WorldWideScience

Sample records for united nations ban

  1. 76 FR 44751 - Suspension of Entry of Aliens Subject to United Nations Security Council Travel Bans and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... to United Nations Security Council Travel Bans and International Emergency Economic Powers Act... the United Nations Charter to carry out the decisions of the United Nations Security Council imposed... a United Nations Security Council resolution referenced in Annex A to this proclamation. (b)...

  2. Banned prints in the National and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Švent

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formation and operation of the D-collection (a special collection of banned prints in the National and University Library (NUL. The functioning of the collection was constantly faced with different complications caused either by legislation or by librarians themselves, due to a too strict adherence to some unwritten rules ("better one more then one less". In the 50-years period, a unique collection of at that tirne banned prints was formed,complemented by over 17000 articles indexed from different periodicals.

  3. Public Support for a Ban on Headscarves: A Cross-National Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanda van der Noll

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper compares a psychological explanation of support for a ban on headscarves in the United Kingdom, France, Germany and the Netherlands. This study examines how perceptions of threat posed by Muslims and Islam and the overall attitude towards Muslims explain support for a ban on headscarves. In addition, cross-national comparisons are made to study how these relations are affected by contextual differences. Analyses are based on the 2005 survey on Islamic extremism by the Pew Research Center. Results show that the countries have a large influence on whether someone supports the ban on headscarves, indicating that contextual differences matter. In addition, having a negative attitude towards Muslims makes it more likely to support a ban on headscarves. In general, perceived threat contributes to stronger support, although there are slight differences in effect between the countries. Finally, perceived threat equally influences support for the ban on headscarves among prejudiced and non-prejudiced people.

  4. Acute pulmonary admissions following implementation of a national workplace smoking ban.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-09-01

    The implementation of workplace smoking bans has contributed to a significant reduction in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome admissions, but their influence on adult acute pulmonary disease admissions is unclear. We sought to assess the impact of a national smoking ban on nationwide admissions of individuals of working age with acute pulmonary illness.

  5. Socioeconomic differentials in the immediate mortality effects of the national Irish smoking ban.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sericea Stallings-Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Consistent evidence has demonstrated that smoking ban policies save lives, but impacts on health inequalities are uncertain as few studies have assessed post-ban effects by socioeconomic status (SES and findings have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the national Irish smoking ban on ischemic heart disease (IHD, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD mortality by discrete and composite SES indicators to determine impacts on inequalities. METHODS: Census data were used to assign frequencies of structural and material SES indicators to 34 local authorities across Ireland with a 2000-2010 study period. Discrete indicators were jointly analysed through principal component analysis to generate a composite index, with sensitivity analyses conducted by varying the included indicators. Poisson regression with interrupted time-series analysis was conducted to examine monthly age and gender-standardised mortality rates in the Irish population, ages ≥35 years, stratified by tertiles of SES indicators. All models were adjusted for time trend, season, influenza, and smoking prevalence. RESULTS: Post-ban mortality reductions by structural SES indicators were concentrated in the most deprived tertile for all causes of death, while reductions by material SES indicators were more equitable across SES tertiles. The composite indices mirrored the results of the discrete indicators, demonstrating that post-ban mortality decreases were either greater or similar in the most deprived when compared to the least deprived for all causes of death. CONCLUSIONS: Overall findings indicated that the national Irish smoking ban reduced inequalities in smoking-related mortality. Due to the higher rates of smoking-related mortality in the most deprived group, even equitable reductions across SES tertiles resulted in decreases in inequalities. The choice of SES indicator was influential in the measurement of

  6. 1st March 2013 - The Secretary-General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon welcomed at LHC Point 1 by CERN Director-General R. Heuer (see captions below).

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    The SG is introduced to Director for Research and Computing S. Bertolucci, Director for Administration and General Infrastructure S. Lettow, Head of International Relations F. Pauss, Technology Department Head F. Bordry, Information Technology Department Head F. Hemmer, Relations with International Organisations M. Bona. ATLAS experimental cavern visit with Spokesperson D. Charlton; UNOSAT at CERN building visit with IT Department Head F. Hemmer and UNOSAT E. Bjorgo and F. Pisano. (H. E. Mr Ban visited underground areas at the LHC and UNOSAT, the UN technology-intensive programme hosted by CERN to deliver imagery analysis and satellite solutions to relief and development organizations)

  7. Resource nationalism in Indonesia—Effects of the 2014 mineral export ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Graham W.

    2016-09-27

    Resource nationalism encompasses a broad range of political and economic actions taken by Governments to regulate the extraction of natural resources within their borders. Policies such as increased tariffs or export restrictions can have far-reaching economic effects on international trade. As the Governments of several developing countries consider enacting nationalistic policies, an examination of the 2014 mineral export ban in Indonesia provides an instructive example of the possible impacts of resource nationalism. Significant changes in the production and trade of unprocessed (that is, ores and concentrates) and processed (that is, refined metal) aluminum, copper, and nickel before and after the export ban form the basis of this study.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Minerals Information Center (NMIC) tracks production and trade of mineral commodities between producer and consumer countries. Materials flow studies clarify the effects of an export ban on different mineral commodities by assessing changes in production, processing capacity, and trade. Using extensive data collection and monitoring procedures, the USGS NMIC investigated the effects of resource nationalism on the flow of mineral commodities from Indonesia to the global economy.

  8. United nations Orchestra

    CERN Multimedia

    MusiClub

    MusiClub United nations Orchestra www.ungenevaorchestra.ch An organizing committee has taken the initiative to create an Orchestra of the united nations at Geneva. In the context of this initiative, musicians in the following categories are invited to become members of the Orchestra and the Association: Active or retired staff of International organizations in Geneva; Active or retired employees of Permanent Missions to the United Nations at Geneva; as well as children and spouses of the above persons. For enrolment or for additional information, please contact: un.orchestra@yahoo.com

  9. Tobacco control policies in hospitals before and after the implementation of a national smoking ban in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puig Montse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diverse projects and guidelines to assist hospitals towards the attainment of comprehensive smoke-free policies have been developed. In 2006, Spain government passed a new smoking ban that reinforce tobacco control policies and banned completely smoking in hospitals. This study assesses the progression of tobacco control policies in the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals before and after a comprehensive national smoking ban. Methods We used the Self-Audit Questionnaire of the European Network for Smoke-free Hospitals to score the compliance of 9 policy standards (global score = 102. We used two cross-sectional surveys to evaluate tobacco control policies before (2005 and after the implementation of a national smoking ban (2007 in 32 hospitals of Catalonia, Spain. We compared the means of the overall score in 2005 and 2007 according to the type of hospital, the number of beds, the prevalence of tobacco consumption, and the number of years as a smoke-free hospital. Results The mean of the implementation score of tobacco control policies was 52.4 (95% CI: 45.4–59.5 in 2005 and 71.6 (95% CI: 67.0–76.2 in 2007 with an increase of 36.7% (p 300 beds (41.1% increase; p Conclusion The national smoking ban appears to increase tobacco control activities in hospitals combined with other non-bylaw initiatives such as the Smoke-free Hospital Network.

  10. Reductions in cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality following the national irish smoking ban: interrupted time-series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sericea Stallings-Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown decreases in cardiovascular mortality following the implementation of comprehensive smoking bans. It is not known whether cerebrovascular or respiratory mortality decreases post-ban. On March 29, 2004, the Republic of Ireland became the first country in the world to implement a national workplace smoking ban. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of this policy on all-cause and cause-specific, non-trauma mortality. METHODS: A time-series epidemiologic assessment was conducted, utilizing Poisson regression to examine weekly age and gender-standardized rates for 215,878 non-trauma deaths in the Irish population, ages ≥35 years. The study period was from January 1, 2000, to December 31, 2007, with a post-ban follow-up of 3.75 years. All models were adjusted for time trend, season, influenza, and smoking prevalence. RESULTS: Following ban implementation, an immediate 13% decrease in all-cause mortality (RR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76-0.99, a 26% reduction in ischemic heart disease (IHD (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.63-0.88, a 32% reduction in stroke (RR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.54-0.85, and a 38% reduction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (RR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.46-0.83 mortality was observed. Post-ban reductions in IHD, stroke, and COPD mortalities were seen in ages ≥65 years, but not in ages 35-64 years. COPD mortality reductions were found only in females (RR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.32-0.70. Post-ban annual trend reductions were not detected for any smoking-related causes of death. Unadjusted estimates indicate that 3,726 (95% CI: 2,305-4,629 smoking-related deaths were likely prevented post-ban. Mortality decreases were primarily due to reductions in passive smoking. CONCLUSIONS: The national Irish smoking ban was associated with immediate reductions in early mortality. Importantly, post-ban risk differences did not change with a longer follow-up period. This study corroborates previous evidence for cardiovascular

  11. Potential benefits of minimum unit pricing for alcohol versus a ban on below cost selling in England 2014: modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alan; Meng, Yang; Holmes, John; Hill-McManus, Daniel; Meier, Petra S

    2014-09-30

    To evaluate the potential impact of two alcohol control policies under consideration in England: banning below cost selling of alcohol and minimum unit pricing. Modelling study using the Sheffield Alcohol Policy Model version 2.5. England 2014-15. Adults and young people aged 16 or more, including subgroups of moderate, hazardous, and harmful drinkers. Policy to ban below cost selling, which means that the selling price to consumers could not be lower than tax payable on the product, compared with policies of minimum unit pricing at £0.40 (€0.57; $0.75), 45 p, and 50 p per unit (7.9 g/10 mL) of pure alcohol. Changes in mean consumption in terms of units of alcohol, drinkers' expenditure, and reductions in deaths, illnesses, admissions to hospital, and quality adjusted life years. The proportion of the market affected is a key driver of impact, with just 0.7% of all units estimated to be sold below the duty plus value added tax threshold implied by a ban on below cost selling, compared with 23.2% of units for a 45 p minimum unit price. Below cost selling is estimated to reduce harmful drinkers' mean annual consumption by just 0.08%, around 3 units per year, compared with 3.7% or 137 units per year for a 45 p minimum unit price (an approximately 45 times greater effect). The ban on below cost selling has a small effect on population health-saving an estimated 14 deaths and 500 admissions to hospital per annum. In contrast, a 45 p minimum unit price is estimated to save 624 deaths and 23,700 hospital admissions. Most of the harm reductions (for example, 89% of estimated deaths saved per annum) are estimated to occur in the 5.3% of people who are harmful drinkers. The ban on below cost selling, implemented in the England in May 2014, is estimated to have small effects on consumption and health harm. The previously announced policy of a minimum unit price, if set at expected levels between 40 p and 50 p per unit, is estimated to have an approximately 40-50 times

  12. Impact of a national smoking ban on hospital admission for acute coronary syndromes: a longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-04-01

    A ban on smoking in the workplace was introduced in Ireland on March 29, 2004. As exposure to secondhand smoke has been implicated in the development of coronary disease, this might impact the incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

  13. Assessing the impact of the national smoking ban in indoor public places in china: evidence from quit smoking related online searches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the tremendous economic and health costs imposed on China by tobacco use, China lacks a proactive and systematic tobacco control surveillance and evaluation system, hampering research progress on tobacco-focused surveillance and evaluation studies. METHODS: This paper uses online search query analyses to investigate changes in online search behavior among Chinese Internet users in response to the adoption of the national indoor public place smoking ban. Baidu Index and Google Trends were used to examine the volume of search queries containing three key search terms "Smoking Ban(s," "Quit Smoking," and "Electronic Cigarette(s," along with the news coverage on the smoking ban, for the period 2009-2011. FINDINGS: Our results show that the announcement and adoption of the indoor public place smoking ban in China generated significant increases in news coverage on smoking bans. There was a strong positive correlation between the media coverage of smoking bans and the volume of "Smoking Ban(s" and "Quit Smoking" related search queries. The volume of search queries related to "Electronic Cigarette(s" was also correlated with the smoking ban news coverage. INTERPRETATION: To the extent it altered smoking-related online searches, our analyses suggest that the smoking ban had a significant effect, at least in the short run, on Chinese Internet users' smoking-related behaviors. This research introduces a novel analytic tool, which could serve as an alternative tobacco control evaluation and behavior surveillance tool in the absence of timely or comprehensive population surveillance system. This research also highlights the importance of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control in China.

  14. Effects of the 2003 advertising/promotion ban in the United Kingdom on awareness of tobacco marketing: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, F; MacKintosh, A M; Anderson, S; Hastings, G; Borland, R; Fong, G T; Hammond, D; Cummings, K M

    2006-06-01

    In February 2003, a comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion came into effect in the United Kingdom, which prohibited tobacco marketing through print and broadcast media, billboards, the internet, direct mail, product placement, promotions, free gifts, coupons and sponsorships. To investigate the impact of the UK's comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion on adult smokers' awareness of tobacco marketing in the UK relative to Canada, the United States and Australia. A total of 6762 adult smokers participated in two waves of a random digit dialled telephone survey across the four countries. Wave 1 was conducted before the UK ban (October-December 2002) and Wave 2 was conducted after the UK ban (May-September 2003). Awareness of a range of forms of tobacco marketing. Levels of tobacco promotion awareness declined significantly among smokers in the UK after implementation of the advertising ban. Declines in awareness were greater in those channels regulated by the new law and change in awareness of tobacco promotions was much greater in the UK than the other three countries not affected by the ban. At least in the short term, there was no evidence that the law resulted in greater exposure to tobacco promotions in the few media channels not covered by the law. Notwithstanding the apparent success of the UK advertising ban and the controls in other countries, 9-22% of smokers in the four countries still reported noticing things that promoted smoking "often or very often" at Wave 2. The UK policy to ban tobacco advertising and promotion has significantly reduced exposure to pro-tobacco marketing influences. These findings support the effectiveness of comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion, as included in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  15. Asbestos: use, bans and disease burden in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Kim, Rokho; Jiang, Ying; Movahed, Mehrnoosh; Park, Eun-Kee; Rantanen, Jorma

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To analyse national data on asbestos use and related diseases in the European Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods For each of the 53 countries, per capita asbestos use (kg/capita/year) and age-adjusted mortality rates (deaths/million persons/year) due to mesothelioma and asbestosis were calculated using the databases of the United States Geological Survey and WHO, respectively. Countries were further categorized by ban status: early-ban (ban adopted by 2000, n = 17), late-ban (ban adopted 2001–2013, n = 17), and no-ban (n = 19). Findings Between 1920–2012, the highest per capita asbestos use was found in the no-ban group. After 2000, early-ban and late-ban groups reduced their asbestos use levels to less than or equal to 0.1 kg/capita/year, respectively, while the no-ban group maintained a very high use at 2.2 kg/capita/year. Between 1994 and 2010, the European Region registered 106 180 deaths from mesothelioma and asbestosis, accounting for 60% of such deaths worldwide. In the early-ban and late-ban groups, 16/17 and 15/17 countries, respectively, reported mesothelioma data to WHO, while only 6/19 countries in the no-ban group reported such data. The age-adjusted mortality rates for mesothelioma for the early-ban, late-ban and no-ban groups were 9.4, 3.7 and 3.2 deaths/million persons/year, respectively. Asbestosis rates for the groups were 0.8, 0.9 and 1.5 deaths/million persons/year, respectively. Conclusion Within the European Region, the early-ban countries reported most of the current asbestos-related deaths. However, this might shift to the no-ban countries, since the disease burden will likely increase in these countries due the heavy use of asbestos. PMID:25378740

  16. What justifies the United States ban on federal funding for nonreproductive cloning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Thomas V

    2013-11-01

    This paper explores how current United States policies for funding nonreproductive cloning are justified and argues against that justification. I show that a common conceptual framework underlies the national prohibition on the use of public funds for cloning research, which I call the simple argument. This argument rests on two premises: that research harming human embryos is unethical and that embryos produced via fertilization are identical to those produced via cloning. In response to the simple argument, I challenge the latter premise. I demonstrate there are important ontological differences between human embryos (produced via fertilization) and clone embryos (produced via cloning). After considering the implications my argument has for the morality of publicly funding cloning for potential therapeutic purposes and potential responses to my position, I conclude that such funding is not only ethically permissible, but also humane national policy.

  17. Smoking behaviour predicts tobacco control attitudes in a high smoking prevalence hospital: A cross-sectional study in a Portuguese teaching hospital prior to the national smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguiar Pedro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have investigated attitudes to and compliance with smoking bans, but few have been conducted in healthcare settings and none in such a setting in Portugal. Portugal is of particular interest because the current ban is not in line with World Health Organization recommendations for a "100% smoke-free" policy. In November 2007, a Portuguese teaching-hospital surveyed smoking behaviour and tobacco control (TC attitudes before the national ban came into force in January 2008. Methods Questionnaire-based cross-sectional study, including all eligible staff. Sample: 52.9% of the 1, 112 staff; mean age 38.3 ± 9.9 years; 65.9% females. Smoking behaviour and TC attitudes and beliefs were the main outcomes. Bivariable analyses were conducted using chi-squared and MacNemar tests to compare categorical variables and Mann-Whitney tests to compare medians. Multilogistic regression (MLR was performed to identify factors associated with smoking status and TC attitudes. Results Smoking prevalence was 40.5% (95% CI: 33.6-47.4 in males, 23.5% (95% CI: 19.2-27.8 in females (p Conclusions Smoking prevalence was high, especially among the lower socio-economic groups. The findings showed a very high level of support for smoking bans, despite the pro-smoking environment. Most staff reported passive behaviour, despite high SHS exposure. This and the high smoking prevalence may contribute to low compliance with the ban and low participation on smoking cessation activities. Smoking behaviour had greater influence in TC attitudes than health professionals' education. Our study is the first in Portugal to identify potential predictors of non-compliance with the partial smoking ban, further emphasising the need for a 100% smoke-free policy, effective enforcement and public health education to ensure compliance and promote social norm change.

  18. 78 FR 64385 - United Nations Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    ... October 28, 2013 Part V The President Proclamation 9045--United Nations Day, 2013 #0; #0; #0; Presidential... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9045 of October 23, 2013 United Nations Day..., 68 years after the adoption of the United Nations Charter, we mark United Nations Day by...

  19. ARTICLE 106 OF THE UNITED NATIONS CHARTER

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Theodore M Cooperstein

    2007-01-01

    Toward that end, Articles 42 and 43 of the United Nations Charter posit that member nations would train and dedicate armed forces to be placed at the disposal of the United Nations security Council...

  20. 76 FR 66845 - United Nations Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... October 27, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8740--United Nations Day, 2011 #0; #0; #0... Nations Day, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In 1945, 51 nations in a world shaken by war signed the Charter of the United Nations. Determined to move beyond an era...

  1. Oversight Institutions Within the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2015-01-01

    This article will give a description of the role of internal audit and governance functions within the United Nations system. The United Nations has, during the last 10 years, worked to establish effective oversight services. Oversight, governance and hereunder the internal audit function has been...... a key priority within the United Nations and a crucial ingredient in the Secretary-General’s efforts to reform and strengthen the United Nations to meet the challenges of the 21st century....

  2. Oversight Institutions Within the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Caroline Aggestam

    2015-01-01

    This article will give a description of the role of internal audit and governance functions within the United Nations system. The United Nations has, during the last 10 years, worked to establish effective oversight services. Oversight, governance and hereunder the internal audit function has been...... a key priority within the United Nations and a crucial ingredient in the Secretary-General’s efforts to reform and strengthen the United Nations to meet the challenges of the 21st century....

  3. 77 FR 65459 - United Nations Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8893 of October 24, 2012 United Nations Day, 2012 By the President of the... shadows of war, the 51 founding member states of the United Nations came together to take up the new test of forging a lasting peace. In a decade scarred by genocide, the United Nations chose the hope...

  4. 75 FR 65561 - United Nations Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8589 of October 22, 2010 United Nations Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Sixty-five years ago, 51 nations... peace, justice, and progress. The founders of the United Nations vowed to work together to ensure...

  5. Impact of tobacco control policies in hospitals: Evaluation of a national smoke-free campus ban in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xisca Sureda

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: After the law, particulate matter < 2.5 µm concentrations were much below the values obtained before the law and below the annual guideline value recommended by the World Health Organization for outdoor settings (10 μg/m3. Our data showed the feasibility of implementing a smoke-free campus ban and its positive effects.

  6. 3 CFR - Waiver of Reimbursement Under the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of Reimbursement Under the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations/African Union Mission in Darfur Presidential Documents Other... the United Nations Participation Act to Support the United Nations/African Union Mission in...

  7. Will Banning Foreign Abbreviations Help?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ From early April, China's national broad-caster CCTV banned the use of borrowed English abbreviations such as NBA, GDP, WTO and CPI in all its programs. The move was launched in line with a government directive after several national legislators and political advisors called for the preservation of the Chinese language's purity.

  8. China National United Oil Corporation in Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Dongmei

    1997-01-01

    @@ Approved by the State Council and jointly established by China National Petroleum Corp.(CNPC) and China National Chemicals Import and Export Corp.(Sinochem), China National United Oil Corporation (Chinaoil) is an enterprise integrating trade and industrial production. It established itself on January 8,1993.

  9. United Nations and Other International Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negaard, Chere; Van Fossen, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 124 items published by the United Nations and 12 other international organizations in 1992-93. Themes addressed include agriculture, development, poverty eradication, trade, privatization, peace, conflict resolution, women's equality, and health issues. (LRW)

  10. US Forest Service National Grassland Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Grassland units designated by the Secretary of Agriculture and permanently held by the Department of Agriculture under...

  11. The United Nations Peacekeeping Current Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu P Spirin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the problem of strengthening structures, potential and resources of the United Nations Secretariat forces, realizing peacekeeping activities of the Organization. The special attention is given to the «Brakhimi Group» as well as to the activities of the United Nations Security Council in the context of the search for effective peacekeeping activity of the Organization.

  12. Unit: Plants, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on plants produced as a part of the Australian Science Education Project. The unit consists of an information booklet for students, a booklet for recording student data, and a teacher's guide. The material, designed for use with students in the upper elementary grades, takes from 15 to 20 forty-minute…

  13. International boundary experiences by the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, A.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last few decades, the United Nations (UN) has been approached by Security Council and Member States on international boundary issues. The United Nations regards the adequate delimitation and demarcation of international boundaries as a very important element for the maintenance of peace and security in fragile post-conflict situations, establishment of friendly relationships and cross-border cooperation between States. This paper will present the main principles and framework the United Nations applies to support the process of international boundary delimitation and demarcation activities. The United Nations is involved in international boundary issues following the principle of impartiality and neutrality and its role as mediator. Since international boundary issues are multi-faceted, a range of expertise is required and the United Nations Secretariat is in a good position to provide diverse expertise within the multiple departments. Expertise in different departments ranging from legal, political, technical, administrative and logistical are mobilised in different ways to provide support to Member States depending on their specific needs. This presentation aims to highlight some of the international boundary projects that the United Nations Cartographic Section has been involved in order to provide the technical support to different boundary requirements as each international boundary issue requires specific focus and attention whether it be in preparation, delimitation, demarcation or management. Increasingly, the United Nations is leveraging geospatial technology to facilitate boundary delimitation and demarcation process between Member States. Through the presentation of the various case studies ranging from Iraq - Kuwait, Israel - Lebanon (Blue Line), Eritrea - Ethiopia, Cyprus (Green Line), Cameroon - Nigeria, Sudan - South Sudan, it will illustrate how geospatial technology is increasingly used to carry out the support. In having applied a range

  14. Why Ban Batasuna?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    2015-01-01

    and Batasuna. These parties were banned by Spanish authorities for their integration in a terrorist network led by Euskadi Ta Askatasuna. The hypotheses are that democracies ban anti-system parties a) that do not unambiguously eschew violence; b) when alternatives to proscription are not effective. and c) when...

  15. United Nations Illiteracy in America: Thoughts on Integrating the United Nations into the Science Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klock, John

    2003-01-01

    To provide an international perspective, and to get American students focused on the United Nations (UN) as a legitimate scientific institution, the United Nations and its role in addressing global environmental concerns should be taught in the American science classroom. The target audience for this paper is high school teachers. The United…

  16. The in-comprehensive test ban

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R. [Disarmament Intelligence Review, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    The author examines why the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban (CTB) treaty might not make it through the political minefields. Negotiators at the 60-nation U.N. The conference on Disarmament in Geneva reached an impasse, prompted by India`s assertions that the treaty was an inadequate document that perpetuated {open_quotes}nuclear apartheid{close_quotes} while violating India`s sovereignty. Because the Conference on Disarmament-often called the {open_quotes}Geneva Conference{close_quotes} or the {open_quotes}CD{close_quotes}-operates by consensus, India was able to veto the adoption of the treaty, which the conference had planned to transmit to the United Nations in early September. Australia saved the treaty with a last minute decision to bypass the Geneva Conference and take the CTB directly to the General Assembly in the form of a resolution. Some 127 nations co-sponsored Australia`s resolution, to which the treaty draft was attached. The General Assembly endorsed the treaty by a vote of 158 to three. India, Bhutan, and Libya voted against it. Despite the overwhelming vote, the treaty`s long-range outlook is uncertain. On the day of the vote, India`s chief test-ban negotiator, declared that India would {open_quotes}never sign this unequal treaty because Article XIV of the treaty, which requires that all 44 nuclear-capable nations who also belong to the Conference on Disarmament must sign and ratify the treaty. That requirement was viewed as contrary to international law because it denied India`s right of voluntary consent to an international treaty, thus violating India`s sovereignty.

  17. Cooperative purchasing within the United Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, Fredo

    2005-01-01

    To support cooperative purchasing within the United Nations we carried out an empirical study in 2004, mainly to define cooperation forms, and to identify and rank motives and critical factors for cooperation. Important reasons to work together turn out to be lower prices and transaction costs, shar

  18. Unit: Petroleum, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This is a National Trial Print of a unit on petroleum developed for the Australian Science Education Project. The package contains the teacher's edition of the written material and a script for a film entitled "The Extraordinary Experience of Nicholas Nodwell" emphasizing the uses of petroleum and petroleum products in daily life and…

  19. Sustainable Procurement in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Costa, Nives

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the integration of economic, social and environmental criteria into the purchasing practices of the United Nations (UN) system--also known as the UN engagement in sustainable procurement (SP). We argue that the debates about the pros and cons of the UN engaging in SP...

  20. Should Fireworks Be Banned?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    During the Spring Festival,which fell on February 3 this year,a large number of fires and injuries to people were triggered by fireworks. A new round of debate over whether to again put firework bans in place

  1. Nonessential Products Ban Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion by banning the sale and introduction into interstate commerce of certain non-essential products manufactured with or containing ozone-depleting substances.

  2. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students’ in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Meth...

  3. United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI)

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, M; Steffens, H; Balogh, W; Haubold, H J; Othman, M; Doi, T

    2015-01-01

    The Human Space Technology Initiative was launched in 2010 within the framework of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications implemented by the Office for Outer Space Affairs of the United Nations. It aims to involve more countries in activities related to human spaceflight and space exploration and to increase the benefits from the outcome of such activities through international cooperation, to make space exploration a truly international effort. The role of the Initiative in these efforts is to provide a platform to exchange information, foster collaboration between partners from spacefaring and non-spacefaring countries, and encourage emerging and developing countries to take part in space research and benefit from space applications. The Initiative organizes expert meetings and workshops annually to raise awareness of the current status of space exploration activities as well as of the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications. The Initiative is also carrying out primary ...

  4. Bayesian Population Projections for the United Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Adrian E; Alkema, Leontine; Gerland, Patrick

    2014-02-01

    The United Nations regularly publishes projections of the populations of all the world's countries broken down by age and sex. These projections are the de facto standard and are widely used by international organizations, governments and researchers. Like almost all other population projections, they are produced using the standard deterministic cohort-component projection method and do not yield statements of uncertainty. We describe a Bayesian method for producing probabilistic population projections for most countries that the United Nations could use. It has at its core Bayesian hierarchical models for the total fertility rate and life expectancy at birth. We illustrate the method and show how it can be extended to address concerns about the UN's current assumptions about the long-term distribution of fertility. The method is implemented in the R packages bayesTFR, bayesLife, bayesPop and bayesDem.

  5. The Origin of the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Yordan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explica los orígenes de sistema global antiterrorista de las Naciones Unidas. Nosotros argüimos que tres factores determinan las características de un sistema descentralizado y de estados centralizados. El primero es la reacción de la ONU contra los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001. El segundo factor es la cada vez mayor relevancia de las redes de gobierno transnacional. La tercera fuerza son los intereses y los asuntos del Consejo de Seguridad permanente, que últimamente determina la arquitectura del sistema.9/11, United Nations, Security Council, transnacional governance networks,counter-terrorism system.___________________________ABSTRACT:This article explains the origins of the United Nations’ global counter-terrorism system. We argue that three factors shaped the system’s decentralized and state-centered characteristics. The first is the UN’s reactions to terrorism prior to the attacks of 11 September 2001. The second factor is the growing relevance of transnational governance networks. The third force is the interests and concerns of the Security Council’s permanent representative interests, which ultimately shaped the system’s architecture.Keywords: 9/11; United Nations; Security Council; transnacional governance networks; counter-terrorism system

  6. The United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubold, Hans; Balogh, Werner

    2014-05-01

    The basic space science initiative was a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis, particularly in developing nations. Basic space science workshops were co-sponsored and co-organized by ESA, JAXA, and NASA. A series of workshops on basic space science was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://neutrino.aquaphoenix.com/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. Through the lead of the National Astronomical Observatory Japan, astronomical telescope facilities were inaugurated in seven developing nations and planetariums were established in twenty developing nations based on the donation of respective equipment by Japan.Pursuant to resolutions of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space of the United Nations (COPUOS) and its Scientific and Technical Subcommittee, since 2005, these workshops focused on the preparations for and the follow-ups to the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (UAE 2005, India 2006, Japan 2007, Bulgaria 2008, South Korea 2009; www.unoosa.org/oosa/SAP/bss/ihy2007/index.html). IHY's legacy is the current operation of 16 worldwide instrument arrays with more than 1000 instruments recording data on solar-terrestrial interaction from coronal mass ejections to variations of the total electron content in the ionosphere (http://iswisecretariat.org/). Instruments are provided to hosting institutions by entities of Armenia, Brazil, France, Israel, Japan, Switzerland, and the United States. Starting in 2010, the workshops focused on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI) as mandated in a three-year-work plan as part of the deliberations of COPUOS. Workshops on ISWI

  7. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Werner; Miyoshi, Takanori

    2016-07-01

    The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (OOSA) launched the Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) in 2010 within the United Nations Programme on Space Applications, based on relevant recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III). The activities of HSTI are characterized by the following "Three Pillars": International Cooperation, Outreach, and Capacity-building. For International Cooperation, OOSA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) jointly launched a new programme entitled "KiboCUBE". KiboCUBE aims to provide educational or research institutions located in developing countries with opportunities to deploy cube satellites of their own design and manufacture from Japanese Experiment Module "Kibo" on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The Announcement of Opportunity was released on 8 September 2015 and the selected institution is to be announced by 1 August 2016. OOSA is also collaborating with WHO and with the COPUOS Expert Group on Space and Global Health to promote space technologies and ground- and space-based research activities that can contribute to improving global health. For Outreach, OOSA and the government of Costa Rica are jointly organising the United Nations/Costa Rica Workshop on Human Space Technology from 7 to 11 March 2016. Participants will exchange information on achievements in human space programmes and discuss how to promote international cooperation by further facilitating the participation of developing countries in human space exploration-related activities. Also, it will address the role of space industries in human space exploration and its related activities, considering that they have become significant stakeholders in this field. For Capacity-building, OOSA has been carrying out two activities: the Zero-Gravity Instrument Project (ZGIP) and the Drop Tower Experiment Series (DropTES). In ZGIP, OOSA has annually distributed

  8. United Nations International Drug Control Programme responds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Platzer

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] We would like to reply to the article written by Axel Klein entitled, "Between the Death Penalty and Decriminalization: New Directions for Drug Control in the Commonwealth Caribbean" published in NWIG 75 (3&4 2001. We have noted a number of factual inaccuracies as well as hostile comments which portray the United Nations International Drug Control Programme in a negative light. This reply is not intended to be a critique of the article, which we find unbalanced and polemical, but rather an alert to the tendentious statements about UNDCP, which we feel should be corrected.

  9. US Forest Service National Forest System Land Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting National Forest Service land units. An NFS Land Unit is nationally significant classification of Federally owned forest, range,...

  10. Trans fat bans and human freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2010-03-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective.

