WorldWideScience

Sample records for united kingdom mlva-27

  1. Studying in the United Kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The United Kingdom is among the world leaders in recruiting international students.Joanna Burke,Cultural Counselor in the Cultural and Education Section of the British Embassy in China,recently spoke about international students,especially Chinese students in the United Kingdom,with Beijing Review reporter Wang Hairong.

  2. Studying in the United Kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Beijing Review:The United Kingdom has many top universities in the world. Could you please tell us how many inter-national students are enrolled in UK institutes of higher learning and how many are from China?

  3. United Kingdom: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Richardson, Erica; Findley, Lisa; Longley, Marcus; O'Neill, Ciaran; Steel, David

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the United Kingdom health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. It provides an overview of how the national health services operate in the four nations that make up the United Kingdom, as responsibility for organizing health financing and services was devolved from 1997. With devolution, the health systems in the United Kingdom have diverged in the details of how services are organized and paid for, but all have maintained national health services which provide universal access to a comprehensive package of services that are mostly free at the point of use. These health services are predominantly financed from general taxation and 83.5% of total health expenditure in the United Kingdom came from public sources in 2013. Life expectancy has increased steadily across the United Kingdom, but health inequalities have proved stubbornly resistant to improvement, and the gap between the most deprived and the most privileged continues to widen, rather than close. The United Kingdom faces challenges going forward, including how to cope with the needs of an ageing population, how to manage populations with poor health behaviours and associated chronic conditions, how to meet patient expectations of access to the latest available medicines and technologies, and how to adapt a system that has limited resources to expand its workforce and infrastructural capacity so it can rise to these challenges.

  4. Brexit and Devolution in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keating

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Devolution in the United Kingdom is deeply connected to United Kingdom membership of the European Union, which provides an external support system for the internal settlement. Exit from the European Union destabilizes the internal settlement and raises a series of major constitutional issues.

  5. Decommissioning: a United Kingdom perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haworth, A.; Reed, D.L.; Bleeze, A. [Health and Safety Executive, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The paper considers the United Kingdom legislative framework relevant to decommissioning of facilities on nuclear licensed sites. It describes the various legislative bodies involved in regulating this activity and the inspectorate concerned. The licensing regime is described in some detail highlighting the UK arrangements whereby a license is granted for the site upon which nuclear facilities are planned or exist. The license remains in place throughout the life of the plant on the site: from initial planning through to the end of decommissioning. A site (of part of) is not de-licensed until it can be stated that there has ceased to be any danger from ionising radiations from anything on the site (or appropriate part of the site). The final part of the paper considers the changes arising from the commercialization of the nuclear power industry in UK and the restatement of the Nuclear Installation Inspectorate`s policy on decommissioning which has arisen as a result of a review made in response to these changes. (author).

  6. United Kingdom electric system privatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lolli, A. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))

    1992-03-01

    This paper reviews the mechanics and first results of deregulation in the electric power industry of the United Kingdom. Several aspects are dealt with, namely: 1983 Energy Act impacts on ownership and subsequent changes brought about by the 1989 Energy Act; the Act's stipulations with regard to share acquisition and distribution; the division of the patrimony of the Area Boards; natural monopolistic characteristics of power distribution; vertical integration in Scotland, target investment limits in Government and public participation; the 'golden share' concept to guarantee public participation; current 40% share ownership by the Government; 15% private ownership limit for individual investors; external control by Government of licensing and rate structure setting; the impacts of organizational changes on the overall cost benefits of deregulation; modified Governmental regulatory powers; measures to ensure competition and consumer protection; provisions regarding misbehaviour; second tier suppliers and reserve fuel supply obligations; deregulation impacts on nuclear power marketing; power pooling regulations; installation of new transmission lines; provisions encouraging the use of diverse energy sources; franchising; interconnection with national grid; regulation of technical operations; standby as it affects rate structure; and spot market pricing.

  7. Education in practice: the United Kingdom experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhead, K

    2001-04-01

    Health care leaders, government agencies, and professional nursing associations all understand that rethinking existing delivery strategies is part of the strategic approach to workforce planning. In the United Kingdom, the demand for nurses is great and the supply inadequate. The potential for a public health crisis is challenging the way the United Kingdom educates and positions nurses within the health care industry. This article reviews past efforts and current strategies in workforce characteristics, age, educational mix, competencies, career goals, and future plans to ensure adequate nurses to care for the health needs of the people residing in the United Kingdom. The activities of the National Association of Theatre Nurses in promoting dialogue around this issue and fostering collaborative initiatives are presented in a framework of efforts designed to benefit all.

  8. Vascular injury in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, Adam; Brohi, Karim; Tai, Nigel

    2011-03-01

    Surgeons working within the United Kingdom's National Health Service have an established history of clinical innovation, research, and development in the field of vascular surgery but lack a unified trauma system to deliver optimal care for patients with vascular injury. The low incidence of vascular trauma, combined with lack of regional trauma systems, works against optimal delivery of care to the polytrauma patient. Providing care, robust data capture, and opportunities for training and education in vascular injury lag behind other elective domains of vascular practice. The challenge is to define ideal care pathways, referral networks, and standards of practice and to integrate the care of such patients. In 2010, a trauma system for London was introduced; it has provided vascular surgeons with a unique opportunity to study and advance the care of patients with vascular injury. This article discusses developing trauma network issues, particularly the organization and evolution of vascular trauma services in the United Kingdom.

  9. United Kingdom (Wales): Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Marcus; Riley, Neil; Davies, Paul; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Wales is situated to the west of England, with a population of approximately 3 million (5% of the total for the United Kingdom), and a land mass of just over 20 000 km2. For several decades, Wales had a health system largely administered through the United Kingdom Governments Welsh Office, but responsibility for most aspects of health policy was devolved to Wales in a process beginning in 1999. Since then, differences between the policy approach and framework in England and Wales have widened. The internal market introduced in the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) has been abandoned in Wales, and seven local health boards (LHBs; supported by three specialist NHS trusts) now plan and provide all health services for their resident populations. Wales currently has more than 120 hospitals as part of an overall estate valued at 2.3 billion pounds. Total spending on health services increased in the first decade of the 21st century, but Wales now faces a period of financial retrenchment greater than in other parts of the United Kingdom as a result of the Welsh Governments decision not to afford the same degree of protection to health spending as that granted elsewhere. The health system in Wales continues to face some structural weaknesses that have proved resistant to reform for some time. However, there has been substantial improvement in service quality and outcomes since the end of the 1990s, in large part facilitated by substantial real growth in health spending. Life expectancy has continued to increase, but health inequalities have proved stubbornly resistant to improvement.

  10. Aeronautical progress in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Cockburn

    1953-07-01

    Full Text Available The progress in aeronautics in the United Kingdom from 1903 to the present-day has been traced. The advance in design could be traced partly to the steady improvement in techniques such as strength of materials, structural methods, aerodynamics and engine design, and partly to definite technical discontinuities such as the introduction of the unbraced monoplane and later of the jet turbine. The key to this progress has been the large investment made in science and technical research and the healthy integration between industrial enterprise and government planning.

  11. [Primary care in the United Kingdom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-03-01

    The inadequate planning of health professionals in Spain has boosted the way out of doctors overseas. The United Kingdom is one of the countries chosen by Spanish doctors to develop their job. The National Health Service is a health system similar to the Spanish one. Health care services are financing mainly through taxes. The right to health care is linked to the citizen condition. The provision of health care is a mix-up of public and private enterprises. Primary Care is much closed to Spanish Primary Care. Doctors are "self-employed like" professionals. They can set their surgeries in a free area previously designed by the government. They have the right to make their own team and to manage their own budget. Medical salary is linked to professional capability and curriculum vitae. The main role of a General Practitioner is the prevention. Team work and coordination within primary and specialised care is more developed than in Spain. The access to diagnostic tests and to the specialist is controlled through waiting lists. General Practitioners work as gate-keepers. Patients may choose freely their doctor and consultations and hospital care are free at the point of use. Within the United Kingdom there are also health regions with problems due to inequalities to access and to treatment. There is a training path and the access to it is by Curricula. The number of training jobs is regulated by the local needs. Continuing education is compulsory and strictly regulated local and nationally. The National Health Service was the example for the Spanish health reform in 1986. While Spanish Primary health care is of quality, the efficiency of the health system would improve if staff in Primary Care settings were managed in a similar way to the British's.

  12. Digital Dissertations in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Matheson

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom a user wishing to consult a UK thesis has traditionally had the following choices: the thesis may be consulted in the Library of the Higher Education Institution (HEI to which it was submitted; the thesis may be borrowed from the library of the HEI; a copy of the thesis may be purchased form the library of the HEI; the thesis may be borrowed through inter-library loan; or the thesis may be made available through the British Library’s British Thesis Service, which was set up in 1971. This Service currently holds more than 150,000 UK theses, which are added to at a rate of around 7,000 a year, with the participation of about a hundred Higher Education Institutions (HEIs. With the development of new technology, however, an interest developed in examining the feasibility of making theses available online to users. In the United Kingdom, the University Theses Online Group (UTOG was established as a consequence of a proposal to the Follett Implementation Group on Information Technology in 1994. The University Theses Online Group (UTOG is a working group of UK university librarians: the Group’s aims are to investigate the technical, cultural and administrative issues associated with the storage and delivery of theses in online form. The Group is made up of representatives of the British Library Document Supply Centre (BLDSC, British Thesis Service, and the university libraries of Cranfield, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leeds, Manchester, Plymouth, Robert Gordon, University College London, Kent, University of London and Warwick.

  13. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward.

  14. Industrial maxillofacial injuries in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Geoff A; Bullock, M; Edwards, A

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of maxillofacial injuries forms a substantial part of the work in oral and maxillofacial units, but injuries sustained in work-related incidents are uncommon, mainly because of the strict enforcement of Health and Safety policies. We used data from the Health and Safety Executive in the United Kingdom to review the incidence and aetiology of maxillofacial injuries that result from industrial accidents in the UK, and highlight the case of a worker who sustained an isolated fracture of the nasoethmoidal complex when he was trapped in a cheese press. In 2010-2011, roughly 115,379 accidents or incidents at work were reported in the UK, and of the 1623 (1%) that were maxillofacial, 81% occurred in the service sector. The most common mechanism of injury was assault (37%) and the most common injury was contusion (30%). Since the introduction of the Health and Safety Act, work-related accidents in the UK have decreased considerably. However, they will continue to occur because of human error.

  15. Electronic democracy and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen M. Segell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las elecciones generales del reino Unido en 1997 constituyeron un evento histórico al introducir nueva tecnología y flujos de información. Ello fue iniciado por partidos políticos y utilizado por la media. El proceso empoderó a los ciudadanos a través de una democracia electrónica desafiando el establecimiento del sistema de gobierno del Westminster. El modelo de sociedad civil describe de la mejor manera el evento y sus consecuencias. El acontecimiento, ubicado en el contexto de un proceso de redes informáticas y de una revolución política, genera una apreciación histórica de su significado._________________ABSTRACT:The 1997 United Kingdom general election was a historical event introducing new technology and information flows. This was initiated by political parties and utilised by the media. The process empowered citizens into electronic democracy challenging the establishment system of Westminster government. The civil-society model best describes the event and consequences. The event placed in context of the process of computer networking and of the political devolution generates a historical appreciation of its significance.

  16. United Kingdom (Northern Ireland): Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Ciaran; McGregor, Pat; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    The political context within which Northern Irelands integrated health and social care system operates has changed since the establishment of a devolved administration (the Northern Ireland Assembly, set up in 1998 but suspended between 2002 and 2007). A locally elected Health Minister now leads the publicly financed system and has considerable power to set policy and, in principle, to determine the operation of other health and social care bodies. The system underwent major reform following the passing of the Health and Social Care (Reform) Act (Northern Ireland) in 2009. The reform maintained the quasi purchaser provider split already in place but reduced the number and increased the size of many of the bodies involved in purchasing (known locally as commissioning) and delivering services. Government policy has generally placed greater emphasis on consultation and cooperation among health and social care bodies (including the department, commissioners and care providers) than on competition. The small size of the population (1.8 million) and Northern Irelands geographical isolation from the rest of the United Kingdom provide a rationale for eschewing a more competitive model. Without competition, effective control over the system requires information and transparency to ensure provider challenge, and a body outside the system to hold it to account. The restoration of the locally elected Assembly in 2007 has created such a body, but it remains to be seen how effectively it will exercise accountability.

  17. Brain death: the United kingdom perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) has incorporated a brainstem formulation into its brain death criteria since the first guidelines were published in 1976. A clinical diagnosis incorporating three sequential but interdependent steps is sufficient for the determination of brain death in the UK. There must be no doubt that the patient's comatose condition is due to irreversible brain damage of known etiology, and potentially reversible causes of coma and apnea, such as drug effects, metabolic or endocrine disturbances, or hypothermia, must be excluded. A clinical examination of brainstem reflexes and an apnea test is then undertaken. Confirmatory tests are not required in the UK, but may be useful to reduce any element of uncertainty or minimize the period of observation prior to the diagnosis of brainstem death if the preconditions for clinical testing are not met, or if a comprehensive neurologic examination is not possible. Brainstem death must be diagnosed by two doctors who must be present at each of the two sets of clinical tests that are required to determine death. Although death is not confirmed until the second test has been completed, the legal time of death is when the first test confirms the absence of brainstem reflexes.

  18. International Education in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Hyams-Ssekasi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last 40 years, the number of international students aspiring to obtain a qualification in U.K. universities has been exponentially growing. However, such growth has been contested. What seemed to be a “golden” opportunity for Black-African students to pursue their education in the United Kingdom is met with challenges that impact the whole process of adjustment. This article examines these challenges using a qualitative empirical study of Black-African postgraduate students, carried out in three U.K. universities. The methods utilized were observations, focus groups, one-to-one interviews, and a case study to help identify and analyze the issues. The participants reported significant financial pressures and difficulties in understanding and integrating into the culture of U.K. universities. In some cases, these challenges left the students feeling disillusioned and cynical about the value of an international education. Universities must endeavor to tailor their recruitment, orientation, and support programs to the needs of Black-African international students or face damaging their reputations as world-class education providers.

  19. Severe Streptococcus pyogenes infections, United Kingdom, 2003-2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamagni, Theresa L; Neal, Shona; Keshishian, Catherine; Alhaddad, Neelam; George, Robert; Duckworth, Georgia; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2008-01-01

    As part of a Europe-wide initiative to explore current epidemiologic patterns of severe disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the United Kingdom undertook enhanced population-based surveillance during 2003-2004...

  20. Neurology in the United Kingdom. I: Historical development.

    OpenAIRE

    Langton Hewer, R; Wood, V A

    1992-01-01

    International comparisons suggest that British neurological services are underdeveloped. Historical factors which have contributed to the current state of neurological services in the United Kingdom are described. Key issues include the dominance of London and the concept of specialised hospitals in the early history of neurology; the subsequent recognition of the needs of other parts of the United Kingdom, of district general hospitals, and of patients with chronic neurological disabilities ...

  1. 77 FR 12241 - Smart Grid Trade Mission to the United Kingdom; London, United Kingdom, October 15-17, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... Smart Grid Action Network (ISGAN), a mechanism through which multinational stakeholders can collaborate on accelerating the development and deployment of smarter electric grids around the world. ISGAN aims... International Trade Administration Smart Grid Trade Mission to the United Kingdom; London, United...

  2. Design Quality Indicator for Schools in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEB Exchange, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In December 2005, the United Kingdom launched a process for evaluating the design quality of primary and secondary school buildings. The Design Quality Indicator (DQI) for Schools is a tool that can assist stakeholders--teachers, parents, school governors, students, community members, local authority clients and building professionals--to achieve…

  3. School Broadcasting in the United Kingdom: An Exploratory History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, David

    2007-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, television for schools is 50 years old in 2007. The anniversary provides a reason to undertake an exploratory history of school broadcasting, an area that has received very little attention from historians of British education. The first part of this article examines the origins of school radio broadcasting, focusing…

  4. Types of structural unemployment in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, P E

    1990-01-01

    The author assesses the importance of each classification of "structural unemployment, namely technological, mismatch of skills, geographical mismatch, demographic shifts, institutional rigidities, 'unemployability', and capital-restructuring unemployment." in the United Kingdom. He also reviews recent evidence on regional wage differential adjustments and their impact on the disequilibrium within the British labor market.

  5. Strategies for translational research in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquest, Katrina; Lord, Graham M

    2010-10-13

    In the United Kingdom, many foundations and institutions and the government have made substantial investments in translational research. We examine the structures that surround this support and consider some of the results of this prodigious push toward enhancing translational research pursuits and thus improved clinical medicine.

  6. Cultural differences between construction professionals in Denmark and United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, M.R.

    This report presents the results of an investigation into cultural differences between professional members of the construction sector of Denmark and the United Kingdom. In particular it refers to differences between Arkitekter/Architects, Civilingeniører/Civil Engineers and Bygningskonstruktører...

  7. Growth, Pathways and Groundwork: Community Music in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Lee

    2007-01-01

    This article suggests that community music in the United Kingdom emerged as a sub-strand of the community arts movement during the political and cultural changes of the late 1960s and the early 1970s. Through five themes: musicians in residence, music animateur, music collectives and punk rock, definitions, and training, Part 1 of this article…

  8. Microcomputers and School Libraries in the United Kingdom: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain-Lewins, Helen; Watson, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Describes study of seven local education authorities in the United Kingdom which was conducted to discover how models of microcomputer use were being adopted by school libraries. Highlights include database information retrieval; computerized catalogs; improving students' information-handling skills; curriculum-centered plans; integrated systems;…

  9. Microcomputers and School Libraries in the United Kingdom: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain-Lewins, Helen; Watson, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the use of microcomputers in school libraries in the United Kingdom focuses on three models of school library computerization: (1) a library management-centered model, which addresses routine library operations; (2) a pupil-centered information skills model; and (3) a curriculum-centered model, which furthers pupil learning in…

  10. Buruli ulcer in United Kingdom tourist returning from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, Hugh; Stragier, Pieter; Portaels, Francoise; Gascoyne Binzi, Deborah; Collyns, Timothy; Lucas, Sebastian; Mawer, Damian

    2009-11-01

    We report a case of Buruli ulcer in a tourist from the United Kingdom. The disease was almost certainly acquired in Brazil, where only 1 case had previously been reported. The delay in diagnosis highlights the need for physicians to be aware of the disease and its epidemiology.

  11. 75 FR 30856 - Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... and the United Kingdom AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of remand... antidumping orders on ball bearings from Japan and the United Kingdom. For further information concerning the... affirmative determination in Certain Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom, Inv....

  12. 48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... on fuel (United Kingdom). 252.229-7010 Section 252.229-7010 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(j), use the following clause: Relief from Customs Duty on Fuel (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a) Pursuant to an agreement between the United States Government...

  13. 76 FR 798 - Ball Bearings From Japan and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... and the United Kingdom AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of remand... and the United Kingdom, Inv. Nos. 731-TA-394-A & 399-A (Second Review) (Third Remand), USITC Pub. 4194... imports from the United Kingdom because they would not likely have a discernible adverse impact. NSK V...

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7033 - Waiver of United Kingdom levies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver of United Kingdom... of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7033 Waiver of United Kingdom levies. As prescribed in 225.1101(9), use the following clause: Waiver of United Kingdom Levies (APR 2003) (a) The U.S. Government...

  15. 48 CFR 252.229-7008 - Relief from import duty (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (United Kingdom). 252.229-7008 Section 252.229-7008 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7008 Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(h), use the following clause: Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) (JUN...

  16. 48 CFR 252.229-7006 - Value added tax exclusion (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (United Kingdom). 252.229-7006 Section 252.229-7006 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7006 Value added tax exclusion (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70(f), use the following clause: Value Added Tax Exclusion (United Kingdom) (JUN...

  17. Family Instability and School Readiness in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Fomby, Paula

    2011-01-01

    I investigate the prevalence of family instability in the United Kingdom and its association with children's school readiness at age 5. Data are from three sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (2001–2007). Family instability is measured by mother's self-report of union status changes since her child's birth. Outcome measures include mother assessments of child behavior and standardized scores on cognitive assessments. Maternal education and household income explained the association of famil...

  18. Training and education in clinical biochemistry in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C P; Dryburgh, F J; Elder, G H

    1994-12-31

    In the United Kingdom, clinical biochemistry is practised by medical and non-medical graduates. Their training is postgraduate, led by the profession and has a strong vocational orientation. Although there is considerable overlap between the training of medical and non-medical graduates, each group has a different career structure and different training requirements. The training of non-medical biochemists has recently been restructured. Their new training programme is described in detail; for comparison, the training of medical graduates is outlined.

  19. Childhood urolithiasis in the United Kingdom and Eire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, S

    1975-01-01

    152 children with urinary calculi were treated in the United Kingdom and Eire in the years 1972 and 1973. There was a marked male preponderance particularly evident in early life. In 124 children the urine was infected on admission to hospital; in 87, particularly the younger children, this was with the Proteus species. Awareness of the relationship between Proteus urinary infection and matrix calculi is stressed.

  20. Fungal keratitis in the United Kingdom 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuft, S J; Tullo, A B

    2009-06-01

    To describe the incidence and current management of fungal keratitis in the United Kingdom. Cases were identified prospectively through the British Ophthalmologic Surveillance Unit (BOSU) from December 2003 to November 2005. Questionnaire data were requested at diagnosis and at 6 months follow-up. Inclusion criteria were a positive culture or microsopic proof from a scraping or biopsy, and a normal residence in the United Kingdom. Data were available on 39 confirmed cases at diagnosis and 34 cases at follow-up. The minimum average annualised incidence was 0.32 (95% CI, 0.24-0.44) cases per million individuals. In 22 cases (56%), only Candida was isolated and 14 of these (63%) had prior ocular surface disease treated with topical steroid. A filamentary fungus infection was more common in male patients (P=0.02), often following trauma, and the differences in risk factors between types of fungal infection was statistically significant (PUnited Kingdom. It provides evidence of frequent delay in diagnosis after presentation to eye departments, inconsistent management, and poor outcome. Issues that can now be addressed.

  1. Food-borne botulism in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLauchlin, Jim; Grant, K A; Little, C L

    2006-12-01

    Food-borne botulism is a rare but serious disease caused by ingestions of neurotoxin [botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs)] produced as a result of the growth of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum in foods before consumption. The disease is rare in the United Kingdom, and only 62 cases have been recognized between 1922 and 2005. This report provides a brief review of C. botulinum and food-borne botulism as well as descriptions of the six episodes (33 cases with three deaths) of this disease that occurred in the United Kingdom between 1989 and 2005. The six incidents illustrate the importance of the risk factors of poor processing or storage of commercially prepared foods, improper home preservation of foods and travel to countries where botulism is much more common than in the United Kingdom. Even small outbreaks of food-borne botulism can precipitate a national emergency and inundate public health and acute care provision. This report provides a reminder to public health professions of the occurrence, diagnosis, treatment and control of this rare but serious food-borne disease.

  2. Does racism affect health? Evidence from the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter; Murphy, Michael

    2011-02-01

    Blacks have worse overall health than whites in both the United States and the United Kingdom. However, the relative difference in health between the two groups within each cultural context differs between each context. In this article, we attempt to glean insights into these health disparities. We do so by first examining what is currently known about differences in morbidity and mortality for blacks and whites in the United States and the United Kingdom. We then turn to medical examination data by race and country of birth in an attempt to further untangle the complex interplay of socioeconomic status (SES), race, and racism as determinants of health in the United States and the United Kingdom. We find that (1) longer exposure of blacks to the recipient country is a risk for mortality in the United States but not in the United Kingdom; (2) adjustment for SES matters a good deal for mortality in the United States, but less so in the United Kingdom; (3) morbidity indicators do not paint a clear picture of black disadvantage relative to whites in either context; and (4) were one to consider medical examination data alone, differences between the two groups exist only in the United States. Taken together, we conclude that it is possible that the "less racist" United Kingdom provides a healthier environment for blacks than the United States. However, there remain many mysteries that escape simple explanation. Our findings raise more questions than they answer, and the health risks and health status of blacks in the United States are much more complex than previously thought.

  3. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: The United Kingdom 2012 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The United Kingdom is preparing for a deep decarbonisation of its energy system. The country has decided to halve its greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2027 and to cut them by a total of 80% by 2050. For this to happen, significant private-sector investment in new energy infrastructure is needed. As it seeks concrete solutions to the low-carbon investment challenge, the United Kingdom is leading by example. The UK's proposed Electricity Market Reform is a pioneering effort that will be closely observed by other countries. Ideally, this complex and ambitious reform would in the long run lead to a more liberalised marketplace in which low-carbon power generation technologies compete to deliver innovative and least-cost outcomes. Security of supply remains a key focus of energy policy. Fossil fuel production in the United Kingdom has peaked, and a fifth of the country's ageing power generating capacity will have to be closed this decade. However, oil and gas imports are well diversified, and the government intends to promote various technologies to generate low-carbon electricity -- renewable and nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage. More efficient energy use is essential to both decarbonisation and energy security. The Green Deal programme, which the UK plans to launch later this year, aims to improve energy efficiency in buildings and public spaces. The programme has the potential to help energy consumers overcome economic challenges, but for it to succeed, the general public must be sufficiently aware of its benefits.

  4. Energy Policies of IEA Countries: United Kingdom 2012 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The United Kingdom is preparing for a deep decarbonisation of its energy system. The country has decided to halve its greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2027 and to cut them by a total of 80% by 2050. For this to happen, significant private-sector investment in new energy infrastructure is needed. As it seeks concrete solutions to the low-carbon investment challenge, the United Kingdom is leading by example. The UK's proposed Electricity Market Reform is a pioneering effort that will be closely observed by other countries. Ideally, this complex and ambitious reform would in the long run lead to a more liberalised marketplace in which low-carbon power generation technologies compete to deliver innovative and least-cost outcomes. Security of supply remains a key focus of energy policy. Fossil fuel production in the United Kingdom has peaked, and a fifth of the country's ageing power generating capacity will have to be closed this decade. However, oil and gas imports are well diversified, and the government intends to promote various technologies to generate low-carbon electricity -- renewable and nuclear energy and carbon capture and storage. More efficient energy use is essential to both decarbonisation and energy security. The Green Deal programme, which the UK plans to launch later this year, aims to improve energy efficiency in buildings and public spaces. The programme has the potential to help energy consumers overcome economic challenges, but for it to succeed, the general public must be sufficiently aware of its benefits.

  5. Preventive medicine in the older patient: A United Kingdom perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Kakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preventive Medicine in the elderly is often regarded as a redundant concept and pre-existing opinions are barriers in the provision of this service. This article explores the concepts of preventive medicine in the elderly from a United Kingdom perspective and examines current trends, opinions and sets out a path for the future. In particular it focusses on the theories of morbidity associated with ageing, economic viability of providing preventive medicine care for the older person and attempts to seek redress for the current situation.

  6. Immigration. Ageing and pensions in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rodríguez Sumaza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the recent immigration inflows to the United Kingdom, its effects on the population ageing process and its projected effect on the pension system. The British case is especially relevant for its similarities with the Spanish case: both countries are net receptors of foreign population and in both cases the public pension system is of the PAYG (pay as you go type, which is highly vulnerable to the ageing process. Net immigration in recent years has been a brake to the increasing (old age dependency rate, but it does not ensure long term sustainability for the current pension system, which is now under revision

  7. Critical Concerns for Oral Communication Education in the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Richard

    2011-01-01

    An examination of oral communication education in the United States (U.S.) and United Kingdom (U.K.) identified four critical concerns: (1) Today's college students are not getting adequate oral communication education; (2) Oral communication education is being relegated to a "module" in another discipline-specific course; (3) When an…

  8. Information Literacy in Postsecondary Education in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    This comparison seeks to determine if the three documents addressing information literacy skills and competence developed by professional library associations for postsecondary education in four predominantly English-speaking countries--the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand--have similar or varying conceptions of…

  9. Information Literacy in Postsecondary Education in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    This comparison seeks to determine if the three documents addressing information literacy skills and competence developed by professional library associations for postsecondary education in four predominantly English-speaking countries--the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, and New Zealand--have similar or varying conceptions of…

  10. Mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Paul N; Crowe, Francesca L; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2016-01-01

    Vegetarians and others who do not eat meat have been observed to have lower incidence rates than meat eaters of some chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether this translates into lower mortality. The purpose of this study was to describe mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in a large United Kingdom cohort. The study involved a pooled analysis of data from 2 prospective studies that included 60,310 persons living in the United Kingdom, comprising 18,431 regular meat eaters (who ate meat ≥5 times/wk on average), 13,039 low (less-frequent) meat eaters, 8516 fish eaters (who ate fish but not meat), and 20,324 vegetarians (including 2228 vegans who did not eat any animal foods). Mortality by diet group for each of 18 common causes of death was estimated with the use of Cox proportional hazards models. There were 5294 deaths before age 90 in >1 million y of follow-up. There was no significant difference in overall (all-cause) mortality between the diet groups: HRs in low meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians compared with regular meat eaters were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.00), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.06), and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.10), respectively; P-heterogeneity of risks = 0.082. There were significant differences in risk compared with regular meat eaters for deaths from circulatory disease [higher in fish eaters (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.46)]; malignant cancer [lower in fish eaters (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.97)], including pancreatic cancer [lower in low meat eaters and vegetarians (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86 and HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82, respectively)] and cancers of the lymphatic/hematopoietic tissue [lower in vegetarians (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.79)]; respiratory disease [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.92)]; and all other causes [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.99)]. Further adjustment for body mass index left these associations largely unchanged. United Kingdom-based vegetarians and

  11. Company Law Modernisation and Corporate Governance in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Tomasic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many elements of British company law are deeply embedded in nineteenth-century assumptions. Change has come very slowly when efforts have been made to modernise company law in the United Kingdom. The passage of the Companies Act 2006 was a significant advance after a lengthy period of debate and consultation, but the outcome is far from perfect. This legislation has, however, introduced some important new concepts into this body of British law. The Act sought to simplify company law and to start with a small firm focus as these comprise the vast majority of companies. For the first time, the Act also codified the duties of directors and introduced the concept of ‘enlightened shareholder value’, to give greater attention to stakeholders other than shareholders and to encourage companies to adopt more long-term perspectives. This paper explores some of these important changes.

  12. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  13. Practice educators in the United Kingdom: A national job description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, John

    2008-11-01

    Much is known about the purpose of practice educators in the United Kingdom, but how their role is implemented is subject to conflicting expectations, partly created by the structure in which they work. Joint appointments between universities and practice are an opportunity for both organisations to collaborate in a partnership to enhance practice learning and fulfill one of the main aims of the practice educator role: to narrow the theory-practice gap. However tensions exist. This paper advocates a national (UK) job description for practice educators to reduce some of the tensions and conflict between the expectations of collaborating partners in practice learning. This would enable practice educators to concentrate on their obligations while employers concentrate on enabling practice educators to fulfill their obligations by upholding their rights to proper preparation, support and career structure.

  14. Energy policies of IEA countries: the United Kingdom 2006 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The United Kingdom is facing a critical moment in its energy policy: North Sea oil and gas production is declining, dependence on imported energy is increasing, while rising energy prices and climate change considerations pose further challenges. The second thematic review of the UK addresses these challenges, focusing on energy investment, energy efficiency, and the return of nuclear power to the political agenda. Almost all coal-fired and nuclear power capacity in the United Kingdom will be retired within the next 15 years. The review encourages the government to maintain its trust in the market mechanism for the delivery of required investment and security of supply. However, it also identifies the need for the government to play a more active role in setting the framework. On the demand side, the IEA considers the government's 'Energy Efficiency Commitment' (EEC) an impressive success. The EEC was introduced in 2002 and is an energy-saving programme under which suppliers must achieve efficiency targets in households. Challenges, such as the requirement that 50 per cent of savings come from low-income households, remain, and the review invites the government to investigate ways in which fuel poverty could be reduced without distorting the EEC. The review also assesses the government's shifting direction on nuclear energy and backs this new path. It argues that the development of a positive investment framework in planning and licensing - without direct intervention in investment decisions favouring nuclear - will allow investors to judge the viability of new plants. 3 apps.

  15. Karl Marx, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and Black Underachievement in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlin, Carol; Wright, Cecile; Mocombe, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    This article synthesizes Marxian conceptions of identity construction within capitalist relations of production with the Wittgensteinian notion of "language games" to offer a more appropriate relational framework within which scholars ought to understand the Black-White academic achievement gap in America, the United Kingdom, and…

  16. What the United Kingdom Can Teach the United States about School Uniforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, Angela

    2011-01-01

    School uniforms are commonplace in the United Kingdom and seem to help promote students' respect for the teachers, the school, and themselves. Parents like the uniforms because they see it as a less expensive alternative. Teachers say they appreciate school uniforms because they help students focus on school and not each other's clothes. However,…

  17. 48 CFR 252.229-7009 - Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). 252.229-7009 Section 252.229-7009... Relief from customs duty and value added tax on fuel (passenger vehicles) (United Kingdom). As prescribed... (Passenger Vehicles) (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a) Pursuant to an agreement between the United...

  18. A genetic study of Wilson's disease in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Alison J; Durkie, Miranda; Hague, Stephen; McLay, Kirsten; Emmerson, Jennifer; Lo, Christine; Klaffke, Stefanie; Joyce, Christopher J; Dhawan, Anil; Hadzic, Nedim; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Kirk, Richard; Elizabeth Allen, K; Nicholl, David; Wong, Siew; Griffiths, William; Smithson, Sarah; Giffin, Nicola; Taha, Ali; Connolly, Sally; Gillett, Godfrey T; Tanner, Stuart; Bonham, Jim; Sharrack, Basil; Palotie, Aarno; Rattray, Magnus; Dalton, Ann; Bandmann, Oliver

    2013-05-01

    Previous studies have failed to identify mutations in the Wilson's disease gene ATP7B in a significant number of clinically diagnosed cases. This has led to concerns about genetic heterogeneity for this condition but also suggested the presence of unusual mutational mechanisms. We now present our findings in 181 patients from the United Kingdom with clinically and biochemically confirmed Wilson's disease. A total of 116 different ATP7B mutations were detected, 32 of which are novel. The overall mutation detection frequency was 98%. The likelihood of mutations in genes other than ATP7B causing a Wilson's disease phenotype is therefore very low. We report the first cases with Wilson's disease due to segmental uniparental isodisomy as well as three patients with three ATP7B mutations and three families with Wilson's disease in two consecutive generations. We determined the genetic prevalence of Wilson's disease in the United Kingdom by sequencing the entire coding region and adjacent splice sites of ATP7B in 1000 control subjects. The frequency of all single nucleotide variants with in silico evidence of pathogenicity (Class 1 variant) was 0.056 or 0.040 if only those single nucleotide variants that had previously been reported as mutations in patients with Wilson's disease were included in the analysis (Class 2 variant). The frequency of heterozygote, putative or definite disease-associated ATP7B mutations was therefore considerably higher than the previously reported occurrence of 1:90 (or 0.011) for heterozygote ATP7B mutation carriers in the general population (P Wilson's disease of 1:30 000 (P = 0.00093). Our study provides strong evidence for monogenic inheritance of Wilson's disease. It also has major implications for ATP7B analysis in clinical practice, namely the need to consider unusual genetic mechanisms such as uniparental disomy or the possible presence of three ATP7B mutations. The marked discrepancy between the genetic prevalence and the number of

  19. 75 FR 2108 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... United Kingdom: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative... France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom for the period May 1, 2008, through April 30,...

  20. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenios Evgeniou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.

  1. Trends in cultural psychiatry in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2013-01-01

    Cultural psychiatry in the United Kingdom exhibits unique characteristics closely related to its history as a colonial power, its relationship with Commonwealth countries and the changing socio-demographic characteristics of its diverse population throughout the centuries. It is not surprising, therefore, that the emergence of this discipline was centred around issues of race and religion. After a brief historical review of the development of cultural psychiatry and the mention of pioneering intellectual and academic figures, as well as the evolvement of the field in organizations such as the Royal College of Psychiatrists, this chapter examines the need of a critical cultural psychiatry, more than a narrative social science distanced from the realities of clinical practice. In such context, issues such as policies and experience with efforts to delivering race equality, and address inequities in a renewed public health approach seem to confer British cultural psychiatry with a defined socially active role aimed at the pragmatic management, understanding and improvement of diverse and alternative systems of care and care practices.

  2. Family, caring and ageing in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Tony; Powell, Jason L

    2005-03-01

    This paper provides a critical exploration of the assumptions and narratives underpinning the development of social policy initiatives targeting caring relationships based upon family ties. Using a narrative approach attention is drawn to the ways in which family identities are open to a far greater range of negotiation than is assumed by policy. Drawing on the United Kingdom as a case example, questions are posed about intergenerational relations and the nature of late life citizenship. The comparatively recent invention of narratives supporting 'informal care' and the link with neo-liberal and 'third way' notions of active citizenship are explored. As is the failure of policy developments to take into account the diversity of care giving styles and the complexity of caring relationships. It is argued that the uneven and locally specific ways in which policy develops enables the co-existence of a complex range of narratives about family, caring and ageing which address diverse aspects of the family life of older people in often contradictory ways.

  3. Guidance for package approvals in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan-Warren, E. [Radioactive Materials Transport Div., Dept. for Transport, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    Approval is required under the transport regulations for a wide range of package designs and operations, and applications for competent authority approval and validation are received from many sources, both in the United Kingdom and overseas. To assist package designers and applicants for approval, and to promote consistency in applications and their assessment, the UK Department for Transport issues guidance on the interpretation of the transport regulations and the requirements of an application for approval and its supporting safety case. The general guidance document, known as the ''Guide to an Application for UK Competent Authority Approval of Radioactive Material in Transport'', has been issued for many years and updated to encompass the provisions of each successive edition of the IAEA transport regulations. The Guide has been referred to in a number of international fora, including PATRAM, and was cited as a ''Good Practice'' in the report of the IAEA TRANSAS Appraisal of the UK in 2002. Specialist guides include the Guide to the Suitability of Elastomeric Seal Materials, which is the subject of a separate paper in this conference, and the Guide to the Approval of Freight Containers as Types IP-2 and IP-3 Packages. This paper discusses the guidance material and summarises the administrative and technical information required in support of applications for approval of package designs, special form and low dispersible radioactive materials, shipments, special arrangements, modifications and validations.

  4. Attitudes toward Immigrants and Immigration Policy in United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana ANDREESCU

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although recent research found substantial variation in the strength of anti-immigrant opinions across new and old countries of immigration, most studies determined that the public increasingly supports restrictive immigration policies. This paper explores several sources of attitudes toward immigrants in United Kingdom and attempts to simultaneously test some of the most important theoretical explanations of public attitudes toward immigration issues when the family immigration history is taken into account. Results are based on a quantitative analysis of data from the European Social Survey (Round 4/2008. Even if when compared to persons from families with at least one foreign-born member natives express the strongest opposition to flexible migration policies and are more likely to have negative views regarding the immigrants’ role in the British society, opinions vary significantly among groups differentiated by political preferences, socioeconomic attributes, and demographic characteristics. While for native Britons findings support the economic self-interest theory, education and social attachment (i.e., interpersonal and institutional trust appear to be the strongest predictors of positive attitudes toward immigrants and opposition to restrictive immigration policies.

  5. The benefit of seat belt legislation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M

    1989-09-01

    Legislation for compulsory wearing of seat belts by car drivers and front seat passengers has been acclaimed as a major public health advance. Reports from other countries, and two recent evaluative studies in the United Kingdom, have suggested that legislation reduces both deaths and injuries. To assess the effect of the UK law 5 years after its implementation, trends in routine data for 1976-1987 have been reviewed. There were two sources of data: mortality statistics, published by the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys in the quarterly Monitor DH4, and road accident statistics, recorded by the police and published by the Department of Transport. There is a downward trend in deaths over the period, but the data show little impact from the law. One explanation for this lack of effect is the risk compensation hypothesis, which suggests that "safety" improvements are transferred by drivers into increased performance--the amount and speed of travel. Public health policies need to take into account the complex behavioural interactions between travel and safety choices if they are to affect underlying trends.

  6. A thousand years of energy use in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, R.; Pearson, P.J.G. (Imperial Coll. of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). T.H. Huxley School of Environment, Earth Sciences and Engineering)

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of energy use and its influences in the United Kingdom over the very long run by combining economic literature and statistical information. The paper argues that the provision of energy services, mainly heat and power, is bound by the tensions between a changing growth rate and structure of economic activity and the constraints of energetic resources. After periods of tension, energy price differentials, as well as the diffusion of technological innovation and the development of new fuels, led to new mixes of energy sources to supply heat and power. This paper identifies three major changes that characterize the history of UK energy use: first, the dramatic increase in per capita energy use; second, the shift in methods of supplying energy services, from biomass sources to fossil fuels, from coal to petroleum to natural gas, and from raw forms to more value-added energy sources; and, third, the replacing of direct methods of generating power, from animate sources, wind and water, by the use of mechanical and electrical methods, which have so far depended mainly on fossil fuels. These changes were instrumental in influencing the relationship between GDP and energy use, and also the levels of environmental pollution.

  7. Severe Streptococcus pyogenes infections, United Kingdom, 2003-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamagni, Theresa L; Neal, Shona; Keshishian, Catherine; Alhaddad, Neelam; George, Robert; Duckworth, Georgia; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2008-02-01

    As part of a Europe-wide initiative to explore current epidemiologic patterns of severe disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the United Kingdom undertook enhanced population-based surveillance during 2003-2004. A total of 3,775 confirmed cases of severe S. pyogenes infection were identified over 2 years, 3.33/100,000 population, substantially more than previously estimated. Skin/soft tissue infections were the most common manifestation (42%), followed by respiratory tract infections (17%). Injection drug use was identified as a risk factor for 20% of case-patients. One in 5 infected case-patients died within 7 days of diagnosis; the highest mortality rate was for cases of necrotizing fasciitis (34%). Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, alcoholism, young age, and infection with emm/M3 types were independently associated with increased risk for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Understanding the pattern of these diseases and predictors of poor patient outcome will help with identification and assessment of the potential effect of targeted interventions.

  8. Severe Streptococcus pyogenes Infections, United Kingdom, 2003–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Shona; Keshishian, Catherine; Alhaddad, Neelam; George, Robert; Duckworth, Georgia; Vuopio-Varkila, Jaana; Efstratiou, Androulla

    2008-01-01

    As part of a Europe-wide initiative to explore current epidemiologic patterns of severe disease caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, the United Kingdom undertook enhanced population-based surveillance during 2003–2004. A total of 3,775 confirmed cases of severe S. pyogenes infection were identified over 2 years, 3.33/100,000 population, substantially more than previously estimated. Skin/soft tissue infections were the most common manifestation (42%), followed by respiratory tract infections (17%). Injection drug use was identified as a risk factor for 20% of case-patients. One in 5 infected case-patients died within 7 days of diagnosis; the highest mortality rate was for cases of necrotizing fasciitis (34%). Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, alcoholism, young age, and infection with emm/M3 types were independently associated with increased risk for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Understanding the pattern of these diseases and predictors of poor patient outcome will help with identification and assessment of the potential effect of targeted interventions. PMID:18258111

  9. 75 FR 76446 - Waiver of 10 U.S.C. 2534 for Certain Defense Items Produced in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... United Kingdom AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System, Department of Defense (DoD). ] ACTION: Notice of waiver of 10 U.S.C. 2534 for certain defense items produced in the United Kingdom. SUMMARY: The....C. 2534 for certain defense items produced in the United Kingdom (UK). 10 U.S.C. 2534 limits...

  10. 78 FR 76104 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom: Notice of Reinstatement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom: Notice of... the United Kingdom, the Department of Commerce (the Department) revoked the Orders.\\1\\ On May 16, 2013... Value: Ball Bearings, and Cylindrical Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof From the United Kingdom, 54...

  11. Assessing the problem of counterfeit medications in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, G; Patel, S; Khan, S

    2012-03-01

    Counterfeit medicines pose an ever-increasing threat to public health, although precise tracking of illegal counterfeit prescription drug activity is difficult. Available data indicate that all types of medications have been targeted. Adverse health effects, including death, have resulted from using counterfeit medications; consumers who self-medicate without appropriate interactions with the healthcare system rarely receive adequate healthcare. The Internet provides a large, convenient route for counterfeiters to reach potential buyers with unregulated, often dangerous, products. The majority of medicines purchased via unverified Internet sites are counterfeit; often, these products lack the purported drug compound or have variable concentrations of active ingredients and sometimes contain dangerous toxins. Although many consumers acknowledge some degree of risk with purchasing medications via the Internet, speed, convenience and cost often prompt these purchases. Counterfeit medications also have been detected in the legitimate supply chain, but represent a significantly smaller proportion of sales than those purchased via the Internet. Pilot programmes in Europe have demonstrated that product verification systems prevent penetration of counterfeit products into the legitimate supply chain. Significant EU legislation, including stronger penalties for counterfeiting, is in development. In the United Kingdom, the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) launched an initiative against counterfeit medication. Healthcare professionals should report suspected cases of counterfeit medication to the MHRA, be alert to threats to the medicine supply, and provide practical advice to patients about ordering medications online, including avoiding unregulated Internet pharmacies, and being suspicious of sites offering substantial discounts and prescription-only medication without a prescription. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Living with polio and postpolio syndrome in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, Anita; Giles, Amy; Spiliotopoulou, Georgia; Plastow, Nicola; Wilson, Lesley

    2013-06-01

    The term Postpolio Syndrome (PPS) is used to describe new and late manifestations of poliomyelitis that occur later in life in polio survivors. Polio had been eradicated in the United Kingdom (UK) and most of Europe, although this is not the case in all countries. Research in this area has tended to focus upon the impact of polio and PPS on health status and functional health rather than its overall effect on people's lives. This study's two main aims were to explore the ways in which polio and PPS in the UK has affected the respondents' lives and to ascertain their views about how the quality of life could be improved. The two questions were as follows: (1) How has the health of people with polio and PPS affected their quality of life? (2) What would people with polio and PPS change to improve their quality of life? Deductive content analysis using existing qualitative data from a cross-sectional survey of 336 returned questionnaires from persons with polio and PPS was carried out. The average age of the participants was 54 years. Our research found that polio survivors valued social occupations and participation in family life. Our research has also shown that healthcare professionals still do not understand polio and PPS and this lack of understanding influences their clients' quality of life. Finances and accessibility of environments also influence participation in chosen occupations. Rehabilitation programmes for people with polio and PPS need to be targeted towards maintaining and improving accessible environments and participation in chosen occupations, and healthcare professionals need to ensure that persons with polio and PPS are referred to persons with specific expertise in this area.

  13. Cardiac transplantation for amyloid heart disease: the United Kingdom experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrey, Simon W; Burke, Margaret M; Hawkins, Philip N; Banner, Nicholas R

    2004-10-01

    Heart transplantation (TX) for cardiac amyloidosis is uncommon because of concern about progression of amyloid in other organs and the possibility of amyloid deposition in the donor heart. Records of all 24 patients with amyloid heart disease who have undergone TX in the United Kingdom were examined. Seventeen patients had AL amyloidosis (AL) and 7 had non-AL forms of amyloidosis (non-AL). Survival of the 10 patients with AL who underwent TX but had no additional chemotherapy was 50%, 50%, and 20% at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively; amyloid recurred in the grafts of these patients after a median of 11 months, and extra-cardiac amyloid deposition contributed to mortality in 70% of these patients. Survival of 7 patients with AL who also had chemotherapy was 71%, 71%, and 36% respectively and 2 patients remain alive. Survival of the 7 patients with non-AL was 86%, 86%, and 64% at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively; 5 patients remain alive. One patient from this group had recurrence of amyloid in the graft at 60 months. Five-year survival for all 24 amyloid patients was 38%, compared to patients undergoing TX in the UK for other indications (n = 4,058) for whom it was 67% (p = 0.013). Regardless of the use of adjunctive chemotherapy, the 5-year survival after TX for cardiac AL amyloidosis was less than that after TX for other indications, and progression of the systemic disease contributed substantially to the increased mortality. In contrast, the 5-year survival after TX for non-AL amyloid, combined as necessary with liver or kidney TX, was similar to that after TX in general.

