape of the UN system. It is only from that analysis that proposals can be made to rationalize and to make more efficient the functioning of the United Nations. What the Organization needs is not only a rationalization, it primarily needs a vision that gives it purpose and meaning. This article proposes that its primary goals should be anticipation and prevention – it should be the advanced guard and the conscience of the world. In this context, the United Nations is an indispensable and priceless instrument in international relations.

  12. The status of community water fluoridation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, M W

    1990-01-01

    discovery. Without a major increase in emphasis at the highest policy levels within local, State, and Federal health agencies, fluoridation objectives currently proposed for inclusion in the year 2000 national health objectives are not likely to be achieved. More private sector involvement and better coordination of efforts among all levels of government will be necessary to make significant improvements in progress toward universal fluoridation of all public water supplies in the United States.

  13. Contribution of UHV Grid to United National Power Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Power market construction is an important part of the marketization reform in China's electric power industry and an essential part of the economic system reform in China. With the social and economic development, the contradiction between distribution of energy resources and development of regional economies gets increasingly noticeable, and a united national power market is consequentially required to optimize the allocation of energy resources over the whole country. Analyses indicate that the developmen...

  14. Environmental Securitization within the United Nations: A Political Ecology Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    If empirical evidences show that environmental security is on the United Nations agenda, very few studies try to understand the agenda-setting process of this issue. My thesis research intends to fill this gap by analyzing the process of environmental securitization within the organization. Securitization theories and critical security studies propose a first useful set of theoretical tools. Nonetheless, this communication argues that they are not the only ones, and that Political Ecology cou...

  15. An Update on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Della Anne

    2017-03-08

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals initiative, designed to meet the needs of the world's poorest, ended in 2015. The purpose of this article is to describe the progress made through the Millennium Development Goals and the additional work needed to address vulnerable populations worldwide, especially women and children. A description of the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals, enacted to address the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development for all people, is provided.

  16. United nations Supported principles for Responsible Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godemann, Jasmin; Moon, Jeremy; Haertle, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    and various ecological system crises. The United Nations supported Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME) initiative is an important catalyst for the transformation of management education and a global initiative to change and reform management education in order to meet the increasing......The expectation that management education institutions should be leading thought and action on issues related to corporate responsibility and sustainability has been reinforced in the light of their association with business leaders' failings, including corporate corruption, the financial crisis...

  17. Water matters: An assessment of opinion on water management and community engagement in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alec Rolston; Eleanor Jennings; Suzanne Linnane

    2017-01-01

    ... in significant public disquiet and protest movements against the national government. In April 2015 we undertook a survey of current opinion on water management and community engagement initiatives in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom...

  18. National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Mekonnen; A. Y. Hoekstra

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprints of nations from both a production and consumption perspective and estimates international virtual water flows and national and global water savings as a result of trade. The entire estimate includes a breakdown of water footprints, virtual water flows and water savings into their green, blue and grey components.

  19. Postdeployment reintegration experiences of female soldiers from national guard and reserve units in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E

    2014-01-01

    Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.

  20. Suicides in national parks--United States, 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    In 2007, the year for which the most recent national data on fatalities are available, 34,598 suicides occurred in the United States (rate: 11.3 per 100,000 population); 79% were among males. In 2009, an estimated 374,486 visits to hospital emergency departments occurred for self-inflicted injury, of which approximately 262,000 (70%) could be attributed to suicidal behavior. The majority (58%) were among females. Most suicides (77%) occur in the home, but many occur in public places, including national parks. In addition to the loss of life, suicides consume park resources and staff time and can traumatize witnesses. To describe the characteristics of and trends in suicides in national parks, CDC and the National Park Service (NPS) analyzed reports of suicide events (suicides and attempted suicides) occurring in the parks during 2003-2009. During this 7-year span, 84 national parks reported 286 suicide events, an average of 41 events per year. Of the 286 events, 68% were fatal. The two most commonly used methods were firearms and falls. Consistent with national patterns, 83% of suicides were among males. A comprehensive, multicomponent approach is recommended to prevent suicide events, including enhanced training for park employees, site-specific barriers, and collaboration with communities.

  1. Public water supplies of the 100 largest cities of the United States, 1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfor, Charles N.; Becker, Edith

    1964-01-01

    The public water supplies of the 100 largest cities in the United States (1960 U.S. Census) serve 9,650 million gallons of water per day (mgd) to 60 million people, which is 34 percent of the Nation's total population and 48 percent of the Nation's urban population. The amount of water used to satisfy the domestic needs as well as the needs of commerce and industry ranges from 13 mgd, which serves a population of 124,000, to 1,200 mgd, which serves a city of 8 million people.

  2. Streamflow of 2015—Water year national summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Xiaodong; Wolock, David M.; Lins, Harry F.; Brady, Steve

    2016-08-30

    IntroductionThe maps and graphs in this summary describe national streamflow conditions for water year 2015 (October 1, 2014, to September 30, 2015) in the context of the 86-year period 1930–2015, unless otherwise noted. The illustrations are based on observed data from the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) National Streamflow Information Program http://water.usgs.gov/nsip). The period 1930–2015 was used because prior to 1930, the number of streamgages was too small to provide representative data for computing statistics for most regions of the country.In the summary, reference is made to the term “runoff,” which is the depth to which a river basin, State, or other geographic area would be covered with water if all the streamflow within the area during a specified time period was uniformly distributed upon it. Runoff quantifies the magnitude of water flowing through the Nation's rivers and streams in measurement units that can be compared from one area to another.Each of the maps and graphs can be expanded to a larger view by clicking on the image. In all of the graphics, a rank of 1 indicates the highest flow of all years analyzed. Rankings of streamflow are grouped into much-below normal, below normal, normal, above normal, and much-above normal, based on percentiles of flow (greater than 90 percent, 76–90 percent, 25–75 percent, 10–24 percent, and less than 10 percent, respectively) (http://waterwatch.usgs.gov/?id=ww_current). Some data used to produce maps and graphs are provisional and subject to change.

  3. An inflight refill unit for replenishing research animal drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. L.; Barnes, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design process and development approach for a method of maintaining sufficient quantities of water for research animals during a Shuttle mission of long duration. An inflight refill unit (IRU) consisting of two major subsystems, a fluid pumping unit (FPU) and a collapsible water reservoir (CWR), were developed. The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar (TM) reinforced storage bladder connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system, allowing for transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two research animal holding facilities. Additional components of the IRU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 29V direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab.

  4. Methods for Estimating Water Withdrawals for Aquaculture in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Aquaculture water use is associated with raising organisms that live in water - such as finfish and shellfish - for food, restoration, conservation, or sport. Aquaculture production occurs under controlled feeding, sanitation, and harvesting procedures primarily in ponds, flow-through raceways, and, to a lesser extent, cages, net pens, and tanks. Aquaculture ponds, raceways, and tanks usually require the withdrawal or diversion of water from a ground or surface source. Most water withdrawn or diverted for aquaculture production is used to maintain pond levels and/or water quality. Water typically is added for maintenance of levels, oxygenation, temperature control, and flushing of wastes. This report documents methods used to estimate withdrawals of fresh ground water and surface water for aqua-culture in 2005 for each county and county-equivalent in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands by using aquaculture statistics and estimated water-use coefficients and water-replacement rates. County-level data for commercial and noncommercial operations compiled for the 2005 Census of Aquaculture were obtained from the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Withdrawals of water used at commercial and noncommercial operations for aquaculture ponds, raceways, tanks, egg incubators, and pens and cages for alligators were estimated and totaled by ground-water or surface-water source for each county and county equivalent. Use of the methods described in this report, when measured or reported data are unavailable, could result in more consistent water-withdrawal estimates for aquaculture that can be used by water managers and planners to determine water needs and trends across the United States. The results of this study were distributed to U.S. Geological Survey water-use personnel in each State during 2007. Water-use personnel are required to submit estimated withdrawals for all categories of use in their State to the U.S. Geological Survey National

  5. Methodology for the National Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool Commercial/Institutional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Long, Tim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Alison [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Melody, Moya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a mathematical model to quantify the water and monetary savings attributable to the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) WaterSense labeling program for commercial and institutional products. The National Water Savings–Commercial/Institutional (NWS-CI) model is a spreadsheet tool with which the EPA can evaluate the success of its program for encouraging buyers in the commercial and institutional (CI) sectors to purchase more water-efficient products. WaterSense has begun by focusing on three water-using products commonly used in the CI sectors: flushometer valve toilets, urinals, and pre-rinse spray valves. To estimate the savings attributable to WaterSense for each of the three products, LBNL applies an accounting method to national product shipments and lifetimes to estimate the shipments of each product.

  6. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    to lengthen by 15-25 days in some areas of Alaska, with much of that corresponding with earlier spring snow melt. Future projections of precipitation (30-80 years) over Alaska show an increase across the State, with the largest changes in the northwest and smallest in the southeast. Because of increasing temperatures and growing season length, however, increased precipitation may not correspond with increased water availability, due to temperature related increased evapotranspiration. The extent of snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere has decreased by about 10 percent since the late 1960s, with stronger trends noted since the late 1980s. Alaska has experienced similar trends, with a strong decrease in snow cover extent occurring in May. When averaged across the State, the disappearance of snow in the spring has occurred from 4 to 6 days earlier per decade, and snow return in fall has occurred approximately 2 days later per decade. This change appears to be driven by climate warming rather than a decrease in winter precipitation, with average winter temperatures also increasing by about 2.5°F. The extent of sea ice has been declining, as has been widely published in both national and scientific media outlets, and is projected to continue to decline during this century. The observed decline in annual sea ice minimum extent (September) has occurred more rapidly than was predicted by climate models and has been accompanied by decreases in ice thickness and in the presence of multi-year ice. This decrease was first documented by satellite imagery in the late 1970s for the Bering and Chukchi Seas, and is projected to continue, with the potential for the disappearance of summer sea ice by mid- to late century. A new phenomenon that was not reported in previous assessments is ocean acidification. Uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) by oceans has a significant effect on marine biogeochemistry by reducing seawater pH. Ocean acidification is of particular concern in Alaska

  7. The United States national volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albersheim, Steven; Guffanti, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic-ash clouds are a known hazard to aviation, requiring that aircraft be warned away from ash-contaminated airspace. The exposure of aviation to potential hazards from volcanoes in the United States is significant. In support of existing interagency operations to detect and track volcanic-ash clouds, the United States has prepared a National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation to strengthen the warning process in its airspace. The US National Plan documents the responsibilities, communication protocols, and prescribed hazard messages of the Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Geological Survey, and Air Force Weather Agency. The plan introduces a new message format, a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation, to provide clear, concise information about volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to air-traffic controllers (for use in Notices to Airmen) and other aviation users. The plan is online at http://www.ofcm.gov/p35-nvaopa/pdf/FCM-P35-2007-NVAOPA.pdf. While the plan provides general operational practices, it remains the responsibility of the federal agencies involved to implement the described procedures through orders, directives, etc. Since the plan mirrors global guidelines of the International Civil Aviation Organization, it also provides an example that could be adapted by other countries.

  8. The United Nations Framework Classification for World Petroleum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blystad, P.; Young, E.D.; Slavov, S.; Heiberg, S.

    2003-01-01

    The United Nations has developed an international framework classification for solid fuels and minerals (UNFC). This is now being extended to petroleum by building on the joint classification of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the World Petroleum Congresses (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). The UNFC is a 3-dimansional classification. This: Is necessary in order to migrate accounts of resource quantities that are developed on one or two of the axes to the common basis; Provides for more precise reporting and analysis. This is particularly useful in analyses of contingent resources. The characteristics of the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification has been preserved and enhanced to facilitate improved international and national petroleum resource management, corporate business process management and financial reporting. A UN intergovernmental committee responsible for extending the UNFC to extractive energy resources (coal, petroleum and uranium) will meet in Geneva on October 30th and 31st to review experiences gained and comments received during 2003. A recommended classification will then be delivered for consideration to the United Nations through the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE).

  9. National water summary 1987: Hydrologic events and water supply and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.; Moody, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Water use in the United States, as measured by freshwater withdrawals in 1985, averaged 338,000 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), which is enough water to cover the 48 conterminous States to a depth of about 2.4 inches. Only 92,300 Mgal/d, or 27.3 percent of the water withdrawn, was consumptive use and thus lost to immediate further use; the remainder of the withdrawals (72.7 percent) was return flow available for reuse a number of times as the water flowed to the sea. The 1985 freshwater withdrawals were much less than the average 30 inches of precipitation that falls on the conterminous States each year; consumptive use accounted for only 7 percent of the estimated annual runoff of 1,230,000 Mgal/d. Nonetheless, as the State summaries on water supply and use clearly show, water is not always available when and where it is needed. Balancing water demands with available water supplies constitutes one of the major resource allocation issues that will face the United States in the coming decade.Of the 1985 freshwater withdrawals, 78.3 percent (265,000 Mgal/d) came from surface-water sources (streams and lakes), and 21.7 percent (73,300 Mgal/d) came from ground water. Surface water provided drinking water for about 47 percent of the Nation's total population. It was the source of 59.9 percent of the Nation's public-supply systems. For self-supplied withdrawals, surface water accounted for 1.6 percent of the domestic and commercial uses; 64.0 percent of the industrial and mining use; 99.4 percent of the thermoelectric generation withdrawals, mainly for cooling water; and 65.6 percent of the agricultural withdrawals. Eight States accounted for 43 percent of the surface-water use; California, Colorado, and Idaho used surface water primarily for irrigation, and Dlinois, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas used surface-water primarily for cooling condensers or reactors in thermoelectric plants.Ground water provided drinking water for 53 percent of the Nation's total

  10. Direct and indirect urban water footprints of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chini, Christopher M.; Konar, Megan; Stillwell, Ashlynn S.

    2017-01-01

    The water footprint of the urban environment is not limited to direct water consumption (i.e., municipal supplies); embedded water in imported resources, or virtual water transfers, provides an additional component of the urban water footprint. Using empirical data, our analysis extends traditional urban water footprinting analysis to quantify both direct and indirect urban resources for the United States. We determine direct water volumes and their embedded energy through open records requests of water utilities. The indirect component of the urban water footprint includes water indirectly consumed through energy and food, relating to the food-energy-water nexus. We comprehensively quantify the indirect water footprint for 74 metropolitan statistical areas through the combination of various databases, including the Commodity Flow Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the Water Footprint Network, and the Energy Information Administration. We then analyze spatial heterogeneity in both direct and indirect water footprints, determining the average urban water footprint in the United States to be 1.64 million gallons of water per person per year [6200 m3/person/yr or 17,000 L/person/d], dominated by indirect water. Additionally, our study of the urban water cycle extends beyond considering only water resources to include embedded energy and equivalent carbon dioxide emissions. The inclusion of multiple sectors of the urban water cycle and their underlying processes provides important insights to the overall urban environment, the interdependencies of the food-energy-water nexus, and water resource sustainability. Our results provide opportunities for benchmarking the urban energy-water nexus, water footprints, and climate change potential.

  11. National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprints of nations from both a production and consumption perspective and estimates international virtual water flows and national and global water savings as a result of trade. The entire estimate includes a breakdown of water footprints, virtual water

  12. National water footprint accounts: the green, blue and grey water footprint of production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2011-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprints of nations from both a production and consumption perspective and estimates international virtual water flows and national and global water savings as a result of trade. The entire estimate includes a breakdown of water footprints, virtual water fl

  13. Water reuse: potential for expanding the nation's water supply through reuse of municipal wastewater

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on the Assessment of Water Reuse as an Approach to Meeting Future Water Supply Needs; National Research Council

    "Expanding water reuse--the use of treated wastewater for beneficial purposes including irrigation, industrial uses, and drinking water augmentation--could significantly increase the nation's total...

  14. Nutrients in ground water and surface water of the United States; an analysis of data through 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, D.K.; Hamilton, P.A.; Helsel, D.R.; Hitt, K.J.; Ruddy, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    Historical data on nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species) concentrations in ground-and surface-water samples were compiled from 20 study units of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program and 5 supplemental study areas. The resultant national retrospective data sets contained analyses of about 12,000 Found-water and more than 22,000 surface-water samples. These data were interpreted on regional and national scales by relating the distributions of nutrient concentrations to ancillary data, such as land use, soil characteristics, and hydrogeology, provided by local study-unit personnel. The information provided in this report on environmental factors that affect nutrient concentrations in ground and surface water can be used to identify areas of the Nation where the vulnerability to nutrient contamination is greatest. Nitrate was the nutrient of greatest concern in the historical ground-water data. It is the only nutrient that is regulated by a national drinking-water standard. Nitrate concentrations were significantly different in ground water affected by various land uses. Concentrations in about 16 percent of the samples collected in agricultural areas exceeded the drinking-water standard. However, the standard was exceeded in only about 1 percent of samples collected from public-supply wells. A variety of ancillary factors had significant relations to nitrate concentrations in ground water beneath agricultural areas. Concentrations generally were highest within 100 feet of the land surface. They were also higher in areas where soil and geologic characteristics promoted rapid movement of water to the aquifer. Elevated concentrations commonly occurred in areas underlain by permeable materials, such as carbonate bedrock or unconsolidated sand and gravel, and where soils are generally well drained. In areas where water movement is impeded, denitrification might lead to low concentrations of nitrate in the ground water. Low concentrations were also

  15. EPA Office of Water (OW): 12-digit Hydrologic Unit Boundaries of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) is a complete digital hydrologic unit national boundary layer that is at the Subwatershed (12-digit) level. It is composed of...