  11. United Nations and human cloning: a slender and fortunate defence for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R G

    2003-12-01

    Numerous biomedical scientists have contributed to the wide knowledge on the growth of preimplantation human embryos in vitro, now improving every aspect of the form of clinical care. These data were gained ethically in many countries, to open new vistas including the alleviation of infertility, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and stem cells, combined with some recent reports on human reproductive cloning. After detailed consultations with scientists, clinicians, ethicists and lawyers, many governments passed legislation permitting research under their own particular socially-defined conditions. Virtually all of them rejected reproductive cloning; a few have accepted therapeutic cloning. These legislatures saluted the many biomedical scientists striving to improve IVF and its derivatives, recognizing their immense medical potential. A motion recently placed before the United Nations then recommended a worldwide ban on all forms of human cloning. Proponents included the Vatican and many Roman Catholic countries, the USA and others. Opponents included Belgium, China, Japan, Brazil, UK, Germany and France. Mediation was achieved by Iran and other Muslim nations, and led to a motion passed by single vote for a two-year delay. This may be the first-ever proposal to ban worldwide a particular form of research. It sounds the alarm bells for further research. It raises questions about the UN being an appropriate forum for ethical decisions affecting the entire world and its future medicine. Large blocs of nations committed to particular religions and outlooks confronted each other, a situation in total contrast to the detailed and widespread consultations made by individual governments when deciding their own individual ethics. This event was clearly a narrow escape for free research as defined by each country's own jurisprudence. It also places research on human embryology and reproductive biomedicine into a more critical situation than before. Current liberalism in

  12. [Impact of the Italian smoking ban and comparison with the evaluation of the Scottish ban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The Italian smoking ban entered into force on January 10th, 2005, and banned smoking from enclosed workplaces and hospitality premises (HPs), even though provided separated smoking areas. Actually, only 1-2%of HPs built these areas, while no figures are available on the prevalence of smoking rooms in workplaces other than HPs. Italians were more in favour of the law after the ban. In 2008 Italians were the Europeans most in favour of a national smoking ban (88%). Measurements of environmental nicotine and particulate matter with a diameter hospitality sector against the ban in 2004, no studies on impact of the ban on hospitality industry businesses were conducted in Italy. We used the conceptual model for the evaluation of the impact of smoke-free policies, proposed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), to compare Italian and Scottish evaluations of the bans. The Scottish evaluation was planned some years before the implementation, and was based on a network of researchers of different disciplines. The quantification of decrease in second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in the general population and in hospitality workers was one of the main objectives of the Scottish evaluation. The Italian evaluation devoted more attention to distal (reduction of hospital admissions) and incidental effects of the law (trend in smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption). Qualitative studies in bars, homes, and communities recording changes in attitudes on tobacco smoking after the introduction of the ban, were conducted only in Scotland. In Italy the main problem was to develop and fund a network of researchers involved on a shared evaluation plan.

  13. Model United Nations comes to CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    From 20 to 22 January pupils from international schools in Switzerland, France and Turkey came to CERN for three days of "UN-type" conferences.   The MUN organisers, who are all pupils at the Lycée international in Ferney-Voltaire, worked tirelessly for weeks to make the event a real success. The members of the MUN/MFNU association at the Lycée international in Ferney-Voltaire spent several months preparing for their first "Model United Nations" (MUN),  a simulation of a UN session at which young "diplomats" take on the role of delegates representing different nations to discuss a given topic. And as their chosen topic was science, it was only natural that they should hold the event at CERN. For three days, from 20 to 22 January, no fewer than 340 pupils from 12 international schools* in Switzerland, France and Turkey came together to deliberate, consult and debate on the importance of scientific progress fo...

  14. Perspectives on Inclusive Education with Reference to United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores inclusive education and explains the role of United Nations for imparting it to different nations. Undoubtedly, the UN and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) strive for all children to have equitable access to education as a basic human right. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) combined with the Convention…

  15. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  16. 78 FR 66813 - Visas: Regulatory Exception to Permit Compliance With the United Nations Headquarters Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Compliance With the United Nations Headquarters Agreement and Other International Obligations and... Compliance With the United Nations Headquarters Agreement and Other International Obligations and... Agreement between the United States and the United Nations Regarding the Headquarters of the United...

  17. Evolution Dilemma of the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuneyt M. Yenigun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations (UN, despite some successful stories, has largely failed to safeguard international peace and security, particularly in the Middle East since its establishment. The UN’s inability to effectively resolve international conflicts is due to the Security Council (UNSC’s decision making-process. The power to block any initiatives that do not fit the interest of any of the five permanent members (P5: US, UK, France, Russia, China have impeded the UN’s ability to take effectively take actions where it is needed in safeguarding security in the Middle East. The nature of the veto power no longer reflects the reality of the 21st century; the UN is frozen in the context of the post-Second World War era and has failed to evolve with the international community.  Double standards in the International Court of Justice's decrees and infirmity of purpose of the UNSC overshadow the legitimacy of the organization, jeopardizing its security mission, and clashes with the democratic values in world public opinion. The UN should change to earn legitimacy and efficiency of preserving international peace and security by amending decision making system in the UNSC or changing decision-making organ within the UN. The Secretary General’s diplomatic activism and attempts to fill the gap left by the P5 infightings could not succeed because of the resistance of the UNSC’s permanent members to change and lack of integrity among the other states. To ensure democratic transformation of the UN today, all states, NGOs and think tanks should work together. This study discusses the system's current shortcomings and suggests some alternative paths for the effective transformation of the UN as a supranational security institution.

  18. INDUSTRIAL-ORGANIZATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY AND THE UNITED NATIONS: A PARTNERSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    Sall, English; Clayton, Ann-marie; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    Since the United Nations began in 1945, it has reached out to experts in many fields, and in many parts of the world, to cooperate in its global work. Our field of organizational psychology has an important role to play at the United Nations, but this has begun only recently, in the past few years. This report offers a concise picture of I-O psychology at the United Nations today, and ways that I-O psychologists in the USA and other nations may learn more details on this

  19. Polygamy Thrives Despite Ban

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明孝

    2001-01-01

    泰国在1932年就以法律形式规定polygamy(一夫多妻制)为非法,但是,目前的实际情况是:One in four Thai men have more than one wife despitethe ban on polygamy.记得梁实秋曾经说过,一个人要一天不得安宁,请客;一个人要一年不得安宁,造屋;一个人要一辈子不得安宁,讨小老婆。此文的主人公,57岁的Supat,家有7妻,同住一幢三层楼房。不知此君家中是否相安无事。

  20. Unit: Cells, Inspection Set, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    This trial version of a unit is the series being produced by the Australian Science Education Project provides instructions for students to prepare a variety of cell types and examine them with microscopes. It also gives some information about the variety and function of cells. The core of the unit, which all students are expected to complete,…

  1. Understanding individual attitudes towards ban on smoking in public places

    OpenAIRE

    Zasimova, Liudmila; Kossova, Elena; Ryazanova, Marina

    2014-01-01

    The paper discusses factors that have impact on individual attitudes towards bans on smoking in a number of public places — hospitals, universities, work sites, sports facilities, cafes and restaurants, bars and clubs. Using data from national public opinion survey conducted in 2011 by Levada Center for HSE we show that support of smoking bans varies across types of public places and depends on different social and economic characteristics of individuals. Smoking is an important but not the o...

  2. 31 CFR 515.334 - United States national.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States national. 515.334 Section 515.334 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... of the United States, and which has its principal place of business in the United States....

  3. National Curriculum for Physical Education in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junghwan; Graber, Kim C.

    2017-01-01

    Since the publication of "A Nation at Risk," some scholars have argued that a national curriculum and national testing are necessary to hold school personnel accountable for student achievement and, ultimately, to raise educational standards. The idea of developing a nationwide curriculum has been widely debated in the United States,…

  4. National Atlas of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Atlas contributes to our knowledge of the environmental, resource, demographic, economic, social, political, and historical dimensions of American...

  5. National Atlas of the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Atlas contributes to our knowledge of the environmental, resource, demographic, economic, social, political, and historical dimensions of American life....

  6. Analysis of Serbian Military Riverine Units Capability for Participation in the United Nations Peacekeeping Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Radojevic

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses required personnel, training capacities and equipment for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations with the riverine elements. In order to meet necessary capabilities for engagement in United Nations peacekeeping operations, Serbian military riverine units have to be compatible with the issued UN requirements. Serbian Armed Forces have the potential to reach such requirements with the River Flotilla as a pivot for the participation in UN missions. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational and training program in accordance with the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses. Serbian Military Academy has opportunities for education and training military riverine units for participation in the United Nations peacekeeping operations. Moreover, Serbia has Multinational Operations Training Center and Peacekeeping Operations Center certified to provide selection, training, equipping and preparations of individuals and units to the United Nations multinational operations.

  7. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  8. National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 640 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The...

  9. The challenges of preventive diplomacy: The United Nations' post ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    examines the challenges faced by the United Nations as it practises PD with specific reference to .... During the leadership of Dag Hammarskjöld as UN Secretary-General, the ... and encourage the role of women in preventive diplomacy.

  10. EPA's Role in the United Nations Economic and Social Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) considers the world’s economic, social, and environmental challenges. ECOSOC is composed of subsidiary bodies, including the recently concluded Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD).

  11. Proposal for a United Nations Basic Space Technology Initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, W R

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Programme on Space Applications, implemented by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs, promotes the benefits of space-based solutions for sustainable economic and social development. The Programme assists Member States of the United Nations to establish indigenous capacities for the use of space technology and its applications. In the past the Programme has primarily been focusing on the use of space applications and on basic space science activities. However, in recent years there has been a strong interest in a growing number of space-using countries to build space technology capacities, for example, the ability to develop and operate small satellites. In reaction to this development, the United Nations in cooperation with the International Academy of Astronautics has been organizing annual workshops on small satellites in the service of developing countries. Space technology related issues have also been addressed as part of various other activities of the Programme on Space ...

  12. Processing Trade Banned Commodities announced

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ The new catalogue of processing trade-banned commodities was announced recently. The announcement was executed since November 22 of 2006. The Catalogue will be adjusted according to related policies of the state.

  13. The United Nations University and Sustainable Mountain Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Itaru Yasui

    2005-01-01

    @@ The United Nations University (UNU) is an international community of scholars engaged in research, postgraduate training and knowledge dissemination on the pressing global problems of human survival, development and welfare that are concerns of the United Nations, its peoples and member states. UNU works through a global network of its own research and training centers and programmes, and of associated and collaborating institutions and scholars.

  14. Du Yuzhou Art Exhibition Will Open in the United Nations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    From June 5th to 15th 2007,the headquarters of the United Nations will enjoy a show time of Du Yuzhou works,where works of photograph and painting will be exhibited. Mr.Yuzhou Du,President of the China National

  15. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought a wide array of data (samples, surface and orbital experiments), the Moon lost its exploratory attraction in favor of other programs, such as the International Space Station and potential human exploration of Mars. However, since the mid-90's, the enthusiasm for the Moon has been revived, which resulted in several space agencies worldwide (NASA, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, and the Chinese Space Agency) having made great efforts to re-start ex-ploratory and scientific campaigns even though budgetary changes may delay the process. As a result, a wide array of peoples and their interests are put together in each mission planned to reach the Moon (e.g., orbiters and landers). Up to now, mission plans focus on technical requirements and the desires of scientists and engineers, but hardly any other aspects. Field specialists on issues regarding the social, economic, political, cultural, ethical and environmen-tal impacts of Moon exploration and colonization have had little to no involvement in current and past lunar missions. However, these fields would provide different and essential points of view regarding the planning of lunar missions. Moreover, recent documents written by the scientific community, such as "The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Final Re-port" Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon, National Research Council (2007), or the recent (summer 2009) White Papers for the National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2011-2020, do not seem to leave space for a multidisciplinary approach regarding the future lunar exploration either

  16. Han Hoan Chao Ban Den Hoa Ky. Sach Chi Dan Danh Cho Nguoi Ti Nan. (Welcome to the United States. A Guidebook for Refugees).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Refugee Service Center.

    This guidebook provides Vietnamese-speaking refugees being resettled in the United States with general information about what they will encounter and the services they can receive in their first months in the country. The book is distributed to overseas processing agencies, refugees overseas who have been approved for U.S. admission, and service…

  17. The Development and Piloting of a Mobile Data Collection Protocol to Assess Compliance With a National Tobacco Advertising, Promotion, and Product Display Ban at Retail Venues in the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ashley S; Spires, Mark H; Cohen, Joanna E

    2016-01-01

    Background Tobacco control policies that lead to a significant reduction in tobacco industry marketing can improve public health by reducing consumption of tobacco and preventing initiation of tobacco use. Laws that ban or restrict advertising and promotion in point-of-sale (POS) environments, in the moment when consumers decide whether or not to purchase a tobacco product, must be correctly implemented to achieve the desired public health benefits. POS policy compliance assessments can support implementation; however, there are challenges to conducting evaluations that are rigorous, cost-effective, and timely. Data collection must be discreet, accurate, and systematic, and ideally collected both before and after policies take effect. The use of mobile phones and other mobile technology provide opportunities to efficiently collect data and support effective tobacco control policies. The Russian Federation (Russia) passed a comprehensive national tobacco control law that included a ban on most forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, effective November 15, 2013. The legislation further prohibited the display of tobacco products at retail trade sites and eliminated kiosks as a legal trade site, effective June 1, 2014. Objective The objective of the study was to develop and test a mobile data collection protocol including: (1) retailer sampling, (2) adaptation of survey instruments for mobile phones, and (3) data management protocols. Methods Two waves of observations were conducted; wave 1 took place during April-May 2014, after the advertising and promotion bans were effective, and again in August-September 2014, after the product display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Sampling took place in 5 Russian cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, and Kazan. Lack of access to a comprehensive list of licensed tobacco retailers necessitated a sampling approach that included the development of a walking protocol to

  18. 75 FR 52069 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations, International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    .... Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations, International Maritime Dangerous... Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations, International Maritime Dangerous Goods... the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air, and the United Nations Recommendations on the...

  19. Successful Army National Guard units: A guard perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Saulsbury, J.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Schexanayder, S.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-10-01

    This project sought to identify factors contributing to a healthy Army National Guard (ARNG) unit. Its results were intended to contribute to a computerized forecasting model under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model, the ARNG Regional Recruiting Potential Model (RRPM), forecasts locations of successful new or modified Guard units. The study was expected to enhance the understanding of what constituents a healthy Guard unit. A Delphi approach was used to define criteria for healthy Guard units and to elicit rankings of those criteria. Two sets of telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 102 individuals-two battalion-level administrative officers, or their equivalents, in each state in Washington, DC. During these telephone calls, the phrase unit supportability'' was used to express the notion of a healthy unit. The first set of interviews obtained background information and respondents' ideas of the criteria that lead to unit supportability and to a lack of supportability. The data were analyzed to develop a list of ten criteria for unit supportability. In the second interview, the same respondents were asked to rank those criteria in order of importance.

  20. Successful Army National Guard units: A guard perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanayder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This project sought to identify factors contributing to a healthy Army National Guard (ARNG) unit. Its results were intended to contribute to a computerized forecasting model under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model, the ARNG Regional Recruiting Potential Model (RRPM), forecasts locations of successful new or modified Guard units. The study was expected to enhance the understanding of what constituents a healthy Guard unit. A Delphi approach was used to define criteria for healthy Guard units and to elicit rankings of those criteria. Two sets of telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 102 individuals-two battalion-level administrative officers, or their equivalents, in each state in Washington, DC. During these telephone calls, the phrase ``unit supportability`` was used to express the notion of a healthy unit. The first set of interviews obtained background information and respondents` ideas of the criteria that lead to unit supportability and to a lack of supportability. The data were analyzed to develop a list of ten criteria for unit supportability. In the second interview, the same respondents were asked to rank those criteria in order of importance.

  1. Successful Army National Guard units: A guard perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Saulsbury, J.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Schexanayder, S.M. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States))

    1991-10-01

    This project sought to identify factors contributing to a healthy Army National Guard (ARNG) unit. Its results were intended to contribute to a computerized forecasting model under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model, the ARNG Regional Recruiting Potential Model (RRPM), forecasts locations of successful new or modified Guard units. The study was expected to enhance the understanding of what constituents a healthy Guard unit. A Delphi approach was used to define criteria for healthy Guard units and to elicit rankings of those criteria. Two sets of telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 102 individuals-two battalion-level administrative officers, or their equivalents, in each state in Washington, DC. During these telephone calls, the phrase unit supportability'' was used to express the notion of a healthy unit. The first set of interviews obtained background information and respondents' ideas of the criteria that lead to unit supportability and to a lack of supportability. The data were analyzed to develop a list of ten criteria for unit supportability. In the second interview, the same respondents were asked to rank those criteria in order of importance.

  2. Successful Army National Guard units: A guard perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, A.K.; Saulsbury, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanayder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-10-01

    This project sought to identify factors contributing to a healthy Army National Guard (ARNG) unit. Its results were intended to contribute to a computerized forecasting model under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The model, the ARNG Regional Recruiting Potential Model (RRPM), forecasts locations of successful new or modified Guard units. The study was expected to enhance the understanding of what constituents a healthy Guard unit. A Delphi approach was used to define criteria for healthy Guard units and to elicit rankings of those criteria. Two sets of telephone interviews were conducted with a sample of 102 individuals-two battalion-level administrative officers, or their equivalents, in each state in Washington, DC. During these telephone calls, the phrase ``unit supportability`` was used to express the notion of a healthy unit. The first set of interviews obtained background information and respondents` ideas of the criteria that lead to unit supportability and to a lack of supportability. The data were analyzed to develop a list of ten criteria for unit supportability. In the second interview, the same respondents were asked to rank those criteria in order of importance.

  3. Contribution of UHV Grid to United National Power Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Lei; Wei Bin; Ma Li; Cheng Wen

    2010-01-01

    @@ Power market construction is an important part of the marketization reform in China's electric power industry and an essential part of the economic system reform in China. With the social and economic development, the contradiction between distribution of energy resources and development of regional economies gets increasingly noticeable, and a united national power market is consequentially required to optimize the allocation of energy resources over the whole country. Analyses indicate that the development of UHV grid will provide a strong material support for the united national power market by expanding market coverage, lowering load fluctuation and promoting diversification of power resources.

  4. Review of Labour Statistics for the United Nations Statistical Commission

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Barham

    2008-01-01

    Describes the Review, whose recommendations will be taken forward by UN Statistical Division and the International Labour OrganisationEarly in 2007, the Office for National Statistics was asked by United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD) to carry out a Review of Labour Statistics on behalf of the UK. The Review was carried out during 2007 and was presented at the annual UN Statistics Commission session in February 2008 in New York. The Review was very well received and recommendations in the...

  5. Do Partial Home Smoking Bans Signal Progress toward a Smoke-Free Home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Haardörfer, Regine; Bundy, Lucja T.; Escoffery, Cam; Berg, Carla J.; Fernandez, Maria; Williams, Rebecca; Hovell, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding who establishes partial home smoking bans, what these bans cover, and whether they are an intermediate step in going smoke-free would help to inform smoke-free home interventions. Participants were recruited from United Way of Greater Atlanta's 2-1-1 contact center. Data were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months via telephone…

  6. Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Sandstone Unit : Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge : Fiscal year 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rice Lake (including the Sandstone Unit) and Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2002...

  7. Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge : Sandstone Unit : Fiscal year 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rice Lake (including the Sandstone Unit) and Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2003...

  8. Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuge : Sandstone Unit : Fiscal year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rice Lake (including the Sandstone Unit) and Mille Lacs National Wildlife Refuges outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2004...

  9. The Banning of Corporal Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryan, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the 1985 resolution of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) for participation in the interdisciplinary effort to ban corporal punishment. Discusses distinctions between discipline and child abuse. Reports medical and psychological effects of physical punishment, and relationships between school corporal punishment…

  10. Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160501.html Smoking Bans in Affordable Housing Benefit All: Study Secondhand ... housing properties in Minnesota. All the properties prohibited smoking indoors and three also banned smoking on the ...

  11. IOC Rescinds Ban on Birth Control Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Marty

    1988-01-01

    A review of the International Olympic Committee's ban and subsequent reinstatement of a certain drug found in birth-control pills points out the need for careful analysis of drugs and their effects before they are banned. (CB)

  12. IOC Rescinds Ban on Birth Control Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Marty

    1988-01-01

    A review of the International Olympic Committee's ban and subsequent reinstatement of a certain drug found in birth-control pills points out the need for careful analysis of drugs and their effects before they are banned. (CB)

  13. 50 CFR 600.320 - National Standard 3-Management Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... Wherever practicable, an FMP should seek to manage interrelated stocks of fish. (c) Unity of management... management exits or is planned for a separate geographic area or for a distinct use of the stocks, or if the... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Standard 3-Management Units....

  14. A review of United Nations tests for explosivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, A.K.; Mak, W.A.; Whitmore, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    In attempting to develop a closed pressure vessel test for assessing explosivity, arising from propagation of detonation, deflagration or thermal explosion, some difficulties were encountered in relation to United Nations test methods. This led to a review of these methods and comparisons of their p

  15. Model United Nations and Deep Learning: Theoretical and Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Susan; Pallas, Josh; Lambert, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article demonstrates that the purposeful subject design, incorporating a Model United Nations (MUN), facilitated deep learning and professional skills attainment in the field of International Relations. Deep learning was promoted in subject design by linking learning objectives to Anderson and Krathwohl's (2001) four levels of knowledge or…

  16. The United Nations at 70: The Journey so Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftau, Rufai

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the United Nations in maintaining peace and harmonious relationship amongst its members is not in doubt, this being the primary functions as contained in its Charter of 1945. Since that time till date, it has recorded some tremendous achievements in this direction, though not without some challenges. These challenges among others…

  17. Current issues of space law before the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1974-01-01

    The United Nations' activities in the area of space law and the accomplishments of the Outer Space Committee are discussed. Two draft conventions, the draft treaty on the moon and the draft treaty on the registration of space objects are considered. Other issues covered include the direct broadcast by satellite, the boundary between air space and outer space, and remote sensing from space.

  18. The indigenous space and marginalized peoples in the United Nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jens

    For more than 20 years, Jens Dahl has observed and now analyzed how a relatively independent space, the Indigenous Space, has been constructed within the confines of the United Nations. In the UN, indigenous peoples have achieved more than any other group of people, minorities included. The book...

  19. Understanding United Nations targeted sanctions: an empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giumelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    United Nations sanctions have undergone profound transformations in the past two decades. In 1990, the UN Security Council imposed a general, comprehensive embargo on Iraq after its invasion of Kuwait. In 2015, there are 16 Sanctions Committees managing regimes that have little in common with the on

  20. Trinta anos da United Nations International Force in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUFYAN DROUBI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como foco o “United Nations International Force in Lebanon”, uma das mais tradicionais missões de paz da ONU. Analisar-se-á seus objetivos, eficácia e desenvolvimento histórico.

  1. Malaysia’s Participation in a United Nations Standing Force: A Question of National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    future challenges so that Malaysia will continue to exist and sustain itself as a developed nation. As a multiracial nation, the Malaysian government...Amali bin Ahmad, Malaysian Army, 76 pages This thesis investigates whether Malaysia , as a small state, should participate in a United Nations (UN...many parties. In analyzing whether Malaysia should participate in a UN standing force, this paper explores the concept of comprehensive security to

  2. Recreating big Ban to learn more about universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A multi-nation effort at Gemeva-based CERN laboratory to recreate conditions existing just after the Big Ban could give vital clues to the creation of the universe and help overcome prejudices against this widely held scientific theory, an eminent science writer said in Kolkata on Tuesday

  3. 76 FR 82163 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous... United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods: Model Regulations (UN Model... and from the United States. In this document, PHMSA responds to administrative appeals,...

  4. Building Human Rights, Peace and Development within the United Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guillermet Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available War and peace have perpetually alternated in history. Consequently, peace has always been seen as an endless project, even a dream, to be in brotherhood realized by everyone across the earth. Since the XVII century the elimination of war and armed conflict has been a political and humanitarian objective of all nations in the world. Both the League of Nations and the United Nations were conceived with the spirit of eliminating the risk of war through the promotion of peace, cooperation and solidarity among Nations. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the subsequent human rights instruments were drafted with a sincere aspiration of promoting the value of peace and human rights worldwide. International practice shows the close linkage between the disregard of human rights and the existence of war and armed conflict. It follows that the role of human rights in the prevention of war and armed conflict is very important. Since 2008 the Human Rights Council has been working on the ‘Promotion of the Right of Peoples to Peace.’ Pursuant resolutions 20/15 and 23/16 the Council decided firstly to establish, and secondly to extend the mandate of the Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG aimed at progressively negotiating a draft United Nations declaration on the right to peace. The OEGW welcomed in its second session (July 2014 the approach of the Chairperson-Rapporteur, which is basically based on the relationship between the right to life and human rights, peace and development.

  5. CERN’s new seat at the United Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    At the end of December, the General Assembly of the United Nations in New York granted CERN Observer status. As the only science organisation to acquire this prestigious status in the Assembly, CERN hopes to be able to raise awareness about the importance of fundamental science for society more effectively.   “Both CERN and the United Nations are committed to promoting science as a driving element for society. Both organisations promote dialogue between different cultures and can propose concrete models for peaceful cooperation towards objectives that benefit society as a whole,” says Maurizio Bona, CERN's officer in charge of relations with international organisations. Although the basic motivations are clear, obtaining the prestigious status from the UN was a long process that required negotiations and diplomatic work. Following some preliminary contacts with Switzerland starting in spring 2012, the resolution to grant observer status to CERN was jointly submitted...

  6. Concert | United Nations Orchestra at CERN | 19 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Orchestra will give a concert on the occasion of CERN’s 60th anniversary.   Under the baton of conductor and artistic director Antoine Marguier, the Orchestra will have the pleasure to accompany the soloist Maestro Matteo Fedeli, who, under the patronage of the Permanent Mission of Italy to the United Nations, will perform on a Stradivarius violin. The programme for the concert comprises: Jacques Offenbach, Orpheus in the Underworld Overture Franz von Suppé, Poet and Peasant Overture Camille Saint-Saëns, Introduction & Rondo Capriccioso for solo violin and orchestra Georges Bizet, Carmen Suite No. 1 Franz Lehár, Gold and Silver Waltz Gioachino Rossini, William Tell Overture   Doors open at 6 p.m. The concert will take place in a marquee behind the Globe of Science and Innovation, CERN Book your ticket here.

  7. Concert | United Nations Orchestra at CERN | 19 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations Orchestra will give a concert on the occasion of CERN’s 60th anniversary.   Under the baton of conductor and artistic director Antoine Marguier, the Orchestra will have the pleasure to accompany the soloist Maestro Matteo Fedeli, who, under the patronage of the Permanent Mission of Italy to the United Nations, will perform on a Stradivarius violin. The programme for the concert comprises: Jacques Offenbach, Orpheus in the Underworld Overture Franz von Suppé, Poet and Peasant Overture Camille Saint-Saëns, Introduction & Rondo Capriccioso for solo violin and orchestra Georges Bizet, Carmen Suite No. 1 Franz Lehár, Gold and Silver Waltz Gioachino Rossini, William Tell Overture   Doors open at 6 p.m. The concert will take place in a marquee behind the Globe of Science and Innovation, CERN Book your ticket here.

  8. Revitalizing the United Nations. Anticipation and Prevention as Primary Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Novosseloff

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In tackling the on-going topic of UN reform, one should be honest with the analysis of the problems at stakes. It is necessary to first take into account the profound changes that have occurred since the end of the Cold War, as well as acknowledging the limits of an international organization and the shape of the UN system. It is only from that analysis that proposals can be made to rationalize and to make more efficient the functioning of the United Nations. What the Organization needs is not only a rationalization, it primarily needs a vision that gives it purpose and meaning. This article proposes that its primary goals should be anticipation and prevention – it should be the advanced guard and the conscience of the world. In this context, the United Nations is an indispensable and priceless instrument in international relations.

  9. Contribution of UHV Grid to United National Power Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Power market construction is an important part of the marketization reform in China's electric power industry and an essential part of the economic system reform in China. With the social and economic development, the contradiction between distribution of energy resources and development of regional economies gets increasingly noticeable, and a united national power market is consequentially required to optimize the allocation of energy resources over the whole country. Analyses indicate that the developmen...

  10. Environmental Securitization within the United Nations: A Political Ecology Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    If empirical evidences show that environmental security is on the United Nations agenda, very few studies try to understand the agenda-setting process of this issue. My thesis research intends to fill this gap by analyzing the process of environmental securitization within the organization. Securitization theories and critical security studies propose a first useful set of theoretical tools. Nonetheless, this communication argues that they are not the only ones, and that Political Ecology cou...

  11. An Update on the United Nations Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Della Anne

    2017-03-08

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals initiative, designed to meet the needs of the world's poorest, ended in 2015. The purpose of this article is to describe the progress made through the Millennium Development Goals and the additional work needed to address vulnerable populations worldwide, especially women and children. A description of the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals, enacted to address the root causes of poverty and the universal need for development for all people, is provided.

  12. United nations Supported principles for Responsible Management Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godemann, Jasmin; Moon, Jeremy; Haertle, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    and various ecological system crises. The United Nations supported Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME) initiative is an important catalyst for the transformation of management education and a global initiative to change and reform management education in order to meet the increasing......The expectation that management education institutions should be leading thought and action on issues related to corporate responsibility and sustainability has been reinforced in the light of their association with business leaders' failings, including corporate corruption, the financial crisis...

  13. Postdeployment reintegration experiences of female soldiers from national guard and reserve units in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Berkel, LaVerne A; Nilsson, Johanna E

    2014-01-01

    Women are an integral part of Reserve and National Guard units and active duty armed forces of the United States. Deployment to conflict and war zones is a difficult experience for both soldiers and their families. On return from deployment, all soldiers face the challenge of reintegration into family life and society, but those from the National Guard and Reserve units face the additional challenge of reintegration in relative isolation from other soldiers. There is limited research about the reintegration experiences of women and the functioning of the families during reintegration following deployment. The goal was to document postdeployment family reintegration experiences of women in the National Guard. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 42 female members of Midwestern National Guard units. Directed content analysis was used to identify categories of experiences related to women's family reintegration. Five categories of postdeployment experience for female soldiers and their families were identified: Life Is More Complex, Loss of Military Role, Deployment Changes You, Reestablishing Partner Connections, and Being Mom Again. The categories reflected individual and family issues, and both need to be considered when soldiers and their families seek care. Additional research is needed to fully understand the specific impact of gender on women's reintegration.

  14. Suicides in national parks--United States, 2003-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    In 2007, the year for which the most recent national data on fatalities are available, 34,598 suicides occurred in the United States (rate: 11.3 per 100,000 population); 79% were among males. In 2009, an estimated 374,486 visits to hospital emergency departments occurred for self-inflicted injury, of which approximately 262,000 (70%) could be attributed to suicidal behavior. The majority (58%) were among females. Most suicides (77%) occur in the home, but many occur in public places, including national parks. In addition to the loss of life, suicides consume park resources and staff time and can traumatize witnesses. To describe the characteristics of and trends in suicides in national parks, CDC and the National Park Service (NPS) analyzed reports of suicide events (suicides and attempted suicides) occurring in the parks during 2003-2009. During this 7-year span, 84 national parks reported 286 suicide events, an average of 41 events per year. Of the 286 events, 68% were fatal. The two most commonly used methods were firearms and falls. Consistent with national patterns, 83% of suicides were among males. A comprehensive, multicomponent approach is recommended to prevent suicide events, including enhanced training for park employees, site-specific barriers, and collaboration with communities.

  15. The United States national volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albersheim, Steven; Guffanti, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic-ash clouds are a known hazard to aviation, requiring that aircraft be warned away from ash-contaminated airspace. The exposure of aviation to potential hazards from volcanoes in the United States is significant. In support of existing interagency operations to detect and track volcanic-ash clouds, the United States has prepared a National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation to strengthen the warning process in its airspace. The US National Plan documents the responsibilities, communication protocols, and prescribed hazard messages of the Federal Aviation Administration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Geological Survey, and Air Force Weather Agency. The plan introduces a new message format, a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation, to provide clear, concise information about volcanic activity, including precursory unrest, to air-traffic controllers (for use in Notices to Airmen) and other aviation users. The plan is online at http://www.ofcm.gov/p35-nvaopa/pdf/FCM-P35-2007-NVAOPA.pdf. While the plan provides general operational practices, it remains the responsibility of the federal agencies involved to implement the described procedures through orders, directives, etc. Since the plan mirrors global guidelines of the International Civil Aviation Organization, it also provides an example that could be adapted by other countries.

  16. The United Nations Framework Classification for World Petroleum Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blystad, P.; Young, E.D.; Slavov, S.; Heiberg, S.