  14. Early Jurassic allotherians from South Wales (United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Clemens

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Fossils from two fissure fillings in Pant Quarry (designated Pant 4 and Pant 5, South Wales, United Kingdom, probably of Early Jurassic age document a taxonomically diverse vertebrate fauna, the Morganucodon-sphenodont fauna, composed of several kinds of reptiles, non-mammalian synapsids, and mammals. Six isolated molariform teeth from Pant 4 and 5 fissures clearly record the presence of Thomasia (Mammalia, Allotheria, Haramiyidae, a genus previously known only from purported Late Triassic faunas of southwestern England, France, Belgium, Luxemburg, Germany, and Switzerland. Small morphological differences from teeth in the larger English and continental European samples warrant identification of the Welsh material as Thomasia cf. moorei. The highly derived morphology of an isolated molariform tooth from Pant 5 fissure indicates the presence of another, possibly allotherian, taxon. Fossilien aus zwei wahrscheinlich unterjurassischen Spaltenfüllungen (Pant 4 und Pant 5 im Steinbruch Pant in Süd-Wales dokumentieren eine taxonomisch diverse Wirbeltierfauna. Diese Morganucodon-Sphenodontiden-Fauna besteht aus verschiedenen Formen von Reptilien, Synapsiden und Säugetieren. Sechs isolierte molariforme Zähne aus den Spaltenfüllungen Pant 4 und Pant 5 belegen eindeutig das Vorkommen von Thomasia (Mammalia, Allotheria, Haramiyidae, einer bisher nur aus vermutlich obertriassischen Faunen Südwest-Englands, Frankreichs, Belgiens, Luxemburgs, Deutschlands und der Schweiz bekannten Gattung. Geringe morphologische Unterschiede zu dem umfangreicheren Material aus England und Kontinental-Europa sprechen für die Identifikation des neuen Materials als Thomasia cf. moorei. Die stark abgeleitete Morphologie eines isolierten molariformen Zahnes aus der Spalte Pant 5 belegt das Vorkommen eines anderen Taxons, das möglicherweise auch den Allotheria zuzuordnen ist. doi:10.1002/mmng.200600018

  15. The first case of Lassa fever imported from Mali to the United Kingdom, February 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, S; Anaraki, S; Gothard, P; Walsh, A; Brown, D; Gopal, R; Hand, J; Morgan, D

    2009-03-12

    This is the first case of Lassa fever to be imported from Mali to the United Kingdom. This paper discusses the investigations, the virological analysis, the surveillance and management of contacts undertaken following a case of Lassa fever.

  16. Observations of two melanistic smooth snakes (Coronella austriaca from Dorset, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo P. Pernetta

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the capture of two smooth snakes (Coronella austriaca with melanistic colouration from a site in Dorset. These two individuals constitute the second published report of melanism in smooth snakes from the United Kingdom.

  17. The Privatization of Public Enterprises in the United Kingdom, 1979–1987

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auger, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    How do states have privatized public enterprises? In the book The Official History of Privatization, David Parker, a notorious economist of regulation and privatization, shed light on a country at the forefront of economic reforms, the United Kingdom.

  18. United Kingdom health research analyses and the benefits of shared data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James G; Sherbon, Beverley J; Viney, Ian S

    2016-06-24

    To allow research organisations to co-ordinate activity to the benefit of national and international funding strategies requires assessment of the funding landscape; this, in turn, relies on a consistent approach for comparing expenditure on research. Here, we discuss the impact and benefits of the United Kingdom's Health Research Classification System (HRCS) in national landscaping analysis of health research and the pros and cons of performing large-scale funding analyses. The first United Kingdom health research analysis (2004/2005) brought together the 11 largest public and charity funders of health research to develop the HRCS and use this categorisation to examine United Kingdom health research. The analysis was revisited in 2009/2010 and again in 2014. The most recent quinquennial analysis in 2014 compiled data from 64 United Kingdom research organisations, accounting for 91% of all public/charitable health research funding in the United Kingdom. The three analyses summarise the United Kingdom's health research expenditure in 2004/2005, 2009/2010 and 2014, and can be used to identify changes in research activity and disease focus over this 10 year period. The 2004/2005 analysis provided a baseline for future reporting and evidence for a United Kingdom Government review that recommended the co-ordination of United Kingdom health research should be strengthened to accelerate the translation of basic research into clinical and economic benefits. Through the second and third analyses, we observed strategic prioritisation of certain health research activities and disease areas, with a strong trend toward increased funding for more translational research, and increases in specific areas such as research on prevention. The use of HRCS in the United Kingdom to analyse the research landscape has provided benefit both to individual participatory funders and in coordinating initiatives at a national level. A modest amount of data for each project is sufficient for a

  19. Emergency nurse practitioner services in major accident and emergency departments: a United Kingdom postal survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Tye, C C; Ross, F.; Kerry, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the current and predicted distribution of formal emergency nurse practitioner services in major accident and emergency departments in the United Kingdom; to determine organisational variations in service provision, with specific reference to funding, role configuration, training, and scope of clinical activity. METHODS: Postal survey of senior nurses of all major accident and emergency departments in the United Kingdom (n = 293) in May/June 1996. RESULTS: There were 27...

  20. Alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoren, M.P.; Demant, Jakob Johan; Shiely, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a leading cause of global suffering. Europe reports the uppermost volume of alcohol consumption in the world, with Ireland and the United Kingdom reporting the highest levels of binge drinking and drunkenness. Levels of consumption are elevated among university students. Thus......, this literature review aims to summarise the current research on alcohol consumption among university students in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom....

  1. Psychometric assessment of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit questionnaire in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David A; Ferrando-Vivas, Paloma; Wright, Stephen E; McColl, Elaine; Heyland, Daren K; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2017-04-01

    To establish the psychometric properties of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item (FS-ICU-24) questionnaire in the United Kingdom. The Family-Reported Experiences Evaluation study recruited family members of patients staying at least 24 hours in 20 participating intensive care units. Questionnaires were evaluated for nonresponse, floor/ceiling effects, redundancy, and construct validity. Internal consistency was evaluated with item-to-own scale correlations and Cronbach α. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to explore the underlying structure. Twelve thousand three hundred forty-six family members of 6380 patients were recruited and 7173 (58%) family members of 4615 patients returned a completed questionnaire. One family member per patient was included in the psychometric assessment. Six items had greater than 10% nonresponse; 1 item had a ceiling effect; and 11 items had potential redundancy. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach α, overall .96; satisfaction with care, .94; satisfaction with decision making, .93). The 2-factor solution was not a good fit. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that satisfaction with decision making encompassed 2 constructs-satisfaction with information and satisfaction with the decision-making process. The Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item questionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties in the United Kingdom setting. Construct validity could be improved by use of 3 domains and some scope for further improvement was identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Occupational therapy students' attitudes towards inclusion education in Australia, United Kingdom, United States and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Keli; Brown, Ted; Peyton, Claudia G; Rodger, Sylvia; Huang, Yan-Hua; Wu, Chin-Yu; Watson, Callie; Stagnitti, Karen; Hutton, Eve; Casey, Jackie; Hong, Chia Swee

    2010-03-01

    This international, cross-cultural study investigated the attitudes of occupational therapy students from Australia, United Kingdom, United States and Taiwan towards inclusive education for students with disabilities. The possible impact of professional education on students' attitudes was also explored. A total of 485 students from 11 entry-level occupational therapy education programmes from Australia, the United Kingdom, the United States and Taiwan participated in the study. Among them, 264 were freshmen (first-year students) and 221 were seniors (final-year students). Data collected from a custom-designed questionnaire were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. In general, the occupational therapy students reported having positive attitudes towards inclusion. Considerable differences, however, existed among the student groups from the four countries. Professional education appeared to have a significant impact on students' attitudes towards inclusion from first year to senior year. Although students were in favour of inclusion, they also cautioned that their support for inclusive practices depended on various factors such as adequate preparation, support and assistance to students with disabilities. Limitations of the study included the small, convenience sample and different degree structures of the participating programmes. Future research studies need to compare occupational therapy students' attitudes with students from other health care professions. A longitudinal study on the impact of the professional education programme on students' attitudes towards inclusive education is warranted.

  3. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Stansfeld

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the auditory effects of noise on humans have been established, the non-auditory effects are not so well established. The emerging links between noise and cardiovascular disease (CVD have potentially important implications on public health and policy. In the United Kingdom (UK, noise from transport is a problem, where more than half of the population is exposed to more than the recommended maximum day-time noise level and just under three-quarters of the population live in areas where the recommended night-time noise level is exceeded. This review focuses on findings from studies conducted in the UK that examined environmental noise and cardiovascular disease. There were statistically no significant associations between road traffic noise and incident ischemic heart disease in the Caerphilly and Speedwell studies, but there was a suggestion of effects when modifying factors such as length of residence, room orientation, and window opening were taken into account. In a sample stratified by pre-existing disease a strongly increased odds of incident ischemic heart disease for the highest annoyance category was found compared to the lowest among men without pre-existing disease (OR = 2.45, 95%1.13 - 5.31, which was not found in men with pre-existing disease. In the Hypertension and exposure to noise near airports (HYENA study, night time aircraft noise exposure (L night was associated with an increased risk of hypertension, in fully adjusted analyses. A 10-dB increase in aircraft noise exposure was associated with an odds ratio of 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01 - 1.29. Aircraft noise was not consistently related to raised systolic blood pressure in children in the road traffic and aircraft noise exposure and children′s cognition and health (RANCH study. There is some evidence of an association among environmental noise exposure and hypertension and ischemic heart disease in the UK studies; further studies are required to explore gender differences, the

  4. Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus in cats in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, A C; Iturriza-Gómara, M; Dove, W; Sandrasegaram, M; Nakagomi, T; Nakagomi, O; Cunliffe, N; Radford, A D; Morgan, K L

    2015-02-01

    Rotaviruses are leading causes of gastroenteritis in the young of many species. Molecular epidemiological studies in children suggest that interspecies transmission contributes to rotavirus strain diversity in people. However, population-based studies of rotaviruses in animals are few. We investigated the prevalence, risk factors for infection, and genetic diversity of rotavirus A in a cross-sectional survey of cats housed within 25 rescue catteries across the United Kingdom. Morning litter tray fecal samples were collected during the winter and summer in 2012 from all pens containing kittens and a random sample of those housing adult cats. Group A rotavirus RNA was detected by real-time reverse transcription-PCR, and positive samples were G and P genotyped using nested VP4 and VP7 PCR assays. A total of 1,727 fecal samples were collected from 1,105 pens. Overall, the prevalence of rotavirus was 3.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2 to 4.9%). Thirteen out of 25 (52%; 95% CI, 31.3 to 72.2%) centers housed at least one rotavirus-positive cat. The prevalence of rotavirus was associated with season (odds ratio, 14.8 [95% CI, 1.1 to 200.4]; P = 0.04) but not age or diarrhea. It was higher during the summer (4.7%; 95% CI, 1.2 to 8.3%) than in winter (0.8%; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.5%). Asymptomatic epidemics of infection were detected in two centers. G genotypes were characterized for 19 (33.3%) of the 57 rotavirus-positive samples and P genotypes for 36 (59.7%). Two rotavirus genotypes were identified, G3P[9] and G6P[9]. This is the first population-based study of rotavirus in cats and the first report of feline G6P[9], which questions the previous belief that G6P[9] in people is of bovine origin. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. United Kingdom; 2009 Article IV Consultation: Staff Report; Staff Statement; Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion; and Statement by the Executive Director for United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2009-01-01

    This 2009 Article IV Consultation highlights that economic growth in the United Kingdom has turned sharply negative since mid-2008. Housing prices have fallen by more than 20 percent from their peak, the unemployment rate has increased, and inflation has come down. In response to the crisis, the authorities have taken wide-ranging measures to stabilize the financial system and support demand. Executive Directors have stressed that the most important policy task remains repairing the financial...

  6. Undergraduate Game Degree Programs in the United Kingdom and United States: A Comparison of the Curriculum Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.

    2010-01-01

    Digital games are marketed, mass-produced, and consumed by an increasing number of people and the game industry is only expected to grow. In response, post-secondary institutions in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) have started to create game degree programs. Though curriculum theorists provide insight into the process of…

  7. Undergraduate Game Degree Programs in the United Kingdom and United States: A Comparison of the Curriculum Planning Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Monica M.

    2010-01-01

    Digital games are marketed, mass-produced, and consumed by an increasing number of people and the game industry is only expected to grow. In response, post-secondary institutions in the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US) have started to create game degree programs. Though curriculum theorists provide insight into the process of…

  8. Online marketing strategies of plastic surgeons and clinics: a comparative study of the United Kingdom and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassab, Reza; Navsaria, Harshad; Myers, Simon; Frame, James

    2011-07-01

    The cosmetic surgery market is a rapidly growing sector of healthcare, and the use of marketing strategies is now an integral part of any cosmetic surgery practice. In this study, the authors review 50 Web sites from practitioners in London and New York to quantify the utilization of online marketing, comparing results between the United Kingdom and the United States.

  9. Legal Teaching Methods to Diverse Student Cohorts: A Comparison between the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Diane

    2017-01-01

    This article makes a comparison across the unique educational settings of law and business schools in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and New Zealand to highlight differences in teaching methods necessary for culturally and ethnically mixed student cohorts derived from high migration, student mobility, higher education rankings…

  10. The Design of Treatment Wetlands in the United Kingdom: Successes, Failures, and Alternative Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Guangzhi; ZHANG Guangxin

    2008-01-01

    Constructed wetland was first introduced into the United Kingdom in the middle of 1980s, following a visit by a group of scientist to Western Germany. In the past 2 decades, the applications of constructed wetlands in this country have expanded substantially, due to the demand for green technologies and rising cost of fossil fuel energies. This paper reported a statistical investigation of the performances of 78 horizontal flow wetlands, representatives of such system in the United Kingdom. Alternative design equations, based on organic matter removal efficiency, have been developed from Monod kinetics, and the accuracy and reliability of current and alternative design approaches have been examined.

  11. The Caspian energy game: views from the United States and United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, H

    2003-07-01

    The importance of the Caspian Sea region to energy production is increasing and the forces influencing it are changing. The attention on this region focuses on its oil and natural gas reserves. A series of interviews with Western experts mainly from the United States and United Kingdom, including those in international organizations, academia, policy institutions, and government and industry officials identified key trends and issues that are important to their future policies and the significance of the Caspian oil and gas to the world energy market. The overriding issues are: The influence of Russia on regional security, stability, and the transportation of oil and gas products in the Caspian region. The outcome of the test between the United States and Iraq and the major effects it could have on commercial interests in the region and on who will be the major actors. Tensions caused by Iran refusal to settle the international demarcation of the Caspian Sea. Turkey position as a player, the affect of its new islamic-dominated government and its energy policies. Europe need to import gas and to diversify its supply. The construction of a pipeline to China. The impact of September 11, 2001 and terrorism on the Caspian region issues. The stability of the former Soviet Republics in the region. (author)

  12. E. coli O157 outbreaks in the United Kingdom: past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennington TH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Hugh Pennington University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom Abstract: This review describes Escherichia coli O157 outbreaks in the United Kingdom, beginning from the first, in the 1980s, to those recorded in 2013. We point out that the United Kingdom differs from other countries, particularly the United States, in that it has had a considerable number of outbreaks associated with butchers, but very few caused by contaminated burgers. Two of the butcher-associated outbreaks (in central Scotland in 1996 and South Wales in 2005 were very large and are considered here in detail; the reviewer conducted detailed investigations into both outbreaks. Also considered is the very large outbreak that occurred in visitors to an open farm in Surrey in 2009. Detailed descriptions of some milk-borne outbreaks and incidents connected with camping and childrens' nurseries have been published, and these are also considered in this review. Large outbreaks in the United Kingdom have sometimes led to policy developments regarding food safety, and these are considered, together with public reactions to them, their health effect, and their value, as examples to follow or eschew in terms of the procedures to be adopted in response to incidents of this kind. Regulatory and legal consequences are also considered. As a wise man said, making predictions is difficult, particularly about the future. This review follows this position but points out that although human infections caused by E. coli O157 are rare in the United Kingdom, their incidence has not changed significantly in the last 17 years. This review points out that although a response to an outbreak is to say "lessons must be learned", this response has been tempered by forgetfulness. Accordingly, this review restricts its recommendations regarding outbreaks to two: the crucial importance of a rapid response and the importance of experience, and even "gut feeling", when an inspector is evaluating the

  13. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in France and the United Kingdom: Evidence for the Same Agent Strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandel, J.P.; Heath, C.A.; Head, M.W.; Levavasseur, E.; Knight, R.; Laplanche, J.L.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Ironside, J.W.; Hauw, J.J.; Mackenzie, J.; Alperovitch, A.; Will, R.G.; Haik, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the United Kingdom in 1996. Since then, the majority of cases have been observed in the United Kingdom where there was a major epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy. France was the second country affected. To address th

  14. 76 FR 15940 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the... and parts thereof from ] France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom for the period May 1... thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom. See Ball Bearings and Parts...

  15. Social and Economic Statistics in the United Kingdom: A Review of Information Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Eric; Nunez, Alfonso

    1982-01-01

    A new system is needed to monitor socioeconomic statistical data for the United Kingdom (UK). The current state of UK socioeconomic statistics, an assessment of methods used to communicate available information, and the resource requirements of a successful monitoring service are discussed. (AM)

  16. Men and Health Promotion in the United Kingdom: 20 Years Further Forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Steve; Baker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Despite overall improvements in life expectancy, rates of premature male mortality, particularly for men in areas of socioeconomic deprivation, remain an important issue of concern in the United Kingdom. Interventions to engage men and promote their health and wellbeing have developed, albeit sporadically, over recent decades in response to this…

  17. Chemical control of Phytophthora ramorum causing foliar disease in hardy nursery stock in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judith Turner; Philip Jennings; Sam McDonough; Debbie Liddell; Jackie Stonehouse

    2006-01-01

    A range of fungicides have been tested for activity against P. ramorum using both in vitro and in vivo tests. All fungicides had proven activity against Phytophthora species and either had full approval for use on hardy ornamental nursery stock in the United Kingdom, or could be used under the Revised Long Term Arrangements for Extension of Use (2002...

  18. Fruit tree phytoplasma diseases and vectors in Belgium, Netherlands, and United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peusens, G.; Lepoivre, P.; Steyer, S.; Dickinson, M.; Verbeek, M.; Beliën, T.

    2014-01-01

    In Belgium and the Netherlands phytoplasma diseases mainly affect fruit trees, while they are almost absent in the United Kingdom. Specific insect vectors were identified and strict measures to eliminate both pathogens and pests are actively implemented in Belgium and the Netherlands

  19. Evaluation of the european heart failure self-care behaviour scale in a united kingdom population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shuldham, Caroline; Theaker, Chris; Jaarsma, Tiny; Cowie, Martin R.

    2007-01-01

    Title. Evaluation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in a United Kingdom population Aim. This paper is a report of a study to test the internal consistency, reliability and validity of the 12-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in an English-speaking sample in

  20. The Gendered Shaping of University Leadership in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kate; Bagilhole, Barbara; Riordan, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses career trajectories into university management in Australia, South Africa and the United Kingdom (UK), skills required to operate effectively and the power of vice-chancellors (VCs) and their impact on the gendered shaping of university leadership. It is based on qualitative research with 56 male and female senior managers.…

  1. Participant report for National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom) Hole Plate No. 137

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Morace, Renate Erica

    International pour l’Etude Scientifique des Techniques de Production Mécanique (CIRP). In the project, 15 research laboratories have been involved from 9 countries: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USA. A total of 24 CMMs were used to measure an optomechanical hole...

  2. Hepatitis E Virus in Pork Food Chain, United Kingdom, 2009-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Berto, Alessandra; Martelli, Francesca; Grierson, Sylvia; Banks, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    We investigated contamination by hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the pork production chain in the United Kingdom. We detected HEV in pig liver samples in a slaughterhouse, in surface samples from a processing plant, and in pork sausages and surface samples at point of sale. Our findings provide evidence for possible foodborne transmission of HEV during pork production.

  3. Hepatitis E virus in pork food chain, United Kingdom, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Alessandra; Martelli, Francesca; Grierson, Sylvia; Banks, Malcolm

    2012-08-01

    We investigated contamination by hepatitis E virus (HEV) in the pork production chain in the United Kingdom. We detected HEV in pig liver samples in a slaughterhouse, in surface samples from a processing plant, and in pork sausages and surface samples at point of sale. Our findings provide evidence for possible foodborne transmission of HEV during pork production.

  4. Men and Health Promotion in the United Kingdom: 20 Years Further Forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Steve; Baker, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Despite overall improvements in life expectancy, rates of premature male mortality, particularly for men in areas of socioeconomic deprivation, remain an important issue of concern in the United Kingdom. Interventions to engage men and promote their health and wellbeing have developed, albeit sporadically, over recent decades in response to this…

  5. Similar Demands, Different Responses: Teacher Evaluation in the United Kingdom and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Tracey L.; Struthers, Kathryn S.

    2012-01-01

    Using a conceptual framework grounded in globalization and the knowledge economy, this paper addresses teacher evaluation policy reform in the United Kingdom*** and Singapore. Specifically, the authors discuss similar demands faced by both countries: maintaining economic competitiveness in a globalized society, preparing citizens to participate in…

  6. The Structure of Professional Profiles for Tourism in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Chris; And Others

    The tourism and leisure industries are among the fastest growing in the United Kingdom, generating jobs and spending and stimulating economic development. The hotel and catering sector is by far the best documented of the tourism industry and is the major employer. It is also an underqualified sector, despite a range of courses from craft to…

  7. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  8. Combating Human Trafficking: Evolution of State Legislation and the Policies of the United Kingdom and France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    outrage over sexual slavery and prostitution has contributed to pushing human trafficking onto the international agenda. State actors that are...that both the United Kingdom and France have played in those institutions. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Human trafficking, slavery , modern slavery ... SLAVERY LEGISLATION, AND VIOLATIONS OF HUMAN RIGHTS UP TO THE PALERMO CONVENTION

  9. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the United Kingdom shows two genetically distinct clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAuliffe, Laura; Kokotovic, Branko; Ayling, Roger D.;

    2004-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important veterinary pathogen causing pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in infected cattle. We investigated the genetic diversity of 53 isolates collected in the United Kingdom between 1996 and 2002 with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length...

  10. What can Prudent Public Regulators Learn from the United Kingdom Government’s Nanotechnological Regulatory Activities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorbeck-Jung, Bärbel

    2007-01-01

    This contribution discusses the United Kingdom (UK) government’s regulatory activities related to nanotechnological development. The central question is what other prudent public regulation can learn from the UK government’s regulatory strategy, its regulatory attitude and its large variety of regul

  11. The State of the Academic Profession: An Australia-United Kingdom Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Henry

    1992-01-01

    The state of the academic profession in the United Kingdom is examined, with some comparisons to Australia. Focus is on changes during the 1980s and the role of public policy. The disadvantaged status of academic women is noted, and changes in emphasis on teaching, research, and administration are discussed. (MSE)

  12. The Structure of Professional Profiles for Tourism in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Chris; And Others

    The tourism and leisure industries are among the fastest growing in the United Kingdom, generating jobs and spending and stimulating economic development. The hotel and catering sector is by far the best documented of the tourism industry and is the major employer. It is also an underqualified sector, despite a range of courses from craft to…

  13. nLight Names Laser Lines Ltd. Exclusive Distributor in United Kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    nLight, a leading manufacturer of high-power semiconductor lasers, today announced that it has named Laser Lines (Industrial & Medical) Ltd., its exclusive distributor for the United Kingdom. Laser Lines will be responsible for sales and service of nLight's CW and QCW high power visible and near-infrared diode laser product line.

  14. Aspects of medical migration with particular reference to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paulus

    2014-01-01

    Background In most countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), there is no large-scale migration of medical graduates with diplomas obtained outside the EEA, which are international medical graduates (IMGs). In the United Kingdom however, health care is in part dependent on the influx of IMGs. In

  15. United Kingdom's experience. [Power system transmission open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, S.M.

    1994-12-01

    This is a presentation of the United Kingdom's experience with power transmission open access. The topics of the presentation include the objectives of changing, commercial arrangements and economic drivers, long term effects, the effects of moving to a more competitive environment, and factors affecting open access such as political climate and market regulation.

  16. Teacher Education in the United Kingdom Post Devolution: Convergences and Divergences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Gary; Clarke, Linda; Hulme, Moira; Murray, Jean

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the roles of research in teacher education across the four nations of the United Kingdom. Both devolution and on-going reviews of teacher education are facilitating a greater degree of cross-national divergence. England is becoming a distinct outlier, in which the locus for teacher education is moving increasingly away from…

  17. Early Maternal Employment and Children's Academic and Behavioral Skills in Australia and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Coley, Rebekah Levine

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the links between early maternal employment and children's later academic and behavioral skills in Australia and the United Kingdom. Using representative samples of children born in each country from 2000 to 2004 (Australia N = 5,093, U.K. N = 18,497), OLS regression models weighted with propensity scores assessed links between…

  18. The Cost-Effectiveness of Supported Employment for Adults with Autism in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Megnin-Viggars, Odette; Cheema, Nadir; Howlin, Patricia; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Pilling, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Adults with autism face high rates of unemployment. Supported employment enables individuals with autism to secure and maintain a paid job in a regular work environment. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of supported employment compared with standard care (day services) for adults with autism in the United Kingdom.…

  19. Longer Term Impact of Cigarette Package Warnings in Australia Compared with the United Kingdom and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua; Cummings, Kenneth M.; Thrasher, James F.; Hitchman, Sara C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Hammond, David; Bansal-Travers, Maansi

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effects of different cigarette package warnings in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom up to 5 years post-implementation. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Surveys. Measures included salience of warnings, cognitive responses, forgoing cigarettes and avoiding warnings. Although salience of the UK…

  20. The United Kingdom National Healthy School Standard: A Framework for Strengthening the School Nurse Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicklander, Molly K.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze the school nursing role within the National Healthy School Standard (NHSS) in the United Kingdom with a view toward clarifying and strengthening the role of school nurses globally. Within the National Healthy School Standard framework, school nurses serve an integral role in linking health and education…

  1. Lifecourse determinants and incomes in retirement: Belgium and the United Kingdom compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewilde, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the impact of lifecourse family and labour market experiences on household incomes of older people in Belgium and the United Kingdom (UK) is analysed. To this end, panel data and life-history information fromthe Panel Study of Belgian Households and the British Household Panel Survey

  2. Evaluation of the european heart failure self-care behaviour scale in a united kingdom population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shuldham, Caroline; Theaker, Chris; Jaarsma, Tiny; Cowie, Martin R.

    2007-01-01

    Title. Evaluation of the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in a United Kingdom population Aim. This paper is a report of a study to test the internal consistency, reliability and validity of the 12-item European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale in an English-speaking sample in

  3. Use of primary care data for detecting impetigo trends, United kingdom, 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shallcross, Laura J; Petersen, Irene; Rosenthal, Joe; Johnson, Anne M; Freemantle, Nick; Hayward, Andrew C

    2013-10-01

    Using a primary care database, we identified a major increase in impetigo in the United Kingdom during 1995-2010. Despite a doubled rate of primary care consultations, this increase was not identified by routine surveillance. Primary care databases are a valuable and underused source of surveillance data on infectious diseases.

  4. Water safety and spatial development: An institutional comparison between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hurk, M.; Mastenbroek, E.; Meijerink, S.

    2015-01-01

    The Netherlands and the United Kingdom are known for their different traditions of river flood risk management, which is reflected in their respective institutional frameworks. Whereas the Dutch have focused almost exclusively on reducing the probability of flooding by defining high safety standards

  5. Aspects of medical migration with particular reference to the United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paulus

    2014-01-01

    Background In most countries of the European Economic Area (EEA), there is no large-scale migration of medical graduates with diplomas obtained outside the EEA, which are international medical graduates (IMGs). In the United Kingdom however, health care is in part dependent on the influx of IMGs. In

  6. A collaborative Canadian-United Kingdom evaluation of an immunohistochemistry protocol to diagnose bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of domestic cattle. The disorder was reported in the United Kingdom in the late 1980s and was associated with recycling of ruminant byproducts in cattle feed. In 1996, the bovine disease was reported to be the cause of a...

  7. Labour Market Segmentation and Women's Employment: A Case-Study from the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Christine; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A summary of evidence from a study of payment structures in six industries in three local labor markets in the United Kingdom is used to show that the conditions under which labor is made available exert an influence on wages that is relatively independent of the skill, experience, and effort of the workers concerned. (Author/CT)

  8. Mediation with Families in Separation and Divorce in the United Kingdom: Links with Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    Gives a brief account of recent developments in matrimonial law related to divorce, custody, and visitation to the children of divorcing couples. Discusses the development of mediation, its organizational structure, and its place within the context of the legal system of the United Kingdom. Outlines the principles of conciliation. (Author/ABL)

  9. Shale gas policy in the United Kingdom: An argumentative discourse analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, M; Rattle, I; Van Alstine, J

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas has become an energy policy priority in the United Kingdom in light of profitable extraction activities in the United States. Since 2012 the Coalition Government has created key economic drivers to encourage shale exploration, whilst growing activism in affected site communities has stirred significant media and academic commentary. This study examines the growing national debate as a matter of discourse, adopting an argumentative discourse analytic approach to assess data collected...

  10. The Older Mother Tongues of the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C. V., Ed.

    This report describes bilingual education programs in England that promote the Welsh and Gaelic languages. The section on Welsh includes discussions of: the history of the Welsh language, the Welsh books scheme to promote the availability of published materials in Welsh, the activities of the national language unit of Wales, external examinations,…

  11. Moral development of first-year pharmacy students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Becket, Gordon; Wilson, Sarah Ellen

    2014-03-12

    To investigate the moral development of pharmacy students over their first academic year of study at a university in the United Kingdom. Pharmacy students completed Defining Issues Test (DIT) at the start of their first year (phase 1) and again at the end of their first year (phase 2) of the program. Pharmacy students (N=116) had significantly higher moral reasoning at the beginning of their first year than by the end of it. Scores differed by students' gender and age; however, these findings differed between phase 1 and phase 2. First-year pharmacy students in the United Kingdom scored lower on moral reasoning than did pharmacy students in the United States and Canada.

  12. Traumatic amputations in children and adolescents: demographics from a regional limb-fitting centre in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, A J; Selvarajah, K

    2011-04-01

    There is no published literature detailing the demographics of paediatric amputations in the United Kingdom. We performed this review of children and adolescents referred to a regional limb-fitting centre from the 1930s to the current decade who suffered amputation as a result of trauma, and compared our data with similar cohorts from other units. Of the 93 patients included, only 11 were injured in the last 20 years. Road traffic accidents accounted for 63% of traumatic amputations. Of all amputations, 81% were in the lower limb and 19% in the upper limb. Our figures are similar to those from a United Kingdom national statistical database of amputees which showed on average four traumatic amputee referrals to each regional limb-fitting centre in the United Kingdom per ten-year period. Compared with the United States, the incidence of paediatric traumatic amputations in the United Kingdom is low.

  13. Teenage pregnancy in the United Kingdom: are we doing enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amu, Olubusola; Appiah, Koby

    2006-12-01

    The teenage pregnancy unit's strategy for dealing with the increasing problem of unwanted pregnancy is rather prescriptive and simplistic for such a complex problem. It is not surprising that despite its recent recommendations, the problem has worsened. It is ludicrous to promote efficient ways to provide oral contraceptive pills to teenagers when good evidence of its inconsistent use among this age group is common knowledge. In addition, increasing access to emergency contraception could undermine teenagers' perception of the importance of commitment in relationships and thus send them a wrong message. This paper reviews the available evidence on the subject and highlights some good practices from other parts of the western world, which have not been incorporated into the UK strategy. It challenges the various stakeholders to show better commitment by providing a more rigorous and effective strategy.

  14. The epidemiology of pertussis and pertussis immunization in the United Kingdom and the United States: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, J D

    1984-02-01

    Pertussis is a common serious illness of childhood that can be controlled by immunization. It is a unique disease in that it is clinically manifested more often in females than in males. In the 20th century the mortality from pertussis has decreased steadily in both the United Kingdom and the United States. This decline in death rate was well underway prior to the introduction of pertussis vaccine but was accelerated after vaccine use became widespread. In recent years the case fatality rate in the United States has been considerably greater than that in the United Kingdom. One obvious reason for this difference is the difference in age-specific attack rates in the two nations. Available data also suggest that recent pertussis deaths in infants in England and Wales may frequently be reported as due to respiratory diseases other than pertussis. Although it is frequently suggested by some observers, there is no evidence that the incidence of pertussis was declining prior to the widespread use of vaccine. All available evidence indicates that pertussis vaccine use in both the United Kingdom and the United States was responsible for a drastic reduction in the magnitude of both endemic and epidemic pertussis. Decreased utilization of pertussis vaccine in England and Wales beginning in 1975 resulted in two major epidemics of pertussis in 1977-1979 and 1982-1983. Moderate local and systemic reactions commonly occur following pertussis immunization. These reactions appear to be less common and less severe in the United Kingdom than in the United States, but in contrast to recent studies in the United States, there are no recent quantitative studies in the United Kingdom. There are virtually no data available in the United States on the incidence of serious neurologic disease resulting from pertussis immunization. In contrast, the recently published findings of the NCES, a case-control study of national scope, have allowed attributable risk estimates of serious neurologic

  15. Fluid resuscitation protocols for burn patients at intensive care units of the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Benna, Sammy

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the thermal injury fluid resuscitation protocols at intensive care units (ICUs) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. A telephone questionnaire was designed to survey the fluid resuscitation protocols of ICUs at all hospitals with plastic/burn surgery departments in the British Isles in 2010. The feedback from the questionnaire was from the senior nurse in charge of the ICUs. 32/64 (50%) of these ICUs had provided care to burns patients. A 100% response from these 32 units was obtained. 71.4% commence fluid resuscitation at 15% total body surface area burn (TBSA), 21.4% at 20% TBSA and 7.1% at 10% TBSA in adults. The estimated resuscitation volume was most often calculated using the Parkland/Modified Parkland formula (87.5%) or the Muir and Barclay formula (12.5%). Interestingly, of the ICUs using formulae, two had recently moved from using the Muir and Barclay formula to Parkland formula and one had recently moved from using the Parkland formula to Muir and Barclay formula. Despite this, 37.5% of ICUs using a formula did not rigidly follow it exactly. The most commonly used resuscitation fluid was Ringer's lactate solution (46.9%) and Human Albumin Solution was used in 12.5%. No ICU used red cell concentrate as a first line fluid. 18.8% used a central line. 40.6% ICUs considered changing the IV solution during resuscitation. 78.1% ICUs consider urine output to be the most important factor in modifying resuscitation volumes. 59.4% ICUs calculate a maintenance fluid rate after completion of resuscitation. The endpoint for resuscitation was at 24 h in 46.9% ICUs and at 36 h in 9.4%. 5/32 (16%) felt their protocol gave too little and 6/32 (19%) felt their protocol gave too much. 59.3% ICUs gave oral/enteral fluids by naso-gastric or naso-jejenal tubes. 21.9% felt that oral/enteral resuscitation worked. Exactly half of the units believed that the formula that they used provided approximately the right amount of fluid, with 25

  16. Parental Involvement and Work Schedules: Time with Children in the United States, Germany, Norway, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Jennifer L; Wolfe, Christina M

    2013-06-01

    We examine variation in parents' time with children by work schedule in two-parent families, utilizing time use surveys from the United States (2003), Germany (2001), Norway (2000), and the United Kingdom (2000) (N = 6,835). We find that American fathers working the evening shift spend more time alone with children regardless of mothers' employment status, whereas this association is conditional on mothers' employment in the United Kingdom and Germany. We find no evidence that Norwegian fathers working the evening shift spend more time alone with children. We conclude that a consequence of evening work often viewed as positive for children - fathers spending more time with children - is sensitive to both household employment arrangements and country context.

  17. Acid deposition in the United Kingdom 1992-1994. Fourth report of the Review Group on Acid Rain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The fourth report in the series examines the nature and extent of acid deposition throughout the United Kingdom. Topics are covered under the following headings: emissions of air pollutants leading to acidification, atmospheric transport and chemical conversion of acidifying air pollutants; wet deposition; concentrations of gases and particles; dry deposition processes, spatial patterns and recent trends; cloud droplet interception; total deposition; modelling of acid deposition in the United Kingdom; changes in concentrations and deposition of acidifying pollutants over the United Kingdom; and conclusions and recommendations. While emissions of SO{sub 2} are falling, emissions of nitrogen oxides have remained fairly constant since 1970. 240 refs., 128 figs., 34 tabs., 5 apps.

  18. Allometry and growth of eight tree taxa in United Kingdom woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Matthew R; Moustakas, Aristides; Carey, Gregory; Malhi, Yadvinder; Butt, Nathalie; Benham, Sue; Pallett, Denise; Schäfer, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    As part of a project to develop predictive ecosystem models of United Kingdom woodlands we have collated data from two United Kingdom woodlands - Wytham Woods and Alice Holt. Here we present data from 582 individual trees of eight taxa in the form of summary variables relating to the allometric relationships between trunk diameter, height, crown height, crown radius and trunk radial growth rate to the tree's light environment and diameter at breast height. In addition the raw data files containing the variables from which the summary data were obtained. Large sample sizes with longitudinal data spanning 22 years make these datasets useful for future studies concerned with the way trees change in size and shape over their life-span.

  19. Experiences of Racial Microaggression Among Migrant Nurses in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emee Vida Estacio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explore the experiences of racial microaggression among migrant nurses in the United Kingdom. Eleven migrant nurses kept a reflective diary for 6 weeks to record and reflect on their experiences of living and working in the United Kingdom. The diary entries were then thematically analyzed. The results suggest that migrant nurses experienced racial microaggression from patients and colleagues through racial preferences and bullying. Institutional racism also hindered their opportunities for further training and promotion. As a result, some experienced feelings of anger, frustration, and even paranoia. Despite the negative consequences of racial microaggression on their emotional well-being, incidents were downplayed as trivial because of their vague and subtle nature. To encourage better multicultural interactions in the workplace, supportive organizational infrastructures need to be in place to enhance diversity awareness and to improve mechanisms for reporting and dealing with cases of racial microaggression.

  20. Regulating web content: the nexus of legislation and performance standards in the United Kingdom and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannoumis, G Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Despite different historical traditions, previous research demonstrates a convergence between regulatory approaches in the United Kingdom and Norway. To understand this convergence, this article examines how different policy traditions influence the legal obligations of performance standards regulating web content for use by persons with disabilities. While convergence has led to similar policy approaches, I argue that national policy traditions have an impact on how governments establish legal obligations for standards compliance. The analysis reveals that national policy traditions influenced antidiscrimination legislation and the capacity and authority of regulatory agencies, which impacted the diverging legal obligations of standards in the United Kingdom and Norway. The analysis further suggests that policy actors mediate the reciprocal influence between national policy traditions and regulatory convergence mechanisms.

  1. The "decline and fall" of nontyphoidal salmonella in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sarah J

    2013-03-01

    Remarkable changes in the epidemiology of human nontyphoidal salmonellosis have occurred in the United Kingdom over the last century. Between 1981 and 1991, the incidence of nontyphoidal salmonellosis in the United Kingdom rose by >170%, driven primarily by an epidemic of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Enteritidis phage type (PT) 4, which peaked in 1993. Measures introduced to control this epidemic included legislation, food safety advice, and an industry-led vaccination program in broiler-breeder and laying poultry flocks. The incidence of Salmonella Enteritidis has been falling since 1997, and levels of Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 have fallen to preepidemic levels and have stayed low. The temporal relationship between vaccination programs and the reduction in human disease is compelling and suggests that these programs have made a major contribution to improving public health.

  2. The ethics of medical tourism: from the United Kingdom to India seeking medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghani, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Is the practice of UK patients traveling to India as medical tourists morally justified? This article addresses that question by examining three ethically relevant issues. First, the key factor motivating citizens of the United Kingdom to seek medical treatment in India is identified and analyzed. Second, the life prospects of the majority of the citizens of the two nations are compared to determine whether the United Kingdom is morally warranted in relying on India to meet the medical needs of its citizens. Third, as neoliberal reforms are justified on the grounds that they will help the indigent populations affected by them, the impact of medical tourism--a neoliberal initiative--on India's socially and economically marginalized groups is scrutinized.

  3. Experiences of Racial Microaggression Among Migrant Nurses in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emee Vida Estacio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explore the experiences of racial microaggression among migrant nurses in the United Kingdom. Eleven migrant nurses kept a reflective diary for 6 weeks to record and reflect on their experiences of living and working in the United Kingdom. The diary entries were then thematically analyzed. The results suggest that migrant nurses experienced racial microaggression from patients and colleagues through racial preferences and bullying. Institutional racism also hindered their opportunities for further training and promotion. As a result, some experienced feelings of anger, frustration, and even paranoia. Despite the negative consequences of racial microaggression on their emotional well-being, incidents were downplayed as trivial because of their vague and subtle nature. To encourage better multicultural interactions in the workplace, supportive organizational infrastructures need to be in place to enhance diversity awareness and to improve mechanisms for reporting and dealing with cases of racial microaggression.

  4. Disposal of radioactive wastes arising in the United Kingdom from the peaceful uses of atomic energy

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P M

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes United Kingdom policy in relation to radioactive waste and summarises the relevant legislation ad methods of control. Data are given on the amounts of radioactivity discharged as waste from establishments of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the nuclear power stations operated by the Electricity Generating Boards and other users of radioactive materials. Studies of the behaviour of radioactivity in the environment are reported with particular reference to food chains and other potential sources of irradiation of the public. The results of environmental monitoring are presented and estimates are made of radiation doses received by individual members of the public and larger population groups as a result of waste disposal. It is concluded that the doses received are all within the appropriate limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and in most cases are trivial.

  5. Comparing Tax Routes to Welfare in Denmark and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon; Sinfield, Adrian

    Substantial benefits are being routed through the tax system separately and much less publicly than in the welfare state. This study analyses how the tax benefits in Denmark and the United Kingdom are operating, raising questions of equity and privilege, and of cost and value for money. One major...... conclusion is that tax routes to welfare deserves much closer and more public examination than they currently receive in either country....

  6. The nuclear energy in the United Kingdom; L'energie nucleaire au Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    With challenges like the climatic change, the hydrocarbons prices increase and the energy supply security, the nuclear park is becoming a decisive and an urgent question in the United Kingdom. The author proposes an historical aspect of the nuclear energy in UK, the actors of the today nuclear industry and the technologies used in 2006, the radioactive wastes management, the programs of the future and the british opinion on the nuclear. (A.L.B.)

  7. Health tourism trends in the United Kingdom: Are they net exporters of health services?

    OpenAIRE

    Pagán-Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the inbound and outbound health tourism in the United Kingdom (UK) to determine if the UK can be considered as a net exporter of health services. Although there is an increasing number of studies analysing the phenomenon of health tourism, little empirical data are available. This paper contributes to reducing this gap by providing reliable data on health tourism flows for the British case. Using microdata drawn from the International Passenger Survey (IPS) for the peri...

  8. Microbiological water quality requirements for salad irrigation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrel, S F; Knox, J W; Weatherhead, E K

    2006-08-01

    The growth in United Kingdom salad production is dependent on irrigation to maintain product quality. There are concerns that irrigation with poor-quality water could pose a disease risk. This article examines the key issues in the emerging debate on the microbiological quality of water used for salad irrigation in the United Kingdom. The links between irrigation water quality and foodborne disease, and the current international guidance on irrigation water quality, are firstly reviewed. The findings indicate that a number of recent food-poisoning outbreaks have been linked to the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables and that unhygienic product handling is implicated as the principal source of contamination. There is also credible evidence that salads contaminated in the field, including by irrigation water, can pose a small disease risk at the point of sale. Although irrigation water-quality standards exist in various forms internationally, there is no nationally agreed on standard used in the United Kingdom. This paper then describes the results of a survey conducted in 2003 of United Kingdom irrigation practices that might influence the microbiological quality of salads. The survey showed that surface water is the principal irrigation water source, that overhead irrigation predominates, that the gap between the last irrigation and harvest may be < 24 h in many cases, and that current water-quality monitoring practices are generally very limited in scope. This paper concludes with a discussion of the issues emerging from the review and survey, including the need for improved water-quality monitoring, and the problems associated with establishing water-quality standards that could be either too strict or too lax.

  9. Comparing Tax Routes to Welfare in Denmark and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon; Sinfield, Adrian

    Substantial benefits are being routed through the tax system separately and much less publicly than in the welfare state. This study analyses how the tax benefits in Denmark and the United Kingdom are operating, raising questions of equity and privilege, and of cost and value for money. One major...... conclusion is that tax routes to welfare deserves much closer and more public examination than they currently receive in either country....

  10. Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the United Kingdom's Labour Market: A Field Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Drydakis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Deviations from heteronormativity affect labour market dynamics. Hierarchies of sexual orientation can result in job dismissals, wage discrimination, and the failure to promote gay and lesbian individuals to top ranks. In this paper, I report on a field experiment (144 job-seekers and their correspondence with 5,549 firms) that tested the extent to which sexual orientation affects the labour market outcomes of gay and lesbian job-seekers in the United Kingdom. Their minority sexual orientatio...

  11. A survey of undergraduate teaching of clinical neurology in the United Kingdom 1990.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, I. M.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive questionnaire survey of undergraduate teaching of clinical neurology in the United Kingdom has demonstrated the following points. Eight of the 28 medical schools do not provide a clinical attachment for all students. Clinical attachments tend to be either full time for four weeks or part time for six weeks. Students' exposure to sufficient patients with the common neurological conditions, with chronic neurological disability and particularly with acute neurological emergencies...

  12. "This Modern Day Slavery": Sex Trafficking and Moral Panic in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    HILL, Angela

    2011-01-01

    The dissertation analyzes the discourse and development of the British anti-sex trafficking movement. Following the European Union's largest expansion in 2004, the United Kingdom experienced a surge in immigration from Eastern Europe, which was greeted by fears about losing British culture, stolen jobs, and rising criminal activity. From this welter of concerns, I argue, the issue of sex trafficking coalesced into a moral panic about the dangers of immigration and the sexual exploitation of w...

  13. Land development in the United Kingdom: private property rights and public policy objectives

    OpenAIRE

    J Corkindale

    1999-01-01

    The system of land-use planning in the United Kingdom has remained essentially unchanged since the introduction of the 1947 Town and Country Planning Acts. There has been rather little progress since then in the economic evaluation of this system or in the development of more market-based approaches to land-use planning. The author discusses some of the reasons for the lack of economic evaluation, develops decision criteria for conducting such economic evaluation, and goes on to indicate the ...

  14. Information systems for urban and regional planning in the United Kingdom: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Worrall, L.

    1990-01-01

    Design criteria for urban and regional information systems are outlined. An attempt is made to evaluate the nationally available statistical series in the United Kingdom in the context of those design criteria and some of the systems developed in British local government to counter the deficiencies of an inadequate national data system are reviewed. Various systems for collecting local data have been instituted by particular local authorities, although the problems of using such data are ofte...

  15. Motivations and experiences of museum visitors: The case of the Imperial War Museum, United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Raymond; Kokkranikal, Jithendran

    2015-01-01

    This study explores motivations of visitors to the Imperial War Museum (North and South), United Kingdom, with a view to understanding why people visit museums associated with conflicts. Though museums are part of the education and leisure industry, the distinction between education and leisure is often blurred. There are a number of reasons why people visit museums. Motives of museum visitors can be grouped into intrinsic and extrinsic factors. This study analysed the extent to which museum ...

  16. Evolution and Epidemiology of Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae in the United Kingdom and Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danesh Moradigaravand

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae is a human commensal and opportunistic pathogen that has become a leading causative agent of hospital-based infections over the past few decades. The emergence and global expansion of hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant (MDR clones of K. pneumoniae have been increasingly reported in community-acquired and nosocomial infections. Despite this, the population genomics and epidemiology of MDR K. pneumoniae at the national level are still poorly understood. To obtain insights into these, we analyzed a systematic large-scale collection of invasive MDR K. pneumoniae isolates from hospitals across the United Kingdom and Ireland. Using whole-genome phylogenetic analysis, we placed these in the context of previously sequenced K. pneumoniae populations from geographically diverse countries and identified their virulence and drug resistance determinants. Our results demonstrate that United Kingdom and Ireland MDR isolates are a highly diverse population drawn from across the global phylogenetic tree of K. pneumoniae and represent multiple recent international introductions that are mainly from Europe but in some cases from more distant countries. In addition, we identified novel genetic determinants underlying resistance to beta-lactams, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracyclines, indicating that both increased virulence and resistance have emerged independently multiple times throughout the population. Our data show that MDR K. pneumoniae isolates in the United Kingdom and Ireland have multiple distinct origins and appear to be part of a globally circulating K. pneumoniae population.