  16. Future United States Domestic Water Demand

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Population projections, estimated per capita consumption rate, and estimated total annual water demand to 2100 for four future projections based off the IPCC SRES...

  17. The United Nations: the embarrassment of international law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Denis J

    2002-01-01

    The United Nations should be working towards an international community living in peace under the aegis of international law. Although progress was made in its early years, notably in decolonization, with its membership increased from 50 to 189, major inequalities remain between its nations and their peoples. The Security Council, and in particular its five permanent members (P5), has been guilty of double standards in enforcing international law. Investment should create prosperity and not increase demand for arms. Independent oversight of the UN, and particularly the Security Council, by civil society is needed. If the legitimacy of the UN is to be restored, the Security Council should become more representative, the power of the General Assembly should be restored and the role of the International Court of Justice should be increased. All members of the UN, especially the PS, must respect international law as enshrined in the UN Charter and Conventions.

  18. United Nations Operations: Who Should be in Charge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Cold War; Panama, Iraq, and the New World Order, in RIGHT V. MIGHT, supra note 16, at 109, 128; and HANS KELSON, THE LAW OF THE UNITED NATIONS 928...interpretation would also appear to resolve Kelsen’s dilemma (see KELSEN , supra note 35, at 935) with respect to the Korean conflict. Kelsen argues the Security...and Scheffer, supra note 35, at 131. 45. See D. J. HARRIS, CASES AND MATERIAL ON INTERNATIONAL LAW 681 (4th ed. 1991); KELSEN , supra note 35, at 756

  19. Geothermal exploitation activity by the United Nations in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. (Geological Survey of Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The Rift Valley in Ethiopia was investigated for geothermal exploitation by the United Nations because it has Quaternary volcanoes which often indicate possible geothermal power generation. Preparations for the project are still being made, and the chemical analysis of hot springs is being conducted. The Rift Valley has high temperature springs and potential mineral deposits. The Danakil basin in Ethiopia which is included in the Northern Afar, has several active volcanoes made up of basalt deposits and has active hot springs. The East Africa Rift Valley, the Red Sea Rift Valley, and the Afar area are also areas suitable for investigation. Seven maps are included.

  20. A United Nations Global Health Panel for Global Health Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization now relies upon voluntary contributions tied to specific projects, underwriting 75% of operations. A resulting cacophony of non-governmental, foundation, and private sector actors have emerged overlapping and fractionating WHO programs. In this expanding world of "global health organizations," WHO's role must be redefined. We propose coordination of global health initiatives through a United Nations Global Health Panel with active participation of WHO. Given recent events, the UN is poised to take a greater leadership role in global health.

  1. Revitalizing the United Nations. Anticipation and Prevention as Primary Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Novosseloff

    2000-01-01

    In tackling the on-going topic of UN reform, one should be honest with the analysis of the problems at stakes. It is necessary to first take into account the profound changes that have occurred since the end of the Cold War, as well as acknowledging the limits of an international organization and the shape of the UN system. It is only from that analysis that proposals can be made to rationalize and to make more efficient the functioning of the United Nations. What the Organization needs is no...

  2. Estimating national water use associated with unconventional oil and gas development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Delzer, Gregory C.

    2016-05-18

    The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Water Availability and Use Science Program (WAUSP) goals are to provide a more accurate assessment of the status of the water resources of the United States and assist in the determination of the quantity and quality of water that is available for beneficial uses. These assessments would identify long-term trends or changes in water availability since the 1950s in the United States and help to develop the basis for an improved ability to forecast water avail- ability for future economic, energy-production, and environmental uses. The National Water Census (http://water.usgs.gov/watercensus/), a research program of the WAUSP, supports studies to develop new water accounting tools and assess water availability at the regional and national scales. Studies supported by this program target focus areas with identified water availability concerns and topical science themes related to the use of water within a specific type of environmental setting. The topical study described in this fact sheet will focus on understanding the relation between production of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) for energy and the water needed to produce and sustain this type of energy development. This relation applies to the life-cycle of renewable and nonrenewable forms of UOG energy and includes extraction, production, refinement, delivery, and disposal of waste byproducts. Water-use data and models derived from this topical study will be applied to other similar oil and gas plays within the United States to help resource managers assess and account for water used or needed in these areas. Additionally, the results from this topical study will be used to further refine the methods used in compiling water-use data for selected categories (for example, mining, domestic self-supplied, public supply, and wastewater) in the USGS’s 5-year national water-use estimates reports (http://water.usgs.gov/watuse/).

  3. 2015 Key Water Power Program and National Laboratory Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Water Power Program is committed to developing and deploying a portfolio of innovative technologies and market solutions for clean, domestic power generation from water resources across the United States.

  4. Annual Water Management Program - 1991 : Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The proposed water management program for 1991 focuses on managing unit water levels to maintain habitat on Big Stone NWR. During the winter of 1990/91, cattails...

  5. 1995 Annual Water Management Plan : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The 1995 Water Management Plan for Muscatatuck NWR begins by summarizing the 1994 Water Management Program. Management results for moist soil units, green tree...

  6. A Novel Type of Thermal Solar Water Disinfection Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Dietl, Jochen; Engelbart, Hendryk; Sielaff, Axel

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of solar thermal water disinfection unit is presented in this work. The system is safe and easy to use and can be built with basic tools and widely available materials. In the unit, water is disinfected by temperature increase up to the boiling point and output is controlled by the change in density. For employing the change in density to control the water output, a dimensioning procedure is suggested, giving the required height of the water reservoir, the heating section and ...

  7. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report explains the effects of the 1994 water levels on the ecology of Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge and it proposes the water surface elevations of the...

  8. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water...

  9. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Cape May National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Cape May National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water...

  10. Water Management Program Report 1981 Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual program describes the results of the 1980 water management program at Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and outlines the water regimen plan for 1981....

  11. Water Management Program Report 1979 Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual program describes the results of the 1978 water management program at Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge and outlines the water regimen plan for 1979....

  12. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Okefenokee National Wildlife Refugesummarizes available information relevant to refuge water resources,...

  13. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report explains the effects of the 1996 water levels on the ecology of Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge and it proposes the water surface elevations of the...

  14. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report explains the effects of the 2000 water levels on the ecology of Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge and it proposes the water surface elevations of the...

  15. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report explains the effects of the 1998 water levels on the ecology of Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge and it proposes the water surface elevations of the...

  16. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report explains the effects of the 1988 water levels on the ecology of Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge and it proposes the water surface elevations of the...

  17. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment: Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Ruby Lake National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water...

  18. Water Management at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report highlights the results in water management at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge in 1983. This report includes a summary of water management in...

  19. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report explains the effects of the 1999 water levels on the ecology of Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge and it proposes the water surface elevations of the...

  20. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report explains the effects of the 1989 water levels on the ecology of Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge and it proposes the water surface elevations of the...

  1. Water Program Report Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an annual water management report for Presquile National Wildlife Refuge that states that the refuge has no impounded waters and can sustain objective level...

  2. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report explains the effects of the 1997 water levels on the ecology of Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge and it proposes the water surface elevations of the...

  3. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report explains the effects of the 1992 water levels on the ecology of Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge and it proposes the water surface elevations of the...

  4. Hydrography - MO 2013 Outstanding National Resource Waters (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This feature class contains Missouri's Outstanding National Resource Waters listed in Table D of the Water Quality Standards rule as published in the Code of State...

  5. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment: Pixley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Pixley National Wildlife Refuge describes hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water resource...

  6. Cache River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) for Cache River National Wildlife Refuge summarizes available and relevant information for refuge water...

  7. 78 FR 1101 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... 178 RIN 2137-AE83 Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the... Regulations), and the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods: Model Regulations... a Department of Transportation (DOT) or United Nations (UN) standard packaging. Most...

  8. 77 FR 42973 - Export and Reexport Controls to Rwanda and United Nations Sanctions Under the Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Controls to Rwanda and United Nations Sanctions Under the Export Administration Regulations AGENCY: Bureau... Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to implement United Nations... conforming changes in the EAR related to the termination of the United Nations embargo on ``arms and...

  9. Multilateral Disarmament and the Special Session: Twelfth Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The report discusses issues relating to multilateral disarmament in the context of the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly to be convened in 1978. Intended as a forum for the exchange of ideas of government leaders from the United States and other nations about the international peace-keeping role of the United Nations, the…

  10. ROTARY DAY AT THE UNITED NATIONS OFFICE IN GENEVA

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    We have been informed about the Rotary day at the United Nations office in Geneva. Join us on November 10th & 11th, 2017 at the United Nations office Avenue de la Paix 8-14 1211 Geneva, Switzerland   PEACE: MAKING A DIFFERENCE! Conflict and violence displace millions of people each year. Half of those killed in conflict are children, and 90 percent are civilians. We, Rotarians, refuse conflict as a way of life. But how can we contribute to Peace? And what about you? Are you keen on meeting exceptional individuals and exchanging ideas to move forward? Would you like to network and collaborate with Rotarians, Government Representatives, International Civil Servants, Representatives of Nongovernmental Organizations and Liberal Professions, Businessmen/women, and Students to make a difference in Peace? In November 2017, come to Geneva, get involved, and formulate recommendations to the international community. Together, we’ll celebrate Rotary&a...

  11. Forest management and water in the United States [Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary

    2017-01-01

    This chapter outlines a brief history of the United States native forests and forest plantations. It describes the past and current natural and plantation forest distribution (map, area, main species), as well as main products produced (timber, pulp, furniture, etc.). Integrated into this discussion is a characterization of the water resources of the United States and...

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Montana Thrust Belt Province (027) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  13. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Florida Peninsula Province (050) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Southwestern Wyoming Province (037) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  15. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Wyoming Thrust Belt Province (036) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  16. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Western Oregon-Washington Province (004) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Joaquin Basin Province (010) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  18. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Juan Basin Province (022) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  19. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Yukon Flats Assessment Area (002) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Anadarko Basin Province (058) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Hanna, Laramie, Shirley Basins Province (030) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Paradox Basin (021) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  3. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Michigan Basin Province (063) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Illinois Basin Province (064) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  5. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  6. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Black Warrior Province (065) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  7. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Williston Basin Province (031) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  8. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Unconventional Assessment Units from 2000 to 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  9. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  10. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Denver Basin Province (039) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  11. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Cherokee Platform Province Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  12. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province, Mancos Formation Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  13. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uteland Butte Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Eastern Great Basin (019) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  15. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Cotton Valley Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  16. A national look at nitrate contamination of ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Ruddy, Barbara C.; Hitt, Kerie J.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    1998-01-01

    Ground water provides drinking water for more than one-half of the Nation's population (Solley and others, 1993), and is the sole source of drinking water for many rural communities and some large cities. In 1990, ground water accounted for 39 percent of water withdrawn for public supply for cities and towns and 96 percent of water withdrawn by self-supplied systems for domestic use.

  17. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 1, Northwest United States: NLCD01_1

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  18. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 4, Southeast United States: NLCD01_4

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  19. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 3, Southwest United States: NLCD01_3

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg).The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  20. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 2, Northeast United States: NLCD01_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  1. Environmental toxicology data collected by the NOAA, National Ocean Service, National Centers For Coastal Ocean Science, National Status and Trends Program for monitoring contaminants in coastal United States marine water bodies from 01 Jan 1960 to 05 May 2010 (NODC Accession 0074376)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Status and Trends Program is comprised of three nationwide programs: Benthic Surveillance, Mussel Watch, and Bioeffects. These programs are in place to...

  2. 2011 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 20)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renee Bowser

    2012-06-01

    This 2011 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 20) provides water use information (monthly annual average and total annual volume) for production and potable water wells at the Idaho National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2011. It also provides detailed information for new, modified, and abandoned (decommissioned) wells and holes. One new well was drilled and completed and one well was modified in Calendar Year 2011. A total of 14 wells and boreholes were reported as decommissioned. Detailed construction information for the new and modified wells is provided. Details are provided for the wells and boreholes that have been decommissioned, and if available, construction diagrams. Location maps are included, provided survey information was available. This report is being submitted in accordance with the Water Rights Agreement between the State of Idaho and the United States, for the United States Department of Energy (dated 1990) and the subsequent Partial Decree for Water Right 34-10901 issued June 20, 2003.

  3. 2014 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 23)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This 2014 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 23) provides water use information for production and potable water wells at the Idaho National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2014. It also provides detailed information for new, modified, and decommissioned wells and holes. One new well was drilled and completed in Calendar Year 2014. No modifications were performed on any wells. No wells were decommissioned in Calendar Year 2014. Detailed construction information and a location map for the new well is provided. This report is being submitted in accordance with the Water Rights Agreement between the State of Idaho and the United States, for the United States Department of Energy (dated 1990), the subsequent Partial Decree for Water Right 34-10901 issued June 20, 2003, and the Final Unified Decree issued August 26, 2014.

  4. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 19)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2011-06-01

    This 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 19) provides water use information (monthly annual average and total annual volume) for production and potable water wells at the Idaho National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2010. It also provides detailed information for new, modified, and abandoned (decommissioned) wells and holes. Five new wells were drilled and completed in the latter part of Calendar Years 2009 and 2010. Two wells were modified in Calendar Year 2010 and 66 wells and boreholes reported as abandoned (decommissioned). Detailed construction information for the new and modified wells, along with abandonment information for older wells, is provided. Location maps are provided if survey information was available. This report is being submitted in accordance with the Water Rights Agreement between the State of Idaho and the United States, for the United States Department of Energy (dated 1990) and the subsequent Partial Decree for Water Right 34-10901 issued June 20, 2003.

  5. 2013 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 22)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Lewis

    2014-06-01

    This 2013 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 22) provides water use information for production and potable water wells at the Idaho National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2013. It also provides detailed information for new, modified, and decommissioned wells and holes. Two new wells were drilled and completed in Calendar Year 2013. No modifications were performed on any wells. Seven wells were decommissioned in Calendar Year 2013. Detailed construction information for the new and decommissioned wells is provided. Location maps are included, provided survey information was available. This report is being submitted in accordance with the Water Rights Agreement between the State of Idaho and the United States, for the United States Department of Energy (dated 1990) and the subsequent Partial Decree for Water Right 34-10901 issued June 20, 2003.

  6. 77 FR 75254 - List of Units of the National Park System Exempt From the Provisions of the National Parks Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service List of Units of the National Park System Exempt From the Provisions of the National Parks Air Tour Management Act AGENCIES: Federal Aviation Administration, Transportation; National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: List of...

  7. 75 FR 20352 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the third in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  8. 75 FR 35458 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the fourth in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  9. 75 FR 1380 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting... Agency (EPA or Agency) is announcing the second in-person meeting of the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The purpose of...

  10. The National Security Strategy Under the United Nations and International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    a result of that war." This was addressed in 1951 by Hans Kelsen in a legal analysis of fundamental problems with the UN Charter. He concluded that...www.zmag.org/content/print_article.cfm>; Internet; accessed 31 January 2004. 36 Charter of the United Nations, Article 107. 37 Kearly, 27–28. 38 Hans Kelsen ...the framers introduced ambiguity reveals exactly what the framers intended. Kearly cites Hans Kelsen’s authoritative research of the charter of the

  11. Hydrogeologic Assessment of the East Bear Creek Unit, San LuisNational Wildlife Refuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2007-07-15

    San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex to meetReclamation s obligations for Level 4 water supply under the CentralValley Project Improvement Act. Hydrogeological assessment of the EastBear Creek Unit of the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge was conductedusing a combination of field investigations and a survey of availableliterature from past US Geological Survey Reports and reports by localgeological consultants. Conservative safe yield estimates made using theavailable data show that the East Bear Creek Unit may have sufficientgroundwater resources in the shallow groundwater aquifer to meet aboutbetween 25 percent and 52 percent of its current Level II and between 17percent and 35 percent of its level IV water supply needs. The rate ofsurface and lateral recharge to the Unit and the design of the well fieldand the layout and capacity of pumped wells will decide both thepercentage of annual needs that the shallow aquifer can supply andwhether this yield is sustainable without affecting long-term aquiferquality. In order to further investigate the merits of pumping the nearsurface aquifer, which appears to have reasonable water quality for usewithin the East Bear Creek Unit -- monitoring of the potential sources ofaquifer recharge and the installation of a pilot shallow well would bewarranted. Simple monitoring stations could be installed both upstreamand downstream of both the San Joaquin River and Bear Creek and beinstrumented to measureriver stage, flow and electrical conductivity.Ideally this would be done in conjunction with a shallow pilot well,pumped to supply a portion of the Unit's needs for the wetland inundationperiod.