    2003-01-01

    The United Nations has developed an international framework classification for solid fuels and minerals (UNFC). This is now being extended to petroleum by building on the joint classification of the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the World Petroleum Congresses (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG). The UNFC is a 3-dimansional classification. This: Is necessary in order to migrate accounts of resource quantities that are developed on one or two of the axes to the common basis; Provides for more precise reporting and analysis. This is particularly useful in analyses of contingent resources. The characteristics of the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification has been preserved and enhanced to facilitate improved international and national petroleum resource management, corporate business process management and financial reporting. A UN intergovernmental committee responsible for extending the UNFC to extractive energy resources (coal, petroleum and uranium) will meet in Geneva on October 30th and 31st to review experiences gained and comments received during 2003. A recommended classification will then be delivered for consideration to the United Nations through the Committee on Sustainable Energy of the Economic Commission for Europe (UN ECE).

  17. The United Nations: the embarrassment of international law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Denis J

    2002-01-01

    The United Nations should be working towards an international community living in peace under the aegis of international law. Although progress was made in its early years, notably in decolonization, with its membership increased from 50 to 189, major inequalities remain between its nations and their peoples. The Security Council, and in particular its five permanent members (P5), has been guilty of double standards in enforcing international law. Investment should create prosperity and not increase demand for arms. Independent oversight of the UN, and particularly the Security Council, by civil society is needed. If the legitimacy of the UN is to be restored, the Security Council should become more representative, the power of the General Assembly should be restored and the role of the International Court of Justice should be increased. All members of the UN, especially the PS, must respect international law as enshrined in the UN Charter and Conventions.

  18. United Nations Operations: Who Should be in Charge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Cold War; Panama, Iraq, and the New World Order, in RIGHT V. MIGHT, supra note 16, at 109, 128; and HANS KELSON, THE LAW OF THE UNITED NATIONS 928...interpretation would also appear to resolve Kelsen’s dilemma (see KELSEN , supra note 35, at 935) with respect to the Korean conflict. Kelsen argues the Security...and Scheffer, supra note 35, at 131. 45. See D. J. HARRIS, CASES AND MATERIAL ON INTERNATIONAL LAW 681 (4th ed. 1991); KELSEN , supra note 35, at 756

  19. Geothermal exploitation activity by the United Nations in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. (Geological Survey of Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The Rift Valley in Ethiopia was investigated for geothermal exploitation by the United Nations because it has Quaternary volcanoes which often indicate possible geothermal power generation. Preparations for the project are still being made, and the chemical analysis of hot springs is being conducted. The Rift Valley has high temperature springs and potential mineral deposits. The Danakil basin in Ethiopia which is included in the Northern Afar, has several active volcanoes made up of basalt deposits and has active hot springs. The East Africa Rift Valley, the Red Sea Rift Valley, and the Afar area are also areas suitable for investigation. Seven maps are included.

  20. A United Nations Global Health Panel for Global Health Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Liang, Bryan A

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization now relies upon voluntary contributions tied to specific projects, underwriting 75% of operations. A resulting cacophony of non-governmental, foundation, and private sector actors have emerged overlapping and fractionating WHO programs. In this expanding world of "global health organizations," WHO's role must be redefined. We propose coordination of global health initiatives through a United Nations Global Health Panel with active participation of WHO. Given recent events, the UN is poised to take a greater leadership role in global health.

  1. Revitalizing the United Nations. Anticipation and Prevention as Primary Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Novosseloff

    2000-01-01

    In tackling the on-going topic of UN reform, one should be honest with the analysis of the problems at stakes. It is necessary to first take into account the profound changes that have occurred since the end of the Cold War, as well as acknowledging the limits of an international organization and the shape of the UN system. It is only from that analysis that proposals can be made to rationalize and to make more efficient the functioning of the United Nations. What the Organization needs is no...

  2. Data resource profile: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Colleen; Newby, Holly

    2012-12-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) plays a leading role in the collection, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data to inform sound policies, legislation and programmes for promoting children's rights and well-being, and for global monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. UNICEF maintains a set of global databases representing nearly 200 countries and covering the areas of child mortality, child health, maternal health, nutrition, immunization, water and sanitation, HIV/AIDS, education and child protection. These databases consist of internationally comparable and statistically sound data, and are updated annually through a process that draws on a wealth of data provided by UNICEF's wide network of >150 field offices. The databases are composed primarily of estimates from household surveys, with data from censuses, administrative records, vital registration systems and statistical models contributing to some key indicators as well. The data are assessed for quality based on a set of objective criteria to ensure that only the most reliable nationally representative information is included. For most indicators, data are available at the global, regional and national levels, plus sub-national disaggregation by sex, urban/rural residence and household wealth. The global databases are featured in UNICEF's flagship publications, inter-agency reports, including the Secretary General's Millennium Development Goals Report and Countdown to 2015, sector-specific reports and statistical country profiles. They are also publicly available on www.childinfo.org, together with trend data and equity analyses.

  3. Data Resource Profile: United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Colleen; Newby, Holly

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) plays a leading role in the collection, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data to inform sound policies, legislation and programmes for promoting children’s rights and well-being, and for global monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. UNICEF maintains a set of global databases representing nearly 200 countries and covering the areas of child mortality, child health, maternal health, nutrition, immunization, water and sanitation, HIV/AIDS, education and child protection. These databases consist of internationally comparable and statistically sound data, and are updated annually through a process that draws on a wealth of data provided by UNICEF’s wide network of >150 field offices. The databases are composed primarily of estimates from household surveys, with data from censuses, administrative records, vital registration systems and statistical models contributing to some key indicators as well. The data are assessed for quality based on a set of objective criteria to ensure that only the most reliable nationally representative information is included. For most indicators, data are available at the global, regional and national levels, plus sub-national disaggregation by sex, urban/rural residence and household wealth. The global databases are featured in UNICEF’s flagship publications, inter-agency reports, including the Secretary General’s Millennium Development Goals Report and Countdown to 2015, sector-specific reports and statistical country profiles. They are also publicly available on www.childinfo.org, together with trend data and equity analyses. PMID:23211414

  4. From BAN to AmI-BAN: micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Jones, V.M.; Jones, Valerie M.

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or

  5. From BAN to AmI-BAN: micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or

  6. 78 FR 1101 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... 178 RIN 2137-AE83 Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the... Regulations), and the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods: Model Regulations... a Department of Transportation (DOT) or United Nations (UN) standard packaging. Most...

  7. 77 FR 42973 - Export and Reexport Controls to Rwanda and United Nations Sanctions Under the Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Controls to Rwanda and United Nations Sanctions Under the Export Administration Regulations AGENCY: Bureau... Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to implement United Nations... conforming changes in the EAR related to the termination of the United Nations embargo on ``arms and...

  8. Multilateral Disarmament and the Special Session: Twelfth Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The report discusses issues relating to multilateral disarmament in the context of the Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly to be convened in 1978. Intended as a forum for the exchange of ideas of government leaders from the United States and other nations about the international peace-keeping role of the United Nations, the…

  9. ROTARY DAY AT THE UNITED NATIONS OFFICE IN GENEVA

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    We have been informed about the Rotary day at the United Nations office in Geneva. Join us on November 10th & 11th, 2017 at the United Nations office Avenue de la Paix 8-14 1211 Geneva, Switzerland   PEACE: MAKING A DIFFERENCE! Conflict and violence displace millions of people each year. Half of those killed in conflict are children, and 90 percent are civilians. We, Rotarians, refuse conflict as a way of life. But how can we contribute to Peace? And what about you? Are you keen on meeting exceptional individuals and exchanging ideas to move forward? Would you like to network and collaborate with Rotarians, Government Representatives, International Civil Servants, Representatives of Nongovernmental Organizations and Liberal Professions, Businessmen/women, and Students to make a difference in Peace? In November 2017, come to Geneva, get involved, and formulate recommendations to the international community. Together, we’ll celebrate Rotary&a...

  10. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Montana Thrust Belt Province (027) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  11. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Florida Peninsula Province (050) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Southwestern Wyoming Province (037) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  13. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Wyoming Thrust Belt Province (036) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  14. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Western Oregon-Washington Province (004) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  15. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Joaquin Basin Province (010) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  16. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - San Juan Basin Province (022) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Yukon Flats Assessment Area (002) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  18. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Anadarko Basin Province (058) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  19. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Hanna, Laramie, Shirley Basins Province (030) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Paradox Basin (021) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Michigan Basin Province (063) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  2. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Illinois Basin Province (064) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  3. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Powder River Basin Province (033) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  4. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Black Warrior Province (065) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  5. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Williston Basin Province (031) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  6. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Unconventional Assessment Units from 2000 to 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  7. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province (020) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  8. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Denver Basin Province (039) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  9. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Cherokee Platform Province Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  10. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uinta-Piceance Province, Mancos Formation Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  11. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Uteland Butte Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Eastern Great Basin (019) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  13. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Cotton Valley Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  14. Thailand Country Report on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Chitanondh, Hathai; World Health Organization

    2003-01-01

    Thailand Country Report on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion Bans Introduction Countrywide household surveys by the National Statistical Office have been the main source of information support for tobacco control in Thailand. The first, second and third surveys were carried out in 1976, 1981 and 1986 (five year intervals). Thereafter the surveys were carried out every two years. For the past two decades, the total number of smokers has risen, presumably as a result ...

  15. 77 FR 75254 - List of Units of the National Park System Exempt From the Provisions of the National Parks Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service List of Units of the National Park System Exempt From the Provisions of the National Parks Air Tour Management Act AGENCIES: Federal Aviation Administration, Transportation; National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: List of...

  16. China Bans Some Processing Trade Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>China’s Commerce Ministry and General Administration of Customs jointly issued a circular, which will ban the processing trade activities for some metals concentrates. According to the circular, the processing trade for a number of metals concentrates will be banned from August 22, 2005.

  17. The National Security Strategy Under the United Nations and International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-19

    a result of that war." This was addressed in 1951 by Hans Kelsen in a legal analysis of fundamental problems with the UN Charter. He concluded that...www.zmag.org/content/print_article.cfm>; Internet; accessed 31 January 2004. 36 Charter of the United Nations, Article 107. 37 Kearly, 27–28. 38 Hans Kelsen ...the framers introduced ambiguity reveals exactly what the framers intended. Kearly cites Hans Kelsen’s authoritative research of the charter of the

  18. The United Nations Standing Force a Qualitative Analysis of Strategic and Operational Options for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Council, has done .ch community...But, as much as the United Nations has done, it can do much more." Chaiaiing Times As the Bob Dylan song goes, "The...to our nation’s defense well into the twenty-first century. When Bob Dylan’s song was popular, it was also relevant. At that time, the United States

  19. The United Nations and Energy Management. Conference on the United Nations of the Next Decade (15th, Woodstock, Vermont, June 15-20, 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley Foundation, Muscatine, IA.

    The conference described in this report convened to provide a forum for exchanging ideas and opinions on the role of the United Nations in global energy management. The conference was one in a series of international meetings (14 have been held to date) to consider how to increase the effectiveness of the United Nations during the 1980s. The…

  20. 77 FR 26407 - Prohibiting Certain Transactions With and Suspending Entry Into the United States of Foreign...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Vol. 77 Thursday, No. 86... of Entry of Aliens Subject to United Nations Security Council Travel Bans and International Emergency... against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents,...

  1. Practice educators in the United Kingdom: A national job description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, John

    2008-11-01

    Much is known about the purpose of practice educators in the United Kingdom, but how their role is implemented is subject to conflicting expectations, partly created by the structure in which they work. Joint appointments between universities and practice are an opportunity for both organisations to collaborate in a partnership to enhance practice learning and fulfill one of the main aims of the practice educator role: to narrow the theory-practice gap. However tensions exist. This paper advocates a national (UK) job description for practice educators to reduce some of the tensions and conflict between the expectations of collaborating partners in practice learning. This would enable practice educators to concentrate on their obligations while employers concentrate on enabling practice educators to fulfill their obligations by upholding their rights to proper preparation, support and career structure.

  2. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI): Science Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Niu, A; Haubold, H J; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) aims at promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities; creating awareness among countries on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications; and building capacity in microgravity education and research. HSTI has been conducting various scientific activities to promote microgravity education and research. The primary science activity is called 'Zero-gravity Instrument Distribution Project', in which one-axis clinostats will be distributed worldwide. The distribution project will provide unique opportunities for students and researchers to observe the growth of indigenous plants in their countries in a simulated microgravity condition and is expected to create a huge dataset of plant species with their responses to gravity.

  3. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Vuillaume, Renee; Kelder, Steven H; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-07-27

    Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students' in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Student data on consumption of various SSBs and in-school access to vending machines that sold SSBs were obtained from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS), conducted in 2010. Student data were linked to state laws regarding the sale of soda in school in 2010. Students were cross-classified based on their access to vending machines and whether their state banned soda in school, creating 4 comparison groups. Zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to compare these 4 groups with respect to students’ self-reported consumption of diet soda, sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, or other SSBs. Students who had access to vending machines in a state that did not ban soda were the reference group. Models were adjusted for race/ethnicity, sex, grade, home food access, state median income, and U.S. Census region. Students consumed more servings of sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, and other SSBs if they resided in a state that banned soda in school but attended a school with vending machines that sold other SSBs. Similar results were observed where schools did not have vending machines but the state allowed soda to be sold in school. Intake was generally not elevated where both states and schools limited SSB availability – i.e., states banned soda and schools did not have SSB vending machines. State laws that ban soda but allow other SSBs may lead students to substitute other non-soda SSBs. Additional longitudinal research is needed to confirm this

  4. Implementation of a workplace smoking ban in bars: The limits of local discretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In January 1998, the California state legislature extended a workplace smoking ban to bars. The purpose of this study was to explore the conditions that facilitate or hinder compliance with a smoking ban in bars. Methods We studied the implementation of the smoking ban in bars by interviewing three sets of policy participants: bar employers responsible for complying with the law; local government officials responsible for enforcing the law; and tobacco control activists who facilitated implementation. We transcribed the interviews and did a qualitative analysis of the text. Results The conditions that facilitated bar owners' compliance with a smoking ban in bars included: if the cost to comply was minimal; if the bars with which they were in competition were in compliance with the smoking ban; and if there was authoritative, consistent, coordinated, and uniform enforcement. Conversely, the conditions that hindered compliance included: if the law had minimal sanctions; if competing bars in the area allowed smoking; and if enforcement was delayed or inadequate. Conclusion Many local enforcers wished to forfeit their local discretion and believed the workplace smoking ban in bars would be best implemented by a state agency. The potential implication of this study is that, given the complex nature of local politics, smoking bans in bars are best implemented at a broader provincial or national level.

  5. National attitudes concerning gun carrying in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemenway, D; Azrael, D; Miller, M

    2001-12-01

    To determine public attitudes in the United States concerning gun carrying. In the past 15 years, many state legislatures have passed laws making it easier for United States citizens to carry concealed firearms, not only on the street but into various locations, including churches and government buildings. National random digit dial telephone surveys conducted in 1996 and 1999 asked questions concerning the public's feelings of safety as more people in their community carry firearms, and whether, in the language of the question, respondents believe "regular" citizens should be allowed to carry guns into public or government buildings. Americans feel less safe rather than more safe as more people in their community begin to carry guns. By margins of at least nine to one, Americans do not believe that "regular" citizens should be allowed to bring their guns into restaurants, college campuses, sports stadiums, bars, hospitals, or government buildings. The public believes that increased gun carrying by others reduces rather than increases their safety. Overwhelmingly, the public believes that in many venues gun carrying should be prohibited.

  6. [Health in the post-2015 United Nations Development Agenda].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Magalhães, Danielly de Paiva; Setti, Andréia Faraoni Freitas; Gallo, Edmundo; Franco Netto, Francisco de Abreu; Machado, Jorge Mesquita Huet; Buss, Daniel Forsin

    2014-12-01

    This paper evaluates health as a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) in the context of the Post-2015 Development Agenda, between 2012 and 2014. Health was part of the debate since the Millennium Summit and the MDGs (2000), and it also appears in the documents discussing the Post-2015 Agenda, from the Rio+20 to the Open Working Group (OWG), whose report was submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations (UNGA) 2014-2015, and in the Global Consultation on Health and the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons reports. The Authors concluded that the treatment of health in all these documents is uniform. They point out that the scope of the health-related SDG is very comprehensive, but its targets are conceptually fragmented and reduced. They advocate their change as to include not only the idea of social determinants of health, but also targets in the field of public health, which were not included in the proposal of the OWG. They also warn that the global and national governance systems need to be reformed and advocate more participation of the civil society, which can influence diplomacy, which, in turn, will be responsible for the agreement signed at the UNGA in 2015.

  7. 19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... United Nations and the Organization of American States. 148.88 Section 148.88 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... members of the staff of the United Nations and the Organization of American States, and their personal... United Nations member nation as the principal resident representative to the United Nations of...

  8. [Expectations after ban on asbestos].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarić, Marko

    2009-11-01

    This article brings a brief review of asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases in Croatia in view of the asbestos ban. The first cases of asbestosis were diagnosed in workers from an asbestos-cement factory in 1961. Between 1990 and 2007, 403 cases of asbestosis had been registered as occupational disease: 300 with parenchymal fibrosis and the rest with parenchymal and pleural changes, or pleural plaques. As a rule, asbestos-related changes were diagnosed at an early stage thanks to regular checkups of the exposed workers. Pleural plaques, considered to be the consequence of asbestos exposure, were also occasionally found in subjects who lived in areas with asbestos processing plants, but were not occupationally exposed. Early epidemiological studies on respiratory and gastrointestinal tract tumours in areas with an asbestos processing plant (1994) and an asbestos-cement plant (1995, 1996) focused on the occurrence of malignant tumours in persons exposed to asbestos at work or in the environment. More recently, the focus has shifted to the malignant pleural mesotelioma (MPM). An epidemiological study published in 2002 showed that the MPM incidence was significantly higher in the coastal area than in the rest of the country. About two thirds of patients with the tumour were occupationally exposed to asbestos. This uneven distribution of the tumour incidence is obviously related to shipbuilding and other industrial sources of asbestos exposure located in the coastal Croatia. Sources of environmental exposure to asbestos also have to be taken into account. The second part of this article ventures into the issues ahead of us, after asbestos has been banned in the country. The long latency period of cancers, and particularly of asbestos-related mesothelioma, implies that the incidence of this tumour will not drop over the next few decades. In Croatia, the average annual rate of MPM between 1991 and 2006 was 40, and ranged between 20 in 1991 to 61 in 1999. In 2006

  9. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 31274 - Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... 2137-AE83 Hazardous Materials: Harmonization With the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport... Goods Regulations (TDG Regulations), and the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of... hazardous materials internationally, to, from, and within the United States. In this notice of...

  11. Classroom Simulation of United Nations Conference on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, D. W.

    2009-12-01

    Global climate change is widely recognized as the most important environmental problem today that requires complex, global solutions with international cooperation. Teaching the science of climate change is relatively simple compared to the challenges of determining solutions to this problem. It is important for students to learn that solutions do exist and that international negotiations are underway to achieve reductions. What are the (policy) solutions to this vexing problem, which countries should take responsibility, and specifically how can this be done? In the final week of an advanced undergraduate environmental science class: Global Environmental Change, students engage in a week-long classroom simulation of the annual United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of the Parties (UNFCCC/COP). Small groups of students represent one nation that has a particular, and important, interest in the negotiations. Each group researches the positions their country has with respect to the negotiations, determines their possible allies, and who might have interests that are in conflict with their country. While NGOs such as environmental organizations and industry groups are not formally represented, I include some of these groups since they are influential and provide interesting insight into different interests. For simplicity, about 8-10 nations and NGOs are included. In preparation for the conference, students produce a background paper and draft resolution. At the end of the conference, they refine these documents to produce an updated position paper and resolution on how to mitigate global warming. Students are asked to focus on: 1. How much to change global greenhouse gas emissions over the next decade and over the next century; 2. How much of these emission reductions their country should be responsible for; 3. How will their country meet these goals? They must focus on whether and how to implement two mechanisms: a) Clean Development

  12. Integrated Unit Deployments: Rethinking Air National Guard Fighter Mobilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    machine guns for strafing.12 A fifth unit also served, but mostly in obscurity. The 355th TFS was an active duty unit from South Carolina but...of the AEF while SORTS is unit-centric. Operationally, ART collects and collates unit-reported data to answer, in whole or in 62 part, the

  13. The United Nations and the promotion of peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Despite the end of the cold war, many other conflicts persisted in the 1990s. The hope that a peace dividend would help to alleviate poverty was replaced by doubts regarding the effects of free market globalization and environmental constraints. Future concerns include the continuing aftermath of the cold war, the increased destructiveness of modern warfare, despite the increased sophistication of modern weaponry, the widening poverty gap between a wealthy elite and the majority of the world's population and developing global economic and environmental threats. The response to all this should be economic co-operation for sustainable development, including trade reform, and radical change in the environmental impact of the industrialized countries. Yet it appears that the response of the US, and to a lesser extent Europe, is to maintain the status quo in its own interests by military means, an attitude that seems to have been reinforced by the events of 11 September 2001. Nevertheless, these developments are opposed by citizen groups in the developed world and by analysts in the South. The United Nations and its agencies have been at the forefront of analysis and proposals for action in many of these fields. Its role is likely to increase in the next 30 years and it must be made as effective a global body as possible.

  14. Reform of the United Nations and Transformation of the International System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The reform of the United Nations is closely related with the transformation of the International system. The United Nations has made great success since it started a comprehensive reform in 2005. Such a reform is necessary both for the transition of the largest international organization in the world and transformation of the international system. The United Nations still has a long way to go in the comprehensive reform because of many factors.

  15. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 2001-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in...

  16. National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 1991-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit investigations in...

  17. USGS Governmental Unit Boundaries Overlay Map Service from The National Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The USGS Governmental Unit Boundaries service from The National Map (TNM) represents major civil areas for the Nation, including States or Territories, counties (or...

  18. 75 FR 5608 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Communications Unit Leader (COML) Prerequisite and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate; Communications Unit Leader (COML) Prerequisite and Evaluation AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION:...

  19. Current National Weather Service Watches, Warnings, or Advisories for the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) Storm Prediction Center uses RSS feeds to disseminate all watches, warnings and advisories for the United States that are...

  20. Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

    2013-11-25

    This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13-25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56-70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans.

  1. Level 2 Foundation Units. Key Stage 3: National Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    These foundation units are aimed at pupils working within Level 2 entry to Year 7. They are designed to remind pupils what they know and take them forward. The units also will teach phonics knowledge from consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words to long vowel phonemes. The writing units focus on developing the following skills: understanding what a…

  2. Towards a national trauma registry for the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barka Ezedin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trauma is a major health problem in the United Arab Emirates (UAE as well as worldwide. Trauma registries provide large longitudinal databases for analysis and policy improvement. We aim in this paper to report on the development and evolution of a national trauma registry using a staged approach by developing a single-center registry, a two-center registry, and then a multi-center registry. The three registries were established by developing suitable data collection forms, databases, and interfaces to these databases. The first two registries collected data for a finite period of time and the third is underway. The steps taken to establish these registries depend on whether the registry is intended as a single-center or multi-center registry. Findings Several issues arose and were resolved during the development of these registries such as the relational design of the database, whether to use a standalone database management system or a web-based system, and the usability and security of the system. The inclusion of preventive medicine data elements is important in a trauma registry and the focus on road traffic collision data elements is essential in a country such as the UAE. The first two registries provided valuable data which has been analyzed and published. Conclusions The main factors leading to the successful establishment of a multi-center trauma registry are the development of a concise data entry form, development of a user-friendly secure web-based database system, the availability of a computer and Internet connection in each data collection center, funded data entry personnel well trained in extracting medical data from the medical record and entering it into the computer, and experienced personnel in trauma injuries and data analysis to continuously maintain and analyze the registry.

  3. The United States National Security Strategy: Grand Strategy or Propaganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    Hegel was right when he said that we learn from history that man can never learn anything from history.” George Bernard Shaw 58 July 26th, 2007...nation more challenging.124 As Taylor and Snider explain, “With the global diffusion of power, national policy also becomes less fungible, less...124 William J. Taylor and Don M Snider, “U.S. National Security Agenda and U.S. National Security Policy: Realities and Dilemmas,” The

  4. Bar and restaurant workers' attitudes towards Norway's comprehensive smoking ban: a growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Marc T; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Bontempo, Daniel E; Hetland, Jørn

    2010-06-01

    Norway passed legislation banning smoking in restaurants, bars and other public spaces in 2004. This study tracks changes in hospitality workers' attitudes towards Norway's ban over three time points, using growth modelling analysis to examine predictors of attitude change. Participants were a national sample of 1525 bar and restaurant workers. Surveys were conducted, by phone or internet, one month before the ban's implementation and at 4 and 12 months thereafter. Exploratory principal components analysis of nine survey items revealed one primary attitude component. A latent growth model was fitted to the data to examine trajectories of attitude change and individual differences in rate of change. Respondents supported the ban before implementation and increased support at 4 months (p=0.021) and again at 12 months (p=0.001). Concern for one's job followed a quadratic trend, increasing at 4 months and decreasing at 12 months (phospitality workers increased their support of the ban over its first year. The strong influence of the within-person variables leads to two primary policy recommendations. First, support should be provided to assist cessation efforts and prevent relapse. Second, informational campaigns should inform hospitality workers about evidence that smoking bans are not economic threats to the industry.

  5. Charter of the United Nations and statute of the International Court of Justice

    CERN Document Server

    United Nations. New York. Department of Public Information

    1993-01-01

    The Charter of the United Nations was signed on 26 June 1945, in San Francisco, at the conclusion of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, and came into force on 24 October 1945. The Statute of the International Court of Justice is an integral part of the Charter.

  6. Education for Sustainable Development at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012, marking the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the tenth anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. With more than…

  7. United Nations Literacy Decade in Asia and the Pacific: Progress to Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In December 2001, The United Nations General Assembly unanimously adopted a resolution to establish the United Nations Literacy Decade (UNLD), 2003-2012. The UNLD stresses "Literacy for All: A voice for all, learning for all." The publication records UNLD activities in the Asia and Pacific region during 2003 to 2004 and introduces organizations…

  8. Developing Global Public Participation (1) : Global Public Participation at The United Nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, O.; Honniball, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    In this first article, we will analyse the actuality and potential of participation at the international level, or more specifically: at the level of the United Nations (un). Is there a demand for public participation in the work of the United Nations, and if so, who has such demands? And how should

  9. Education for Sustainable Development at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012, marking the twentieth anniversary of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and the tenth anniversary of the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg. With more than…

  10. Applying Modern Techniques and Carrying Out English .Extracurricular—— On the Model United Nations Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuXiaoyu; WangJian

    2004-01-01

    This paper is an introduction of the extracurricular activity of the Model United Nations in Northwestern Polyteehnical University (NPU) and it focuses on the application of the modem techniques in the activity and the pedagogical theories applied in it. An interview and questionnaire research will reveal the influence of the Model United Nations.

  11. Denmark's National Inventory Report - Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1990-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's in-ventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO2, CH4, N2O...

  12. Denmark's National Inventory Report - Submitted under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, 1990-2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's in-ventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO2, CH4, N2O...

  13. Current-use pesticides and organochlorine compounds in precipitation and lake sediment from two high-elevation national parks in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, M A; Foreman, W T; Skaates, S V

    2007-04-01

    Current-use pesticides (CUPs) and banned organochlorine compounds (OCCs) were measured in precipitation (snowpack and rain) and lake sediments from two national parks in the Western United States to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation environments. CUPs frequently detected in snow were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil in concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 2.4 ng/L. Of the OCCs, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, and two polychlorinated biphenyl congeners were detected in only one snow sample each. Pesticides most frequently detected in rain were atrazine, carbaryl, and dacthal in concentrations from 3.0 to 95 ng/L. Estimated annual deposition rates in one of the parks were 8.4 microg/m2 for atrazine, 9.9 microg/m2 for carbaryl, and 2.6 microg/m2 for dacthal, of which >85% occurred during summer. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD were the most frequently detected OCCs in surface sediments from lakes. However, concentrations were low (0.12 to 4.7 microg/kg) and below levels at which harmful effects for benthic organisms are likely to be observed. DDD and DDE concentrations in an age-dated sediment core suggest that atmospheric deposition of DDT and its degradates, and possibly other banned OCCs, to high-elevation areas have been decreasing since the 1970s. Dacthal and endosulfan sulfate were present in low concentrations (0.11 to 1.2 microg/kg) and were the only CUPs detected in surface sediments. Both pesticides were frequently detected in snow, confirming that some CUPs entering high-elevation aquatic environments through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota as well.

  14. Fatality trends in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations, 1948-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, B; Burnham, G M

    2000-08-02

    The rising number of deaths among United Nations (UN) peacekeeping forces after the Cold War has made some troop-contributing countries hesitant to participate in peacekeeping operations. While the number and scale of missions have increased, no data have demonstrated a parallel increase in risks to peacekeepers. To determine the association of characteristics of UN peacekeeping operations with risks and mortality rates among UN peacekeeping forces in both the Cold War and post-Cold War periods. Descriptive analysis of 1559 personnel deaths during 49 UN peacekeeping missions from 1948-1998 based on the casualty database maintained by Department of Peacekeeping Operations, UN Headquarters. Number and percentage of deaths by circumstance, total crude death rate, and crude death rate and relative risk of death by circumstance (hostile acts, unintentional violence, and illness or other causes) and time period (Cold War vs post-Cold War), geographic region, and nature of peacekeeping response; and regression analysis of mission variables (strength, duration, and humanitarian mandate) associated with total number of deaths. More deaths have occurred among UN peacekeeping forces in the past decade alone than in the previous 40 years of UN peacekeeping (807 vs 752), but crude death rates did not differ significantly by time period (Cold War vs post-Cold War, 21.8 vs 21. 2 deaths per 10,000 person-years; P =.58), level of peacekeeping response, or for geographic regions other than East Europe and Central America, where rates were lower (PCold War (relative risk [RR] 1. 51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-1.88), while rates for deaths caused by unintentional violence decreased (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.67-0. 94) but remain high, particularly in the Middle East and Asia (RR, 1. 39; 95% CI, 1.15-1.69). Regression analysis showed a significant association between number of deaths and the strength (PCold War rather than increased RR of death. Post-Cold War peacekeeping personnel

  15. United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI) 1991-2012 and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Mathai, A M; Balogh, W R

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains an overview and summary on the achievements of the United Nations basic space science initiative in terms of donated and provided planetariums, astronomical telescopes, and space weather instruments, particularly operating in developing nations. This scientific equipment has been made available to respective host countries, particularly developing nations, through the series of twenty basic space science workshops, organized through the United Nations Programme on Space Applications since 1991. Organized by the United Nations, the European Space Agency (ESA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States of America, and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the basic space science workshops were organized as a series of workshops that focused on basic space science (1991-2004), the International Heliophysical Year 2007 (2005-2009), and the International Space Weather Initiative (2010-2012) proposed by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Spac...

  16. Economic dynamics of all members of the United Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Chukwu, Ethelbert Nwakuche

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an enduring response to modern economic problems and the consequent crises, dealing with the economic modelling of nations and the forecasting of economic growth. The main arguments embodied constitute the creation of jobs and the restoration of economic growth, using the implicit acceptance of analysis on differential models and neutral systems for controlling the wealth of nations.

  17. The impact of the Danish smoking ban on hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tabita Maria; Møller, Lisbeth; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The positive impact of a smoking ban on AMI hospitalization rates has been demonstrated both inside and outside Europe. A national smoking ban (SB) was implemented in Denmark on 15...... accounted for the variation in the population size and for seasonal trends. Potential confounders included were: gender, age and the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).Results: A significant reduction in the number of AMI-admissions was found in the last three years of the study period after adjusting...... in the number of AMI-admissions was found already one year before the SB after adjustment for the incidence of T2D. The results differ from most results found in similar studies throughout the world and may be explained by the incremental enactment of SBs in Denmark and the implementation of a nation-wide ban...

  18. 3 CFR 8441 - Proclamation 8441 of October 19, 2009. United Nations Day, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Proclamation The United Nations was created 64 years ago by men and women from every corner of the world. These... principle forum for all nations, large and small, to work in concert to meet the global challenges no nation... will and leadership to match the aspirations of all. Now is the time for all of us to assume our share...

  19. 77 FR 3371 - Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... January 10, 2012 Certification Concerning U.S. Participation in the United Nations Mission in South Sudan... of the United States in certain United Nations peacekeeping and peace enforcement operations, I hereby certify that members of the U.S. Armed Forces participating in the United Nations Mission in...

  20. 36 CFR 1235.10 - What records do agencies transfer to the National Archives of the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transfer to the National Archives of the United States? 1235.10 Section 1235.10 Parks, Forests, and Public... NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES General Transfer Requirements § 1235.10 What records do agencies transfer to the National Archives of the United States? Agencies must transfer to the National Archives......

  1. Refuge Management Plan: Sandstone Unit Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Part I of this management plan for the Sandstone Unit of Rice Lake NWR summarizes background information on the location, history, environment, resources,...