  17. 200 years of soil carbon nitrogen and phosphorus change across the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipping, Ed; Quinton, John; Davies, Jessica; Bell, Vicky; Carnell, Ed; Dragosits, Ulli; Muhammed, Shibu; Naden, Pam; Stuart, Marianne; Tomlinson, Sam; Whitmore, Andy; Wu, Lianhai

    2015-04-01

    Human intervention over the last 200 years has resulted in vast changes to the fluxes of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) entering the United Kingdom's landscape. Industrialisation has resulted in N deposition, agricultural intensification has seen widespread use of N and P fertilizers and societal actions have resulted in extensive land use change. To understand the consequences of these anthropogenic inputs for our soils, freshwaters and ecosystems it is necessary to take an integrated long term large scale approach. Integration across the compartments of the critical zone - from atmosphere, plants to soil and stream - is necessary in order to trace the effects of deposition, fertilization, cultivation and land use change. Coherent integration of C, N and P dynamics is also crucial, as biological processes tightly couple these cycles, so that in unison C N and P control the generation of biomass and consequent production of soil organic matter, having knock on effects for dissolved and particulate fluxes and ecosystem function. The Long-Term Large-Scale (LTLS) project is developing an integrated model that simulates the pools and fluxes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (C, N, and P) between atmospheric, vegetation, soil and aquatic systems for the whole of the United Kingdom for a period spanning from the onset of the industrial revolution up until the present day. In this paper we will present results demonstrating the changes in the soil macronutrient cycles in response to agrarian and social change in the United Kingdom over the last 200 years

  18. The feasibility of hospital-based universal newborn hearing screening in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, W; Kemp, D T

    2001-01-01

    Current hearing screening programmes in the United Kingdom are performing unacceptably poorly. Davies et al. (1997) suggested that universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) would be more effective and cheaper to run. However, there is concern that hospital-based UNHS would not be feasible because of early postnatal discharge, and thus babies not staying in hospital long enough to be screened. Two studies were designed to determine the viability of hospital-based UNHS in a district general hospital in the United Kingdom. Study 1 retrospectively determined the discharge age and time of discharge of all 3021 well babies born at St Helier hospital, Carshalton, and the number of babies born at home in the area, from 19 October 1997-18 October 1998. Most well babies were found to pass through hospital at a convenient time for predischarge hearing screening, and the optimal protocol was screening from 9 am-2 pm, 7 days a week. The predicted maximal screening coverage was 92.68%. Study 2 tested the calculated optimal protocol over 1 week. It was found that UNHS with otoacoustic emissions on the maternity ward from 9 am-2 pm, 7 days a week, achieved a coverage of 89.06%, with an acceptable false positive rate of 6.2%. It is likely that a similar protocol with slight modifications could be implemented successfully in other hospitals in the United Kingdom.

  19. Assessing the generalisability of the pediatric cardiac quality of life inventory in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Jo; Brown, Kate; Franklin, Rodney; Cassedy, Amy; Marino, Bradley S

    2014-04-01

    To demonstrate the generalisability of the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory in the United Kingdom. Children and adolescents with heart disease were recruited from three tertiary paediatric cardiac centres in the United Kingdom and completed the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory. Item response option variability, total and subscale scores, patterns of correlation, and internal consistency were compared between the three sites. A total of 1537 participants--768 children/adolescents and 769 parents--were evaluated from the three sites. Patterns of item response option variability were similar and acceptable for all samples--child, adolescent, parent of child, and parent of adolescent. Internal consistency was high (0.82-0.96) for all samples from each site, and item-subscale, subscale-subscale, subscale-total, and item-total correlations were moderate to excellent for each centre. Comparisons of patterns of subscale and total score correlations between the three sites revealed no significant differences. Scores on the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory are generalisable in the United Kingdom, supporting the use of this measure for multi-centre studies of health-related quality of life of children and adolescents with heart disease.

  20. The Spitzenkandidaten in the European Parliament Election Campaign Coverage 2014 in Germany, France, and the United Kingdom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heidi Schulze

    2016-01-01

    .... A quantitative content analysis of European election campaign coverage in the opinion leading newspapers of three influential EU member states, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom was carried out...

  1. 75 FR 26920 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews, Preliminary Results...

  2. United Kingdom

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    expansion of markets abroad, the US had little option but to support its emerg- ing rivals' economic rise. ... hence currency volatility in emerging Asian economies) directly led to the ... manufacturing and an equity boom in the US. The latter ...

  3. Cosmetic surgery growth and correlations with financial indices: a comparative study of the United Kingdom and United States from 2002-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassab, Reza; Harris, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been significant fluctuation in the yearly growth rates for cosmetic surgery procedures in both the United States and the United Kingdom. The authors compare cosmetic surgical procedure rates in the United Kingdom and United States with the macroeconomic climate of each region to determine whether there is a direct relationship between cosmetic surgery rates and economic health. The authors analyzed annual cosmetic surgery statistics from the British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons and the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery for 2002-2011 against economic indices from both regions, including the gross domestic product (GDP), consumer prices indices (CPI), and stock market reports. There was a 285.9% increase in the United Kingdom and a 1.1% increase in the United States in the number of procedures performed between 2002 and 2011. There were significant positive correlations between the number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United Kingdom and both the GDP (r = 0.986, P correlation (r = -0.668, P correlation. Data from the United States and United Kingdom suggest 2 very different growth patterns in the number of cosmetic surgeries being performed as compared with the economy in each region. Economic indices are accurate indicators of numbers of procedures being performed in the United Kingdom, whereas rates in the United States seem independent of those factors.

  4. Discount factors for public sector investment projects using the sum of discounted consumption flows -- estimates for the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    E Kula

    1984-01-01

    In this article a model to estimate a discount factor matrix is derived for discount rates between 1% and 15% for the United Kingdom on the basis of a public-sector project evaluation method known as the sum of discounted consumption flows. These factors can readily be used by project analysts working on United Kingdom projects, especially those in which costs and benefits extend over many years.

  5. Alcohol consumption among university students in Ireland and the United Kingdom from 2002 to 2014: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Alcohol is a leading cause of global suffering. Europe reports the uppermost volume of alcohol consumption in the world, with Ireland and the United Kingdom reporting the highest levels of binge drinking and drunkenness. Levels of consumption are elevated among university students. Thus, this literature review aims to summarise the current research on alcohol consumption among university students in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom. Methods: MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE a...

  6. Technology-based innovation for independent living: policy and innovation in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Clara; Furseth, Peder Inge; Cuthbertson, Richard; Demello, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Interest in utilizing technology to help older adults remain living at home is growing; however, uptake remains low. We present a conceptual framework for understanding independent living technology innovation within health and social services. Public policy and innovation in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Scandinavia are profiled as case studies. In all profiled countries, independent living technology is more rapidly advancing than associated state policy, regulation, and payment systems. The findings from this comparative analysis reveal areas for further exploration, including policy subsystem environments in which technologies and services are regulated, as well as trends and desires of older adults and their caregivers within particular cultural contexts.

  7. Endoscopic ultrasound sedation in the United Kingdom: Is life without propofol tolerable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer Anne; Irvine, Andrew James; Hopper, Andrew Derek

    2017-01-01

    There is compelling evidence to support the quality, cost effectiveness and safety profile of non-anesthesiologist-administered propofol for endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). However in the United Kingdom, it is recommended that the administration and monitoring of propofol sedation for endoscopic procedures should be the responsibility of a dedicated and appropriately trained anaesthetist only. The majority of United Kingdom EUS procedures are performed with opiate and benzodiazepine sedation rather than anaesthetist led propofol lists due to anaesthetist resource availability. We sought to prospectively determine the tolerability and safety of EUS with benzodiazepine and opiate sedation in single United Kingdom centre. Two hundred consecutive patients undergoing either EUS or oesophago-gastroduodenoscopy (OGD) with conscious sedation were prospectively recruited with a 1:1 enrolment ratio. Patients completed questionnaires pre and post procedure detailing anticipated and actual pain experienced on a 1-10 visual analogue scale. Demographics, procedure duration, sedation doses and willingness to repeat the procedure were also recorded. EUS procedures lasted significantly longer than OGDs (15 min vs 6 min, P < 0.0001), however, there was no difference in anticipated pain scores between the groups (EUS 3.37/10 vs OGD 3.47/10, P = 0.46). Pain scores indicated EUS was better tolerated than OGD (1.16/10 vs 1.88/10, P = 0.03) although higher doses of sedation were used for EUS procedures. There were no complications identified in either group. We feel our study demonstrates that the tolerability of EUS with opiate and benzodiazepine sedation is acceptable.

  8. Burden of disease and costs of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Alastair

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs lost and the economic burden of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH in the United Kingdom including healthcare and non-healthcare costs from a societal perspective. Methods All UK residents in 2005 with aSAH (International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10 code I60. Sex and age-specific abridged life tables were generated for a general population and aSAH cohorts. QALYs in each cohort were calculated adjusting the life tables with health-related quality of life (HRQL data. Healthcare costs included hospital expenditure, cerebrovascular rehabilitation, primary care and community health and social services. Non-healthcare costs included informal care and productivity losses arising from morbidity and premature death. Results A total of 80,356 life years and 74,807 quality-adjusted life years were estimated to be lost due to aSAH in the UK in 2005. aSAH costs the National Health Service (NHS £168.2 million annually with hospital inpatient admissions accounting for 59%, community health and social services for 18%, aSAH-related operations for 15% and cerebrovascular rehabilitation for 6% of the total NHS estimated costs. The average per patient cost for the NHS was estimated to be £23,294. The total economic burden (including informal care and using the human capital method to estimate production losses of a SAH in the United Kingdom was estimated to be £510 million annually. Conclusion The economic and disease burden of aSAH in the United Kingdom is reported in this study. Decision-makers can use these results to complement other information when informing prevention policies in this field and to relate health care expenditures to disease categories.

  9. Detection and typing of integrons in epidemic strains of Acinetobacter baumannii found in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Jane F; Kaufmann, Mary E; Glover, Judith; Coelho, Juliana M; Warner, Marina; Pike, Rachel; Pitt, Tyrone L

    2005-07-01

    Integrons were sought in Acinetobacter isolates from hospitals in the United Kingdom by integrase gene PCR. Isolates were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and most belonged to a small number of outbreak strains or clones of A. baumannii, which are highly successful in the United Kingdom. Class 1 integrons were found in all of the outbreak isolates but in none of the sporadic isolates. No class 2 integrons were found. Three integrons were identified among the main outbreak strains and clones. While a particular integron was usually associated with a strain or clone, some members carried a different integron. Some integrons were associated with more than one strain. The cassette arrays of two of the integrons were very similar, both containing gene aacC1, which confers resistance to gentamicin, two open reading frames coding for unknown products (orfX, orfX'), and gene aadA1a, which confers resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin. The larger of these integrons had two copies of the first (orfX) of the gene cassettes coding for unknown products. The third integron, with a cassette array containing gene aacA4, which codes for amikacin, netilmicin, and tobramycin resistance; a chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, catB8; and gene aadA1, conferring resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin, was associated with an OXA-23 carbapenemase-producing clone, which has spread rapidly in hospitals in the United Kingdom during 2003 and 2004. These integron cassette arrays have been found in other outbreak strains of A. baumannii from other countries. We conclude that integrons are useful markers for epidemic strains of A. baumannii and that integron typing provides valuable information for epidemiological studies.

  10. United Kingdom Nuclear Science Forum Progress Report. Data Studies during 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, N.P. (ed.) [National Physical Laboratory, Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-15

    The United Kingdom Nuclear Science Forum (UKNSF) meets twice a year to discuss issues relating to the measurement and evaluation of nuclear data. Topics cover a wide range of applications in the UK nuclear industry. Links between members are maintained throughout the year, mainly through e-mail and the UKNSF website (www.uknsf.ofg.uk). Work of primary interest includes the measurement and evaluation of decay data (e.g. half-lives and gamma ray emission probabilities), fission yields, and neutron cross sections for fission and fusion. All known studies within the UK are summarised in this report. Specific applications and international links of relevance are also described. (author)

  11. Molecular epidemiological analysis of Mycoplasma bovis isolates from the United Kingdom shows two genetically distinct clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAuliffe, Laura; Kokotovic, Branko; Ayling, Roger D.

    2004-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis is an important veterinary pathogen causing pneumonia, arthritis, and mastitis in infected cattle. We investigated the genetic diversity of 53 isolates collected in the United Kingdom between 1996 and 2002 with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), amplified fragment length...... polymorphism (AFLP), and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. In addition, the influence of variable surface protein (Vsp) profiles on the profiles generated with molecular typing techniques was studied. Both AFLP and RAPD separated the isolates into two distinct groups, but PFGE showed less...

  12. Oil and Gas Security. Emergency Response of IEA Countries - United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. Initially prepared as a chapter in the overarching publication on the emergency response mechanisms in various IEA member countries, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew the full larger publication, the IEA will be making available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  13. Fraud in scientific research - birth of the Concordat to uphold research integrity in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajuria, Ankur; Agha, Riaz

    2014-02-01

    Fraud in research has risen exponentially and recent high profile cases may just be the tip of the iceberg. This threatens to have a major impact on public health, with policy makers and clinicians acting on erroneous data. To address this, the new research "Concordat", a consensus statement on research misconduct, has been published. Can it hold the key to rebuilding public confidence in scientific research in the United Kingdom? This review focuses on the concept of research misconduct, highlighting prominent cases and discussing strategies in order to restore confidence in the validity of scientific research.

  14. Current issues of international law on offshore abandonment, with special reference to the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiguo [Univ. of Dundee, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    This article attempts to provide an up-to-date overview of the recent developments of international law on offshore abandonment. It scrutinizes the current issues and debates on the subject at both international and national levels, with special reference to the legislation and practice in the United Kingdom. Through a study of the current issues and trends in international law and policy developments, the articles undertakes to provide, where possible, practical considerations as to the possible resolution of some of the prominent problems faced by the international community in general, and some member states in particular. The future direction of international abandonment law also is briefly outlined.

  15. Internationally recruited nurses from India and the Philippines in the United Kingdom: the decision to emigrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maben Jill

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The United Kingdom has recruited nurses from countries with a reported surplus in their nursing workforce, such as India and the Philippines. However, little is known about the decision to emigrate made by nurses from these countries. One theory suggests that individuals weigh the benefits and costs of migration: the push and pull factors. This paper challenges the restricted economic focus of this predominant theory and compares the diverse motivations of nurses from different countries as well as those of nurses with previous migratory experience and first-time migrants. Methods This research was undertaken in a National Health Service acute trust in London by means of a qualitative interpretative approach. Data were collected through face-to-face longitudinal and cross-sectional interviews with internationally recruited nurses from India (n = 6 and the Philippines (n = 15; and analysis of their narratives was used to generate data about their expectations and experiences. Data were analysed by means of a framework approach that allowed for intra-case and cross-case analysis. Results From an individual perspective, nurses in this study reported economic reasons as the main trigger for migration in the first instance. Yet this doesn't entirely explain the decision to move from previous migratory destinations (e.g. Saudi Arabia where economic needs are already fulfilled. In these cases migration is influenced by professional and social aspirations that highlight the influence of the cultural environment – specifically some religious and gender-related issues. Family support and support from migratory networks in the country of origin and destination were also important elements conducive to and supportive of migration. Nurses from India report coming to the United Kingdom to stay, while Filipina nurses come as temporary migrants sending remittances to support their families in the Philippines. Conclusion This study shows

  16. Global health equity in United Kingdom university research: a landscape of current policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Dzintars; Meldrum, Jonathan; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Counts, Christopher; Kumari, Nina; Martin, Manuel; Beattie, Ben; Post, Nathan

    2016-10-10

    Universities are significant contributors to research and technologies in health; however, the health needs of the world's poor are historically neglected in research. Medical discoveries are frequently licensed exclusively to one producer, allowing a monopoly and inequitable pricing. Similarly, research is often published in ways that make it inaccessible. Universities can adopt policies and practices to overcome neglect and ensure equitable access to research and its products. For 25 United Kingdom universities, data on health research funding were extracted from the top five United Kingdom funders' databases and coded as research on neglected diseases (NDs) and/or health in low- and lower-middle-income countries (hLLMIC). Data on intellectual property licensing policies and practices and open-access policies were obtained from publicly available sources and by direct contact with universities. Proportions of research articles published as open-access were extracted from PubMed and PubMed Central. Across United Kingdom universities, the median proportion of 2011-2014 health research funds attributable to ND research was 2.6% and for hLLMIC it was 1.7%. Overall, 79% of all ND funding and 74% of hLLMIC funding were granted to the top four institutions within each category. Seven institutions had policies to ensure that technologies developed from their research are affordable globally. Mostly, universities licensed their inventions to third parties in a way that confers monopoly rights. Fifteen institutions had an institutional open-access publishing policy; three had an institutional open-access publishing fund. The proportion of health-related articles with full-text versions freely available online ranged from 58% to 100% across universities (2012-2013); 23% of articles also had a creative commons CC-BY license. There is wide variation in the amount of global health research undertaken by United Kingdom universities, with a large proportion of total research

  17. Science and society: art and science collaborations in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Stephen

    2005-12-01

    In this Perspective article, I consider ways in which the contemporary arts and sciences can interact with each other, and I outline the current opportunities for funding in the United Kingdom. I examine the view that, in an art-science collaboration, it is the artist who benefits most, and I cautiously suggest that this is an oversimplification. Evidence from interviews with scientists who have been involved in these collaborations shows that artistic experience and skills are of value in the scientific research process.

  18. The effect of family structure on parents' child care time in the United States and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Ribar, David C.; Stratton, Leslie Sundt

    2006-01-01

    We use time-diary data from the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Surveys and the 2000 United Kingdom Time Use Study to estimate the effect of family structure on the time mothers and fathers spend on primary and passive child care and on market work, using a system of correlated Tobit equations and family structure equations. Estimates from these models indicate that single parents in both countries spend more time in child care than married or cohabiting parents. There are differences, howeve...

  19. Playful Politics: Developing a Framework for Designing Video Games for Political Participation in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew James Reid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Political participation in the United Kingdom among young voters (aged 18-24 has steadily declined over the past two decades. Alongside this decline, video game popularity has meteorically risen among the same demographic, resulting in video games becoming increasingly more integrated within modern society. While these instances are not necessarily related, there is opportunity to explore the use of video games’ popularity to increase political participation.The basis of this research is to investigate video games as a medium for social change, and its application within a political context in order to encourage political participation in the United Kingdom. The research intends to critically analyse existing video game design theories with implications of social impact, such as transformative design, procedural rhetoric, ethical design, persuasive principles and the theory of play.This research has assisted in the development of the Political Design Framework, a design methodology that provides ethical definition and validation for video games that intend to promote political engagement.

  20. Public-private sector interactions and the demand for supplementary health insurance in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíró, Anikó; Hellowell, Mark

    2016-07-01

    We examine the demand for private health insurance (PHI) in the United Kingdom and relate this to changes in the supply of public and private healthcare. Using a novel collection of administrative, private sector and survey data, we re-assess the relationships between the quality and availability of public and private sector inpatient care, and the demand for PHI. We find that PHI coverage in the United Kingdom is positively related to the median of the region- and year-specific public sector waiting times. We find that PHI prevalence ceteris paribus increases with being self-employed and employed, while it decreases with having financial difficulties. In addition, we highlight the complexities of inter-sectoral relations and their impact on PHI demand. Within a region, we find that an increase in private healthcare supply is associated with a decrease in public sector waiting times, implying lower PHI demand. This may be explained by the usage of private facilities by NHS commissioners. These results have important implications for policymakers interested in the role of private healthcare supply in enhancing the availability of and equitable access to acute inpatient care.

  1. A Perspective on Veterinary Forensic Pathology and Medicine in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbery, S G; Cooke, S W; Martineau, H M

    2016-09-01

    Internationally, forensic medicine and pathology are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of work done by veterinary clinicians and veterinary pathologists. In this article, a forensic veterinary clinician, a forensic veterinary pathologist in private practice, and a forensic veterinary pathologist at a veterinary school discuss the interactions among veterinary clinicians, veterinary pathologists, and law enforcement agencies and how future interactions can be improved. The focus is on the United Kingdom, but many of the principles, challenges, and suggestions are applicable to other jurisdictions. Clinicians and pathologists require forensic training to enable them to apply their veterinary knowledge to suspected cases of animal abuse and to subsequently present their findings and conclusions to a court of law in a concise, professional, and unbiased manner, and some opportunities for such advanced training in the United Kingdom are indicated. It is important that forensic veterinary clinicians and pathologists interact in an unbiased and collegial manner to answer the questions posed by courts of law. Opportunities for improved training, communication, and interaction among forensic veterinarians, forensic scientists, and law enforcement are discussed.

  2. Advertising Representations of Older People in the United Kingdom and Taiwan: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural studies of advertising representations of older people are relatively scarce. This article aims to fill in this gap via a comparison between Taiwan and the United Kingdom, employing a combination of quantitative content analysis and the qualitative grounded theory method. The content-analysis phase reveals underrepresentation of older people in both countries' advertising contexts, as well as representational differences between Taiwan and the United Kingdom in terms of older characters' role salience, the products, physical settings, and social networks they are associated with. The grounded-theory phase yields nine prototypes of older people along with subcategories to conceptualize the qualities of older people as they appear in TV ads in these countries. The findings are discussed in relation to the stereotyping of older people and transformed into hypothetical statements to be modified in future research. In conclusion, the Confucian tradition of filial piety is still found to be important in explaining the observed cross-cultural differences, but the emergence of new norms about aging in Taiwanese advertising also suggests that this tradition may be in decline.

  3. Echinococcus equinus and Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from the United Kingdom: genetic diversity and haplotypic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Lett, Wai San; Lahmar, Samia; Buishi, Imad; Bodell, Anthony J; Varcasia, Antonio; Casulli, Adriano; Beeching, Nicholas J; Campbell, Fiona; Terlizzo, Monica; McManus, Donald P; Craig, Philip S

    2015-02-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is endemic in Europe including the United Kingdom. However, information on the molecular epidemiology of Echinococcus spp. from the United Kingdom is limited. Echinococcus isolates from intermediate and definitive animal hosts as well as from human cystic echinococcosis cases were analysed to determine species and genotypes within these hosts. Echinococcus equinus was identified from horse hydatid isolates, cysts retrieved from captive UK mammals and copro-DNA of foxhounds and farm dogs. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) was identified from hydatid cysts of sheep and cattle as well as in DNA extracted from farm dog and foxhound faecal samples, and from four human cystic echinococcosis isolates, including the first known molecular confirmation of E. granulosus s.s. infection in a Welsh sheep farmer. Low genetic variability for E. equinus from various hosts and from different geographical locations was detected using the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1), indicating the presence of a dominant haplotype (EQUK01). In contrast, greater haplotypic variation was observed for E. granulosus s.s. cox1 sequences. The haplotype network showed a star-shaped network with a centrally placed main haplotype (EgUK01) that had been reported from other world regions.

  4. Real-world data in the United Kingdom: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Laura; Lambrelli, Dimitra; Wasiak, Radek; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V

    2016-06-24

    Real-world data is that collected outside the constraints of controlled clinical trials and is increasingly informing decision-making in healthcare. The landscape of real-world data in the United Kingdom is set to evolve over the coming months as the government plans to build on databases currently in place by collecting patient data from all family practices and linking this information with hospital records. This initiative, called care.data, has the potential to be an invaluable resource. However, the programme has been criticized on grounds of data privacy, which has led to an extended delay in its implementation and the expectation that a large number of people will opt out. Opt-outs may introduce substantial biases to the dataset, and understanding how to account for these presents a significant challenge for researchers. For the scope and quality of real-world evidence in the United Kingdom to be realised, and for this information to be used effectively, it is essential to address this challenge.

  5. HEART UK statement on the management of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Michael; Rees, Alan; Datta, Dev; Thompson, Gilbert; Capps, Nigel; Ferns, Gordon; Ramaswami, Uma; Seed, Mary; Neely, Dermot; Cramb, Robert; Shoulders, Carol; Barbir, Mahmoud; Pottle, Alison; Eatough, Ruth; Martin, Steven; Bayly, Graham; Simpson, Bill; Halcox, Julian; Edwards, Ray; Main, Linda; Payne, Jules; Soran, Handrean

    2016-12-01

    This consensus statement addresses the current three main modalities of treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH): pharmacotherapy, lipoprotein (Lp) apheresis and liver transplantation. HoFH may cause very premature atheromatous arterial disease and death, despite treatment with Lp apheresis combined with statin, ezetimibe and bile acid sequestrants. Two new classes of drug, effective in lowering cholesterol in HoFH, are now licensed in the United Kingdom. Lomitapide is restricted to use in HoFH but, may cause fatty liver and is very expensive. PCSK9 inhibitors are quite effective in receptor defective HoFH, are safe and are less expensive. Lower treatment targets for lipid lowering in HoFH, in line with those for the general FH population, have been proposed to improve cardiovascular outcomes. HEART UK presents a strategy combining Lp apheresis with pharmacological treatment to achieve these targets in the United Kingdom (UK). Improved provision of Lp apheresis by use of existing infrastructure for extracorporeal treatments such as renal dialysis is promoted. The clinical management of adults and children with HoFH including advice on pregnancy and contraception are addressed. A premise of the HEART UK strategy is that the risk of early use of drug treatments beyond their licensed age restriction may be balanced against risks of liver transplantation or ineffective treatment in severely affected patients. This may be of interest beyond the UK.

  6. Testing the pediatric cardiac quality of life inventory in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Jo; Franklin, Rodney; Brown, Kate; Cassedy, Amy; Marino, Bradley S

    2013-02-01

    To establish the validity and reliability of the Pediatric Cardiac Quality of Life Inventory (PCQLI) for children with heart disease in the United Kingdom. Three paediatric cardiac centres recruited patients aged 8-18 years with heart disease. Patient-parent pairs completed a disease-specific paediatric cardiac quality of life measure (PCQLI), a generic quality of life measure (PedsQL4.0) and behaviour and self-perception questionnaires. Validity was assessed by correlation of PCQLI scores with heart disease severity, medical care utilization, and PedsQL, behaviour and self-perception scores, and by correlation of patient and parent PCQLI scores. Reliability was evaluated by administering the PCQLI at two time points. The study was completed by 771 patient-parent pairs. Validity was confirmed by the association of lower total PCQLI scores with more complex heart disease and a greater number of hospitalizations and cardiac surgeries (all p disease-specific quality-of-life measure for children with heart disease in the United Kingdom. ©2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  7. Clinical medical sciences for undergraduate dental students in the United Kingdom and Ireland - a curriculum.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mighell, A J

    2011-08-01

    The technical aspects of dentistry need to be practised with insight into the spectrum of human diseases and illnesses and how these impact upon individuals and society. Application of this insight is critical to decision-making related to the planning and delivery of safe and appropriate patient-centred healthcare tailored to the needs of the individual. Provision for the necessary training is included in undergraduate programmes, but in the United Kingdom and Ireland there is considerable variation between centres without common outcomes. In 2009 representatives from 17 undergraduate dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland agreed to move towards a common, shared approach to meet their own immediate needs and that might also be of value to others in keeping with the Bologna Process. To provide a clear identity the term \\'Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry\\' was agreed in preference to other names such as \\'Human Disease\\' or \\'Medicine and Surgery\\'. The group was challenged to define consensus outcomes. Contemporary dental education documents informed, but did not drive the process. The consensus curriculum for undergraduate Clinical Medical Sciences in Dentistry teaching agreed by the participating centres is reported. Many of the issues are generic and it includes elements that are likely to be applicable to others. This document will act as a focus for a more unified approach to the outcomes required by graduates of the participating centres and act as a catalyst for future developments that ultimately aim to enhance the quality of patient care.

  8. Effect of different water management strategies on water and contaminant fluxes in Doncaster, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueedi, J; Cronin, A A; Moon, B; Wolf, L; Hoetzl, H

    2005-01-01

    In Europe, large volumes of public water supply come from urban aquifers and so efficient urban water management and decision tools are essential to maintain quality of life both in terms of health, personal freedom and environment. In the United Kingdom, this issue gained increased importance with the last year's low volumes of groundwater replenishment that resulted in increased water shortages all over the country. An urban water volume and quality model (UVQ) was applied to a suburb of Doncaster (United Kingdom) to assess the current water supply system and to compare it with new potential scenarios of water management. The initial results show considerable changes in both water and solute fluxes for some scenarios and rather limited changes for others. Changing impermeable roads and paved areas to permeable areas, for example, would lead to higher infiltration rates that may be welcome from a water resources viewpoint but less so from a water quality point of view due to high concentrations of heavy metals. The biggest impact on water quality and quantity leaving the system through sewer, storm water and infiltration system was clearly obtained by re-using grey water from kitchen, bathroom and laundry for irrigation and toilet flush. The testing of this strategy led to lower volumes and higher concentrations of sewerage, a considerable decrease in water consumption and an increase in groundwater recharge. The scenarios were tested neither in terms of costs nor social acceptance for either water supplier or user.

  9. Executive impunity and parallel justice? The United Kingdom debate on secret inquests and inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Rebecca Scott

    2012-03-01

    At the beginning of 2008, the United Kingdom Government rolled into the Counter-Terrorism Bill some controversial proposals to reform coronial inquest processes, namely clauses that would provide for "secret inquests". The provisions were heavily criticised both inside and outside Parliament, and took a rocky passage through both the House of Commons and the House of Lords before eventually being abandoned by the government. In 2009 the government again tried to introduce "secret inquests" with the Coroners and Justice Bill, instead ultimately succeeding in establishing what critics have termed a "parallel" system of justice through provisions around "secret inquiries". This move has been seen as subverting the principles of transparency and open justice in the investigation of contentious deaths. This article examines the government's efforts to introduce "secret inquests" and thereafter "secret inquiries" in the context of the United Kingdom's coronial law and purpose, human rights obligations and the ongoing issues around sensitive intelligence, and examines the clash of laws that gave rise to the controversial proposals.

  10. A review of ground penetrating radar research and practice in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Antonios; Alani, Amir

    2014-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar has been playing an important role for many years in assisting in the non-destructive evaluation of UK's built environment as well as being employed in more general shallow depth geophysical investigations. Ground penetrating radar, in the United Kingdom, has a long history of original work both in developing original research ideas on fundamental aspects of the technique, both in hardware and in software, and in exploring innovative ideas relating to the practical implementation of ground penetrating radar in a number of interesting projects. For example, the base of one of the biggest organisations that connects ground penetrating radar practitioners is in the United Kingdom. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground penetrating radar research - primarily carried out in UK Universities - and present some key areas and work that is carried out at a practical level - primarily by private enterprises. Although, the main effort is to concentrate on ground penetrating radar applications relating to civil engineering problems other related areas of ground penetrating radar application will also be reviewed. The aim is to create a current picture of ground penetrating radar use with a view to inform and potentially enhance the possibility of new developments and collaborations that could lead to the advancement of ground penetrating radar as a geophysical investigative method. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.

  11. Can endoscopic atrophy predict histological atrophy? Historical study in United Kingdom and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Shin; Gotoda, Takuji; Yoshida, Shigeaki; Oda, Ichiro; Kondo, Hitoshi; Gatta, Luigi; Naylor, Greg; Dixon, Michael; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Axon, Anthony

    2015-12-14

    To assess the diagnostic concordance between endoscopic and histological atrophy in the United Kingdom and Japan. Using published data, a total of 252 patients, 126 in the United Kingdom and 126 in Japan, aged 20 to 80 years, were evaluated. The extent of endoscopic atrophy was classified into five subgroups according to a modified Kimura-Takemoto classification system and was compared with histological findings of atrophy at five biopsy sites according to the updated Sydney system. The strength of agreement of the extent of atrophy between histology and visual endoscopic inspection showed good reproducibility, with a weighted kappa value of 0.76 (P atrophy (OR = 0.10, 95%CI: 0.03-0.36). The strength of agreement between endoscopic and histological atrophy, assessed by cancer risk-oriented grading, was reproducible, with a kappa value of 0.81 (95%CI: 0.75-0.87). Only nine patients (3.6%) were endoscopically underdiagnosed with antral predominant rather than extensive atrophy and were considered false negatives. Endoscopic grading can predict histological atrophy with few false negatives, indicating that precancerous conditions can be identified during screening endoscopy, particularly in patients in western countries.

  12. The Great Financial Crisis: How Effective is Macroeconomic Policy Response in the United Kingdom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clements Akinsoyinu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Great Financial Crisis has been touted to be the worst crisis since the Great Depression of 1930; its effect has profound ramifications on the global economy. The nature and the severity of the crisis provoked an unprecedented policy response from policy makers at both global and domestic levels. To address the rampaging crisis, the Bank of England implemented a number of conventional and unconventional policy measures to curtail the economic rot and to stimulate economic growth. There is a broad consensus in the empirical literature and other evidence found in this paper that a number of the policies implemented in the United Kingdom played a significant role in re-directing and stimulating the economy. This paper reviews the various policy measures adopted by the Bank of England from the inception of the financial crisis in 2008 and assesses their effectiveness in bringing back the economy from the brink of collapse. Our review shows that quantitative easing (QE policy and the expansionary fiscal policy adopted by the Bank of England were effective policy tools used in stimulating economic growth, stemming the effect and shortening the duration of the crisis in the United Kingdom

  13. Acquired hemophilia A in the United Kingdom: a 2-year national surveillance study by the United Kingdom Haemophilia Centre Doctors' Organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Peter W; Hirsch, Sybil; Baglin, Trevor P; Dolan, Gerard; Hanley, John; Makris, Michael; Keeling, David M; Liesner, Ri; Brown, Simon A; Hay, Charles R M

    2007-03-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a severe bleeding disorder caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Previous reports have focused on referral center patients and it is unclear whether these findings are generally applicable. To improve understanding of the disease, a 2-year observational study was established to identify and characterize the presenting features and outcome of all patients with acquired hemophilia A in the United Kingdom. This allowed a consecutive cohort of patients, unbiased by referral or reporting practice, to be studied. A total of 172 patients with a median age of 78 years were identified, an incidence of 1.48/million/y. The cohort was significantly older than previously reported series, but bleeding manifestations and underlying diseases were similar. Bleeding was the cause of death in 9% of the cohort and remained a risk until the inhibitor had been eradicated. There was no difference in inhibitor eradication or mortality between patients treated with steroids alone and a combination of steroids and cytotoxic agents. Relapse of the inhibitor was observed in 20% of the patients who had attained first complete remission. The data provide the most complete description of acquired hemophilia A available and are applicable to patients presenting to all centers.

  14. Notes on critical care-review of seminal management and leadership papers in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Maureen

    2009-06-01

    Review of recent critical care provision reveals substantial changes in clinical unit operating, and policy drivers influencing international critical care delivery. Practitioners who have worked in healthcare environments over this time, will have witnessed substantial shifts in healthcare policy, changes in professional body guidance and greater service evaluation have impacted on critical care management and leadership. This paper offers a personal perspective on seminal management and leadership papers published in the critical care literature over the past decade. Presenting a range of national and international work that utilise diverse approaches, ten key papers are highlighted that have impacted in the United Kingdom setting. Through this, the influence of the modernisation agenda, the increasing significance of outcome studies, and the need for flexible, interdependent practice emerges. A key message to surface from this paper is the need for all in critical care to engage with, and understand the wider implications of management and leadership change for critical care delivery.

  15. The Best Adders of Opportunity Government Skills Initiatives in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Simmons

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is United Kingdom (UK govern¬ment initiatives over the last thirty years, or so, which have been designed to both up-skill the workforce and to improve the country’s international com¬petitive position. It also considers the impact which these educational inter¬ventions have had on the economic and human capital of the various stake¬holders including the government, employers and learners. It comes to the conclusion that, whilst some progress has been made in developing the human capital and the economic capital of the stakeholders these interventions have not significantly improved the United Kingdom’s global competitive position. The paper also points to the current political uncertainty in that country.

  16. 75 FR 53661 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ..., Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews... duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United... and parts thereof from Germany, is the successor-in-interest to the pre-acquisition myonic...

  17. New world origins for haemoparasites infecting United Kingdom grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), as revealed by phylogenetic analysis of bartonella infecting squirrel populations in England and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, K J; Ellis, B A; Birtles, R J; Durden, L A; Lello, J; Begon, M; Bennett, M

    2002-12-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of bartonella have suggested divergence between bartonellae that infect mammals native to the Old and New Worlds. We characterized bartonella isolated from Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurius carolinensis) in the United States and from grey and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the United Kingdom by nucleotide sequence comparison (gltA and groEL). Isolates from grey squirrels in the United States and the United Kingdom were identical, and most similar to Bartonella vinsonii, a species associated with New World rodents. A single and novel bartonella genotype was obtained from all 12 red squirrel isolates. Although grey squirrels were first introduced into the United Kingdom over 125 years ago, they continue to be infected solely by the bartonella associated with grey squirrels native to the United States. These results illustrate that exotic species may be accompanied by the introduction and maintenance, over many generations, of their microparasites.

  18. Parenteral nutrition in very low birth weight infants in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hopewell, J

    2012-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) plays an important role in providing nutrients for infants unable to tolerate enteral feeds study was to look at PN prescribing in neonatal units in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Ireland, in particular in infants < 1.5 kg. A postal questionnaire was administered to the 235 neonatal units. The response rate was 179 (76%), of which 136 (76%) used PN. The initial amount of protein prescribed was 0.1-2 g\\/kg\\/day in 102 units (91%), >2 g\\/kg\\/day in 4 (4%) and 5 (5%) used no protein. 88 (80%) started lipids with the first PN prescription. Only 5 units (5%) started with >1 g\\/kg\\/day. The maximum dose of lipids and protein both varied from 2 - >4 g\\/kg\\/day. The initial glucose infusion rate was 4-8 mg\\/kg\\/min. Interestingly only 44% of units started PN in the first 24 hours of age. Hence results show great variation in PN prescribing.

  19. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  20. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  1. Teaching English as an Additional Language In The Global Classroom: A Transnational Study In The United States and United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail McEachron

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global research has shown the persistence of inequality with regard to accessing curriculum with a view to obtaining suitable work and making useful contributions to society. The intersection of race, gender, language and low socio-economic levels creates situations which often marginalize ethnic minorities in school settings (Freire, 1968; Nieto & Turner, 2012. The graduation rates in the United States for Native American, African American and Hispanic students are lower than the graduation rates of Whites and Asian Americans. In addition, Bangladeshis and African Caribbeans currently living in the UK are under-represented in higher education, particularly young men in those communities. The research questions that guide this inquiry are: (1 According to databases, how does the academic performance of language minority groups compare to the academic performance of non-linguistic minority groups at the elementary and secondary levels of education? (2 According to language support teachers and university students, what are the strengths and weaknesses of the instructional practices for language minorities who are learning English in the United Kingdom (UK (Bristol and the United States (US (Henrico? Participants were: five UK teachers, four UK university students, five US teachers, four US university students. Data collection supervised by lead researchers included interviews, focus groups, classroom observation, and performance documents. Data analysis utilized a mixed-methods approach. Overall, linguistic minority groups performed lower than their English proficient peers. Culturally, UK teachers provided a greater emphasis on religious instruction, whereas US teachers addressed patriotic topics more frequently. Teachers in the United States and the United Kingdom were culturally supportive with slight variation in the encouraged use of the students’ heritage languages.

  2. Tracking search engine queries for suicide in the United Kingdom, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, V S; Stuckler, D; McKee, M

    2016-08-01

    First, to determine if a cyclical trend is observed for search activity of suicide and three common suicide risk factors in the United Kingdom: depression, unemployment, and marital strain. Second, to test the validity of suicide search data as a potential marker of suicide risk by evaluating whether web searches for suicide associate with suicide rates among those of different ages and genders in the United Kingdom. Cross-sectional. Search engine data was obtained from Google Trends, a publicly available repository of information of trends and patterns of user searches on Google. The following phrases were entered into Google Trends to analyse relative search volume for suicide, depression, job loss, and divorce, respectively: 'suicide'; 'depression + depressed + hopeless'; 'unemployed + lost job'; 'divorce'. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was employed to test bivariate associations between suicide search activity and official suicide rates from the Office of National Statistics (ONS). Cyclical trends were observed in search activity for suicide and depression-related search activity, with peaks in autumn and winter months, and a trough in summer months. A positive, non-significant association was found between suicide-related search activity and suicide rates in the general working-age population (15-64 years) (ρ = 0.164; P = 0.652). This association is stronger in younger age groups, particularly for those 25-34 years of age (ρ = 0.848; P = 0.002). We give credence to a link between search activity for suicide and suicide rates in the United Kingdom from 2004 to 2013 for high risk sub-populations (i.e. male youth and young professionals). There remains a need for further research on how Google Trends can be used in other areas of disease surveillance and for work to provide greater geographical precision, as well as research on ways of mitigating the risk of internet use leading to suicide ideation in youth. Copyright © 2015 The Royal

  3. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-12-01

    Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills.

  4. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC) members, United Kingdom, visiting the ATLAS semiconductor tracker (SCT) module tests.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr Peter Warry, PPARC Chairman, Victrex Plc, United Kingdom visiting the ATLAS SCT module tests with Dr Joleen Pater, SCT (Manchester). Photo 02: PPARC Council Members, United Kingdom, visiting the ATLAS SCT module tests. L.t to r.: Mrs Judith Scott, Chief Executive, British Computer Society, Prof. George Efstathiou, Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Mr Peter Warry, PPARC Chairman, Victrex Plc, Prof. Martin Ward, Director X-Ray Astronomy, of Leicester, Prof. James Stirling, Director, Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham and Prof. Brian Foster, University of Bristol.

  5. A new sauropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Phillip L; Egerton, Victoria M; Romano, Mike

    2015-01-01

    A new record of a sauropodomorph dinosaur is here described from the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian) Saltwick Formation of Whitby (Yorkshire), UK. A single caudal vertebra represents an early sauropodomorph and signifies the earliest recognised eusauropod dinosaur from the United Kingdom. The absence of pleurocoels and a narrow, dorsoventrally deep, but craniocaudally short centrum, suggests a primitive sauropodomorph. Distinct spinopostzygopophyseal laminae rise from the lateral margins of the postzygapophyses and pass caudally along what remains of the neural spine, a character unique to a subgroup of sauropods that includes Barapasaurus, Omeisaurus and other neosauropods and eusauropods. The lack of phylogenetically robust characters in sauropod caudal vertebrae usually makes it difficult to establish affinities, but the absence of mild procoely excludes this specimen from both Diplodocoidea and Lithostrotia. The vertebra cannot be further distinguished from those of a wide range of basal sauropods, cetiosaurids and basal macronarians. However, this plesiomorphic vertebra still signifies the earliest stratigraphic occurrence for a British sauropod dinosaur.

  6. A new sauropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip L Manning

    Full Text Available A new record of a sauropodomorph dinosaur is here described from the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian Saltwick Formation of Whitby (Yorkshire, UK. A single caudal vertebra represents an early sauropodomorph and signifies the earliest recognised eusauropod dinosaur from the United Kingdom. The absence of pleurocoels and a narrow, dorsoventrally deep, but craniocaudally short centrum, suggests a primitive sauropodomorph. Distinct spinopostzygopophyseal laminae rise from the lateral margins of the postzygapophyses and pass caudally along what remains of the neural spine, a character unique to a subgroup of sauropods that includes Barapasaurus, Omeisaurus and other neosauropods and eusauropods. The lack of phylogenetically robust characters in sauropod caudal vertebrae usually makes it difficult to establish affinities, but the absence of mild procoely excludes this specimen from both Diplodocoidea and Lithostrotia. The vertebra cannot be further distinguished from those of a wide range of basal sauropods, cetiosaurids and basal macronarians. However, this plesiomorphic vertebra still signifies the earliest stratigraphic occurrence for a British sauropod dinosaur.

  7. Presence and Persistence of Zika Virus RNA in Semen, United Kingdom, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Barry; Thorburn, Fiona; Petridou, Christina; Bailey, Daniel; Hewson, Roger; Simpson, Andrew J.H.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus RNA has been detected in semen collected several months after onset of symptoms of infection. Given the potential for sexual transmission of Zika virus and for serious fetal abnormalities resulting from infection during pregnancy, information regarding the persistence of Zika virus in semen is critical for advancing our understanding of potential risks. We tested serial semen samples from symptomatic male patients in the United Kingdom who had a diagnosis of imported Zika virus infection. Among the initial semen samples from 23 patients, Zika virus RNA was detected at high levels in 13 (56.5%) and was not detected in 9 (39.1%); detection was indeterminate in 1 sample (4.4%). After symptomatic infection, a substantial proportion of men have detectable Zika virus RNA at high copy numbers in semen during early convalescence, suggesting high risk for sexual transmission. Viral RNA clearance times are not consistent and can be prolonged. PMID:27997333

  8. The Lexis plot for run-off non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Humaida Banu

    2014-06-01

    This study is intended to look at the company's age to be one of the predictor for financially distressed non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom. Financial distress is a condition where a company has difficulty paying off its obligations to its creditors. For this study, Lexis plot is used to identify either younger companies or older companies are in run-off. Run-off is a process where many insurance companies stop underwriting policies long before they reach financial crisis or financial distress. The study utilises financial data of 22 years from year 1985 to year 2006 for 397 companies. From the study, it is identified that younger companies are more in financial distress than older companies.

  9. Failure factors in non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Humaida Banu

    2013-04-01

    Failure in insurance company is a condition of financial distress where a company has difficulty paying off its financial obligations to its creditors. This study continues the research from the study in identifying the determinants for run-off non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom. The analysis continues to identify other variables that could lead companies to financial distress that is macroeconomic factors (GDP rates, inflation rates and interest rates); total companies failed a year before and average size for failed companies'. The result from the analysis indicates that inflation rates, interest rates, total companies failed a year before and average sizes for failed companies are the best predictors. An early detection of failure can prevent companies from bankruptcy and allow management to take action to reduce the failure costs.

  10. The Potential United Kingdom Energy Gap and Creep Life Prediction Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The United Kingdom faces a looming energy gap with around 20 pct of its generating capacity due for closure in the next 10 to 15 years as a result of plant age and new European legislation on environmental protection and safety at work. A number of solutions exist for this problem including the use of new materials so that new plants can operate at higher temperatures, new technologies related to carbon capture and gasification, development of renewable resources, and less obviously the use of accurate models for predicting creep life. This article reviews, with illustrations, some of the more applicable and successful creep prediction methodologies used by academics and industrialists and highlights how these techniques can help alleviate the looming energy gap. The role that these approaches can play in solving the energy gap is highlighted throughout.

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE PROCESS OF ORGANIC CERTIFICATION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every product marketed under ’organic’ must comply with a set of UK, European Union and international rules. These rules (also known as standards assure the consumers that they bought original organic products able to be traced back all the way to the farm. Organic standards cover all of the aspects of organic food certification, including production and packaging, animal welfare, wildlife preservation and interdict all useless and dangerous food additives in processing organic foods. The British organic control bodies authorize individual organic operators. These are approved by DEFRA (The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. In order for a producer to have his merchandise marketed as organic, he must be affiliated to one of the control bodies and comply to its standards and requirements. The present article presents the certification control bodies in organic agriculture as well as the steps to be taken in the organic certification process within the United Kingdom.

  12. Dementia skills for all: a core competency framework for the workforce in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaroucha, Anna; Benbow, Susan Mary; Kingston, Paul; Le Mesurier, Nick

    2013-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing health and social care in the United Kingdom is the projected increase in the number of older people who require dementia care. The National Dementia Strategy (Department of Health, 2009) emphasizes the critical need for a skilled workforce in all aspects of dementia care. In the West Midlands, the Strategic Health Authority commissioned a project to develop a set of generic core competencies that would guide a competency based curriculum to meet the demands for improved dementia training and education. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify relevant frameworks to assist with this work. The core competency framework produced and the methods used for the development of the framework are presented and discussed.

  13. Intersectionality at Work: South Asian Muslim Women's Experiences of Employment and Leadership in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Memoona; Syed, Jawad

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative interviews with 20 South Asian heritage, Muslim, female leaders, managers, and supervisors in the United Kingdom, we examine the multi-layered issues and challenges they face in pursuit of employment and leadership positions. The paper offers an intersectional perspective taking into account interconnected and overlapping factors (gender, ethnicity, religion, and family status) that affect not only the issues and challenges these women face in the labour market but also the individual agency and strategies they use to overcome any obstacles in the way of their employment and career. The results show that although Muslim women continue to face a myriad of challenges in the workplace, they are also able to tackle some of these issues through their individual strategies and networks, such as personal networks and further education. The study highlights the need for policymakers and employers to consider intersectionality to enable ethnic minority women's inclusion and leadership within and outside the workplace.