  12. The United Nations Standing Force a Qualitative Analysis of Strategic and Operational Options for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Council, has done .ch community...But, as much as the United Nations has done, it can do much more." Chaiaiing Times As the Bob Dylan song goes, "The...to our nation’s defense well into the twenty-first century. When Bob Dylan’s song was popular, it was also relevant. At that time, the United States

  13. The United Nations and Energy Management. Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade (15th, Woodstock, Vermont, June 15-20, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The conference described in this report convened to provide a forum for exchanging ideas and opinions on the role of the United Nations in global energy management. The conference was one in a series of international meetings (14 have been held to date) to consider how to increase the effectiveness of the United Nations during the 1980s. The…

  14. An overview of marine biodiversity in United States waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Delton, Penelope; Incze, Lewis S.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Pautzke, Clarence; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sandifer, Paul; Sedberry, George R.; Tunnell, John W.; Abbott, Isabella; Brainard, Russell E.; Brodeur, Melissa; Eldredge, Lucius G.; Feldman, Michael; Moretzsohn, Fabio; Vroom, Peter S.; Wainstein, Michelle; Wolff, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S.) is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics), but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise.

  15. An overview of marine biodiversity in United States waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daphne Fautin

    Full Text Available Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S. is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics, but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise.

  16. An Overview of Marine Biodiversity in United States Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fautin, Daphne; Dalton, Penelope; Incze, Lewis S.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Pautzke, Clarence; Rosenberg, Andrew; Sandifer, Paul; Sedberry, George; Tunnell, John W.; Abbott, Isabella; Brainard, Russell E.; Brodeur, Melissa; Eldredge, Lucius G.; Feldman, Michael; Moretzsohn, Fabio; Vroom, Peter S.; Wainstein, Michelle; Wolff, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S.) is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics), but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise. PMID:20689852

  17. Practice educators in the United Kingdom: A national job description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, John

    2008-11-01

    Much is known about the purpose of practice educators in the United Kingdom, but how their role is implemented is subject to conflicting expectations, partly created by the structure in which they work. Joint appointments between universities and practice are an opportunity for both organisations to collaborate in a partnership to enhance practice learning and fulfill one of the main aims of the practice educator role: to narrow the theory-practice gap. However tensions exist. This paper advocates a national (UK) job description for practice educators to reduce some of the tensions and conflict between the expectations of collaborating partners in practice learning. This would enable practice educators to concentrate on their obligations while employers concentrate on enabling practice educators to fulfill their obligations by upholding their rights to proper preparation, support and career structure.

  18. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI): Science Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, A; Haubold, H J; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) aims at promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities; creating awareness among countries on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications; and building capacity in microgravity education and research. HSTI has been conducting various scientific activities to promote microgravity education and research. The primary science activity is called 'Zero-gravity Instrument Distribution Project', in which one-axis clinostats will be distributed worldwide. The distribution project will provide unique opportunities for students and researchers to observe the growth of indigenous plants in their countries in a simulated microgravity condition and is expected to create a huge dataset of plant species with their responses to gravity.

  19. Water quality data collected by the the National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP), 1996 - 1998 (NCEI Accession 0000789)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP) collected water quality data in 22 reserves in the United States and...

  20. National attitudes concerning gun carrying in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, D; Azrael, D; Miller, M

    2001-12-01

    To determine public attitudes in the United States concerning gun carrying. In the past 15 years, many state legislatures have passed laws making it easier for United States citizens to carry concealed firearms, not only on the street but into various locations, including churches and government buildings. National random digit dial telephone surveys conducted in 1996 and 1999 asked questions concerning the public's feelings of safety as more people in their community carry firearms, and whether, in the language of the question, respondents believe "regular" citizens should be allowed to carry guns into public or government buildings. Americans feel less safe rather than more safe as more people in their community begin to carry guns. By margins of at least nine to one, Americans do not believe that "regular" citizens should be allowed to bring their guns into restaurants, college campuses, sports stadiums, bars, hospitals, or government buildings. The public believes that increased gun carrying by others reduces rather than increases their safety. Overwhelmingly, the public believes that in many venues gun carrying should be prohibited.

  1. [Health in the post-2015 United Nations Development Agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Gallo, Edmundo; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Buss, Daniel Forsin

    2014-12-01

    This paper evaluates health as a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) in the context of the Post-2015 Development Agenda, between 2012 and 2014. Health was part of the debate since the Millennium Summit and the MDGs (2000), and it also appears in the documents discussing the Post-2015 Agenda, from the Rio+20 to the Open Working Group (OWG), whose report was submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations (UNGA) 2014-2015, and in the Global Consultation on Health and the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons reports. The Authors concluded that the treatment of health in all these documents is uniform. They point out that the scope of the health-related SDG is very comprehensive, but its targets are conceptually fragmented and reduced. They advocate their change as to include not only the idea of social determinants of health, but also targets in the field of public health, which were not included in the proposal of the OWG. They also warn that the global and national governance systems need to be reformed and advocate more participation of the civil society, which can influence diplomacy, which, in turn, will be responsible for the agreement signed at the UNGA in 2015.

  2. 3 CFR - Designation of Officers of the United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., International Boundary and Water Commission, United States and Mexico To Act as the Commissioner of the United... Designation of Officers of the United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission, United... of the United States Section, International Boundary and Water Commission, United......

  3. 19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... United Nations and the Organization of American States. 148.88 Section 148.88 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... members of the staff of the United Nations and the Organization of American States, and their personal... United Nations member nation as the principal resident representative to the United Nations of...

  4. EPA policies to protect the health of consumers of drinking water in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotruvo, J.A.

    1981-04-01

    In the United States our objective is to protect drinking water at the source, during treatment and during distribution. In 1975 interim regulations for bacteria and turbidity, 10 inorganic chemicals, 6 organic chemicals and radionuclides were promulgated. In 1979 National Secondary Regulations for substances affecting the aesthetic quality of water were promulgated. In 1979 trihalomethanes were added. The United States is engaged in comprehensive revisions of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. The areas of our most significant concern include detection and control of contamination of ground waters by organic chemicals resulting from improper waste disposal practices, a reassessment of microbiological regulations and toxicity of disinfectant by-products and a major effort to deal with corrosion-related contamination of drinking water during distribution. We are evaluating the issue of a granular activated carbon requirement for contaminated surface waters. A program to assure the quality of direct and indirect additives to drinking water has also been initiated. Part of this activity will include determination of the contaminants and by-products associated with the use of various water treatment chemicals and pipe materials.

  5. The status of water and sanitation among Pacific Rim nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Robert G; Heyworthz, Jane; Sáez, A Eduardo; Rodriguez, Clemencia; Weinstein, Phil; Ling, Bo; Memon, Saima

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of relationships among national wealth, access to improved water supply and sanitation facilities, and population health indices suggests that the adequacy of water resources at the national level is a poor predictor of economic development--namely, that low water stress is neither necessary nor sufficient for economic development at the present state of water stress among Pacific Rim nations. Although nations differ dramatically in terms of priority provided to improved water and sanitation, there is some level of wealth (per capita GNP) at which all nations promote the development of essential environmental services. Among the Pacific Rim countries for which there are data, no nation with a per capita GNP > US$18,000 per year has failed to provide near universal access to improved water supply and sanitation. Below US$18,000/person-year, however, there are decided differences in the provision of sanitary services (improved water supply and sanitation) among nations with similar economic success. There is a fairly strong relationship between child mortality/life expectancy and access to improved sanitation, as expected from the experiences of developed nations. Here no attempt is made to produce causal relationships among these data. Failure to meet Millennium Development Goals for the extension of improved sanitation is frequently evident in nations with large rural populations. Under those circumstances, capital intensive water and sanitation facilities are infeasible, and process selection for water/wastewater treatment requires an adaptation to local conditions, the use of appropriate materials, etc., constraints that are mostly absent in the developed world. Exceptions to these general ideas exist in water-stressed parts of developed countries, where water supplies are frequently augmented by water harvesting, water reclamation/reuse, and the desalination of brackish water resources. Each of these processes involves public acceptance of water

  6. Conceptual design for the National Water Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M.D.; Putnam, A.L.; Hutchison, N.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey began the design and development of a National Water Information System (NWIS) in 1983. The NWIS will replace and integrate the existing data systems of the National Water Data Storage and Retrieval System, National Water Data Exchange, National Water-Use Information Program, and Water Resources Scientific Information Center. The NWIS has been designed as an interactive , distributed data system. The software system has been designed in a modular manner which integrates existing software functions and allows multiple use of software modules. The data of the existing water data, water use data, and water data indexing information by using a common relational data base management system. The NWIS will be operated on microcomputers located in each of the Water Resources Division 's District offices and many of its state, subdistrict, and field offices. The microcomputers will be linked together through a national telecommunication network maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The NWIS is scheduled to be placed in operation in 1990. (Author 's abstract)

  7. Regional and State Level Water Scarcity Report: Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, C. K.; Lopez-Morales, C. A.; Hoover, J. H.; Voigt, B. G.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Mohammed, I. N.

    2010-12-01

    There are an abundance of large-scale, coarse resolution global water scarcity studies, but the existing literature fails to address regional and state specific scarcity measures. Moreover, while environmental water requirements are an integral factor in the development and implementation of sustainable water management practices, only recently has this notion been introduced to water scarcity research. In this paper, we argue that developing a preliminary measure of water scarcity, at the regional and state levels, will allow for more informed policy development. The goal of this study is to generate a more comprehensive understanding of water scarcity in the Northeast, by gathering fine scale data, applying a consistent methodology to the calculation of a scarcity index, and analyzing the results to see relative trends in spatio-temporal water scarcity. Public supply, irrigation, rural, industrial and thermo-power withdrawals have been compiled from USGS state water use publications from 1950 to 1985. Using the WBMplus water model runoff data, state specific in-stream environmental water requirements were calculated using the accepted hydro-ecological methodology. Water scarcity was then calculated as a ratio of water withdrawals to total available water minus environmental flow requirements for the system. In so doing, this study generates a spatially explicit and temporally varying water scarcity indicator (WSI) for the Northeastern United States between 1950 and 2000 at the regional and state levels at a five-year time interval. Calculation of a spatial and temporal water scarcity indicator enabled us to identify regions and specific states that were: slightly exploited (WSI 1.0). The minimum environmental water requirements to maintain in-stream aquatic and riparian ecosystems for the Northeastern states ranged between 27.5 to 36.3 percent of the mean annual runoff within Vermont and Maryland, respectively. The regional WSI values ranged between 0.199 in 1950

  8. Water quality status and trends in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Werkheiser, William H.; Ahuja, Satinder

    2013-01-01

    Information about water quality is vital to ensure long-term availability and sustainability of water that is safe for drinking and recreation and suitable for industry, irrigation, fish, and wildlife. Protecting and enhancing water quality is a national priority, requiring information on water-quality status and trends, progress toward clean water standards, continuing problems, and emerging challenges. In this brief review, we discuss U.S. Geological Survey assessments of nutrient pollution, pesticides, mixtures of organic wastewater compounds (known as emerging contaminants), sediment-bound contaminants (like lead and DDT), and mercury, among other contaminants. Additionally, aspects of land use and current and emerging challenges associated with climate change are presented. Climate change must be considered, as water managers continue their efforts to maintain sufficient water of good quality for humans and for the ecosystem.

  9. A Comparative Analysis of Egyptian and Israeli National Water Policies toward Water in Agricultural Production

    OpenAIRE

    Farnum, Becca

    2014-01-01

    Key Findings:-"Water for food" is not necessarily synonymous with "water for food security"-Countries with similar geological conditions face very different geopolitical realities; national water policies and agricultural motivations reflect this-Water policies and research should seek to understand "water for food" and its connections witheconomics, the environment, and securities more broadly

  10. 77 FR 31274 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... 2137-AE83 Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport... Goods Regulations (TDG Regulations), and the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of... hazardous materials internationally, to, from, and within the United States. In this notice of...

  11. Water Savings of Crop Redistribution in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Frankel Davis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographic growth, changes in diet, and reliance on first-generation biofuels are increasing the human demand for agricultural products, thereby enhancing the human pressure on global freshwater resources. Recent research on the food-water nexus has highlighted how some major agricultural regions of the world lack the water resources required to sustain current growth trends in crop production. To meet the increasing need for agricultural commodities with limited water resources, the water use efficiency of the agricultural sector must be improved. In this regard, recent work indicates that the often overlooked strategy of changing the crop distribution within presently cultivated areas offers promise. Here we investigate the extent to which water in the United States could be saved while improving yields simply by replacing the existing crops with more suitable ones. We propose crop replacement criteria that achieve this goal while preserving crop diversity, economic value, nitrogen fixation, and food protein production. We find that in the United States, these criteria would greatly improve calorie (+46% and protein (+34% production and economic value (+208%, with 5% water savings with respect to the present crop distribution. Interestingly, greater water savings could be achieved in water-stressed agricultural regions of the US such as California (56% water savings, and other western states.

  12. Responding to National Water Resources Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    resources come into focus as a shared responsibility for which collaboration is an imperative, not an elective choice. Water resource planning to...from farms, sewers, roads, and sidewalks ; compet- ing uses for water; weather extremes from droughts to floods that create situations of too little or

  13. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows ...

  14. The hygieinic importance of water quality in renal dialysis units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costantinidis T. K.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and chemical quality of water used in haemodialysis units must comply with several hygienic conditions that do not compromise the nephropathic patient’s health. Every week patients undergoing renal therapy are exposed to approximately 400 liters of water that are used to manufacture haemodialysis liquids. Efficient monitoring of water quality in Renal Dialysis Units (RDU can address the microbiological and chemical hazards and prevent complications associated with the impurity of hemodialysis liquids (e.g. inflammatory, infectious and toxicological reactions. This review article aims at elucidating the importance of water quality in RDU, describe the methods used for quality assurance and promote the active role of the laboratory in preventing these hazards through efficient monitoring.

  15. Microbiological water quality requirements for salad irrigation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrel, S F; Knox, J W; Weatherhead, E K

    2006-08-01

    The growth in United Kingdom salad production is dependent on irrigation to maintain product quality. There are concerns that irrigation with poor-quality water could pose a disease risk. This article examines the key issues in the emerging debate on the microbiological quality of water used for salad irrigation in the United Kingdom. The links between irrigation water quality and foodborne disease, and the current international guidance on irrigation water quality, are firstly reviewed. The findings indicate that a number of recent food-poisoning outbreaks have been linked to the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables and that unhygienic product handling is implicated as the principal source of contamination. There is also credible evidence that salads contaminated in the field, including by irrigation water, can pose a small disease risk at the point of sale. Although irrigation water-quality standards exist in various forms internationally, there is no nationally agreed on standard used in the United Kingdom. This paper then describes the results of a survey conducted in 2003 of United Kingdom irrigation practices that might influence the microbiological quality of salads. The survey showed that surface water is the principal irrigation water source, that overhead irrigation predominates, that the gap between the last irrigation and harvest may be < 24 h in many cases, and that current water-quality monitoring practices are generally very limited in scope. This paper concludes with a discussion of the issues emerging from the review and survey, including the need for improved water-quality monitoring, and the problems associated with establishing water-quality standards that could be either too strict or too lax.