  2. Alaska maritime national wildlife refuge - Bearing Sea unit contaminant assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of the Contaminant Assessment Process (CAP) is to compile and summarize known past, present, and potential contaminant issues on National Wildlife...

  3. Banámichi C2004, nueva variedad de trigo cristalino Banámichi C2004, new durum wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alfonso Camacho-Casas

    Full Text Available Un nuevo cultivar de trigo duro o cristalino, Banámichi C2004, fue desarrollado para las áreas productoras de trigo del noroeste de México. Este cultivar fue obtenido en el Campo Experimental Valle del Yaqui (CEVY del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y pecuarias (INIFAP y registrado con el número 1732-TRI-061-030505-C en el Servicio Nacional de Inspección y Certificación de Semillas (SNICS. Banámichi C2004 es resistente a la nueva raza BBG/BN de roya de la hoja (Puccinia triticina Eriksson, con rendimientos de 5.5 a 6.2 t ha-1 y buena calidad del grano para el mercado de exportación. Banámichi C2004 supera en forma consistente al testigo Júpare C2001, tanto en la capacidad de producir proteína en grano como en el contenido de pigmento amarillo en el endospermo y en la fuerza del gluten. Banámichi C2004 puede crecer durante el ciclo otoño-invierno en los estados de Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sinaloa y Sonora.A new variety of durum wheat, Banámichi C2004, was developed for the wheat-producing areas in northwestern Mexico. This variety was produced in the Yaqui Valley Experimental Station (CEVY of the National Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research Institute (INIFAP and registered with the number 1732-TRI- 061-030505-C in the National Seed Inspection and Certification Service (SNICS. Banámichi C2004 is resistant to the new BBG/BN breed of wheat rust (Puccinia triticina Eriksson, and has yields of 5.5 to 6.2 t ha-1 and good grain quality for the export market. Banámichi C2004 surpasses the control Júpare C2001 in a consistent manner, in the protein-producing capacity in the grain as in the content of yellow pigment in the endosperm and in the strength of gluten. Banámichi C2004 can grow in the autumn-winter cycle in the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sinaloa and Sonora.

  4. United States National Security Interests and the Republic of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    The perceptions that have been colored by history are sharpened by differences and dispari- ties separating the two nations. Octavio Paz , a...Stoessel, Jr., "Foreign Policy Priorities in Asia," Current Policy, No. 274, (April 24, 1981), p. 1. 14 Octavio Paz , Mexico and the U.S.: Positions and... Paz expressed it, "our countries are neighbors condemned to live alongside each other." The relationship began even before the two nations existed

  5. Tobacco Use Documenting Policy and Its Association with Pupils' Smoking and Their Perception of the Enforcement of School Smoking Bans in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaristo, Vesa; Kulmala, Jenni; Raisamo, Susanna; Rimpelä, Arja; Ståhl, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Finnish national data sets on schools (N = 496) and pupils (N = 74,143; 14-16 years) were used to study whether a systematic documenting policy for the violations of school smoking bans was associated with pupils' smoking and their perceptions on the enforcement of smoking bans. Attending a school with a systematic documenting policy was…

  6. The United States cover-up of Japanese wartime medical atrocities: complicity committed in the national interest and two proposals for contemporary action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2006-01-01

    To monopolize the scientific data gained by Japanese physicians and researchers from vivisections and other barbarous experiments performed on living humans in biological warfare programs such as Unit 731, immediately after the war the United States (US) government secretly granted those involved immunity from war crimes prosecution, withdrew vital information from the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, and publicly denounced otherwise irrefutable evidence from other sources such as the Russian Khabarovsk trial. Acting in "the national interest" and for the security of the US, authorities in the US tramped justice and morality, and engaged in what the English common law tradition clearly defines as "complicity after the fact." To repair this historical injustice, the US government should issue an official apology and offer appropriate compensation for having covered up Japanese medical war crimes for six decades. To help prevent similar acts of aiding principal offender(s) in the future, international declarations or codes of human rights and medical ethics should include a clause banning any kind of complicity in any unethical medicine-whether before or after the fact-by any state or group for whatever reasons.

  7. Future National Reference Frames for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. A.

    2015-12-01

    The mission of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) is "to define, maintain and provide access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) to meet our nation's economic, social, and environmental needs." NSRS is the nation's system of latitude, longitude, elevation, and related geophysical and geodetic models and tools, which provides a consistent spatial reference framework for the broad spectrum of geoscientific applications and other positioning-related requirements. Technological developments - notably Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) - and user accuracy requirements necessitate that NGS endeavor to modernize the NSRS. Preparations are underway by NGS for a comprehensive NSRS makeover, to be completed in 2022 and delivered through a new generation of horizontal and vertical datums (reference frames), featuring unprecedented accuracy, repeatability, and efficiency of access. This evolution is outlined in the "National Geodetic Survey Ten-Year Strategic Plan, 2013-2023." This presentation will outline the motivation for this effort and the history, current status and planned evolution of NSRS. Fundamental to the delivery of the future reference frame paradigm are new geometric and geopotential (elevation) frameworks. The new geometric reference frame, realized through GNSS Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS), will replace the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) and will provide the nationwide framework for determination of latitude, longitude, and ellipsoid height. Designed to complement the new geometric reference frame, a corresponding geopotential reference frame - based on a national gravimetric geoid and replacing the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88) - will be developed and co-released. The gravimetric geoid - or definitional reference surface (zero elevation) - for the future geopotential reference frame will be built in part from airborne gravimetric data collected in

  8. Banning Trophy Hunting Will Exacerbate Biodiversity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Bradshaw, Corey J A

    2016-02-01

    International pressure to ban trophy hunting is increasing. However, we argue that trophy hunting can be an important conservation tool, provided it can be done in a controlled manner to benefit biodiversity conservation and local people. Where political and governance structures are adequate, trophy hunting can help address the ongoing loss of species.

  9. Will Banning Begging Improve Traffic Safety?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On August 2,Zhuhai,a city in south China’s Guangdong Province, issued road safety regulations banning begging in vehicle lanes. The new regulations allow the police to impose fines on beggers.Drivers who buy anything from vendors or give money to beg- gars will also be fined.

  10. Should Tourists Be Banned From Campuses?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Xiamen University,one of the leading universities in China,began to ban tour groups from entering its campus on June 1.The notice of the university said that except for certain dining halls,most of the school's cafeterias will not receive tourists or accept cash.However,individual tourists are still allowed to enter the campus after registration.

  11. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  12. Unit: Indicating Acidity, Inspection Pack, National Trial Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    The introductory core activities in this trial unit, prepared for students in grades seven through nine of Australian schools, use indicators derived from flower pigments to provide a more convenient measure of acidity than taste. Students are offered choices among seven options after completion of the core: "How Acidic is That?"; "What Colour is…

  13. Proceedings of the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, N. Jill [Editor

    1999-09-21

    These proceedings contain papers prepared for the 21st Seismic Research Symposium: Technologies for Monitoring The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, held 21-24 September 1999 in Las Vegas, Nevada. These papers represent the combined research related to ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring funded by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC), Department of Defense (DoD), the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), and other invited sponsors. The scientific objectives of the research are to improve the United States capability to detect, locate, and identify nuclear explosions. The purpose of the meeting is to provide the sponsoring agencies, as well as potential users, an opportunity to review research accomplished during the preceding year and to discuss areas of investigation for the coming year. For the researchers, it provides a forum for the exchange of scientific information toward achieving program goals, and an opportunity to discuss results and future plans. Paper topics include: seismic regionalization and calibration; detection and location of sources; wave propagation from source to receiver; the nature of seismic sources, including mining practices; hydroacoustic, infrasound, and radionuclide methods; on-site inspection; and data processing.

  14. Recreation in the United States. National Historic Landmark Theme Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charleton, James H.

    This report examines a number of outstanding and illustrative examples of a broad range of properties representing recreational activities that suggest themselves for possible National Historic Landmark recognition. The properties described in the study have been selected to represent places and activities that have had a major impact on American…

  15. National scale biomass estimators for United States tree species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer C. Jenkins; David C. Chojnacky; Linda S. Heath; Richard A. Birdsey

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of national-scale forest carbon (C) stocks and fluxes are typically based on allometric regression equations developed using dimensional analysis techniques. However, the literature is inconsistent and incomplete with respect to large-scale forest C estimation. We compiled all available diameter-based allometric regression equations for estimating total...

  16. Denmark's National Inventory Reports. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M. [Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Systemanalyse (Denmark); Rasmussen, E. [Energistyrelsen (Denmark)

    2000-05-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2000. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years from 1990 to 1998 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub x}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}, HFCs, PFCs and SF. (au)

  17. United States National Grid for New Mexico, UTM 13, (1000m X 1000m polygons )

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  18. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  19. M. Hartley Dodge Unit : Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge : Wilderness area proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a brief report on the M. Hartley Dodge Unit of the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge and its suitability for wilderness designation. Topics...

  20. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lance Rosier Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lance Rosier Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  1. The Conundrum about the United Nations Security Council: A Guardian of Peace or Cause for Concern?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berdal Aral

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to find out whether the United Nations Security Council (UN SC) has been perfoming its primary task of safeguarding international peace and security effectively since the Cold War has become a matter of history...

  2. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  3. Water Management Program: Unit Three, 1987 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water management facilities in Unit Three at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge were completed in 1984, providing management capability of over 2500 acres of marsh....

  4. Water Management Program: Unit Three, 1986 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water management facilities in Unit Three at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge were completed in 1984, providing management capability of over 2500 acres of marsh....

  5. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  6. Narrative report Seneca Unit Erie National Wildlife Refuge Calendar year - 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seneca Unit of the Erie National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins...

  7. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  8. United States National Grid for New Mexico, UTM 12, (1000m X 1000m polygons )

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This is a polygon feature data layer of United States National Grid (1000m x 1000m polygons ) constructed by the Center for Interdisciplinary Geospatial Information...

  9. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  10. Stroke units: research and reality. Results from the National Sentinel Audit of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To use data from the 2001–2 National Stroke Audit to describe the organisation of stroke units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and to see if key characteristics deemed effective from the research literature were present.

  11. Matagorda Island Unit, Aransas National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Narrative Report for the Matagorda Island Unit of Aransas National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during 1987. The report begins with...

  12. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lance Rosier Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lance Rosier Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely sensed,...

  13. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  14. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  15. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  16. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  17. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  18. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  19. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Turkey Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Turkey Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely sensed,...

  20. Final Environmental Assessment : Livestock Grazing Management Seven Blackfeet Habitat Unit : Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final environmental assessment for the grazing management within the Seven Blackfeet Habitat Unit of the Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, in relation to...

  1. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between EPA and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then Administrator Jackson signed the first Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between EPA and United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) during the 26th Session of the UNEP Governing Council Meeting/Global Ministerial Environment Forum in 2011.

  2. Matagorda Island Unit, Aransas National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Annual Narrative Report for the Matagorda Island Unit of Aransas National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during 1989. The report begins with...

  3. Population-resources-environment-development interrelationships in the United Nations: in search of an approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosovic, B

    1984-08-01

    The relationships among population, resources, the environment, and development are reviewed, with the focus on how such questions are dealt with in the United Nations system. Emphasis is on the complexities of the issues raised rather than on their resolution.

  4. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Turkey Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Turkey Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  5. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  6. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lance Rosier Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lance Rosier Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  7. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  8. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Menard Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Menard Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from remotely...

  9. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  10. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Turkey Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Turkey Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely sensed,...

  11. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  12. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography digital elevation model (DEM) mosaic for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced from remotely...

  13. Environmental Assessment for the Reestablishment of Water Control Unit 2: Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge: 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An environmental assessment for reestablishment of water control in Unit II of the Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge was prepared in November, 1985. The Fish and...

  14. Water Management Program: Unit Three, 1985 Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual program describes the results of the 1984 water management program for Unit Three at Prime Hook National Wildlife Refuge and outlines the water regimen...

  15. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Lower Neches River Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Lower Neches River Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  16. Continental United States Military Housing Inspection National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    lead, copper, microbial (total coliform ) contamination, and chlorine residue. The water samples were collected from buildings selected at random...selected locations from 23 accompanied housing and 4 units in the barracks for lead, copper, total coliform , E. Coli, and residual chlorine. The... coliform and E. Coli bacteria. All drinking water quality test results were below applicable action levels for community water suppliers. The same 27

  17. A Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Garel M., J.-M. Cugnasse, A. Loison, J.-M. Gaillard, C. Vuiton, and D.Maillard. 2005. Monitoring the abundance of mouflon in south France. European ...of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...Preliminary Assessment of Mouflon Abundance at the Kahuku Unit of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  18. Dysfunction Junction: Intelligence, Peacekeeping, and the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    government’s formulating and implementing policy to further its national security interests and to deal with threats to those interests from actual or...their internal affairs to be the focus of a UN collection effort.68 Martha Finnemore documented a shift in the consideration of international...Chesterman, 154. 69 Martha Finnemore , “Changing Norms of Humanitarian Intervention,” in The Purpose of Intervention: Changing Beliefs about the Use of Force

  19. The Future of the United Nations: Implications for Peace Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-05

    first tier nation is if we think one or more of them might revert from market democracy. War between market democracies, he stressed, is practically ...the organization as useless at best and, at worst, an outright threat pushing toward world government. This position was most common on the right side...p.12. 34 ’Peacekeeper to Peacemaker: U.N. Confronting New Roles.’ New York rimes, January 25,1993, p. A10. Lewis, William H., ed. Miday Implcations

  20. 36 CFR 1235.12 - When must agencies transfer records to the National Archives of the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... records to the National Archives of the United States? 1235.12 Section 1235.12 Parks, Forests, and Public... NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES General Transfer Requirements § 1235.12 When must agencies transfer records to the National Archives of the United States? Permanent records must be transferred to...

  1. 36 CFR 1235.18 - How do agencies transfer records to the National Archives of the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... records to the National Archives of the United States? 1235.18 Section 1235.18 Parks, Forests, and Public... NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES General Transfer Requirements § 1235.18 How do agencies transfer records to the National Archives of the United States? Agencies transfer records by submitting a signed...

  2. 75 FR 6709 - United States, et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment Inc. and Live Nation Inc.; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment Inc. and Live Nation Inc.; Proposed... Columbia in United States of America, et al. v. Ticketmaster Entertainment, Inc. and Live Nation, Inc... Nation, Inc. would substantially lessen competition in primary ticketing in the United States and...

  3. 31 CFR 585.215 - Conveyances and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking. 585.215 Section 585.215 Money and... and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking. (a) Except... § 585.201, but which are suspected of a violation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions No....

  4. Beyond counting cases: Public health impacts of national Paediatric Surveillance Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grenier, D.; Elliott, E.J.; Zurynski, Y.; Rodrigues Pereira, R.; Preece, M.; Lynn, R.; Kries, R. von; Zimmermann, H.; Dickson, N.P.; Virella, D.

    2007-01-01

    Paediatric Surveillance Units (PSUs) have been established in 14 countries and facilitate national, prospective, active surveillance for a range of conditions, with monthly reporting by child health specialists. The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1

  5. The United Nations contribution towards an international agreement on remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menter, M.

    1976-01-01

    The recommendations of the Legal Subcommittee of the United Nations committee for the Peaceful Uses of Space concerning satellite remote sensing are considered. Detailed studies of the Scientific and Technical Subcommittee of this committee are discussed with emphasis on three draft proposals submitted to it on remote sensing by (1) France and the USSR, (2) Latin American countries, and (3) the United States.

  6. Flora of the Zuurberg National Park. 1. Characterization of major vegetation units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B-E. van Wyk

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of major vegetation units or veld types in the Zuurberg National Park, situated on the eastern limits of the Fynbos Biome, is presented. Structural and floristic criteria are used to describe and map five basic units, namely Afromontane Forest, Subtropical Thicket, Mountain Fynbos, Grassy Fynbos and Grassland.

  7. United Nations Day (联合国成立纪念日)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亚萍

    2002-01-01

    As World War Ⅱ raged on with no end in sight, the United Nations was conceived as a way to help prevent future world wars. As early as 1943, government officials from the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union agreed to meet to discuss plans for an international peacekeeping organization.

  8. Science, Technology and Innovation for Achieving United Nations Millennium Development Goals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In September 2000, 147 heads of State and Government, and 189 nations intotal,committed themselves by year 2015 to roduce significantly global poverty and the related problems of illiteracy,hunger,discrimination against women, unsafe drinking water,and degraded environments and ecosystems,through the United Nations Millennium Declaration[A/RES/55/2].

  9. The United Kingdom National Healthy School Standard: A Framework for Strengthening the School Nurse Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklander, Molly K.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze the school nursing role within the National Healthy School Standard (NHSS) in the United Kingdom with a view toward clarifying and strengthening the role of school nurses globally. Within the National Healthy School Standard framework, school nurses serve an integral role in linking health and education…

  10. A National Audit of Smoking Cessation Services in Irish Maternity Units

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-06-01

    There is international consensus that smoking cessation in the first half of pregnancy improves foetal outcomes. We surveyed all 19 maternity units nationally about their antenatal smoking cessation practices. All units recorded details on maternal smoking at the first antenatal visit. Only one unit validated the self-reported smoking status of pregnant women using a carbon monoxide breath test. Twelve units (63%) recorded timing of smoking cessation. In all units women who reported smoking were given verbal cessation advice. This was supported by written advice in 12 units (63%), but only six units (32%) had all midwives trained to provide this advice. Only five units (26%) reported routinely revisiting smoking status later in pregnancy. Although smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, smoking cessation services are inadequate in the Irish maternity services and there are variations in practices between hospitals.

  11. National Assessment of Oil and Gas - Neogene System Assessment Units of the Gulf Coast (Provinces 047, 048 and 049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  12. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Raton Basin-Sierra Grande Uplift Province (041) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  13. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Gulf Coast Mesozoic Province, Haynesville Formation Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  14. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Gulf Coast Mesozoic Province, Bossier Formation Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  15. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Northern Alaska Gas Hydrate Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  16. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin Province (045) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  17. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project Devonian Marcellus Shale of the Appalachian Basin Province (067) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  18. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Permian Basin Province, Val Verde Basin, Canyon Sandstones Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  19. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Brookian Coalbed Gas Composite Total Petroleum System, Northern Alaska Province (001) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas - Upper Cretaceous Taylor and Navarro Group Assessment Units, Western Gulf Province (047)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  1. USGS National and Global Oil and Gas Assessment Project-Permian Basin Province, Midland Basin, Wolfcamp Shale Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  2. USGS National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch-Fort Worth Basin Province Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  3. National Survey of Interscholastic Sport Sponsorship in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID PIERCE

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to cuts in educational funding in the United States, interscholastic athletic administrators have turned to corporate sponsorship to fund athletic departments. While the academic literature in sport management has extensively covered corporate sponsorship at the intercollegiate and professional level, the purpose of this paper is to examine the prevalence, nature, and importance of sponsorship to high school athletics in the United States. This paper identified factors that predicted the use of sponsorship, the amount of revenue generated from sponsorship, who is responsible for selling sponsorship, motivators behind not soliciting sponsorship, and the extent to which fundraising and participation fees are utilized to supplement athletic department budgets. The most common form of alternative revenue generation is fund raising (87% of schools followed by, sponsorship (57% and participation fees (34%. One-third of schools reported using sponsorship in response to budget cuts, and over one-fourth solicited sponsorship to prevent charging participation fees. Results also indicated that while the majority of high school athletic departments solicited corporate sponsorship, administrators were cautious in the so-licitation of sponsorship as evidenced by the small dollar amounts involved and overall impact on the budget, reliance on game program advertisements and facility signage to activate sponsorships, and a lack of outsourcing to sport marketing firms to sell the sponsorships. There is clearly room for growth in the interscholastic sport sponsorship market.

  4. Striving for quality use of medicines: how effective is Australia's ban on direct-to-consumer prescription medicine advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sonja

    2009-02-01

    The potential for both positive and negative effects arising from direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription medicines challenges health policymakers to develop regulatory schemes which selectively capture the positive aspects of the practice. Australia has dealt with this quandary by banning the practice, while New Zealand and the United States permit it. However, in recent times pharmaceutical companies have been increasingly successful in introducing promotional materials into the Australian market. This article demonstrates that the Australian ban is consistent with striving for the major policy goal of quality use of medicines, thus providing the basis for arguing that solutions to strengthen the ban against the identified threats ought to be implemented. Quality use of medicines can be most effectively achieved via the combined effect of the strengthened ban and the mimicking of the limited positive aspects of direct-to-consumer advertising by government provision of non-promotional information to consumers.

  5. What is the Risk for Exposure to Vector-Borne Pathogens in United States National Parks?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, Lars; Wong, David; SHELUS, VICTORIA; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    United States national parks attract >275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. We assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal National Park Service documents and organisma...

  6. Visit of H.E. Mr. S. Marchi, Ambassador and Permanent Representative for Canada to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva and H.E. Mr. Ch. Westdal, Alternate Permanent Representative, Ambassador to the Office of the United Nations Permanent Representative and Ambassador to the United Nations for Disarmament for Canada

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2000-01-01

    Visit of H.E. Mr. S. Marchi, Ambassador and Permanent Representative for Canada to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva and H.E. Mr. Ch. Westdal, Alternate Permanent Representative, Ambassador to the Office of the United Nations Permanent Representative and Ambassador to the United Nations for Disarmament for Canada

  7. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  8. Communicating contentious health policy: lessons from Ireland's workplace smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Declan; Trench, Brian; Clancy, Luke

    2012-05-01

    The Irish workplace smoking ban has been described as possibly a tipping point for public health worldwide. This article presents the first analysis of the newspaper coverage of the ban over the duration of the policy formation process. It adds to previous studies by analyzing how health communication strategists engaged, over time, with a newsworthy topic, viewed as being culturally controversial. It analyzes a sample of media content (n = 1,154) and firsthand accounts from pro-ban campaigners and journalists (n = 10). The analysis shows that the ban was covered not primarily as a health issue: Economic, political, social, democratic, and technical aspects also received significant attention. It shows how coverage followed controversy and examines how pro-ban campaigners countered effectively the anti-ban communication efforts of influential social actors in the economic and political spheres. The analysis demonstrates that medical-political sources successfully defined the ban's issues as centrally concerned with public health.

  9. ILO to promote global asbestos ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Rory

    2006-01-01

    The International Labour Office (ILO) is to pursue a global ban on asbestos, the world's biggest ever industrial killer. The landmark decision came with the adoption of a resolution on 14 June 2006 at the ILO conference in Geneva and followed a high level union campaign. Rory O'Neill asked Jukka Takala, director of ILO's Safe Work program, what ILO will now do to help make the world asbestos-free.

  10. Should selecting saviour siblings be banned?

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Sally; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. \\ud \\ud This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour ...

  11. Will Banning Free Plastic Bags Reduce Pollution?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    No more free plastic bags from June 1,2008.That’s the message to Chinese shoppers after a government ban on all production,sales or use of plastic bags less than 0.025 mm thick comes into force from this date.Nowadays,supermarkets give out 1 billion plastic bags every day while other shops collectively use double that amount. Consumers will have to pay for plastic bags exceeding this thickness,if they want this option.

  12. Snatch technique of United States national level weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Paul N; Schilling, Brian K; Stone, Michael H; Kilgore, J Lon; Chiu, Loren Z F

    2014-03-01

    This study analyzed the top 3 successful snatch attempts by individual lifters in each weight class at a U.S. National Championship weightlifting meet. Two-dimensional (2-D) body position and characteristics of the lifts were compared via 2D video analysis in groups of lifters who displaced forward, showed no displacement, or displaced backward to receive the bar. No significant group differences (p > 0.05) were noted for body mass, bar mass, or hip angle. The rearward displacement group had a significantly greater horizontal distance between the shoulder and heel at the end of the pull (determined as the point where the bar ceases to accelerate vertically). Hip angles for the no displacement group had a small-to-moderate effect size (0.50) in comparison to the forward displacement group, but they only showed a small effect size (0.17) when compared with the rearward displacement group. The forward displacement group showed a small-to-moderate effect size compared with both the no displacement group (0.51) and the rearward displacement group (0.55) concerning the horizontal distance from the shoulder to the heel. These data seem to suggest that rearward displacement in the drop-under phase in the snatch is not detrimental to performance and actually seems to be a preferred technique in U.S. national level lifters. In addition to evidence that rearward displacement is exhibited in elite lifters and is coached globally, it seems this is the preferred technique in international competitions. This technique may be considered a viable variation of the snatch by coaches and athletes of all levels.

  13. Egyptian court overturns ban on genital mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-04

    The ban on female genital mutilation (FGM) performed by health professionals in Egypt was overturned by a June 24 [1997] ruling of Judge Abdul Aziz Hamade of a mid-level administrative court in Cairo. The judge determined that the ministerial decree, which had been implemented last July by Health Minister Ismail Sallam, inappropriately restricted the practice of doctors. According to news reports, the court cited research purporting to show that failure to perform FGM harmed children, as well as quotes from Mohammed, which FGM advocates said endorsed the procedure under Islamic law. Although the court overturned the ministerial decree, it did acknowledge that Parliament could outlaw the practice; however, human rights groups believe the practice is too popular for Parliament to do so. The suit against the ban had been filed by Sheik Youssef al-Badry, a conservative Islamic cleric, and Munir Fawzi, a Cairo gynecologist. In May, Egypt's highest court had recommended to the mid-level court that FGM should be legal. The decision does not effect a ban on the performance of surgery by those without a medical license, including barbers and midwives. It is estimated that 80% of girls in Egypt undergo FGM. Egypt's highest Sunni Moslem authority contests the endorsement of FGM under Islamic law.

  14. Transitional coordination in Sudan (2006-08): lessons from the United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, John N

    2013-07-01

    With the increase in internal conflicts following the end of the Cold War, the scale and scope of the United Nations' work in conflict and post-conflict environments grew markedly. As a result, the coordination of programming and policy in the transition from relief to recovery has been a central preoccupation of academics and practitioners alike. Intergovernmental bodies such as the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) have made these topics a subject of regular discussion, while some countries have altered their bureaucratic structures to respond more effectively in post-crisis settings, particularly in cases involving the deployment of national troops. The United Nations Resident Coordinator's Office in Sudan provides a model for other transitional countries and is a useful case study of the broader challenges of post-crisis programming. Effective coordination structures and planning/programming processes are identified as interdependent prerequisites for ensuring a successful transition from relief to recovery.

  15. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  16. Academe defends its role in Test Ban Treaty monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J.

    Recent jockeying for control of congressional seismic research funds has left the U.S. scientific research community uneasy about future cooperation with the federal government in the development of comprehensive nuclear test ban monitoring systems.Even though the language in a Defense authorization bill for fiscal year 1995, which cleared the Senate June 30, will likely be toned down in the House and Senate conference, the “aggressive” maneuvering that ensued to tentatively dispose the bulk of power over the interagency seismic network to the Defense Department, critics say, raises new questions about how science policy decisions are made in the United States and how committed the Congress and some federal agencies are to “reinventing” government under the Clinton-Gore plan. And for now, a hefty chunk of funding for academic seismic research is no longer a sure thing.

  17. The United States National Climate Assessment - Alaska Technical Regional Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Markon, Carl J.; Trainor, Sarah F.; Chapin, F. Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Alaskan landscape is changing, both in terms of effects of human activities as a consequence of increased population, social and economic development and their effects on the local and broad landscape; and those effects that accompany naturally occurring hazards such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Some of the most prevalent changes, however, are those resulting from a changing climate, with both near term and potential upcoming effects expected to continue into the future. Alaska's average annual statewide temperatures have increased by nearly 4°F from 1949 to 2005, with significant spatial variability due to the large latitudinal and longitudinal expanse of the State. Increases in mean annual temperature have been greatest in the interior region, and smallest in the State's southwest coastal regions. In general, however, trends point toward increases in both minimum temperatures, and in fewer extreme cold days. Trends in precipitation are somewhat similar to those in temperature, but with more variability. On the whole, Alaska saw a 10-percent increase in precipitation from 1949 to 2005, with the greatest increases recorded in winter. The National Climate Assessment has designated two well-established scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Nakicenovic and others, 2001) as a minimum set that technical and author teams considered as context in preparing portions of this assessment. These two scenarios are referred to as the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios, which assume either a continuation of recent trends in fossil fuel use (A2) or a vigorous global effort to reduce fossil fuel use (B1). Temperature increases from 4 to 22°F are predicted (to 2070-2099) depending on which emissions scenario (A2 or B1) is used with the least warming in southeast Alaska and the greatest in the northwest. Concomitant with temperature changes, by the end of the 21st century the growing season is expected

  18. The United Nations Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI): Activity Status in 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, M; Haubold, H J; Doi, T

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the Human Space Technology Initiative (HSTI) was launched by the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) within the United Nations Programme on Space Applications. The Initiative aims at promoting international cooperation in human spaceflight and space exploration-related activities, creating awareness among countries on the benefits of utilizing human space technology and its applications, and building capacity in microgravity education and research. HSTI has conducted a series of outreach activities and expert meetings bringing together participants from around the world. HSTI will also be implementing science and educational activities in relevant areas to raise the capacities, particularly in developing countries, in pursuit of the development goals of the United Nations, thus contributing to promoting the peaceful uses of outer space.

  19. Employees' job satisfaction after the introduction of a total smoke-ban in bars and restaurants in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Jørn; Hetland, Hilde; Mykletun, Reidar J; Aarø, Leif E; Matthiesen, Stig Berge

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate possible effects of a total smoke-ban in Norwegian bars and restaurants (introduced on June 1st 2004) on employees' job satisfaction. A national representative sample was randomly selected from the public registry of all companies in the hospitality business. A baseline survey was conducted in May 2004, follow-up measurements were performed in September/October 2004 and May 2005. Altogether, 1525 employees agreed to participate in the baseline survey. Among respondents at baseline, 894 (59.4%) remained in the sample at the first follow-up and 758 (49.7%) at the second follow-up. Analysis of variance for repeated measures revealed a significant three-way interaction between personal smoking behaviour, attitudes towards the ban before it was enacted and time from baseline to the second follow-up. A small decline in job satisfaction was found between baseline and the first follow-up among employees who were daily smokers and had a negative attitude towards the ban. There was, however, an increase in job satisfaction between the first and second follow-up among the others (non-smokers and smokers with a positive attitude towards the ban). While job satisfaction was higher among smokers with negative attitudes towards the ban than among other employees before the ban entered into force, the opposite was the case one year later. The work environments in bars and restaurants seem to have changed towards being more satisfactory for non-smokers and smokers with positive attitudes towards the ban before it was enacted. In contrast, a small but persisting worsening of job satisfaction was found among employees that were daily smokers and had a negative attitude towards the ban.

  20. Facilitators and Barriers of Smokers’ Compliance with Smoking Bans in Public Places: A Systematic Review of Quantitative and Qualitative Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS exposure is associated with an increased risk of many diseases. Many countries have ratified a national smoking ban in public places, but studies on factors related to smoking issues in public places post-ban are lacking. Aim: To identify facilitators and barriers that influenced smokers’ compliance with smoking bans in public places. Methods: Using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Web of Science database, we conducted a systematic search of English articles published before June 2015 on factors of smokers’ compliance with the smoking bans in public places. Results: A total of 390 references were identified, among which seventeen articles (twelve quantitative studies, two qualitative studies, three mixed-method studies were included in this review. These studies focused on four types of public places including recreational venues (n = 7, hospital (n = 5, school (n = 4, and workplace (n = 1. Factors at the  individual-, interpersonal-, and organizational-level were identified: at the individual level, nicotine dependence, insufficiency of tobacco-related knowledge, and the negative attitudes towards smoking bans were the most commonly identified barriers; at the interpersonal level, the smoking behaviors of people around, close relatives, and friends’ approval were the main barriers; and at the organizational level, the main barriers were inefficient implementation of the bans and the inconvenience of the designative smoking areas. Conclusions: This synthesis of the literature provided evidence of the identified barriers and facilitators of smokers’ compliance with the smoking bans. It will be beneficial for the policy-maker to consider interventions on multiple levels of factors to overcome the barriers and enhance smokers’ compliance with the smoking bans in public places.

  1. 36 CFR 1235.30 - How may records in the National Archives of the United States be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... National Archives of the United States be used? 1235.30 Section 1235.30 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES Administration of Transferred Records § 1235.30 How may records in the National Archives of the United States be used? (a) NARA will enforce restrictions that are consistent...

  2. [First cracks in smoking ban in catering establishments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørstad, Harald T; Berdowski, Jocelyn; Peters, Ron J G

    2009-01-01

    The first exemption to the comprehensive ban on smoking in public places in the Netherlands was made on 14 May 2009. The exemption was based on a technicality in the wording of the law, and could potentially lead to further exemptions to the smoking ban being made. The authors argue that focusing solely on the wording is a sidetrack in the main discussion. Furthermore, they argue that the smoking ban only bans smoking in public places and that the individual's right to perform actions potentially hazardous to their own health should not be limited, as long as it puts no-one else at risk. That is exactly what smoking in public places does. They also argue that other legislative measures comparable to the smoking ban are already in effect. In conclusion, the ban on smoking in public places does not remove the right to smoke, but serves to create a healthier social environment for everyone.