  14. Framing 'fracking': Exploring public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laurence; Macnaghten, Phil; Davies, Richard; Curtis, Sarah

    2015-07-13

    The prospect of fracking in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by significant public unease. We outline how the policy debate is being framed by UK institutional actors, finding evidence of a dominant discourse in which the policy approach is defined through a deficit model of public understanding of science and in which a technical approach to feasibility and safety is deemed as sufficient grounds for good policymaking. Deploying a deliberative focus group methodology with lay publics across different sites in the north of England, we find that these institutional framings are poorly aligned with participants' responses. We find that unease regularly overflows the focus on safety and feasibility and cannot be satisfactorily explained by a lack of understanding on the part of participants. We find that scholarship from science and technology studies productively elucidates our participants' largely sceptical positions, and orientates strategies for responding to them more effectively.

  15. Framing ‘fracking’: Exploring public perceptions of hydraulic fracturing in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laurence; Macnaghten, Phil; Davies, Richard; Curtis, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The prospect of fracking in the United Kingdom has been accompanied by significant public unease. We outline how the policy debate is being framed by UK institutional actors, finding evidence of a dominant discourse in which the policy approach is defined through a deficit model of public understanding of science and in which a technical approach to feasibility and safety is deemed as sufficient grounds for good policymaking. Deploying a deliberative focus group methodology with lay publics across different sites in the north of England, we find that these institutional framings are poorly aligned with participants’ responses. We find that unease regularly overflows the focus on safety and feasibility and cannot be satisfactorily explained by a lack of understanding on the part of participants. We find that scholarship from science and technology studies productively elucidates our participants’ largely sceptical positions, and orientates strategies for responding to them more effectively. PMID:26170264

  16. Grandparental effects on fertility vary by lineage in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanskanen, Antti O; Jokela, Markus; Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Rotkirch, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Grandparental presence is known to correlate with the number of grandchildren born, and this effect may vary according to grandparental sex and lineage. However, existing studies of grandparental effects on fertility mostly concern traditional subsistence societies, while evidence from contemporary developed societies is both scarce and mixed. Here, we explore how grandparents affect the transition to second and subsequent children in the contemporary United Kingdom. The longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (n = 10,295 families) was used to study the association between grandparental investment and parents' probability of having a new child within 4.5 years. Results show that contact with paternal grandparents is associated with higher probability of parents having a second child. In contrast, contact with maternal grandparents is associated with lower probability of having a third or subsequent child. Kin may have opposite effects on fertility even in contemporary societies, which may explain the lack of consistent effects of grandparental investment on fertility in previous studies.

  17. United Kingdom. The supply of gas storage services; Gran Bretagna: i servizi di stoccaggio del gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alviani, F. [Law and Economics Consulting Group, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    This article investigates BG Storage monopoly position in the supply of gas storage services. The company is currently thought by the regulator to be exploiting its monopoly power to price in discriminatory way. The analysis, however, shows that unsold storage capacity depend on the current over capacity in the United Kingdom gas market, more than on the abuse od market power. [Italian] Questo articolo analizza la posizione di monopolio di BG Storage nell'offerta di servizi di stoccaggio del gas. Dall'analisi emerge che la capacita' di stoccaggio invenduta potrebbe dipendere piu' dalla situazione di sovracapacita' del mercato del gas inglese che dall'abuso di posizione dominante, di cui la compagnia e' accusata.

  18. Phylogenetic evidence for a case of misleading rather than mislabeling in caviar in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tania Aspasia; Iyengar, Arati

    2015-01-01

    Sturgeons and paddlefish are freshwater fish which are highly valued for their caviar. Despite the fact that every single species of sturgeon and paddlefish is listed under CITES, there are reports of illegal trade in caviar where products are deliberately mislabeled. Three samples of caviar purchased in the United Kingdom were investigated for accurate CITES labeling using COI and cyt b sequencing. Initial species identification was carried out using BLAST followed by phylogenetic analyses using both maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Results showed no evidence for mislabeling with respect to CITES labels in any of the three samples, but we observed clear evidence for a case of misleading the customer in one sample.

  19. The use of conservation biomass feedstocks as potential bioenergy resources in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D; Mitchell, E J S; Lea-Langton, A R; Parmar, K R; Jones, J M; Williams, A

    2016-07-01

    A number of countries have introduced energy policies to reduce the emission of carbon dioxide which, in the case of bio-heat, has resulted in increased use of small wood burning stoves and boilers, particularly in Europe. There are issues surrounding the supply of sustainable wood feedstock, prompting a desire to utilise local biomass resources. This includes biomass generated through the management of natural woodlands in nature reserves and conservation areas. These management practices can also extend to other areas, such as raised bog wildernesses and estuary Reed beds. We term the biomass from this resource as conservation biomass. This study is concerned with the viability of this resource as a fuel within the United Kingdom, and combustion tests were carried out using a small domestic stove. It was concluded that there is as much as 500kty(-1) that could be used in this way.

  20. DEVOLUTION AND INEDEPENDENCE IN THE UNITED KINGDOM: THE CASE OF SCOTLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Guibernau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reflect upon the consequences of the devolutionprocess initiated by the Labour government in 1997. The paper considers thedevelopment of Scottish devolution since its inception up to the present day.In so doing, it establishes a distinction between the so-called unionist viewand the secessionist approach. It offers a detailed study of current plans fora referendum on secession, as planned by the Scottish National Party (SNP,while considering its main objectives and challenges. It also includes a thoroughoverview of the main recommendations of the Calman Commission(2009 set up by the Government of Scotland and the Government of theUnited Kingdom in order to evaluate ten years of devolution. The paperconcludes by offering some final reflections on the consequences of devolutionfor Scottish and British identity alike.

  1. Participant report for National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom) Hole Plate No. 137

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Morace, Renate Erica

    International pour l’Etude Scientifique des Techniques de Production Mécanique (CIRP). In the project, 15 research laboratories have been involved from 9 countries: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, USA. A total of 24 CMMs were used to measure an optomechanical hole...... procedure of own choice. In this report, the results of a single participant are analysed and compared with the reference values provided by DTU. The purpose of the report is to collect information from the participant and present the result of the data analysis. Furthermore, comments from the participant...... are expected by the organizer and the information will be used in the preparation of the final report....

  2. Isolation of microsatellite primers for Melampyrum sylvaticum (Orobanchaceae), an endangered plant in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Rhiannon J; Squirrell, Jane; Woodin, Sarah J; Dalrymple, Sarah E; Hollingsworth, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed for the hemiparasitic plant Melampyrum sylvaticum to investigate the breeding system, genetic diversity, and structure of populations in the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Norway. Microsatellites were isolated from genomic DNA using an enrichment protocol. Twenty-nine loci were characterized in two individuals from each of 15 geographically disparate populations ("global"). Seven polymorphic loci were further characterized in one population ("local"). The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 12 in the global sample and one to seven in the local sample. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0-0.75, the observed heterozygosity from 0-0.1, and the inbreeding coefficient from 0.84-1 in the local sample. The results show the utility of these novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for further conservation genetic analyses. The strong deficit of heterozygosity across all loci in the local sample suggests the species may be inbreeding.

  3. The provision of assistive technology products and services for people with dementia in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Grant; Newton, Lisa; Pritchard, Gary; Finch, Tracy; Brittain, Katie; Robinson, Louise

    2016-07-01

    In this review we explore the provision of assistive technology products and services currently available for people with dementia within the United Kingdom. A scoping review of assistive technology products and services currently available highlighted 171 products or product types and 331 services. In addition, we assimilated data on the amount and quality of information provided by assistive technology services alongside assistive technology costs. We identify a range of products available across three areas: assistive technology used 'by', 'with' and 'on' people with dementia. Assistive technology provision is dominated by 'telecare' provided by local authorities, with services being subject to major variations in pricing and information provision; few currently used available resources for assistive technology in dementia. We argue that greater attention should be paid to information provision about assistive technology services across an increasingly mixed economy of dementia care providers, including primary care, local authorities, private companies and local/national assistive technology resources.

  4. Point prevalence of complex wounds in a defined United Kingdom population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jill; Buckley, Hannah L; Lamb, Karen A; Stubbs, Nikki; Saramago, Pedro; Dumville, Jo C; Cullum, Nicky A

    2014-01-01

    Complex wounds (superficial-, partial-, or full-thickness skin loss wounds healing by secondary intention) are common; however, there is a lack of high-quality, contemporary epidemiological data. This paper presents point prevalence estimates for complex wounds overall as well as for individual types. A multiservice, cross-sectional survey was undertaken across a United Kingdom city (Leeds, population 751,485) during 2 weeks in spring of 2011. The mean age of people with complex wounds was approximately 70 years, standard deviation 19.41. The point prevalence of complex wounds was 1.47 per 1,000 of the population, 95% confidence interval 1.38 to 1.56. While pressure ulcers and leg ulcers were the most frequent, one in five people in the sample population had a less common wound type. Surveys confined to people with specific types of wound would underestimate the overall impact of complex wounds on the population and health care resources.

  5. The status of bedside teaching in the United Kingdom: the student perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Jones, Bhavan Prasad Rai Department of Surgery, Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK Purpose: Bedside teaching holds a strong tradition as a key-learning platform for clinical examination in the basic medical clerkship. There is a growing body of literature expressing concern for its witnessed decline in medical school curricula. However, the views of students toward this patient-centered cornerstone in surgical education remain under-reported. The purpose of this study was to gain a nationwide perspective on bedside teaching according to medical students in the United Kingdom. Materials and methods: An adapted Delphi method was employed to formulate the question series as part of a multi-step process including a pilot study, which was used to construct this survey. The target population was medical undergraduates in the United Kingdom and participants were recruited via social media. Outcomes assessed included exposure to bedside teaching, perceived benefits of clinical simulation, and junior doctors as clinical teachers. Barriers to clinical examination were also evaluated. Results: Overall, 368 completed surveys were received (completion rate 98.9%. Final year students were significantly more likely to report receiving insufficient bedside teaching (P<0.01. Seventy-eight percent of the study group agreed that clinical simulation is a good learning tool for clinical examination. Seventy percent of students felt junior doctors were as able as senior doctors to teach. Lack of confidence was identified as the commonest barrier to overcome when examining patients and two-thirds of students felt they burdened patients during bedside teaching. Conclusion: This prospective study confirms the exposure deficit, which medical students experience in bedside teaching. The junior doctor represents a dynamic clinical teacher in the face of working time directives. Peer learning is a novel solution to such pressures. Work is needed to re-establish the

  6. What has been the United Kingdom's experience with retention of third molars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, Tara; Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Pau, Allan; Shepherd, Jonathan; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2012-09-01

    In 2000, the first National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines related to third molar (M3) surgery, a commonly performed operation in the United Kingdom, were published. This followed research publications and professional guidelines in the 1990 s that advised against prophylactic surgery and provided specific therapeutic indications for M3 surgery. The aim of the present report was to summarize the available evidence on the effects of guidelines on M3 surgery within the United Kingdom. Data from primary care dental services and hospital admissions in England and Wales during a 20-year period (Hospital Episode Statistics 1989/1990 to 2009/2010), and from private medical insurance companies were analyzed. The volume and, where possible, the nature of the M3 surgery activity over time were assessed together, as were the collateral effects of the guidelines, including patient age at surgery and the indications for surgery. The volume of M3 removal decreased in all sectors during the 1990 s before the introduction of the NICE guidelines. During the 20-year period, the proportion of impacted M3 surgery decreased from 80% to 50% of admitted hospital cases. Furthermore, an increase occurred in the mean age for surgical admissions from 25.5 to 31.8 years. The change in age correlated with a change in the indications for M3 surgery during that period, with a reduction in "impaction," but an increase in "caries" and "pericoronitis" as etiologic factors, in accordance with the NICE guidelines. The significant decrease in M3 surgery activity occurred before the NICE guidelines. Thus, M3 surgery has been performed at a later age, with indications for surgery increasingly in accordance with the NICE guidelines. The importance of clinical monitoring of the retained M3s is discussed. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Review of paediatric cardiology services in district general hospitals in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Hannah; Singh, Yogen

    2016-03-01

    Following the Safe and Sustainable review of Paediatric Services in 2012/2013, National Health Service England recommended that local paediatric cardiology services should be provided by specially trained paediatricians with expertise in cardiology in all non-specialist hospitals. To understand the variation in local paediatric cardiology services provided across district general hospitals in the United Kingdom. An internet-based questionnaire was sent out via the Paediatrician with Expertise in Cardiology Special Interest Group and the Neonatologists with Interest in Cardiology and Haemodynamics contact databases and the National Health Service directory. Non-responders were followed-up via telephone. The response rate was 80% (141 of 177 hospitals), and paediatricians with expertise in cardiology were available in 68% of those. Local cardiology clinics led by paediatricians with expertise in cardiology were provided in 96 hospitals (68%), whereas specialist outreach clinics were held in 123 centres (87%). A total of 11 hospitals provided neither specialist outreach clinics nor any local cardiology clinics led by paediatricians with expertise in cardiology. Paediatric echocardiography services were provided in 83% of the hospitals, 12-lead electrocardiogram in 96%, Holter electrocardiogram in 91%, and exercise testing in only 47% of the responding hospitals. Telemedicine facilities were established in only 52% of the centres, where sharing echocardiogram images via picture archiving and communication system was used most commonly. There has been a substantial increase in the availability of paediatricians with expertise in cardiology since 2008. Most of the hospitals are well-supported by specialist cardiology centres via outreach clinics; however, there remains significant variation in the local paediatric cardiology services provided across district general hospitals in the United Kingdom.

  8. The effect of cigarette branding and plain packaging on female youth in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David; Daniel, Samantha; White, Christine M

    2013-02-01

    Cigarette packaging is the most prominent form of tobacco marketing remaining in countries such as the United Kingdom. The current study examined perceptions of cigarette packaging among female youth and the potential impact of "plain" cigarette packaging regulations. A national sample of 947 16- to 19-year-old female subjects in the United Kingdom completed an online survey. Participants were randomized to view 10 cigarette packs designed according to one of four experimental conditions: fully branded female packs, the same packs without descriptor words, the same packs without brand imagery or descriptors ("plain" packs), and branded non-female brands. Participants rated packs on measures of appeal and health risk, positive smoker image, and completed a behavioral pack selection task. Plain packs were rated as the least appealing and worse tasting compared with all other conditions. Plain packs were also associated with fewer false beliefs about health risks compared with branded packs. Removing brand descriptors from packs significantly reduced measures of appeal and taste, particularly for brands with flavor descriptors, such as cherry and vanilla. Plain packs were significantly less likely to be associated with positive images, such as glamour, sophistication, and slimness. Most importantly, respondents were significantly less likely to accept a pack of cigarettes when offered only plain versus branded packs (p = .026). Marketing in the form of pack branding remains a potent tool for increasing the appeal of tobacco products to young women. The findings provide empirical support for plain cigarette packaging regulations in Australia to be implemented in 2012. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of Curriculum Resources in Three Countries: The Impact of National Curriculum Reforms in the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Michael G.

    2004-01-01

    This project examines the impact of standards-based and curriculum reforms on the role of materials in educational systems in the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and Australia. The project focused on identifying activities undertaken by publishing companies and in educational systems to develop, select and use materials in the…

  10. Case Studies of Internationalization in Adult and Higher Education: Inside the Processes of Four Universities in the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coryell, Joellen Elizabeth; Durodoye, Beth A.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Pate, P. Elizabeth; Nguyen, Shelbee

    2012-01-01

    This report outlines a method for learning about the internationalization processes at institutions of adult and higher education and then provides the analysis of data gathered from the researchers' own institution and from site visits to three additional universities in the United States and the United Kingdom. It was found that campus…

  11. Comparison of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from the United Kingdom and the United States that were associated with repatriated casualties of the Iraq conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Jane F; Kaufmann, Mary E; Gill, Martin J; Pike, Rachel; Scott, Paul T; Fishbain, Joel; Craft, David; Deye, Gregory; Riddell, Scott; Lindler, Luther E; Pitt, Tyrone L

    2006-07-01

    Acinetobacter isolates associated with casualties from the Iraq conflict from the United States were compared with those from the United Kingdom by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and integron analysis. Representatives of the main outbreak strain associated with casualties from both countries were indistinguishable in DNA profile. Two further outbreak strains were common to both sets of isolates.

  12. Postindustrial Capitalism and the Problems with Bourdieu's Social and Cultural Capital in Understanding the Black/White Achievement Gap in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocombe, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    This hermeneutical essay demonstrates why and how Pierre Bourdieu's social reproduction theory is neither an adequate explanation for understanding praxis nor the Black/White academic achievement gap in contemporary postindustrial economies like that of the United States and the United Kingdom. The underlining hypothesis of the work is that the…

  13. Postindustrial Capitalism and the Problems with Bourdieu's Social and Cultural Capital in Understanding the Black/White Achievement Gap in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocombe, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    This hermeneutical essay demonstrates why and how Pierre Bourdieu's social reproduction theory is neither an adequate explanation for understanding praxis nor the Black/White academic achievement gap in contemporary postindustrial economies like that of the United States and the United Kingdom. The underlining hypothesis of the work is that the…

  14. Perspective: clinical communication education in the United Kingdom: some fresh insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jo

    2012-08-01

    Clinical communication education is now part of the core curriculum of every medical school in the United Kingdom and the United States. It has emerged over 30 years because of various societal, political, and policy drivers and is supported by an impressive evidence base.For a variety of reasons, however, clinical communication has become separated from other parts of medical education and tends to be positioned in the early years of the curriculum, when students have limited experience of being in the clinical workplace and working with patients. The teachers of clinical communication, whether medical-school-based or clinically based, may not share learning goals for the subject and this may, therefore, provide a disintegrated learning experience for students.Clinical communication teachers need to inject fresh thinking into the teaching and learning of the subject to unite it with clinical practice in the authentic clinical workplace. Engaging with theories of workplace learning, which aim to overcome the theory/practice gap in vocational education, may be the way forward. The author suggests various ways that this might be achieved-for example, by situating clinical communication education throughout the whole undergraduate curriculum, by integrating the topic of clinical communication with other areas of medical education, by developing coteaching and curriculum design partnerships between medical school and clinical workplace, and by developing a greater range of postgraduate education that offers opportunities for professional development in clinical communication for qualified doctors that is complementary with what is taught in undergraduate education.

  15. Considerations for the development of shale gas in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Jake; Finkel, Madelon L; Depledge, Michael; Law, Adam; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2015-04-15

    The United States shale gas boom has precipitated global interest in the development of unconventional oil and gas resources. Recently, government ministers in the United Kingdom started granting licenses that will enable companies to begin initial exploration for shale gas. Meanwhile, concern is increasing among the scientific community about the potential impacts of shale gas and other types of unconventional natural gas development (UGD) on human health and the environment. Although significant data gaps remain, there has been a surge in the number of articles appearing in the scientific literature, nearly three-quarters of which has been published since the beginning of 2013. Important lessons can be drawn from the UGD experience in the United States. Here we explore these considerations and argue that shale gas development policies in the UK and elsewhere should be informed by empirical evidence generated on environmental, public health, and social risks. Additionally, policy decisions should take into account the measured effectiveness of harm reduction strategies as opposed to hypothetical scenarios and purported best practices that lack empirical support.

  16. When "Best Value" May Not Quite Say What It Means: A Reflection on Measuring Quality in Public Services in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickey, Keith

    2003-01-01

    A review of the development of the United Kingdom obsession with "value for money", and the performance indicators that have led to the current "best value" approach that is working through the public sector in the United Kingdom. I hope to identify the values and problems with the approach offering a salutary warning to those…

  17. Dubious Causes of No Interest to Students? The Development of National Union of Students in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Mike

    2012-01-01

    In February 1992, the National Union of Students of the United Kingdom celebrated its 70th anniversary, however there were those within government that were determined that NUS would not see another decade. This article examines the ideological roots of this hostility to student organisations and examines NUS' response to it and the consequent…

  18. SUNflower : a comparative study of the development of road safety in Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornstra, M.J. Lynam, D. Nilsson, G. Noordzij, P.C. Petterson, H.-E. Wegman, F.C.M. & Wouters, P.I.J.

    2003-01-01

    The road safety performance of different countries within Europe varies substantially. The three countries with the lowest accident levels are Sweden, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands (described here as the SUN countries). The aim of this study is to determine the underlying elements in the curre

  19. The Implications of the National Minimum Wage for Training Practices and Skill Utilisation in the United Kingdom Hospitality Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Gill; Williams, Steve; Adam-Smith, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Two key issues thrown up by the 1999 introduction of the National Minimum Wage (NMW) in the United Kingdom are its likely impact on employers' training practices in low paying sectors of the economy and the implications for skills. Based on a study of the hospitality industry, this article assesses the limited significance of the differential,…

  20. Unified English Braille in the United Kingdom: Part 2--Examination by Literary Braille Users, Braille Teachers, and Transcribers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Heather; Home, Sarah; Morley Wilkins, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    To inform decision-making around the adoption of the Unified English Braille (UEB) code in the United Kingdom, a suite of research was carried out. This study involved a variety of braille stakeholders--student braille readers (in full time education), adult braille readers, braille teachers, and braille transcribers. Participants were sent…

  1. The market for U. S. hardwoods in the United Kingdom: market needs and satisfaction with U. S. Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1993-01-01

    Importers of hardwood lumber in the United Kingdom were studied to determine the product and supplier attributes that most influenced their purchase decisions. Importers of North American hardwoods were least satisfied with Lumber Straightness. Straightness, Absence of Stain and the Absence of Surface Checks were the most important lumber attributes. On Time Shipment...

  2. Exploring the Effect of Geographical Proximity and University Quality on University-Industry Collaboration in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Reichstein, Toke; Salter, Ammon

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the effect of geographical proximity and university quality on university–industry collaboration in the United Kingdom, Regional Studies. This paper concerns the geographical distance between a firm and the universities in its local area. It is argued that firms' decisions to collaborat...

  3. Musical Preference, Identification, and Familiarity: A Multicultural Comparison of Secondary Students from Singapore and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy; Hargreaves, David J.; Lee, June

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigate whether there were significant differences in preferences for, familiarity with, and identification of Chinese, Malay, and Indian music between adolescent students from Singapore (n = 78) and the United Kingdom (n = 53). Also explored are the relationships among these three variables. Students were asked to rate their…

  4. Changing Internal Governance: Are Leadership Roles and Management Structures in United Kingdom Universities Fit for the Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlehurst, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines changes and developments in institutions' internal governance during the last decade, identifying points of continuity in the policy and political environment in the United Kingdom as well as points of difference. External drivers are discussed as part of the increasingly dynamic and volatile operating conditions for…

  5. The Management of Change in Universities: Universities, State and Economy in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Henry D. R.

    This book explores the varying meanings and impacts of management and market on higher education. The book gives an historical account of the main characteristics of higher education systems in Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom, focusing on developments in governance since World War II. There follows a discussion of the relationships of…

  6. Political representation and its mechanisms: a dynamic left-right approach for the United Kingdom, 1976-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hakhverdian

    2010-01-01

    Some scholars use the ‘dynamic representation’ approach to test how much current policy changes reflect past public preferences. This article tests hypotheses derived from this approach in a left-right context for the United Kingdom from 1976 to 2006. This shows that government policy on the left-ri

  7. Review of Research for People with ID and Mental Health Problems: A View from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Colin; Deb, Shoumitro; Chaplin, Eddie; Hardy, Steve; Mukherjee, Rittick

    2013-01-01

    This review of research into mental disorders in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) focuses on research in this field that has originated from the United Kingdom in the last 2 decades. It considers research developments into the epidemiology of mental disorders and problem behaviors, psychopharmacology, psychosocial interventions, and…

  8. The Challenges Faced by Eastern European Students within a 16-19 Education Setting in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Shade

    2015-01-01

    To examine the challenges encountered by Eastern European students within a sixth form college in the United Kingdom. This paper aims to consider the difficulties encountered by this particular ethnic group examining the impact the challenges may have on their performance, success and achievement. This paper will also highlight equality and…

  9. Student Destination Choices in Higher Education: Exploring Attitudes of Brazilian Students to Study in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Cross-border education provides evidence about international student destination choice including the push and pull model of international student choice. The research upon which this article is based, into Brazilian students' decisions to study at universities in the United Kingdom, reveals some particular barriers such as cost, negative past…

  10. Review of Research for People with ID and Mental Health Problems: A View from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Colin; Deb, Shoumitro; Chaplin, Eddie; Hardy, Steve; Mukherjee, Rittick

    2013-01-01

    This review of research into mental disorders in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) focuses on research in this field that has originated from the United Kingdom in the last 2 decades. It considers research developments into the epidemiology of mental disorders and problem behaviors, psychopharmacology, psychosocial interventions, and…

  11. The Effects of Single Parenthood on Educational Aspiration: A Comparative Study of Children in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Using data collected by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Program for International Student Assessment in 2003, this study examines the gap in the educational aspirations of children from single-parent families and two-parent families in the United Kingdom (UK) and Hong Kong. Consistent with previous research on the…

  12. Draft Whole-Genome Sequence of a Haemophilus quentini Strain Isolated from an Infant in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Laura; Thompson, Sarah; Collery, Mark M.; Hand, Daniel C.; Fink, Colin G.

    2016-01-01

    Haemophilus quentini is a rare and distinct genospecies of Haemophilus that has been suggested as a cause of neonatal bacteremia and urinary tract infections in men. We present the draft whole-genome sequence of H. quentini MP1 isolated from an infant in the United Kingdom, aiding future identification and detection of this pathogen.

  13. How Can Social Enterprise Really Tackle Social Exclusion? A Comparative Study of Children's Welfare in the United Kingdom and Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyne, Isaac

    2008-01-01

    Social enterprise is being increasingly encouraged as a solution to social problems concerning social exclusion, child development and family welfare within both developed and developing countries. This article considers these policy contexts and two case studies of social enterprises that provide children's services in the United Kingdom and…

  14. Factors Influencing the Use of Psychotropic Medication for Challenging Behaviour in the United Kingdom: A Q Method Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastell, Sarah; Skirrow, Paul; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The use of pharmacological interventions to manage challenging behaviour displayed by adults with intellectual disabilities remains controversial, with current clinical guidelines in the United Kingdom advocating the use of less invasive psychological interventions. This exploratory study aimed to discover what views and beliefs are…

  15. University Governance in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Japan : Correlates of varieties of NPM and academics’ power in universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerheijden, Donald F.

    2017-01-01

    Comparing and contrasting reforms of governance arrangements in higher education systems in Japan with those in Europe (the United Kingdom and the Netherlands provide two very different examples), the paper focuses on the consequences of state-level governance reform for shared governance in the

  16. Recent Trends in the Re-integration of Pupils with Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Peter; Tsakalidou, Konstantina

    1999-01-01

    Presents findings of a nationwide survey into the extent to which United Kingdom schools for students with emotional and behavioral difficulties reintegrate their pupils into mainstream schools and on the problems they have encountered. Results indicate that very few of these pupils ever return to mainstream school. Considers study's implications…

  17. Developing Authentic Online Problem-Based Learning Case Scenarios for Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Mike; McCall, Steve; Hinton, Danielle; Weston, Annette

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the development of online problem-based learning case scenarios for use in a distance education program for teachers of students with visual impairments in the United Kingdom. Following participation in two case scenarios, a cohort of teachers provided feedback. This feedback was analyzed in relation to the relevant…

  18. Occupational and Qualification Structures in the Field of Environmental Protection in the Metal and Chemical Industries in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    A study analyzed the occupational structure and qualifications associated with the field of environmental protection in the metal and chemical industries in the United Kingdom. The analysis included nine case studies based on interviews with firms in the chemicals and metals sectors. Information was gathered within an analytical framework that…

  19. Mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in the United Kingdom123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Paul N; Crowe, Francesca L; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vegetarians and others who do not eat meat have been observed to have lower incidence rates than meat eaters of some chronic diseases, but it is unclear whether this translates into lower mortality. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in a large United Kingdom cohort. Design: The study involved a pooled analysis of data from 2 prospective studies that included 60,310 persons living in the United Kingdom, comprising 18,431 regular meat eaters (who ate meat ≥5 times/wk on average), 13,039 low (less-frequent) meat eaters, 8516 fish eaters (who ate fish but not meat), and 20,324 vegetarians (including 2228 vegans who did not eat any animal foods). Mortality by diet group for each of 18 common causes of death was estimated with the use of Cox proportional hazards models. Results: There were 5294 deaths before age 90 in >1 million y of follow-up. There was no significant difference in overall (all-cause) mortality between the diet groups: HRs in low meat eaters, fish eaters, and vegetarians compared with regular meat eaters were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.00), 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86, 1.06), and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.10), respectively; P-heterogeneity of risks = 0.082. There were significant differences in risk compared with regular meat eaters for deaths from circulatory disease [higher in fish eaters (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.46)]; malignant cancer [lower in fish eaters (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.97)], including pancreatic cancer [lower in low meat eaters and vegetarians (HR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.36, 0.86 and HR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.82, respectively)] and cancers of the lymphatic/hematopoietic tissue [lower in vegetarians (HR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.32, 0.79)]; respiratory disease [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.92)]; and all other causes [lower in low meat eaters (HR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.99)]. Further adjustment for body mass index left these associations largely unchanged

  20. The Creative Component Development in Educational Systems of the United Kingdom, the USA and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Sergeyeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the competitiveness and integration of the Russian educational system in the global educational environment it is necessary to study the experience of the leading countries faced by the problem of creativity fostering. The paper provides the comparative analysis of the content, approaches to and organizational forms of the creative faculty formation in educational systems of the United Kingdom, the United States and Russia. According to the author, the creative component is the inherent part of educational systems of the given countries, though its place in the system might be different. At the state level, the interest to creativity development is demonstrated by the statutory documents, official statements and legislative acts; their content reveals that both in Russia and the USA the interest to creativity fostering results from the state strategic policy, while in the UK the focus is on the economic prospects. The author mentions the centralized projects supported by the British government and aimed at stimulating creativity, though the participation of universities in the projects is optional. The didactic and methodological materials acquired by the author have the practical implications and can be used in teachers’ training at various levels. The research materials were introduced at several Russian and International scientific conferences, discussed at seminars, round-table talks, and in the course of the International Creative Project performed by the students of Yekaterinburg and York in 2007–2013. 

  1. Psychoactive drug advertising: a comparison of technical information from three countries: Brazil, United States and United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia de Carvalho Mastroianni

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Studies carried out in the 1970s and 1980s showed that there were country-dependent disparities in the information given for the same drug in medical advertisements. National and international regulations have been published to do away with such disparities and to foster the rational use of drugs. The purpose of this study was to compare the information contained in psychoactive drug advertisements published in psychiatric journals in Brazil, the United States and the United Kingdom, before and subsequent to the publication of the United States Export Act, in 1986, the WHO criteria, in 1988, and the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance Agency Resolution no. 102, in 2000. TYPE OF STUDY AND SETTING: Content analysis, at Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (Cebrid. METHODS: We gathered advertisements from Brazilian, American and British psychiatry periodicals published before and after each ruling. We analyzed a total of twenty-four Brazilian advertisements that were for the same psychoactive drugs as advertised in American and/or British publications from the same period. RESULTS: We observed that Brazilian advertisements omitted information on usage restrictions, such as contraindications, adverse reactions, interactions, warnings and precautions, and that such information was present in American and British advertisements. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that disparities in the information given for the same drug still persist. The information depends on the country in which each drug is marketed. The legislation is insufficient for eradicating such disparities.

  2. The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Comparison of Responses by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ostrand

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The conflict in Syria between the government of Bashar al-Assad and various other forces, which started in the spring of 2011, continues to cause displacement within the country and across the region. By the end of 2014, an estimated 7.6 million people were internally displaced and 3.7 million Syrians had fled the country since the conflict began (OCHA 2014; UNHCR 2015a. The refugee situation caused by the Syrian conflict is dire, and it has placed enormous strain on neighboring countries. Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Turkey host massive numbers of Syrian refugees, and Syrians have been seeking protection beyond these countries in increasing numbers since 2011.This paper looks at the burdens and costs of the Syrian refugee crisis and considers how they have, or have not, been shared by the international community at large, and in particular by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. It also considers to what degree Syrians have been able to find protection in states outside the region. Germany and Sweden, by the end of 2014, had provided protection to the largest number of Syrian refugees outside the region. Although Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States differ in the level of protection provided to Syrians, all four states have increased protection to Syrians via resettlement and asylum (and in the case of the US temporary protected status since 2012. Despite this, the degree of protection provided by the four states is modest in relation to that provided by neighboring countries to Syria, and far more could be done. This paper also argues that the international community as a whole has not sufficiently contributed toward alleviating the burden caused by the Syrian refugee influx, in terms of both financial assistance and refugee resettlement.The paper puts forward two general recommendations to reduce the strain on neighboring countries: increase the level of burden sharing by the international

  3. Pregnancy outcomes in women growing up with perinatally acquired HIV in the United Kingdom and Ireland

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    Laura Byrne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the United Kingdom and Ireland more than 40% of individuals living with perinatally acquired HIV are now aged >16. Globally, increasing numbers of women with perinatally acquired HIV are becoming pregnant, but data on fertility and pregnancy outcomes is scarce. We present pregnancy outcome data for this emerging cohort. Methods: Pregnancies in diagnosed HIV-infected women in the United Kingdom and Ireland, and children diagnosed with HIV, are reported to the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood. We analyzed data on pregnancies in women diagnosed aged ≤13 with perinatally acquired HIV, reported by June 2014. Results: A total of 759 females born before 2001, diagnosed with perinatally acquired HIV aged ≤13 years, and in care in the UK and Ireland have been reported. Forty-four of these (6% have had at least one pregnancy reported, with nineteen 2nd and four 3rd/4th pregnancies. Women's year of birth ranged from 1985 to 1996; 60% of women were UK/Irish-born and 39% African-born. Twenty one percent were diagnosed at 500 cells/µL in 36% of first pregnancies, 350–499 in 15% and 1000 in 5%. Forty four percent of live births were delivered by elective caesarean section (CS, 27% by emergency CS, 27% by planned vaginal delivery and with one unplanned vaginal delivery. Of 29 live births with viral load <50, 31% were delivered by elective CS, 17% by emergency CS and 52% by vaginal delivery. Fifteen percent of infants were delivered at 32–36 weeks gestation, and 2% at 30 weeks; 16% weighed 1.5–2.5 kg and 16% weighed <1.5 kg. Among 38 of the 51 infants where infection status is already reported, one is perinatally infected. Conclusions: Currently at least 6% of perinatally infected women in care in the UK and Ireland have experienced one or more pregnancies. Linking paediatric, pregnancy and second generation data will enable further monitoring of pregnancy outcomes in this newly emerging population.

  4. Lumbosacral pain: Delivery of care to patients in the United Kingdom Podchufarova E.

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    E.V. Podchufarova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal pain syndromes are one of the most common causes of disability and referral to a medical specialist. Seven million consultations for lumbosacral pain are annually carried out in the United Kingdom.Examination of patients with back pain. Three levels of health care delivered to patients with back pain in the United Kingdom may be arbitrarily identified. Level 1 is outpatient: a general practitioner jointly with a manipulative therapist, a physiotherapist, a rehabilitation specialist, and mid-level health workers render care to patients with insignificant and mild pain syndrome; Level 2 is also outpatient, which involves the participation of a hospital or multidisciplinary team consultant, for example, in a musculoskeletal pain service or a specialized pain center; Level 3 is to deliver care at neurosurgical or orthopedic hospital, by applying invasive interventions. Acute back pain is a benign condition in the vast majority of cases; there is no need for additional instrumental and laboratory studies; but spinal X-ray study, computed tomography (СT scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, general blood and urine tests are required when marked neurological and somatic disorders are present.Management of patients with acute lumbosacral pain is to inform a patient about the benign nature of the disease; to exclude bed rest; to explain the need to maintain normal activity; to train how to correctly lift weights and to maintain normal posture; to refer for manual and exercise therapy in order to return to normal motor activity; to use proven effective medication. In most cases, acute back pain goes away spontaneously for a short period of time; an active treatment approach is considered to be optimal. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and acetaminophen are used for analgesia if required. Patients who show no improvement after 4 weeks of treatment need rescreening for markers of potentially dangerous spinal diseases, as

  5. How Tobacco Companies are Perceived Within the United Kingdom: An Online Panel.

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    Moodie, Crawford; Sinclair, Lesley; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Power, Emily; Bauld, Linda

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how consumers perceive tobacco companies in the United Kingdom. An online cross-sectional survey with those aged 16 years and over (N = 2253) explored perceptions of, and attitudes towards, tobacco companies. This included awareness of tobacco companies, views on tobacco companies' practices (targeting the most vulnerable, encouraging smoking to replace those who quit or die, making cigarettes more addictive) and values (honesty, ethics, interest in harm reduction), perceptions of regulation of tobacco companies (whether tobacco companies have the same marketing rights as other companies, should be allowed to promote cigarettes, be required to sell cigarettes in plain packs, and pay for associated health costs), and locus of responsibility for health problems caused by tobacco use. Prompted awareness of tobacco companies was high (68%). Almost a third of the sample had a negative perception of tobacco companies' practices, for example, they thought they made cigarettes more addictive. In terms of tobacco companies' values, less than a fifth considered tobacco companies honest, ethical, and interested in reducing the harm caused by cigarettes. Indeed, tobacco company executives were rated lower than the seven other professions asked about, except car salesman, in terms of ethics and honesty. More than half the sample supported greater regulation, for example, requiring tobacco companies to pay for health costs due to tobacco use. Most attributed responsibility for smoking-related health problems to smokers (88%) and tobacco companies (55%). The findings suggest that consumers are not fully informed about tobacco company practices. Few studies outside of North America have explored perceptions of tobacco companies' practices, values and regulation and responsibility for smoking-related illness. Adults surveyed within the United Kingdom considered tobacco companies dishonest, unethical and untrustworthy, but only a third of the sample thought

  6. Evolving Distributed Generation Support Mechanisms: Case Studies from United States, Germany, United Kingdom, and Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhou, Ella [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-03-14

    This report expands on a previous National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) technical report (Lowder et al. 2015) that focused on the United States' unique approach to distributed generation photovoltaics (DGPV) support policies and business models. While the focus of that report was largely historical (i.e., detailing the policies and market developments that led to the growth of DGPV in the United States), this report looks forward, narrating recent changes to laws and regulations as well as the ongoing dialogues over how to incorporate distributed generation (DG) resources onto the electric grid. This report also broadens the scope of Lowder et al. (2015) to include additional countries and technologies. DGPV and storage are the principal technologies under consideration (owing to market readiness and deployment volumes), but the report also contemplates any generation resource that is (1) on the customer side of the meter, (2) used to, at least partly, offset a host's energy consumption, and/or (3) potentially available to provide grid support (e.g., through peak shaving and load shifting, ancillary services, and other means).

  7. Use of febuxostat in the management of gout in the United Kingdom

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    Waller, Arabella; Jordan, Kelsey M.

    2016-01-01

    Gout is the most common cause of inflammatory arthritis worldwide. Despite clinical cure being achievable and multiple evidence-based guidelines having been published, the incidence and prevalence continues to increase and the condition remains undertreated. Concerns regarding allopurinol have limited its use in those with renal impairment. Febuxostat, a novel xanthine oxidase inhibitor requiring no dose adjustment in mild−moderate renal impairment was launched in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2010. We review published data on the efficacy, safety and tolerability of febuxostat and provide an opinion on its place in the management of gout in the UK in the context of other published guidelines. One phase II trial, multiple phase III trials [febuxostat versus allopurinol controlled trial (FACT), APEX, CONFIRMS] and two open-label extension trials have demonstrated febuxostat given at the doses commonly used in UK practice (80 mg, 120 mg) to reduce serum urate more effectively than those receiving fixed-dose allopurinol. Overall adverse event rates were comparable across treatment groups aside from gout flare (more common in febuxostat-treated patients) and concerns regarding cardiovascular toxicity are being further evaluated in two large trials. If the outcomes of these are favourable, we would anticipate a marked increase in the use of febuxostat in the UK market. We would advocate the use of febuxostat to target a serum urate gouty flare with colchicine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or Cyclo-oxygenase-2 selective NSAID (COXIB) after febuxostat initiation. PMID:28255339

  8. The disclosure of dyslexia in clinical practice: experiences of student nurses in the United Kingdom.

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    Morris, David K; Turnbull, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    Heightened awareness and increasingly sophisticated psychological tests have seen a dramatic rise in the numbers of people diagnosed with dyslexia. Accordingly, there is a reported increase in the numbers of students with dyslexia entering Higher Education (HE) in the United Kingdom (UK) [Singleton, C.H., Chair, 1999. Dyslexia in higher education: policy, provision and practice. Report of the national working party on dyslexia in higher education. University of Hull on behalf of the Higher Education Funding Councils of England and Scotland, Hull], [Higher Education Statistics Agency. HESA. Available from: (accessed 21.12.05)]. Studies researching the effects of dyslexia on the clinical practice of nurses are almost non-existent. This paper reports part of a UK study exploring the clinical experiences of student nurses with dyslexia. In depth interviewing of 18 adult branch student nurses revealed a range of difficulties encountered and a variety of coping mechanisms to manage these. Other than in exceptional circumstances there is no legal requirement to disclose a dyslexia diagnosis. The decision to conceal or disclose their dyslexia was particularly prominent and contentious for these participants. This related to the attitudes of co-workers, concerns for patient safety, expectations of support, confidentiality issues and potential discrimination. Dyslexia continues to attract an unwarranted stigma and can adversely affect the learning experience. The need for disability awareness training in the workplace and improved education/service partnerships to support these students is considered crucial.

  9. Bangladeshi parental ethnotheories in the United Kingdom: Towards cultural collaborations in clinical practice.

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    Bose, Ruma

    2016-07-01

    Parental meaning systems (ethnotheories) constitute a very important part of the context in which children live and develop. Parental ethnotheories are in turn shaped by implicit cultural ideals that organize parental beliefs and actions and frame child-rearing practices. The article presents a qualitative research into Bangladeshi parental ethnotheories in the United Kingdom, which illustrates both the rich cultural meanings that orientate parental action and also demonstrates how parents generate new meanings following migration and culture change. Professional understandings about children's developmental needs, of child rearing and parenting, are not culture free and an examination of the cultural frames of professional theories is important as parenting is often taught as a universal technique that takes little account of the cultural context and of what parents think. An engagement with other cultural theories about child development can enhance critical reflexivity in clinical practice by provoking reflection on the cultural constructions of professional theories. Creating a context for the expression of parental ethnotheories is necessary for developing cross-cultural collaborations in clinical practice as it empowers families and redresses the power relationship between the therapist and the parent.

  10. Publishing Time-Frame Evaluation for Doctoral Students in United Kingdom

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    Andrada Elena URDA-CÎMPEAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of the study was to compute the time to completion and publication of original scientific publications for medical doctoral students in the UK. A second objective was to evaluate if PhD theses format (monograph or publication-based can influence the time to completion and publication of original scientific publications. We assessed a small sample of free full text medical doctoral theses from universities in the United Kingdom (mostly from the University of Manchester, which have produced at least 2 original scientific publications by the end of the doctoral studies. The time elapsed between 2 consecutive publications from the same thesis was considered an approximation of the time to completion and publication of the second publication. In the case of prospective theses, the median time to completion and publication of original scientific publications from medical doctoral theses was 10.17 months. We found that there was a statistically significant difference between the time (to completion and publication medians of the publications from traditional theses format and of the publications from publication-based theses format. Time to completion and publication of original scientific publications for medical doctoral students needs to be further evaluated on a larger scale, based on more theses from several medical faculties in the UK.

  11. No alternative? The regulation and professionalization of complementary and alternative medicine in the United Kingdom.

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    Clarke, David B; Doel, Marcus A; Segrott, Jeremy

    2004-12-01

    In conjunction with its growing popularity, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the United Kingdom has witnessed increasing professionalization, partly prompted by the landmark Parliamentary Inquiry that reported in November 2000. Professionalization has become a significant strategy for practitioner associations and a key focus for the government, media, and patient groups. It is being driven by concern over the interests of patients and consumers, and in relation to the possible integration of certain forms of CAM into publicly funded healthcare. It is, moreover, being reconfigured in explicitly national terms. This paper draws on research into practitioner associations representing nine CAM modalities in the UK-aromatherapy, Chinese herbal medicine, chiropractic, crystal healing, feng shui, 'lay' homeopathy, medical homeopathy, osteopathy, and Radionics-, examining the recent wave of professionalization in relation to Foucault's concern with 'techniques of the self.' It highlights the contrasting experience of an association of Chinese herbalists seeking statutory self-regulation (SSR) and an association of chiropractors that was instrumental in securing SSR for chiropractic.

  12. A conceptual framework for exploring transitions to decarbonised energy systems in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shackley, Simon [Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom) and Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: simon.shackley@mbs.ac.uk; Green, Ken [Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Drawing upon 'transitions theory' and a typology which produces five types of transitions, we describe and analyse the changes that have taken place in the United Kingdom's energy system over the past several decades in terms of three of these transition pathways, namely reproduction (e.g. incremental improvements in energy efficiency), transformation (e.g. more directed efforts towards energy efficiency gains, e.g., through voluntary and compulsory standards-setting processes) and substitution (e.g. the shift from coal to natural gas). Looking into the future, and drawing upon a programme of UK-based research which covered a wide range of potential new supply technologies and changes on the demand side, we identify the key drivers of change, including economic and commercial, technological, policy and regulatory imperatives. This analysis opens up the prospect for two further transition pathways to become manifest. These are: de-alignment/re-alignment (e.g. shift from conventional coal to coal technologies with carbon dioxide capture and storage) and re-configuration (e.g. integrating renewables within buildings and the possible emergence of the 'hydrogen economy'). We conclude with a discussion of the opportunities for policy learning and experimentation consistent with transitions theory to facilitate the deployment of more sustainable energy systems.

  13. Treatments and outcomes of peritoneal surface tumors through a centralized national service (United kingdom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, S; Renehan, A G; Parkinson, M F; Saunders, M P; Fulford, P E; Wilson, M S; O'Dwyer, S T

    2009-10-01

    Treatment of peritoneal surface malignancies with combined cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy may improve oncologic outcome. To better define treatment pathways, five-year results in patients referred to one of two centralized national treatment centers in the United Kingdom were analyzed. A prospective database of patients referred to the Manchester Peritoneal Tumor Service, established in 2002, was analyzed. Outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier life tables and Cox models. Two hundred seventy-eight patients (median age, 56.9 (range, 16-86) years) were considered by a dedicated multidisciplinary team and tracked on seven clinical pathways. Among the 118 surgically treated, the most common diagnosis was pseudomyxoma peritonei (101 patients, 86%). Major complications occurred in 11 patients (9%); there was no 30-day mortality. Where complete cytoreduction was achieved, three-year and five-year tumor-related survival rates were 94% and 86%, respectively. In the Cox model, incompleteness of cytoreduction (P = 0.001) and high-grade tumor (P < 0.0001) were independent prognosticators of poor outcome. The establishment of a national treatment center has allowed refinement of techniques to achieve internationally recognized results. Having achieved low levels of morbidity and mortality in the treatment of mainly pseudomyxoma peritonei of appendiceal origin, the technique of cytoreductive surgery and heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy may be considered for peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal origin.

  14. Qualitative release assessment to estimate the likelihood of henipavirus entering the United Kingdom.

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    Emma L Snary

    Full Text Available The genus Henipavirus includes Hendra virus (HeV and Nipah virus (NiV, for which fruit bats (particularly those of the genus Pteropus are considered to be the wildlife reservoir. The recognition of henipaviruses occurring across a wider geographic and host range suggests the possibility of the virus entering the United Kingdom (UK. To estimate the likelihood of henipaviruses entering the UK, a qualitative release assessment was undertaken. To facilitate the release assessment, the world was divided into four zones according to location of outbreaks of henipaviruses, isolation of henipaviruses, proximity to other countries where incidents of henipaviruses have occurred and the distribution of Pteropus spp. fruit bats. From this release assessment, the key findings are that the importation of fruit from Zone 1 and 2 and bat bushmeat from Zone 1 each have a Low annual probability of release of henipaviruses into the UK. Similarly, the importation of bat meat from Zone 2, horses and companion animals from Zone 1 and people travelling from Zone 1 and entering the UK was estimated to pose a Very Low probability of release. The annual probability of release for all other release routes was assessed to be Negligible. It is recommended that the release assessment be periodically re-assessed to reflect changes in knowledge and circumstances over time.