  16. Classroom Simulation of United Nations Conference on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, D. W.

    2009-12-01

    Global climate change is widely recognized as the most important environmental problem today that requires complex, global solutions with international cooperation. Teaching the science of climate change is relatively simple compared to the challenges of determining solutions to this problem. It is important for students to learn that solutions do exist and that international negotiations are underway to achieve reductions. What are the (policy) solutions to this vexing problem, which countries should take responsibility, and specifically how can this be done? In the final week of an advanced undergraduate environmental science class: Global Environmental Change, students engage in a week-long classroom simulation of the annual United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties (UNFCCC/COP). Small groups of students represent one nation that has a particular, and important, interest in the negotiations. Each group researches the positions their country has with respect to the negotiations, determines their possible allies, and who might have interests that are in conflict with their country. While NGOs such as environmental organizations and industry groups are not formally represented, I include some of these groups since they are influential and provide interesting insight into different interests. For simplicity, about 8-10 nations and NGOs are included. In preparation for the conference, students produce a background paper and draft resolution. At the end of the conference, they refine these documents to produce an updated position paper and resolution on how to mitigate global warming. Students are asked to focus on: 1. How much to change global greenhouse gas emissions over the next decade and over the next century; 2. How much of these emission reductions their country should be responsible for; 3. How will their country meet these goals? They must focus on whether and how to implement two mechanisms: a) Clean Development

  17. Methods and Indicators for Assessment of Regional Ground-Water Conditions in the Southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred D; Leake, Stanley A.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Schonauer, Kurt T.; Dickinson, Jesse E.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the status and trends in the availability of the Nation's ground-water supplies is important to scientists, planners, water managers, and the general public. This is especially true in the semiarid to arid southwestern United States where rapid population growth and limited surface-water resources have led to increased use of ground-water supplies and water-level declines of several hundred feet in many aquifers. Individual well observations may only represent aquifer conditions in a limited area, and wells may be screened over single or multiple aquifers, further complicating single-well interpretations. Additionally, changes in ground-water conditions may involve time scales ranging from days to many decades, depending on the timing of recharge, soil and aquifer properties, and depth to the water table. The lack of an easily identifiable ground-water property indicative of current conditions, combined with differing time scales of water-level changes, makes the presentation of ground-water conditions a difficult task, particularly on a regional basis. One approach is to spatially present several indicators of ground-water conditions that address different time scales and attributes of the aquifer systems. This report describes several methods and indicators for presenting differing aspects of ground-water conditions using water-level observations in existing data-sets. The indicators of ground-water conditions developed in this study include areas experiencing water-level decline and water-level rise, recent trends in ground-water levels, and current depth to ground water. The computer programs written to create these indicators of ground-water conditions and display them in an interactive geographic information systems (GIS) format are explained and results illustrated through analyses of ground-water conditions for selected alluvial basins in the Lower Colorado River Basin in Arizona.

  18. Merced National Wildlife Refuge water management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The details of this plan are separated into ten sections: Background, Water Management Related Goals and Objectives, Policies and Procedures, Inventory and Existing...

  19. Crow Nation Water Treatment Plant NPDES Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  20. Geological report on water conditions at Platt National Park, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Charles Newton; Schoff, Stuart Leeson

    1939-01-01

    Platt National Park, located in southern Oklahoma, containing 842 acres, was established by Acts of Congress in 1902, 1904, and 1906. The reason for the setting aside of this area was the presence in the area of some 30 'mineral' springs, the water from which contains sulphur, bromide, salt, and other minerals, which are believed to possess medicinal qualities. For many generations the sulphur springs of the Chickasaw Nation had been known for their reputed healing qualities. It had long been the custom for families to come from considerable distances on horseback and in wagons and camp near the springs, in order to drink the water. In course of time a primitive town, known as Sulphur Springs, grew up near a group of springs known since as Pavilion Springs at the mouth of Sulphur Creek, now known as Travertine Creek. This town was still in existence at the time of my first visit to the locality in July, 1901. At this time, in company with Joseph A. Taff, of the United States Geological Survey, I spent a week riding over the country making a preliminary survey looking toward the setting aside of the area for a National Park. After the establishment of the National Park, the old town of Sulphur Springs was abandoned, and when the present boundaries of the park had been established the present town of Sulphur, now county seat of Murray County, grew up. In July 1906, on request of Superintendent Joseph F. Swords, I visited the park and made an examination of the various springs and submitted a report, dated August 15, 1906, to Secretary of the Interior E.A. Hitchcock. Copies of this report are on file in the Regional Office and at Platt National Park. In this report I set forth the approximate amount of flow of the various springs, the character of the water in each, and the conditions of the springs as of that date. I also made certain recommendations regarding proposed improvements of each spring. In this report I say: 'In the town of Sulphur, four wells have been

  1. Integrated Unit Deployments: Rethinking Air National Guard Fighter Mobilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    machine guns for strafing.12 A fifth unit also served, but mostly in obscurity. The 355th TFS was an active duty unit from South Carolina but...of the AEF while SORTS is unit-centric. Operationally, ART collects and collates unit-reported data to answer, in whole or in 62 part, the

  2. Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge Water Resource Inventory and Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) report for Cahaba River National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment...

  3. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Horicon National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Horicon National Wildlife Refuges describes current hydrologic information, provides an...

  4. Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) - Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment (WRIA) Summary Report for Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) describes current hydrologic information, provides...

  5. Annual Water Management Program Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge has a total of four impounded wetlands. The water levels are manageable to a limited degree in three of them: Cranberry Pool,...

  6. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Parker River National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  7. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of...

  8. Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  9. Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge : Water Management Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a...

  10. Water Management Plan 1949 Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  11. Annual Water Management Plan Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule of...

  12. Annual Water Management Plan White River National Wildlife Refuge 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The White River National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule...

  13. Annual Water Management Plan Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule of...

  14. Annual Water Management Plan Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule of...

  15. Water Program Report Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a brief overview of the water management program at Presquile National Wildlife Refuge in 1960. The refuge maintains wintering flocks of ducks and geese...

  16. Water Program Report Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a brief overview of the water management program at Presquile National Wildlife Refuge in 1961 with objectives for 1962 also reviewed. The refuge maintains...

  17. Water Program Report Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a brief overview of the water management program at Presquile National Wildlife Refuge for 1965 as well as highlights from the 1964 growing season. The...

  18. Water Program Report Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a brief overview of the water management program at Presquile National Wildlife Refuge in 1962 with objectives for 1963 also reviewed. The refuge maintains...

  19. Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  20. Water Management Plan 1950 Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  1. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Area-Characterization Toolbox

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is release 1.0 of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Area-Characterization Toolbox. These tools are designed to be accessed using ArcGIS Desktop...

  2. Annual Water Program at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The “big flood” occurred in 1993. Late March and early April found Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge literally awash in water. The major flooding which resulted...

  3. Water Program Report Presquile National Wildlife Refuge 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a brief overview of the water management program at Presquile National Wildlife Refuge in 1960 with objectives for 1961 also reviewed. The refuge maintains...

  4. Marsh and Water Management Plan: Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge Marsh and Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of...

  5. Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  6. Marsh and Water Management Plan Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water management facilities at Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge were constructed nearly 50 years ago. The original design had a myriad of problems that have since...

  7. Annual Water Management Plan White River National Wildlife Refuge 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The White River National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule...

  8. Water Management Plan: Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Bombay Hook National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this...

  9. Annual Water Management Plan Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives. The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule of...

  10. Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge Water Management Plan has been developed to meet the station objectives set forth in the Master Plan. The purpose of this plan...

  11. The United Nations and the promotion of peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Despite the end of the cold war, many other conflicts persisted in the 1990s. The hope that a peace dividend would help to alleviate poverty was replaced by doubts regarding the effects of free market globalization and environmental constraints. Future concerns include the continuing aftermath of the cold war, the increased destructiveness of modern warfare, despite the increased sophistication of modern weaponry, the widening poverty gap between a wealthy elite and the majority of the world's population and developing global economic and environmental threats. The response to all this should be economic co-operation for sustainable development, including trade reform, and radical change in the environmental impact of the industrialized countries. Yet it appears that the response of the US, and to a lesser extent Europe, is to maintain the status quo in its own interests by military means, an attitude that seems to have been reinforced by the events of 11 September 2001. Nevertheless, these developments are opposed by citizen groups in the developed world and by analysts in the South. The United Nations and its agencies have been at the forefront of analysis and proposals for action in many of these fields. Its role is likely to increase in the next 30 years and it must be made as effective a global body as possible.

  12. Water Availability for the Western United States - Key Scientific Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark Theodore; Woosley, Lloyd H.

    2005-01-01

    In the Western United States, the availability of water has become a serious concern for many communities and rural areas. Near population centers, surface-water supplies are fully appropriated, and many communities are dependent upon ground water drawn from storage, which is an unsustainable strategy. Water of acceptable quality is increasingly hard to find because local sources are allocated to prior uses, depleted by overpumping, or diminished by drought stress. Some of the inherent characteristics of the West add complexity to the task of securing water supplies. The Western States, including the arid Southwest, have the most rapid population growth in the United States. The climate varies widely in the West, but it is best known for its low precipitation, aridity, and drought. There is evidence that the climate is warming, which will have consequences for Western water supplies, such as increased minimum streamflow and earlier snowmelt events in snow-dominated basins. The potential for departures from average climatic conditions threatens to disrupt society and local to regional economies. The appropriative rights doctrine governs the management of water in most Western States, although some aspects of the riparian doctrine are being incorporated. The 'use it or lose it' provisions of Western water law discourage conservation and make the reallocation of water to instream environmental uses more difficult. The hydrologic sciences have defined the interconnectedness of ground water and surface water, yet these resources are still administered separately by most States. The definition of water availability has been expanded to include sustaining riparian ecosystems and individual endangered species, which are disproportionately represented in the Western States. Federal reserved rights, common in the West because of the large amount of Federal land, exist with quite senior priority dates whether or not water is currently being used. A major challenge for water

  13. Reform of the United Nations and Transformation of the International System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reform of the United Nations is closely related with the transformation of the International system. The United Nations has made great success since it started a comprehensive reform in 2005. Such a reform is necessary both for the transition of the largest international organization in the world and transformation of the international system. The United Nations still has a long way to go in the comprehensive reform because of many factors.

  14. Conceptual salt marsh units for wetland synthesis: Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil Kamal

    2016-01-01

    The salt marsh complex of the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (EBFNWR), which spans over Great Bay, Little Egg Harbor, and Barnegat Bay (New Jersey, USA), was delineated to smaller, conceptual marsh units by geoprocessing of surface elevation data. Flow accumulation based on the relative elevation of each location is used to determine the ridge lines that separate each marsh unit while the surface slope is used to automatically assign each unit a drainage point, where water is expected to drain through. Through scientific efforts associated with the Hurricane Sandy Science Plan, the U.S. Geological Survey has started to expand national assessment of coastal change hazards and forecast products to coastal wetlands. The intent is to provide federal, state, and local managers with tools to estimate their vulnerability and ecosystem service potential. For this purpose, the response and resilience of coastal wetlands to physical factors need to be assessed in terms of the ensuing change to their vulnerability and ecosystem services. EBFNWR was selected as a pilot study.Recent research shows that sediment budgets of microtidal marsh complexes on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States consistently scale with areal unvegetated/vegetated marsh ratio (UVVR) despite differences in sea-level rise, tidal range, elevation, vegetation, and stressors. This highlights UVVR as a broadly applicable indicator of microtidal marsh stability. It is also relatively quicker and less labor intensive compared to quantifying integrative sediment budgets and the associated transport mechanisms that requires extended tidal-timescale observations of sediment transport. UVVR indicates the link between open-water conversion processes and sediment transport, providing consistent results across a geomorphic and climatic spectrum of microtidal marshes, hence can be an independent measure of marsh health. Potentially, tracking future changes to UVVR may allow for widespread

  15. Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge: 1965 Annual Water Program and 1964 Water Use Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the plan for managing waters on Tewaukon National Wildlfie Refuge for calendar year 1965. Water use data for the year 1964 is included in the...

  16. Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge: 1964 Annual Water Program 1963 Water Use Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the plan for managing waters on Tewaukon National Wildlfie Refuge for calendar year 1964. Water use data for the year 1963 is included in the...

  17. COST ESTIMATION MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNIT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cost models for unit processes typically utilized in a conventional water treatment plant and in package treatment plant technology are compiled in this paper. The cost curves are represented as a function of specified design parameters and are categorized into four major catego...

  18. Contribution of Nutrient Pollution to Water Scarcity in the Water-Rich Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. L.; Lopez, C.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of water stress focus on water-scarce regions such as drylands. Yet, even water-rich regions can be water stressed due to local water withdrawals that exceed supply or due to water pollution that makes water unusable. The northeastern United States (NE) is a water-rich region relative to the rest of the country, as it concentrates about 50% of total renewable water of the country. Yes the NE features relatively high water withdrawals, ~50 km3/yr, for thermo-power generation, agriculture, and industry, as well as to support a human population of about 70 million. At the same time, rivers and streams in the NE suffer from nutrient pollution, largely from agricultural and urban land uses. We asked: to what extent is the NE water stressed, and how do water withdrawals and water quality each contribute to water scarcity across the NE? We used information on county-level water withdrawals and runoff to calculate a water scarcity index (WSI) for 200 hydrologic units across the NE from 1987 to 2002. We used data on surface water concentrations of nitrogen to calculate the additional water necessary to dilute surface water pollution to weak, moderate, and strong water quality standards derived from the literature. Only considering withdrawals, we found that approximately 10% of the NE was water stressed. Incorporating a moderate water quality standard, 25% of the NE was water stressed. We calculated a dilution burden by sectors of water users and found that public utilities faced 41% of the total dilution burden for the region, followed by irrigation users at 21%. Our results illustrate that even water rich regions can experience water stress and even scarcity, where withdrawals exceed surface water supplies. Water quality contributes to water stress and can change the spatial patterns of water stress across a region. The common approach to address scarcity has required the use of inter-basin water transfers, or in the case of water quality-caused scarcity

  19. USGS Governmental Unit Boundaries Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Governmental Unit Boundaries service from The National Map (TNM) represents major civil areas for the Nation, including States or Territories, counties (or...

  20. 75 FR 5608 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Communications Unit Leader (COML) Prerequisite and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; Communications Unit Leader (COML) Prerequisite and Evaluation AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION:...

  1. Current National Weather Service Watches, Warnings, or Advisories for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) Storm Prediction Center uses RSS feeds to disseminate all watches, warnings and advisories for the United States that are...

  2. Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Susan S.; Barber, Nancy L.; Kenny, Joan F.; Linsey, Kristin S.; Lumia, Deborah S.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of water use in the United States indicate that about 408 billion gallons per day (one thousand million gallons per day, abbreviated Bgal/d) were withdrawn for all uses during 2000. This total has varied less than 3 percent since 1985 as withdrawals have stabilized for the two largest uses?thermoelectric power and irrigation. Fresh ground-water withdrawals (83.3 Bgal/d) during 2000 were 14 percent more than during 1985. Fresh surface-water withdrawals for 2000 were 262 Bgal/d, varying less than 2 percent since 1985. About 195 Bgal/d, or 48 percent of all freshwater and saline-water withdrawals for 2000, were used for thermoelectric power. Most of this water was derived from surface water and used for once-through cooling at power plants. About 52 percent of fresh surface-water withdrawals and about 96 percent of saline-water withdrawals were for thermoelectric-power use. Withdrawals for thermoelectric power have been relatively stable since 1985. Irrigation remained the largest use of freshwater in the United States and totaled 137 Bgal/d for 2000. Since 1950, irrigation has accounted for about 65 percent of total water withdrawals, excluding those for thermoelectric power. Historically, more surface water than ground water has been used for irrigation. However, the percentage of total irrigation withdrawals from ground water has continued to increase, from 23 percent in 1950 to 42 percent in 2000. Total irrigation withdrawals were 2 percent more for 2000 than for 1995, because of a 16-percent increase in ground-water withdrawals and a small decrease in surface-water withdrawals. Irrigated acreage more than doubled between 1950 and 1980, then remained constant before increasing nearly 7 percent between 1995 and 2000. The number of acres irrigated with sprinkler and microirrigation systems has continued to increase and now comprises more than one-half the total irrigated acreage. Public-supply withdrawals were more than 43 Bgal/d for 2000. Public

  3. A digital model for planning water management at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, David A.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Fields, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge is an important area for waterfowl production and migratory stopover in west-central Montana. Eight wetland units covering about 5,600 acres are the essential features of the refuge. Water availability for the wetland units can be uncertain owing to the large natural variations in precipitation and runoff and the high cost of pumping supplemental water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, has developed a digital model for planning water management. The model can simulate strategies for water transfers among the eight wetland units and account for variability in runoff and pumped water. This report describes this digital model, which uses a water-accounting spreadsheet to track inputs and outputs to each of the wetland units of Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Inputs to the model include (1) monthly values for precipitation, pumped water, runoff, and evaporation; (2) water-level/capacity data for each wetland unit; and (3) the pan-evaporation coefficient. Outputs include monthly water volume and flooded surface area for each unit for as many as 5 consecutive years. The digital model was calibrated by comparing simulated and historical measured water volumes for specific test years.

  4. Method for Estimating Water Withdrawals for Livestock in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, John K.