  3. From the universal to the particular through intercultural united nations crime prevention law and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redo Sławomir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on some legal and criminological counter aspects of the functionalist approach to public international law, by taking as the example United Nations crime prevention law. On this basis, the article’s author analyses the theoretical and practical meaning of cross-disciplinary concepts of the Universal and the Particular, known also in law and criminology as the General and the Specific. He emphasizes the coexistence of both concepts and their mutual reinforcement through the intercultural United Nations policy and action.

  4. Brundtland's World Health Organization: a test case for United Nations reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, A

    1999-01-01

    Gro Harlem Brundtland, who became Director General of the World Health Organization in July 1998, has created a small revolution at the WHO headquarters in Geneva. She is in the process of changing how WHO works, how it interacts with other parts of the United Nations system, and how it enlists ministries, whole governments, universities, and other private organizations to improve health in the world. Here, the Editor describes the reorganization, the new people and resources, and prospects for setting a precedent in United Nations reform.

  5. Brundtland's World Health Organization: A Test Case for United Nations Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Anthony

    1999-01-01

    Gro Harlem Brundtland, who became Director General of the World Health Organization in July 1998, has created a small revolution at the WHO headquarters in Geneva. She is in the process of changing how WHO works, how it interacts with other parts of the United Nations system, and how it enlists ministries, whole governments, universities, and other private organizations to improve health in the world. Here, the Editor describes the reorganization, the new people and resources, and prospects for setting a precedent in United Nations reform. Imagesp30-ap31-ap39-a PMID:9925169

  6. Addressing Child Poverty: How Does the United States Compare With Other Nations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeding, Timothy; Thévenot, Céline

    2016-04-01

    Poverty during childhood raises a number of policy challenges. The earliest years are critical in terms of future cognitive and emotional development and early health outcomes, and have long-lasting consequences on future health. In this article child poverty in the United States is compared with a set of other developed countries. To the surprise of few, results show that child poverty is high in the United States. But why is poverty so much higher in the United States than in other rich nations? Among child poverty drivers, household composition and parent's labor market participation matter a great deal. But these are not insurmountable problems. Many of these disadvantages can be overcome by appropriate public policies. For example, single mothers have a very high probability of poverty in the United States, but this is not the case in other countries where the provision of work support increases mothers' labor earnings and together with strong public cash support effectively reduces child poverty. In this article we focus on the role and design of public expenditure to understand the functioning of the different national systems and highlight ways for improvements to reduce child poverty in the United States. We compare relative child poverty in the United States with poverty in a set of selected countries. The takeaway is that the United States underinvests in its children and their families and in so doing this leads to high child poverty and poor health and educational outcomes. If a nation like the United States wants to decrease poverty and improve health and life chances for poor children, it must support parental employment and incomes, and invest in children's futures as do other similar nations with less child poverty.

  7. Updated United Nations Framework Classification for reserves and resources of extractive industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blaise, J.R.; Blystad, P.; Kelter, D.; Gabrielyants, G.; Heiberg, S.; Martinez, A.; Ross, J.G.; Slavov, S.; Subelj, A.; Young, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    The United Nations have studied how the oil and gas resource classification developed jointly by the SPE, the World Petroleum Congress (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) could be harmonized with the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) for Solid Fuel and Mineral Resources (1). The United Nations has continued to build on this and other works, with support from many relevant international organizations, with the objective of updating the UNFC to apply to the extractive industries. The result is the United Nations Framework Classification for Energy and Mineral Resources (2) that this paper will present. Reserves and resources are categorized with respect to three sets of criteria: ??? Economic and commercial viability ??? Field project status and feasibility ??? The level of geologic knowledge The field project status criteria are readily recognized as the ones highlighted in the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification system of 2000. The geologic criteria absorb the rich traditions that form the primary basis for the Russian classification system, and the ones used to delimit, in part, proved reserves. Economic and commercial criteria facilitate the use of the classification in general, and reflect the commercial considerations used to delimit proved reserves in particular. The classification system will help to develop a common understanding of reserves and resources for all the extractive industries and will assist: ??? International and national resources management to secure supplies; ??? Industries' management of business processes to achieve efficiency in exploration and production; and ??? An appropriate basis for documenting the value of reserves and resources in financial statements.

  8. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2017-01-01

    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...... the creation of alliances between researchers, politicians, administration and industry. Danish researchers interpreted the research in a way to suit their ‘mental maps’ and to support their initially set goal to reduce industrially produced trans fats. The process displayed a ‘co-production’ where research...

  9. Present and future nitrogen deposition to national parks in the United States: critical load exceedances

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, R. A.; D. J. Jacob; M. P. Sulprizio; Zhang, L.; C. D. Holmes; Schichtel, B. A.; Blett, T.; Porter, E.; Pardo, L. H.; Lynch, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    National parks in the United States are protected areas wherein the natural habitat is to be conserved for future generations. Deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) transported from areas of human activity (fuel combustion, agriculture) may affect these natural habitats if it exceeds an ecosystem-dependent critical load (CL). We quantify and interpret the deposition to Class I US national parks for present-day and future (2050) conditions using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport ...

  10. Deployment of United Nations Peace Keeping Forces: The Nature of Transportation and Review of Current Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-06

    the support by the western countries. For example, the Suez Canal is a vital sea lane for trade between the industrialized developed nations of the west...lines Authority: Security Council Size: Maximum 89 Contributing Countries: Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Mexico , New...other specific public tasks. 3. Royal Netherlands Air Force (a) Organizacion For peace-keeping operations of the United Nations are earmarked: (1

  11. Sexual Orientation and Substance Abuse Treatment Utilization in the United States: Results from a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Hughes, Tonda L.; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. Appro...

  12. Ireland: child rape case undermines abortion ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Abortion has been illegal in Ireland since 1861. This position was written into the national Constitution in 1963 and reconfirmed by referendum in 1983. Contraception is also illegal in the country. The pregnancy of a 14-year old adolescent due to an alleged rape, however, has caused many in Ireland to voice their support for abortion in limited circumstances. Approximately 5000 pregnant women go from Ireland to the United Kingdom annually for abortions. This 14-year old youth also planned to make the crossing, but was blocked from leaving by the Irish police and later by an injunction of the Attorney-General. The Irish Supreme Court upheld the injunction even though the young woman was reportedly contemplating suicide. A national outcry ensued with thousands of demonstrators marching in Dublin to demand the availability of information on abortion and that Irish women be allowed to travel whenever and wherever they desire. 66% of respondents to recent public opinion polls favor abortion in certain circumstances. Ultimately, the Irish Supreme Court reversed their stance to allow pregnant Irish women to travel internationally and gave suicidal Irish women the right to abortions. These decisions were made shortly within the time frame needed for the young lady in question to received a legal abortion in the United Kingdom.

  13. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-07-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.   Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.   United States, 2010.   A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.   Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.   Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would 'find a way to buy a menthol brand'. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.   Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Behave or Be Banned? Banning Orders and Selective Exclusion from Public Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuilenburg, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    By describing the practice of banning orders in the Netherlands, we inves- tigate how the involved parties are dealing with their new responsibilities. We describe the way the changes in security management exert further influence in the spatial environment of city centers, and we analyze what this

  15. Do Affirmative Action Bans Lower Minority College Enrollment and Attainment?: Evidence from Statewide Bans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Using institutional data on race-specific college enrollment and completion, I examine whether minority students were less likely to enroll in a four-year public college or receive a degree following a statewide affirmative action ban. As in previous studies, I find that black and Hispanic enrollment dropped at the top institutions; however, there…

  16. Complying with the smoking ban by students before and after introducing legislative intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Rzeźnicki

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: More and more countries introduce a total ban on smoking tobacco in public places. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of “The Act of 8 April 2010 on amendment of the act on protection of health against the consequences of consumption of tobacco and tobacco products and act on National Sanitary Inspectorate” and assess the frequency of complying with the smoking bans by the students of the Medical University of Lodz, Poland. Material and Methods: Between 2007–2011, at the Social Medicine Institute of the Medical University of Lodz, a study using random survey was carried out involving students who were starting their studies at the Health Department of the Medical University of Lodz. The analysis of the collected material showed that 1038 people reported being smokers at the time of the study. Among that group, 530 students were included in the study prior to, and 508 after the introduction of the amendment. In order to verify their compliance with the smoking ban, the respondents were asked whether they smoked only in designated areas or wherever they wanted to. Results: The ratio of people claiming they smoked anywhere they wanted to, disregarding the smoking ban, was 60% (N = 318 and after the amendment had been introduced, this ratio was 62.2% (N = 316, it increased by 2.2 percentage points. The observed difference was statistically irrelevant (Chi2 = 0.530, p > 0.05. Conclusions: The Act ”On amendment of the act on protection of health against the consequences of consumption of tobacco and tobacco products and Act on National Sanitary Inspectorate” in Poland did not result in the expected changes in the frequency of complying with the smoking ban by the 1st year students.

  17. Burqa Ban, Freedom of Religion and ‘Living Together’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the French 2010 law banning face-covering clothing in public spaces, the so-called burqa ban, did not violate the right to freedom of religion. Due to the ‘wide margin of appreciation’, the Court deemed the ban proportionate...... to the French state’s legitimate aim with the ban of preserving the conditions of ‘living together’. The paper analyses and provides an internal criticism of the Court’s justification for this judgement focusing on the aim of living together and the right to freedom of religion. The Court’s justification...

  18. Home smoking bans in an urbanizing community in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ming; Ding, Ding; Hovell, Melbourne F; Xia, Xiao; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua

    2009-08-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) is a major threat to public health worldwide. Previous studies have suggested that home smoking bans effectively reduce SHS exposure to nonsmokers in the home. In China, the world's largest tobacco producer and consumer, more than 540 million nonsmokers are exposed to SHS. However, to our knowledge, no published studies have examined the prevalence or correlates of home smoking bans in mainland China. This paper presents a quantitative study on home smoking bans in an urbanizing community in Shanghai, China. In 2006, a cross-sectional survey based on probability sampling (N=243) was conducted in Changqiao, an urbanizing community in Shanghai, China. Interviews were conducted in person in Mandarin Chinese by trained interviewers. The behavioral ecologic model, which emphasizes the multilevel environmental contingencies of behavior, was applied as the theoretical model. Data were analyzed in 2008 using logistic regression to explore correlates of complete home smoking bans. In this community, only 26% of respondents reported having complete home smoking bans. Smoking respondents and families were less likely to have complete smoking bans in the home. Home smoking bans were positively associated with the perceived density of smoke-free homes in the community, and with the perceived likelihood of community reprimand for smoking in the home. Home smoking bans were not widely adopted in this community in China. Future interventions should focus on the community and social environment in order to promote home smoking bans.

  19. Children's Rights and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhagen, Jeffrey

    2003-09-01

    Disparities and inequities characterize the health and social well-being of children in the United States and the United Kingdom. Children's rights and the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child are among the most powerful tools available to respond to and increase the relevance of pediatrics to contemporary disparities and determinants of child health outcomes. The articles of the convention establish the framework for a redefinition of what constitutes child health. The convention establishes a template for child advocacy, a matrix for establishing new approaches to health services, a curriculum for professional education, and a set of challenges for future child health outcomes and health systems research.

  20. Swiss Neutrality and Collective Security: The League of Nations and the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Sergio Stupan, Comment la Suisse a adhéré au Pacte de la Société des Nations (Lausanne: Université de Lausanne, 1943), 77ff. 40 In accepting these...resulted in a successful referendum.153 Active pacifist movements were established during World War I. According to Sergio Stupan, these movements...may be categorized into two groups. The first group, the Franco -Swiss Freemasons, the Swiss Peace Society, and the Socialists, had an “international

  1. Advising Host Nations and Host Nation Security Forces: The United States Military Advisory Efforts through 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    List MNC-I Multinational Corps-Iraq MNSTC-I Multi-National Security Transition Command-Iraq MOD Minister of Defense MoDA Minister of Defense...positive note, DOD implemented the Ministry of Defense Advisor ( MoDA ) program in 2010 to overcome the advisor shortcoming, for both the Minister of...Defense (MOD) and Minister of Interior (MOI). The DOD developed the MoDA program as a result of operational requirements in Afghanistan and Iraq. MOD

  2. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Policy and Strategy for Social Work Action in Child Welfare in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international…

  3. The Imposition of the Death Penalty on Mexican Nationals in the United States and the Cultural, Legal and Political Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Olivero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews death penalty perspectives from the United States, Mexico and international law. The United States practices the death penalty on not only its citizens, but those of other nations who commit capital crimes. Mexico is a death penalty abolitionist state that takes significant issue with the United States over executing Mexican nationals. The paper analyzes the cultural, legal and political conflict between the two countries surrounding the application of the death penalty on Mexican nationals.

  4. Children's National Identity in Multicultural Classrooms in Costa Rica and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Campos, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The development of healthy national identifications in children and youth has important implications for the construction of democratic citizenries in culturally and linguistically diverse societies. In this comparative qualitative case study of two multicultural public schools-one in the United States and one in Costa Rica--I examined children's…

  5. Squaring the circle? Collective and distributive effects of United Nations Security Council reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Hosli (Esther); R.F.I. Moody (Rebecca); B. O'Donovan (Bryan); S. Kaniovski (Serguei); A.C.H. Little (Anna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChanging the composition and voting system of the Security Council, in an effort to increase the institution's global legitimacy, is proving to be one of the most difficult hurdles to overcome for the global community of states represented in the United Nations (UN). This paper demonstra

  6. National Offshore Wind Strategy: Facilitating the Development of the Offshore Wind Industry in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maurer, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Feinberg, Luke [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Duerr, Alana [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peterson, Lauren [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Musial, Walt [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Beiter, Phillipp [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Golladay, Jennifer [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Stromberg, Jessica [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Johnson, Isis [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Boren, Doug [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States); Moore, Annette [Dept. of the Interior (DOI), Washington DC (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through its Wind Energy Technologies Office, and U.S. Department of the Interior, through its Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, have jointly produced this updated national strategy to facilitate the responsible development of offshore wind energy in the United States.

  7. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation

  8. Climate Change Education as an Integral Part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), through its Article 6, and the Convention's Kyoto Protocol, through its Article 10 (e), call on governments to develop and implement educational programmes on climate change and its effects. In particular, Article 6 of the Convention, which addresses the issue of climate…

  9. Eleanor Roosevelt, the United Nations and the Role of Radio Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luscombe, Anya

    Eleanor Roosevelt communicated with the public through a variety of media, both before, during and following her time in the White House. In 1946 she became part of the US delegation to the newly formed United Nations and she used newspaper columns, speeches and radio broadcasts to converse with

  10. Citizenship Education under Discourses of Nationalism, Globalization, and Cosmopolitanism: Illustrations from China and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camicia, Steven P.; Zhu, Juanjuan

    2011-01-01

    The authors, one from China and one from the United States, present a theoretical framework for understanding the discursive fields of citizenship education as composed, in large part, of the discourses of nationalism, globalization, and cosmopolitanism. The framework is illustrated by examples from citizenship education in China and the United…

  11. League of Our Own: Creating a Model United Nations Scrimmage Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Brian; Carter, Neal; Grove, Andrea K.

    2009-01-01

    Model United Nations (MUN) provides a great forum for students to learn about global issues and political processes, while also practicing communication and negotiation skills that will serve them well for a lifetime. Intercollegiate MUN conferences can be problematic, however, in terms of logistics, budgets, and student participation. In order to…

  12. Moral and Human Rights Education: The Contribution of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Print, Murray; Ugarte, Carolina; Naval, Concepcion; Mihr, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Moral education can take many forms. With the end of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (UNDHRE) (1995-2004), we critically review developments in human rights education (HRE) during those ten years in the context of moral education. We argue that, despite some modest successes, the decade lacked direction and a major impact and…

  13. Nothing but the Truth? The United Nations and the Millennium Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    The United Nations established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2000, with the target for achievement set at 2015. On the UN website a special section is devoted to the MDGs. In this article the website as it was presented in late 2013 is examined. Although the website was easy to negotiate, it was difficult to ascertain any…

  14. A Methodology for Building Faculty Support for the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloni, Michael J.; Smith, Shane D.; Napshin, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from extant literature indicates that faculty support is a critical driver for implementing the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), particularly for schools pursuing an advanced, cross-disciplinary level of sustainability integration. However, there is limited existing research offering insight into how…

  15. Windows to the Future: Can the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals Provide Opportunities for Nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David C; Ferguson, Stephanie L

    2016-01-01

    Windows of opportunity are wide open for the nursing profession to actively participate and engage in the policy implementation, evaluation, and achievement of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Nurses bring valuable perspectives as members of diverse governance structures and offer a range of solutions that can help governments pursue and achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and targets by 2030.

  16. The Case of Educational Peacebuilding inside the United Nations Universities: A Review and Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This article examines higher education for peace inside the United Nations (UN). It offers an overview and synthesis of core concepts, organizing frameworks and theoretical premises in the field of peace and conflict studies (PACS) higher education and in the UN universities in particular, as the field aspires toward transformative learning and…

  17. League of Our Own: Creating a Model United Nations Scrimmage Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Brian; Carter, Neal; Grove, Andrea K.

    2009-01-01

    Model United Nations (MUN) provides a great forum for students to learn about global issues and political processes, while also practicing communication and negotiation skills that will serve them well for a lifetime. Intercollegiate MUN conferences can be problematic, however, in terms of logistics, budgets, and student participation. In order to…

  18. Climate Change Education as an Integral Part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), through its Article 6, and the Convention's Kyoto Protocol, through its Article 10 (e), call on governments to develop and implement educational programmes on climate change and its effects. In particular, Article 6 of the Convention, which addresses the issue of climate…

  19. Cultivating Students' Critical Thinking Ability through Simplified Modal United Nations Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Cun

    2016-01-01

    Cultivating EFL learners' critical thinking ability is an urgent task for English teachers. To integrate the training of language skills and cultivation of critical thinking ability into one language course, the author designed an activity called simplified Modal United Nations conference, which is based on the revised Bloom's Taxonomy that…

  20. Eleanor Roosevelt, the United Nations and the Role of Radio Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luscombe, Anya

    2016-01-01

    Eleanor Roosevelt communicated with the public through a variety of media, both before, during and following her time in the White House. In 1946 she became part of the US delegation to the newly formed United Nations and she used newspaper columns, speeches and radio broadcasts to converse with cit

  1. Squaring the circle? Collective and distributive effects of United Nations Security Council reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J. Hosli (Esther); R.F.I. Moody (Rebecca); B. O'Donovan (Bryan); S. Kaniovski (Serguei); A.C.H. Little (Anna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractChanging the composition and voting system of the Security Council, in an effort to increase the institution's global legitimacy, is proving to be one of the most difficult hurdles to overcome for the global community of states represented in the United Nations (UN). This paper demonstra

  2. The United Nations University: The Concept, History, Structure, Financing, Objectives, Centres and Programmes. Guest Editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, J.

    2000-01-01

    The United Nations University (UNU) is an international academic organization which brings together leading international scholars to tackle world problems. This article describes for South African scholars, institutions, governments, and their agencies the importance of the work being undertaken by the UNU and encourages their participation. (EV)

  3. The Ark of Hope: Carrying the Earth Charter toward United Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Sally

    2002-01-01

    Thousands of people from 51 countries created the Earth Charter, which heralds humankind's respectful recognition of life's interdependence and our shared responsibility for the world's well-being. A Vermont group put it in an "Ark of Hope" and walked it through four states to the United Nations. Related art workshops held in Vermont schools and…

  4. A Methodology for Building Faculty Support for the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloni, Michael J.; Smith, Shane D.; Napshin, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from extant literature indicates that faculty support is a critical driver for implementing the United Nations Principles for Responsible Management Education (PRME), particularly for schools pursuing an advanced, cross-disciplinary level of sustainability integration. However, there is limited existing research offering insight into how…

  5. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (

  6. Union des Comores - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Initial National Communication on Climate Change.

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The studies made in the context of this Initial National Communication on Climate Change are based on the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 1 study on impacts and adaptation of Indian Ocean small island states. Changes in climate to be anticipated in Comoros by year 2050 are estimated to be a raise in mean annual air temperature to an average of 28°C, a change that represents a 1°C increase compared to the current situation. A sea level increase o...

  7. Drug policing assemblages: Repressive drug policies and the zonal banning of drug users in Denmark's club land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Thomas F; Houborg, Esben; Pedersen, Michael M

    2017-03-01

    Zonal banning of disorderly and intoxicated young people has moved to centre stage in debates about nightlife governance. Whereas existing research has primarily focused on the use of zonal banning orders to address problems of alcohol-related harm and disorder, this article highlights how zonal banning is also used to target drug-using clubbers in Denmark. Based on ethnographic observations and interviews with nightlife control agents in two Danish cities, the article aims to provide new insights into how the enforcement of national drug policies on drug-using clubbers, is shaped by plural nightlife policing complexes. The paper demonstrates how the policing of drug-using clubbers is a growing priority for both police and private security agents. The article also demonstrates how the enforcement of zonal bans on drug-using clubbers involves complex collaborative relations between police, venue owners and private security agents. The paper argues that a third-party policing perspective combined with assemblage theory is useful for highlighting how the enforcement of national drug policies and nightlife banning systems is shaped by their embeddedness in local 'drug policing assemblages' characterized by inter-agency relation-building, the creative combination of public and private (legal) resources and internal power struggles. It also provides evidence of how drug policing assemblages give rise to many different, and often surprising, forms of jurisdiction involving divergent performances of spaces-, objects- and authorities of governance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The United Nations and One Health: the International Health Regulations (2005) and global health security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, I; Miyagishima, K; Roth, C; de La Rocque, S

    2014-08-01

    The One Health approach encompasses multiple themes and can be understood from many different perspectives. This paper expresses the viewpoint of those in charge of responding to public health events of international concern and, in particular, to outbreaks of zoonotic disease. Several international organisations are involved in responding to such outbreaks, including the United Nations (UN) and its technical agencies; principally, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO); UN funds and programmes, such as the United Nations Development Programme, the World Food Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Children's Fund; the UN-linked multilateral banking system (the World Bank and regional development banks); and partner organisations, such as the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). All of these organisations have benefited from the experiences gained during zoonotic disease outbreaks over the last decade, developing common approaches and mechanisms to foster good governance, promote policies that cut across different sectors, target investment more effectively and strengthen global and national capacities for dealing with emerging crises. Coordination among the various UN agencies and creating partnerships with related organisations have helped to improve disease surveillance in all countries, enabling more efficient detection of disease outbreaks and a faster response, greater transparency and stakeholder engagement and improved public health. The need to build more robust national public human and animal health systems, which are based on good governance and comply with the International Health Regulations (2005) and the international standards set by the OIE, prompted FAO, WHO and the OIE to join forces with the World Bank, to provide practical tools to help countries manage their zoonotic disease risks and develop adequate resources to prevent and control disease

  9. Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men from Heavy Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161256.html Smoking Bans May Keep Young Men From Heavy Smoking Study found lower rates ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking bans may help reduce smoking among young American men, a new study finds. Researchers examined ...

  10. Relationships between University Professors and Students: Should They Be Banned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Neil

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the question of whether universities and colleges should attempt to ban all student-faculty relationships, as many have tried to do. It argues that, because adults have a fundamental right to engage in intimate relationships without interference, supporters of relationship bans must meet a high standard in defending them. But…

  11. 14 CFR 252.3 - Smoking ban: air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: air carriers. 252.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.3 Smoking ban: air carriers. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flights....

  12. 14 CFR 252.5 - Smoking ban: foreign air carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. 252.5... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.5 Smoking ban: foreign air carriers. (a) Foreign air carriers shall prohibit smoking on all scheduled passenger flight segments: (1) Between...

  13. 16 CFR 1303.4 - Banned hazardous products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banned hazardous products. 1303.4 Section 1303.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS... exempted by § 1303.3, are banned hazardous products (see definitions in § 1303.2): (a) Paint and...

  14. MEDICAL BRIGADES, GLOBAL HEALTH AND THE UNITED NATIONS: MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS AND DEVELOPING NATIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Mark T; Martin, Edward J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, recommendations have been made that global health initiatives change their focus from disease specific intervention to bolstering health systems and general health care. The aim of this is to ultimately increase access to primary care, clean water, education, hygiene, and prevent malnutrition, among other goals. While many major global health initiatives have followed this trend, so have many smaller scale programs including short-term medical brigades. Despite a trending increase in the number of privately run short-term medical brigades, until recently, little research has been done on the potential positive and negative effects that can arise from such programs. Now, guidelines have been initiated to create well-structured programs. When followed, these smaller scale initiatives can be successful in helping increase access to healthcare, sustainably strengthening communities in terms of general health. While recent legislation in the United States has addressed domestic policy in the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA), the ACA should also consider some of the basic "sustainable" policies being implemented by international health care providers.

  15. Should selecting saviour siblings be banned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S; Wilkinson, S

    2004-12-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour siblings would be treated as commodities; (b) a slippery slope argument, which suggests that this practice will lead to the creation of so-called "designer babies"; and (c) a child welfare argument, according to which saviour siblings will be physically and/or psychologically harmed.

  16. Documentation for the 2008 Update of the United States National Seismic Hazard Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Mark D.; Frankel, Arthur D.; Harmsen, Stephen C.; Mueller, Charles S.; Haller, Kathleen M.; Wheeler, Russell L.; Wesson, Robert L.; Zeng, Yuehua; Boyd, Oliver S.; Perkins, David M.; Luco, Nicolas; Field, Edward H.; Wills, Chris J.; Rukstales, Kenneth S.

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Seismic Hazard Maps display earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across the United States and are applied in seismic provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessments, and other public policy. This update of the maps incorporates new findings on earthquake ground shaking, faults, seismicity, and geodesy. The resulting maps are derived from seismic hazard curves calculated on a grid of sites across the United States that describe the frequency of exceeding a set of ground motions. The USGS National Seismic Hazard Mapping Project developed these maps by incorporating information on potential earthquakes and associated ground shaking obtained from interaction in science and engineering workshops involving hundreds of participants, review by several science organizations and State surveys, and advice from two expert panels. The National Seismic Hazard Maps represent our assessment of the 'best available science' in earthquake hazards estimation for the United States (maps of Alaska and Hawaii as well as further information on hazard across the United States are available on our Web site at http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/).

  17. To ban or not to ban: direct-to-consumer advertising and human rights analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Wellington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues surrounding Direct-To-Consumer Advertising of pharmaceuticals are ripe for scrutiny through the lens of Human Rights analysis. Among the human rights most decisively engaged by DTCA is the right to autonomy in health-related decision making, which in turn incorporates right of access to health-related information. The latter incorporates, in part, right of access to reliable and beneficial information through the avenues of commercial speech among others. Another crucial human right is the right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence. The most commonly invoked policy options in the context of DTCA are either an outright ban or strengthening regulatory oversight in combination with voluntary guidelines. Banning Direct-To-Consumer Advertising risks being both over inclusive and under inclusive as a policy option. A wholesale ban risks being over inclusive in that it could deprive consumers of information about medications with a positive benefit-risk profile, ones that could enhance their quality of health and well being. Thus it risks being overly paternalistic. Banning DTCA, by itself, is under inclusive in that it is insufficient to address the ways that unadvertised drugs can pose significant risks to consumers. Other policy measures would be most optimal to deal with the very serious deficits in the processes by which prescription drugs undergo clinical trials, and garner regulatory approval prior to their promotion in the marketplace. A more finely tuned approach to regulatory oversight is endorsed, one involving a proactive and precautionary approach reliant upon prior approval. Such an approach could help to address the very serious concerns about potential infringements of the human right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence.

  18. Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in National Parks: Values for the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Leslie A.; Huber, Christopher; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Koontz, Lynne

    2015-01-01

    Lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) provide a wide range of beneficial services to the American public. This study quantifies the ecosystem service value of carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems within NPS units in the conterminous United States for which data were available. Combining annual net carbon balance data with spatially explicit NPS land unit boundaries and social cost of carbon estimates, this study calculates the net metric tons of carbon dioxide sequestered annually by park unit under baseline conditions, as well as the associated economic value to society. Results show that, in aggregate, NPS lands in the conterminous United States are a net carbon sink, sequestering more than 14.8 million metric tons of carbon dioxide annually. The associated societal value of this service is estimated at approximately $582.5 million per year. While this analysis provides a broad overview of the annual value of carbon sequestration on NPS lands averaged over a five year baseline period, it should be noted that carbon fluxes fluctuate from year to year, and there can be considerable variation in net carbon balance and its associated value within a given park unit. Future research could look in-depth at the spatial heterogeneity of carbon flux within specific NPS land units.

  19. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emissions Units and Sampling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Brown, Jason H.; Walker, Brian A.

    2012-04-01

    Battelle–Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development (R&D) laboratories in Richland, WA, including those associated with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Hanford Site and PNNL Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all emission units that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually by PNNL staff members. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission unit system performance, operation, and design information. For sampled systems, a description of the buildings, exhaust units, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered emission unit. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided. Deregistered emission unit details are provided as necessary for up to 5 years post closure.

  20. 4. national communication to the United Nation framework convention on the climatic change; 4. communication nationale a la convention cadre des Nations Unies sur les changements climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    France, as the other involved participants, has to periodically present its actions in favor of the climatic change fight. This fourth national communication follows a plan defined by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nation Framework Convention on the Climatic Change. This report follows the third national convention published on 2001. It presents in nine chapters the actions realized to reduce and stop the greenhouse effect gases emissions and limit the impacts on the environment and public health: an analytical abstract, the conditions specific to the country, the inventory, the policies and measures, the projections and global effects of the policies and measures, the evaluation of the vulnerability and the climatic changes consequences and the adapted measures, the financial resources and the technology transfer, the research programs, the education formation and awareness of the public. (A.L.B.)

  1. What is the risk for exposure to vector-borne pathogens in United States national parks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Wong, David; Shelus, Victoria; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2013-03-01

    United States national parks attract > 275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. We assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal National Park Service documents and organismal databases. We conclude that, because of lack of systematic surveillance for vector-borne pathogens in national parks, the risk of pathogen exposure for staff and visitors is unclear. Existing data for vectors within national parks were not based on systematic collections and rarely include evaluation for pathogen infection. Extrapolation of human-based surveillance data from neighboring communities likely provides inaccurate estimates for national parks because landscape differences impact transmission of vector-borne pathogens and human-vector contact rates likely differ inside versus outside the parks because of differences in activities or behaviors. Vector-based pathogen surveillance holds promise to define when and where within national parks the risk of exposure to infected vectors is elevated. A pilot effort, including 5-10 strategic national parks, would greatly improve our understanding of the scope and magnitude of vector-borne pathogen transmission in these high-use public settings. Such efforts also will support messaging to promote personal protection measures and inform park visitors and staff of their responsibility for personal protection, which the National Park Service preservation mission dictates as the core strategy to reduce exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks.

  2. North American networking activities on non-wood forest products by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul. Vantomme

    2001-01-01

    FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, is the largest autonomous agency within the United Nations system dealing with agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and related disciplines. FAO provides a neutral forum for policy dialogue, a source of information and knowledge, technical assistance, and advice to 180 member countries. Technical...

  3. Nutrition Education in the Context of the United Nations Standing Committee on Nutrition Activities and Publications, 1985-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engesveen, Kaia; Shrimpton, Roger

    2007-01-01

    The United Nations System Standing Committee on Nutrition (SCN) is a forum where United Nations (UN) agencies, bilateral partners, and nongovernmental agencies meet to harmonize and coordinate nutrition policy and programs. This report reviews the positions taken regarding nutrition education throughout SCN publications, annual sessions, and…

  4. National Trends in Public Opinion on LGBT Rights in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This report analyzes over 325 national public opinion surveys dating back to June 1977 that ask the public their opinions on LGBT rights and finds that national trends indicate a rapid and significant increase over the last three decades in public support for the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in the United States. On average, public support for marriage equality has more than doubled since the early 2000s, public support for adoption rights for same-sex couples has a...

  5. National Trends in Public Opinion on LGBT Rights in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Flores, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This report analyzes over 325 national public opinion surveys dating back to June 1977 that ask the public their opinions on LGBT rights and finds that national trends indicate a rapid and significant increase over the last three decades in public support for the rights of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people in the United States. On average, public support for marriage equality has more than doubled since the early 2000s, public support for adoption rights for same-sex couples has a...