  15. The effects of immigration on the socio-economic landscape of the United Kingdom

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    Anett HODOSI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Former research detected the paradox of high quality formal institutional background accompanied by a low level of social trust in the United Kingdom. The aim of the current paper is to solve this initial puzzle. As traditional social capital literature is not able to explain the low level of trust in this case, we propose a comprehensive approach incorporating the analysis of immigration, integration, inequality and access to justice data to shed light on trust-eliminating mechanisms. The social and economic aspects are examined in the matrix of extra-community network, intra-community trust, radius of trust and need for formal external enforcement. Four factors – concentrated highly diverse areas, tight communities living next to each other with limited extra-community links, minorities’ high exposure to deprivation and limited access to justice – are identified as the origin of our puzzle. As social trust plays a fundamental role in enhancing economic growth, the trust-impeding mechanisms explored in the current paper shall be of great importance

  16. Welding and lung cancer in Central and Eastern Europe and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Mannetje, Andrea; Brennan, Paul; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Cassidy, Adrian; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Fevotte, Joelle; Fletcher, Tony; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-04-01

    Occupation as a welder has been associated with a 25%-40% increase in lung cancer risk. This study aims to elucidate to what extent confounding by smoking and asbestos drives this association and to evaluate the role of welding-related exposures such as chromium. The study included 2,197 male incident lung cancer cases and 2,295 controls from Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2001. Information on risk factors was collected through face-to-face interviews. Experts assessed exposure to 70 agents, and risk estimates were adjusted for smoking and occupational exposures. Occupation as a welder/flame cutter (prevalence controls: 3.7%) was associated with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.86) after adjustment for smoking and occupational exposures including asbestos. An odds ratio of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.38) was found for welding fumes (prevalence controls: 22.8%), increasing to 1.38 for more than 25 exposure years (95% CI: 1.09, 1.75). A duration-response association was also observed for mild steel welding without chromium exposure. In this population, occupational exposure to welding fumes accounted for approximately 4% of lung cancer cases, to which both stainless and mild steel welding contributed equally. Given that welding remains a common task for many workers, exposure to welding fumes represents an important risk factor for lung cancer.

  17. Computer Phobia in Higher Education: A Comparative Analysis of United Kingdom and Turkish University Students

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    Ömer Faruk Ursavaş

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possession or acquisition of a range of computer skills is an implicit assumption related to many undergraduate study programmes, and use of university computer facilities may impact on overall academic performance and employability beyond graduation. This study therefore tested levels of computer anxiety (CARS and computer thoughts (CTS in Turkish and United Kingdom undergraduates with reference to culture group difference, regularity of use (or home use and use of university computer facilities. A substantial minority of students (32-33% reported computer anxiety in both groups, but more UK (41% than Turkish students (21% were deficient in positive self-concept (CTS. Reference to the subscales in the two measures pinpointed cultural differences disguised at scale level, and gender differences were evident across rather than within culture groups. As expected, positive self-concept was associated with use of computer facilities (r’s = 0 to 0.25, p < .001, and anxiety was associated more weakly with avoidance (r’s = 0 to -0.18, p < .001. Results suggest that computer confidence (implying motivation and engagement should not be assumed to exist in the agenda for wider participation. Also within and between group differences indicate that there is no typical or stereotypical student profile in approach to computer activity

  18. Policy and Practice: Claiming Space for Labour Rights within the United Kingdom Modern Slavery Crusade

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    Caroline Robinson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on advocacy opportunities provided by the anti-trafficking framework in a new political climate. Through the case study of the United Kingdom (UK Modern Slavery Act 2015 deliberations the article explores opportunities to use political interest in human trafficking to advocate labour rights and protections for vulnerable workers. The article explores how, largely cynical, political motivations for the debate on ‘modern slavery’ in the UK, provided an opportunity to reframe the anti-trafficking discourse in this context. Whilst migration control and labour market deregulation are key priorities for the UK government, the Modern Slavery Act process enabled advocates to highlight the impact of such measures on vulnerable, predominantly migrant, workers. It also ultimately served to persuade decision makers to make a connection between widespread labour abuses and severe labour exploitation. Through this case study the article argues for engagement with anti-trafficking frameworks to both highlight and harness the political rhetoric, and maximise the space provided for promoting the rights of vulnerable workers.

  19. Cumulative Effect of Racial Discrimination on the Mental Health of Ethnic Minorities in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Stephanie; Nazroo, James; Bécares, Laia

    2016-07-01

    To examine the longitudinal association between cumulative exposure to racial discrimination and changes in the mental health of ethnic minority people. We used data from 4 waves (2009-2013) of the UK Household Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal household panel survey of approximately 40 000 households, including an ethnic minority boost sample of approximately 4000 households. Ethnic minority people who reported exposure to racial discrimination at 1 time point had 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) mental component scores 1.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -3.31, -0.56) points lower than did those who reported no exposure to racial discrimination, whereas those who had been exposed to 2 or more domains of racial discrimination, at 2 different time points, had SF-12 mental component scores 8.26 (95% CI = -13.33, -3.18) points lower than did those who reported no experiences of racial discrimination. Controlling for racial discrimination and other socioeconomic factors reduced ethnic inequalities in mental health. Cumulative exposure to racial discrimination has incremental negative long-term effects on the mental health of ethnic minority people in the United Kingdom. Studies that examine exposure to racial discrimination at 1 point in time may underestimate the contribution of racism to poor health.

  20. Feline vaccination practices and protocols used by veterinarians in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, R S; Pfeiffer, D U; Adams, V J

    2012-10-01

    Vaccination is an important aspect of disease control in the feline population, as it prevents disease or reduces its severity in individual cats. However the types of antigens that should be administered to cats, the frequency of administration of certain antigens and the anatomical location at which vaccines should be administered are controversial. Various groups have developed guidelines to help veterinarians decide vaccine protocols for cats in their care. The aim of this study was to survey veterinarians in the United Kingdom about the vaccination protocols used in 2007-2008. A questionnaire about aspects of feline vaccination was distributed to a 431 veterinary practices taking part in a case-control study of feline injection site sarcomas. A response rate of 72% was achieved. The majority of veterinarians who responded administered the commonly used antigens annually (84-96% of practices). Most of the veterinarians administered most vaccines in the interscapular region (90-96% of practices depending on the antigen). The vaccination practices of the veterinarians were not consistent with the published vaccination guidelines at that time.

  1. Transmission pathways of foot-and-mouth disease virus in the United Kingdom in 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor M Cottam

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD virus causes an acute vesicular disease of domesticated and wild ruminants and pigs. Identifying sources of FMD outbreaks is often confounded by incomplete epidemiological evidence and the numerous routes by which virus can spread (movements of infected animals or their products, contaminated persons, objects, and aerosols. Here, we show that the outbreaks of FMD in the United Kingdom in August 2007 were caused by a derivative of FMDV O(1 BFS 1860, a virus strain handled at two FMD laboratories located on a single site at Pirbright in Surrey. Genetic analysis of complete viral genomes generated in real-time reveals a probable chain of transmission events, predicting undisclosed infected premises, and connecting the second cluster of outbreaks in September to those in August. Complete genome sequence analysis of FMD viruses conducted in real-time have identified the initial and intermediate sources of these outbreaks and demonstrate the value of such techniques in providing information useful to contemporary disease control programmes.

  2. Interprofessional anatomy education in the United Kingdom and Ireland: Perspectives from students and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Hall, Samuel; Border, Scott; Adds, Philip J; Finn, Gabrielle M

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of multiprofessional learning in anatomy and its role in medical and healthcare professions. This study utilized two components to investigate anatomy interprofessional education (AIPE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. First, a survey involving qualitative and quantitative components asked Heads of Anatomy to report on their institutions' uptake of AIPE. Second, a series of case studies explored the experiences of students by using evaluation forms and an in-depth analysis of thematic concepts to understand the learners' perspectives on designing and delivering AIPE. Out of the 13 institutions that took part in the survey, eight did not offer an AIPE program. Between the remaining five institutions that deliver AIPE programs, 10 different modules are offered with the majority involving healthcare professions. The AIPE component is rated highly by students. The themes from the case studies highlight how valuable AIPE is from the student perspective both in terms of engaging them in anatomy as well as in the broader skills of teamwork and communication. The case studies also revealed how AIPE can be engaging for groups of students who might not have previously had access to cadaveric anatomy, for example, engineers and archeologists. The results of this study have implications for curriculum design in medicine and healthcare but also for further engagement of professional groups from non-healthcare backgrounds. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. User-generated online health content: a survey of Internet users in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Braden; Ziebland, Sue; Valderas, Jose; Lupiáñez-Villanueva, Francisco

    2014-04-30

    The production of health information has begun to shift from commercial organizations to health care users themselves. People increasingly go online to share their own health and illness experiences and to access information others have posted, but this behavior has not been investigated at a population level in the United Kingdom. This study aims to explore access and production of user-generated health content among UK Internet users and to investigate relationships between frequency of use and other variables. We undertook an online survey of 1000 UK Internet users. Descriptive and multivariate statistical analyses were used to interpret the data. Nearly one-quarter of respondents (23.7%, 237/1000) reported accessing and sharing user-generated health content online, whereas more than 20% (22.2%, 222/1000) were unaware that it was possible to do this. Respondents could be divided into 3 groups based on frequency of use: rare users (78.7%, 612/778) who accessed and shared content less than weekly, users (13.9%, 108/778) who did so weekly, and superusers (7.5%, 58/778) who did so on a daily basis. Superusers were more likely to be male (Ponline health content, only a minority of respondents reported doing so frequently. As this type of content proliferates, superusers are likely to shape the health information that others access. Further research should assess the effect of user-generated online content on health outcomes and use of health services by Internet users.

  4. The development of forensic medicine in the United Kingdom from the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, W

    1992-06-01

    Forensic medicine in the United Kingdom includes both forensic pathology and clinical forensic medicine on the living. It began at the end of the 18th century, long after its development in Germany, Italy, France, and other countries in Europe. Initial beginnings were in Scotland, where a program began at the University of Edinburgh with the establishment of a chair in Forensic Medicine by Prof. Andrew Duncan Sr. The development in England began in London's Kings College Medical School with a chair held by Prof. William A. Guy. Later chairs in Forensic Medicine were established in Glasgow, Aberdeen, and in London, where Forensic Medicine was taught at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School, Guy's Hospital Medical School, London Hospital Medical School, Charing Cross Hospital Medical School, St. Thomas Hospital Medical School, and St. George's Hospital Medical School. In other cities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland, departments were founded in Leeds, Manchester, Cardiff, and Belfast. Many textbooks were prepared during this time by professors from these medical schools and by others working in nonacademic areas. The development of coroner activities and those of the police surgeons is also part of the study of forensic medicine.

  5. Social media as an instrument for organizing mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N Katkina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks such as Facebook and Twitter have recently become very popular and turned to be an effective instrument for achieving political goals. However, the social networks’ impact is rather ambivalent: on the one hand, social media form specific political actors and support self-organization and civil movements; on the other hand, social media reinforce destructive and aggressive manifestations with the pronounced criminal purposes, e.g. social media ability to disseminate information among large groups is used to organize mass riots. The article analyzes one of the recent and significant events largely provoked by the social networks - mass riots in the United Kingdom in August 2011 that were originally a reaction to the murder of M. Diggan by a police officer who tried to arrest him as a suspect in drug trafficking and possession of weapons. The way events developed into mass riots was the result of discussions in social media and use of social networks to coordinate joint actions of mass riots participants. The article provides a detailed description of the events and authorities’ actions to overcome the crisis and prevent such riots in the future, thus making some conclusions about the nature of social media impact on the politics.

  6. Cost-control issues within the hospital environment in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, R

    1993-01-01

    Health care in the United Kingdom is dominated by the National Health Service, which operates under a system in which care is delivered free at the point of need and is funded by taxation. Experimentation with a number of different models has occurred since 1980 and has culminated in recent National Health Service reforms characterized by the separation of purchaser and provider functions. An inescapable result of this is the formal definition of the relationship between need and service provision (contracts or performance arrangements), and the equally unavoidable costing of "patient episodes" or equivalent as a tool for estimating both supply and demand. This change has completely altered the way in which individual capital and revenue costs are viewed in the National Health Service. With regard to drugs, costs can now be seen as part of a patient's consumption of resources as opposed to a hospital budget heading. The new system acknowledges that higher drug costs can be incurred if the overall patient-episode cost is reduced as a result. Such a reduction in average patient costs might then lead to more contract work and a higher revenue for the hospital. Quality of care specifications by purchasers may also affect drug costs.

  7. Mapping Antimicrobial Stewardship in Undergraduate Medical, Dental, Pharmacy, Nursing and Veterinary Education in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castro-Sánchez

    Full Text Available To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK.Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning.80% (112/140 of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%. 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%, followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9% and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%. The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3% programmes included all recommended principles.Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.

  8. An electrical load measurements dataset of United Kingdom households from a two-year longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David; Stankovic, Lina; Stankovic, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Smart meter roll-outs provide easy access to granular meter measurements, enabling advanced energy services, ranging from demand response measures, tailored energy feedback and smart home/building automation. To design such services, train and validate models, access to data that resembles what is expected of smart meters, collected in a real-world setting, is necessary. The REFIT electrical load measurements dataset described in this paper includes whole house aggregate loads and nine individual appliance measurements at 8-second intervals per house, collected continuously over a period of two years from 20 houses. During monitoring, the occupants were conducting their usual routines. At the time of publishing, the dataset has the largest number of houses monitored in the United Kingdom at less than 1-minute intervals over a period greater than one year. The dataset comprises 1,194,958,790 readings, that represent over 250,000 monitored appliance uses. The data is accessible in an easy-to-use comma-separated format, is time-stamped and cleaned to remove invalid measurements, correctly label appliance data and fill in small gaps of missing data.

  9. The United Kingdom 2009 Swine Flu Outbreak As Recorded in Real Time by General Practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershel Jick

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Initially the course of the 2009 swine flu pandemic was uncertain and impossible to predict with any confidence. An effective prospective data resource exists in the United Kingdom (UK that could have been utilized to describe the scope and extent of the swine flu outbreak as it unfolded. We describe the 2009 swine flu outbreak in the UK as recorded daily by general practitioners and the potential use of this database for real-time tracking of flu outbreaks. Methods. Using the General Practice Research Database, a real-time general practice, electronic database, we estimated influenza incidence from July 1998 to September 2009 according to age, region, and calendar time. Results. From 1998 to2008, influenza outbreaks regularly occurred yearly from October to March, but did not typically occur from April to September until the swine flu outbreak began in April 2009. The weekly incidence rose gradually, peaking at the end of July, and the outbreak had largely dissipated by early September. Conclusions. The UK swine flu outbreak, recorded in real time by a large group of general practitioners, was mild and limited in time. Simultaneous online access seemed feasible and could have provided additional clinical-based evidence at an early planning stage of the outbreak.

  10. Simulated Regional Yields of Spring Barley in the United Kingdom under Projected Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Yawson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper assessed the effect of projected climate change on the grain yield of barley in fourteen administrative regions in the United Kingdom (UK. Climate data for the 2030s, 2040s and 2050s for the high emission scenario (HES, medium emissions scenario (MES and low emissions scenario (LES were obtained from the UK Climate Projections 2009 (UKCP09 using the Weather Generator. Simulations were performed using the AquaCrop model and statistics of simulated future yields and baseline yields were compared. The results show that climate change could be beneficial to UK barley production. For all emissions scenarios and regions, differences between the simulated average future yields (2030s–2050s and the observed yields in the baseline period (1961–1990 ranged from 1.4 to 4 tons·ha−1. The largest increase in yields and yield variability occurred under the HES in the 2050s. Absolute increases in yields over baseline yields were substantially greater in the western half of the UK than in the eastern regions but marginally from south to north. These increases notwithstanding, yield reductions were observed for some individual years due to saturated soil conditions (most common in Wales, Northern Ireland and South-West Scotland. These suggest risks of yield penalties in any growing season in the future, a situation that should be considered for planning adaptation and risk management.

  11. Information sharing between the National Health Service and criminal justice system in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Charlotte; Mason, Julie; McDonnell, Sharon; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2012-09-01

    Offenders with mental health problems often have complex and interrelated needs which separately challenge the criminal justice system (CJS) and National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Consequently, interagency collaboration and timely information sharing are essential. This study focused on the sharing of information about people with mental health problems in contact with the CJS. Questionnaires were distributed to a range of health and criminal justice personnel. The results showed that there was a mismatch between what service user information criminal justice agencies felt they needed and what was routinely received. Prison Service staff received more information (between 15% and 37%) from health agencies than the police (between 6% and 22%). Health professionals received most of the information they needed from criminal justice agencies (between 55% and 85%). Sharing service user information was impeded by incompatible computer systems and restrictions due to data protection/confidentiality requirements. In the U.K., recent governmental publications have highlighted the importance of information sharing; however there remains a clear mismatch between what health related information about service users criminal justice agencies need, and what is actually received. Better guidance is required to encourage and empower people to share.

  12. Myxomatosis: population dynamics of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) and ecological effects in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowerdew, J R; Trout, R C; Ross, J

    1992-12-01

    In 1953-1955, myxomatosis spread among rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the United Kingdom, causing 99% mortality. Subsequently, there was a gradual increase in rabbit numbers. By 1955, the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) had already found attenuated strains of myxoma virus. By 1970, genetic resistance had appeared. In the 1970s, mortality declined to 47-69% with only approximately 25% of rabbits infected, giving a field mortality of 12-19%. However, myxomatosis is persistent, generally showing a major prevalence peak in autumn and often a minor peak in spring. An eight-year MAFF experiment in which prevalence of the disease was artificially reduced indicates that myxomatosis remains a significant factor in population regulation. After rabbit numbers fell in the 1950s, important ecological changes took place: vegetation altered due to reduced grazing pressure, predators were affected by the reduction of a major prey species and these changes also affected many other animals. Currently, rabbit numbers have returned to approximately one-third of pre-myxomatosis levels and this is causing damage to farm and conservation habitats.

  13. Weather conditions prior to major outbreaks of meningococcol meningitis in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, C. G.

    1992-03-01

    Meningitis has been a notifiable disease in the United Kingdom for some 70 years. Only in recent years, stimulated by the work of the Meningitis Trust, has there been a more general awareness of the geographical distribution of cases, with certain locations being more prone than others to episodic outbreaks of the disease. In this paper we consider weather conditions prior to major outbreaks of meningitis in Hereford and Worcester, and Cleveland and the northwest Midlands. Possible causal links to air quality and large temporal changes of relative humidity are found from analysis of case data. However, whilst the diagnostic studies reported are encouraging, an independent test of the relative humidity gradient criterion using independent data for Gloucester was not successful. It is clear that meteorological and air quality data actually of the area from which the disease is reported must be analysed more fully to sustain or overrule the hypothesis proposed. In addition, the need for further clinical research into the likelihood of disease triggers generated by atmospheric smoke, dust and moisture is identified.

  14. Credit Market Development and Economic Growth an Empirical Analysis for United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Vazakidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the causal relationship between credit market development and economic growth for UK for the period 1975-2007 using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM. Questions were raised whether economic growth spurs credit market development taking into account the negative effect of inflation rate on credit market development. This study aimed to investigate the short-run and the long-run relationship between bank lending, gross domestic product and inflation rate applying the Johansen cointegration analysis. Approach: To achieve this objective classical and panel unit root tests were carried out for all time series data in their levels and their first differences. Johansen cointegration analysis was applied to examine whether the variables are cointegrated of the same order taking into account the maximum eigenvalues and trace statistics tests. Finally, a vector error correction model was selected to investigate the long-run relationship between economic growth and credit market development. Results: A short-run increase of economic growth per 1% induces an increase of bank lending 0.006%, while an increase of inflation rate per 1% induces a relative decrease of bank lending per 1.05% in UK. The estimated coefficient of error correction term is statistically significant and has a negative sign, which confirms that there is not any problem in the long-run equilibrium between the examined variables. Conclusion: The empirical results indicated that there is a unidirectional causal relationship between economic growth and credit market development with direction from economic growth to credit market development and a bilateral causality between inflation and credit market development for United Kingdom. Bank development is determined by the size of bank lending directed to private sector at times of low inflation rates leading to higher economic growth rates.

  15. Mini Gastric Bypass: first report of 125 consecutive cases from United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, C D; Mahawar, K K; Boyle, M; Carr, W R J; Jennings, N; Schroeder, N; Balupuri, S; Small, P K

    2016-02-01

    Mini Gastric Bypass is a promising bariatric procedure with multiple apparent benefits. Ours is the first unit within the National Health Service of the United Kingdom to be routinely performing this procedure. This retrospective cohort study reports our experience with first 125 procedures. Data were retrospectively analysed from a prospective database. Information was further supplemented by interviewing team members, contacting patients' general practitioners and telephonic follow-up. The mean follow-up was 11.4 months. There were 86 (68.8%) females and the mean age was 45 (range 20-70) years. Mean weight and body mass index was 135.8 (range 85-244) kilograms and 48.1 (range 34.5-73.8) kg m(-2) , respectively. The mean operating time was 92.4 (range 45-150) minutes and the mean post-operative hospital stay was 2.2 (range 2-17) days. There was no leak, one 30-day reoperation and no mortality in this study. Three patients required late reoperations and four patients developed marginal ulcers. At 6 months follow-up (n = 114), 27.5 (range 11.4-47.4) % total body weight loss and 60.1 (range 23.2-117.5) % excess body weight loss was seen. The figures at 12 months follow-up (n = 65) were 36.8 (range 23.7-55.4) % and 79.5 (range 44.9-138.3) %, respectively. This study demonstrates early safety and efficacy of Mini Gastric Bypass in a carefully selected British obese population in a high-volume centre.

  16. Deliberating the risks of nanotechnologies for energy and health applications in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidgeon, Nick; Harthorn, Barbara Herr; Bryant, Karl; Rogers-Hayden, Tee

    2009-02-01

    Emerging nanotechnologies pose a new set of challenges for researchers, governments, industries and citizen organizations that aim to develop effective modes of deliberation and risk communication early in the research and development process. These challenges derive from a number of issues including the wide range of materials and devices covered by the term `nanotechnology', the many different industrial sectors involved, the fact that many areas of nanotechnology are still at a relatively early stage of development, and uncertainty about the environmental, health and safety impacts of nanomaterials. Public surveys have found that people in the United States and Europe currently view the benefits of nanotechnologies as outweighing their risks although, overall, knowledge about nanotechnology remains very low. However, surveys cannot easily uncover the ways that people will interpret and understand the complexities of nanotechnologies (or any other topic about which they know very little) when asked to deliberate about it in more depth, so new approaches to engaging the public are needed. Here, we report the results of the first comparative United States-United Kingdom public engagement experiment. Based upon four concurrent half-day workshops debating energy and health nanotechnologies we find commonalities that were unexpected given the different risk regulatory histories in the two countries. Participants focused on benefits rather than risks and, in general, had a high regard for science and technology. Application context was much more salient than nation as a source of difference, with energy applications viewed in a substantially more positive light than applications in health and human enhancement in both countries. More subtle differences were present in views about the equitable distribution of benefits, corporate and governmental trustworthiness, the risks to realizing benefits, and in consumerist attitudes.

  17. Economic and Sociological Correlates of Suicides: Multilevel Analysis of the Time Series Data in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bruce Qiang; Zhang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    For the effects of social integration on suicides, there have been different and even contradictive conclusions. In this study, the selected economic and social risks of suicide for different age groups and genders in the United Kingdom were identified and the effects were estimated by the multilevel time series analyses. To our knowledge, there exist no previous studies that estimated a dynamic model of suicides on the time series data together with multilevel analysis and autoregressive distributed lags. The investigation indicated that unemployment rate, inflation rate, and divorce rate are all significantly and positively related to the national suicide rates in the United Kingdom from 1981 to 2011. Furthermore, the suicide rates of almost all groups above 40 years are significantly associated with the risk factors of unemployment and inflation rate, in comparison with the younger groups.

  18. Saving Mothers' Lives: the continuing benefits for maternal health from the United Kingdom (UK) Confidential Enquires into Maternal Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gwyneth

    2012-02-01

    The actions that have followed the recommendations of successive publications of the UK Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths have helped save mothers' lives and reduced ill health and morbidity. Through the implementation of their recommendations, they have helped improve access to, and the quality of, the maternity care provided for all pregnant women in the United Kingdom. The enquires help review, assess, and identify the underlying remediable factors that contributed to mothers' deaths and aggregate the lessons learned to make recommendations to develop services that help overcome many of the barriers to safe, high-quality maternity care, which vulnerable women continue to face. This chapter provides a short summary of the positive contributions the successive reports on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths, "Saving Mothers' Lives," have made to maternal health outcomes in the United Kingdom for more than half a century. It also demonstrates why such systems continue to be beneficial around the world, including countries with very low maternal mortality rates.

  19. Lifelong Learning Experience and Level of Social Exclusion or Inclusion of Asian Communities Living in Denmark and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Klein, Sonia; Panesar, Jasbir

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects the situation of Asian communities in Denmark and the United Kingdom which is influenced by global trends, the patterns of differing learning they participate in which are influenced by the concept of LifeLong Learning within each country, educational opportunities, socio......-economic positions of this target group and entrepreneurship activities taking place. Global trends influence disadvantaged learners level of participation in learning within Europe. The Asian communities in Denmark and the United Kingdom, despite the differences in migration period, have made the decision to live......, including Asian communities, have been negatively affected in the recent years due to the increased political restrictions and media coverage. In comparison, despite the recent immigration policies in the UK, many members of the Asian communities have embraced the opportunities LifeLong Learning has...

  20. Tackling the Use of Supari (Areca Nut) and Smokeless Tobacco Products in the South Asian Community in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chande, Milan; Suba, Krishna

    2016-06-01

    The use of supari (areca nut) and smokeless tobacco products are seen as a major risk factor for oral cancer. There are increasing rates of oral cancer across the United Kingdom, along with the increase of the use of these products. This article examines the uses of such products amongst the South Asian Community and explores sensitive issues associated with the cessation of their use. Evidence-based recommendations are provided on how to provide advice and treatment to patients that regularly use these products. A rethink is also suggested on the policy of taxation of such products. CPD/Clinical Relevance: With the rates of oral cancer increasing across the United Kingdom, it is important for us as dental professionals to tackle the use of areca nut and smokeless tobacco products.

  1. Education research and educational psychology in Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom – an analysis of scholarly journals

    OpenAIRE

    Knaupp, Monika; Schaufler, Sarah; Hofbauer, Susann; Keiner, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates recent transnational and trans-disciplinary knowledge trajectories on the basis of scholarly journals by focusing on the contemporary relationships, commonalities and differences between education research and educational psychology in three European countries: Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. We investigate how education research and educational psychology are composed regarding authors, research topics and methodological standards. We also are interested in anal...

  2. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection m...

  3. ‘Mental Health is Something We All Have’: Shifting Ideas and Practices Regarding Mental Health in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom today, people who aim at improving social understandings of, and attitudes towards, mental illness have developed a number of innovative campaigning strategies. Among a multitude of media representations, individual narratives, social actions and discussions, new ways of presenting mental health problems have emerged; I consider these jointly under the rubric of mental health activism. Of our particular interest is the activist notion that mental health is something ‘we ...

  4. Young People's Academic Buoyancy and Adaptability: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of China with North America and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Yu, Kai; Ginns, Paul; Papworth, Brad

    2017-01-01

    We investigated academic buoyancy (a response to challenge) and adaptability (a response to change) among a sample of 12-16-year-olds in China (N = 3617) compared with same-aged youth from North America (N = 989) and the United Kingdom (UK; N = 1182). We found that Chinese students reported higher mean levels of buoyancy and adaptability. We also…

  5. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES OF BRITISH ORGANIZATIONS IN AZERBAIJAN AS AN ELEMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM FOREIGN LANGUAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Niyazova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the United Kingdom language policy on the territory of Azerbaijan after the Soviet Union collapse, which is a bright example of the world political map redrawing. Taking into account the fact that the language is an important tool of the extending one’s influence over the country, we can say with certainty that the success of the specific state laying a claim to play the leading role in on the global political arena strongly depends on its ability to promote its language abroad, to enhance its status and to create such conditions where in the foreign country its language conquers the status close to the status of the native language. In this regard, the United Kingdom activity can serve as an example of a successful foreign language state policy.The authors analyze the activity of such organizations as the British Council, the BBC and BP on spreading the English language. The aforesaid British organizations are the master plate of the efficient language state policy tools, as long as they not only actively develop the global picture of the world, but also promote the interests of the United Kingdom on the territory of the former Soviet Union.Azerbaijan encourages the United Kingdom intention to spread the English language on its territory and does its best in assisting in the implementation of the proposed initiatives, realizing that the spread of the English language being the language of a global communication in Azerbaijan would contribute to the raising of Azerbaijan status on the world arena.

  6. Foreign trade and early industrialisation in the Habsburg Monarchy and the United Kingdom - Two extremes in comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Simone

    2011-05-15

    The concept of socio-ecological transitions is used to analyse the quantitative importance of physical imports and exports for the Habsburg Empire and the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th centuries. For the Habsburg Empire, a new dataset of foreign trade and social metabolism is presented. For the United Kingdom, the analysis relies on previously published data. Foreign trade volumes increased in both countries in the long run. Total trade volumes were much higher in the United Kingdom throughout the entire time period, on average by around a factor four. Physical factors explaining the disparities in structure and volume of foreign trade in the two countries are differences in (1) the temporal patterns of the socio-ecological transition and (2) domestic resource endowments. In both countries, energy carrying materials, i.e. fossil fuels and biomass, were the dominant resources in physical foreign trade. The analysis focuses on the physically most important material groups: coal, wood and cereals, and discusses the role of imports and exports in relation to domestic resource provision and environmental pressures. Physical foreign trade increased at a faster pace than domestic resource extraction and consumption. The socio-ecological transition was thus accompanied by rising international integration of resource supply.

  7. Foreign trade and early industrialisation in the Habsburg Monarchy and the United Kingdom — Two extremes in comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The concept of socio–ecological transitions is used to analyse the quantitative importance of physical imports and exports for the Habsburg Empire and the United Kingdom in the 19th and early 20th centuries. For the Habsburg Empire, a new dataset of foreign trade and social metabolism is presented. For the United Kingdom, the analysis relies on previously published data. Foreign trade volumes increased in both countries in the long run. Total trade volumes were much higher in the United Kingdom throughout the entire time period, on average by around a factor four. Physical factors explaining the disparities in structure and volume of foreign trade in the two countries are differences in (1) the temporal patterns of the socio-ecological transition and (2) domestic resource endowments. In both countries, energy carrying materials, i.e. fossil fuels and biomass, were the dominant resources in physical foreign trade. The analysis focuses on the physically most important material groups: coal, wood and cereals, and discusses the role of imports and exports in relation to domestic resource provision and environmental pressures. Physical foreign trade increased at a faster pace than domestic resource extraction and consumption. The socio–ecological transition was thus accompanied by rising international integration of resource supply. PMID:21760665

  8. A comparison of the information needs of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in Malaysia and the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Raja Lexshimi Raja; Beaver, Kinta; Barnett, Tony; Ismail, Nik Safiah Nik

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the information needs of women with breast cancer in non-Western societies. This study examined the priority information needs of 100 women with breast cancer in Malaysia and compared the findings to previous work involving 150 women diagnosed with breast cancer in the United Kingdom. The study used a valid and reliable measure, the Information Needs Questionnaire (INQ). The INQ contained 9 items of information related to physical, psychological, and social care, used successfully in Canada and the United Kingdom. The INQ was shown to have cross-cultural relevance and sensitivity. For Malaysian women, information about likelihood of cure, sexual attractiveness, and spread of disease were the most important information needs. For UK women, similar priorities were evident, apart from the item on sexual attractiveness, which was ranked much lower by women in the United Kingdom. The cultural similarities and differences that emerged from this study have implications for nurses in the cancer field caring for people from a diversity of cultural backgrounds. Breast care nurses are not a feature of the Malaysian healthcare system, although the findings from this study support the view that specialist nurses have a vital role to play in meeting the psychosocial needs of women with breast cancer in non-Western societies.

  9. Implementing medical revalidation in the United Kingdom: Findings about organisational changes and impacts from a survey of Responsible Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alan; Bryce, Marie; Luscombe, Kayleigh; Tazzyman, Abigail; Tredinnick-Rowe, John; Archer, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the implementation of medical revalidation in healthcare organisations in the United Kingdom and to examine reported changes and impacts on the quality of care. Design A cross-sectional online survey gathering both quantitative and qualitative data about structures and processes for medical revalidation and wider quality management in the organisations which employ or contract with doctors (termed ‘designated bodies’) from the senior doctor in each organisation with statutory responsibility for medical revalidation (termed the ‘Responsible Officer’). Setting United Kingdom Participants Responsible Officers in designated bodies in the United Kingdom. Five hundred and ninety-five survey invitations were sent and 374 completed surveys were returned (63%). Main outcome measures The role of Responsible Officers, the development of organisational mechanisms for quality assurance or improvement, decision-making on revalidation recommendations, impact of revalidation and mechanisms for quality assurance or improvement on clinical practice and suggested improvements to revalidation arrangements. Results Responsible Officers report that revalidation has had some impacts on the way medical performance is assured and improved, particularly strengthening appraisal and oversight of quality within organisations and having some impact on clinical practice. They suggest changes to make revalidation less ‘one size fits all’ and more responsive to individual, organisational and professional contexts. Conclusions Revalidation appears primarily to have improved systems for quality improvement and the management of poor performance to date. There is more to be done to ensure it produces wider benefits, particularly in relation to doctors who already perform well. PMID:28084166

  10. E-Cigarette Topics Shared by Medical Professionals: A Comparison of Tweets from the United States and United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M; Lazard, Allison J; Wilcox, Gary B

    2017-02-01

    Medical professionals are now relying on social media platforms like Twitter to express their recommendations for the use or avoidance of products like electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), which may have long-term health consequences for users. The goal of this study is to compare how physicians from the United States and the United Kingdom talk about e-cigs on Twitter and identify the topics that these groups perceive as salient. Comparing tweets from the U.S. and U.K. will allow for a better understanding of how medical professionals from these countries differ in their attitudes toward e-cigs. This information can be also used to inform policies designed to regulate the use of e-cigs. Using a text-mining program, we analyzed approximately 3,800 original tweets sent by physicians from the U.S. and the U.K. within a 1-year time span (June 2015 through June 2016). The program clustered the tweets by topics, which allowed us to categorize the topics by importance. Both sets of tweets contained debates about the degree to which e-cigs pose a threat to health, but the U.S. tweets emphasized the dangers of e-cig use for teens, while the U.K. tweets focused more on the potential that e-cigs have to be used as a smoking cessation aid. Doctors are using Twitter to share timely information about the potential risks, benefits, and regulations associated with e-cigs. Evaluating these tweets allows researchers to collect information about topics that doctors find important and make comparisons about how medical professionals from the U.S. and the U.K. regard e-cigs.

  11. Assessment of the spatial scaling behaviour of floods in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Stewart, Elizabeth; Bell, Victoria

    2017-04-01

    Floods are among the most dangerous natural hazards, causing loss of life and significant damage to private and public property. Regional flood-frequency analysis (FFA) methods are essential tools to assess the flood hazard and plan interventions for its mitigation. FFA methods are often based on the well-known index flood method that assumes the invariance of the coefficient of variation of floods with drainage area. This assumption is equivalent to the simple scaling or self-similarity assumption for peak floods, i.e. their spatial structure remains similar in a particular, relatively simple, way to itself over a range of scales. Spatial scaling of floods has been evaluated at national scale for different countries such as Canada, USA, and Australia. According our knowledge. Such a study has not been conducted for the United Kingdom even though the standard FFA method there is based on the index flood assumption. In this work we present an integrated approach to assess of the spatial scaling behaviour of floods in the United Kingdom using three different methods: product moments (PM), probability weighted moments (PWM), and quantile analysis (QA). We analyse both instantaneous and daily annual observed maximum floods and performed our analysis both across the entire country and in its sub-climatic regions as defined in the Flood Studies Report (NERC, 1975). To evaluate the relationship between the k-th moments or quantiles and the drainage area we used both regression with area alone and multiple regression considering other explanatory variables to account for the geomorphology, amount of rainfall, and soil type of the catchments. The latter multiple regression approach was only recently demonstrated being more robust than the traditional regression with area alone that can lead to biased estimates of scaling exponents and misinterpretation of spatial scaling behaviour. We tested our framework on almost 600 rural catchments in UK considered as entire region and

  12. Suitability of two carbon dioxide-baited traps for mosquito surveillance in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, R A; West, P A; Lindsay, S W

    2007-12-01

    Rapidly changing environments and an increase in human movement around the globe have contributed to a rise in new and emerging diseases, many of which are arthropod borne. The threat posed to the United Kingdom by such diseases is uncertain, and there is a real need to understand the distribution, seasonality and behaviour of potential vectors in the country. At present, there is no standard method for routine mosquito surveillance in the UK. Here we compared the catching efficiency of two carbon dioxide-baited traps, the CDC light trap and the MosquitoMagnet Pro trap, for collecting British mosquitoes. Two of each type of trap were operated at four sites in central and southern England from June to September, 2003. To determine whether trap height affected collections, three light traps were operated at 1, 2.5 and 5 m above the ground in one site in 2004. Both types of trap were efficient at catching mosquitoes, collecting 5414 mosquitoes of 16 species. MosquitoMagnet traps caught 2.7 times more mosquitoes than CDC light traps (PMosquitoMagnet traps ran continuously for up to 8 weeks, whilst the battery of a CDC light trap had to be replaced every 24 hrs. Although MosquitoMagnets collected more specimens and a greater range of mosquito species, they were considerably more expensive, prone to breakdown and incurred higher running costs than the CDC light traps. MosquitoMagnets are useful tools for collecting mosquitoes during longitudinal surveys during the summer months, whilst CDC light traps are to be preferred for rapid assessments of the presence or absence of mosquitoes, particularly the important species Culex pipiens.

  13. Strategies for Monitoring Outcomes in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Claire; Tookey, Pat

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK) through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than 5 in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) exposure and more than 5000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short- and long-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART) Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms, but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the "flagging" of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals, including those relating to consent and confidentiality, are also discussed.

  14. Strategies for monitoring outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eThorne

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance of pregnancies in women living with HIV is carried out on a national basis in the United Kingdom (UK through the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC. There are currently around 1100-1200 HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU infants born every year in the UK, where vertical transmission of HIV now occurs in fewer than five in every 1000 pregnancies. By the end of 2014, there was a cumulative total of more than 15,000 HEU children with any combination antiretroviral therapy (cART exposure and more than 5,000 with cART exposure from conception in the UK. HEU infants are increasingly being exposed to newer antiretroviral drugs for which less is known regarding both short and longer-term safety. In this commentary, we describe the approaches that have been taken to explore health outcomes in HEU children born in the UK. This includes the Children exposed to AntiRetroviral Therapy (CHART Study, which was a consented follow-up study carried out in 2002-2005 of HEU children born in 1996-2004. The CHART Study showed that 4% of HEU children enrolled had a major health or development problem in early childhood; this was within expected UK norms but the study was limited by small numbers and short-term follow-up. However, the problems with recruitment and retention that were encountered within the CHART Study demonstrated that comprehensive, clinic-based follow-up was not a feasible approach for long-term assessment of HEU children in the UK. We describe an alternative approach developed to monitor some aspects of their long-term health, involving the flagging of HEU infants for death and cancer registration with the UK Office for National Statistics. Some of the ethical concerns regarding investigation of long-term outcomes of in utero and perinatal exposure to antiretrovirals including those relating to consent and confidentiality are also discussed.

  15. United Kingdom Infrared Telescope's Spectrograph Observations of Human-Made Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckalew, Brent; Abercromby, Kira; Lederer, Susan; Frith, James; Cowardin, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Presented here are the results of the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) spectral observations of human-made space objects taken from 2014 to 2015. The data collected using the UIST infrared spectrograph cover the wavelength range 0.7-2.5 micrometers. Overall, data were collected on 18 different orbiting objects at or near the geosynchronous (GEO) regime. Thirteen of the objects are spacecraft, one is a rocket body, and four are cataloged as debris pieces. The remotely collected data are compared to the laboratory-collected reflectance data on typical spacecraft materials; thereby general materials are identified but not specific types. These results highlight the usefulness of observations in the infrared by focusing on features from hydrocarbons and silicon. The spacecraft show distinct features due to the presence of solar panels. Signature variations between rocket bodies, due to the presence of various metals and paints on their surfaces, show a clear distinction from those objects with solar panels, demonstrating that one can distinguish most spacecraft from rocket bodies through infrared spectrum analysis. Finally, the debris pieces tend to show featureless, dark spectra. These results show that the laboratory data in its current state give excellent indications as to the nature of the surface materials on the objects. Further telescopic data collection and model updates to include more materials, noise, surface roughness, and material degradation are necessary to make better assessments of orbital object material types. A comparison conducted between objects observed previously with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) shows similar materials and trends from the two telescopes and from the two distinct data sets. However, based on the current state of the model, infrared spectroscopic data are adequate to classify objects in GEO as spacecraft, rocket bodies, or debris.

  16. Teaching of direct composite restoration repair in undergraduate dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, I R; Lynch, C D; Wilson, N H F

    2012-02-01

    To investigate aspects of the teaching of restoration repair as a minimally invasive alternative to the replacement of defective direct composite restorations in teaching programmes in undergraduate curricula in dental schools in the United Kingdom and Ireland. An online questionnaire which sought information in relation to the current teaching of composite restoration repair was developed and distributed to the 17 established UK and Irish dental schools with undergraduate teaching programmes in Spring 2010. Completed responses were received from all 17 schools (response rate= 100%). Fifteen schools reported that they included teaching of repair techniques for defective direct composite restorations in their programme. Of the two remaining schools, one indicated that it would introduce teaching of repair techniques during the next five years. The most common indication for a composite repair was that of 'tooth substance preservation' (15 schools). The defects in restorations considered appropriate for repair rather than replacement by the largest number of schools included partial loss of restoration (13 schools) and marginal defects (12 schools). The most commonly taught surface treatment when performing a repair was mechanical roughening of the existing composite with removal of the surface layer (14 schools). Thirteen schools taught etching and the application of an adhesive bonding agent to the prepared surfaces, while the most commonly taught material for completing the repair was a hybrid composite resin (12 schools). Popular finishing implements included diamond finishing instruments (13 schools) and finishing discs (11 schools). Not withstanding reluctance amongst general dental practitioners, the teaching of repair of a defective composite restoration, rather than total restoration replacement, is firmly established within UK and Irish dental school programmes. Repair techniques have clear advantages for patients, not least including a minimally invasive

  17. Survey of adrenal crisis associated with inhaled corticosteroids in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, G R G; Acerini, C L; Ross-Russell, R; Zahra, S; Warner, J T; McCance, D

    2002-12-01

    Until recently, only two cases of acute adrenal crisis associated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) had been reported worldwide. We identified four additional cases and sought to survey the frequency of this side effect in the United Kingdom. Questionnaires were sent to all consultant paediatricians and adult endocrinologists registered in a UK medical directory, asking whether they had encountered asthmatic patients with acute adrenal crisis associated with ICS. Those responding positively completed a more detailed questionnaire. Diagnosis was confirmed by symptoms/signs and abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function test results. From an initial 2912 questionnaires, 33 patients met the diagnostic criteria (28 children, five adults). Twenty-three children had acute hypoglycaemia (13 with decreased levels of consciousness or coma; nine with coma and convulsions; one with coma, convulsions and death); five had insidious onset of symptoms. Four adults had insidious onset of symptoms; one had hypoglycaemia and convulsions. Of the 33 patients treated with 500-2000 micro g/day ICS, 30 (91%) had received fluticasone, one (3%) fluticasone and budesonide, and two (6%) beclomethasone. The frequency of acute adrenal crisis was greater than expected as the majority of these patients were treated with ICS doses supported by British Guidelines on Asthma Management. Despite being the least prescribed and most recently introduced ICS, fluticasone was associated with 94% of the cases. We therefore advise that the licensed dosage of fluticasone for children, 400 micro g/day, should not be exceeded unless the patient is being supervised by a physician with experience in problematic asthma. We would also emphasise that until adrenal function has been assessed patients receiving high dose ICS should not have this therapy abruptly terminated as this could precipitate adrenal crisis.

  18. Pre-hospital care after a seizure: Evidence base and United Kingdom management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Andrew; Taylor, Louise; Reuber, Markus; Grünewald, Richard A; Parkinson, Martin; Dickson, Jon M

    2015-01-01

    Seizures are a common presentation to pre-hospital emergency services and they generate significant healthcare costs. This article summarises the United Kingdom (UK) Ambulance Service guidelines for the management of seizures and explores the extent to which these guidelines are evidence-based. Summary of the Clinical Practice Guidelines of the UK Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee relating to the management of seizures. Review of the literature relating to pre-hospital management of seizure emergencies. Much standard practice relating to the emergency out of hospital management of patients with seizures is drawn from generic Advanced Life Support (ALS) guidelines although many patients do not need ALS during or after a seizure and the benefit of many ALS interventions in seizure patients remains to be established. The majority of studies identified pertain to medical treatment of status epilepticus. These papers show that benzodiazepines are safe and effective but it is not possible to draw definitive conclusions about the best medication or the optimal route of administration. The evidence base for current pre-hospital guidelines for seizure emergencies is incomplete. A large proportion of patients are transported to hospital after a seizure but many of these may be suitable for home management. However, there is very little research into alternative care pathways or criteria that could be used to help paramedics avoid transport to hospital. More research is needed to improve care for people after a seizure and to improve the cost-effectiveness of the healthcare systems within which they are treated. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. United Kingdom Infrared Telescope's Spectrograph Observations of Human-Made Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckalew, Brent; Abercromby, Kira; Lederer, Susan; Cowardin, Heather; Frith, James

    2017-01-01

    Presented here are the results of the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) spectral observations of human-made space objects taken from 2014 to 2015. The data collected using the UKIRT 1-5 micron Imager Spectrometer (UIST) cover the wavelength range 0.7-2.5 micrometers. Overall, data were collected on 18 different orbiting objects at or near geosynchronous orbit (GEO). Two of the objects are controlled spacecraft, twelve are non-controlled spacecraft, one is a rocket body, and three are cataloged as debris. The remotely collected data are compared to the laboratory-collected reflectance data on typical spacecraft materials; thereby general materials are identified but not specific types. These results highlight the usefulness of observations in the infrared by focusing on features from hydrocarbons and silicon. The spacecraft, both the controlled and non-controlled, show distinct features due to the presence of solar panels whereas the rocket bodies do not. Signature variations between rocket bodies, due to the presence of various metals and paints on their surfaces, show a clear distinction from those objects with solar panels, demonstrating that one can distinguish most spacecraft from rocket bodies through infrared spectrum analysis. Finally, the debris pieces tend to show featureless, dark spectra. These results show that the laboratory data in its current state give well-correlated indications as to the nature of the surface materials on the objects. Further telescopic data collection and model updates to include noise, surface roughness, and material degradation are necessary to make better assessments of orbital object material types. A comparison conducted between objects observed previously with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) shows similar materials and trends from the two telescopes and different times. However, based on the current state of the model, infrared spectroscopic data are adequate to classify objects in GEO as spacecraft

  20. Validating the Concept of COPD Control: A Real-world Cohort Study from the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibber, Anjan; Chisholm, Alison; Soler-Cataluña, Juan José; Alcazar, Bernardino; Price, David; Miravitlles, Marc

    2017-10-01

    The concept of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) control has been developed to inform therapeutic decision-making. We explored the validity of a definition of COPD control in a representative population of patients with COPD in the United Kingdom. Electronic medical records and linked COPD questionnaire data from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database were used to characterize control status. Patients were aged ≥40 years, with spirometry-confirmed COPD, current or ex-smokers, and continuous records throughout the study period. Control was evaluated based on COPD stability and patients' (i) clinical features or (ii) COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score over a three-month baseline period and linked to time to first exacerbation. Of 2788 eligible patients, 2511 (90%) had mild/moderate COPD and 277 (10%) had severe/very severe COPD based on Body Mass Index, Obstruction, Dyspnoea, Exacerbations (BODEx) cut-off of 4. Within the mild/moderate cohort, 4.5% of patients were controlled at baseline according to clinical features and 21.5% according to CAT threshold of 10. Within the severe/very severe cohort, no patients were controlled at baseline according to the proposed clinical features and 8.3% were controlled according to CAT threshold of 20. Compared with uncontrolled patients, time to first exacerbation was longer for controlled patients with mild/moderate COPD but not for those with severe/very severe COPD. Lowering the BODEx threshold for severity classification to 2 increased the number of patients achieving control. CAT scores were not good predictors of the risk of future exacerbation. With the proposed definition, very few patients were defined as controlled.