    2009-01-01

    Livestock water use includes ground water and surface water associated with livestock watering, feedlots, dairy operations, and other on-farm needs. The water may be used for drinking, cooling, sanitation, waste disposal, and other needs related to the animals. Estimates of water withdrawals for livestock are needed for water planning and management. This report documents a method used to estimate withdrawals of fresh ground water and surface water for livestock in 2005 for each county and county equivalent in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Categories of livestock included dairy cattle, beef and other cattle, hogs and pigs, laying hens, broilers and other chickens, turkeys, sheep and lambs, all goats, and horses (including ponies, mules, burros, and donkeys). Use of the method described in this report could result in more consistent water-withdrawal estimates for livestock that can be used by water managers and planners to determine water needs and trends across the United States. Water withdrawals for livestock in 2005 were estimated by using water-use coefficients, in gallons per head per day for each animal type, and livestock-population data. Coefficients for various livestock for most States were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey water-use program personnel or U.S. Geological Survey water-use publications. When no coefficient was available for an animal type in a State, the median value of reported coefficients for that animal was used. Livestock-population data were provided by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. County estimates were further divided into ground-water and surface-water withdrawals for each county and county equivalent. County totals from 2005 were compared to county totals from 1995 and 2000. Large deviations from 1995 or 2000 livestock withdrawal estimates were investigated and generally were due to comparison with reported withdrawals, differences in estimation techniques, differences in livestock

  5. 76 FR 44751 - Suspension of Entry of Aliens Subject to United Nations Security Council Travel Bans and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... to United Nations Security Council Travel Bans and International Emergency Economic Powers Act... the United Nations Charter to carry out the decisions of the United Nations Security Council imposed... a United Nations Security Council resolution referenced in Annex A to this proclamation. (b)...

  6. [Methods of disinfection of water systems in dental units by water chlorination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, N E; Henriksen, K

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a simple disinfection method to reduce the content of bacteria in the water system of dental units to an acceptable level. The study was carried out at the Royal Dental College, Copenhagen on 250 dental units. Samples of the cooling water to the ultrasonic scalers and of the water to the water glasses were obtained from eight different units representing different parts of the school. Disinfection of the water system was carried out by addition of chlorine to the pipe water near the main water intake to the institution. The chlorination af the water was automatically regulated, and the installation was so flexible that the concentration of chlorine and the time and frequency of the chlorination could be varied. Different modes of dosage of chlorine were examined. Before chlorination the bacterial content in the water system of the units was about 10(4)-10(5) c.f.u./ml. It was found that an intermittent chlorination with 0.5-1 ppm chlorine for 10 min. every day could normally reduce the bacterial counts in the water system to about a few hundreds per ml.

  7. Methods of disinfection of the water system of dental units by water chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, N E; Henriksen, K

    1988-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a simple disinfection method for reducing the content of bacteria in the water system of dental units to an acceptable level. The study was carried out at the Royal Dental College, Copenhagen, on 250 dental units. Samples of the cooling water supplying the ultrasonic scalers and of the water supplying the water glasses were obtained from eight different units representing different parts of the school. Disinfection of the water system was carried out by addition of chlorine to the pipe water near the institution's main water intake. The chlorination of the water was automatically regulated, and the installation was so flexible that the concentration of chlorine and the time and frequency of the chlorination could be varied. Different modes of chlorine dosage were examined. Before chlorination, the bacterial content in the water system of the units was about 10(4)-10(5) cfu/mL. It was found that an intermittent chlorination with 0.5-1 ppm chlorine for 10 minutes every day could reduce the normal bacterial counts in the water system to about a few hundred per mL.

  8. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, Ruben P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, Wendy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-04

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  9. Water Pollution Control Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

  10. Water Pollution Control Across the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Reviewed are accomplishments, problems, and frustrations faced by individual states in meeting requirements of P.L. 92-500, Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972. State Environmental officials complain the new law may be a hindrance to established cleanup programs. Statistics and charts are given. (BL)

  11. State and National Water Fluoridation System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  12. Utilities:Water:Water Infrastructure Vaults at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:vaults)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents vaults associated with the water infrastructure at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The vaults data were collected using Trimble...

  13. Utilities:Water:Spring Water Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:springwtr)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents spring water lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS)...

  14. 76 FR 27344 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Prepare a Water Resources Management Plan/ Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National Preserve... to inform preparation of a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  15. Effect of different water management strategies on water and contaminant fluxes in Doncaster, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueedi, J; Cronin, A A; Moon, B; Wolf, L; Hoetzl, H

    2005-01-01

    In Europe, large volumes of public water supply come from urban aquifers and so efficient urban water management and decision tools are essential to maintain quality of life both in terms of health, personal freedom and environment. In the United Kingdom, this issue gained increased importance with the last year's low volumes of groundwater replenishment that resulted in increased water shortages all over the country. An urban water volume and quality model (UVQ) was applied to a suburb of Doncaster (United Kingdom) to assess the current water supply system and to compare it with new potential scenarios of water management. The initial results show considerable changes in both water and solute fluxes for some scenarios and rather limited changes for others. Changing impermeable roads and paved areas to permeable areas, for example, would lead to higher infiltration rates that may be welcome from a water resources viewpoint but less so from a water quality point of view due to high concentrations of heavy metals. The biggest impact on water quality and quantity leaving the system through sewer, storm water and infiltration system was clearly obtained by re-using grey water from kitchen, bathroom and laundry for irrigation and toilet flush. The testing of this strategy led to lower volumes and higher concentrations of sewerage, a considerable decrease in water consumption and an increase in groundwater recharge. The scenarios were tested neither in terms of costs nor social acceptance for either water supplier or user.

  16. Level 2 Foundation Units. Key Stage 3: National Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    These foundation units are aimed at pupils working within Level 2 entry to Year 7. They are designed to remind pupils what they know and take them forward. The units also will teach phonics knowledge from consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words to long vowel phonemes. The writing units focus on developing the following skills: understanding what a…

  17. Global water risks and national security: Building resilience (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    The UN defines water security as the capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socio-economic development, for ensuring protection against water-borne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability. This definition highlights complex and interconnected challenges and underscores the centrality of water for environmental services and human aactivities. Global risks are expressed at the national level. The 2010 Quadrennial Defense Review and the 2010 National Security Strategy identify climate change as likely to trigger outcomes that will threaten U.S. security including how freshwater resources can become a security issue. Impacts will be felt on the National Security interest through water, food and energy security, and critical infrastructure. This recognition focuses the need to consider the rates of change in climate extremes, in the context of more traditional political, economic, and social indicators that inform security analyses. There is a long-standing academic debate over the extent to which resource constraints and environmental challenges lead to inter-state conflict. It is generally recognized that water resources as a security issue to date exists mainly at the substate level and has not led to physical conflict between nation states. In conflict and disaster zones, threats to water security increase through inequitable and difficult access to water supply and related services, which may aggravate existing social fragility, tensions, violence, and conflict. This paper will (1) Outline the dimensions of water security and its links to national security (2) Analyze water footprints and management risks for key basins in the US and around the world, (3) map the link between global water security and national concerns, drawing lessons from the drought of 2012 and elsewhere

  18. Towards a national trauma registry for the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barka Ezedin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma is a major health problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE as well as worldwide. Trauma registries provide large longitudinal databases for analysis and policy improvement. We aim in this paper to report on the development and evolution of a national trauma registry using a staged approach by developing a single-center registry, a two-center registry, and then a multi-center registry. The three registries were established by developing suitable data collection forms, databases, and interfaces to these databases. The first two registries collected data for a finite period of time and the third is underway. The steps taken to establish these registries depend on whether the registry is intended as a single-center or multi-center registry. Findings Several issues arose and were resolved during the development of these registries such as the relational design of the database, whether to use a standalone database management system or a web-based system, and the usability and security of the system. The inclusion of preventive medicine data elements is important in a trauma registry and the focus on road traffic collision data elements is essential in a country such as the UAE. The first two registries provided valuable data which has been analyzed and published. Conclusions The main factors leading to the successful establishment of a multi-center trauma registry are the development of a concise data entry form, development of a user-friendly secure web-based database system, the availability of a computer and Internet connection in each data collection center, funded data entry personnel well trained in extracting medical data from the medical record and entering it into the computer, and experienced personnel in trauma injuries and data analysis to continuously maintain and analyze the registry.

  19. Methods for Estimating Water Withdrawals for Mining in the United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, John K.

    2009-01-01

    The mining water-use category includes groundwater and surface water that is withdrawn and used for nonfuels and fuels mining. Nonfuels mining includes the extraction of ores, stone, sand, and gravel. Fuels mining includes the extraction of coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Water is used for mineral extraction, quarrying, milling, and other operations directly associated with mining activities. For petroleum and natural gas extraction, water often is injected for secondary oil or gas recovery. Estimates of water withdrawals for mining are needed for water planning and management. This report documents methods used to estimate withdrawals of fresh and saline groundwater and surface water for mining during 2005 for each county and county equivalent in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Fresh and saline groundwater and surface-water withdrawals during 2005 for nonfuels- and coal-mining operations in each county or county equivalent in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands were estimated. Fresh and saline groundwater withdrawals for oil and gas operations in counties of six states also were estimated. Water withdrawals for nonfuels and coal mining were estimated by using mine-production data and water-use coefficients. Production data for nonfuels mining included the mine location and weight (in metric tons) of crude ore, rock, or mineral produced at each mine in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands during 2004. Production data for coal mining included the weight, in metric tons, of coal produced in each county or county equivalent during 2004. Water-use coefficients for mined commodities were compiled from various sources including published reports and written communications from U.S. Geological Survey National Water-use Information Program (NWUIP) personnel in several states. Water withdrawals for oil and gas extraction were estimated for six States including California, Colorado, Louisiana, New

  20. The United States National Security Strategy: Grand Strategy or Propaganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Hegel was right when he said that we learn from history that man can never learn anything from history.” George Bernard Shaw 58 July 26th, 2007...nation more challenging.124 As Taylor and Snider explain, “With the global diffusion of power, national policy also becomes less fungible, less...124 William J. Taylor and Don M Snider, “U.S. National Security Agenda and U.S. National Security Policy: Realities and Dilemmas,” The

  1. National Waterways Study. Commercial Water Transportation Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    AUTHORIZED BY CONGRESS IN SECTION 158 OF THE WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1976 (PUBLIC LAW 94-587). THE STUDY WAS CONDUCTED BY THE US ARMY ENGINEER...attractive business for rail carriers. In seeking to handle this bussiness , barge carriers face sig- nificant competition from train-loading stations...expected to ex- amine other alternatives to compliance, such as increased use of pipelines, if these proposals become law . 2. Environmental Protection Agency

  2. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, up-to-date, comprehensive, spatial, national-scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000−36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale-gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection-induced earthquakes.

  3. Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.; Haines, Seth S.; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-07-01

    Until now, up-to-date, comprehensive, spatial, national-scale data on hydraulic fracturing water volumes have been lacking. Water volumes used (injected) to hydraulically fracture over 263,859 oil and gas wells drilled between 2000 and 2014 were compiled and used to create the first U.S. map of hydraulic fracturing water use. Although median annual volumes of 15,275 m3 and 19,425 m3 of water per well was used to hydraulically fracture individual horizontal oil and gas wells, respectively, in 2014, about 42% of wells were actually either vertical or directional, which required less than 2600 m3 water per well. The highest average hydraulic fracturing water usage (10,000-36,620 m3 per well) in watersheds across the United States generally correlated with shale-gas areas (versus coalbed methane, tight oil, or tight gas) where the greatest proportion of hydraulically fractured wells were horizontally drilled, reflecting that the natural reservoir properties influence water use. This analysis also demonstrates that many oil and gas resources within a given basin are developed using a mix of horizontal, vertical, and some directional wells, explaining why large volume hydraulic fracturing water usage is not widespread. This spatial variability in hydraulic fracturing water use relates to the potential for environmental impacts such as water availability, water quality, wastewater disposal, and possible wastewater injection-induced earthquakes.

  4. Passage Rights in Indonesian National Waters: Some Notable Cases

    OpenAIRE

    SYAMSUDDIN M NOOR, SYAMSUDDIN M NOOR

    2016-01-01

    - Maritime States maintain that archipelagic State will interfere with the fluency of international navigation, since the waters, which were formerly territorial seas and high seas, have been redefined as being archipelagic waters. However, Profesor Hasjim Djalal opines that holding sovereignty over waters between islands is critical to attaining national unity for large archipelagic States.1 An extension of the jurisdiction by a State may be regarded as undermining the free...

  5. Methods for collecting benthic invertebrate samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic invertebrate communities are evaluated as part of the ecological survey component of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. These biological data are collected along with physical and chemical data to assess water-quality conditions and to develop an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. The objectives of benthic invertebrate community characterizations are to (1) develop for each site a list of tax a within the associated stream reach and (2) determine the structure of benthic invertebrate communities within selected habitats of that reach. A nationally consistent approach is used to achieve these objectives. This approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection and methods and equipment for qualitative multihabitat sampling and semi-quantitative single habitat sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data within and among study units.

  6. Thyroid Function Changes Related to Use of Iodinated Water in United States Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, Kathleen A.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Dunn, John T.; Stanbury, John B.; Wear, Mary L.; Hamm, Peggy B.; Sauer, Richard L.; Billica, Roger D.; Pool, Sam L.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used iodination as a method of microbial disinfection of potable water systems in United States spacecraft and long-duration habitability modules. A review of the effects on the thyroid following consumption o iodinated water by NASA astronauts was conducted. Pharmacological doses of iodine consumed by astronauts transiently decreased thyroid function, as reflected in serum TSH values. Although the adverse effects of excess iodine consumption in susceptible individuals are well documented, exposure to high doses of iodine during space flight did not result in a statistically significant increase in long-term thyroid disease in the astronaut population.

  7. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2000 Water Year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A.Shaull; M.R.Alexander; R.P.Reynolds; R.P.Romero; E.T.Riebsomer; C.T.McLean

    2001-06-02

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 23 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs, two that flow into Canon del Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  8. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2002 Water Year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.A. Shaull; D. Ortiz; M.R. Alexander; R.P. Romero

    2003-03-03

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 34 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs--two that flow into Canon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon--and peak flow data from 16 stations.

  9. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 1999 Water Year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. A. Shaull; M. R. Alexander; R. P. Reynolds; C. T. McLean; R. P. Romero

    2000-04-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 22 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory with one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs that flow into Canon de Valle and nine partial-record storm water stations.

  10. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2008 water year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, David; Cata, Betsy; Kuyumjian, Gregory

    2009-09-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 69 stream-gage stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs— two that flow into Cañon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  11. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2006 Water Year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.P. Romero, D. Ortiz, G. Kuyumjian

    2007-08-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 44 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs--two that flow into Canon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon--and peak flow data for 44 stations.

  12. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2008 water year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, David; Cata, Betsy; Kuyumjian, Gregory

    2009-09-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 69 stream-gage stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs— two that flow into Cañon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  13. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2009 water year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, David; McCullough, Betsy

    2010-05-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 73 stream-gage stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs— two that flow into Cañon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  14. Survey of the Mutagenicity of Surface Water, Sediments, and Drinking Water from the Penobscot Indian Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survey of the Mutagenicity of Surface Water, Sediments, andDrinking Water from the Penobscot Indian NationSarah H. Warren, Larry D. Claxton,1, Thomas J. Hughes,*, Adam Swank,Janet Diliberto, Valerie Marshall, Daniel H. Kusnierz, Robert Hillger, David M. DeMariniNational Health a...

  15. Monosaccharides as Versatile Units for Water-Soluble Supramolecular Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Christianus M A; Jansen, Gijs; Frissen, Martijn M M; Lafleur, René P M; Voets, Ilja K; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W

    2016-03-18

    We introduce monosaccharides as versatile water-soluble units to compatibilise supramolecular polymers based on the benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) moiety with water. A library of monosaccharide-based BTAs is evaluated, varying the length of the alkyl chain (hexyl, octyl, decyl and dodecyl) separating the BTA and saccharide units, as well as the saccharide units (α-glucose, β-glucose, α-mannose and α-galactose). In all cases, the monosaccharides impart excellent water compatibility. The length of the alkyl chain is the determining factor to obtain either long, one-dimensional supramolecular polymers (dodecyl spacer), small aggregates (decyl spacer) or molecularly dissolved (octyl and hexyl) BTAs in water. For the BTAs comprising a dodecyl spacer, our results suggest that a cooperative self-assembly process is operative and that the introduction of different monosaccharides does not significantly change the self- assembly behaviour. Finally, we investigate the potential of post-assembly functionalisation of the formed supramolecular polymers by taking advantage of dynamic covalent bond formation between the monosaccharides and benzoxaboroles. We observe that the supramolecular polymers readily react with a fluorescent benzoxaborole derivative permitting imaging of these dynamic complexes by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  16. Water Management Program - 1991 [Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge and Mark Twain National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to establish a schedule of operations for manipulation of managed waters of the Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge and the Delair,...

  17. Water security of nations: how international trade affects national water scarcity and dependency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Jones, J. Anthony A.; Vardanian, Trahel G.; Hakopian, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Import of water in virtual form, i.e. in the form of agricultural and industrial commodities, can be an effective means for water-scarce countries to preserve their domestic water resources. On the other hand, export of water-intensive commodities will increase the use and thus the scarcity of water

  18. Quality of Source Water from Public-Supply Wells in the United States, 1993-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toccalino, Patricia L.; Norman, Julia E.; Hitt, Kerie J.