  6. Are Regional Organizations the 'Parties' in the United Nations General Assembly? Comments on a Misconception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmester, Nicolas; Jankowski, Michael

    In the field of international relations, regional organizations (ROs) are not only assumed to play an important role in the regional context, but also on the international level. A growing number of studies analyze ROs’ voting behavior in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in a similar way...... to the analyses of parties in national parliaments. In this paper, we reflect on the question whether ROs can be treated as ‘political party’-like entities. First, based on literature on political parties and legislative voting, we develop two criteria to evaluate ROs in the UNGA. Second, we analyze UNGA voting...

  7. Generalized boundaries of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 2001-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a GENERALIZED version of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit...

  8. Generalized boundaries of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Study-Unit Investigations in the conterminous United States 1991-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a GENERALIZED version of the boundaries and codes used for the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program Study-Unit...

  9. Innovative, precise, and descriptive terms for group crisis support services: a United Nations initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jeffrey T

    2007-01-01

    Terminology borrowed from other disciplines for use in crisis intervention is inadvertently open to misinterpretation and misrepresentation. Misconceptions about terminology are most common when terms are transmitted across social, cultural, national, language, and attitudinal boundaries. Critical Incident Stress Management, which is a subset of crisis intervention, encountered that exact problem with three of its terms: demobilization, defusing, and Critical Incident Stress Debriefing. Several flawed studies based on misinterpretations of the meaning of these terms have appeared in the literature. The studies may have stimulated some practitioners of crisis intervention to incorrectly conclude that those interventions were ineffective. Professionals within the Critical Incident Stress Management Unit of the Department of Safety and Security of the United Nations suggested alternative and augmented terminology to reduce the potential for further misinterpretations of Critical Incident Stress Management procedures.

  10. Cross-National Investigation of Health Indicators among Sexual Minorities in Norway and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-national study of young adult sexual minorities was conducted in order to explore the associations between sexual orientation and measures of depression, suicidality, and substance use. Two nationally representative data sets were explored from the United States (N = 14,335 and Norway (N = 2423. Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced multiple health disparities (depression, suicidality, and substance use compared to their heterosexual counterparts. We found similar patterns of depression, suicidality, and substance use for sexual minorities in both the United States and Norway. The highest odds of substance use were among heterosexual-identified Norwegian youth who reported same-sex sexual activity, and the highest odds of suicidality were found for bisexual young adults in Norway. These findings have implications for how we consider culture and social policy as barriers and/or opportunities for sexual minorities.

  11. The United Nations and Disarmament. An analysis of the Spanish positions in the UN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez Cano

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1953 the Franco regime, internationally isolated, signed the Defence and Economic Assistance Treaties with the USA which allowed it to have access to the organs of the United Nations system. Logically, the implicit subordination in defence aspects brought about a complete misunderstanding of the disarmament issues.The democratic transition, which in the foreign and defence fields lasted until 1988, meant a change in the sense of greater participation through progressive incorporation in various western structures : the EC, NATO, WEU...In this new context, this study analyses the Spanish positions with respect to disarmament in the field of the United Nations, from both its own perspective and that of its adequacy with relation to the conduct of its allies.

  12. Briefing on meetings at & reports by the 65th & 66th United Nations General Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Gregorio, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    Briefing on meetings at & reports by the 65th & 66th United Nations General Assembly No relevant differences are observed or identified after perusal of the space-related resolutions and documents issued by the UN System between 2010 and 2011. The most remarkable statements remain virtually unchanged in this time period. For instance, the UN GA recognizes the common interest of all mankind in the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, and reaffirms that these shall be ca...

  13. The 70th Anniversary of the Creation of the United Nations: Giving Peace a Chance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christian Guillermet-Fernández; David Fernández Puyana

    2015-01-01

    .... Today, in the context of the 70th Anniversary of the creation of the United Nations, the Human Rights Council should raise the voice of victims to strongly condemn war and to openly reiterate our inalienable right to live in a context in which war and conflict are progressively eliminated on earth through the promotion of mutual understanding, tolerance, respect for human rights and peaceful relationships.

  14. Soil Patterns Associated with the Major Geological Units of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Venter

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The dominant soil types of the Kruger National Park and their interrelationships with parent material, topography and climate are discussed. The geogenetic and topogenetic nature of the soils are manifested in the strong correlations between recurrent soil patterns, major geological units and terrain morphology. The soils are categorised into seven major classes on the basis of the parent material from which they developed. General soil patterns within the major classes are discussed.

  15. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 1, Northwest United States: NLCD01_1

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  16. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 4, Southeast United States: NLCD01_4

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  17. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 3, Southwest United States: NLCD01_3

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg).The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  18. National Land Cover Database 2001 (NLCD01) Tile 2, Northeast United States: NLCD01_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMotte, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This 30-meter data set represents land use and land cover for the conterminous United States for the 2001 time period. The data have been arranged into four tiles to facilitate timely display and manipulation within a Geographic Information System (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-partition.jpg). The National Land Cover Data Set for 2001 was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium. The MRLC Consortium is a partnership of Federal agencies (http://www.mrlc.gov), consisting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), and the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). One of the primary goals of the project is to generate a current, consistent, seamless, and accurate National Land Cover Database (NLCD) circa 2001 for the United States at medium spatial resolution. For a detailed definition and discussion on MRLC and the NLCD 2001 products, refer to Homer and others (2004), (see: http://www.mrlc.gov/mrlc2k.asp). The NLCD 2001 was created by partitioning the United States into mapping zones. A total of 68 mapping zones (see http://water.usgs.gov/GIS/browse/nlcd01-mappingzones.jpg), were delineated within the conterminous United States based on ecoregion and geographical characteristics, edge-matching features, and the size requirement of Landsat mosaics. Mapping zones encompass the whole or parts of several states. Questions about the NLCD mapping zones can be directed to the NLCD 2001 Land Cover Mapping Team at the USGS/EROS, Sioux Falls, SD (605) 594-6151 or mrlc@usgs.gov.

  19. National and Institutional Policies on Open Access in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta Mestrovic Deyrup; Martha Fallahay Loesch

    2005-01-01

    National and institutional policies on open access are not yet fully established in the United States because of the manner in which the open access movement has evolved. In this report, the authors illustrate how the open access movement has evolved within each community libraries, universities, publishing companies, government agencies, the professoriate, public interest groups, and the U.S. Congress--and note what trends now are beginning to emerge.

  20. The legal design of the international and European Union ban on tributyltin antifouling paint: direct and indirect effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipperth, Lena

    2009-02-01

    The Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships (AFS Convention), which was adopted in 2001 and will come into force in September 2008, bans the use of TBT (tributyltin) antifouling paint on ships. The EU (European Union) effectively implemented the Convention on 1 January 2008 by enforcing a similar ban. Several states have national restrictions and bans in place. The regulation on TBT antifouling paint aims at checking the risk of adverse effects on marine ecosystems. The legal and political situation is, however, characterized by complex relations between different layers of legislation, the use of several different legal techniques, and levels of ambition. The international and EU bans thereby cause some indirect effects, which are only partly included in what is seen as 'the TBT issue' and so only partly assessed in the legal process of the ban. This article discusses the expediency of the existing legislation and legal strategies aimed at reducing the negative environmental effects of TBT-like toxins in marine ecosystems and indirect effects of such actions. It considers the adequacy and limits of current regulatory approaches for handling complex environmental problems, such as TBT in antifouling paint.

  1. Tobacco smoke exposure in nonsmoking hospitality workers before and after a state smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joni A; Schillo, Barbara A; Moilanen, Molly M; Lindgren, Bruce R; Murphy, Sharon; Carmella, Steven; Hecht, Stephen S; Hatsukami, Dorothy K

    2010-04-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure is estimated to account for 3,000 cancer deaths per year. Although several countries and states in the United States have passed comprehensive smoke-free laws to protect all employees, a significant number of workers are still not protected. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of passing a comprehensive smoking ban that included bars and restaurants on biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure. The urines of nonsmoking employees (n = 24) of bars and restaurants that allowed smoking before the smoke-free law were analyzed before and after the law was passed in Minnesota. The results showed significant reductions in both total cotinine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (free plus glucuronidated) after the ban was instituted. These results provide further support for the importance of protecting employees working in all venues.

  2. Direct democracy and minority rights: same-sex marriage bans in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Daniel C

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. A common critique of direct democracy posits that minority rights are endangered by citizen legislative institutions. By allowing citizens to directly create public policy, these institutions avoid the filtering mechanisms of representative democracy that provide a check on the power of the majority. Empirical research, however, has produced conflicting results that leave the question of direct democracy's effect on minority rights open to debate. This article seeks to empirically test this critique using a comparative, dynamic approach.Methods. I examine the diffusion of same-sex marriage bans in the United States using event-history analysis, comparing direct-democracy states to non-direct-democracy states.Results. The results show that direct-democracy states are significantly more likely than other states to adopt same-sex marriage bans.Conclusion. The findings support the majoritarian critique of direct democracy, suggesting that the rights of minority groups are at relatively higher risk under systems with direct democracy.

  3. United Nations system efforts to support the response to AIDS in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; Lin; HE; Joel; REHNSTROM

    2005-01-01

    In the last two years, we have seen a remarkable intensification in the response to AIDS in China. A number of organizations have joined and contributed to the efforts of the Chinese government in responding the AIDS epidemic in China. This article specifically describes the role of the United Nations in supporting and strengthening those responses.Achievements of the United Nations (UN) highlighted in the article include: strengthened leadership and political commitment to respond to AIDS; improved HIV/AIDS surveillance and information; expanded prevention efforts; improved treatment, care and support to people living with HIV and increased resources for AIDS programs. Additional roles of e., one national plan on AIDS; one national coordinating authority for AIDS; and one monitoring and evaluation system for AIDS. In addition, the UN system is expected to strengthen alignment and harmonization of activities of all international organizations and improved accountability and oversight. Remaining challenges identified include increasing awareness of AIDS and reducing stigma and discrimination; reducing vulnerability and risk behaviour among specific groups;providing improved treatment, care and support for people living with HIV; promoting stronger engagement by civil society, and; addressing the gender dimensions of AIDS.

  4. The present status of remote sensing in the United Nations, 8 April 1977

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, E.

    1977-01-01

    Problems arising from remote sensing of the earth by satellites have been the subject of indepth research and analysis by the United Nations. Every aspect of this multidisciplinary subject has been explored in more than 100 reports and papers published as UN documents dealing with all the implications of remote sensing: scientific, technological, institutional, political, economic, cultural, and legal. National, regional and international situations have been analyzed, and the General Assembly has passed resolutions requesting that the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space give a high priority to remote sensing. The identification and analysis of issues has been going on for several years, the objective being international agreement on general principles to guide nations in the conduct of their remote sensing activities.

  5. Creating XML/PHP Interface for BAN Interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Vasileios; Katzis, Konstantinos; Despotou, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in medical and electronic technologies have introduced the use of Body Area Networks as a part of e-health, for constant and accurate monitoring of patients and the transmission as well as processing of the data to develop a holistic Electronic Health Record. The rising global population, different BAN manufacturers and a variety of medical systems pose the issue of interoperability between BANs and systems as well as the proper way to propagate medical data in an organized and efficient manner. In this paper, we describe BANs and propose the use of certain web technologies to address this issue.

  6. National Lexicography Units: Past, Present, Future Nasionale leksikografiese eenhede: Verlede, hede, toekoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the national dictionary offices of the previous bilingual dispensation, the eleven official national dictionary offices in the present multilingual dispensation, and the future prospects of these offices. It discusses the past dispensation in terms of the need and reasons for the establishment of national dictionary offices, i.e. national lexicography units (NLUs. Attention is given to the prescripts of the National Lexicography Units Bill (1996 for the establishment of NLUs, as well as the transfer of these units from the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology to the Pan South African Language Board. The restructuring of dictionary units that existed prior to the multilingual dispensation is considered, together with the establishment of new dictionary units for the official African languages. The present situation is dealt with by describing the status quo at the NLUs in terms of housing, administration, funding, management, training, computerisation, cooperation, production and the like. The article concludes with some questions and reservations about the future of the NLUs, followed by a number of apposite recommendations.Hierdie artikel handel oor die nasionale woordeboekkantore tydens die voormalige tweetalige bedeling, die huidige meertalige bedeling waarin kantore vir die elf amptelike nasionale woordeboeke funksioneer, en die toekoms van hierdie kantore. Aspekte van die vorige bedeling word bespreek ten opsigte van die behoefte aan en redes vir die stigting van nasionale woordeboekkantore oftewel nasionale leksikografiese eenhede (NLEe. Die soeklig val op voorskrifte van die wetsontwerp oor nasionale leksikografiese eenhede (1996 vir die stigting van sodanige eenhede, sowel as op hul oordrag van die Departement van Kuns, Kultuur, Wetenskap en Tegnologie na die Pan-Suid-Afrikaanse Taalraad. Verder fokus die artikel op die herstrukturering van daardie woordeboekeenhede wat voor die meertalige bedeling

  7. Garmin GPS waypoints delineating low-altitude transects over the Arctic Network of national park units and Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, July 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — GPS waypoints delineating the flight paths for low altitude transects from a Garmin GPS unit. Transects were conducted from small aircraft over the National Park...

  8. The European Court of Human Rights: Implications for United States National Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-04

    to the Geneva Convention) to climate change ( Kyoto Protocols ) to arms control (Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty), including those related to...instruments that it perceives will encroach on its sovereignty. There are a wide variety of such treaties, from human rights (Additional Protocols I & II...Rights.” 5 In 1998, with the adoption of Protocol No. 11, individuals were allowed to petition the court directly, but only after exhausting their

  9. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Ayat, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walter, W. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-23

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.

  10. [Persistent amphetamine consumption by truck drivers in São Paulo State, Brazil, despite the ban on production, prescription, and use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lúcio Garcia de; Endo, Ligia Goes; Sinagawa, Daniele Mayumi; Yonamine, Maurício; Munoz, Daniel Romero; Leyton, Vilma

    2013-09-01

    Amphetamine use by truck drivers for occupational purposes is widely known. The production and consumption of amphetamines was banned by the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) in October 2011. This study analyzes persistent amphetamine use by truck drivers since the ban was implemented. A convenience sample of 427 truck drivers was taken along highways in São Paulo State in 2012. Participants were asked to answer a structured questionnaire and provide a urine sample to screen for recent amphetamine consumption through toxicological analysis. Among the interviewed drivers, 7% had used some illicit drug recently and 2.7% had used amphetamines. Amphetamines are still consumed by truck drivers despite the risks and the recent ban. The authorities should thus monitor the possession and use of amphetamines by drivers in order to effectively enforce the ban.

  11. The national cost of asthma among school-aged children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick W; Ghushchyan, Vahram; Navaratnam, Prakash; Friedman, Howard S; Kavati, Abhishek; Ortiz, Benjamin; Lanier, Bob

    2017-09-01

    Recent research has quantified the national health care resource use (HCRU) and health care expenditure (HCE) burden associated with adult asthma; however, estimates specific to school-aged children are more than 2 decades old. To estimate the national HCRU and HCEs attributable to asthma among school-aged children in the United States. This was a cross-sectional retrospective analysis of school-aged children (aged 6-17 years) in the nationally representative 2007-2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. All-cause HCRU and HCEs of school-aged children with asthma were compared with school-aged children without asthma, controlling for sociodemographics and comorbidities. HCRU encounters included emergency department (ED) and outpatient visits, hospitalizations, and prescriptions. Expenditures included total, medical, ED, inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy. Negative binomial regression analyses were used for HCRU and Heckman selection with logarithmic transformation, and smearing retransformation was used for HCEs. There were 44,320 school-aged children of whom 5,890 had asthma. Children with asthma incurred a higher rate of all-cause annual ED visits (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.5; P children without asthma. They incurred US$847 (2015 dollars) more annually in all-cause expenditures (P asthma for school-aged children in the United States was US$5.92 billion (2015 dollars). Childhood asthma continues to represent a prevalent and significant clinical and economic burden in the United States. More aggressive treatment and asthma management programs are needed to address this national financial and resource burden. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sistem Panel Kinerja Untuk Program Studi Sarjana Berbasis BAN PT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Prasetyo Utomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study program need to do monitoring and continuously measurements of performance to ensure achievement the goals set of its. The process of performance requires monitoring data and information was taken from all parts of the organization. The purpose of this research is to build a panel system performance (performance dashboard that can be used to help measure the performance of undergraduate degree courses based on BAN PT in order of quality assurance in higher education. The results of performance monitoring will be delivered to the parties concerned, efficiently and effectively. Panel System (Dashboard is a tool to present information at a glance. Dashboard inform using Key Performance Indicators (KPI an effective presentation media. KPIs are used in the construction panel system performance of these courses entirely using the instruments of the National Accreditation of Higher Education. The methodology can be applied either on a case study of the development of dashboards to support the efforts of quality assurance courses at the Stikubank University Semarang. This study emphasizes how the application is to provide easy information to Head of study program, Dean of faculty, Rector and Vice Rector of university to the achievement of the quality of undergraduate study program.   Keywords: Performance Dashboard; Key Performance Indicators; Accreditation.

  13. Hydrogeologic Assessment of the East Bear Creek Unit, San LuisNational Wildlife Refuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Nigel W.T.

    2007-07-15

    San Luis National Wildlife Refuge Complex to meetReclamation s obligations for Level 4 water supply under the CentralValley Project Improvement Act. Hydrogeological assessment of the EastBear Creek Unit of the San Luis National Wildlife Refuge was conductedusing a combination of field investigations and a survey of availableliterature from past US Geological Survey Reports and reports by localgeological consultants. Conservative safe yield estimates made using theavailable data show that the East Bear Creek Unit may have sufficientgroundwater resources in the shallow groundwater aquifer to meet aboutbetween 25 percent and 52 percent of its current Level II and between 17percent and 35 percent of its level IV water supply needs. The rate ofsurface and lateral recharge to the Unit and the design of the well fieldand the layout and capacity of pumped wells will decide both thepercentage of annual needs that the shallow aquifer can supply andwhether this yield is sustainable without affecting long-term aquiferquality. In order to further investigate the merits of pumping the nearsurface aquifer, which appears to have reasonable water quality for usewithin the East Bear Creek Unit -- monitoring of the potential sources ofaquifer recharge and the installation of a pilot shallow well would bewarranted. Simple monitoring stations could be installed both upstreamand downstream of both the San Joaquin River and Bear Creek and beinstrumented to measureriver stage, flow and electrical conductivity.Ideally this would be done in conjunction with a shallow pilot well,pumped to supply a portion of the Unit's needs for the wetland inundationperiod.

  14. Levi Strauss and H&M Announce Ban on Sandblasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a commitment to the health and safety of workers across the apparel industry, Levi Strauss & Co. and Hennes & Mauritz AB (H&M) announced plans to implement a global ban on sandblasting in all of their future product

  15. The Origin of the United Nations "Global Counter-Terrorism System"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Messmer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo explica los orígenes de sistema global antiterrorista de las Naciones Unidas. Nosotros argüimos que tres factores determinan las características de un sistema descentralizado y de estados centralizados. El primero es la reacción de la ONU contra los ataques terroristas del 11 de septiembre de 2001. El segundo factor es la cada vez mayor relevancia de las redes de gobierno transnacional. La tercera fuerza son los intereses y los asuntos del Consejo de Seguridad permanente, que últimamente determina la arquitectura del sistema.9/11, United Nations, Security Council, transnacional governance networks,counter-terrorism system.___________________________ABSTRACT:This article explains the origins of the United Nations’ global counter-terrorism system. We argue that three factors shaped the system’s decentralized and state-centered characteristics. The first is the UN’s reactions to terrorism prior to the attacks of 11 September 2001. The second factor is the growing relevance of transnational governance networks. The third force is the interests and concerns of the Security Council’s permanent representative interests, which ultimately shaped the system’s architecture.Keywords: 9/11; United Nations; Security Council; transnacional governance networks; counter-terrorism system

  16. The incompatibility of the United Nations' goals and conventionalist ethical relativism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M

    2005-09-01

    The Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights seeks to provide moral direction to nations and their citizens on a series of bioethical concerns. In articulating principles, it ranks respect for human rights, human dignity and fundamental freedoms ahead of respect for cultural diversity and pluralism. This ranking is controversial because it entails the rejection of the popular theory, conventionalist ethical relativism. If consistently defended, this theory also undercuts other United Nations activities that assume member states and people around the world can reach trans-cultural judgments having moral authority about health, pollution, aggression, rights, slavery, and so on. To illustrate problems with conventionalist ethical relativism and the importance of rejecting it for reasons of health, human rights, human dignity and fundamental freedoms, the widespread practice of female genital circumcision or cutting is discussed. These surgeries are virtually a test case for conventionalist ethical relativism since they are widely supported within these cultures as religious and health practices and widely condemned outside them, including by the United Nations.

  17. Dissemination of Units in Europe: Traceability and its Assurance in a National and Regional Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, V.

    1995-01-01

    Recent international political developments have given rise to the formation of powerful free trade and economic areas. This situation has placed new demands on metrology. Starting from the objectives and tasks of the national metrology institutes, the traditional activities are realization, maintenance and dissemination of the units. For quality assurance in industry, the traceability of measurement and test equipment to national measurement standards and its assurance plays an important part. In individual countries, national calibration services and testing laboratories form an indispensable modern infrastructure for the distribution of metrological competence. The creation of a uniform single European market and the recent establishment of the European Economic Area (EEA) from 1 January 1994, have given metrology new impetus. The dissemination of the units in the intraregional European area - with the objective of mutually recognizing calibration certificates by removing technical barriers to trade - requires not only technical competence but also transparency through confidence-building measures. The traceability of measurements and their assurance by interlaboratory comparisons are of decisive importance and require that international cooperation should be extended. Moreover, countries outside the EEA have shown an increasing interest in the mutual recognition of certificates so an interregional assurance of traceability has to be guaranteed. As a result of this development, international organizations of long standing such as the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) are confronted with new tasks and new organizations such as the International Laboratory Accreditation Conference (ILAC) have been formed.

  18. sponsorship ban in Lebanon: a baseline cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Chaaya

    2016-05-01

    This study provided information about compliance to the smoking ban in Beirut. The advertising sector's compliance would hopefully decrease the tobacco industry’s influence on the public. Further studies aiming at understanding the underlying factors behind the lack of compliance to the indoor smoking ban and finding effective solutions in a politically unstable country with weak rule of law like Lebanon are crucial and can serve as an example for similar developing countries.

  19. Banning smoking in parks and on beaches: science, policy, and the politics of denormalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Bachynski, Kathleen E

    2013-07-01

    Campaigns to limit tobacco use started in the 1970s and have led to bans on public smoking, which have been extended to parks and beaches. A review of state and local statutes shows that during 1993-2011, smoking was banned in 843 parks and on 150 beaches across the United States. Three justifications for these restrictions have been invoked: the risk of passive smoke to nonsmokers, the pollution caused by cigarette butts, and the long-term risks to children from seeing smoking in public. Our analysis of the evidence for these claims found it far from definitive and in some cases weak. What, then, accounts for the efforts to impose such bans? We conclude that the impetus is the imperative to denormalize smoking as part of a broader public health campaign to reduce tobacco-related illness and death. Although invoking limited evidence may prove effective in the short run, it is hazardous for public health policy makers, for whom public trust is essential.

  20. DTCA of prescription medicines in the European Union: is there still a need for a ban?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poser, Mareen

    2010-12-01

    The pharmaceutical sector is one of the main markets in the European Union. The consumption of medicines is high and steadily increasing. However, the pharmaceutical market is subject to a wider range of restrictions than almost any other sector. The restrictions mainly apply to information provision and advertising practice within the community. One of the main features in pharmaceutical regulation is the ban on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription medicines. However, an abolition of the ban is controversial in the European Community, especially as the pharmaceutical industry keeps pleading for its ability to use the highly effective marketing strategy of DTCA to promote prescription medicines to the general public. Such advertising is only allowed in two jurisdictions in the world, New Zealand and the United States. In both systems the impact of DTCA on the consumer and the economy has been subject to research. The outcome of these studies is outlined in this article. Since the European Commission has provided a new proposal to amend the current information practice regarding prescription medicines in 2008 (European Commission, Proposal for a Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council Amending, as Regards Information to the General Public on Medicinal Products Subject to Medical Prescription, Directive 2001/83/EC on the Community Code Relating to Medicinal Products for Human Use, COM/2008/0663 final) it is time to examine different options to regulate the provision of information and discuss the need for a ban of DTCA.

  1. Use of propofol in pediatric intensive care units: a national survey in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruessell, Markus A; Udink ten Cate, Floris E A; Kraus, Anna-Julia; Roth, Bernhard; Trieschmann, Uwe

    2012-05-01

    Propofol is not licensed for sedation in pediatric intensive care medicine mainly due to the risk of propofol infusion syndrome. Nevertheless, it is applied by many pediatric intensive care units. The aim of this national survey was to asses the current use of propofol in pediatric intensive care units in Germany. We performed a nationwide survey. The questionnaire assessed the intensive care unit type, patient numbers, dosing, duration, age and time limits, indications, side effects, and institutional protocols for propofol usage. Pediatric intensive care units in Germany. Questionnaire about routine use of propofol sent to 214 pediatric departments. None. One hundred ninety-four questionnaires (90.7%) were returned, ten had to be censored. The final analysis comprised 184 questionnaires (134 pediatric/neonatal intensive care units, 28 pediatric intensive care units, 22 neonatal intensive care units). Seventy-nine percent of intensive care units (n = 145 of 184) used propofol in children under the age of 16 yrs. Of these, 98% were for bolus application (n = 142 of 145), 78% for infusion ≥3 hrs (n = 113 of 145), and 33% for infusion >3 hrs (n = 48 of 145). A lower age limit was applied by 52% (n = 75 of 145) and a dose limit by 51% (n = 74 of 145). The median dose limit was 4 mg/kg/hr; 48% (n = 70 of 145) used 3 mg/kg/hr or less. A time limit was applied by 98% (n = 46 of 47), 70% (n = 33 of 47) used it for ≤24 hrs, and 30% (n = 15 of 47) for >24 hrs. MAIN INDICATIONS FOR PROPOFOL APPLICATION WERE: difficult sedation (44%), postoperative ventilation (43%), and difficult extubation (30%). Seven cases of propofol infusion syndrome were reported by seven centers. This study shows that propofol is used off-license by many pediatric intensive care units in Ge. The majority of users has adopted tightly controlled regimens for propofol sedation, and limits the dose to ≤3-4 mg/kg/hr and the maximum application time to 24-48 hrs.

  2. The effect of an ambulance diversion ban on emergency department length of stay and ambulance turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Laura G; Joyce, Nina; Baker, William E; Biddinger, Paul D; Dyer, K Sophia; Friedman, Franklin D; Imperato, Jason; King, Alice; Maciejko, Thomas M; Pearlmutter, Mark D; Sayah, Assaad; Zane, Richard D; Epstein, Stephen K

    2013-03-01

    Massachusetts became the first state in the nation to ban ambulance diversion in 2009. It was feared that the diversion ban would lead to increased emergency department (ED) crowding and ambulance turnaround time. We seek to characterize the effect of a statewide ambulance diversion ban on ED length of stay and ambulance turnaround time at Boston-area EDs. We conducted a retrospective, pre-post observational analysis of 9 Boston-area hospital EDs before and after the ban. We used ED length of stay as a proxy for ED crowding. We compared hospitals individually and in aggregate to determine any changes in ED length of stay for admitted and discharged patients, ED volume, and turnaround time. No ED experienced an increase in ED length of stay for admitted or discharged patients or ambulance turnaround time despite an increase in volume for several EDs. There was an overall 3.6% increase in ED volume in our sample, a 10.4-minute decrease in length of stay for admitted patients, and a 2.2-minute decrease in turnaround time. When we compared high- and low-diverting EDs separately, neither saw an increase in length of stay, and both saw a decrease in turnaround time. After the first statewide ambulance diversion ban, there was no increase in ED length of stay or ambulance turnaround time at 9 Boston-area EDs. Several hospitals actually experienced improvements in these outcome measures. Our results suggest that the ban did not worsen ED crowding or ambulance availability at Boston-area hospitals. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  3. Between local cultures and national styles: units of analysis in the history of electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borck, Cornelius

    2006-01-01

    The history of the discovery of the human electroencephalogram (EEG) and the ensuing implementation of electroencephalography is characterized by striking national differences. The first publication on the EEG in 1929 by the German psychiatrist Hans Berger was met with skepticism. Substantial work in this area did not start before the public demonstration of the EEG by the British neurophysiologist Edgar Douglas Adrian in 1934. Soon afterwards, many groups specialized in the new method, particularly in the US, whereas interest remained more limited in France and Britain. A comparative analysis of the rise of electroencephalography has certainly to account for such national differences, but the trajectory of the implementation of this technology calls for an investigation of local research cultures in order to identify units of productivity and to understand the dynamics along this trajectory.

  4. United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative: 2011 Status Report on the International Space Weather Initiative

    CERN Document Server

    Gadimova, S; Danov, D; Georgieva, K; Maeda, G; Yumoto, K; Davila, J M; Gopalswami, N

    2011-01-01

    The UNBSSI is a long-term effort for the development of astronomy and space science through regional and international cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis. A series of workshops on BSS was held from 1991 to 2004 (India 1991, Costa Rica and Colombia 1992, Nigeria 1993, Egypt 1994, Sri Lanka 1995, Germany 1996, Honduras 1997, Jordan 1999, France 2000, Mauritius 2001, Argentina 2002, and China 2004; http://www.seas.columbia.edu/~ah297/un-esa/) and addressed the status of astronomy in Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and Western Asia. One major recommendation that emanated from these workshops was the establishment of astronomical facilities in developing nations for research and education programmes at the university level. Such workshops on BSS emphasized the particular importance of astrophysical data systems and the virtual observatory concept for the development of astronomy on a worldwide basis. Pursuant to resolutions of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful ...

  5. Data on nation-wide activity in intensive cardiac care units in France in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Roubille

    2017-08-01

    A French nation-wide database on 277,845 admissions in 270 ICCUs”.(10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.04.002 (Roubille et al., 2017 [1]: the main characteristics of the pathologies managed in the intensive cardiac care units (ICCUs, the details on the interventions performed and the main differences between centers following the size of the centers and a figure presenting the monthly variations of admissions in the ICCUs in France in a total of 277,845 patients in 270 centers admitted at least one time in the ICCUs in 2014 (exhaustive data.

  6. Analysis Of Comparative Law, Arbitration Rules Of The United Nations Commission On International Trade Law (Uncitral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Donoso Bustamante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a study of comparative law between the Arbitration Rules of the United Nations Commission for International Trade Law (UNCITRAL, specifically established in the Arbitration Rules, and the arbitration in Ecuadorian system. The paper first defines the concept of arbitration, international arbitration differentiating domestic arbitration. In a second time, there are a historical reference both as an institution and the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules. Following, the author show a background study, Arbitration and Mediation Ecuadorian Law. Finally appears the comparation between the two systems, with the resulting conclusions.

  7. Architecture and “Indigenous” Heritage: National Museums in Canada, Mexico, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    López Ruiz, Francisco; profesor de tiempo completo del Departamento de Arquitectura Universidad de Puebla

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies the principal characteristics and meanings of the architecture in three important museums that exhibit pre-Columbian collections side by side with the present situation of native peoples in Canada, Mexico and the United States. The three analyzed museums are the Museo Nacional de Antropología in Mexico City, projected by Pedro Ramírez Vázquez (1964); the Canadian Museum of Civilization of Ottawa-Gatineau, build by Douglas Cardinal (1989), and the National Museum of the...

  8. United Nations deliberations of the use of nuclear power sources in space: 1978-1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Sholtis, Joseph A., Jr.; Rashkow, Bruce C.

    1988-01-01

    The United Nations (U.N.) is continuing its deliberations on the use of nuclear power sources (NPS) in space. Although no complete set of legal principles has yet been agreed upon, certain scientific and technical criteria for the safe design and use of NPS have been accepted. In this respect, it should be noted that in its 1981 report, the Working Group on the Use of Power Sources in Outer Space concluded that power sources can be used safely in outer space, provided that all necessary safety requirements are met. This is also a succinct statement of the U.S. position.

  9. The United Nations Probabilistic Population Projections: An Introduction to Demographic Forecasting with Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkema, Leontine; Gerland, Patrick; Raftery, Adrian; Wilmoth, John

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations publishes projections of populations around the world and breaks these down by age and sex. Traditionally, they are produced with standard demographic methods based on assumptions about future fertility rates, survival probabilities, and migration counts. Such projections, however, were not accompanied by formal statements of uncertainty expressed in probabilistic terms. In July 2014 the UN for the first time issued official probabilistic population projections for all countries to 2100. These projections quantify uncertainty associated with future fertility and mortality trends worldwide. This review article summarizes the probabilistic population projection methods and presents forecasts for population growth over the rest of this century.