  1. Clinical burden and incremental cost of fractures in postmenopausal women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Lia; Roskell, Neil; Castellsague, Jordi; Beard, Steve; Rycroft, Catherine; Abeysinghe, Shaun; Shannon, Paul; Gitlin, Matthew; Robbins, Sean

    2012-09-01

    This cohort study of postmenopausal women in the United Kingdom aged ≥50years determined the incremental cost of health care and clinical outcomes in the 12months following incident, selected fractures (non-vertebral non-hip [NVNHF], vertebral [VF] and multiple [MF]). Incremental costs and outcomes of the fracture cohorts were compared with those of cohorts comprised of women without fractures who were individually matched on age and comorbidity. Cohorts were identified from The Health Improvement Network database, a primary health care database, from 2001 to 2005. We estimated 1-year incremental costs (hospitalizations; general practice, accident/emergency, and referral visits; and prescription medications) associated with each fracture type. Descriptive analyses examined occurrence of subsequent fractures and death. No long-term health care costs or outcomes were assessed. Overall, 14,030 women had NVNHF, 1471 had VF, and 193 had MF. The risk of death was greater for women with fractures than for women in the non-fracture cohorts. Mean incremental cost for fractures compared with no fractures was £1152 for VF; £690 for NVNHF, and £2581 for MF. Of the total incremental cost, hospitalizations represented 54%-90% and medications represented 7%-29%. In all fracture cohorts, most of the total annual costs were concentrated in the 6months after the date of fracture. Fractures among postmenopausal women represent an important burden to the health system due to the increase in health resource utilization and related costs. In this study, hospitalizations were the main driver of the overall incremental cost during the 12months following the fracture. Mortality in women in the selected fracture cohorts was higher than in women in the non-fracture cohorts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A survey of arsenic in foodstuffs on sale in the United Kingdom and imported from Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rmalli, S W; Haris, P I; Harrington, C F; Ayub, M

    2005-01-20

    Arsenic is a highly toxic element and its presence in food composites is a matter of concern to the well being of both humans and animals. Arsenic-contaminated groundwater is often used in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India) to irrigate crops used for food and animal consumption, which could potentially lead to arsenic entering the human food chain. In this study, we used graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy to determine the total arsenic concentrations in a range of foodstuffs, including vegetables, rice and fish, imported into the United Kingdom from Bangladesh. The mean and range of the total arsenic concentration in all the vegetables imported from Bangladesh were 54.5 and 5-540 microg/kg, respectively. The highest arsenic values found were for the skin of Arum tuber, 540 microg/kg, followed by Arum Stem, 168 microg/kg, and Amaranthus, 160 microg/kg. Among the other samples, freshwater fish contained total arsenic levels between 97 and 1318 microg/kg. The arsenic content of the vegetables from the UK was approximately 2- to 3-fold lower than those observed for the vegetables imported from Bangladesh. The levels of arsenic found in vegetables imported from Bangladesh in this study, in some cases, are similar to those previously recorded for vegetables grown in arsenic-affected areas of West Bengal, India, although lower than the levels reported in studies from Bangladesh. While the total arsenic content detected in our study in vegetables, imported from Bangladesh, is far less than the recommended maximum permitted level of arsenic, it does provide an additional source of arsenic in the diet. This raises the possibility that the level of arsenic intake by certain sectors of the UK population may be significantly higher then the general population and requires further investigations.

  3. Population health status of South Asian and African-Caribbean communities in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvert Melanie

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population health status scores are routinely used to inform economic evaluation and evaluate the impact of disease and/or treatment on health. It is unclear whether the health status in black and minority ethnic groups are comparable to these population health status data. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-status in South Asian and African-Caribbean populations. Methods Cross-sectional study recruiting participants aged ≥ 45 years (September 2006 to July 2009 from 20 primary care centres in Birmingham, United Kingdom.10,902 eligible subjects were invited, 5,408 participated (49.6%. 5,354 participants had complete data (49.1% (3442 South Asian and 1912 African-Caribbean. Health status was assessed by interview using the EuroQoL EQ-5D. Results The mean EQ-5D score in South Asian participants was 0.91 (standard deviation (SD 0.18, median score 1 (interquartile range (IQR 0.848 to 1 and in African-Caribbean participants the mean score was 0.92 (SD 0.18, median 1 (IQR 1 to 1. Compared with normative data from the UK general population, substantially fewer African-Caribbean and South Asian participants reported problems with mobility, usual activities, pain and anxiety when stratified by age resulting in higher average health status estimates than those from the UK population. Multivariable modelling showed that decreased health-related quality of life (HRQL was associated with increased age, female gender and increased body mass index. A medical history of depression, stroke/transient ischemic attack, heart failure and arthritis were associated with substantial reductions in HRQL. Conclusions The reported HRQL of these minority ethnic groups was substantially higher than anticipated compared to UK normative data. Participants with chronic disease experienced significant reductions in HRQL and should be a target for health intervention.

  4. Creating a climate that catalyses healthcare innovation in the United Kingdom - learning lessons from international innovators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Kathrin; Cunningham-Burley, Sarah; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-01-25

    The United Kingdom (UK) lags behind other high-income countries in relation to technological innovation in healthcare. In order to inform UK strategy on how to catalyse innovation, we sought to understand what national strategies can help to promote a climate for innovation in healthcare settings by extracting lessons for the UK from international innovators. We undertook a series of qualitative semi-structured interviews with senior international innovators from a range of health related policy, care/service delivery, commercial and academic backgrounds. Thematic analysis helped to explore how different stakeholder groups could facilitate/inhibit innovation at individual, organisational, and wider societal levels. We conducted 14 interviews and found that a conducive climate for healthcare innovation comprised of national/regional strategies stimulating commercial competition, promoting public/private relationships, and providing central direction (e.g. incentives for adoption and regulation through standards) without being restrictive. Organisational attitudes with a willingness to experiment and to take risks were also seen as important, but a bottom-up approach to innovation, based on the identification of clinical need, was seen as a crucial first step to construct relevant national policies.  There is now a need to create mechanisms through which frontline National Health Service staff in relation can raise ideas/concerns and suggest opportunities for improvement, and then build national innovation environments that seek to address these needs. This should be accompanied by creating competitive health technology markets to stimulate a commercial environment that attracts high-quality health information technology experts and innovators working in partnership with staff and patients.

  5. Incidence, determinants, and outcome of chronic kidney disease after adult heart transplantation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Helen L; Banner, Nicholas R; Murphy, Cara L; Steenkamp, Retha; Birch, Rhiannon; Fogarty, Damian G; Bonser, And Robert S

    2012-06-15

    We investigated the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United Kingdom heart transplant population, identified risk factors for the development of CKD, and assessed the impact of CKD on subsequent survival. Data from the UK Cardiothoracic Transplant Audit and UK Renal Registry were linked for 1732 adult heart transplantations, 1996 to 2007. Factors influencing time to CKD, defined as National Kidney Foundation CKD stage 4 or 5 or preemptive kidney transplantation, were identified using a Cox proportional hazards model. The effects of distinct CKD stages on survival were evaluated using time-dependent covariates. A total of 3% of patients had CKD at transplantation, 11% at 1-year and more than 15% at 6 years posttransplantation and beyond. Earlier transplantations, shorter ischemia times, female, older, hepatitis C virus positive, and diabetic recipients were at increased risk of developing CKD, along with those with impaired renal function pretransplantation or early posttransplantation. Significant differences between transplantation centers were also observed. The risk of death was significantly higher for patients at CKD stage 4, stage 5 (excluding dialysis), or on dialysis, compared with equivalent patients surviving to the same time point with CKD stage 3 or lower (hazard ratios of 1.66, 8.54, and 4.07, respectively). CKD is a common complication of heart transplantation in the UK, and several risk factors identified in other studies are also relevant in this population. By linking national heart transplantation and renal data, we have determined the impact of CKD stage and dialysis treatment on subsequent survival in heart transplant recipients.

  6. Entrepreneurial nurses and midwives in the United Kingdom: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Vari; Davis, Kathy; Goodman, Claire; Humphrey, Charlotte; Locke, Rachel; Mark, Annabelle; Murray, Susan F; Traynor, Michael

    2007-12-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative literature review to investigate: (a) the extent of entrepreneurial activity by nurses, midwives and health visitors in the United Kingdom and (b) the factors that influenced these activities. Internationally, social and commercial entrepreneurial activity is regarded as important for economic growth and social cohesion. Seventeen bibliographic databases were searched using single and combined search terms: 'entrepreneur$', 'business', 'private practice', 'self-employ$', 'intrapreneur$''social enterprise$''mutuals', 'collectives', 'co-op' and 'social capital' which were related to a second layer of terms 'Nurs$', 'Midwi$', 'Visit$'. 'Entrepreneur$' Private Midwi$, Independent Midwi$, and 'nursing workforce'. In addition, hand searches of non-indexed journals and grey literature searches were completed. The following inclusion criteria were: (a) describing nurses, midwife and/or health visitor entrepreneurship (b) undertaken in the UK, and (c) reported between January 1996 and December 2005. Of 154 items included only three were empirical studies; the remainder were narrative accounts. While quality of these accounts cannot be verified, they provide as complete an account as possible in this under-researched area. The numbers of nurses, midwives and health visitors acting entrepreneurially were very small and mirror international evidence. A categorization of entrepreneurial activity was inductively constructed by employment status and product offered. 'Push' and 'pull' influencing factors varied between types of entrepreneurial activity. Empirical investigation into the extent to which nurses and midwives respond to calls for greater entrepreneurialism should take account of the complex interplay of contextual factors (e.g. healthcare legislation), professional and managerial experience and demographic factors.

  7. Potency and characterization of estrogen-receptor agonists in United Kingdom estuarine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin V; Balaam, Jan; Hurst, Mark; Nedyalkova, Zoya; Mekenyan, Ovanes

    2004-02-01

    The activity of estrogen-receptor (ER) agonists in sediments collected from the United Kingdom (UK) estuaries was assessed using the in vitro recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES assay). The YES assay was successfully used to determine the in vitro ER agonist potency of pore waters and solvent extracts of sediments collected from UK estuaries. Estrogen-receptor agonists were detected in 66% of the pore water samples and in 91% of the sediment solvent extracts tested. The pore waters tested had ER agonist potencies from less than 2 to 68 ng 17beta-estradiol (E2) L(-1), whereas sediment extracts had potencies from less than 0.2 to 13 microg E2 kg(-1). A toxicity identification evaluation approach using bioassay-directed fractionation was used in an attempt to identify the ER agonists in extracts of sediments collected from the Tyne and Tees estuaries (UK). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to provide lists of compounds in the fractions obtained that were evaluated for known ER agonist activity using published data and an ER quantitative structure-activity relationship model. Toxicity identification evaluation characterization failed to identify any ER agonists in pore water extracts; however, three compounds in sediment solvent extracts were identified as ER agonists. Nonylphenol, cinnarizine, and cholesta-4,6-dien-3-one were identified in the sample collected from the Tyne estuary. Important ER agonist substances that contaminate marine sediments remain unidentified. The present study as well as previous work on effluents point toward the involvement of natural products in the estrogenic burdens of marine sediments. Further work is required to establish the relative contribution of natural products and anthropogenic chemicals to current environmental impacts in the context of the Oslo and Paris Commission strategy to eliminate hazardous substances by 2020.

  8. Using the Prerogative for Major Constitutional Change:The United Kingdom Constitution and Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Blick, Andrew; Gordon QC, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the constitutional and legal appropriateness of the government intention to instigate United Kingdom withdrawal from the European Union using the Royal Prerogative, rather than seeking statutory authorisation to do so. it takes an historical and legal perspective.

  9. 27 October 2014 - H.E. Mr Ney Samol Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Cambodia to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2014-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Ney Samol Ambassador Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Cambodia to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva signing the Guest Book with Deputy Head of International Relations E. Tsesmelis

  10. Water matters: An assessment of opinion on water management and community engagement in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alec Rolston; Eleanor Jennings; Suzanne Linnane

    2017-01-01

    ... in significant public disquiet and protest movements against the national government. In April 2015 we undertook a survey of current opinion on water management and community engagement initiatives in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom...

  11. Indirect treatment comparison of abatacept with methotrexate versus other biologic agents for active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy in the United kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guyot, Patricia; Taylor, Peter C; Christensen, Robin;

    2012-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of abatacept and alternative biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) in the United Kingdom.......To compare the efficacy of abatacept and alternative biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to methotrexate (MTX) in the United Kingdom....

  12. Emergency department presentations in determining the effectiveness of drug control in the United Kingdom: mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) control appears to be effective using this model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David M; Greene, Shaun L; Dargan, Paul I

    2013-01-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) and related cathinones were controlled in the United Kingdom on 16 April 2010. An analysis of presentations to the emergency department of patients with acute toxicity related to the use of mephedrone demonstrated that there was a peak in presentations prior to and a significant fall in presentations following the control of mephedrone. This suggests that the control of mephedrone in the United Kingdom may have been effective in reducing the acute harm associated with the drug.

  13. Mapping Investments and Published Outputs in Norovirus Research: A Systematic Analysis of Research Funded in the United States and United Kingdom During 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Lichtman, Amos B; Soyode, Damilola T; Harris, Jennifer N; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    Norovirus accounts for a considerable portion of the global disease burden. Mapping national or international investments relating to norovirus research is limited. We analyzed the focus and type of norovirus research funding awarded to institutions in the United States and United Kingdom during 1997-2013. Data were obtained from key public and philanthropic funders across both countries, and norovirus-related research was identified from study titles and abstracts. Included studies were further categorized by the type of scientific investigation, and awards related to vaccine, diagnostic, and therapeutic research were identified. Norovirus publication trends are also described using data from Scopus. In total, US and United Kingdom funding investment for norovirus research was £97.6 million across 349 awards; 326 awards (amount, £84.9 million) were received by US institutions, and 23 awards (£12.6 million) were received by United Kingdom institutions. Combined, £81.2 million of the funding (83.2%) was for preclinical research, and £16.4 million (16.8%) was for translational science. Investments increased from £1.7 million in 1997 to £11.8 million in 2013. Publication trends showed a consistent temporal increase from 48 in 1997 to 182 in 2013. Despite increases over time, trends in US and United Kingdom funding for norovirus research clearly demonstrate insufficient translational research and limited investment in diagnostics, therapeutics, or vaccine research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Predicting mortality in incident dialysis patients: an analysis of the United Kingdom Renal Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Ansell, David; Kent, David M; Griffith, John L; Naimark, David; Wanner, Christoph; Tangri, Navdeep

    2011-06-01

    The risk of death in dialysis patients is high, but varies significantly among patients. No prediction tool is used widely in current clinical practice. We aimed to predict long-term mortality in incident dialysis patients using easily obtainable variables. Prospective nationwide multicenter cohort study in the United Kingdom (UK Renal Registry); models were developed using Cox proportional hazards. Patients initiating hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis therapy in 2002-2004 who survived at least 3 months on dialysis treatment were followed up for 3 years. Analyses were restricted to participants for whom information for comorbid conditions and laboratory measurements were available (n = 5,447). The data set was divided into data sets for model development (n = 3,631; training) and validation (n = 1,816) using random selection. Basic patient characteristics, comorbid conditions, and laboratory variables. All-cause mortality censored for kidney transplant, recovery of kidney function, and loss to follow-up. In the training data set, 1,078 patients (29.7%) died within the observation period. The final model for the training data set included patient characteristics (age, race, primary kidney disease, and treatment modality), comorbid conditions (diabetes, history of cardiovascular disease, and smoking), and laboratory variables (hemoglobin, serum albumin, creatinine, and calcium levels); reached a C statistic of 0.75 (95% CI, 0.73-0.77); and could discriminate accurately among patients with low (6%), intermediate (19%), high (33%), and very high (59%) mortality risk. The model was applied further to the validation data set and achieved a C statistic of 0.73 (95% CI, 0.71-0.76). Number of missing comorbidity data and lack of an external validation data set. Basic patient characteristics, comorbid conditions, and laboratory variables can predict 3-year mortality in incident dialysis patients with sufficient accuracy. Identification of subgroups of patients according to

  15. South Asian and Middle Eastern patients' perspectives on medicine-related problems in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhomoud, Faten; Dhillon, Soraya; Aslanpour, Zoe; Smith, Felicity

    2015-08-01

    There has been little research which specifically examines medicine use among South Asian (SA) and Middle Eastern (ME) groups, although evidence suggests that medicine-related needs may be poorly met for these groups. To describe medicine-related problems (MRPs) experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identify possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. The data were collected in seven pharmacies in London, United Kingdom (UK). The study was a qualitative study. Patients were from SA and ME origins, aged over 18 and prescribed three or more regular medicines. Patients were identified when presenting with a prescription. The data were collected in 80 face-to-face semi-structured interviews using Gordon's MRPs tool. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using Gordon's coding frame and Nvivo 10 software. Describing MRPs experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identifying possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. Results Eighty participants (61 % male) had mean (SD) age 58 (13.4) years and a mean (SD) of 8 (4) medicines. Interviews revealed that several factors contributed to the development of MRPs; some appeared to be specific to SA and ME cultures and others were similar to the general population. The factors that were reported to be specific to SA and ME groups comprised religious practices and beliefs, use of non-prescription medicines, extent of family support, and travelling abroad--to patient's homeland or to take religious journeys. Illiteracy, language and communication barriers, lack of translated resources, perceptions of healthcare providers, and difficulty consulting a doctor of the same gender may also contribute to the problems. Many of these factors could be expected to influence patient's safety, adherence, and informed decision-making. This study demonstrated that SA and ME patients have their own problems and needs

  16. High-frequency urban measurements of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grant

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen (H2 and carbon monoxide (CO were made at an urban site in the United Kingdom (UK from mid-December, 2008 until early March, 2009. Very few measurements of H2 exist in the urban environment, particularly within the UK, but are an essential component in the assessment of anthropogenic emissions of H2 and to a certain extent CO. These data provide detailed information on urban time-series, diurnal cycles as well as sources and sinks of both H2 and CO at urban locations. High-frequency data were found to be strongly influenced by local meteorological conditions of wind speed and temperature. Diurnal cycles were found to follow transport frequency very closely due to the sites proximity to major carriageways, consequently a strong correlation was found between H2 and CO mole fractions. Background subtracted mean and rush hour molar H2/CO emission ratios of 0.53±0.08 and 0.57±0.06 respectively, were calculated from linear fitting of data. The scatter plot of all H2 and CO data displayed an unusual two population pattern, thought to be associated with a large industrial area 85 km to the west of the site. However, the definitive source of this two branch pattern could not be fully elucidated. H2 emissions from transport in the UK were estimated to be 188±39 Gg H2/yr, with 8.1±2.3 Tg/yr of H2 produced from vehicle emissions globally. H2 and CO deposition velocities were calculated during stable night-time inversion events when a clear decay of both species was observed. CO was found to have a much higher deposition velocity than H2, 1.3±0.8×10−3 and 2.2±1.5×10−4 m s−1 (1σ respectively, going against the law of molecular diffusivity. The source of this unusual result was investigated, however no conclusive

  17. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Xeroderma Pigmentosum: A Perspective from the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Rongxuan; Sethi, Mieran; Morley, Ana M S

    2017-05-26

    To document the ocular manifestations of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), presenting via the United Kingdom (UK) XP service, and to analyze the correlations between XP genotype and ophthalmic phenotype. Prospective observational case series. Eighty-nine patients seen by the UK Nationally Commissioned XP Service, from April 2010 to December 2014, with a genetically confirmed diagnosis of XP. Patients underwent a full ophthalmic examination at each visit. Clinical features from both eyes were recorded on a standard proforma. The most recent assessments were analyzed. A 2-tailed Fisher exact test was used to assess for differences in ocular features between patients in XP subgroups with impaired transcription coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER) (category 1: XP-A, B, D, F, and G) and preserved TC-NER (category 2: XP-C, E, and V). Lid and periocular abnormalities, ocular surface pathologies, neuro-ophthalmologic abnormalities, lens and retinal abnormalities, and visual acuity (VA). Ninety-three percent of XP patients in our cohort had ocular involvement, with 65% describing photophobia. The most common abnormalities were in the periocular skin and ocular surface, including interpalpebral conjunctival melanosis (44%) and conjunctival injection (43%). Eleven percent of patients had required treatment for periocular cancers and 2% for ocular surface cancers. The most common neuro-ophthalmologic finding was minimal pupillary reaction to light (25%). Patients in category 2 had significantly more ocular surface abnormalities than patients in category 1, including a greater proportion of conjunctival injection (P = 0.003), conjunctival corkscrew vessels (P surface signs related to XP, before any formal diagnosis of XP was made. A large proportion of XP patients have ocular involvement. Regular examination by an ophthalmologist is essential, especially in screening for eyelid and ocular surface tumors. The ocular phenotype-genotype segregation within XP patients suggests

  18. Effect of psoriasis severity on hypertension control: a population-based study in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Junko; Wang, Shuwei; Shin, Daniel B; Mehta, Nehal N; Kimmel, Stephen E; Margolis, David J; Troxel, Andrea B; Gelfand, Joel M

    2015-02-01

    Hypertension is prevalent among patients with psoriasis. The effect of psoriasis and its severity on hypertension control is unknown. To determine the association between uncontrolled blood pressure and psoriasis, both overall and according to objectively measured psoriasis severity, among patients with diagnosed hypertension. Population-based cross-sectional study nested in a prospective cohort drawn from The Health Improvement Network (THIN), an electronic medical records database broadly representative of the general population in the United Kingdom. The study population included a random sample of patients with psoriasis (n = 1322) between the ages of 25 and 64 years in THIN who were included in the Incident Health Outcomes and Psoriasis Events prospective cohort and their age- and practice-matched controls without psoriasis (n = 11,977). All included patients had a diagnosis of hypertension; their psoriasis diagnosis was confirmed and disease severity was classified by their general practitioners. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as a systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or a diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher based on the blood pressure recorded closest in time to the assessment of psoriasis severity. There was a significant positive dose-response relationship between uncontrolled hypertension and psoriasis severity as objectively determined by the affected body surface area in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses that controlled for age, sex, body mass index, smoking and alcohol use status, presence of comorbid conditions, and current use of antihypertensive medications and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.97; 95% CI, 0.82-1.14 for mild psoriasis; aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.99-1.45 for moderate psoriasis; and aOR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.08-2.04 for severe psoriasis; P = .01 for trend). The likelihood of uncontrolled hypertension among psoriasis overall was also increased, although not statistically

  19. Care of children at a large outdoor music festival in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Carl P

    2010-01-01

    Limited data exist on the standard of care provided for children at mass gatherings and special events (MGSE). Some studies provide valuable insight into the proportion of pediatric patients that can be expected at various types of MGSEs, but an accurate breakdown of the range of pediatric conditions treated at major events has yet to be produced. Such data are essential for the preparation of MGSEs so that the health and safety of children at such events can be adequately safeguarded. The aim of this study is to examine the care requirements for children at a large, outdoor music festival in the United Kingdom. A retrospective review of all patient report forms (PRFs) from a large, outdoor music festival held in Leeds (UK) in 2003. Data were extracted from the PRFs using a standardized proforma and analyzed using an Excel computer program. Pediatric cases contributed approximately 15% to the overall workload at the event. Children presented with a range of conditions that varied from those seen in the adult population. Children were more likely than adults to present for medical attention following crush injuries (OR = 2.536; 95% CI = 1.537-4.187); after a collapse/syncopal episode (OR = 2.687; 95% CI = 1.442-5.007); or complaining of nausea (OR = 3.484; 95% CI = 2.089-5.813). Alcohol/drugs were less likely to be involved in the precipitating cause for medical attention in children compared to adults (OR = 0.477; 95% CI = 0.250-0.912). No critical care incidents involving children were encountered during the event. Mass gatherings and special events in the UK, such as outdoor music festivals, can involve a large number of children who access medical care for a different range of conditions compared to adults. The care of children at large, outdoor music events should not be overlooked. Event planning in the UK should include measures to ensure that appropriately trained and equipped medical teams are used at music festivals to safeguard the welfare of children who

  20. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeeking, G. R.; Morgan, W. T.; Flynn, M.; Highwood, E. J.; Turnbull, K.; Haywood, J.; Coe, H.

    2011-09-01

    Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2) measurements of refractory BC (rBC) mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM). We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA). We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx) ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA) did change for different air masses, with lower SSA

  1. Black carbon aerosol mixing state, organic aerosols and aerosol optical properties over the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. McMeeking

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC aerosols absorb sunlight thereby leading to a positive radiative forcing and a warming of climate and can also impact human health through their impact on the respiratory system. The state of mixing of BC with other aerosol species, particularly the degree of internal/external mixing, has been highlighted as a major uncertainty in assessing its radiative forcing and hence its climate impact, but few in situ observations of mixing state exist. We present airborne single particle soot photometer (SP2 measurements of refractory BC (rBC mass concentrations and mixing state coupled with aerosol composition and optical properties measured in urban plumes and regional pollution over the United Kingdom. All data were obtained using instrumentation flown on the UK's BAe-146-301 large Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA operated by the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM. We measured sub-micron aerosol composition using an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS and used positive matrix factorization to separate hydrocarbon-like (HOA and oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA. We found a higher number fraction of thickly coated rBC particles in air masses with large OOA relative to HOA, higher ozone-to-nitrogen oxides (NOx ratios and large concentrations of total sub-micron aerosol mass relative to rBC mass concentrations. The more ozone- and OOA-rich air masses were associated with transport from continental Europe, while plumes from UK cities had higher HOA and NOx and fewer thickly coated rBC particles. We did not observe any significant change in the rBC mass absorption efficiency calculated from rBC mass and light absorption coefficients measured by a particle soot absorption photometer despite observing significant changes in aerosol composition and rBC mixing state. The contributions of light scattering and absorption to total extinction (quantified by the single scattering albedo; SSA did change for

  2. Current Status of the United Kingdom Programme for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C. H.; Hooper, A. J.; Mathieson, J.

    2002-02-27

    In 1997, the UK programme for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was ''stopped dead in its tracks'' with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nirex to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield in north-west England. Since that time a House of Lords' Select Committee has held an inquiry into what went wrong and what the way ahead should be. In addition, Nirex and the nuclear industry players have also been analyzing the past with a view to learning from the experience in taking things forward. In Nirex's view this is essentially an ethical issue; the waste exists and we should deal with it in this generation. Three areas need to be better addressed if a successful program of management of the nation's radioactive waste is to be achieved: the process of how policy development and implementation can be achieved; the structure of the nuclear industry and its relationship to the waste management organization; and the behavior of the players in their interaction with stakeholders. All three are underpinned by the need for transparency. In recognition that developing a policy for managing radioactive waste has to be achieved with the support of all stakeholders, the Government instigated a consultation exercise in September 2001. The initial phase of this initiative is essentially a consultation about consultation and is intended to decide on how the next stages of a six year policy development program should be addressed. In addition to this exercise, the Government is undertaking a fundamental review of the structuring of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). They are both shareholders in Nirex and in November 2001 the Government announced the setting up of a Liabilities Management Authority (LMA) to manage the long-term nuclear liabilities that are publicly owned, particularly through those organizations

  3. Identification of two independent risk factors for lupus within the MHC in United Kingdom families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M A Fernando

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The association of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC with SLE is well established yet the causal variants arising from this region remain to be identified, largely due to inadequate study design and the strong linkage disequilibrium demonstrated by genes across this locus. The majority of studies thus far have identified strong association with classical class II alleles, in particular HLA-DRB1*0301 and HLA-DRB1*1501. Additional associations have been reported with class III alleles; specifically, complement C4 null alleles and a tumor necrosis factor promoter SNP (TNF-308G/A. However, the relative effects of these class II and class III variants have not been determined. We have thus used a family-based approach to map association signals across the MHC class II and class III regions in a cohort of 314 complete United Kingdom Caucasian SLE trios by typing tagging SNPs together with classical typing of the HLA-DRB1 locus. Using TDT and conditional regression analyses, we have demonstrated the presence of two distinct and independent association signals in SLE: HLA-DRB1*0301 (nominal p = 4.9 x 10(-8, permuted p < 0.0001, OR = 2.3 and the T allele of SNP rs419788 (nominal p = 4.3 x 10(-8, permuted p < 0.0001, OR = 2.0 in intron 6 of the class III region gene SKIV2L. Assessment of genotypic risk demonstrates a likely dominant model of inheritance for HLA-DRB1*0301, while rs419788-T confers susceptibility in an additive manner. Furthermore, by comparing transmitted and untransmitted parental chromosomes, we have delimited our class II signal to a 180 kb region encompassing the alleles HLA-DRB1*0301-HLA-DQA1*0501-HLA-DQB1*0201 alone. Our class III signal importantly excludes independent association at the TNF promoter polymorphism, TNF-308G/A, in our SLE cohort and provides a potentially novel locus for future genetic and functional studies.

  4. Prevalence and treatment of isolated and concurrent hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Thomas M; Morant, Steven V

    2008-05-01

    needs to be done to improve the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia and concurrent hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia in the United Kingdom.

  5. Current Status of the United Kingdom Programme for Long-Term Radioactive Waste Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, C. H.; Hooper, A. J.; Mathieson, J.

    2002-02-27

    In 1997, the UK programme for the deep disposal of radioactive waste was ''stopped dead in its tracks'' with the refusal by the Secretary of State for the Environment to allow Nirex to go ahead with its plans for an underground Rock Characterisation Facility at Sellafield in north-west England. Since that time a House of Lords' Select Committee has held an inquiry into what went wrong and what the way ahead should be. In addition, Nirex and the nuclear industry players have also been analyzing the past with a view to learning from the experience in taking things forward. In Nirex's view this is essentially an ethical issue; the waste exists and we should deal with it in this generation. Three areas need to be better addressed if a successful program of management of the nation's radioactive waste is to be achieved: the process of how policy development and implementation can be achieved; the structure of the nuclear industry and its relationship to the waste management organization; and the behavior of the players in their interaction with stakeholders. All three are underpinned by the need for transparency. In recognition that developing a policy for managing radioactive waste has to be achieved with the support of all stakeholders, the Government instigated a consultation exercise in September 2001. The initial phase of this initiative is essentially a consultation about consultation and is intended to decide on how the next stages of a six year policy development program should be addressed. In addition to this exercise, the Government is undertaking a fundamental review of the structuring of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL). They are both shareholders in Nirex and in November 2001 the Government announced the setting up of a Liabilities Management Authority (LMA) to manage the long-term nuclear liabilities that are publicly owned, particularly through those organizations

  6. Beryllium Exposure Control Program at the Cardiff Atomic Weapons Establishment in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J S; Foote, K; McClean, M; Cogbill, G

    2001-05-01

    The Cardiff Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) plant, located in Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom, used metallic beryllium in their beryllium facility during the years of operation 1961-1997. The beryllium production processes included melting and casting, powder production, pressing, machining, and heat and surface treatments. As part of Cardiff's industrial hygiene program, extensive area measurements and personal lapel measurements of airborne beryllium concentrations were collected for Cardiff workers over the 36-year period of operation. In addition to extensive air monitoring, the beryllium control program also utilized surface contamination controls, building design, engineering controls, worker controls, material controls, and medical surveillance. The electronic database includes 367,757 area sampling records at 101 locations and 217,681 personal lapel sampling records collected from 194 employees over the period 1981-1997. Similar workplace samples were collected from 1961 to 1980, but they were not analyzed because they were not available electronically. Annual personal mean sampling concentrations for all workers ranged from 0.11 to 0.72 micrograms per cubic meter (microg/m3) with 95th percentiles ranging from 0.22 to 1.89 microg/m3; foundry workers worked in the highest concentration areas with a mean of 0.87 microg/m3 and a 95th percentile of 2.9 microg/m3. Area sampling concentrations, as expected, were lower than personal sampling concentrations. Mean annual area sample concentrations for all locations ranged from 0.02 to 0.32 microg/m3. The area sample 95th percentile concentrations for all years were below 0.5 microg/m3. For the overwhelming majority of samples, airborne beryllium concentrations were below the 2.0 microg/m3 standard. Although blood lymphocyte testing for beryllium sensitization has not been routinely conducted among these workers, this metal beryllium processing facility is the only large scale beryllium facility of its kind to have

  7. Assessment of the Microbiological Safety of Precut Fruit from Retail and Catering Premises in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Caroline; McLauchlin, Jim; Amar, Corinne; Sadler-Reeves, Lorraine; Elviss, Nicola; Aird, Heather; Fox, Andrew; Kaye, Moira

    2016-04-01

    Fresh fruit has been associated with a number of foodborne outbreaks in recent years. In particular, a large outbreak of listeriosis in the United States in 2011 was associated with consumption of cantaloupe melon, and an outbreak of Salmonella Newport in the United Kingdom and Europe (also in 2011) was linked to watermelon consumption. A study of precut fruit products from catering and retail premises in the United Kingdom was, therefore, carried out to assess their microbiological safety. Between January and March 2012, samples (1,188) of ready-to-eat precut fruit were collected from retail and catering premises in the United Kingdom, and 99% were of satisfactory microbiological quality. However, four samples (0.3%) were of an unsatisfactory quality (one with 800 CFU/g Listeria monocytogenes and three with >100 CFU/g Escherichia coli), and five samples (0.4%) were of a borderline quality owing to the presence of E. coli (two samples with a level of 20 CFU/g), Staphylococcus aureus (two samples with levels of >50 CFU/g), or L. monocytogenes (one sample with a level of 80 CFU/g). L. monocytogenes or other Listeria species were detected in a further 54 samples (4.5%) at levels below the threshold considered to be borderline or unsatisfactory. A significantly larger proportion of samples from one national supermarket chain was contaminated with L. monocytogenes than other supermarkets, and two types were, in this study, unique to this supermarket. This study shows that overall, the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat precut fruit was good. However, the presence of Listeria species in 5% of samples highlights the need for good hygiene during preparation and satisfactory temperature and time control during storage of these food products.

  8. Use of Silk Road, the online drug marketplace, in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Winstock, Adam R

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence of awareness of the online illicit drug marketplace Silk Road (SR), consumption of drugs purchased from SR and reasons for use and non-use of SR. Global Drug Survey: purposive sample collected in late 2012. The base sample (n = 9470) reported recent drug purchase and resided in the United Kingdom (n = 4315, median age 24, 76% male), Australia (n = 2761, median age 32, 76% male) or the United States (n = 2394, median age 21, 80% male). Online questionnaire. A total of 65% of US, 53% of Australian and 40% of UK respondents had heard of SR; 18% of US, 10% of UK and 7% of Australian respondents had consumed drugs purchased through SR. Across the three countries, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) was the most commonly purchased drug (53-60%), followed by cannabis (34-51%), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) (29-45%) and the 2C family (16%-27%). The most common reasons for purchasing from SR were wider range (75-89%), better quality (72-77%), greater convenience (67-69%) and the use of vendor rating systems (60-65%). The most common reasons for avoiding SR purchase were adequate drug access (63-68%) and fear of being caught (41-53%). Logistic regressions found that, compared with people from the UK, Australians [odds ratio (OR) = 3.37; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.29, 4.97) and Americans (OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.94) were more likely to use SR due to lower prices; and to avoid SR purchase due to fear of being caught (Australia: OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.39, 1.96; USA: OR = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.37, 1.92). While reasons for Silk Road use accord with broader online commerce trends (range, quality, convenience, ratings), its appeal to drug purchasers is moderated by country-specific deterrents and market characteristics. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Joseph S. Weiner and the foundation of post-WW II human biology in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Michael A; Collins, Kenneth J

    2012-01-01

    Both the United States and the United Kingdom experienced a transformation in the science of physical anthropology from the period before World War II until the post-war period. In the United States, Sherwood L. Washburn is credited with being a leading figure in this transformation. In the United Kingdom, two individuals were instrumental in bringing about a similar change in the profession. These were Joseph S. Weiner at the University of Oxford and Nigel Barnicot at the University of London, with Weiner playing the principal role as leader in what Washburn called the "New Physical Anthropology," that is, the application of evolutionary theory, the de-emphasis on race classification, and the application of the scientific method and experimental approaches to problem solving. Weiner's contributions to physical anthropology were broad-based--climatic and work physiology, paleoanthropology, and human variation--in what became known as human biology in the U.K. and human adaptability internationally. This biographical essay provides evidence for the significant influence of J.S. Weiner on the post-war development of human biology (biological or physical anthropology) inthe U.K.

  10. "Googling" for Cancer: An Infodemiological Assessment of Online Search Interests in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Forough; Lam, Alfred K-Y; Lim, Megan S C; Saremi, Nassim; Ahmadvand, Alireza

    2016-05-04

    The infodemiological analysis of queries from search engines to shed light on the status of various noncommunicable diseases has gained increasing popularity in recent years. The aim of the study was to determine the international perspective on the distribution of information seeking in Google regarding "cancer" in major English-speaking countries. We used Google Trends service to assess people's interest in searching about "Cancer" classified as "Disease," from January 2004 to December 2015 in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Then, we evaluated top cities and their relative search volumes (SVs) and country-specific "Top searches" and "Rising searches." We also evaluated the cross-country correlations of SVs for cancer, as well as rank correlations of SVs from 2010 to 2014 with the incidence of cancer in 2012 in the abovementioned countries. From 2004 to 2015, the United States (relative SV [from 100]: 63), Canada (62), and Australia (61) were the top countries searching for cancer in Google, followed by New Zealand (54) and the United Kingdom (48). There was a consistent seasonality pattern in searching for cancer in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Baltimore (United States), St John's (Canada), Sydney (Australia), Otaika (New Zealand), and Saint Albans (United Kingdom) had the highest search interest in their corresponding countries. "Breast cancer" was the cancer entity that consistently appeared high in the list of top searches in all 5 countries. The "Rising searches" were "pancreatic cancer" in Canada and "ovarian cancer" in New Zealand. Cross-correlation of SVs was strong between the United States, Canada, and Australia (>.70, P<.01). Cancer maintained its popularity as a search term for people in the United States, Canada, and Australia, comparably higher than New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The increased interest in searching for keywords related to cancer shows the possible effectiveness

  11. Caprine prion gene polymorphisms are associated with decreased incidence of classical scrapie in goat herds in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldmann Wilfred

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats from the United Kingdom and studied the association of Prnp alleles with disease phenotypes in 150 scrapie-positive goats. This investigation confirms the association of the Met142 encoding Prnp allele with increased resistance to preclinical and clinical scrapie. It reveals a novel association of the Ser127 encoding allele with a reduced probability to develop clinical signs of scrapie in goats that are already positive for the accumulation of disease-specific prion protein in brain or periphery. A United Kingdom survey of Prnp genotypes in eight common breeds revealed eleven alleles in over thirty genotypes. The Met142 encoding allele had a high overall mean allele frequency of 22.6%, whereas the Ser127 encoding allele frequency was considerably lower with 6.4%. In contrast, a well known resistance associated allele encoding Lys222 was found to be rare (0.9% in this survey. The analysis of Prnp genotypes in Mexican Criollas goats revealed nine alleles, including a novel Phe to Leu substitution in codon 201, confirming that high genetic variability of Prnp can be found in scrapie-free populations. Our study implies that it should be feasible to lower scrapie prevalence in goat herds in the United Kingdom by genetic selection.

  12. Caprine prion gene polymorphisms are associated with decreased incidence of classical scrapie in goat herds in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Wilfred; Ryan, Kelly; Stewart, Paula; Parnham, David; Xicohtencatl, Rosa; Fernandez, Nora; Saunders, Ginny; Windl, Otto; González, Lorenzo; Bossers, Alex; Foster, James

    2011-10-31

    The application of genetic breeding programmes to eradicate transmissible spongiform encephalopathies in goats is an important aim for reasons of animal welfare as well as human food safety and food security. Based on the positive impact of Prnp genetics on sheep scrapie in Europe in the past decade, we have established caprine Prnp gene variation in more than 1100 goats from the United Kingdom and studied the association of Prnp alleles with disease phenotypes in 150 scrapie-positive goats. This investigation confirms the association of the Met142 encoding Prnp allele with increased resistance to preclinical and clinical scrapie. It reveals a novel association of the Ser127 encoding allele with a reduced probability to develop clinical signs of scrapie in goats that are already positive for the accumulation of disease-specific prion protein in brain or periphery. A United Kingdom survey of Prnp genotypes in eight common breeds revealed eleven alleles in over thirty genotypes. The Met142 encoding allele had a high overall mean allele frequency of 22.6%, whereas the Ser127 encoding allele frequency was considerably lower with 6.4%. In contrast, a well known resistance associated allele encoding Lys222 was found to be rare (0.9%) in this survey. The analysis of Prnp genotypes in Mexican Criollas goats revealed nine alleles, including a novel Phe to Leu substitution in codon 201, confirming that high genetic variability of Prnp can be found in scrapie-free populations. Our study implies that it should be feasible to lower scrapie prevalence in goat herds in the United Kingdom by genetic selection.

  13. Environmental assessment: Transfer of normal and low-enriched uranium billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Under the auspices of an agreement between the U.S. and the United Kingdom, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an opportunity to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium (LEU) to the United Kingdom; thus, reducing long-term surveillance and maintenance burdens at the Hanford Site. The material, in the form of billets, is controlled by DOE`s Defense Programs, and is presently stored as surplus material in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The United Kingdom has expressed a need for the billets. The surplus uranium billets are currently stored in wooden shipping containers in secured facilities in the 300 Area at the Hanford Site (the 303-B and 303-G storage facilities). There are 482 billets at an enrichment level (based on uranium-235 content) of 0.71 weight-percent. This enrichment level is normal uranium; that is, uranium having 0.711 as the percentage by weight of uranium-235 as occurring in nature. There are 3,242 billets at an enrichment level of 0.95 weight-percent (i.e., low-enriched uranium). This inventory represents a total of approximately 532 curies. The facilities are routinely monitored. The dose rate on contact of a uranium billet is approximately 8 millirem per hour. The dose rate on contact of a wooden shipping container containing 4 billets is approximately 4 millirem per hour. The dose rate at the exterior of the storage facilities is indistinguishable from background levels.

  14. Environmental assessment: Transfer of normal and low-enriched uranium billets to the United Kingdom, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    Under the auspices of an agreement between the U.S. and the United Kingdom, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an opportunity to transfer approximately 710,000 kilograms (1,562,000 pounds) of unneeded normal and low-enriched uranium (LEU) to the United Kingdom; thus, reducing long-term surveillance and maintenance burdens at the Hanford Site. The material, in the form of billets, is controlled by DOE`s Defense Programs, and is presently stored as surplus material in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The United Kingdom has expressed a need for the billets. The surplus uranium billets are currently stored in wooden shipping containers in secured facilities in the 300 Area at the Hanford Site (the 303-B and 303-G storage facilities). There are 482 billets at an enrichment level (based on uranium-235 content) of 0.71 weight-percent. This enrichment level is normal uranium; that is, uranium having 0.711 as the percentage by weight of uranium-235 as occurring in nature. There are 3,242 billets at an enrichment level of 0.95 weight-percent (i.e., low-enriched uranium). This inventory represents a total of approximately 532 curies. The facilities are routinely monitored. The dose rate on contact of a uranium billet is approximately 8 millirem per hour. The dose rate on contact of a wooden shipping container containing 4 billets is approximately 4 millirem per hour. The dose rate at the exterior of the storage facilities is indistinguishable from background levels.

  15. The micro-generation installations in the United Kingdom; Les installations de microgeneration au Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierry, X

    2007-02-15

    In the framework of the greenhouse effect gases emission fight, the United Kingdom decided to favor the development of the renewable energies and the energy efficiency. As the buildings represents 50% of the energy consumption, it was fundamental to implement programs aiming the energy control in buildings. In the possible solutions the use of microsystems of energy production is poorly represented. So the government is developing measures and research programs to promote an efficient use of the micro-generation. The document presents this program. (A.L.B.)

  16. Analytical methods used in the United Kingdom Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme for the detection of animal poisoning by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter M; Turnbull, Gordon; Charman, Sheonaidh; Charlton, Andrew J A; Jones, Ainsley

    2005-01-01

    The United Kingdom Wildlife Incident Investigation Scheme (WIIS) investigates cases of suspected poisoning of wildlife, honey bees, and companion animals by pesticides. Together with field inquiries and veterinary post-mortem examinations, the analytical procedures presented here provide a comprehensive approach to the investigation of these cases. The paper covers selection of animal tissues for analysis and methods suitable for the analysis of honey bees and for various types of bait. Seven multiresidue methods cover around 130 pesticides, and methods are also described for a further 8 compounds. These methods are currently used on samples submitted to the Scheme in England and Wales.

  17. Fraud in scientific research – birth of the Concordat to uphold research integrity in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajuria, Ankur; Agha, Riaz

    2014-01-01

    Fraud in research has risen exponentially and recent high profile cases may just be the tip of the iceberg. This threatens to have a major impact on public health, with policy makers and clinicians acting on erroneous data. To address this, the new research “Concordat”, a consensus statement on research misconduct, has been published. Can it hold the key to rebuilding public confidence in scientific research in the United Kingdom? This review focuses on the concept of research misconduct, highlighting prominent cases and discussing strategies in order to restore confidence in the validity of scientific research. PMID:24262890

  18. Use of antiviral drugs to reduce household transmission of pandemic (H1N1) 2009, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebody, Richard G; Harris, Ross; Kafatos, George; Chamberland, Mary; Campbell, Colin; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; McLean, Estelle; Andrews, Nick; White, Peter J; Wynne-Evans, Edward; Green, Jon; Ellis, Joanna; Wreghitt, Tim; Bracebridge, Sam; Ihekweazu, Chikwe; Oliver, Isabel; Smith, Gillian; Hawkins, Colin; Salmon, Roland; Smyth, Bryan; McMenamin, Jim; Zambon, Maria; Phin, Nick; Watson, John M

    2011-06-01

    The United Kingdom implemented a containment strategy for pandemic (H1N1) 2009 through administering antiviral agents (AVs) to patients and their close contacts. This observational household cohort study describes the effect of AVs on household transmission. We followed 285 confirmed primary cases in 259 households with 761 contacts. At 2 weeks, the confirmed secondary attack rate (SAR) was 8.1% (62/761) and significantly higher in persons 50 years of age (18.9% vs. 1.2%, psecondary case-patients, 45 had not received AV prophylaxis. The effectiveness of AV prophylaxis in preventing infection was 92%.

  19. Identification and management of women with inherited bleeding disorders: a survey of obstetricians and gynaecologists in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, C; Shiltagh, N; Kingman, C E C; Economides, D L; Lee, C A; Kadir, R A

    2006-07-01

    A mail survey of members and fellows of Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists was carried out to determine current practices of obstetricians and gynaecologists in the United Kingdom in the management of women with inherited bleeding disorders. In total, 3929 questionnaires were sent, 707 returned and analysis was limited to 545 valid questionnaires. In the past 5 years, 91% have managed women with inherited bleeding disorders. The majority (83%) considered inherited bleeding disorders to be under diagnosed in obstetrics and gynaecology. More than 80% considered the prevalence of von Willebrand's disease (VWD) to be management guidelines are essential in minimizing haemorrhagic complications and improving quality of care of these women.