    2010-01-01

    More than one-third of the Nation's population receives their drinking water from public water systems that use groundwater as their source. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled untreated source water from 932 public-supply wells, hereafter referred to as public wells, as part of multiple groundwater assessments conducted across the Nation during 1993-2007. The objectives of this study were to evaluate (1) contaminant occurrence in source water from public wells and the potential significance of contaminant concentrations to human health, (2) national and regional distributions of groundwater quality, and (3) the occurrence and characteristics of contaminant mixtures. Treated finished water was not sampled. The 932 public wells are widely distributed nationally and include wells in selected parts of 41 states and withdraw water from parts of 30 regionally extensive aquifers used for public water supply. These wells are distributed among 629 unique public water systems-less than 1 percent of all groundwater-supplied public water systems in the United States-but the wells were randomly selected within the sampled hydrogeologic settings to represent typical aquifer conditions. Samples from the 629 systems represent source water used by one-quarter of the U.S. population served by groundwater-supplied public water systems, or about 9 percent of the entire U.S. population in 2008. One groundwater sample was collected prior to treatment or blending from each of the 932 public wells and analyzed for as many as six water-quality properties and 215 contaminants. Consistent with the terminology used in the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), all constituents analyzed in water samples in this study are referred to as 'contaminants'. More contaminant groups were assessed in this study than in any previous national study of public wells and included major ions, nutrients, radionuclides, trace elements, pesticide compounds, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and fecal

  19. Operational and LIS-Based North American Land Data Assimilation Systems at National Centers for Environmental Prediction: Capability in Simulating Water and Energy Budget over the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, K.; Xia, Y.; Ek, M. B.; Mocko, D. M.; Kumar, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2016-12-01

    NLDAS is a multi-institutional collaborative project sponsored by NOAA's Climate Program Office and NASA's Terrestrial Hydrological Program. NLDAS has a long successful history of producing soil moisture, snow cover, total runoff and streamflow products via application of surface meteorology and precipitation datasets to drive four land-surface models (i.e., Noah, Mosaic, SAC, VIC). The purpose of the NLDAS system is to support numerous research and operational applications in the land modeling and water resources management communities. Since the operational NLDAS version was successfully implemented at NCEP in August 2014, NLDAS products are being used by over 5000 users annually worldwide, including academia, governmental agencies, and private enterprises. Over 71 million files and 144 Tb of data were downloaded in 2015. As we endeavor to increase the quality and breadth of NLDAS products, a joint effort between NASA and NCEP is underway to enable the assimilation of hydrology-relevant remote sensing datasets within NLDAS through the NASA Land Information System (LIS). The use of LIS will also enable easier transition of newly upgraded land surface models into NCEP NLDAS operations. Cold season processes significantly affect water and energy cycles, and their partitioning. As such, in the evaluation of NLDAS systems it is important to assess water and energy exchanges and/or partitioning processes over high-elevations. The Rocky Mountain region of the western U. S. is chosen as such a region to analyze and compare snow water equivalent (SWE), snow cover, snow melt, snow sublimation, total runoff, and sensible heat and latent heat flux. Reference data sets (observation-based and reanalysis) of monthly SWE, streamflow, evapotranspiration, GRACE-based total water storage change, and energy fluxes are used to evaluate model-simulated results. The results show several key factors that affect model simulations: (1) forcing errors such as precipitation partitioning

  20. Estimated use of water in the United States in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Joan F.; Barber, Nancy L.; Hutson, Susan S.; Linsey, Kristin S.; Lovelace, John K.; Maupin, Molly A.

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of water use in the United States indicate that about 410 billion gallons per day (Bgal/d) were withdrawn in 2005 for all categories summarized in this report. This total is slightly less than the estimate for 2000, and about 5 percent less than total withdrawals in the peak year of 1980. Freshwater withdrawals in 2005 were 349 Bgal/d, or 85 percent of the total freshwater and saline-water withdrawals. Fresh groundwater withdrawals of 79.6 Bgal/day in 2005 were about 5 percent less than in 2000, and fresh surface-water withdrawals of 270 Bgal/day were about the same as in 2000. Withdrawals for thermoelectric-power generation and irrigation, the two largest uses of water, have stabilized or decreased since 1980. Withdrawals for public-supply and domestic uses have increased steadily since estimates began.

  1. Charter of the United Nations and statute of the International Court of Justice

    CERN Document Server

    United Nations. New York. Department of Public Information

    1993-01-01

    The Charter of the United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and came into force on 24 October 1945. The Statute of the International Court of Justice is an integral part of the Charter.

  2. Education for Sustainable Development at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012, marking the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the tenth anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. With more than…

  3. United Nations Literacy Decade in Asia and the Pacific: Progress to Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In December 2001, The United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution to establish the United Nations Literacy Decade (UNLD), 2003-2012. The UNLD stresses "Literacy for All: A voice for all, learning for all." The publication records UNLD activities in the Asia and Pacific region during 2003 to 2004 and introduces organizations…

  4. Developing Global Public Participation (1) : Global Public Participation at The United Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, O.; Honniball, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    In this first article, we will analyse the actuality and potential of participation at the international level, or more specifically: at the level of the United Nations (un). Is there a demand for public participation in the work of the United Nations, and if so, who has such demands? And how should

  5. Education for Sustainable Development at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012, marking the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the tenth anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. With more than…

  6. Applying Modern Techniques and Carrying Out English .Extracurricular—— On the Model United Nations Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuXiaoyu; WangJian

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an introduction of the extracurricular activity of the Model United Nations in Northwestern Polyteehnical University (NPU) and it focuses on the application of the modem techniques in the activity and the pedagogical theories applied in it. An interview and questionnaire research will reveal the influence of the Model United Nations.

  7. A national reconnaissance of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in United States lotic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, Melody J; Becker, Jesse C; Doll, Jason; Lauer, Thomas E

    2016-12-01

    We collaborated with 26 groups from universities across the United States to sample 42 sites for 33 trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water and sediments of lotic ecosystems. Our goals were 1) to further develop a national database of TOC abundance in United States lotic ecosystems that can be a foundation for future research and management, and 2) to identify factors related to compound abundance. Trace organic compounds were found in 93% of water samples and 56% of sediment samples. Dissolved concentrations were 10-1000× higher relative to sediment concentrations. The ten most common compounds in water samples with detection frequency and maximum concentration were sucralose (87.5%, 12,000ng/L), caffeine (77.5%, 420ng/L), sulfamethoxazole (70%, 340ng/L), cotinine (65%, 130ng/L), venlafaxine (65%, 1800ng/L), carbamazepine (62.5%, 320ng/L), triclosan (55%, 6800ng/L), azithromycin (15%, 970ng/L), diphenylhydramine (40%, 350ng/L), and desvenlafaxine (35%, 4600ng/L). In sediment, the most common compounds were venlafaxine (32.5%, 19ng/g), diphenhydramine (25%, 41ng/g), azithromycin (15%, 11ng/g), fluoxetine (12.5%, 29ng/g) and sucralose (12.5%, 16ng/g). Refractory compounds such as sucralose may be good indicators of TOC contamination in lotic ecosystems, as there was a correlation between dissolved sucralose concentrations and with the total number of compounds detected in water. Discharge and human demographic (population size) characteristics were not good predictors of compound abundance in water samples. This study further confirms the ubiquity of TOCs in lotic ecosystems. Although concentrations measured rarely approached acute aquatic-life criteria, the chronic effects, bioaccumulative potential, or potential mixture effects of multiple compounds are relatively unknown.

  8. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in City Water, Dental Units' Water, and Bottled Mineral Water in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Bahrami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori infection in human is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via water. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in tap water, dental units' water, and bottled mineral water in Iran. In the present study, totally 200 water samples were collected in Isfahan province and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR by the detection of the ureC (glmM gene. Using cultural method totally 5 cultures were positive. Two out of 50 tap water samples (4%, 2 out of 35 dental units' water (5.8% samples, and 1 out of 40 (2.5% from water cooler in public places were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 14 (7% of water samples including 5 tap water (10%, 4 dental units' water (11.4%, 1 refrigerated water with filtration, and 4 (10% water cooler in public places samples. This may be due to the coccoid form of bacteria which is detected by PCR method.

  9. Solar unit for producing hot water and cold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayramov, R.B.; Nazarova, G.R.; Pivovarova, A.P.; Ushakova, A.D.

    1982-01-01

    A unit is described which contains a reserve heater, cooling tower, air moistener, loop for producing hot water which has a tubular boiler arranged in a glass ''hot box,'' and hot water storage, and loop for circulating the solution which includes a generator, whose working surface serves as the outer surface of the boiler, heat exchanger-regenerator with cavities of strong and weak solutions, cooling agent for the strong solution which is also connected to the cooling tower, and absorber which is connected to the air moistener.

  10. Denmark's National Inventory Report - Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1990-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's in-ventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO2, CH4, N2O...

  11. Denmark's National Inventory Report - Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1990-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's in-ventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO2, CH4, N2O...

  12. The occurrence of radioactivity in public water supplies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, C T; Michel, J; Horton, T R; Prichard, H M; Coniglio, W A

    1985-05-01

    Examination of the collected data for radionuclide concentration measurements in public water supplies in the United States show more than 51,000 measurements for gross alpha-particle activity and/or Ra, 89,900 measurements for U, and 9,000 measurements for Rn. These measurements were made as part of national and state surveys of radionuclide concentrations in utility water supplies for Ra and Rn; and the National Uranium Resource Evolution (NURE) survey for U which included non-utility water supplies. Surface water has low values for Ra and Rn but levels comparable to ground water for U. Separate isotope measurements were not taken for much of the Ra and U data. Because 226Ra to 228Ra ratios and 238U to 234U ratios are not fixed in water, further measurements are needed to establish the specific isotopic concentrations by region. Analysis of the state average values in geological provinces shows the highest provincial areas for Ra are the Upper Coastal Plain, the glaciated Central Platform, and the Colorado plateau. For U, the highest areas are the Colorado plateau, the West Central Platform, and the Rocky Mountains. For Rn, the highest provinces are New England and the Appalachian Highlands-Piedmont. Regional hydrogeological and geochemical models are suggested for guiding the formulation of regional standards and monitoring strategies. Utility supplies serving small populations have the highest concentration for each radionuclide and have the lowest fraction of samples measured, which shows a need for further measurements of these small population water supplies. Risk estimates for the average concentration of Ra in utility ground water give about 941 fatal cancers per 70.7-yr lifetime in the United States. Risk estimates for the average concentration of U in utility surface and ground water give about 105 fatal cancers per 70.7-yr lifetime in the United States. Using 1 pCi/liter in air for 10,000 pCi/l in water, the Rn in utility water risk estimate is for 4

  13. Breaking the Chain of Infection: Dental Unit Water Quality Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Amrita; Mehta, Sonia; Dang, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The air–water syringes, ultrasonic scalers, high speed air turbine handpieces are connected to dental units by a network of small-bore plastic tubes through which water and air travel to activate or cool the instruments and it had been shown that this system is extensively contaminated with microbial biofilms and pose a potential risk of infection for patients as well as dental professionals. Aim To evaluate and compare the efficacy of various disinfectants in reducing the microbial colony count in water derived from Dental Unit Waterlines. Materials and Methods Five random dental units were selected and samples were collected before and after intervention with 5 disinfectants (0.02% H2O2 continuously, 0.02% H2O2 continuously with shock treatment with 0.25% H2O2 weekly, 0.12% Chlorohexidine and 12% Ethanol overnight, 1:50 Original Listerine overnight, 2% Sodium Perborate and 2% EDTA 5 minutes in morning) using different disinfection methods for 4 weeks. Samples were cultured on Reasoner’s 2A (R2A) agar for microbial counting. Results Results were recorded as Colony forming units/ml (cfu/ml) and were evaluated statistically. Results showed that all the dental unit waterlines were heavily contaminated with microbes before any intervention. After 1 day of disinfection regime the counts reduced significantly and showed progressive reduction in consecutive weeks. Goals set by ADA & CDC were ultimately achieved at the end of 4 weeks. Conclusion All the disinfectants were equally effective in reducing the microbial colony count of DUWLs, irrespective of their concentration and method of disinfection. PMID:27630960

  14. Concentration data for anthropogenic organic compounds in groundwater, surface water, and finished water of selected community water systems in the United States, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Kingsbury, James A.; Hopple, Jessica A.; Delzer, Gregory C.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2001 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used in SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well before water treatment (for groundwater) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water), and finished water is the water that has been treated and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished-water samples are collected before the water enters the distribution system. The primary objective of SWQAs is to determine the occurrence of more than 250 anthropogenic organic compounds in source water used by community water systems, many of which currently are unregulated in drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A secondary objective is to understand recurrence patterns in source water and determine if these patterns also occur in finished water before distribution. SWQA studies were conducted in two phases for most studies completed by 2005, and in one phase for most studies completed since 2005. Analytical results are reported for a total of 295 different anthropogenic organic compounds monitored in source-water and finished-water samples collected during 2002-10. The 295 compounds were classified according to the following 13 primary use or source groups: (1) disinfection by-products; (2) fumigant-related compounds; (3) fungicides; (4) gasoline hydrocarbons, oxygenates, and oxygenate degradates; (5) herbicides and herbicide degradates; (6) insecticides and insecticide degradates; (7) manufacturing additives; (8) organic synthesis compounds; (9) pavement- and combustion-derived compounds; (10) personal-care and domestic-use products; (11) plant- or animal-derived biochemicals; (12) refrigerants and

  15. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought a wide array of data (samples, surface and orbital experiments), the Moon lost its exploratory attraction in favor of other programs, such as the International Space Station and potential human exploration of Mars. However, since the mid-90's, the enthusiasm for the Moon has been revived, which resulted in several space agencies worldwide (NASA, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, and the Chinese Space Agency) having made great efforts to re-start ex-ploratory and scientific campaigns even though budgetary changes may delay the process. As a result, a wide array of peoples and their interests are put together in each mission planned to reach the Moon (e.g., orbiters and landers). Up to now, mission plans focus on technical requirements and the desires of scientists and engineers, but hardly any other aspects. Field specialists on issues regarding the social, economic, political, cultural, ethical and environmen-tal impacts of Moon exploration and colonization have had little to no involvement in current and past lunar missions. However, these fields would provide different and essential points of view regarding the planning of lunar missions. Moreover, recent documents written by the scientific community, such as "The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Final Re-port" Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon, National Research Council (2007), or the recent (summer 2009) White Papers for the National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2011-2020, do not seem to leave space for a multidisciplinary approach regarding the future lunar exploration either

  16. Fatality trends in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, 1948-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, B; Burnham, G M

    2000-08-02

    The rising number of deaths among United Nations (UN) peacekeeping forces after the Cold War has made some troop-contributing countries hesitant to participate in peacekeeping operations. While the number and scale of missions have increased, no data have demonstrated a parallel increase in risks to peacekeepers. To determine the association of characteristics of UN peacekeeping operations with risks and mortality rates among UN peacekeeping forces in both the Cold War and post-Cold War periods. Descriptive analysis of 1559 personnel deaths during 49 UN peacekeeping missions from 1948-1998 based on the casualty database maintained by Department of Peacekeeping Operations, UN Headquarters. Number and percentage of deaths by circumstance, total crude death rate, and crude death rate and relative risk of death by circumstance (hostile acts, unintentional violence, and illness or other causes) and time period (Cold War vs post-Cold War), geographic region, and nature of peacekeeping response; and regression analysis of mission variables (strength, duration, and humanitarian mandate) associated with total number of deaths. More deaths have occurred among UN peacekeeping forces in the past decade alone than in the previous 40 years of UN peacekeeping (807 vs 752), but crude death rates did not differ significantly by time period (Cold War vs post-Cold War, 21.8 vs 21. 2 deaths per 10,000 person-years; P =.58), level of peacekeeping response, or for geographic regions other than East Europe and Central America, where rates were lower (PCold War (relative risk [RR] 1. 51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.88), while rates for deaths caused by unintentional violence decreased (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0. 94) but remain high, particularly in the Middle East and Asia (RR, 1. 39; 95% CI, 1.15-1.69). Regression analysis showed a significant association between number of deaths and the strength (PCold War rather than increased RR of death. Post-Cold War peacekeeping personnel

  17. Dental unit water lines decontamination with the aid of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Paramashivaiah; M. L. V. Prabhuji; Roopalakshmi Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This article reviews the issue of dental unit waterline (DUWL) contamination which affects all the clinical and hospital settings. The contaminating microorganisms commonly isolated from these settings and the most pathogenic among them have serious consequences. Over the years several measures are inculcated for decontamination of water, their advantages and shortcomings have been addressed. Options using nanotechnology which are available in the market are described briefly. Materi...