  10. United Nations principles on remote sensing - Report on developments, 1970-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossinghoff, G. J.; Fuqua, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with the efforts of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) to reach a consensus on legal principles governing the international use of remote sensing of the earth from space. The proceedings of the Working Group from 1971 to 1974 and the Legal Subcommittee from 1973 to 1980 are presented. Though the Committee has reached agreement on certain points, some key questions remain unresolved relative to dissemination of data and to the need for or method of classifying remote sensing data based on spatial resolution. An appendix of texts and draft principles worked out by COPUOS is also presented.

  11. Architecture and “Indigenous” Heritage: National Museums in Canada, Mexico, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    López Ruiz, Francisco; profesor de tiempo completo del Departamento de Arquitectura Universidad de Puebla

    2015-01-01

    This article identifies the principal characteristics and meanings of the architecture in three important museums that exhibit pre-Columbian collections side by side with the present situation of native peoples in Canada, Mexico and the United States. The three analyzed museums are the Museo Nacional de Antropología in Mexico City, projected by Pedro Ramírez Vázquez (1964); the Canadian Museum of Civilization of Ottawa-Gatineau, build by Douglas Cardinal (1989), and the National Museum of the...

  12. Conceptual salt marsh units for wetland synthesis: Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defne, Zafer; Ganju, Neil Kamal

    2016-01-01

    The salt marsh complex of the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge (EBFNWR), which spans over Great Bay, Little Egg Harbor, and Barnegat Bay (New Jersey, USA), was delineated to smaller, conceptual marsh units by geoprocessing of surface elevation data. Flow accumulation based on the relative elevation of each location is used to determine the ridge lines that separate each marsh unit while the surface slope is used to automatically assign each unit a drainage point, where water is expected to drain through. Through scientific efforts associated with the Hurricane Sandy Science Plan, the U.S. Geological Survey has started to expand national assessment of coastal change hazards and forecast products to coastal wetlands. The intent is to provide federal, state, and local managers with tools to estimate their vulnerability and ecosystem service potential. For this purpose, the response and resilience of coastal wetlands to physical factors need to be assessed in terms of the ensuing change to their vulnerability and ecosystem services. EBFNWR was selected as a pilot study.Recent research shows that sediment budgets of microtidal marsh complexes on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the United States consistently scale with areal unvegetated/vegetated marsh ratio (UVVR) despite differences in sea-level rise, tidal range, elevation, vegetation, and stressors. This highlights UVVR as a broadly applicable indicator of microtidal marsh stability. It is also relatively quicker and less labor intensive compared to quantifying integrative sediment budgets and the associated transport mechanisms that requires extended tidal-timescale observations of sediment transport. UVVR indicates the link between open-water conversion processes and sediment transport, providing consistent results across a geomorphic and climatic spectrum of microtidal marshes, hence can be an independent measure of marsh health. Potentially, tracking future changes to UVVR may allow for widespread

  13. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States 201412 Shapefile

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 320 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Some...

  14. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced...

  15. USGS 1:1,000,000-Scale National Wilderness Preservation System of the United States 201412 FileGDB

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer consists of National Wilderness Preservation System areas of 320 acres or more, in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Some...

  16. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was...

  17. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced...

  18. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced...

  19. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  20. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  1. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced...

  2. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Village Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Village Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced from...

  3. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  4. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Surface Model (DSM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  5. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Beaumont and Lower Neches River Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was produced...

  6. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Canyonlands and Upper Neches River Corridor Units of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was...

  7. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  8. EAARL-B Topography-Big Thicket National Preserve: Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first-surface topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Neches Bottom and Jack Gore Baygall Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas, was...

  9. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A bare-earth topography Digital Elevation Model (DEM) mosaic for the Little Pine Island Bayou Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas was produced...

  10. William Barstow Mansion of the United States Merchant Marine Academy: Nomination to the National Register of Historic Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    ER D C/ CE RL T R- T R- 14 -2 9 William Barstow Mansion of the United States Merchant Marine Academy Nomination to the National...client/default. ERDC/CERL TR-14-29 October 2014 William Barstow Mansion of the United States Merchant Marine Academy Nomination to the National...object. This document contains the nomination form and all supporting docu- mentation for listing the William Barstow Mansion property, located at

  11. 36 CFR 1235.46 - What electronic media may be used for transferring records to the National Archives of the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... used for transferring records to the National Archives of the United States? 1235.46 Section 1235.46... TRANSFER OF RECORDS TO THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES OF THE UNITED STATES Transfer Specifications and Standards... to the National Archives of the United States. (See 36 CFR 1236.28 for the requirements governing...

  12. 31 CFR 585.218 - Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of Bosnia and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trade in United Nations Protected... HERZEGOVINA SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 585.218 Trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia... importation from, exportation to, or transshipment of goods through the United Nations Protected Areas in...

  13. 31 CFR 585.524 - Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Humanitarian aid and trade in United Nations Protected Areas of Croatia and those areas of the Republic of...-by-case basis to permit exportation to, or transshipment through, the United Nations Protected Areas... permit importation from, exportation to, or transshipment through the United Nations Protected Areas...

  14. The Conventional and Unconventional about Disability Conventions: A Reflective Analysis of United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeasiegbu, Veronica I.; Bishop, Malachy; Mpofu, Elias

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in relation to prior United Nations conventions on disability and U.S. disability policy law with a view to identifying the conventional and also the incremental advances of the CRPD. Previous United Nations conventions related to…

  15. 78 FR 30393 - Preparations for the 43rd Session of the United Nations Sub-Committee of Experts on the Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Administration Preparations for the 43rd Session of the United Nations Sub- Committee of Experts on the Transport... preparation for United Nations meetings being held in Geneva, Switzerland, this summer. PHMSA is hosting the... portion of the meeting to discuss proposals in preparation for the 25th session of the United Nations...

  16. Reduced cognitive function in children with toxocariasis in a nationally representative sample of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael G; Haseeb, M A

    2012-12-01

    Toxocariasis has recently been recognised as a potentially important neglected infection in developed countries, particularly those that experience substantive health disparities such as the United States. Given a relatively high prevalence of infection, an association between Toxocara infection and cognitive function may elucidate an important mechanism by which toxocariasis could contribute significantly to morbidity while still remaining hidden and, thus, neglected. To assess the potential relationship between toxocariasis and cognitive function, this investigation measured differences in components of both the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised (WRAT-R) in children seropositive and in children seronegative for Toxocara antibodies in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a large, nationally-representative survey of the United States population. Seropositive children scored significantly lower on the WISC-R and WRAT-R compared with the seronegative children. Moreover, this relationship was independent of socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, rural residence, cytomegalovirus infection and blood lead levels. These results identify an important association that may reflect morbidity attributable to a genuine neglected infection. Nevertheless, longitudinal data are required to confirm an etiological connection between toxocariasis and cognitive function, as well as the true population attributable risk for toxocariasis and its chronic sequelae.

  17. A Comparative Review of Music Education in Mainland China and the United States: From Nationalism to Multiculturalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare interactions between social changes and the integration of nationalism and multiculturalism in the context of music education by focusing on the ways in which the governmental politics of mainland China and the United States have managed nationalism and diversity in school music education. This paper also explores…

  18. 76 FR 70480 - Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Otay River Estuary Restoration Project, South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge, California; Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... the San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge. This notice advises the public that we intend to gather...

  19. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - East Coast Mesozoic Basins of the Piedmont, Blue Ridge Thrust Belt, Atlantic Coastal Plain, and New England Provinces Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  20. National Assessment of Oil and Gas in Jurassis-Cretaceous Strata Gulf Coast, 2010 (Provinces 047, 048 and 049) Assessment Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  1. National Assessment of Oil and Gas - Paleogene System and Cretaceous-Tertiary Coalbed Assessment Units of the Gulf Coast (Provinces 047, 048 and 049)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Assessment Unit is the fundamental unit used in the National Assessment Project for the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources. The Assessment Unit is...

  2. A new national unit for invasive species detection, assessment and eradication planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. U. Wilson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Even with no new introductions, the number of biological invasions in South Africa will increase as introduced species naturalise and become invasive. As of 2010 South Africa had ~8750 introduced plant taxa, 660 recorded as naturalised, 198 included in invasive species legislation, but only 64 subject to regular control (i.e. only widespread invaders are managed post-border. There is only one documented example of a successful eradication programme in continental South Africa against the Mediterranean snail (Otala punctata in Cape Town. Here we describe the establishment in 2008 of a unit funded by the Working for Water Programme as part of the South African National Biodiversity Institute's Invasive Species Programme (SANBI ISP designed to (1 detect and document new invasions, (2 provide reliable and transparent post-border risk assessments and (3 provide the cross-institutional coordination needed to successfully implement national eradication plans. As of the end of 2012, the ISP had an annual budget of R36 million, employed 33 staff working across all nine provinces, supported 10 postgraduate students, hosted 35 interns (including those as part of a drive to collect DNA barcodes for all invasive taxa and created over 50 000 days of work as part of government poverty alleviation programmes. The unit has worked towards full risk assessments for 39 plant taxa and has developed eradication plans for seven species; the unit is now helping implement these plans. By focusing on science-based management and policy, we argue that SANBI ISP can play a leading role in preventing introduced species from becoming widespread invaders.

  3. National trends in the ambulatory treatment of hypertension in the United States, 1997-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijia Zhou

    Full Text Available Hypertension is common and costly. Over the past decade, new antihypertensive therapies have been developed, several have lost patent protection and additional evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of these agents has accrued.To examine trends in the use of antihypertensive therapies in the United States between 1997 and 2012.We used nationally representative audit data from the IMS Health National Disease and Therapeutic Index to examine the ambulatory pharmacologic treatment of hypertension.Our primary unit of analysis was a visit where hypertension was a reported diagnosis and treated with a pharmacotherapy (treatment visit. We restricted analyses to the use of six therapeutic classes of antihypertensive medications among individuals 18 years or older.Annual hypertension treatment visits increased from 56.9 million treatment visits (95% confidence intervals [CI], 53.9-59.8 in 1997 to 83.3 million visits (CI 79.2-87.3 in 2008, then declined steadily to 70.9 million visits (CI 66.7-75.0 by 2012. Angiotensin receptor blocker utilization increased substantially from 3% of treatment visits in 1997 to 18% by 2012, whereas calcium channel blocker use decreased from 27% to 18% of visits. Rates of diuretic and beta-blocker use remained stable and represented 24%-30% and 14-16% of visits, respectively. Use of direct renin inhibitor accounted for fewer than 2% of annual visits. The proportion of visits treated using fixed-dose combination therapies increased from 28% to 37% of visits.Several important changes have occurred in the landscape of antihypertensive treatment in the United States during the past decade. Despite their novel mechanism of action, the adoption rate of direct renin inhibitors remains low.

  4. Monitoring Solar-terrestrial Interaction at the United Nations Office at Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadimova, Sharafat; Haubold, Hans

    Earth's ionosphere reacts strongly to the intense X-ray and ultraviolet radiation released by the Sun during solar events. Stanford's Solar Center, Electrical Engineering Department developed inexpensive space weather monitors that scholars around the world can use to track changes to the Earth's ionosphere. Two versions of the monitors exist -a low-cost version named SID (Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances) designed to detect solar flares; and a more sensitive version named AWESOME (Atmospheric Weather Electromagnetic System of Observation, Modeling, and Education) that provides both solar and nighttime research-quality data. Through the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI), such monitors have been deployed to high schools and universities in developing nations of the world for the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI, see http://www.stil.bas.bg/ISWI/). The monitors come preassem-bled, the hosts build their own antenna, and provide a computer to record the data and an internet connection to share their data with worldwide network of SIDs and AWESOMEs. These networks are advancing the understanding of the fundamental heliophysical processes that govern the Sun, Earth and heliosphere, particularly phenomena of space weather. Mon-itoring the fundamental processes responsible for solar-terrestrial coupling are vital to being able to understand the influence of the Sun on the near-Earth environment. A SID monitor is successfully operating at the United Nations Office at Vienna (UNOV) and will be extended to an AWESOME shortly. This project will also be supported by the programme on global naviga-tion satellite systems (GNSS) applications, implemented through the International Committee on GNSS (ICG, see http://www.icgsecretariat.org).

  5. Mountain Forests and Sustainable Development: The Potential for Achieving the United Nations' 2030 Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Gratzer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing numerous and severe environmental, social, and economic challenges. To address these, in September 2015 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the resolution Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The United Nations' 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs and their 169 targets are ambitious, broadly encompassing, and indivisible. They are intended to guide nations and communities toward attaining healthy and peaceful livelihoods free of poverty and hunger. Collectively the goals envision sound and safe environments, where global threats like climate change are successfully combated through both mitigation and adaptation. Agenda 2030 envisages sustainable production patterns with inclusive, effective economies and institutions. It is of specific relevance to mountain communities, where the population is predominantly rural and half of the rural inhabitants experience food insecurity and are often highly dependent on forest resources. Mountain forests also contribute to human welfare well beyond the local community: through functions such as climate and hydrological services provided at regional and global scales, and harvested commodities traded at multiple economic scales. In this introductory essay we argue that sustainable forest management in mountain areas disproportionately contributes to achieving the SDGs. We discuss (1 the potential of mountain forests to help achieve SDGs in mountainous regions and beyond, (2 the potential of the SDGs to help solve severe socioeconomic and ecological problems in forested mountain areas, and (3 challenges and opportunities associated with implementing the SDGs. We base our argumentation also on the 8 papers presented in this Focus Issue of Mountain Research and Development. Together, they establish a clear connection between sustainable use and protection of mountain forests and vital ecosystem services upon which many regions depend. We

  6. Purpose, structure, and function of the United States National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregg H.; Williams, O. Dale; Korelitz, James J.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Oates, Thomas W.; Rindal, D. Brad; Benjamin, Paul L.; Foy, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Following a successful2005–2012 phase with three regional practice-based research networks (PBRNs), a single, unified national network called “The National Dental PBRN” was created in 2012 in the United States to improve oral health by conducting practice-based research and serving dental professionals through education and collegiality. Methods Central administration is based in Alabama. Regional centres are based in Alabama, Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, New York and Texas, with a Coordinating Centre in Maryland. Ideas for studies are prioritized by the Executive Committee, comprised mostly of full-time clinicians. Results To date, 2736 persons have enrolled, from all six network regions; enrollment continues to expand. They represent a broad range of practitioners, practice types, and patient populations. Practitioners are actively improving every step of the research process, from idea generation, to study development, field testing, data collection, and presentation and publication. Conclusions Practitioners from diverse settings are partnering with fellow practitioners and academics to improve clinical practice and meet the needs of clinicians and their patients. Clinical significance This “nation’s network” aims to serve as a precious national resource to improve the scientific basis for clinical decision-making and foster movement of the latest evidence into routine practice. PMID:23597500

  7. History and evaluation of national-scale geochemical data sets for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Smith, Steven M.; Horton, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Six national-scale, or near national-scale, geochemical data sets for soils or stream sediments exist for the United States. The earliest of these, here termed the ‘Shacklette’ data set, was generated by a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project conducted from 1961 to 1975. This project used soil collected from a depth of about 20 cm as the sampling medium at 1323 sites throughout the conterminous U.S. The National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (NURE-HSSR) Program of the U.S. Department of Energy was conducted from 1975 to 1984 and collected either stream sediments, lake sediments, or soils at more than 378,000 sites in both the conterminous U.S. and Alaska. The sampled area represented about 65% of the nation. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), from 1978 to 1982, collected samples from multiple soil horizons at sites within the major crop-growing regions of the conterminous U.S. This data set contains analyses of more than 3000 samples. The National Geochemical Survey, a USGS project conducted from 1997 to 2009, used a subset of the NURE-HSSR archival samples as its starting point and then collected primarily stream sediments, with occasional soils, in the parts of the U.S. not covered by the NURE-HSSR Program. This data set contains chemical analyses for more than 70,000 samples. The USGS, in collaboration with the Mexican Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada, initiated soil sampling for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in 2007. Sampling of three horizons or depths at more than 4800 sites in the U.S. was completed in 2010, and chemical analyses are currently ongoing. The NRCS initiated a project in the 1990s to analyze the various soil horizons from selected pedons throughout the U.S. This data set currently contains data from more than 1400 sites. This paper (1) discusses each data set in terms of its purpose, sample collection protocols, and analytical

  8. History and evaluation of national-scale geochemical data sets for the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Smith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Six national-scale, or near national-scale, geochemical data sets for soils or stream sediments exist for the United States. The earliest of these, here termed the ‘Shacklette’ data set, was generated by a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS project conducted from 1961 to 1975. This project used soil collected from a depth of about 20 cm as the sampling medium at 1323 sites throughout the conterminous U.S. The National Uranium Resource Evaluation Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (NURE-HSSR Program of the U.S. Department of Energy was conducted from 1975 to 1984 and collected either stream sediments, lake sediments, or soils at more than 378,000 sites in both the conterminous U.S. and Alaska. The sampled area represented about 65% of the nation. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, from 1978 to 1982, collected samples from multiple soil horizons at sites within the major crop-growing regions of the conterminous U.S. This data set contains analyses of more than 3000 samples. The National Geochemical Survey, a USGS project conducted from 1997 to 2009, used a subset of the NURE-HSSR archival samples as its starting point and then collected primarily stream sediments, with occasional soils, in the parts of the U.S. not covered by the NURE-HSSR Program. This data set contains chemical analyses for more than 70,000 samples. The USGS, in collaboration with the Mexican Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada, initiated soil sampling for the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in 2007. Sampling of three horizons or depths at more than 4800 sites in the U.S. was completed in 2010, and chemical analyses are currently ongoing. The NRCS initiated a project in the 1990s to analyze the various soil horizons from selected pedons throughout the U.S. This data set currently contains data from more than 1400 sites. This paper (1 discusses each data set in terms of its purpose, sample collection protocols

  9. Measurement, modeling, and analysis of nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone in the southeast United States national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Daiwen

    In this research, the sources, distributions, transport, ozone formation potential, and biogenic emissions of VOCs are investigated focusing on three Southeast United States National Parks: Shenandoah National Park, Big Meadows site (SHEN), Great Smoky Mountains National Park at Cove Mountain (GRSM) and Mammoth Cave National Park (MACA). A detailed modeling analysis is conducted using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone characterized by high O3 surface concentrations. Nine emissions perturbation using the Multiscale Air Quality SImulation Platform (MAQSIP) focusing on nonmethane hydrocarbons and ozone characterized by high O 3 surface concentrations. In the observation-based analysis, source classification techniques based on correlation coefficient, chemical reactivity, and certain ratios were developed and applied to the data set. Anthropogenic VOCs from automobile exhaust dominate at Mammoth Cave National Park, and at Cove Mountain, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, while at Big Meadows, Shenandoah National Park, the source composition is complex and changed from 1995 to 1996. The dependence of isoprene concentrations on ambient temperatures is investigated, and similar regressional relationships are obtained for all three monitoring locations. Propylene-equivalent concentrations are calculated to account for differences in reaction rates between the OH and individual hydrocarbons, and to thereby estimate their relative contributions to ozone formation. Isoprene fluxes were also estimated for all these rural areas. Model predictions (base scenario) tend to give lower daily maximum O 3 concentrations than observations by 10 to 30%. Model predicted concentrations of lumped paraffin compounds are of the same order of magnitude as the observed values, while the observed concentrations for other species (isoprene, ethene, surrogate olefin, surrogate toluene, and surrogate xylene) are usually an

  10. Smoking bans in secure psychiatric hospitals and prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Danny H; Rees, Megan A

    2014-09-01

    The proposal of complete smoking bans in closed institutions, such as prisons and psychiatric hospitals, creates a tension between individual "rights" and the health of all members of that community. Smokers in closed institutions generally smoke more, suffer more health consequences and are less likely to quit than smokers in other settings. Complete smoking bans do not cause an increase in behavioural problems, nor do bans cause worsening of mental illness or quality of life. Although infrequently tested, the responsibility of public institutions to protect others from second-hand smoke has usually outweighed any individual "right to smoke" in legal judgments. A substantial cultural shift may be required from considering smoking a "rare pleasure" during detention to the realisation that smoking is the most significant reversible health risk factor for this population. The implementation of complete smoking bans in closed institutions is challenging and requires careful and proactive planning by staff. As complete smoking bans are being considered in many institutions and jurisdictions, this column presents a review of the evidence base and ethical issues involved.

  11. Impact of the Balance Billing Ban on California Emergency Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Pao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California. Methods: We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims to determine payment rates before and after the balance billing ban. Results: We examined a total of 55,243 claims to determine the percentage of charges paid before and after the balance billing ban took effect on October 15, 2008. The overall reduction in percentage of charges paid was 13% in the first year and 19% in the second year following the balance billing ban. The average percentage of charges paid by health plans decreased from 91% to 86% from 2008 to 2010. Payments by risk-bearing organizations decreased from 72% to 46% of charges during the same time frame. Conclusion: Payment rates by subcontracted risk-bearing organizations for non-contracted emergency department professional services declined significantly following the balanced billing ban whereas payment rates by health plans remained relatively stable.

  12. Impact of the balance billing ban on California emergency providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Bing; Riner, Myles; Chan, Theodore C

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine reimbursement trends for emergency provider professional services following the balance billing ban in California. We conducted a blinded web-based survey to collect claims data from emergency providers and billing companies. Members of the California Chapter of the American College of Emergency Physicians (California ACEP) reimbursement committee were invited to participate in the survey. We used a convenience sample of claims to determine payment rates before and after the balance billing ban. We examined a total of 55,243 claims to determine the percentage of charges paid before and after the balance billing ban took effect on October 15, 2008. The overall reduction in percentage of charges paid was 13% in the first year and 19% in the second year following the balance billing ban. The average percentage of charges paid by health plans decreased from 91% to 86% from 2008 to 2010. Payments by risk-bearing organizations decreased from 72% to 46% of charges during the same time frame. Payment rates by subcontracted risk-bearing organizations for non-contracted emergency department professional services declined significantly following the balanced billing ban whereas payment rates by health plans remained relatively stable.

  13. Present and future nitrogen deposition to national parks in the United States: critical load exceedances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ellis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available National parks in the United States are protected areas wherein the natural habitat is to be conserved for future generations. Deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen (N transported from areas of human activity (fuel combustion, agriculture may affect these natural habitats if it exceeds an ecosystem-dependent critical load (CL. We quantify and interpret the deposition to Class I US national parks for present-day and future (2050 conditions using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution over North America. We estimate CL values in the range 2.5–5 kg N ha−1 yr−1 for the different parks with the goal of protecting the most sensitive ecosystem receptors. For present-day conditions, we find 24 out of 45 parks to be in CL exceedance and 14 more to be marginally so. Many of these are in remote areas of the West. Most (40–85% of the deposition originates from NOx emissions (fuel combustion. We then project future changes in N deposition using the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP emission scenarios for 2050. These feature 52–73% declines in US NOx emissions relative to present but 19–50% increases in US ammonia (NH3 emissions. Nitrogen deposition at US national parks then becomes dominated by domestic NH3 emissions. While deposition decreases in the East relative to present, there is little progress in the West and increases in some regions. We find that 17–25 US national parks will have CL exceedances in 2050 based on the RCP scenarios. Even in total absence of anthropogenic NOx emissions, 14–18 parks would still have a CL exceedance. Returning all parks to N deposition below CL by 2050 will require at least a 55% decrease in anthropogenic NH3 emissions relative to RCP-projected 2050 levels.

  14. Present and future nitrogen deposition to national parks in the United States: critical load exceedances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Ellis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available National parks in the United States are protected areas wherein the natural habitat is to be conserved for future generations. Deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen (N transported from areas of human activity (fuel combustion, agriculture may affect these natural habitats if it exceeds an ecosystem-dependent critical load (CL. We quantify and interpret the deposition to Class I US national parks for present-day and future (2050 conditions using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution over North America. We estimate CL values in the range 2.5–5 kg N ha−1 yr−1 for the different parks to protect the most sensitive ecosystem receptors. For present-day conditions, we find 24 out of 45 parks to be in CL exceedance and 14 more to be marginally so. Many of these are in remote areas of the West. Most (40–85% of the deposition originates from NOx emissions (fuel combustion. We project future changes in N deposition using representative concentration pathway (RCP anthropogenic emission scenarios for 2050. These feature 52–73% declines in US NOx emissions relative to present but 19–50% increases in US ammonia (NH3 emissions. Nitrogen deposition at US national parks then becomes dominated by domestic NH3 emissions. While deposition decreases in the East relative to present, there is little progress in the West and increases in some regions. We find that 17–25 US national parks will have CL exceedances in 2050 based on the RCP8.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios. Even in total absence of anthropogenic NOx emissions, 14–18 parks would still have a CL exceedance. Returning all parks to N deposition below CL by 2050 would require at least a 50% decrease in US anthropogenic NH3 emissions relative to RCP-projected 2050 levels.

  15. Present and future nitrogen deposition to national parks in the United States: critical load exceedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, R. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Zhang, L.; Holmes, C. D.; Schichtel, B. A.; Blett, T.; Porter, E.; Pardo, L. H.; Lynch, J. A.

    2013-09-01

    National parks in the United States are protected areas wherein the natural habitat is to be conserved for future generations. Deposition of anthropogenic nitrogen (N) transported from areas of human activity (fuel combustion, agriculture) may affect these natural habitats if it exceeds an ecosystem-dependent critical load (CL). We quantify and interpret the deposition to Class I US national parks for present-day and future (2050) conditions using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution over North America. We estimate CL values in the range 2.5-5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for the different parks to protect the most sensitive ecosystem receptors. For present-day conditions, we find 24 out of 45 parks to be in CL exceedance and 14 more to be marginally so. Many of these are in remote areas of the West. Most (40-85%) of the deposition originates from NOx emissions (fuel combustion). We project future changes in N deposition using representative concentration pathway (RCP) anthropogenic emission scenarios for 2050. These feature 52-73% declines in US NOx emissions relative to present but 19-50% increases in US ammonia (NH3) emissions. Nitrogen deposition at US national parks then becomes dominated by domestic NH3 emissions. While deposition decreases in the East relative to present, there is little progress in the West and increases in some regions. We find that 17-25 US national parks will have CL exceedances in 2050 based on the RCP8.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios. Even in total absence of anthropogenic NOx emissions, 14-18 parks would still have a CL exceedance. Returning all parks to N deposition below CL by 2050 would require at least a 50% decrease in US anthropogenic NH3 emissions relative to RCP-projected 2050 levels.

  16. Comparing Oral Health Care Utilization Estimates in the United States Across Three Nationally Representative Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek, Mark D; Manski, Richard J; Vargas, Clemencia M; Moeller, John

    2002-01-01

    Objective To compare estimates of dental visits among adults using three national surveys. Data Sources/Study Design Cross-sectional data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and National Health Expenditure surveys (NMCES, NMES, MEPS). Study Design This secondary data analysis assessed whether overall estimates and stratum-specific trends are different across surveys. Data Collection Dental visit data are age standardized via the direct method to the 1990 population of the United States. Point estimates, standard errors, and test statistics are generated using SUDAAN. Principal Findings Sociodemographic, stratum-specific trends are generally consistent across surveys; however, overall estimates differ (NHANES III [364-day estimate] versus 1993 NHIS: –17.5 percent difference, Z=7.27, p value < 0.001; NHANES III [365-day estimate] vs. 1993 NHIS: 5.4 percent difference, Z=–2.50, p value=0.006; MEPS vs. 1993 NHIS: –29.8 percent difference, Z=16.71, p value < 0.001). MEPS is the least susceptible to intrusion, telescoping, and social desirability. Conclusions Possible explanations for discrepancies include different reference periods, lead-in statements, question format, and social desirability of responses. Choice of survey should depend on the hypothesis. If trends are necessary, choice of survey should not matter; however, if health status or expenditure associations are necessary, then surveys that contain these variables should be used, and if accurate overall estimates are necessary, then MEPS should be used. A validation study should be conducted to establish “true” utilization estimates. PMID:12036005

  17. The United Nations framework classification for fossil energy and mineral reserves and resources 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D.; Lynch-Bell, M.; Ross, J.; Heiberg, S.; Griffiths, C.; Klett, T.

    2011-01-01

    Effective resource management in a globalizing economy requires accurate assessments of fossil energy and minerals resources. The recoverable quantities must be described and categorized in a manner that is consistent with scientific and social/economic information describing the economy as well as with the information describing the projects to recover them. A number of different standards have evolved over time in response to various professional needs Under a mandate given by the United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) has cooperated with Governments, regulatory agencies, industry, international organizations, and professional organizations (including Committee for Mineral Reserves International Reporting Standards (CRIRSCO), the Society of Petroleum Engineers (SPE), the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG), and the Society of Petroleum Evaluation Engineers (SPEE)), as well as with outstanding experts, to define a global classification for extractive activities (including oil, gas, heavy oil and bitumen extraction) that reflects the principal concerns of existing petroleum and mineral classifications. The United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources-2009 (UNFC-2009) aims to serve the following four principal needs: 1. The needs in international energy and mineral studies to formulate robust and long-sighted policies. 2. The needs of governments in managing their resources accordingly, allowing market prices to be transferred to the wellhead with as little loss as possible. 3. The industries' needs for information while deploying technology, management and finance to secure energy supplies and capture value efficiently within the established frameworks to serve its host countries, shareholders and stakeholders. 4. The financial community's need for information to allocate capital appropriately, providing reduced costs and improved long

  18. The impact of the Cyprus comprehensive smoking ban on air quality and economic business of hospitality venues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophi Costas A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several countries, including Cyprus, have passed smoke-free legislations in recent years. The goal of this study was to assess the indoor levels of particulate matter in hospitality venues in Cyprus before and after the implementation of the law on 1/1/2010, evaluate the role of enforcement, and examine the legislation’s effect on revenue and employment. Methods Several hospitality venues (n = 35 were sampled between April 2007 and January 2008, and 21 of those were re-sampled after the introduction of the smoking ban, between March and May 2010. Data on enforcement was provided by the Cyprus Police whereas data on revenue and employment within the hospitality industry of Cyprus were obtained from the Cyprus Statistical Service; comparisons were made between the corresponding figures before and after the implementation of the law. Results The median level of PM2.5 associated with secondhand smoking was 161 μg/m3 pre-ban and dropped to 3 μg/m3 post-ban (98% decrease, p  Conclusion Smoke free legislations, when enforced, are highly effective in improving the air quality and reducing the levels of indoor PM2.5. Strict enforcement plays a key role in the successful implementation of smoking bans. Even in nations with high smoking prevalence comprehensive smoking laws can be effectively implemented and have no negative effect on accommodation, food, and beverage services.

  19. Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising and Display Bans: Policy Evaluation Study in Five Russian Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Grant, Ashley; Spires, Mark; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-08-15

    The tobacco industry uses point-of-sale (POS) advertising, promotion, and product display to increase consumption of its products among current users, to attract new consumers, and to encourage former customers to resume tobacco use. As part of a comprehensive tobacco control effort, Russia-having one of the highest tobacco use prevalence rates in the world-enacted legislation that banned tobacco POS advertising, effective November 15, 2013, and banned the display of tobacco and the sale of cigarettes in kiosks, effective June 1, 2014. The objective of the study was to evaluate the implementation of the national law by assessing the state of POS advertising, promotion, and product display, and sales in kiosks across Russia. Two waves of observations were conducted to measure compliance with the POS restrictions: wave 1 took place in April-May 2014 after the advertising ban was in effect and again in August-September 2014 after the display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Observations were conducted by local trained staff that traveled to 5 populous cities in different regions of Russia (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Ekaterinburg, and Novosibirsk). Staff followed a published POS evaluation protocol and used mobile phones to collect data. Observations were conducted in a roughly equal number of supermarket chains, convenience stores, and kiosks. Observed items included advertising at POS, product displays, and cigarette sales in kiosks. Observations were made in 780 venues in wave 1 and in 779 revisited venues in wave 2. In wave 1, approximately a third of supermarkets and convenience stores (34.2%, 184/538) were advertising cigarettes using light boxes, and over half of observed venues (54.3%, 292/538) had signage such as banners or shelf liners that used colors or images related to cigarette brands. Product displays were common in wave 1. In wave 2, compliance with advertising restrictions was very good: there were virtually no

  20. Denmark's national inventory report 2006 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2004. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth (and others)

    2006-08-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2006. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2004 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  1. Denmark's national inventory report. Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2001. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illerup, J.B.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, M.; Winther, M.; Hjort Mikkelsen, M.