  20. Consumer access to clozapine in Australia: how does this compare to New Zealand and the United Kingdom?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knowles SA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clozapine is an antipsychotic medication used in treatment resistant schizophrenia. However, clozapine is associated with a significant adverse effect profile and extensive monitoring is required to optimise consumer safety. Traditionally, clozapine can only be prescribed by a psychiatrist and dispensed at a hospital or hospital affiliated pharmacy in Australia. These restrictions could result in significant treatment burden for consumers taking clozapine. Objective: To identify (1 the different models of supply that exist for people living in the community taking clozapine in Australia and compare to those in New Zealand and the United Kingdom, and (2 explore how these supply models may impact on consumer burden from the perspective of professionals involved in the supply of clozapine. Method: Key informants were interviewed (n=8 from Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom regarding how consumers, who lived in the community, accessed clozapine. Data were analysed and led to the development of four clozapine supply models. These four models were further validated by an online survey of a wider sample (n=30. Data were analysed thematically and via simple descriptive statistics. Results: Clozapine supply varied depending on location. A secondary care model was utilised in the United Kingdom compared to a community based (primary care model in New Zealand; Australia utilised a mixture of both secondary and primary care. A key theme from all study participants was that community pharmacy should be utilised to dispense clozapine to consumers living in the community, provided adequate training and safeguards are in place. It was noted that the utilisation of community pharmacies could improve access and flexibility, thereby reducing treatment burden for these consumers. Conclusion: There are predominately two models for supply of clozapine to consumers living in the community in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. One

  1. The Development Strategies for the Management Models of the Electronic Documents and Records in the United States, United Kingdom and Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Yen Lin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The trend toward electronic government has espoused a large quantity of electronic records, which challenge the existing records management models in the modern countries. This paper describes and compares the development and transition toward electronic records management in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia to show how the three advanced countries evolved the government records management practices. The analysis emphasized on the holistic policy initiative perspective and compared the directives and regulations, research and development programs and plans, the emerging structures of governance, staffing and professional training, and risk management provisions. The comparison may shed lights on the government electronic management in the other countries. [Article content in Chinese

  2. The beliefs in the inheritance of risk factors for suicide scale (BIRFSS): cross-cultural validation in Estonia, Malaysia, Romania, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin; Loibl, Lisa Mariella; Swami, Viren; Vintilă, Mona; Kõlves, Kairi; Sinniah, Dhachayani; Pillai, Subash Kumar; Ponnusamy, Subramaniam; Sonneck, Gernot; Furnham, Adrian; Lester, David

    2008-12-01

    The genetics of suicide is increasingly recognized and relevant for mental health literacy, but actual beliefs may lag behind current knowledge. We examined such beliefs in student samples (total N = 686) from Estonia, Malaysia, Romania, the United Kingdom, and the United States with the Beliefs in the Inheritance of Risk Factors for Suicide Scale. Cultural effects were small, those of key demographics nil. Several facets of construct validity were demonstrated. Marked differences in perceived plausibility of evidence about the genetics of suicide according to research design, observed in all samples, may be of general interest for investigating lay theories of abnormal behavior and communicating behavioral and psychiatric genetic research findings.

  3. Moderately premature infants at Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in California are discharged home earlier than their peers in Massachusetts and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profit, J; Zupancic, J A F; McCormick, M C; Richardson, D K; Escobar, G J; Tucker, J; Tarnow‐Mordi, W; Parry, G

    2006-01-01

    Objective To compare gestational age at discharge between infants born at 30–34+6 weeks gestational age who were admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in California, Massachusetts, and the United Kingdom. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Fifty four United Kingdom, five California, and five Massachusetts NICUs. Subjects A total of 4359 infants who survived to discharge home after admission to an NICU. Main outcome measures Gestational age at discharge home. Results The mean (SD) postmenstrual age at discharge of the infants in California, Massachusetts, and the United Kingdom were 35.9 (1.3), 36.3 (1.3), and 36.3 (1.9) weeks respectively (p  =  0.001). Compared with the United Kingdom, adjusted discharge of infants occurred 3.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4 to 6.5) days earlier in California, and 0.9 (95% CI −1.2 to 3.0) days earlier in Massachusetts. Conclusions Infants of 30–34+6 weeks gestation at birth admitted and cared for in hospitals in California have a shorter length of stay than those in the United Kingdom. Certain characteristics of the integrated healthcare approach pursued by the health maintenance organisation of the NICUs in California may foster earlier discharge. The California system may provide opportunities for identifying practices for reducing the length of stay of moderately premature infants. PMID:16449257

  4. Groundwater Drought and Recovery: a Case Study from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, D.; McKenzie, A. A.; Bloomfield, J.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the processes leading to the onset, duration and end of hydrological droughts is necessary to help improve the management of stressed or scarce water resources during such periods. In particular, the role and use of groundwater during episodes of drought is crucially important, since groundwater can provide relatively resilient water supplies during early stages of drought but maybe highly susceptible to relatively persistent or sustained droughts. Nevertheless, groundwater is seldom considered in drought analyses, and compared with other types of hydrological drought there have been few studies to date. The few previous studies of groundwater droughts at catchment- and regional-scale have shown that catchment and aquifer characteristics exert a strong influence on the spatio-temporal development of groundwater droughts as water deficit propagates through the terrestrial water cycle. In this context, the relationships between hydrogeological heterogeneity, catchment engineering infrastructure (storage), and decisions related to water resource management during drought events all shape the evolution and consequences of groundwater droughts. Here we examine the evolution of a recent regionally significant two-year drought across the United Kingdom (UK) and use it to investigate these relationships. We identify the drivers, characterise the development and spatio-temporal extent of the groundwater drought. In particular, we focus on the unusually rapid end and recovery from drought during what would normally be a period of groundwater recession. The UK, and in particular southern England, relies extensively on groundwater for public water supply, agricultural and industrial use, as well as for sustaining river flows that are essential to ecosystem health. In normal years relatively consistent rainfall patterns prevail, recharging aquifers over winter when evapotranspiration is minimal. However, by March 2012 large parts of the southern UK had

  5. Mental health curricula at schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom and recent graduates' readiness to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Paul; Taylor, Denise; Branford, Dave

    2013-09-12

    To assess mental health education in the undergraduate pharmacy curricula in the United Kingdom and gauge how well prepared graduates are to manage mental health patients. The authors conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with pharmacy educators and administered an electronic self-administered survey instrument to pharmacy graduates. The mental health conditions of depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Parkinson disease were taught, in detail, by all schools, but more specialized areas of mental health (eg, personality disorder, autism) were generally not taught. Just 5 of 19 schools attempted to teach the broader social aspects of mental health. A third of the schools provided experiential learning opportunities. Graduates and recently registered pharmacists stated that undergraduate education had prepared them adequately with regard to knowledge on conditions and treatment options, but that they were not as well prepared to talk with mental health patients and deal with practical drug management-related issues. The mental health portion of the undergraduate pharmacy curricula in colleges and schools of pharmacy in the United Kingdom is largely theoretical, and pharmacy students have little exposure to mental health patients. Graduates identified an inability to effectively communicate with these patients and manage common drug management-related issues.

  6. The stratigraphy of Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian (Late Jurassic) reservoir sandstones in the Witch Ground Graben, United Kingdom North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harker, S.D. (Elf Enterprise Caledonia Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)); Mantel, K.A. (Narwhal, London (United Kingdom)); Morton, D.J. (Deminex UK Oil Gas Ltd., London (United Kingdom)); Riley, L.A. (Paleo Services, Hertfordshire (United Kingdom))

    1993-10-01

    Oil-bearing Upper Jurassic Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian sandstones of the Sgiath and Piper formations are of major economic importance in the Witch Ground Gaben, United Kingdom North Sea. They form the reservoirs in 14 fields that originally contained 2 billion bbl of oil reserves, including Scott Field, which in 1993 will be the largest producing United Kingdom North Sea oil field to come on stream in more than a decade. The Sgiath and Piper formations represent Late Jurassic transgressive and regressive phases that began with paralic deposition and culminated in a wave-dominated delta system. These phases preceded the major grabel rifting episode (late Kimmeridgian to early Ryazanian) and deposition of the Kimmeridge Clay Formation, the principal source rock of the Witch Ground Graben oil fields. A threefold subdivision of the middle to upper Oxfordian Sgiath Formation is formally proposed, with Scott field well 15/21a-15 as the designated reference well. The basal Skene Member consists of thinly interbedded paralic carbonaceous shales, coals, and sandstones. This is overlain by transgressive marine shales of the Saltire Member. The upper-most Oxfordian Scott Member consists of shallow marine sandstones that prograded to the southwest. The contact of the Sgiath and Piper formations is a basinwide transgressive marine shale (I shale), which can act as an effective barrier to fluid communication between the Sgiath and Piper reservoir sandstones.

  7. Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas in the United Kingdom: Lessons from the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadoo, Annabel, E-mail: aly21@cam.ac.uk [Centre for Sustainable Development, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Gormally, Alexandra [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Cruickshank, Heather [Centre for Sustainable Development, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    Low-carbon off-grid electrification for rural areas is becoming increasingly popular in the United Kingdom. However, many developing countries have been electrifying their rural areas in this way for decades. Case study fieldwork in Nepal and findings from United Kingdom based research will be used to examine how developed nations can learn from the experience of developing countries with regard to the institutional environment and delivery approach adopted in renewable energy off-grid rural electrification. A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance during project development are advised. External coordinators should also engage the community in a mobilization process a priori to help alleviate internal conflicts of interest that could later impede a project. - Highlights: > Development of community renewable energy projects in the UK is commended. > The UK can benefit from the experience of successful programmes in Nepal. > A clearer institutional framework and more direct external assistance is required. > External coordinators should engage the community in a mobilization process.

  8. Social Cultural Influences on Breast Cancer Views and Breast Health Practices Among Chinese Women in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Chenyu; Beaver, Kinta; Campbell, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates for breast cancer have increased significantly among Chinese women, accompanied by low utilization of breast screening and delay in symptom presentation. The aims of this study were to explore (1) views on breast cancer and breast health among Chinese women in the United Kingdom and (2) the potential influence of social and cultural context on views and screening behavior. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 22 Chinese women. Pertinent aspects of Grounded Theory methods, including simultaneous data collection and analysis, constant comparison, and memo writing, were used. Four themes emerged: cultural views on breast cancer, information sources and knowledge, breast screening practice, and views on healthcare services. The theme views on breast cancer had 3 subthemes: a fearful disease, taboo, and fatalism. Aspects of traditional Chinese culture had important influences on Chinese women's views on breast cancer. Self-care formed the most significant strategy to promote health and prevent illness. Although the study found high utilization of breast screening when offered, only 6 women reported breast awareness practices. This study found that traditional beliefs were not the sole determinant of breast health behavior. The way in which breast screening services are offered in the United Kingdom may reduce the significance of cultural views and shape individuals' health behavior. Findings indicate that information on breast awareness should be delivered to this group of women in Chinese by health professionals through Chinese mass media.

  9. Management of concomitant coronary artery disease in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation: the United Kingdom TAVI Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Thomas M; Ludman, Peter; Banya, Winston; DeBelder, Mark; MacCarthy, Philip M; Davies, Simon W; Di Mario, Carlo; Moat, Neil E

    2015-11-15

    The management and impact of concomitant coronary artery disease in patients referred for TAVI remains contentious. We describe the prevalence, clinical impact and management of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients in the United Kingdom TAVI Registry. All-inclusive study of patients undergoing TAVI in the United Kingdom (excluding Northern Ireland) from January 2007 to December 2011. Coronary artery disease at the time of TAVI was demonstrated on invasive angiography. 2588 consecutive patients were entered in the U.K. TAVI Registry. CAD was reported in 1171 pts with left main stem involvement in 12.4% of this cohort (n=145). Most patients were free of chest pain, but limited by dyspnoea (NYHA Class III & IV 81.9%). Angina was however more prevalent in those patients with CAD (pdisease management in an "all-comers" patient population undergoing TAVI demonstrates that whilst often an indicator of significant underlying comorbidity coronary artery disease is not associated with decreased short or long-term survival. The majority of patients with aortic stenosis and concomitant CAD can be managed effectively by TAVI alone. However, the importance of the Heart Team in making decisions on individual patients must not be underestimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparing net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange at adjacent commercial bioenergy and conventional cropping systems in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ross; Brooks, Milo; Evans, Jonathan; Finch, Jon; Rowe, Rebecca; Rylett, Daniel; McNamara, Niall

    2016-04-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to bioenergy plantations represents one option in the national and global effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions whilst meeting future energy demand. Despite an increase in the area of (e.g. perennial) bioenergy crops in the United Kingdom and elsewhere, the biophysical and biogeochemical impacts of large scale conversion of arable and other land cover types to bioenergy cropping systems remain poorly characterised and uncertain. Here, the results of four years of eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) obtained at a commercial farm in Lincolnshire, United Kingdom (UK) are reported. CO2 flux measurements are presented and compared for arable crops (winter wheat, oilseed rape, spring barely) and plantations of the perennial biofuel crops Miscanthus x. giganteus (C4) and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow (Salix sp.,C3). Ecosystem light and temperature response functions were used to analyse and compare temporal trends and spatial variations in NEE across the three land covers. All three crops were net in situ sinks for atmospheric CO2 but were characterised by large temporal and between site variability in NEE. Environmental and biological controls driving the spatial and temporal variations in CO2 exchange processes, as well as the influences of land management, will be analysed and discussed.

  11. Worldwide Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP). United Kingdom Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    sutiected In. (1) Bas &4)0py (ISG) (2) Base Civil B~neing (BCE) (3) FbI2 Depatmnxt (4) Saftey Officer (5) Bioenvimn- fmtalE~ineeing (BE (6) Disater...Wsters Kingdom and local teu- - Control of bllution Act 1974; Washe on Land lations on pesticide - Midstzy of A icutue, Fiheres and Food (MA.F...thozuezin Mizitzy of Agdcutzm, FMuzie and Food Bookh 298 Fartff uitm fenfin acAee fWu~n k~dzxide inple-ntl6 fomutalde 6- zfeimiboa ueca= ddlisiuin umdicdon

  12. Multidisciplinary case management for patients at high risk of hospitalization: comparison of virtual ward models in the United kingdom, United States, and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Geraint; Wright, Lorraine; Vaithianathan, Rhema

    2012-10-01

    Virtual wards are a model for delivering multidisciplinary case management to people who are at high predicted risk of unplanned acute care hospitalization. First introduced in Croydon, England, in 2006, this concept has since been adopted and adapted by health care organizations in other parts of the United Kingdom and internationally. In this article, the authors review the model of virtual wards as originally described-with its twin pillars of (1) using a predictive model to identify people who are at high risk of future emergency hospitalization, and (2) offering these individuals a period of intensive, multidisciplinary preventive care at home using the systems, staffing, and daily routines of a hospital ward. The authors then describe how virtual wards have been modified and implemented in 6 sites in the United Kingdom, United States, and Canada where they are subject to formal evaluation. Like hospital wards, virtual wards vary in terms of patient selection, ward configuration, staff composition, and ward processes. Policy makers and researchers should be aware of these differences when considering the evaluation results of studies investigating the cost-effectiveness of virtual wards.

  13. 'Would you eat cultured meat?': Consumers' reactions and attitude formation in Belgium, Portugal and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Marcu, Afrodita; Rutsaert, Pieter; Gaspar, Rui; Seibt, Beate; Fletcher, Dave; Barnett, Julie

    2015-04-01

    Cultured meat has evolved from an idea and concept into a reality with the August 2013 cultured hamburger tasting in London. Still, how consumers conceive cultured meat is largely an open question. This study addresses consumers' reactions and attitude formation towards cultured meat through analyzing focus group discussions and online deliberations with 179 meat consumers from Belgium, Portugal and the United Kingdom. Initial reactions when learning about cultured meat were underpinned by feelings of disgust and considerations of unnaturalness. Consumers saw few direct personal benefits but they were more open to perceiving global societal benefits relating to the environment and global food security. Both personal and societal risks were framed in terms of uncertainties about safety and health, and possible adverse societal consequences dealing with loss of farming and eating traditions and rural livelihoods. Further reflection pertained to skepticism about 'the inevitable' scientific progress, concern about risk governance and control, and need for regulation and proper labeling.

  14. Job Stress in the United Kingdom: Are Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and Large Enterprises Different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yanqing; Saridakis, George; Blackburn, Robert

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationships between firm size and employees' experience of work stress. We used a matched employer-employee dataset (Workplace Employment Relations Survey 2011) that comprises of 7182 employees from 1210 private organizations in the United Kingdom. Initially, we find that employees in small and medium-sized enterprises experience lower level of overall job stress than those in large enterprises, although the effect disappears when we control for individual and organizational characteristics in the model. We also find that quantitative work overload, job insecurity and poor promotion opportunities, good work relationships and poor communication are strongly associated with job stress in the small and medium-sized enterprises, whereas qualitative work overload, poor job autonomy and employee engagements are more related with larger enterprises. Hence, our estimates show that the association and magnitude of estimated effects differ significantly by enterprise size. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A comparative analysis of how the media in the United Kingdom and India represented the emergence of NDM-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, Vanessa; Washer, Peter; Pett, Philippa; Kakkar, Manish; Abbas, Syed; Raghuvanshi, Bhavna; McKee, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Research papers on New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM-1) provoked considerable but very different media coverage in the United Kingdom (UK) and India. We describe how the media represented this research using qualitative thematic analysis of contemporary coverage by daily newspapers in the UK and India. Fifty-four UK and 187 Indian articles mentioned NDM-1, describing it as the 'new super superbug' resistant to most antibiotics. They emphasised the role of medical tourism to the Indian subcontinent. In both countries, blame was framed abstractly as arising from the general misuse of antibiotics. In India, controversy about using New Delhi to name the organism dominated coverage, with officials seeking to discredit the two studies and media coverage characterised by denial and outrage, developing into theories of conspiracies to undermine tourism. Researchers must seek to anticipate the way that their work may be reported and proactively engage with the media to maximise the public health impact of their findings.

  16. Digital Citizen Participation within Schools in the United Kingdom and Indonesia: An Actor–Network Theory (ANT Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Citizen engagement and participation are a key focus for government and government agencies, and with the advent of Internet technologies questions arise about the role and impact of technology on citizen participation. This paper aims to explore the role of technology in citizen participation within schools. This research used in-depth comparative case studies using examples from two different schools and school systems, one in the United Kingdom and one in Indonesia. The wider school systems are complex and dynamic environments with multiple stakeholders, media, and supporting systems, and the schools operate under geopolitical and social influences. This paper provides a framework, based on Actor-Network Theory (ANT, for capturing e-participation in schools, particularly identifying the influence of technology as a conduit for enabling, engaging, and empowering stakeholders.

  17. Evidence from the UK Zoonoses Action Plan in favour of localised anomalies of Salmonella infection on United Kingdom pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Helen E; Fenton, Sarah E; French, Nigel P; Miller, Alexander J; Cook, Alasdair J C

    2009-05-01

    Salmonella spp. are important food-borne pathogens. Abattoir studies demonstrated that almost a quarter of British finisher pigs might carry Salmonella, which led to the introduction by the British Pig Executive of their Zoonoses Action Plan (ZAP) to monitor the Salmonella status of United Kingdom pig farms by testing meat juice samples using an ELISA system. We used the K-function and approaches from the field of geostatistics to study routine data from ZAP. We demonstrated that there is statistical evidence that geographically localized anomalies of Salmonella infection were present in one of three regions studied. The physical mechanisms underlying this structure remain unclear: spatial structure might be present as a result of shared spatially structured (second-order) or non-spatially structured (first-order) risk factors, transmission processes, or a combination of both. We have demonstrated a way to use routinely collected surveillance data to enhance the knowledge of spatial disease epidemiology.

  18. The Mature Imagination and Consumption Strategies: Age & Generation in the Development of a United Kingdom Baby Boomer Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers have been credited with an essentially ‘youthful’ approach to themselves, to consumption and to life-style. As they enter midlife and older age they are also faced with the challenges of a mature identity. This paper critically examines the strategies that baby boomers in the United Kingdom use to manage identity as they grow older. Specifically, questions concerning attitudes to cohort labels, personal ageing and other generations are compared to the consumption choices that are made in areas considered to be key to an ageing identity, including: appearance, clothing and bodily maintenance. Boomers identify with succeeding rather than preceding generations. While they claim not to be concerned with bodily ageing as such, their strategies are aimed at maintaining a balance between youthful and mature identities. Priority was given to blurring the boundaries between themselves and younger adult generations. The implications for the relationship between adult ageing and patterns of consumption are explored.

  19. Evaluating the Sustainability of a Small-Scale Low-Input Organic Vegetable Supply System in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mads Ville; Kulak, Michal; Smith, Laurence G.

    2014-01-01

    Resource use and environmental impacts of a small-scale low-input organic vegetable supply system in the United Kingdom were assessed by emergy accounting and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The system consisted of a farm with high crop diversity and a related box-scheme distribution system. We...... compared empirical data from this case system with two modeled organic food supply systems representing high-and low-yielding practices for organic vegetable production. Further, these systems were embedded in a supermarket distribution system and they provided the same amount of comparable vegetables...... at the consumers' door as the case system. The on-farm resource use measured in solar equivalent Joules (seJ) was similar for the case system and the high-yielding model system and higher for the low-yielding model system. The distribution phase of the case system was at least three times as resource efficient...

  20. Breast cancer in ethnic minority groups in developed nations: Case studies of the United Kingdom and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Meagan

    2017-05-01

    Recent research from the United Kingdom (UK) has highlighted some of the differences in breast cancer presentations between women of different ethnic groups. Analysis of a large database showed that Black women of African or Caribbean heritage living in England and Wales are more likely to present with stage 3 or 4 cancer than White British women and less likely to have their cancer detected through screening. In many countries around the world, migrant and cultural minority groups experience social and economic disadvantage and this is reflected in their health outcomes. With world migration at record levels, it is timely to reflect on ethnic disparities and to consider how developed nations can care for their minority groups, which are increasing in number and diversity. These issues and challenges are discussed, using the UK's migrant population and Australia's Indigenous and migrant populations as case studies.

  1. The financial crisis and recent family policy reforms in Finland, Germany and the United Kingdom : Is there a connection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Nygård

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The turmoil created by the financial crisis and economic recession in Europe has served as an impetus for austerity measures in many countries. In this article, we ask whether these crises have also triggered reforms in family policy, and we focus on three European welfare states – Finland, Germany and the United Kingdom – countries that are often considered members of different family policy regimes. The article addresses two main research questions. The first one relates to the number, direction and magnitude of family policy reforms in these three countries since the beginning of the financial crisis in 2008/2009, while in the second we discuss whether the reforms observed during this period can be seen as being related to the financial crisis and its later repercussions on the Euro-zone area, or if there are other explanations.

  2. Policy and legality in the United Kingdom and America (1850-1925: the consolidation of a common discriminatory framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana L. Contarino Sparta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of long distance migration movements during late 19th century gave birth to legislation that restricted entry into the United Kingdom, one of the main immigration- receiving countries. Nevertheless, underpopulated American states eager for immigrants also developed restrictive legal regulations. Although the acceptance or rejection of immigrants has been related to fluctuating labour demand, it is also true that they became desirable or undesirable according to cultural and national stereotypes. This position implied looking with disdain at the contributions from people who did not belong to Western civilization. In fact, racialized archetypes were constructed in order to invisibilise those sectors of the population, which began to be considered “minorities”.

  3. Perceived and actual key success factors: A study of the yoghurt market in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Sørensen, Elin

    /high degree of innovativeness, extensive marketing activities, (abundant) financial resources, s production, good logistics management, good product portfolio management, non-complex organisation, low retail prices, good relations with trade, extensive market knowledge. 4. According to managers' perceptions......Executive summary 1. We define a key success factor as a skill or resource that a business can invest in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. The key success factors as perceived by managers...... need not be identical with the actual key success factors in a market. 2. Depth interviews with managers in yoghurt-producing companies in Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom showed considerable variation in both substance and degree of detail in their perceptions of the determinants of success...

  4. Analysis of older adults' domestic kitchen storage practices in the United Kingdom: identification of risk factors associated with listeriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Ellen W; Redmond, Elizabeth C

    2015-04-01

    Increased listeriosis incidence among older adults (≥ 60 years) has been reported internationally, with many cases reported to be sporadic and associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) food products with extended refrigerated shelf life. Given that the home kitchen is recognized as a significant location where foodborne illnesses are acquired, it is important that consumers implement safe food practices to minimize risks. This is crucial for vulnerable consumers, such as older adults. Consumer food safety recommendations in the United Kingdom to reduce the risk of listeriosis at home include (i) following "use-by" dates on unopened prepacked RTE food products, (ii) consuming RTE food products within 2 days of opening, and (iii) ensuring the safe operating temperatures of domestic refrigerators (≤ 5 °C). This study utilized observation, self-reporting, and microbiological analysis to determine actual food storage practices to identify behavioral risk factors. A domestic kitchen survey was conducted in older adult (≥ 60 years) consumers' domestic kitchens (n = 100) in South Wales, United Kingdom. Forty-one percent of foods in home refrigerators were beyond the use-by date, of which 11% were unopened RTE food products commonly associated with listeriosis. Sixty-six percent of opened RTE foods had been or were intended to be stored beyond the recommended 2 days after opening. Older adults failed to ensure safe refrigeration temperatures, with 50% of central storage and 85% of door storage areas operating at temperatures >5 °C. Older refrigerators operated at significantly (P listeriosis than its presence alone. The study has determined that many older adults fail to adhere to recommendations and subject RTE foods associated with L. monocytogenes to prolonged storage at unsafe temperatures which may render food unsafe for consumption.

  5. Healthcare costs and outcomes of managing β-thalassemia major over 50 years in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidlich, Diana; Kefalas, Panos; Guest, Julian F

    2016-05-01

    The objective was to estimate the incidence-based costs of treating β-thalassemia major (BTM) to the United Kingdom's National Health Service (NHS) over the first 50 years of a patient's life in terms of healthcare resource use and corresponding costs and the associated health outcomes. This was a modeling study based on information obtained from a systematic review of published literature and clinicians involved in managing BTM in the United Kingdom. A state transition model was constructed depicting the management of BTM over a period of 50 years. The model was used to estimate the incidence-based health economic impact that BTM imposes on the NHS and patients' health status in terms of the number of quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) over 50 years. The expected probability of survival at 50 years is 0.63. Of patients who survive, 33% are expected to be without any complication and the other 67% are expected to experience at least one complication. Patients' health status over this period was estimated to be a mean of 11.5 discounted QALYs per patient. Total healthcare expenditure attributable to managing BTM was estimated to be £483,454 ($720,201) at 2013/14 prices over 50 years. The cost of managing BTM could be potentially reduced by up to 37% if one in two patients had a bone marrow transplant, with an ensuing improvement in health-related quality of life. This analysis provides the best estimate available of NHS resource use and costs with which to inform policy and budgetary decisions pertaining to this rare disease. © 2016 AABB.

  6. The struggle against climate change in the United Kingdom; La lutte contre le changement climatique au Royaume-Uni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    As the United Kingdom has been the first country in the world to adopt a law to struggle against climate change, The Climate Change Act 2008, which specifies a 80% reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 (vs 1990), this report propose an overview of the actions implemented by this country in the political, economical, and technological fields to struggle against climate change. The various organisations and political institutions concerned by this struggle are presented (governmental organisations and institutions, non governmental institutions). The content of the Climate Change Act is described: definitions of constraints and requirements, carbon reduction commitment (CRC), carbon budgets, systems and programmes dealing with energy production (Renewable Obligation, household energy supplier obligations), with firms (Climate Change Levy, Climate Change Agreements, Enhanced Capital Allowances), with transports (Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation, Low Carbon Vehicle Procurement Programme), with buildings (Low Carbon Building Programme, Home Energy Saving Programme), with research and communication. Then, discussing the economy of climate change, this report comments the content of the Stern report, the reactions about it, and the economical consequences of struggle against climate change. These consequences can be drawbacks (increase of energy costs, inequalities of abilities to face transition costs, loss of international competitiveness) or benefits. The consequences of the economical crisis are also briefly discussed, as well as the consequences of the solutions to this crisis. The third part of this report gives an overview of the low carbon engineering and technology in the United Kingdom in the energy sector (renewable energy, wind energy, hydroelectric energy, biomass, nuclear energy, carbon capture and storage) and in the transport sector. The last part comments the objectives of the 2009 Copenhagen conference.

  7. Social representation of hearing aids: cross-cultural study in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manchaiah V

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vinaya Manchaiah,1 Berth Danermark,2 Vinay,3 Tayebeh Ahmadi,4 David Tomé,5 Rajalakshmi Krishna,6 Per Germundsson7 1Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas, USA; 2Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; 3Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway; 4Department of Audiology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 5Department of Audiology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Vila Nova de Gaia, Portugal; 6All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, University of Mysore, Mysore, India; 7The Department of Health and Welfare Studies, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden Background: The current study was aimed at understanding the social representation of hearing aids in India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. We also compared these results to explore the cross-cultural differences and similarities among these countries. Methods: The study involved a cross-sectional design, and the data were collected from four different countries using the snowball sampling method. Data were analyzed using a content analysis to identify the most-similar categories of responses reported, a co-occurrences analysis to see which of these categories are reported commonly, and a chi-square analysis to study if there was any association between positive, neutral, and negative connotations among participants in different countries. Results: The current study revealed four different social representations of hearing aids from India, Iran, Portugal, and the United Kingdom, and also a global index. Conclusion: The study results provide very useful insights into how hearing aids are represented in the society. These findings may have important implications for public education and also for manufacturers from the viewpoint of designing and marketing hearing aids in different countries. Keywords: hearing aids

  8. The data submitted by the United Kingdom to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation for the 1977 report to the General Assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, F E; Webb, G A M

    1976-01-01

    The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) was established by the General Assembly in 1955 to report on the exposure of man to ionising radiation. In the subsequent twenty years the Committee has covered most aspects of the subject with repeated reviews of the levels of exposure from fallout due to weapons testing. The Committee is currently preparing a further report on doses from all sources and an evaluation of their biological effects. This is expected to be published in 1977. To aid it in compiling this report the Committee requested Member States of the UN to submit national data on a wide range of sources of exposure. The Board was asked by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office to collate the information requested from the United Kingdom. Data were available in the scientific literature on some topics, such as medical irradiation and environmental radioactivity. On some other topics, particularly occupational exposure, data have been collected but seldom publishe...

  9. International climate change policies. Interests and perceptions. A comparative study on climate change politics in Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Wurff, R.J.W.

    1997-06-26

    In Chapter 1 the differences in the climate change policy positions of Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States, are discussed against the background of a brief introduction in the scientific and international political aspects of climate change. Chapter 2 will present the theoretical framework of the study, starting with an overview of basic approaches in International Relations (IR) and their usefulness for the analysis of international environmental politics. Subsequently, some relevant IR and non-IR theories will be discussed in detail, distinguishing into state-oriented approaches (realism, regime analysis); multiple level approaches (two-level games; environmental interest profiles); and transnational approaches (Regulation School, Amsterdam School, Cultural Analysis, and Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS)). It is concluded that an interest-oriented approach (focusing on `objective` interests) and a perception-oriented approach (focusing on environmental views) need to be combined to explain international environmental politics. In chapter 3 this theoretical framework is made operational and a methodology for the research is presented. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with the interest-oriented approach, explaining the climate change policy positions of Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States in terms of `objective` interests. More specifically, in chapter 4 present constellations of climate change interests in these countries will be compared. Next, since climate change is a long term issue, chapter 5 focuses on structural change that will shape future climate change interests. It is expected that present nor future `objective` interests will offer an adequate explanation for the observed differences in climate change policy positions. In the Chapters 6 and 7 the perception-oriented approach is presented, explaining the differences in climate change policy positions of Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States in terms of cross

  10. Evaluation of a pulsed xenon ultraviolet light device for isolation room disinfection in a United Kingdom hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Ian; Madeloso, Rosie; Nagaratnam, Wijayaratnam; Villamaria, Frank; Stock, Eileen; Jinadatha, Chetan

    2016-09-01

    Pathogen transmission from contaminated surfaces can cause hospital-associated infections. Although pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) light devices have been shown to decrease hospital room bioburden in the United States, their effectiveness in United Kingdom (UK) hospitals is less understood. Forty isolation rooms at the Queens Hospital (700 beds) in North London, UK, were sampled for aerobic bacteria after patient discharge, after manual cleaning with a hypochlorous acid-troclosene sodium solution, and after PX-UV disinfection. PX-UV device efficacy on known organisms was tested by exposing inoculated agar plates in a nonpatient care area. Turnaround times for device usage were recorded, and a survey of hospital staff for perceptions of the device was undertaken. After PX-UV disinfection, the bacterial contamination measured in colony forming units (CFU) decreased by 78.4%, a 91% reduction from initial bioburden levels prior to terminal cleaning. PX-UV exposure resulted in a 5-log CFU reduction for multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) on spiked plates. The average device turnaround time was 1 hour, with minimal impact on patient throughput. Ward staff were enthusiastic about device deployment, and device operators reported physical comfort in usage. PX-UV use decreased bioburden in patient discharge rooms and on agar plates spiked with MDROs. The implementation of the PX-UV device was well received by hospital cleaning and ward staff, with minimal disruption to patient flow. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomedical Ph.D. students enrolled in two elite universities in the United kingdom and the United States report adopting multiple learning relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Kemp

    Full Text Available The ability to form multiple learning relationships is a key element of the doctoral learning environment in the biomedical sciences. Of these relationships, that between student and supervisor has long been viewed as key. There are, however, limited data to describe the student perspective on what makes this relationship valuable. In the present study, we discuss the findings of semi-structured interviews with biomedical Ph.D. students from the United Kingdom and the United States to: i determine if the learning relationships identified in an Australian biomedical Ph.D. cohort are also important in a larger international student cohort; and ii improve our understanding of student perceptions of value in their supervisory relationships.32 students from two research intensive universities, one in the United Kingdom (n = 17, and one in the United States (n = 15 were recruited to participate in a semi-structured interview. Verbatim transcripts were transcribed, validated and analysed using a Miles and Huberman method for thematic analysis.Students reported that relationships with other Ph.D. students, post-doctoral scientists and supervisors were all essential to their learning. Effective supervisory relationships were perceived as the primary source of high-level project guidance, intellectual support and confidence. Relationships with fellow students were viewed as essential for the provision of empathetic emotional support. Technical learning was facilitated, almost exclusively, by relationships with postdoctoral staff.These data make two important contributions to the scholarship of doctoral education in the biomedical sciences. Firstly, they provide further evidence for the importance of multiple learning relationships in the biomedical doctorate. Secondly, they clarify the form of a 'valued' supervisory relationship from a student perspective. We conclude that biomedical doctoral programs should be designed to contain a minimum level

  12. Perceptions of diabetes control among physicians and people with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on basal insulin in Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brod, Meryl; Pfeiffer, Kathryn M; Barnett, Anthony H

    2016-01-01

    of physicians. The purpose of the study was to investigate perceptions of control and views on insulin intensification among physicians and PWUD. Research design and methods Web surveys of 1012 PWUD on basal insulin and 300 physicians were conducted in Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. Results...

  13. Promoting the Mental Well-Being of Older People from Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in United Kingdom Rural Areas: Findings from an Interview Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthorpe, Jill; Moriarty, Jo; Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Sharif, Nadira

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from 81 interviews with practitioners in social care and housing with care services in the United Kingdom, this paper explores practice issues in rural areas when supporting the mental health and well-being of older people from Black and minority ethnic groups. The paper begins with a review of the literature which provides evidence that…

  14. Exploring Strategies of Assessment and Results in the Spanish Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia and the United Kingdom Open University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Arthur

    The strategies of student evaluation and the patterns of results are compared for The Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED) in Spain and The Open University of The United Kingdom. Both universities operate a system of undergraduate subject credits leading to a degree, but the length of the courses of the two systems differ. UNED…

  15. Comparisons in the Organisation, Methods, and Results of the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spain) and The Open University of The United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Arthur

    The organization, methods, and outcomes of the distance education systems at the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED) in Spain and The Open University of the United Kingdom are compared. The following topics are covered: higher education in Spain, UNED's ideology, student characteristics in both universities, organization,…

  16. Genetic structure and pathogenicity of populations of Phytophthora infestans from organic potato crops in France, Norway, Switzerland and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flier, W.G.; Kroon, L.P.N.M.; Hermansen, A.; Raaij, van H.M.G.; Speiser, B.; Tamm, L.; Fuchs, J.G.; Lambion, J.; Razzaghian, J.; Andrivon, D.; Wilcockson, S.; Leifert, C.

    2007-01-01

    Genetic variation and pathogenicity of Pbytophthora infestans isolates collected from organic potato crops of the susceptible cv. Bintje and the moderately resistant cv. Sante were assessed in France, Norway, and the United Kingdom in 2001 and in Switzerland in 2001 and 2002. Population structures d

  17. Salmonella and raw shell eggs: results of a cross-sectional study of contamination rates and egg safety practices in the United Kingdom catering sector in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, R; Little, C L; Mitchell, R T

    2005-02-01

    This study was prompted by epidemiological investigations of the unusual number of Salmonella Enteritidis outbreaks associated with the use of eggs in catering premises in England and Wales during 2002. The aims of the study, performed between April and May 2003, were to establish the rate of Salmonella contamination in raw shell eggs from catering premises, investigate any correlation between the origin and type of eggs and the presence of particular serotypes or phage types (PTs) of Salmonella, and examine the use of raw shell eggs in catering premises in the United Kingdom. A total of 34,116 eggs (5,686 pooled samples of six eggs) were collected from 2,104 catering premises, most of which were eggs produced in the United Kingdom (88%). Salmonella was isolated from 17 pools (0.3%) of eggs. Of these, 15 were Salmonella Enteritidis, which were further characterized to PTs as follows: PT6 (0.1%), PT4 (0.07%), PT12 (0.04%), PT1 (0.04%), and PT14b (0.02%). Salmonella Livingstone and Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 7 resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline were also isolated. The Salmonella contamination rate of eggs produced in the United Kingdom appears to have decreased significantly since 1995 and 1996. This trend is reflected in the decrease of Salmonella Enteritidis and, in particular, Salmonella Enteritidis PT4. The impact of the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency's advice on the use of eggs, issued in January 2003, is discussed.

  18. Understanding the Experiences and Needs of South Asian Families Caring for a Child with Learning Disabilities in the United Kingdom: An Experiential-Contextual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Kuljit; Rose, John; Larkin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of learning disabilities amongst South Asian communities in the United Kingdom is thought to be almost three times higher than in any other community. Despite this, service utilisation amongst this group remains low and working cross-culturally can pose unique challenges for service providers. The experiences of South Asian families…

  19. Rewriting the history: a new future for the nuclear energy in United Kingdom?; Reescribiendo la historia: un nuevo futuro para la energia nuclear en Reino Unido?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodman, B. [University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 8UW (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    From ends of the ninety, the new nuclear energy has been rejected three times like an option of viable energy generation for United Kingdom: once during the privatization of the electric supply industry and twice during the subsequent revisions to the energy politicians carried out in 2003. Nevertheless, three years more late, a new debate around the energy politics gave an unusual turning in the industry destination, characterized by the firm consideration in the political calendar about the new reactors development, as well as of governmental politicians guided to impel it. This recent interest arises of restlessness regarding the future security of the supply and to the necessity of reducing the carbon dioxide emissions of United Kingdom. With the purpose of obtaining the sufficient support of civil politicians and investors for the new construction project, the industry will have to devise convincing arguments to prove that it has already solved those problems that it suffered in the past and, also that deserves to receive a special treatment in the liberated market of the electricity. This document synthesizes the structure of the nuclear industry in United Kingdom, some recent historical data and the reasons for those that the new nuclear reactors were not very received in the past. It also indicates the measures that have taken in recent times to modify that perspective. Finally, it analyzes the possible future of the nuclear energy at long term in United Kingdom. (Author)

  20. Institutional Governance in Higher Education: Public Policy in France, Sweden and the United Kingdom. Yale Higher Education Research Group Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premfors, Rune

    Major public policies for institutional governance in France, Sweden, and the United Kingdom over the past two decades are reviewed, and factors that may account for differences in policy developments in the three countries are considered. In France and (although only recently) in Sweden, politics have aimed at increasing institutional autonomy in…

  1. Franchising Education: Challenges and Opportunities for Coping with the Economic Recession and the Provision of Higher Education in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul; Shotte, Gertrude

    2010-01-01

    When the global economic recession hit the world some 18 months ago, very few could predict the impact this would have on government spending on higher education. Higher education institutions in the United Kingdom face spending cuts. Notwithstanding, they are expected to deliver quality education with fewer resources. This article discusses…

  2. Comparisons in the Organisation, Methods, and Results of the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (Spain) and The Open University of The United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Arthur

    The organization, methods, and outcomes of the distance education systems at the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED) in Spain and The Open University of the United Kingdom are compared. The following topics are covered: higher education in Spain, UNED's ideology, student characteristics in both universities, organization,…

  3. Exploring Strategies of Assessment and Results in the Spanish Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia and the United Kingdom Open University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Arthur

    The strategies of student evaluation and the patterns of results are compared for The Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED) in Spain and The Open University of The United Kingdom. Both universities operate a system of undergraduate subject credits leading to a degree, but the length of the courses of the two systems differ. UNED…

  4. Genome Sequence of Ex-Afghanistan Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus SCT Strain, from an Imported United Kingdom Case in October 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John; Atkinson, Barry; Logue, Christopher H; Latham, Jennie; Newman, Edmund N C; Hewson, Roger

    2013-05-16

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a serious human pathogen causing severe hemorrhagic disease with a fatality rate of up to approximately 30%. We have determined the viral genomic sequence from an isolate that caused a fatal case of imported CCHF in the United Kingdom in October 2012.

  5. "Education Makes You Have More Say in the Way Your Life Goes": Indian Women and Arranged Marriages in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhopal, Kalwant

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores Indian women's views on arranged marriages in the United Kingdom. It is based on research carried out with 32 Indian women studying at a university in the South East of England, UK. The article draws on Wenger's social theory of learning to explore how Indian women's participation in communities of practice in higher education…

  6. National Digital Preservation Initiatives: An Overview of Developments in Australia, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom and of Related International Activity. Strategies and Tools for the Digital Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagrie, Neil

    This report provides an overview of selected key national and multinational initiatives in digital preservation occurring outside North America. It examines digital preservation initiatives in four countries--Australia, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom--as well as related multinational initiatives. The initiatives were chosen in…

  7. Glykemische regulatie en behandeling van hypertensie essentieel bij personen met diabetes mellitus type 2; de 'United Kingdom prospective diabetes study' naar diabetische complicaties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolffenbuttel, B H; Heine, R J

    1999-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus often develop micro- and macrovascular complications. In 25% of them, complications are already present at the time of diagnosis. The principal objective of the United Kingdom prospective diabetes study was to determine if good blood glucose control and adequat

  8. Appraising fertilisers: origins of current regulations and standards for contaminants in fertilisers : background of quality standards in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom and Flanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Posthuma, L.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Wintersen, A.M.; Wijnen, van H.; Dijk, van T.A.; Schöll, van L.; Groenenberg, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    The standards for contaminants in fertilisers in Denmark, Germany, Flanders, the Netherlands and United Kingdom, are given in the context of the proposals for new European fertiliser legislation. This EU legislation might result in generic limit values for contaminants and input lists of materials,

  9. Competence and Human Resource Development in Multinational Companies in Three European Union Member States: A Comparative Analysis between Austria, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Kollinger, Iris; Warmerdam, John; Moerel, Hans; Konrad, John; Burell, Catherine; Guile, David

    A comparative analysis of human resources development and management in the subsidiaries of three multinational companies (Xerox, Glaxo Wellcome, and AXA Nordstern Colonia) was conducted in these three European Union (EU) member states: Austria, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Case studies were used, focusing on competence needs and…

  10. Appraising fertilisers: origins of current regulations and standards for contaminants in fertilisers : background of quality standards in the Netherlands, Denmark, Germany, United Kingdom and Flanders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.; Posthuma, L.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Wintersen, A.M.; Wijnen, van H.; Dijk, van T.A.; Schöll, van L.; Groenenberg, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    The standards for contaminants in fertilisers in Denmark, Germany, Flanders, the Netherlands and United Kingdom, are given in the context of the proposals for new European fertiliser legislation. This EU legislation might result in generic limit values for contaminants and input lists of materials,

  11. Making Higher Education Work: A Comparison of Discourses in the United Kingdom's Conservative and Labour Parties' General Election Manifestos between 1979 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto-Otero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This article elaborates a model of social democratic and conservative discourses in relation to access, financing, management, and results of higher education. The model is contrasted with the position of the Conservative Party and the Labour Party in the United Kingdom from the late 1970s to 2010 as expressed in their electoral manifestos. The…

  12. The Birmingham Burn Centre archive: A photographic history of post-war burn care in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwicke, Joseph; Kohlhardt, Angus; Moiemen, Naiem

    2015-06-01

    The Medical Research Council Burns and Industrial Injuries Unit at the Birmingham Accident Hospital pioneered civilian burn care and research in the United Kingdom during the post-war years. A photographic archive has been discovered that documents this period from 1945 to 1975. The aim of this project was to sort, digitize and archive the images in a secure format for future reference. The photographs detail the management of burns patients, from injury causation and surgical intervention, to nursing care, rehabilitation and long-term follow-up. A total of 2650 images files were collected from over 600 patients. Many novel surgical, nursing, dressing and rehabilitation strategies are documented and discussed. We have chosen to report part of the archive under the sections of (1) aseptic and antimicrobial burn care; (2) burn excision and wound closure; (3) rehabilitation, reconstruction and long-term outcomes; (4) accident prevention; and (5) response to a major burns incident. The Birmingham collection gives us a valuable insight into the approach to civilian burn care in the post-war years, and we present a case from the archive to the modern day, the longest clinical photographic follow-up to date.

  13. Public engagement in health technology assessment and coverage decisions: a study of experiences in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreis, Julia; Schmidt, Harald

    2013-02-01

    In the United States and internationally, the trend for public engagement in health policy and practice is increasing, particularly regarding health technology assessment (HTA), which informs often controversial coverage decisions. However, there is no consensus about which members of the public should be involved in which processes or what the respective rationales and benefits of public engagement are. This article explores operational processes and underlying rationales of public engagement at HTA agencies in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The analysis is based on website information, legal framework documents, published and gray literature, and semistructured, in-depth interviews with top officials at these agencies. Engagement processes differ across agencies, particularly regarding the areas in which the public is involved, which groups of the public are involved, what weight they have in influencing decisions, how they are recruited and supported, and how potential conflicts of interests are addressed. Different emphases on rationales and drivers behind public engagement partly reflect the respective political environments. Interviewees indicated a range of benefits of engagement and factors influencing success or failure. The results highlight the need to be clear about the purpose and conduct of engagement in order to maximize the benefits of this increasingly widespread policy tool.

  14. A literature review of methods of analysis of organic analytes in radioactive wastes with an emphasis on sources from the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-09-01

    This report, compiled by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), examines literature originating through the United Kingdom (UK) nuclear industry relating to the analyses of organic constituents of radioactive waste. Additionally, secondary references from the UK and other counties, including the United States, have been reviewed. The purpose of this literature review was to find analytical methods that would apply to the mixed-waste matrices found at Hanford.

  15. The Role of Therapeutic Adventure in Meeting the Mental Health Needs of Children and Adolescents: Finding a Niche in the Health Care Systems of the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the mental health needs of adolescents far outstrip the resources of traditional mental health. The field of adventure therapy has the potential to help meet these unmet needs. It is argued that particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom, for adventure therapy to become a formal part of the mental health delivery service…

  16. Promoting sustainable research partnerships: a mixed-method evaluation of a United Kingdom-Africa capacity strengthening award scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Laura; Njelesani, Janet; Smith, Helen; Bates, Imelda

    2015-12-23

    Research partnerships between high-income countries (HICs) and low- or middle-income countries (LMICs) are a leading model in research capacity strengthening activities. Although numerous frameworks and guiding principles for effective research partnerships exist, few include the perspective of the LMIC partner. This paper draws out lessons for establishing and maintaining successful research collaborations, based on partnership dynamics, from the perspectives of both HIC and LMIC stakeholders through the evaluation of a research capacity strengthening partnership award scheme. A mixed-method retrospective evaluation approach was used. Initially, a cross-sectional survey was administered to all award holders, which focused on partnership outputs and continuation. Fifty individuals were purposively selected to participate in interviews or focus group discussions from 12 different institutions in HICs and LMICs; the sample included the research investigators, research assistants, laboratory scientists and post-doctoral students. The evaluation collected data on critical elements of research partnership dynamics such as research outputs, nature of the partnership, future plans and research capacity. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively and qualitative data were analysed using an iterative framework approach. The majority of United Kingdom and African award holders stated they would like to pursue future collaborations together. Key aspects within partnerships that appeared to influence this were; the perceived benefits of the partnership at the individual and institutional level such as publication of papers or collaborative grants; ability to influence 'research culture' and instigate critical thinking among mid-career researchers; previous working relationships, for example supervisor-student relationships; and equity within partnerships linked to partnership formation and experience of United Kingdom partners within LMICs. Factors which may hinder

  17. Italy versus the United Kingdom: differing styles for treating bacteremia in the critically ill patient, but who's right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, A; Cislaghi, F; Raimondi, F; Singer, M

    2008-05-01

    As no prospective, randomized, clinical trials (PRCTs) exist to inform decisions about antibiotic therapy for bacteraemia, ICUs have likely developed their own strategies. A multi-centre, multi-national questionnaire survey was used to assess variations in antibiotic strategy between ICUs in the United Kingdom (UK) and Italy. In January 2001, a detailed questionnaire regarding antibiotic policy was sent to international (e.g., European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, ESICM) and national societies (Gruppo Italiano per la Valutazione degli Interventi in Terapia Intensiva, GIVITI; Australia and New Zealand Intensive Care-Critical Trial Group, ANZIC-CTG; United Kingdom-Intensive Care Society, UK-ICS). Out of the 254 participating ICUs, 81 were from Italy and 32 were from the UK. In the UK, ICUs preferred to use a shorter course of mono-therapy compared to Italian ICUs when treating, a) primary bacteremia [7 (5-7) vs 10 (7-14), P<0.001]; b) UTI [5 (4-7) vs 8 (7-10), P<0.001]; c) Staphylococcus aureus [7 (5-12) vs 10 (7-15), P<0.001]; and d) Gram-negative bacteraemia associated with lines [6 (5-7) vs 10 (7-15), P<0.001], pneumonia [7 (5-7) vs 14 (10-15), P<0.001] and peritonitis [7 (5-9) vs 15 (10-15), P<0.000]. These differences in treatment strategy were likely correlated with the median inter-quartile range (IQR) of weekly input from a microbiologist or infectious disease specialist, which was more frequent in the UK compared to Italy [5 (2-6) vs 0 (0-1), P<0.001]. Possible influences accounting for the variations found between Italy and the UK are: 1) differences in interactions with microbiologists or infectious disease specialists, 2) historical/educational dogma, and 3) antibiotic resistance patterns. Further studies are necessary to determine the optimal approach to treating bacteremia.