  18. United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) 1991-2012 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Mathai, A M; Balogh, W R

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains an overview and summary on the achievements of the United Nations basic space science initiative in terms of donated and provided planetariums, astronomical telescopes, and space weather instruments, particularly operating in developing nations. This scientific equipment has been made available to respective host countries, particularly developing nations, through the series of twenty basic space science workshops, organized through the United Nations Programme on Space Applications since 1991. Organized by the United Nations, the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States of America, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the basic space science workshops were organized as a series of workshops that focused on basic space science (1991-2004), the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (2005-2009), and the International Space Weather Initiative (2010-2012) proposed by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Spac...

  19. Monitoring dental-unit-water-line output water by current in-office test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sham; Singhrao, Sim K; Bricknell, Matt; Pearce, Mark; Morton, L H Glyn; Ahmed, Waqar; Crean, St John

    2014-08-01

    The importance of monitoring contamination levels in the output water of dental-unit-water-lines (DUWLs) is essential as they are prone to developing biofilms that may contaminate water that is used to treat patients, with opportunistic pathogens such as species of Legionella, Pseudomonas and others. Dentists and practice staff are also at risk of being infected by means of cross-infection due to aerosols generated from DUWL water. The unit of measurement for the microbial contamination of water by aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria is the colony-forming unit per millilitre (cfu/ml) of water. The UK has its own guidelines set by the Department of Health for water discharged from DUWL to be between 100 and 200 cfu/ml of water. The benchmark or accepted standard laboratory test is by microbiological culture on R2A agar plates. However, this is costly and not convenient for routine testing in dental practices. A number of commercial indicator tests are used in dental surgeries, but they were not developed for the dental market and serve only to indicate gross levels of contamination when used outside of the manufacturer's recommended incubation period. The aim of this article is to briefly review the universal problem of DUWL contamination with microbial biofilms and to update dental professionals on the availability of currently available commercial in-office monitoring systems for aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria and to discuss their limitations for testing water samples in assuring compliance with recommended guidelines.

  20. Water resources of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, A.H.; Stark, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in a water-rich area. It borders Lake Michigan and several small streams flow through the park to the lake. Small lakes are numerous within the park and near its boundaries. Ground water is available at most places in the park and wells yield as much as 100 gallons per minute. Water from streams, lakes, wells, and springs is of good quality. Dissolved solids range from 35 to 180 mg/L in lakes, from 145 to 214 mg/L in streams, and from 136 to 468 mg/L in groundwater. Analyses of samples for pesticides and trace metals indicate that no pesticides are present in the water, and that concentrations of trace metals do not exceed recommended drinking-water standards. Surface and ground water are available in sufficient quantity in most areas of the park for the development of water supplies for visitor 's centers, campgrounds, picnic areas, and other park facilities.

  1. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    to lengthen by 15-25 days in some areas of Alaska, with much of that corresponding with earlier spring snow melt. Future projections of precipitation (30-80 years) over Alaska show an increase across the State, with the largest changes in the northwest and smallest in the southeast. Because of increasing temperatures and growing season length, however, increased precipitation may not correspond with increased water availability, due to temperature related increased evapotranspiration. The extent of snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere has decreased by about 10 percent since the late 1960s, with stronger trends noted since the late 1980s. Alaska has experienced similar trends, with a strong decrease in snow cover extent occurring in May. When averaged across the State, the disappearance of snow in the spring has occurred from 4 to 6 days earlier per decade, and snow return in fall has occurred approximately 2 days later per decade. This change appears to be driven by climate warming rather than a decrease in winter precipitation, with average winter temperatures also increasing by about 2.5°F. The extent of sea ice has been declining, as has been widely published in both national and scientific media outlets, and is projected to continue to decline during this century. The observed decline in annual sea ice minimum extent (September) has occurred more rapidly than was predicted by climate models and has been accompanied by decreases in ice thickness and in the presence of multi-year ice. This decrease was first documented by satellite imagery in the late 1970s for the Bering and Chukchi Seas, and is projected to continue, with the potential for the disappearance of summer sea ice by mid- to late century. A new phenomenon that was not reported in previous assessments is ocean acidification. Uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) by oceans has a significant effect on marine biogeochemistry by reducing seawater pH. Ocean acidification is of particular concern in Alaska

  2. Economic dynamics of all members of the United Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Chukwu, Ethelbert Nwakuche

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an enduring response to modern economic problems and the consequent crises, dealing with the economic modelling of nations and the forecasting of economic growth. The main arguments embodied constitute the creation of jobs and the restoration of economic growth, using the implicit acceptance of analysis on differential models and neutral systems for controlling the wealth of nations.

  3. 3 CFR 8441 - Proclamation 8441 of October 19, 2009. United Nations Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Proclamation The United Nations was created 64 years ago by men and women from every corner of the world. These... principle forum for all nations, large and small, to work in concert to meet the global challenges no nation... will and leadership to match the aspirations of all. Now is the time for all of us to assume our share...

  4. 77 FR 3371 - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... January 10, 2012 Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan... of the United States in certain United Nations peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations, I hereby certify that members of the U.S. Armed Forces participating in the United Nations Mission in...

  5. Water Mongoose Atilax Paludinosus in the Tsitsikamma Coastal National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. M Crawford

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available In a catalogue of 38 mammals recorded from the Tsitsikamma Coastal and Forest National Parks, Robinson (1976, Koedoe 19: 145-152 mentions only one type of mongoose, the Cape grey mongoose Herpestes pulverulentus. However, Stuart (1981, Bontebok 1: 1-58 also includes the water mongoose Atila-x paludinosus. His list of mammalian carnivores occurring in the Tsitsikamma National Parks other- wise agrees with that of Robinson.

  6. 36 CFR 1235.10 - What records do agencies transfer to the National Archives of the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transfer to the National Archives of the United States? 1235.10 Section 1235.10 Parks, Forests, and Public... NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES General Transfer Requirements § 1235.10 What records do agencies transfer to the National Archives of the United States? Agencies must transfer to the National Archives......

  7. Hydrologic data for the Fristoe Unit of the Mark Twain National Forest, southern Missouri, 1988-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeschulte, Michael J.; Sutley, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Background hydrologic data were collected from 1988 to 1993 in the Fristoe Unit of the Mark Twain National Forest. Water-quality data collected from area streams, springs, and wells were analyzed using trilinear diagrams, stiff diagrams, boxplots, and summary statistics. The water is a calcium- magnesium-bicarbonate type. Streams generally have slightly larger potassium, barium, and total organic carbon concentrations than spring or well water. Well water has larger bicarbonate and zinc concen- trations and larger variability in sodium, chloride, and nitrate concentrations than stream and spring water samples. The bulk mineralogy for streambed material is primarily coarse grain quartz. Quantitative elemental (chemistry) analysis on the less than 63 micrometer fraction of bulk material was performed. The heavy mineral concentrate in the streambed material was analyzed using semi- quantitative optical mineralogy and 37-element semi- quantitative emission spectrography. Water levels were measured in 57 area wells in the spring and fall from 1990 to 1993 to determine ground-water level fluctuations. Ground-water fluctuations ranged from less than 1.0 to 205.1 feet in these wells. Continuous water-level recorders were installed on three area wells. Depth to water ranged from 289.68 to 333.39 feet in the lower Eleven Point well, which is completed in the Ozark aquifer. Depth to water ranged from 78.73 to 90.20 feet in Ozark Lead Well 1 which is completed in the Ozark aquifer and St. Francois confining unit. Depth to water ranged from 127.53 to 135.67 feet in Ozark Lead Well 2, which is completed in the St. Francois confining unit and the St. Francois aquifer.

  8. Sampling and analysis plan for treatment water and creek water for the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This document provides the Environmental Restoration Program with information about the methodology, organizational structure, quality assurance and health and safety practices to be employed during the water sampling and analysis activities associated with the remediation of the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit during remediation of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Bruner sites.

  9. Does water chemistry limit the distribution of New Zealand mud snails in Redwood National Park?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Ryan; Ward, Darren M.; Sepulveda, Adam

    2016-01-01

    New Zealand mud snails (NZMS) are exotic mollusks present in many waterways of the western United States. In 2009, NZMS were detected in Redwood Creek in Redwood National Park, CA. Although NZMS are noted for their ability to rapidly increase in abundance and colonize new areas, after more than 5 years in Redwood Creek, their distribution remains limited to a ca. 300 m reach. Recent literature suggests that low specific conductivity and environmental calcium can limit NZMS distribution. We conducted laboratory experiments, exposing NZMS collected from Redwood Creek to both natural waters and artificial treatment solutions, to determine if low conductivity and calcium concentration limit the distribution of NZMS in Redwood National Park. For natural water exposures, we held NZMS in water from their source location (conductivity 135 μS/cm, calcium 13 mg/L) or water from four other locations in the Redwood Creek watershed encompassing a range of conductivity (77–158 μS/cm) and calcium concentration (4 months) in the lowest conductivity waters from Redwood Creek and all but the lowest-conductivity treatment solutions, regardless of calcium concentration. However, reproductive output was very low in all natural waters and all low-calcium treatment solutions. Our results suggest that water chemistry may inhibit the spread of NZMS in Redwood National Park by reducing their reproductive output.

  10. Review of Literature for Inputs to the National Water Savings Model and Spreadsheet Tool-Commercial/Institutional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Melody, Moya; Lutz, James

    2009-05-29

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is developing a computer model and spreadsheet tool for the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help estimate the water savings attributable to their WaterSense program. WaterSense has developed a labeling program for three types of plumbing fixtures commonly used in commercial and institutional settings: flushometer valve toilets, urinals, and pre-rinse spray valves. This National Water Savings-Commercial/Institutional (NWS-CI) model is patterned after the National Water Savings-Residential model, which was completed in 2008. Calculating the quantity of water and money saved through the WaterSense labeling program requires three primary inputs: (1) the quantity of a given product in use; (2) the frequency with which units of the product are replaced or are installed in new construction; and (3) the number of times or the duration the product is used in various settings. To obtain the information required for developing the NWS-CI model, LBNL reviewed various resources pertaining to the three WaterSense-labeled commercial/institutional products. The data gathered ranged from the number of commercial buildings in the United States to numbers of employees in various sectors of the economy and plumbing codes for commercial buildings. This document summarizes information obtained about the three products' attributes, quantities, and use in commercial and institutional settings that is needed to estimate how much water EPA's WaterSense program saves.

  11. Refuge Management Plan: Sandstone Unit Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Part I of this management plan for the Sandstone Unit of Rice Lake NWR summarizes background information on the location, history, environment, resources,...

  12. Alaska maritime national wildlife refuge - Bearing Sea unit contaminant assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Contaminant Assessment Process (CAP) is to compile and summarize known past, present, and potential contaminant issues on National Wildlife...

  13. United States National Security Interests and the Republic of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    The perceptions that have been colored by history are sharpened by differences and dispari- ties separating the two nations. Octavio Paz , a...Stoessel, Jr., "Foreign Policy Priorities in Asia," Current Policy, No. 274, (April 24, 1981), p. 1. 14 Octavio Paz , Mexico and the U.S.: Positions and... Paz expressed it, "our countries are neighbors condemned to live alongside each other." The relationship began even before the two nations existed

  14. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute.

  15. A new national unit for invasive species detection, assessment and eradication planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. U. Wilson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Even with no new introductions, the number of biological invasions in South Africa will increase as introduced species naturalise and become invasive. As of 2010 South Africa had ~8750 introduced plant taxa, 660 recorded as naturalised, 198 included in invasive species legislation, but only 64 subject to regular control (i.e. only widespread invaders are managed post-border. There is only one documented example of a successful eradication programme in continental South Africa against the Mediterranean snail (Otala punctata in Cape Town. Here we describe the establishment in 2008 of a unit funded by the Working for Water Programme as part of the South African National Biodiversity Institute's Invasive Species Programme (SANBI ISP designed to (1 detect and document new invasions, (2 provide reliable and transparent post-border risk assessments and (3 provide the cross-institutional coordination needed to successfully implement national eradication plans. As of the end of 2012, the ISP had an annual budget of R36 million, employed 33 staff working across all nine provinces, supported 10 postgraduate students, hosted 35 interns (including those as part of a drive to collect DNA barcodes for all invasive taxa and created over 50 000 days of work as part of government poverty alleviation programmes. The unit has worked towards full risk assessments for 39 plant taxa and has developed eradication plans for seven species; the unit is now helping implement these plans. By focusing on science-based management and policy, we argue that SANBI ISP can play a leading role in preventing introduced species from becoming widespread invaders.

  16. Future National Reference Frames for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    The mission of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is "to define, maintain and provide access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) to meet our nation's economic, social, and environmental needs." NSRS is the nation's system of latitude, longitude, elevation, and related geophysical and geodetic models and tools, which provides a consistent spatial reference framework for the broad spectrum of geoscientific applications and other positioning-related requirements. Technological developments - notably Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) - and user accuracy requirements necessitate that NGS endeavor to modernize the NSRS. Preparations are underway by NGS for a comprehensive NSRS makeover, to be completed in 2022 and delivered through a new generation of horizontal and vertical datums (reference frames), featuring unprecedented accuracy, repeatability, and efficiency of access. This evolution is outlined in the "National Geodetic Survey Ten-Year Strategic Plan, 2013-2023." This presentation will outline the motivation for this effort and the history, current status and planned evolution of NSRS. Fundamental to the delivery of the future reference frame paradigm are new geometric and geopotential (elevation) frameworks. The new geometric reference frame, realized through GNSS Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS), will replace the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) and will provide the nationwide framework for determination of latitude, longitude, and ellipsoid height. Designed to complement the new geometric reference frame, a corresponding geopotential reference frame - based on a national gravimetric geoid and replacing the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) - will be developed and co-released. The gravimetric geoid - or definitional reference surface (zero elevation) - for the future geopotential reference frame will be built in part from airborne gravimetric data collected in

  17. The quality of raw water for drinking water unit in Jakarta-Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidabutar, Noni Valeria; Hartono, Djoko M.; Soesilo, Tri Edhi Budhi; Hutapea, Reynold C.

    2017-03-01

    Water problems, i.e quality, quantity, continuity of clean water faced by the mostly urban area. Jakarta also faces similar issues, because the needs of society higher than the number of water fulfilled by the government. Moreover, Jakarta's water quality does not meet the standard set by the Government and heavily polluted by anthropogenic activities along its rivers. This research employs a quantitative research approach with the mix-method. It examines the raw water quality status for drinking water in West Tarum Canalin 2011-2015. The research results show water quality with this research, using water quality of with the water categorized as heavily-polluted category based on the Ministry of Environment's Decree No 115/2003 regarding the Guidelines for Determination of Water Quality Status. This present research also shown the water quality (parameters pH, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)) from Jatiluhur Dam to the intake drinking water unit. In thirteen points of sampling also, the results obtained the parameters DO, COD, and BOD are fluctuating and exceed the standard.

  18. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 1998 Water Year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. A. Shaull; M. R. Alexander; R. P. Reynolds; C. T. McLean; R. P. Romero

    1999-02-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 19 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Also included are discharge data from three springs that flow into Caiion de Vane.

  19. USGS Water Availability and Use Science Program - research Towards a national water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, M.

    2016-12-01

    A key part of achieving the US Department of the Interior's sustainability goals is informing the public and decision makers about the status and trends of the Nation's water resources. To achieve these goals the USGS has implemented a National Water Census (NWC) to provide a more accurate picture of the quantity of the Nation's water resources and improve forecasting of water availability for current and future economic, energy production, and environmental uses. In 2016, to streamline water sustainability activities, the USGS realigned all water availability and use oriented research, including the NWC, within a new Program - the Water Availability and Use Science Program (WAUSP). WAUSP supports producing a current, comprehensive scientific assessment of the factors that influence water availability through development of nationally consistent datasets on the status and trends of water budget components (precipitation, streamflow, groundwater, and evapotranspiration), as well as human water use; improving the current understanding of flow requirements for ecological purposes; and evaluating water-resource conditions in selected river basins, or Focus Area Studies, where competition for water is a local concern. In addition to supporting research that provides water budget component estimates at the smallest possible spatial and temporal scale, WAUSP has supported the development of new methods and techniques to improve estimation of water use through the National Water Use Science project. These efforts include developing a heat budget-based model to improve estimates of thermoelectric water use, evaluating direct and indirect water use associated with unconventional oil and gas production, and developing methods to estimate irrigation consumptive use at both the local and regional scale. Additionally, WAUSP collaborates with federal, State, local, and University partners on a number of other water use related research including the new Water Use Data and

  20. MEDICAL BRIGADES, GLOBAL HEALTH AND THE UNITED NATIONS: MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND DEVELOPING NATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Mark T; Martin, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, recommendations have been made that global health initiatives change their focus from disease specific intervention to bolstering health systems and general health care. The aim of this is to ultimately increase access to primary care, clean water, education, hygiene, and prevent malnutrition, among other goals. While many major global health initiatives have followed this trend, so have many smaller scale programs including short-term medical brigades. Despite a trending increase in the number of privately run short-term medical brigades, until recently, little research has been done on the potential positive and negative effects that can arise from such programs. Now, guidelines have been initiated to create well-structured programs. When followed, these smaller scale initiatives can be successful in helping increase access to healthcare, sustainably strengthening communities in terms of general health. While recent legislation in the United States has addressed domestic policy in the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), the ACA should also consider some of the basic "sustainable" policies being implemented by international health care providers.