    2003-04-01

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due bye 15 April 2003. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2001 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}. (au)

  2. Denmark's national inventory report 2007 - Submitted under the United Nations framework convention on climate change, 1990-2005. Emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll Illerup, J.; Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth (and others)

    2007-10-15

    This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2007. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2005 for CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs, PFCs and SF{sub 6}, CO, NMVOC, SO{sub 2}. (au)

  3. Potential Benefits of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amponsah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Data Centers established around the globe with the support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization are used to monitor and manage its data, to control and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapon test explosions. The National Data Center in Ghana was established in February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Center is mandated to collate seismic, radionuclide, infrasound and hydroacoustic data for monitoring nuclear test explosions for global peace. The data are obtained from our neighboring country Cote d’Ivoire and the International Data Center in Austria. The objectives of the Data Center include the following: receive and use data from the International Monitoring System (IMS stations and products derived from the IMS from the International Data Center for verification and compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and for earthquake hazard studies. From 2010 to date local seismic events from the Center are catalogued for earthquake hazard studies in the country. The data are also made available to our stakeholders for earthquake disaster risk reduction. The benefits of the National Data Center to Ghana are numerous. Apart from the data for seismic hazard studies, it can also provide data for research in fisheries, for the study of the crustal structure among others. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.67.1.5402

  4. Potential Benefits of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization to Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Amponsah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The National Data Centers established around the globe with the support of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization are used to monitor and manage its data, to control and ultimately eliminate nuclear weapon test explosions. The National Data Center in Ghana was established in February, 2010 at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. The Center is mandated to collate seismic, radionuclide, infrasound and hydroacoustic data for monitoring nuclear test explosions for global peace. The data are obtained from our neighboring country Cote d’Ivoire and the International Data Center in Austria. The objectives of the Data Center include the following: receive and use data from the International Monitoring System (IMS stations and products derived from the IMS from the International Data Center for verification and compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty and for earthquake hazard studies. From 2010 to date local seismic events from the Center are catalogued for earthquake hazard studies in the country. The data are also made available to our stakeholders for earthquake disaster risk reduction. The benefits of the National Data Center to Ghana are numerous. Apart from the data for seismic hazard studies, it can also provide data for research in fisheries, for the study of the crustal structure among others.

  5. Perceptions and influences of a state prison smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibodeau, Laura; Seal, David W; Jorenby, Douglas E; Corcoran, Kerri; Sosman, James M

    2012-10-01

    Prison smoking bans are increasingly common. It is important to consider how those who are incarcerated respond to these bans and to the subsequent development of contraband tobacco markets. Since there are high rates of smoking in individuals who become incarcerated, along with high rates of chronic illnesses that are exacerbated by smoking, it is critical to examine whether there are health promoting changes in perceptions of and intentions toward smoking and other health behaviors that can be maintained on release to the community. Interviews with incarcerated men experiencing a prison smoking ban revealed their responses to being smoke-free, reactions to the presence of contraband smoking, and the influences of this experience on their intentions to smoke following release.

  6. After the Ainu Shinpō: The United Nations and the Indigenous People of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Porter

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Government recognised the cultural importance of their minority Ainu population in 1997. They designed a law to help protect the dying culture of the people; however the government has been less forthcoming to acknowledge indigenous aspects of the Ainu. Ten years after the creation of this law, the United Nations brought forward the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, a declaration to strengthen not only cultural rights, but also land and self-determination rights. Japan voted in favour of this declaration even though Japanese representatives have made mostly negative comments on the declaration. This article explores the significance of indigenous rights in Japan and how the Japanese Government uses the guise of upholding individual rights to ignore indigenous rights in Japan.

  7. Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in feral horses on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Collins, Gail H.; Dusek, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We screened 1,397 feral horses (Equus caballus) on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States, for IgM and IgG against flavivirus during 2004–2006, 2008, and 2009. Positive serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). One animal was positive for antibody against WNV in 2004, but all others tested in 2004–2006 were negative. In 2008 and 2009, we found evidence of increasing seropositive horses with age, whereas seroprevalence of WNV decreased from 19% in 2008 to 7.2% in 2009. No horses were positive for antibody against SLEV. Being unvaccinated, feral horses can be useful for WNV surveillance.

  8. The Conundrum about the United Nations Security Council: A Guardian of Peace or Cause for Concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdal Aral

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to find out whether the United Nations Security Council (UN SC has been perfoming its primary task of safeguarding international peace and security effectively since the Cold War has become a matter of history. It argues that, contrary to expectations, the SC has failed to confront all credible threats to regional or international peace in a consistent and convincing manner which has dramatically diminished the reliability of this powerful UN body. This paper argues that the problem lies in the problematical structure of, and decision-making in, the SC and in its instrumentalisation at the hands of a handful of states seeking hegemony, inter alia, through this body. The Darfur and East Timor cases, taken up by the SC after the Cold War through a series of resolutions under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, are taken as test cases indicating the extent of politicisation in this organ.

  9. The Conundrum about the United Nations Security Council: A Guardian of Peace or Cause for Concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berdal Aral

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to find out whether the United Nations Security Council (UN SC has been perfoming its primary task of safeguarding international peace and security effectively since the Cold War has become a matter of history. It argues that, contrary to expectations, the SC has failed to confront all credible threats to regional or international peace in a consistent and convincing manner which has dramatically diminished the reliability of this powerful UN body. This paper argues that the problem lies in the problematical structure of, and decision-making in, the SC and in its instrumentalisation at the hands of a handful of states seeking hegemony, inter alia, through this body. The Darfur and East Timor cases, taken up by the SC after the Cold War through a series of resolutions under Chapter VII of the UN Charter, are taken as test cases indicating the extent of politicisation in this organ.

  10. Ozone depletion and solar ultraviolet radiation: ocular effects, a United nations environment programme perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Anthony P

    2011-07-01

    To describe he role played by the United Nations Environmental Effects Panel with respect to the ocular effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and present the essence of the Health Chapter of the 2010 Assessment. A consideration of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the Earth's surface as it is affected by atmospheric changes and how these influence sunlight-related eye diseases. A review of the current Assessment with emphasis on pterygium, cataract, ocular melanoma, and age-related macular degeneration. Although the ozone layer is projected to recover slowly in the coming decades, continuing vigilance is required regarding exposure to the sun. Evidence implicating solar UVR, especially UVB, in every tissue of the eye continues to be amassed. The need for ocular UV protection existed before the discovery of the depletion of the ozone layer and will continue even when the layer fully recovers in approximately 2100.

  11. Thirty years of the United Nations and global ageing: an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Hal; Lucas, Nina; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-10-01

    Over the past three decades, the United Nations (UN) has slowly devoted increasing attention to global ageing. Concern for individually based welfare or health-care programs for older people in developed countries has progressed to also consider the contributions of older people and implications of ageing for socioeconomic advancement in developing countries, including those in Asia Oceania. These shifts are evident in the International Plans of Action on Ageing from Vienna in 1982 to Madrid in 2002; recent 10-year reviews of the Madrid Plan; and current advocacy for inclusion of ageing in the influential UN Millennium Plan post-2015. Australia has demonstrated progressive policies and contributed to ageing developments by the UN, International Federation on Ageing the World Health Organization and the International Association of Gerontology. Key ideas driving further action are the importance of valuing people at all ages, addressing inequalities over the life-course and implementing human rights approaches to ageing. © 2013 ACOTA.

  12. The 70th Anniversary of the Creation of the United Nations: Giving Peace a Chance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guillermet-Fernández

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available War and peace perpetually alternate. Peace is always seen as an endless project, even a dream, to be realised in brotherhood by everyone all over the earth. During the last centuries, outstanding endeavours have been undertaken by the international community to create an international order free from wars through the strengthening of mechanisms aimed at promoting peaceful settlement of disputes. The UN Charter is the most solemn pact of peace in history, which lays down the necessary basic principles for an enduring peace, such as the full respect of fundamental rights. Today, in the context of the 70th Anniversary of the creation of the United Nations, the Human Rights Council should raise the voice of victims to strongly condemn war and to openly reiterate our inalienable right to live in a context in which war and conflict are progressively eliminated on earth through the promotion of mutual understanding, tolerance, respect for human rights and peaceful relationships.

  13. The role of Ethiopia's public universities in achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Paul

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, the Ethiopian government has embarked on an ambitious agriculture development strategy aimed at raising Ethiopia to the status of a middle-income-level country by 2025. Encouraged by the international development push behind the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the rapid expansion of public universities has taken centre stage in facilitating the country's aim of equipping a new generation with the expertise needed to fuel the country's economic development. While impressive strides have been made over the last two decades, various development challenges threaten to derail this promising progress. This article examines three of the main challenges - urbanisation, climate change and food security - and the potential for universities to address them. Based on a study using key informant analysis research with 50 experts in Ethiopian education and development, the author concludes that the developing public university system offers promising capabilities to assist the country on its developmental path despite many inherent problems.

  14. Invitation withdrawn: humanitarian action, United Nations peacekeeping, and state sovereignty in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsrud, John; Felix da Costa, Diana

    2013-10-01

    This paper looks at the three-way relationship between the Government of Chad, humanitarians, and the United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) from 2004 until June 2011. Chad was never comfortable with the international presence of either humanitarians or peacekeepers and asserted its sovereignty increasingly during this period. MINURCAT was deployed in 2008 to protect humanitarian workers and to facilitate the provision of humanitarian assistance in eastern Chad. This association between the UN mission and humanitarian agencies contributed to making the latter the target of repressive practices by the government, such as the imposition of armed escorts. Facing a steep learning curve, Chad and its state officials gradually appropriated the discourse of the humanitarian and international community and ultimately, in 2010, requested the departure of MINURCAT, claiming that they could meet the protection needs of vulnerable populations in eastern Chad on their own.

  15. The United Nations' humanitarian pillar: refocusing the UN's disaster and emergency roles and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Randolph C

    2004-06-01

    Changes in the nature of humanitarian crises and in the ways that the international community responds to such crises demand a radically overhauled role for the United Nations system. At a time when the UN and its member states are pursuing reform of some of that institution's most fundamental peace and security functions, this paper suggests that reform, too, is required to meet humanitarian crises of the future. This paper proposes a new type of operational role for the UN, while at the same time arguing that the UN has to place itself in the vanguard of humanitarian assistance as "the standard-bearer". The article draws many of its conclusions and recommendations from a recently completed study, requested by the Inter-Agency Standing Committee, concerning the effect for the UN system of changes in humanitarian financing.

  16. Affinity communities in United Nations voting: Implications for democracy, cooperation, and conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Scott D.; Cranmer, Skyler J.

    2017-10-01

    A network oriented examination of the co-voting network of the United Nations (UN) provides powerful insights into the international alignment of states, as well as normatively important processes such as democracy, defensive cooperation, and armed conflict. Here, we investigate the UN co-voting network using the tools of community detection and inductively identify ;affinity communities; in which states articulate similar policy preferences through their voting patterns. Analysis of these communities reveals that there is more information contained in UN voting and co-voting patterns than has previously been thought. Affinity communities have complex relationships with some of the most normatively important international outcomes: they reflect transitions to democracy, have a feedback loop with the formation of defensive alliances, and actively help states avoid armed conflict.

  17. Status Report on the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI)

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, H J

    2010-01-01

    Since 1990, the UN Programme on Space Applications leads the United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative by contributing to the international and regional development of astronomy and space science through annual UN/ESA/NASA/JAXA workshops on basic space science, International Heliophysical Year 2007, and the International Space Weather Initiative. Space weather is the conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and can endanger human life or health. The programme also coordinates the development of IHY/ISWI low-cost, ground-based, world-wide instrument arrays. To date, 14 world-wide instrument arrays comprising approximately 1000 instruments (GPS receivers, magnetometers, spectrometers, particle detectors) are operating in more than 71 countries. The most recent workshop was hosted by the Republic of Korea in 2009 for Asia and the Pacific. Annual workshops on ...

  18. Causal regulations vs. political will: why human zoonotic infections increase despite precautionary bans on animal antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis A; Ricci, Paolo F

    2008-05-01

    Using precautionary principles when facing incomplete facts and causal conjectures raises the possibility of a Faustian bargain. This paper applies systems dynamics based on previously unavailable data to show how well intended precautionary policies for promoting food safety may backfire unless they are informed by quantitative cause-and-effect models of how animal antibiotics affect animal and human health. We focus on European Union and United States formulations of regulatory precaution and then analyze zoonotic infections in terms of the consequences of relying on political will to justify precautionary bans. We do not attempt a political analysis of these issues; rather, we conduct a regulatory analysis of precautionary legal requirements and use Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) to assess a set of policy outcomes. Thirty-seven years ago, the Joint Committee on the Use of Antibiotics in Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine (the Swann Report) warned that uncontrolled use of similar antibiotics in humans and food animals could promote the emergence of resistant strains of foodborne bacteria that could endanger human health. Since then, many countries have either banned or restricted antibiotics as feed additives for promoting animal growth. Others, including the United States, have relied on prudent use guidelines and programs that reduce total microbial loads, rather than focusing exclusively on antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In retrospect, the regulatory strategy of banning or restricting animal antibiotic uses has had limited success: it has been followed in many cases by deteriorating animal health and increases in human illnesses and resistance rates. Conversely, a combination of continued prudent use of antibiotics to prevent and control animal infections, together with HACCP and other improvements, has been followed by large improvements in the microbial safety of chickens and other food animals in the United States, leaving both animals and people

  19. A national survey of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, D E; Emmons, C A; Wallenstein, S; Quill, T; Morrison, R S; Cassel, C K

    1998-04-23

    Although there have been many studies of physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia in the United States, national data are lacking. In 1996, we mailed questionnaires to a stratified probability sample of 3102 physicians in the 10 specialties in which doctors are most likely to receive requests from patients for assistance with suicide or euthanasia. We weighted the results to obtain nationally representative data. We received 1902 completed questionnaires (response rate, 61 percent). Eleven percent of the physicians said that under current legal constraints, there were circumstances in which they would be willing to hasten a patient's death by prescribing medication, and 7 percent said that they would provide a lethal injection; 36 percent and 24 percent, respectively, said that they would do so if it were legal. Since entering practice, 18.3 percent of the physicians (unweighted number, 320) reported having received a request from a patient for assistance with suicide and 11.1 percent (unweighted number, 196) had received a request for a lethal injection. Sixteen percent of the physicians receiving such requests (unweighted number, 42), or 3.3 percent of the entire sample, reported that they had written at least one prescription to be used to hasten death, and 4.7 percent (unweighted number, 59), said that they had administered at least one lethal injection. A substantial proportion of physicians in the United States report that they receive requests for physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia, and about 7 percent of those who responded to our survey have complied with such requests at least once.

  20. Community health worker training and certification programs in the United States: findings from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kash, Bita Arbab; May, Marlynn Lee; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2007-01-01

    To analyze trends and various approaches to professional development in selected community health worker (CHW) training and certification programs in the United States. We examined the expected outcomes and goals of different training and certification programs related to individual CHWs as well as the community they serve. A national survey of CHW training and certification programs. Data collection was performed through personal interviews, phone interviews and focus groups. Data sources included public health officials, healthcare associations, CHW networks, community colleges, and service providers. Initial screening interviews resulted in in-depth interviews with participants in 19 states. We applied human capital theory concepts to the analysis of the rich qualitative data collected in each state. CHW programs in the U.S. seem to have been initiated mainly due to lack of access to healthcare services in culturally, economically, and geographically isolated communities. Three trends in CHW workforce development were identified from the results of the national survey: (1) schooling at the community college level - provides career advancement opportunities; (2) on-the-job training - improves standards of care, CHW income, and retention; and (3) certification at the state level - recognizes the work of CHWs, and facilitates Medicaid reimbursement for CHW services. Study findings present opportunities for CHW knowledge and skill improvement approaches that can be targeted at specific individual career, service agency, or community level goals. Trained and/or certified community health workers are a potential new and skilled healthcare workforce that could help improve healthcare access and utilization among underserved populations in the United States.

  1. United States Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration Sandia Field Office NESHAP Annual Report CY2014 for Sandia National Laboratories New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    evelo, stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-05-01

    This report provides a summary of the radionuclide releases from the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration facilities at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) during Calendar Year (CY) 2014, including the data, calculations, and supporting documentation for demonstrating compliance with 40 Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) 61, Subpart H--NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR EMISSIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES OTHER THAN RADON FROM DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FACILITIES. A description is given of the sources and their contributions to the overall dose assessment. In addition, the maximally exposed individual (MEI) radiological dose calculation and the population dose to local and regional residents are discussed.

  2. Delineation of Waters of the United States for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R E

    2006-09-25

    This report presents the results of a delineation of waters of the United States, including wetlands, for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300 in Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, California. Jones & Stokes mapped vegetation at Site 300 in August, 2001, using Global Positioning System (GPS) data recorders to collect point locations and to record linear features and map unit polygons. We identified wetlands boundaries in the field on the basis of the plant community present. We returned to collect additional information on wetland soils on July 3, 2002. Forty-six wetlands were identified, with a total area of 3.482 hectares (8.605 acres). The wetlands include vernal pools, freshwater seeps, and seasonal ponds. Wetlands appearing to meet the criteria for federal jurisdictional total 1.776 hectares (4.388 acres). A delineation map is presented and a table is provided with information on the type, size, characteristic plant species of each wetland, and a preliminary jurisdictional assessment.

  3. Community Essay: Comprehensive conservation planning and ecological sustainability within the United States National Wildlife Refuge System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Schroeder

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available For the past ten years, I have had the privilege of working with the National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service as it develops Comprehensive Conservation Plans (CCP for each refuge unit. I have read and studied published CCPs, and paid particular attention to the scientific and biological aspects of these plans. Of particular interest to me has been the mandate to sustain healthy populations of fish, wildlife, and plants and the biological integrity, diversity, and environmental health of the refuge system, or, essentially, the “ecological sustainability” of the system. One of the great difficulties in trying to implement a concept as profound and complex as ecological sustainability is to determine how one might measure progress toward its achievement. In this essay, I have tried to select a few simple but relevant factors to serve as indicators of such progress. A wise older friend of mine, in explaining her personal view of changing the world, said that some of the problems we face are like a huge ball blocking our path. She knew that she alone could not move the ball, but her goal was to at least nudge it in the right direction. It is my hope that this essay serves as a nudge to NWRS as it moves toward the goal of ecological sustainability.

  4. RECALMIN: The association between management of Spanish National Health Service Internal Medical Units and health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero-Gaviria, Antonio; Javier Elola-Somoza, Francisco; Casariego-Vales, Emilio; Fernandez-Perez, Cristina; Gomez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Bernal, José Luis; Barba-Martín, Raquel

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the association between management of Internal Medical Units (IMUs) with outcomes (mortality and length of stay) within the Spanish National Health Service. Data on management were obtained from a descriptive transversal study performed among IMUs of the acute hospitals. Outcome indicators were taken from an administrative database of all hospital discharges from the IMUs. Spanish National Health Service. One hundred and twenty-four acute general hospitals with available data of management and outcomes (401 424 discharges). IMU risk standardized mortality rates were calculated using a multilevel model adjusted by Charlson Index. Risk standardized myocardial infarction and heart failure mortality rates were calculated using specific multilevel models. Length of stay was adjusted by complexity. Greater hospital complexity was associated with longer average length of stays (r: 0.42; P hospital mortality rates were higher at larger hospitals, but no significant differences were found when mortality was risk adjusted. There was an association between nurse workload with mortality rate for selected conditions (r: 0.25; P = 0.009). Safety committee and multidisciplinary ward rounds were also associated with outcomes. We have not found any association between complexity and intra-hospital mortality. There is an association between some management indicators with intra-hospital mortality and the length of stay. Better disease-specific outcomes adjustments and a larger number of IMUs in the sample may provide more insights about the association between management of IMUs with healthcare outcomes.

  5. Treatments and outcomes of peritoneal surface tumors through a centralized national service (United kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, S; Renehan, A G; Parkinson, M F; Saunders, M P; Fulford, P E; Wilson, M S; O'Dwyer, S T

    2009-10-01

    Treatment of peritoneal surface malignancies with combined cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy may improve oncologic outcome. To better define treatment pathways, five-year results in patients referred to one of two centralized national treatment centers in the United Kingdom were analyzed. A prospective database of patients referred to the Manchester Peritoneal Tumor Service, established in 2002, was analyzed. Outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier life tables and Cox models. Two hundred seventy-eight patients (median age, 56.9 (range, 16-86) years) were considered by a dedicated multidisciplinary team and tracked on seven clinical pathways. Among the 118 surgically treated, the most common diagnosis was pseudomyxoma peritonei (101 patients, 86%). Major complications occurred in 11 patients (9%); there was no 30-day mortality. Where complete cytoreduction was achieved, three-year and five-year tumor-related survival rates were 94% and 86%, respectively. In the Cox model, incompleteness of cytoreduction (P = 0.001) and high-grade tumor (P < 0.0001) were independent prognosticators of poor outcome. The establishment of a national treatment center has allowed refinement of techniques to achieve internationally recognized results. Having achieved low levels of morbidity and mortality in the treatment of mainly pseudomyxoma peritonei of appendiceal origin, the technique of cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy may be considered for peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin.

  6. Disgust and Contamination: A Cross-National Comparison of Ghana and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolnick, Alexander J.; Dzokoto, Vivian A.

    2012-01-01

    The emotion of disgust, with feelings of revulsion and behavioral withdrawal, make it a prime emotion to aid in the avoidance of sources of contamination, including sources of potential infectious disease. We tested the theory that living in a region with a historically high prevalence of infectious diseases would promote higher levels of disgust and contamination sensitivity as a protective measure. A sample of undergraduates from Ghana (n = 103, 57 women), a country with a historically high prevalence of infectious diseases, showed significantly higher scores on scales assessing disgust, contamination, and disease susceptibility than a sample of undergraduates from the United States (n = 96, 58 women), a country with lower levels of disease threat. Contamination sensitivity mediated the national differences in disgust. Disgust connoting contamination also produced larger cross-national effect sizes than other types of disgust. Finally, a factor analysis on the Ghanaian responses to one of the disgust scales did not resemble the usual three-factor solution found in West. Taken together, the results were consistent with the hypothesis that a region with a higher prevalence of infectious disease threats would produce greater sensitivity to disgust and contamination than seen in lower disease threat regions. This first study on disgust in Africa showed that disgust sensitivity could differ considerably from that in the West. PMID:23450744

  7. National patterns in environmental injustice and inequality: outdoor NO2 air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2014-01-01

    We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, penvironmental health implications of that concentration disparity are compelling. For example, we estimate that reducing nonwhites' NO2 concentrations to levels experienced by whites would reduce Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) mortality by ∼7,000 deaths per year, which is equivalent to 16 million people increasing their physical activity level from inactive (0 hours/week of physical activity) to sufficiently active (>2.5 hours/week of physical activity). Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08). Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile) for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

  8. Sexual orientation and substance abuse treatment utilization in the United States: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T; Hughes, Tonda L; Boyd, Carol J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined substance abuse treatment utilization across three dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction, and behavior) in a large national sample of adults in the United States. Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The sample consisted of 34,653 adults 20 years and older, and represented a population that was 52% women, 71% White, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian, and 2% other race/ethnicities. An estimated 2% of the target population self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported same-sex sexual behavior, and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Sexual minorities, especially women, had a greater likelihood of lifetime substance use disorders and earlier age of drinking onset. The majority of respondents with substance use disorders were untreated and lifetime substance abuse treatment utilization differed based on sexual orientation. Sexual minorities were found to have more extensive family histories of substance abuse problems. The findings indicate the underutilization of substance abuse treatment among all adults, and highlight some important factors to consider when working with sexual minorities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. National patterns in environmental injustice and inequality: outdoor NO2 air pollution in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara P Clark

    Full Text Available We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, p2.5 hours/week of physical activity. Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08. Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin.

  10. National Patterns in Environmental Injustice and Inequality: Outdoor NO2 Air Pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P.; Millet, Dylan B.; Marshall, Julian D.

    2014-01-01

    We describe spatial patterns in environmental injustice and inequality for residential outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations in the contiguous United States. Our approach employs Census demographic data and a recently published high-resolution dataset of outdoor NO2 concentrations. Nationally, population-weighted mean NO2 concentrations are 4.6 ppb (38%, p2.5 hours/week of physical activity). Inequality for NO2 concentration is greater than inequality for income (Atkinson Index: 0.11 versus 0.08). Low-income nonwhite young children and elderly people are disproportionately exposed to residential outdoor NO2. Our findings establish a national context for previous work that has documented air pollution environmental injustice and inequality within individual US metropolitan areas and regions. Results given here can aid policy-makers in identifying locations with high environmental injustice and inequality. For example, states with both high injustice and high inequality (top quintile) for outdoor residential NO2 include New York, Michigan, and Wisconsin. PMID:24736569

  11. [RECALMIN. Patient care in the internal medicine units of the Spanish national health system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapatero Gaviria, A; Barba Martín, R; Román Sánchez, P; Casariego Vales, E; Diez Manglano, J; García Cors, M; Jusdado Ruiz-Capillas, J J; Suárez Fernández, C; Bernal, J L; Elola Somoza, F J

    2016-05-01

    To perform a situation analysis of the care provided by internal medicine units (IMUs) in Spain and to develop, based on this analysis, proposals for improving the quality of care in these units. A descriptive, cross-sectional study of the IMUs of general acute care hospitals of the Spanish National Health System (SNHS), with data referring to 2013. The study variables were collected via an ad hoc questionnaire. Of the total 260hospitals identified in the SNHS, 142responses were obtained from 139hospitals throughout Spain, which represents 53.5% of the IMUs in the SNHS. The mean number of internists per IMU was 14±8, with a mean rate of 7.2±3.3 internists per 100,000 inhabitants. In 2013, the average number of hospital discharges from the IMU was 2,987±2,066, and those discharged by internists was 232±107. Sixty-one percent of the IMUs had implemented an interconsultation unit, and 41% had implemented a systematic care program for complex chronic patients. Thirty-three percent of the IMUs conducted multidisciplinary rounds, and 60% of these IMUs planned the discharge. The 2013 RECALMIN survey revealed a number of important aspects of the organisation, structure and management of IMUs. The remarkable variability in the indicators of structure, activity and management probably reflect significant differences in efficiency and productivity, which therefore provide significant room for improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  12. Current and Future Deposition of Reactive Nitrogen to United States National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, R.; Jacob, D. J.; Zhang, L.; Payer, M.; Holmes, C. D.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    The concentrations of reactive nitrogen species in the atmosphere have been altered by anthropogenic activities such as fossil fuel combustion and agriculture. The United States National Parks are protected areas wherein the natural habitat is to be conserved for future generations. However, deposition of reactive nitrogen (N) to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems can lead to changes, some of which may not be reversible. We investigate the deposition of N to U.S. National Parks using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model with 0.5 x 0.667 degree resolution over North America. We compare the annual nitrogen deposition for each park to a critical load, above which significant harmful effects on specific ecosystem elements are likely to occur. For our base year 2006, we find 9 parks to be in exceedance of their critical load, mainly located in the east where N deposition can reach up to 25 kg N per hectare per year. Future changes in N deposition are also investigated using the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) emission scenarios for 2050. We use RCP8.5 as a "business-as-usual" scenario for N deposition and find that under this emission scenario, 18 parks are predicted to be in exceedance of their critical loads by the year 2050. Most of this increase in N deposition is due to increases in the emissions of ammonia. RCP4.5 was used as a more optimistic scenario but we still find 12 parks in exceedance of their critical loads. This work suggests that in order to meet N deposition critical load goals in U.S. National Parks, policy-makers should consider regulations on ammonia.

  13. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Parker, A.F.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides summary information on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) sites as listed in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), dated January 1, 1992, Appendix C. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory was built in 1943 as part of the World War II Manhattan Project. The original mission of ORNL was to produce and chemically separate the first gram-quantities of plutonium as part of the national effort to produce the atomic bomb. The current mission of ORNL is to provide applied research and development in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in nuclear fusion and fission, energy conservation, fossil fuels, and other energy technologies and to perform basic scientific research in selected areas of the physical, life, and environmental sciences. ER is also tasked with clean up or mitigation of environmental impacts resulting from past waste management practices on portions of the approximately 37,000 acres within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Other installations located within the ORR are the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25) and the Y-12 plant. The remedial action strategy currently integrates state and federal regulations for efficient compliance and approaches for both investigations and remediation efforts on a Waste Area Grouping (WAG) basis. As defined in the ORR FFA Quarterly Report July - September 1995, a WAG is a grouping of potentially contaminated sites based on drainage area and similar waste characteristics. These contaminated sites are further divided into four categories based on existing information concerning whether the data are generated for scoping or remedial investigation (RI) purposes. These areas are as follows: (1) Operable Units (OU); (2) Characterization Areas (CA); (3) Remedial Site Evaluation (RSE) Areas; and (4) Removal Site Evaluation (RmSE) Areas.

  14. Banned Books: A Study of Censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossuck, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a course on censorship taught at an all-girls high school in Tacoma, Washington, drew on current event controversies to initiate discussion. Outlines the course's four units and uses Ray Bradbury's "Fahrenheit 451" to frame course questions. (TB)

  15. Improving the smoking patterns in a general hospital psychiatric unit

    OpenAIRE

    Celso Iglesias García; María José Alonso Villa; Juan Carlos Bernaldo de Quirós; Elena Bocanegra Suárez; Julia Cueta Gonzalo; Rosario García del Valle; José Manuel González González; Álvaro Miranda García; Ana Belén Palacio Bande

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the present paper is to evaluate the effects of a smoking ban in a general hospital psychiatric unit. Methods: We study the effects of smoking ban in 40 consecutive psychiatric inpatients. The staff registered socio-demographic and tobacco-related variables. We also registered any kind of behavioral effects of smoking ban.Results: The patients were willing to stop smoking during their hospital stay (with or without nicotine replacement) with two mild behavioural inc...

  16. Contributions of the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs to the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI)

    CERN Document Server

    Haubold, H J; Balogh, W

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space began consideration of a new agenda item under a three-year work plan on the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI). The main objectives of ISWI are to contribute to the development of the scientific insight necessary to improve understanding and forecasting capabilities of space weather as well as to education and public outreach. The United Nations Programme on Space Applications, implemented by the Office for Outer Space Affairs, is implementing ISWI in the framework of its United Nations Basic Space Science Initiative (UNBSSI), a long-term effort, launched in 1991, for the development of basic space science and for international and regional cooperation in this field on a worldwide basis, particularly in developing countries. UNBSSI encompassed a series of workshops, held from 1991 to 2004, which addressed the status of basic space science in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Western Asia. As ...

  17. Climate action report. 1997 Submission of the United States of America under the United Nations framework convention on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Contents: Introduction and Overview; National Circumstances; Greenhouse Gas Inventory; Mitigating Climate Change; Vulnerability and Adaptation; Research and Systematic Observation; Education, Training, and Outreach; International Activities; Appendix A: Climate Plan Actions; Appendix B: IPCC Reporting Tables; and Appendix C: Bibliography.

  18. Two-Way Interpretation about Climate Change: Preliminary Results from a Study in Select Units of the United States National Park System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forist, B. E.; Knapp, D.

    2014-12-01

    Much interpretation in units of the National Park System, conducted by National Park Service (NPS) rangers and partners today is done in a didactic, lecture style. This "one-way" communication runs counter to research suggesting that long-term impacts of park interpretive experiences must be established through direct connections with the visitor. Previous research in interpretation has suggested that interpretive experiences utilizing a "two-way" dialogue approach are more successful at facilitating long-term memories than "one-way" approaches where visitors have few, if any, opportunities to ask questions, offer opinions, or share interests and experiences. Long-term memories are indicators of connections to places and resources. Global anthropogenic change poses critical threats to NPS sites, resources, and visitor experiences. As climate change plays an ever-expanding role in public, political, social, economic, and environmental discourse it stands to reason that park visitors may also be interested in engaging in this discourse. Indeed, NPS Director Jonathan Jarvis stated in the agency's Climate Change Action Plan 2012 - 2014 that, "We now know through social science conducted in parks that our visitors are looking to NPS staff for honest dialogue about this critical issue." Researchers from Indiana University will present preliminary findings from a multiple park study that assessed basic visitor knowledge and the impact of two-way interpretation related to climate change. Observations from park interpretive program addressing climate change will be presented. Basic visitor knowledge of climate change impacts in the select parks as well as immediate and long-term visitor recollections will be presented. Select units of the National Park System in this research included Cape Cod National Seashore, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Cascades National Park, Shenandoah National Park, and Zion National Park.

  19. The neglected repercussions of a physician advertising ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, S.

    2014-01-01

    Although the adverse implications of physician advertising are the subject of a fierce and sustained debate, there is almost no scholarly discussion on the ethical repercussions of physician advertising bans. The present paper draws attention to these repercussions as they exist today in most of the

  20. Lifting the ban on brothels : Prostitution in 2000-2001

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daalder, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    On October 1, 2000 the general ban on brothels in the Netherlands was lifted. The core of the legislation is that those forms of prostitution in which adult prostitutes are voluntarily engaged are no longer illegal. This report is the English translation of the first comprehensive, evaluative report