  1. Unit: Indicating Acidity, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    The introductory core activities in this trial unit, prepared for students in grades seven through nine of Australian schools, use indicators derived from flower pigments to provide a more convenient measure of acidity than taste. Students are offered choices among seven options after completion of the core: "How Acidic is That?"; "What Colour is…

  2. 75 FR 61751 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations AGENCY: Environmental Protection... National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council). This 15-member Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide practical and independent advice, consultation and recommendations...

  3. Solar hot water systems for the southeastern United States: principles and construction of breadbox water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-02-01

    The use of solar energy to provide hot water is among the easier solar technologies for homeowners to utilize. In the Southeastern United States, because of the mild climate and abundant sunshine, solar energy can be harnessed to provide a household's hot water needs during the non-freezing weather period mid-April and mid-October. This workbook contains detailed plans for building breadbox solar water heaters that can provide up to 65% of your hot water needs during warm weather. If fuel costs continue to rise, the annual savings obtained from a solar water heater will grow dramatically. The designs in this workbook use readily available materials and the construction costs are low. Although these designs may not be as efficient as some commercially available systems, most of a household's hot water needs can be met with them. The description of the breadbox water heater and other types of solar systems will help you make an informed decision between constructing a solar water heater or purchasing one. This workbook is intended for use in the southeastern United States and the designs may not be suitable for use in colder climates.

  4. Recreation in the United States. National Historic Landmark Theme Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleton, James H.

    This report examines a number of outstanding and illustrative examples of a broad range of properties representing recreational activities that suggest themselves for possible National Historic Landmark recognition. The properties described in the study have been selected to represent places and activities that have had a major impact on American…

  5. National scale biomass estimators for United States tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; David C. Chojnacky; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Birdsey

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of national-scale forest carbon (C) stocks and fluxes are typically based on allometric regression equations developed using dimensional analysis techniques. However, the literature is inconsistent and incomplete with respect to large-scale forest C estimation. We compiled all available diameter-based allometric regression equations for estimating total...

  6. A National Modeling Framework for Water Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, J. D.; Cline, D. W.; Pietrowsky, R.

    2013-12-01

    The National Weather Service (NWS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), all Federal agencies with complementary water-resources activities, entered into an Interagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) "Collaborative Science Services and Tools to Support Integrated and Adaptive Water Resources Management" to collaborate in activities that are supportive to their respective missions. One of the interagency activities is the development of a highly integrated national water modeling framework and information services framework. Together these frameworks establish a common operating picture, improve modeling and synthesis, support the sharing of data and products among agencies, and provide a platform for incorporation of new scientific understanding. Each of the agencies has existing operational systems to assist in carrying out their respective missions. The systems generally are designed, developed, tested, fielded, and supported by specialized teams. A broader, shared approach is envisioned and would include community modeling, wherein multiple independent investigators or teams develop and contribute new modeling capabilities based on science advances; modern technology in coupling model components and visualizing results; and a coupled atmospheric - hydrologic model construct such that the framework could be used in real-time water-resources decision making or for long-term management decisions. The framework also is being developed to account for organizational structures of the three partners such that, for example, national data sets can move down to the regional scale, and vice versa. We envision the national water modeling framework to be an important element of North American Water Program, to contribute to goals of the Program, and to be informed by the science and approaches developed as a part of the Program.

  7. Denmark's National Inventory Reports. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M. [Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark); Rasmussen, E. [Energistyrelsen (Denmark)

    2000-05-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2000. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 1998 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}, HFCs, PFCs and SF. (au)

  8. GB/T 19409-2013《水(地)源热泵机组》国家标准解析%Analysis of GB/T 19409-2013"Water Source (Ground Source) Heat Pump Units"National Standard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金平; 钟瑜; 程立权; 范欢欢; 蔡松素; 刘杰

    2015-01-01

    Based on the comparisons of the last version and the revised version of GB/T 19409-2013 "Water Source (Ground Source) Heat Pump units" national standard, the contents were studied in detail, including definitions, types, testing methods and conditions, performance coefficient limits and safety requirements, etc. The original intention and the key problems to be solved are pointed out. The research results provide the technical guidance for better understanding the items of the standard and for performance evaluation of the products.%通过与上一版标准的比对分析,本文详细解读了国家标准GB/T 19409-2013《水(地)源热泵机组》,包括产品的定义与型式、测试方法与试验工况、性能系数限定值以及安全要求等内容,并指出了标准修订的初衷与解决的重点问题,为正确理解标准条款、评价产品性能提供了技术指导。

  9. United States National Grid for New Mexico, UTM 13, (1000m X 1000m polygons )

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  10. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  11. M. Hartley Dodge Unit : Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge : Wilderness area proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on the M. Hartley Dodge Unit of the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge and its suitability for wilderness designation. Topics...

  12. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lance Rosier Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lance Rosier Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  13. The Conundrum about the United Nations Security Council: A Guardian of Peace or Cause for Concern?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berdal Aral

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to find out whether the United Nations Security Council (UN SC) has been perfoming its primary task of safeguarding international peace and security effectively since the Cold War has become a matter of history...

  14. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  15. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  16. Narrative report Seneca Unit Erie National Wildlife Refuge Calendar year - 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seneca Unit of the Erie National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins...

  17. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  18. United States National Grid for New Mexico, UTM 12, (1000m X 1000m polygons )

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  19. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  20. Stroke units: research and reality. Results from the National Sentinel Audit of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To use data from the 2001–2 National Stroke Audit to describe the organisation of stroke units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and to see if key characteristics deemed effective from the research literature were present.

  1. Matagorda Island Unit, Aransas National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Narrative Report for the Matagorda Island Unit of Aransas National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during 1987. The report begins with...

  2. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lance Rosier Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lance Rosier Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely sensed,...

  3. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  4. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  5. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  6. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  7. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  8. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  9. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Turkey Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Turkey Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely sensed,...

  10. Final Environmental Assessment : Livestock Grazing Management Seven Blackfeet Habitat Unit : Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final environmental assessment for the grazing management within the Seven Blackfeet Habitat Unit of the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, in relation to...

  11. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between EPA and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then Administrator Jackson signed the first Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between EPA and United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) during the 26th Session of the UNEP Governing Council Meeting/Global Ministerial Environment Forum in 2011.

  12. Matagorda Island Unit, Aransas National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Narrative Report for the Matagorda Island Unit of Aransas National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during 1989. The report begins with...

  13. Population-resources-environment-development interrelationships in the United Nations: in search of an approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosovic, B

    1984-08-01

    The relationships among population, resources, the environment, and development are reviewed, with the focus on how such questions are dealt with in the United Nations system. Emphasis is on the complexities of the issues raised rather than on their resolution.

  14. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Turkey Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Turkey Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  15. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  16. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lance Rosier Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lance Rosier Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  17. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  18. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  19. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  20. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Turkey Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Turkey Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely sensed,...

  1. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  2. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  3. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  4. A Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Garel M., J.-M. Cugnasse, A. Loison, J.-M. Gaillard, C. Vuiton, and D.Maillard. 2005. Monitoring the abundance of mouflon in south France. European ...of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  5. Drinking water public right-to-know requirements in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blette, Veronica

    2008-01-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency implements a national drinking-water program under the authority of the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act. Amendments to the Act in 1996 added new provisions to enhance consumer understanding of drinking-water issues. Notification requirements associated with annual consumer confidence reports, source water assessments and state compliance reports are intended to enhance the public's knowledge of the quality of their drinking water. Water utilities are also subject to public notification requirements to provide more timely information to consumers in response to violations of health standards. These right-to-know requirements are intended to build the public's confidence, but communicating with consumers can be challenging for both utility managers and government leaders. This paper discusses the need for timely communication, the challenge of providing information when there is uncertainty in the science and the importance of preparing to respond to critical incidents. Because surveys have shown that other members of the community may have better access to consumers or are more trusted, it is important for water utilities to establish relationships with the media and the local public health community.

  6. Dysfunction Junction: Intelligence, Peacekeeping, and the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    government’s formulating and implementing policy to further its national security interests and to deal with threats to those interests from actual or...their internal affairs to be the focus of a UN collection effort.68 Martha Finnemore documented a shift in the consideration of international...Chesterman, 154. 69 Martha Finnemore , “Changing Norms of Humanitarian Intervention,” in The Purpose of Intervention: Changing Beliefs about the Use of Force

  7. The Future of the United Nations: Implications for Peace Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-05

    first tier nation is if we think one or more of them might revert from market democracy. War between market democracies, he stressed, is practically ...the organization as useless at best and, at worst, an outright threat pushing toward world government. This position was most common on the right side...p.12. 34 ’Peacekeeper to Peacemaker: U.N. Confronting New Roles.’ New York rimes, January 25,1993, p. A10. Lewis, William H., ed. Miday Implcations

  8. USGS Water-Quality Data for the Nation - National Water Information System (NWIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS compiles online access to water-resources data collected at approximately 1.5 million sites in all 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the...

  9. USGS Surface-Water Data for the Nation - National Water Information System (NWIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS compiles online access to water-resources data collected at approximately 1.5 million sites in all 50 States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the...

  10. Water availability and vulnerability of 225 large cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padowski, Julie C.; Jawitz, James W.

    2012-12-01

    This study presents a quantitative national assessment of urban water availability and vulnerability for 225 U.S. cities with population greater than 100,000. Here, the urban assessments account for not only renewable water flows, but also the extracted, imported, and stored water that urban systems access through constructed infrastructure. These sources represent important hydraulic components of the urban water supply, yet are typically excluded from water scarcity assessments. Results from this hydraulic-based assessment were compared to those obtained using a more conventional method that estimates scarcity solely based on local renewable flows. The inclusion of hydraulic components increased the mean availability to cities, leading to a significantly lower portion of the total U.S. population considered "at risk" for water scarcity (17%) than that obtained from the runoff method (47%). Water vulnerability was determined based on low-flow conditions, and smaller differences were found for this metric between at-risk populations using the runoff (66%) and hydraulic-based (54%) methods. The large increase in the susceptible population between the scarcity measures evaluated using the hydraulic method may better reconcile the seeming contradiction in the United States between perceptions of natural water abundance and widespread water scarcity. Additionally, urban vulnerability measures developed here were validated using a media text analysis. Vulnerability assessments that included hydraulic components were found to correlate with the frequency of urban water scarcity reports in the popular press while runoff-based measures showed no significant correlation, suggesting that hydraulic-based assessments provide better context for understanding the nature and severity of urban water scarcity issues.

  11. The Water Resources Board: England and Wales’ Venture into National Water Resources Planning, 1964-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine S. McCulloch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An era of technocratic national planning of water resources is examined against the views of a leading liberal economist and critics, both contemporary and retrospective. Post Second World War Labour Governments in Britain failed to nationalise either land or water. As late as 1965, the idea of public ownership of all water supplies appeared in the Labour Party manifesto and a short-lived Ministry of Land and Natural Resources, 1964-1966, had amongst its duties the development of plans for reorganising the water supply industry under full public ownership. However, instead of pursuing such a politically dangerous takeover of the industry, in July 1964, a Water Resources Board (WRB, a special interest group dominated by engineers, was set up to advise on the development of water resources. In its first Annual Report (1965 WRB claimed its role as "the master planner of the water resources of England and Wales". The WRB had a great deal of influence and justified its national planning role by promoting large-scale supply schemes such as interbasin transfers of water, large reservoirs and regulated rivers. Feasibility studies were even carried out for building innovative, large storage reservoirs in tidal estuaries. Less progress was made on demand reduction. Yet the seeds of WRB’s demise were contained in its restricted terms of reference. The lack of any remit over water quality was a fatal handicap. Quantity and quality needed to be considered together. Privatisation of the water industry in 1989 led to a shift from national strategic planning by engineers to attempts to strengthen economic instruments to fit supply more closely to demand. Engineers have now been usurped as leaders in water resources management by economists and accountants. Yet climate change may demand a return to national strategic planning of engineered water supply, with greater democratic input.

  12. 36 CFR 1235.12 - When must agencies transfer records to the National Archives of the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... records to the National Archives of the United States? 1235.12 Section 1235.12 Parks, Forests, and Public... NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES General Transfer Requirements § 1235.12 When must agencies transfer records to the National Archives of the United States? Permanent records must be transferred to...

  13. 36 CFR 1235.18 - How do agencies transfer records to the National Archives of the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... records to the National Archives of the United States? 1235.18 Section 1235.18 Parks, Forests, and Public... NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES General Transfer Requirements § 1235.18 How do agencies transfer records to the National Archives of the United States? Agencies transfer records by submitting a signed...

  14. 75 FR 6709 - United States, et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment Inc. and Live Nation Inc.; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment Inc. and Live Nation Inc.; Proposed... Columbia in United States of America, et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc. and Live Nation, Inc... Nation, Inc. would substantially lessen competition in primary ticketing in the United States and...

  15. 31 CFR 585.215 - Conveyances and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking. 585.215 Section 585.215 Money and... and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking. (a) Except... § 585.201, but which are suspected of a violation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions No....

  16. United polarizable multipole water model for molecular mechanics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Rui; Wang, Qiantao; Ren, Pengyu, E-mail: pren@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Wang, Lee-Ping; Pande, Vijay S. [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-07-07

    We report the development of a united AMOEBA (uAMOEBA) polarizable water model, which is computationally 3–5 times more efficient than the three-site AMOEBA03 model in molecular dynamics simulations while providing comparable accuracy for gas-phase and liquid properties. In this coarse-grained polarizable water model, both electrostatic (permanent and induced) and van der Waals representations have been reduced to a single site located at the oxygen atom. The permanent charge distribution is described via the molecular dipole and quadrupole moments and the many-body polarization via an isotropic molecular polarizability, all located at the oxygen center. Similarly, a single van der Waals interaction site is used for each water molecule. Hydrogen atoms are retained only for the purpose of defining local frames for the molecular multipole moments and intramolecular vibrational modes. The parameters have been derived based on a combination of ab initio quantum mechanical and experimental data set containing gas-phase cluster structures and energies, and liquid thermodynamic properties. For validation, additional properties including dimer interaction energy, liquid structures, self-diffusion coefficient, and shear viscosity have been evaluated. The results demonstrate good transferability from the gas to the liquid phase over a wide range of temperatures, and from nonpolar to polar environments, due to the presence of molecular polarizability. The water coordination, hydrogen-bonding structure, and dynamic properties given by uAMOEBA are similar to those derived from the all-atom AMOEBA03 model and experiments. Thus, the current model is an accurate and efficient alternative for modeling water.

  17. Water-resources data index for Osceola National Forest, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaber, Paul R.; Hull, Robert W.

    1979-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an intensive investigation from December 1975 to December 1977 of the geohydrology of Osceola National Forest, Fla. The primary purpose was to provide the geohydrological understanding needed to predict the impact of potential phosphate industry operations in the forest on the natural hydrologic system. The investigation involved test drilling, implementation of a hydrologic monitoring network, water-quality sampling, comprehensive aquifer tests, and literature study. This report is an index to the type, source, location, and availability of the data used in the interpretive investigation. The indexes include: geological, geophysical, ground water, surface water, quality of water, meteorological, climatological, aquifer tests, maps, photographs, elevations, and reference publications. The manner of storage and retrieval of the data is decribed also. (Woodard-USGS).

  18. Beyond counting cases: Public health impacts of national Paediatric Surveillance Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grenier, D.; Elliott, E.J.; Zurynski, Y.; Rodrigues Pereira, R.; Preece, M.; Lynn, R.; Kries, R. von; Zimmermann, H.; Dickson, N.P.; Virella, D.

    2007-01-01

    Paediatric Surveillance Units (PSUs) have been established in 14 countries and facilitate national, prospective, active surveillance for a range of conditions, with monthly reporting by child health specialists. The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1

  19. The United Nations contribution towards an international agreement on remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, M.

    1976-01-01

    The recommendations of the Legal Subcommittee of the United Nations committee for the Peaceful Uses of Space concerning satellite remote sensing are considered. Detailed studies of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of this committee are discussed with emphasis on three draft proposals submitted to it on remote sensing by (1) France and the USSR, (2) Latin American countries, and (3) the United States.

  20. Flora of the Zuurberg National Park. 1. Characterization of major vegetation units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B-E. van Wyk

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of major vegetation units or veld types in the Zuurberg National Park, situated on the eastern limits of the Fynbos Biome, is presented. Structural and floristic criteria are used to describe and map five basic units, namely Afromontane Forest, Subtropical Thicket, Mountain Fynbos, Grassy Fynbos and Grassland.