  18. An outbreak of food-borne botulism in Scotland, United Kingdom, November 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, L M; Prempeh, H; Little, C; Houston, C; Grant, K; Cowden, J M

    2011-12-08

    An investigation is currently underway to explain an outbreak of food-borne botulism in Scotland. Three children in the same family were confirmed as having botulism following consumption of a meal made with a jar of korma sauce. Residual sauce from the jar, the jar lid and a remnant of the meal, all tested positive for Clostridium botulinum type A toxin. The children are recovering, although two remain ventilated and in intensive care unit.

  19. The public health implications of United Kingdom offender healthcare policy: a holistic approach to achieve individual and societal gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Jane; Shaw, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, two seminal documents were published by the United Kingdom (UK) government concerning healthcare services for offenders. The Bradley review into diversion for people with mental health problems and learning disabilities emphasised a need to improve offender health, not least because of the high economic costs to society as a whole resulting from unresolved mental illness, physical ill-health and substance abuse problems commonly experienced by offenders. The Bradley review made wide-reaching recommendations for change, requiring strong partnership between health and justice agencies at both central government and local levels. A framework for the delivery of Bradley's recommendations has been set out in Improving health, supporting justice, the Department of Health's offender health strategy which sets out the direction of travel for the next 10 years. This paper discusses the reality of working toward improving health services for this marginalised group in the context of the influence of the current straitened financial climate on the allocation of resources to publically funded healthcare in the UK; it examines the historically based, and widely held, belief in the principle of "less eligibility" within our society, whereby there is much public and media resistance to allocating resources to improving care for offenders when other, more "deserving", groups are perceived to be in continuing need.

  20. Predicting contamination by the fuel additive cerium oxide engineered nanoparticles within the United Kingdom and the associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew C; Park, Barry

    2012-11-01

    As a fuel additive, cerium oxide nanoparticles may become widely dispersed throughout the environment. Commercial information from the United Kingdom (UK) on the use of cerium oxide nanoparticles was used to perform a modeling and risk assessment exercise. Discharge from exhausts took into account the likely removal by filters fitted to these vehicles. For predicting current soil exposure, scenarios were examined, ranging from dispersion occurring across the entire UK landmass to only within the urban area to only 20 m on either side of road networks. For soils, the highest predicted contamination level was 0.016 mg/kg within 20 m of a road following seven years of continuous deposition. This value would represent 0.027% of reported natural background cerium. If usage were to double for five more years, levels would not be expected to exceed 0.04 mg/kg. River water contamination considered direct aerial deposition and indirect contamination via runoff in the water and entrained soil sediment, with the highest level of 0.02 ng/L predicted. The highest predicted water concentration of 300 ng/L was associated with water draining from a road surface, assuming a restricted deposition spread. These predictions are well below most toxicological levels of concern. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  1. Genomic analysis of isolates from the United Kingdom 2012 pertussis outbreak reveals that vaccine antigen genes are unusually fast evolving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey, Katie L; Harris, Simon R; Fry, Norman K; Hurst, Laurence D; Gorringe, Andrew R; Parkhill, Julian; Preston, Andrew

    2015-07-15

    A major outbreak of whooping cough, or pertussis, occurred in 2012 in the United Kingdom (UK), with nearly 10 000 laboratory-confirmed cases and 14 infant deaths attributed to pertussis. A worldwide resurgence of pertussis has been linked to switch to the use of acellular pertussis vaccines and the evolution of Bordetella pertussis away from vaccine-mediated immunity. We have conducted genomic analyses of multiple strains from the UK outbreak. We show that the UK outbreak was polyclonal in nature, caused by multiple distinct but closely related strains. Importantly, we demonstrate that acellular vaccine antigen-encoding genes are evolving at higher rates than other surface protein-encoding genes. This was true even prior to the introduction of pertussis vaccines but has become more pronounced since the introduction of the current acellular vaccines. The fast evolution of vaccine antigen-encoding genes has serious consequences for the ability of current vaccines to continue to control pertussis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Review of infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom for potential releases of radioactivity into the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, I.; Voigt, G. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Lochard, J.; Croueail, P. [Centre d' Etudes sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, Paris (France); Nisbet, A.; Mercer, J.; Green, N.; Wilkins, B. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    For the European SAGE-Project a review of the existing infrastructures and preparedness systems in France, Germany and United Kingdom concerning radiation protection with regard to a long term contamination after a nuclear accident was made. This review clearly shows that the infrastructure in all three countries regulates the situation during and shortly after a nuclear incident but not in case that a radioactive contamination will last for long time. For that situation it is necessary to install local information centres in the affected area with sufficient trained staff. To improve the confidence of the population in possible measures implemented by the authorities a copious and understandable information and education must be provided. Especially doctors, teachers, kindergarten teachers and mothers have to get the possibility to be educated in a reasonable way how to deal with a short, middle and long term contamination. The concerned population must be able to control the own radiological situation by measuring their environment and their food and by reducing food contamination by appropriate reasonable measures. (orig.)

  3. Role of Religion in Organ Donation-Development of the United Kingdom Faith and Organ Donation Action Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, G; Neuberger, J

    2016-04-01

    At a national policy level, the United Kingdom is at the forefront of recognizing the role of faith and its impact on organ donation. This is demonstrated by the recommendations of the Organ Donation Taskforce, National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines on organ donation, All-Party Parliamentary Kidney Group, and National Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Taskforce Alliance. Evidence to date shows that further thought is required to ensure the active engagement of faith communities with organ donation in the UK. The "Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020" strategy was launched in July 2013 by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) in collaboration with the Department of Health and Welsh, Scottish, and Northern Irish governments and seeks to increase the number of people, from all sections of the UK's multiethnic and multifaith population, who consent to and authorize organ donation in their life. NHSBT seeks to work in partnership with faith leaders and this culminated in a Faith and Organ Donation Summit. Faith leaders highlight that there is a need for engagement at both national and local levels concerning organ donation as well as diagnosis and definition of death.

  4. Wind Energy in the United Kingdom: Modelling the Effect of Increases in Installed Capacity on Generation Efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, Anthony D

    2016-01-01

    The decision by the United Kingdom (UK) government in 2007 that the country should build a 33GW wind fleet, capable of generating 25 percent of the UK electricity requirement, was controversial. Proponents argued that it was the most attractive means of lowering the UK greenhouse gas emissions, whereas opponents noted that it would result in an unnecessary and burdensome additional expense to industry and households. Subsequently there have been calls for the wind fleet target to be further increased to perhaps 50 percent of demand. Although the National Grid has had little difficulty in accommodating the current output of about 10 percent of the total demand on the grid, this will not be the case for a substantially larger wind fleet. When the wind blows strongly, turbines shed wind which is surplus to demand, leading to significant reductions in generating efficiency. The purpose of the research described in this paper has been to develop a method for investigating the likely performance of future large win...

  5. Mitochondrial haplotype diversity of Gyrodactylus thymalli (Platyhelminthes; Monogenea): extended geographic sampling in United Kingdom, Poland, and Norway reveals further lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Haakon; Bakke, Tor A; Bachmann, Lutz

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, the mitochondrial haplotype diversity of the monogenean ectoparasites Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 on Atlantic salmon and G. thymalli Zitnan, 1960 on grayling has been studied intensively to understand the taxonomy and phylogeography of the two species. According to these studies, neither species can be considered monophyletic, but unfortunately, the geographic sampling has mostly been restricted to Fennoscandia. Only few samples from continental Europe have been analysed, and samples from the United Kingdom have not been included at all. Gyrodactylosis is a notifiable disease in Europe and is in the UK considered the most important exotic disease threat to wild Atlantic salmon populations. In this study, we report six new mitochondrial haplotypes of G. thymalli from England, Poland, and Norway detected by sequencing 745 bp of the cytochrome oxidase I gene. The six new haplotypes add five new clades to a neighbor-joining dendrogram deduced on the basis of the currently known 44 mitochondrial haplotypes for G. thymalli and G. salaris. We conclude that G. thymalli established in the UK along with the immigration of grayling. There is currently no reason to suspect that this parasite is a threat to Atlantic salmon in the UK, although its infectivity to salmon stocks in the UK has not been tested.

  6. The macroeconomic impact of pandemic influenza: estimates from models of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh-Brown, Marcus Richard; Smith, Richard D; Edmunds, John W; Beutels, Philippe

    2010-12-01

    The 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) showed that infectious disease outbreaks can have notable macroeconomic impacts. The current H1N1 and potential H5N1 flu pandemics could have a much greater impact. Using a multi-sector single country computable general equilibrium model of the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and The Netherlands, together with disease scenarios of varying severity, we examine the potential economic cost of a modern pandemic. Policies of school closure, vaccination and antivirals, together with prophylactic absence from work are evaluated and their cost impacts are estimated. Results suggest GDP losses from the disease of approximately 0.5-2% but school closure and prophylactic absenteeism more than triples these effects. Increasing school closures from 4 weeks at the peak to entire pandemic closure almost doubles the economic cost, but antivirals and vaccinations seem worthwhile. Careful planning is therefore important to ensure expensive policies to mitigate the pandemic are effective in minimising illness and deaths.

  7. A retrospective immunohistochemical study reveals atypical scrapie has existed in the United Kingdom since at least 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Paul R; Powell, Linda; Denyer, Margaret; Marsh, Sarah; Weaver, Colin; Simmons, Marion M; Johns, Elizabeth; Sheehan, John; Horsfield, Peter; Lyth, Chris; Wilson, Christina; Long, Ann; Cawthraw, Saira; Saunders, Ginny C; Spencer, Yvonne I

    2009-11-01

    Atypical scrapie is a relatively recent discovery, and it was unknown whether it was a new phenomenon or whether it had existed undetected in the United Kingdom national flock. Before 1998, the routine statutory diagnosis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) in sheep relied on the presence of TSE vacuolation in the brainstem. This method would not have been effective for the detection of atypical scrapie. Currently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot are commonly used for the differential diagnosis of classical and atypical scrapie. The IHC pattern of PrPd deposition in atypical scrapie is very different from that in classical scrapie using the same antibody. It is thus possible that because of a lack of suitable diagnostic techniques and awareness of this form of the disease, historic cases of atypical scrapie remain undiagnosed. Immunohistochemistry was performed on selected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) blocks of ovine brain from the Veterinary Laboratories Agency archives that were submitted for various reasons, including suspect neurological disorders, between 1980 and 1989. It was found that PrPd deposits in a single case were consistent with atypical scrapie. A method was developed to obtain a PrP genotype from FFPE tissues and was applied to material from this single case, which was shown to be AHQ/AHQ. This animal was a scrapie suspect from 1987, but diagnosis was not confirmed by the available techniques at that time.

  8. Evaluating the Sustainability of a Small-Scale Low-Input Organic Vegetable Supply System in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads V. Markussen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Resource use and environmental impacts of a small-scale low-input organic vegetable supply system in the United Kingdom were assessed by emergy accounting and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA. The system consisted of a farm with high crop diversity and a related box-scheme distribution system. We compared empirical data from this case system with two modeled organic food supply systems representing high- and low-yielding practices for organic vegetable production. Further, these systems were embedded in a supermarket distribution system and they provided the same amount of comparable vegetables at the consumers’ door as the case system. The on-farm resource use measured in solar equivalent Joules (seJ was similar for the case system and the high-yielding model system and higher for the low-yielding model system. The distribution phase of the case system was at least three times as resource efficient as the models and had substantially less environmental impacts when assessed using LCA. The three systems ranked differently for emissions with the high-yielding model system being the worst for terrestrial ecotoxicity and the case system the worst for global warming potential. As a consequence of being embedded in an industrial economy, about 90% of resources (seJ were used for supporting labor and service.

  9. Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Simon; Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2012-12-14

    To compare the energy and macronutrient content of main meals created by television chefs with ready meals sold by supermarkets, and to compare both with nutritional guidelines published by the World Health Organization and UK Food Standards Agency. Cross sectional study. Three supermarkets with the largest share of the grocery market in the United Kingdom, 2010. 100 main meal recipes from five bestselling cookery books by UK television chefs and 100 own brand ready meals from the three leading UK supermarkets. Number of meals for which the nutritional content complied with WHO recommendations, and the proportion of nutrients classified as red, amber, or green using the UK FSA's "traffic light" system for labelling food. No recipe or ready meal fully complied with the WHO recommendations. The ready meals were more likely to comply with the recommended proportions of energy derived from carbohydrate (18% v 6%, P=0.01) and sugars (83% v 81%, P=0.05) and fibre density (56% v 14% Psupermarkets complied with WHO recommendations. Recipes were less healthy than ready meals, containing significantly more energy, protein, fat, and saturated fat, and less fibre per portion than the ready meals.

  10. The background to the proposition that plankton be used as food in the United Kingdom during the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P G

    2011-01-01

    Food shortages, particularly of proteins, in Britain during the Second World War led to the suggestion re-surfacing that marine plankton might be harvested on an industrial scale first as human food, then turning to its potential use as a supplement to stock and poultry feed. The notion emanated in the United Kingdom from Sir John Graham Kerr, at Glasgow University. He encouraged Alister Hardy, at Hull, to develop the idea and the natural testing ground was the Clyde Sea Area (given the extensive history of plankton research at Millport). Unpublished documents from the archives of the Scottish Association for Marine Science shed new light on the interactions behind the scenes of this project between Kerr, Hardy and the Millport Marine Station's then director, Richard Elmhirst. Elmhirst, who was sceptical about the feasibility of the plan from the outset, went along with it; not least as a way of attracting welcome research funding during lean times but also, doubtless, regarding it as his patriotic duty in case the proposal proved worthwhile.

  11. Children born after unplanned pregnancies and cognitive development at 3 years: social differentials in the United Kingdom Millennium Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Rochebrochard, Elise; Joshi, Heather

    2013-09-15

    Children born after an unplanned pregnancy have poorer developmental scores. This could arise from less favorable parenting but also could reflect confounding from the socioeconomic circumstances. In a large representative sample in the United Kingdom, the Millennium Cohort Study (2001-2005), cognitive delay at 3 years was explored with the Bracken Assessment. Its association with unplanned pregnancy was studied in logistic models controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the family, the child's characteristics, and parenting behavior. Stratification by the mother's educational level (grouped into 3 categories) was explored. Of 12,182 children included in the analysis, 41% were born after a pregnancy reported by the mother to have been a "surprise." Such unplanned pregnancies were associated in univariate analysis with more cognitive delay. Among mothers with a low or middle level of education, this association vanished when socioeconomic circumstances were controlled. Among mothers with a high level of education, the risk of cognitive delay remained significantly and unexplainedly raised after unplanned pregnancies, despite controlling for socioeconomic characteristics and parental behavior. In conclusion, for socially disadvantaged children, having resulted from an unplanned pregnancy does not seem to increase their already disproportionate risk of cognitive delay. Births after unplanned conceptions are mainly a symptom rather than a source of disadvantage.

  12. The Spitzenkandidaten in the European Parliament Election Campaign Coverage 2014 in Germany, France, and the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Schulze

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Elections to the European Parliament are characterised by a steady decline in voter turnout. To tackle this problem, in 2014, several groups of the European Parliament nominated pan-European Spitzenkandidaten who were expected to personalise the elections and mobilise European voters. Based on this development, this study analyses the media coverage of the 2014 EP elections with special focus on the role of the Spitzenkandidaten. A quantitative content analysis of European election campaign coverage in the opinion leading newspapers of three influential EU member states, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom was carried out. The results show large candidate- and country-specific differences regarding the visibility and thematic coverage of the EP elections in general as well as the presentation of the Spitzenkandidaten. The Spitzenkandidaten were not very visible in either the German, French, or British newspaper coverage. With respect to the presence and media personalisation of the Spitzenkandidaten, the newspaper coverage of the EP election does not demonstrate any mobilising effect and thus does not reflect the high expectations the European Parliament attributed to the nomination of the Spitzenkandidaten.

  13. Performing 'pragmatic holism': Professionalisation and the holistic discourse of non-medically qualified acupuncturists and homeopaths in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givati, Assaf

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine practitioners have often utilised 'holism' as a key identification mark of their practice, distancing themselves from 'the reductionist biomedicine'. However, the past couple of decades have witnessed increased engagement of several complementary and alternative medicines in professionalisation, which includes a degree of biomedical alignment while 'reducing' holistic claims in order to provide practice with a 'credible outlook' and move closer to the mainstream, a development which challenges the role of holism in complementary and alternative medicine practices. This article explores the strategies by which two groups of complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, namely, non-medically qualified acupuncturists and homeopaths in the United Kingdom, pragmatically accommodate holistic notions as a professional resource, a process of negotiation between maintaining their holistic premise, on the one hand, and the drive to professionalise and enhance their societal status, on the other. Based on in-depth interviews with non-medically qualified acupuncture and homeopathy practitioners and school principals, textual analysis of practitioners' web sites and observation of practice, the findings demonstrate the dynamic approach to 'holism' in complementary and alternative medicine practice. This discourse, through which practitioners use a range of strategies in order to 'narrow' or 'expand' their holistic expression, can be described as 'pragmatic holism', by which they try to make gains from the formalisation/standardisation processes, without losing the therapies' holistic outlook and appeal.

  14. Advancing strategic environmental assessment in the offshore oil and gas sector: Lessons from Norway, Canada, and the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidler, Courtney, E-mail: crfidler@gmail.com [Department of Geography and Planning, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A5 (Canada); Noble, Bram, E-mail: b.noble@usask.ca [Department of Geography and Planning, School of Environment and Sustainability, University of Saskatchewan, 117 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, S7N 5A5 (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    Abstract: Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) for offshore oil and gas planning and development is utilized in select international jurisdictions, but the sector has received limited attention in the SEA literature. While the potential benefits of and rationale for SEA are well argued, there have been few empirical studies of SEA processes for the offshore sector. Hence, little is known about the efficacy of SEA offshore, in particular its influence on planning and development decisions. This paper examines SEA practice and influence in three international offshore systems: Norway, Atlantic Canada and the United Kingdom, with the intent to identify the challenges, lessons and opportunities for advancing SEA in offshore planning and impact assessment. Results demonstrate that SEA can help inform and improve the efficacy and efficiency of project-based assessment in the offshore sector, however weak coordination between higher and lower tiers limit SEA's ability to influence planning and development decisions in a broad regional environmental and socioeconomic context. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SEA can inform and improve the efficacy and efficiency of project EA offshore Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scope and deliverables of SEA offshore often differ from stakeholder expectations Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Considerable variability in influence of SEA output beyond licensing decisions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sector-based SEA offshore is often too restrictive to generate expected benefits.

  15. Participation for effective environmental governance? Evidence from Water Framework Directive implementation in Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochskämper, Elisa; Challies, Edward; Newig, Jens; Jager, Nicolas W

    2016-10-01

    Effectiveness of participation in environmental governance is a proliferating assertion in literature that is also reflected in European legislation, such as the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). The Directive mandates participatory river basin management planning across the EU aiming at the delivery of better policy outputs and enhanced implementation. Yet, the impact of this planning mode in WFD implementation remains unclear, though the first planning phase was completed in 2009 and the first implementation cycle by the end of 2015. Notwithstanding the expanding body of literature on WFD implementation, a rather scattered single case study approach seems to predominate. This paper reports on implementation of the WFD in three case studies from Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom, reflecting three substantially different approaches to participatory river basin management planning, on the basis of a comparative case study design. We ask if and how participation improved the environmental standard of outputs and the quality of implementation. We found an increasing quality of outputs with increasing intensity of local participation. Further, social outcomes such as learning occurred within dialogical settings, whereas empowerment and network building emerged also in the case characterized mainly by one-way information. Finally, one important finding deviant from the literature is that stakeholder acceptance seems to be more related to processes than to outputs.

  16. Recontacting in clinical practice: an investigation of the views of healthcare professionals and clinical scientists in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrieri, Daniele; Dheensa, Sandi; Doheny, Shane; Clarke, Angus J; Turnpenny, Peter D; Lucassen, Anneke M; Kelly, Susan E

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the views and experiences of healthcare professionals and clinical scientists in genetics about the existence of a duty and/or responsibility to recontact former patients when the genetic information relevant to their health, or that of family members, changes in a potentially important manner. It is based on N=30 semi-structured interviews guided by vignettes of recontacting scenarios. The sample included healthcare professionals in the United Kingdom from different medical specialties (clinical genetics, other ‘mainstream' specialties now offering genetic testing), and scientists from regional genetics laboratories. While viewing recontacting as desirable under certain circumstances, most respondents expressed concerns about its feasibility within the current constraints of the National Health Service (NHS). The main barriers identified were insufficient resources (time, staff, and suitable IT infrastructures) and lack of clarity about role boundaries and responsibilities. All of these are further complicated by genetic testing being increasingly offered by mainstream specialties. Reaching a consensus about roles and responsibilities of clinical specialties with regard to recontacting former patients in the light of evolving genetic information, and about what resources and infrastructures would be needed, was generally seen as a pre-requisite to developing guidelines about recontact. PMID:28051074

  17. Food Reformulation, Responsive Regulation, and "Regulatory Scaffolding": Strengthening Performance of Salt Reduction Programs in Australia and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Roger; Reeve, Belinda

    2015-06-30

    Strategies to reduce excess salt consumption play an important role in preventing cardiovascular disease, which is the largest contributor to global mortality from non-communicable diseases. In many countries, voluntary food reformulation programs seek to reduce salt levels across selected product categories, guided by aspirational targets to be achieved progressively over time. This paper evaluates the industry-led salt reduction programs that operate in the United Kingdom and Australia. Drawing on theoretical concepts from the field of regulatory studies, we propose a step-wise or "responsive" approach that introduces regulatory "scaffolds" to progressively increase levels of government oversight and control in response to industry inaction or under-performance. Our model makes full use of the food industry's willingness to reduce salt levels in products to meet reformulation targets, but recognizes that governments remain accountable for addressing major diet-related health risks. Creative regulatory strategies can assist governments to fulfill their public health obligations, including in circumstances where there are political barriers to direct, statutory regulation of the food industry.

  18. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance activity in the United Kingdom: a survey on behalf of the british society of cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dargie Henry J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The indications, complexity and capabilities of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR have rapidly expanded. Whether actual service provision and training have developed in parallel is unknown. Methods We undertook a systematic telephone and postal survey of all public hospitals on behalf of the British Society of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance to identify all CMR providers within the United Kingdom. Results Of the 60 CMR centres identified, 88% responded to a detailed questionnaire. Services are led by cardiologists and radiologists in equal proportion, though the majority of current trainees are cardiologists. The mean number of CMR scans performed annually per centre increased by 44% over two years. This trend was consistent across centres of different scanning volumes. The commonest indication for CMR was assessment of heart failure and cardiomyopathy (39%, followed by coronary artery disease and congenital heart disease. There was striking geographical variation in CMR availability, numbers of scans performed, and distribution of trainees. Centres without on site scanning capability refer very few patients for CMR. Just over half of centres had a formal training programme, and few performed regular audit. Conclusion The number of CMR scans performed in the UK has increased dramatically in just two years. Trainees are mainly located in large volume centres and enrolled in cardiology as opposed to radiology training programmes.

  19. Reason-Giving and Medical Futility: Contrasting Legal and Social Discourse in the United States With the United Kingdom and Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosslet, Gabriel T; Baker, Mary; Pope, Thaddeus M

    2016-09-01

    Disputes regarding life-prolonging treatments are stressful for all parties involved. These disagreements are appropriately almost always resolved with intensive communication and negotiation. Those rare cases that are not require a resolution process that ensures fairness and due process. We describe three recent cases from different countries (the United States, United Kingdom, and Ontario, Canada) to qualitatively contrast the legal responses to intractable, policy-level disputes regarding end-of-life care in each of these countries. In so doing, we define the continuum of clinical and social utility among different types of dispute resolution processes and emphasize the importance of public reason-giving in the societal discussion regarding policy-level solutions to end-of-life treatment disputes. We argue that precedential, publicly available, written rulings for these decisions most effectively help to move the social debate forward in a way that is beneficial to clinicians, patients, and citizens. This analysis highlights the lack of such rulings within the United States.

  20. Motivation and Engagement in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and China: Testing a Multi-Dimensional Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Yu, Kai; Papworth, Brad; Ginns, Paul; Collie, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored motivation and engagement among North American (the United States and Canada; n = 1,540), U.K. (n = 1,558), Australian (n = 2,283), and Chinese (n = 3,753) secondary school students. Motivation and engagement were assessed via students' responses to the Motivation and Engagement Scale-High School (MES-HS). Confirmatory factor…

  1. Motivation and Engagement in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and China: Testing a Multi-Dimensional Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Yu, Kai; Papworth, Brad; Ginns, Paul; Collie, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored motivation and engagement among North American (the United States and Canada; n = 1,540), U.K. (n = 1,558), Australian (n = 2,283), and Chinese (n = 3,753) secondary school students. Motivation and engagement were assessed via students' responses to the Motivation and Engagement Scale-High School (MES-HS). Confirmatory…

  2. Parenting Behavior, Health, and Cognitive Development among Children in Black Immigrant Families: Comparing the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margot

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in child development in the United States are significant, with a particularly pronounced disadvantage among Black children. This report focuses on the development of children of Black immigrants, comparing against the outcomes for their peers in native-born and other immigrant families. The report also compares children in the…

  3. A survey of acoustic conditions in semi-open plan classrooms in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, Emma E; Shield, Bridget M

    2011-09-01

    This paper reports the results of a large scale, detailed acoustic survey of 42 open plan classrooms of varying design in the UK each of which contained between 2 and 14 teaching areas or classbases. The objective survey procedure, which was designed specifically for use in open plan classrooms, is described. The acoustic measurements relating to speech intelligibility within a classbase, including ambient noise level, intrusive noise level, speech to noise ratio, speech transmission index, and reverberation time, are presented. The effects on speech intelligibility of critical physical design variables, such as the number of classbases within an open plan unit and the selection of acoustic finishes for control of reverberation, are examined. This analysis enables limitations of open plan classrooms to be discussed and acoustic design guidelines to be developed to ensure good listening conditions. The types of teaching activity to provide adequate acoustic conditions, plus the speech intelligibility requirements of younger children, are also discussed.

  4. The accessibility of research-based knowledge for nurses in United Kingdom acute care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C; McCaughan, D; Cullum, N; Sheldon, T A; Mulhall, A; Thompson, D R

    2001-10-01

    The successful dissemination of the results of the National Health Service (NHS) research and development strategy and the development of evidence based approaches to health care rely on clinicians having access to the best available evidence; evidence fit for the purpose of reducing the uncertainties associated with clinical decisions. To reveal the accessibility of those sources of information actually used by nurses, as well as those which they say they use. Mixed method case site, using interview, observational, Q sort and documentary audit data in medical, surgical and coronary care units (CCUs) in three acute hospitals. Three perspectives on accessibility were identified: (a) the humanist--in which human sources of information were the most accessible; (b) local information for local needs--in which locally produced resources were seen as the most accessible and (c) moving towards technology--in which information technology begins to be seen as accessible. Nurses' experience in a clinical specialty is positively associated with a perception that human sources such as clinical nurse specialists, link nurses, doctors and experienced clinical colleagues are more accessible than text based sources. Clinical specialization is associated with different approaches to accessing research knowledge. Coronary care unit nurses were more likely to perceive local guidelines, protocols and on-line databases as more accessible than their counterparts in general medical and surgical wards. Only a third of text-based resources available to nurses on the wards had any explicit research base. These, and the remainder were out of date (mean age of textbooks 11 years), and authorship hard to ascertain. A strategy to increase the use of research evidence by nurses should harness the influence of clinical nurse specialists, link nurses and those engaged in practice development. These roles could act as 'conduits' through which research-based messages for practice, and information

  5. Variability in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury in the United Kingdom: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werndle, Melissa C; Zoumprouli, Argyro; Sedgwick, Philip; Papadopoulos, Marios C

    2012-03-20

    The aim of this study was to examine how traumatic spinal cord injury is managed in the United Kingdom via a questionnaire survey of all neurosurgical units. We contacted consultant neurosurgeons and neuroanesthetists in all neurosurgical centers that manage patients with acute spinal cord injury. Two clinical scenarios-of complete and incomplete cervical spinal cord injuries-were given to determine local treatment policies. There were 175 responders from the 33 centers (36% response rate). We ascertained neurosurgical views on urgency of transfer, timing of surgery, nature and aim of surgery, as well as neuroanesthetic views on type of anesthetic, essential intraoperative monitoring, drug treatment, and intensive care management. Approximately 70% of neurosurgeons will admit patients with incomplete spinal cord injury immediately, but only 40% will admit patients with complete spinal cord injury immediately. There is no consensus on the timing or even the role of surgery for incomplete or complete injuries. Most (96%) neuroanesthetists avoid anesthetics known to elevate intracranial pressure. What was deemed essential intraoperative monitoring, however, varied widely. Many (22%) neuroanesthetists do not routinely measure arterial blood pressure invasively, central venous pressure (85%), or cardiac output (94%) during surgery. There is no consensus among neuroanesthetists on the optimal levels of arterial blood pressure, or oxygen and carbon dioxide partial arterial pressure. We report wide variability among U.K. neurosurgeons and neuroanesthetists in their treatment of acute traumatic spinal cord injury. Our findings reflect the lack of Class 1 evidence that early surgical decompression and intensive medical management of patients with spinal cord injury improves neurological outcome.

  6. Firewater Storage, Treatment, Recycling and Management: New Perspectives Based on Experiences from the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Smart firewater management and recycling helps reduce water use and protect the environment from pollution. However, contamination of recycled water may pose a health risk to fire fighters. This review assesses international literature to identify best practices, and to recommend new technologies and methods on firewater management and recycling. The literature assessment indicates that this is a new research area where insufficient findings have been published in Web of Science-referenced journals. Therefore, informally published materials (a.k.a. grey literature were also assessed. Findings indicate the need for practical decision support tools to estimate consumption rates, predict “bottlenecks” and bund capacity, assess water quality and determine pump requirements. This article recommends that cost-efficient and rapid on-site treatment methods, such as compact and mobile filtration units for firewater recycling should be researched in the future. The filters should be based on compartments with different media. The empty pore space should decrease from inflow to outflow. A light plastic media should be positioned near the inflow to retain large particles, such as a grid. Activated carbon media could be placed near the outlet to remove fine suspended solids and dissolved contaminants. This should address concerns by fire fighters dealing with contaminated water, spray and foam.

  7. A postal survey of hydrosalpinx management prior to IVF in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammadieh, N; Afnan, M; Evans, J; Sharif, K; Amso, N; Olufowobi, O

    2004-04-01

    In the last decade, numerous studies have demonstrated concern about the presence of hydrosalpinx and its management in patients undergoing IVF. We evaluated the current management of hydrosalpinx prior to IVF treatment in the UK. A total of 117 postal survey, anonymous, sealed questionnaires were sent to all IVF centres in the UK, to determine the policy for the management of hydrosalpinx in infertile women prior to IVF treatment. There were 88 (75%) responders, of which 80 (91%) indicated that they discussed the effect of hydrosalpinx on IVF outcome. Ten (12%) units did not recommend treatment of hydrosalpinx prior to IVF treatment, while 30 (36%), 27 (33%) and 16 (19%) recommended treatment weakly, strongly and very strongly respectively. The treatment options offered by clinicians were laparoscopic salpingectomy (75%), open salpingectomy (45%), salpingostomy (40%), proximal tubal occlusion (34%), transvaginal songraphic (TVS) aspiration during oocyte collection (23%) and TVS aspiration before oocyte collection (10%). The frequency of use varied from one option of treatment to another. Only 28% of the responders had a protocol or guidelines for the management of hydrosalpinx. More attention should be given to patients with hydrosalpinx prior to IVF treatment and patients should be counselled about the negative effect of hydrosalpinx on IVF outcome. There is a wide variation in the management of hydrosalpinx prior to IVF treatment in the UK and many treatment options may be questionable, as they are not yet based on evidence.

  8. What should autism research focus upon? Community views and priorities from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members, practitioners and researchers to identify their priorities for research. We also captured the views of a large number of stakeholders via an online survey. There was a clear disparity between the United Kingdom’s pattern of funding for autism research and the priorities articulated by the majority of participants. There was general consensus that future priorities for autism research should lie in those areas that make a difference to people’s day-to-day lives. There needs to be greater involvement of the autism community both in priority setting and in research more broadly to ensure that resources reach where they are most needed and can make the most impact. PMID:24789871

  9. An epidemiological study of paediatric motocross injuries in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rohit; Malhotra, Akshay; Kyle, Nigel; Hay, Stuart

    2015-10-01

    Although off-road motorcycling is one of the most popular sports activities practised by millions of people worldwide, little has been written on motocross injuries and their prevention. In the UK alone, motocross has grown into a phenomenally ambitious and popular franchise. There are >200 motocross clubs across the country holding >900 events annually. The aim of this study is to categorise and quantify the magnitude of motocross paediatric injuries and associated morbidity. Data were collected prospectively over 4 years (2010-2014) at our unit. All injuries caused by motocross biking that were referred to our trauma and orthopaedic department were included in this study, regardless of whether the rider was performing the sport competitively or recreationally. During the study period, 130 patients (aged 4-17 years) were identified with a total of 142 injuries, ranging from one to six injuries per patient. Most of the injuries were sustained within the early spring and summer months, representing the start of the motocross season; 76 patients required hospital admission, with 60 (42 %) requiring surgical intervention. We present the first epidemiological study of motocross paediatric injuries in the UK. The results from this study highlight the frequency and severity of motocross-related injuries in the paediatric population in the UK. This may assist in providing recommendations and guidelines to governing bodies and to parents. The injuries sustained during motocross have significant resource implications, especially for smaller rural hospitals, as shown by the number of injuries doubling over the past 4 years.

  10. His Excellency Mr Ian de Jong, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations Office in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Visit of His Excellency Mr Ian de Jong, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations Office in Geneva, June 2003. From left to right: Dr Albert Ijspeert, Deputy Leader, Magnet and electrical systems Group, Accelerator Technology Division; Mr Maarten Wilbers, Legal Service; Prof. Cecilia Jarlskog, Adviser to the Director-General for Member State Relations; Mr Jan van der Boon, Director of Administration; His Excellency Mr Ian de Jong, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations Office in Geneva; Prof. Frank Linde, NIKHEF; Dr Lucie Linssen Experimental Physics Division, Technical Assistance Group and Mr C. J. van Riel, Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, Netherlands, Dutch Delegate to Council and Finance Committee.

  11. A comparison of career satisfaction amongst dental healthcare professionals across three health care systems: Comparison of data from the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Trinidad & Tobago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to compare the expressed levels of career satisfaction of three groups of comparable dental healthcare professionals, working in Trinidad, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Methods Three questionnaire surveys were carried out of comparable dental healthcare professionals. Dental nurses in Trinidad and dental therapists in the UK and New Zealand. Questionnaires were sent to all registered dental nurses or dental therapists. Results Career satisfaction was lowest amongst Dental Therapists working in Trinidad and Tobago. Approximately 59% of the Therapists working in New Zealand reported stated that they felt they were not a valued member of the dental team, the corresponding proportion in the United Kingdom was 32%, and for Trinidad 39%. Conclusion Dental therapists working in different healthcare systems report different levels of satisfaction with their career.

  12. Condliff v North Staffordshire Primary Care Trust: can human rights redress inequities in United Kingdom and Australian cost-containment-driven health care reforms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ruth; Faunce, Thomas

    2011-12-01

    A recent case from the English Court of Appeal (R (on the application of Condliff) v North Staffordshire Primary Care Trust [2011] EWCA Civ 910, concerning denial by a regional health care rationing committee of laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery for morbid obesity) demonstrates the problems of attempting to rely post hoc on human rights protections to ameliorate inequities in health care reforms that emphasise institutional budgets rather than universal access. This column analyses the complexities of such an approach in relation to recent policy debates and legislative reform of the health systems in the United Kingdom and Australia. Enforceable human rights, such as those available in the United Kingdom to the patient Tom Condliff, appear insufficient to adequately redress issues of inequity promoted by such "reforms". Equity may fare even worse under Australian cost-containment health care reforms, given the absence of relevant enforceable human rights in that jurisdiction.

  13. The cancer burden in the United Kingdom in 2007 due to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddams, Jacob; Parkin, D Maxwell; Darby, Sarah C

    2011-12-15

    The number of long-term cancer survivors in the general population of the UK is substantial and increasing rapidly. Many cancer survivors have been treated with radiotherapy but the likely number of radiotherapy-related second cancers has not previously been estimated. We used estimates of the numbers of cancer survivors in the UK at the beginning of 2007, in conjunction with estimates of the relative risk of a second primary cancer associated with previous radiotherapy from the United States Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) programme, to estimate the numbers of incident cancers in the UK in 2007 that were associated with radiotherapy for a previous cancer and that may have been caused by it. We estimated that 1,346 cases of cancer, or about 0.45% of the 298,000 new cancers registered in the UK in 2007, were associated with radiotherapy for a previous cancer. The largest numbers of radiotherapy-related second cancers were lung cancer (23.7% of the total), oesophageal cancer (13.3%), and female breast cancer (10.6%); 54% of radiotherapy-related second cancers were in individuals aged 75 or over. The highest percentages of second cancers related to radiotherapy were among survivors of Hodgkin's disease and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx and cervix uteri; over 15% of second cancers among these survivors were associated with radiotherapy for the first cancer. These calculations, which involve a number of assumptions and approximations, provide a reasonable, if conservative, estimate of the fraction of incident cancers in the UK that are attributable to past radiation therapy.

  14. The corporatization of community pharmacy:implications for service provision, the public health function, and pharmacy's claims to professional status in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Joe; Langley, Christopher A.; Wilson, Keith A

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmacy has experienced both incomplete professionalization and deprofessionalization. Since the late 1970s, a concerted attempt has been made to re-professionalize pharmacy in the United Kingdom (UK) through role extension—a key feature of which has been a drive for greater pharmacy involvement in public health. However, the continual corporatization of the UK community pharmacy sector may reduce the professional autonomy of pharmacists and may threaten to constrain attempts at r...

  15. Motivations of nursing students regarding their educational preparation for mental health nursing in Australia and the United Kingdom: a survey evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Edward, Karen-leigh; Warelow, Philip; Hemingway, Steve; Hercelinskyj, Gylo; Welch, Anthony; McAndrew, Sue; Stephenson, John

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been much debate by both academics and clinical agencies about the motivations and abilities of nurse graduates to work in mental health nursing. The aim of this study was to recruit student nurses from a dedicated mental health nursing program in the United Kingdom (UK) and a comprehensive nursing program in Australia and illuminate their motivations towards considering mental health nursing as a career choice. Methods This study comprised of two UK and four Australian S...

  16. THE IMPACT OF ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS ON THE CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANT (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) POPULATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM AND IRELAND (1995-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Rebecca; Howard, Lauren; Masters, Nic; Grant, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is one of the most devastating infections and causes of mortality in captive Asian elephant ( Elephas maximus ) populations. Eight confirmed fatal EEHV cases have occurred since 1995 within the captive Asian elephant population of the United Kingdom and Ireland. This report aims to review the impact of EEHV on the captive Asian elephant population in the United Kingdom and Ireland, document and compare fatal cases, and recommend a framework of monitoring within the United Kingdom and Ireland to increase the success of treatment of EEHV hemorrhagic disease (EEHV HD) in the future. Six zoologic institutions (which include zoos, safari parks, and wildlife parks) that currently house or have previously housed a captive Asian elephant group were included in this report. Medical records and postmortem results were collected from four of these institutions for each confirmed fatal case. EEHV HD was found to be responsible for 29.6% of fatalities in Asian elephants born in captivity in the United Kingdom and Ireland between 1995 and 2013. Following a review of all the cases, it is shown that although clinical signs may be associated with specific EEHV species, the swiftness of disease progression means that most body tissues are impacted 1-6 days following the presentation of visible clinical signs and treatment is less likely to succeed. Therefore, EEHV monitoring should consist of conducting regular polymerase chain reaction analysis of whole blood samples from at-risk, young Asian elephants aged 1-8 yr in order for subclinical viremia to be identified early and treatment to be started before the appearance of visible clinical signs.

  17. Reflecting on the methodological challenges of recruiting to a United Kingdom-wide, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial in gynaecology outpatient settings

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Successful recruitment of participants to any trial is central to its success. Trial results are routinely published, and recruitment is often cited to be slower and more difficult than anticipated. This article reflects on the methodological challenges of recruiting women with prolapse attending United Kingdom (UK) gynaecology outpatient clinics to a multi-centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) of physiotherapy, and the systems put in place in an attempt to address them. Methods...

  18. The applicability of a validated team-based learning student assessment instrument to assess United Kingdom pharmacy students’ attitude toward team-based learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, Leanne Marie; Tweddell, Simon; Rutter, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: It aimed at testing the validity and reliability of a validated team-based learning student assessment instrument (TBL-SAI) to assess United Kingdom pharmacy students’ attitude toward TBL. Methods: TBL-SAI, consisting of 33 items, was administered to undergraduate pharmacy students from two schools of pharmacy each at University of Wolverhampton and University of Bradford were conducted on the data, along with comparison between the two schools. Results: Students’ response rate was 8...

  19. Delivering digital health and well-being at scale: lessons learned during the implementation of the dallas program in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Devlin, Alison M.; McGee-Lennon, Marily; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Bouamrane, Matt-Mouley; Agbakoba, Ruth; O'Connor, Siobhan; Grieve, Eleanor; Finch, Tracy; Wyke, Sally; Watson, Nicholas; Browne, Susan; Frances S Mair

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify implementation lessons from the United Kingdom Delivering Assisted Living Lifestyles at Scale (dallas) program—a large-scale, national technology program that aims to deliver a broad range of digital services and products to the public to promote health and well-being.\\ud \\ud Materials and Methods: Prospective, longitudinal qualitative research study investigating implementation processes. Qualitative data collected includes semi-structured e-Health Implementation Toolk...

  20. Estimation and comparison of EQ-5D health states' utility weights for pneumococcal and human papillomavirus diseases in Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galante, Julieta; Augustovski, Federico; Colantonio, Lisandro; Bardach, Ariel; Caporale, Joaquin; Marti, Sebastian Garcia; Kind, Paul

    2011-01-01

    To estimate and compare EuroQol instrument (EQ-5D) health states' values for pneumococcal and human papillomavirus (HPV) diseases in Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom. Twelve vignettes were designed, pilot-tested, and administered to a convenience sample in a cross-sectional design to elicit descriptive EQ-5D state data. Country-specific EQ-5D time-trade-off-based weights were used to map these descriptive health states into local country preference weights. Descriptive analysis is reported and intercountry differences for each condition were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance. Seventy-three subjects completed the survey. Pneumococcal disease-related health states mean values ranged from -0.331 (sepsis, Chile) to 0.727 (auditive sequelae, Argentina). HPV-related conditions ranged from 0.152 (cervical cancer, United Kingdom) to 0.848 (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 1, Argentina). Chile had consistently the lowest mean values in pneumococcal states and in one HPV state, whereas those of the United Kingdom were the lowest in most HPV states. Argentina had the highest mean values in both diseases. Differences in country-specific values for each health state were statistically (P < 0.001) significant except for six health states in which differences between Chilean and United Kingdom weights were nonsignificant. Utility values for most conditions differed statistically relevantly among analyzed countries, even though the same health states' descriptive set was valued for each. These results reflect the difference in social weights among different countries, which could be attributed to either different population values or valuation study methodologies. They stress the importance of using local preference weights for context-specific decision making. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Winning the Hearts and Minds: Improving U.S. Counter-Radicalization Efforts Through a Study of the United Kingdoms Prevent Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    travel through air and sea, thus providing a wealth of targets to international terrorists. One key difference between the two 68Thomas Joscelyn...need to be effective from the Internet at their leisure . And, finally, today’s terrorist may be those individuals who have grown up in the very... traveling or resident overseas. It is these connections that highlight the key fact that PREVENT work in the United Kingdom is often dependent on

  2. Evolving Distributed Generation Support Mechanisms: Case Studies from United States, Germany, United Kingdom, and Australia (Chinese translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shengru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This is the Chinese translation of NREL/TP-6A20-67613. This report expands on a previous National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) technical report (Lowder et al. 2015) that focused on the United States' unique approach to distributed generation photovoltaics (DGPV) support policies and business models. While the focus of that report was largely historical (i.e., detailing the policies and market developments that led to the growth of DGPV in the United States), this report looks forward, narrating recent changes to laws and regulations as well as the ongoing dialogues over how to incorporate distributed generation (DG) resources onto the electric grid. This report also broadens the scope of Lowder et al. (2015) to include additional countries and technologies. DGPV and storage are the principal technologies under consideration (owing to market readiness and deployment volumes), but the report also contemplates any generation resource that is (1) on the customer side of the meter, (2) used to, at least partly, offset a host's energy consumption, and/or (3) potentially available to provide grid support (e.g., through peak shaving and load shifting, ancillary services, and other means).

  3. Comparison on the Institutional Repositories between United Kingdom and United States%英美机构知识库的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永红; 吴振寰

    2014-01-01

    Based on the investigation of the institutional repositories development status between United Kingdom and United States from OpenDOAR, this paper ifrstly analyses their outlines, then it compares the institutional repositories from the types, the sotfwares, the sizes, the digital resources kinds, the subject, the languages, the open access, and so on. hTeir main sameness and difference are summarized to provide some enlightenments to construct the institutional repositories in China.%文章针对OpenDOAR网站所登记注册的英美机构知识库进行调查,分析英美机构知识库发展概况,并主要从机构知识库的主要类型及创建主体、创建软件应用情况、知识库容量大小、资源收录类型、学科分布、语种、开放存取情况等方面进行比较,总结两国的主要相同点和差异,为中国机构知识库建设提供相应的启示。

  4. The pre-history of health psychology in the United Kingdom: From natural science and psychoanalysis to social science, social cognition and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Health psychology formally came of age in the United Kingdom in the 1980s, but it was prefigured by much discussion about challenges to the dominance of biomedicine in healthcare and debates about the role of individual behaviour change in promoting population health. Despite current progress and accomplishments, it is important to reflect upon earlier attempts to explore the psychological dimensions of health and illness. It is through such exploration that we can begin to reveal the connection between ideas and the social context. This article focuses on what could be termed the pre-history of health psychology in the United Kingdom. This was the period in the earlier 20th century when psychological approaches were dominated by psychoanalysis which was in tension with more positivist approaches. In the post-World War II period, the classical form of psychoanalysis turned to a concern with relationships. This was the period which also saw the rise of behaviourism and then cognitivism each of which had a strong influence on the new profession of clinical psychology and then health psychology. Review of this pre-history provides the backdrop for the rise of health psychology in the United Kingdom and also reveals the tensions between the different theoretical perspectives.

  5. Quantifying missing annual emission sources of heavy metals in the United Kingdom with an atmospheric transport model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dore, Anthony J., E-mail: todo@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (United Kingdom); Hallsworth, Stephen [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (United Kingdom); McDonald, Alan G. [Scottish Environment Protection Agency (United Kingdom); Werner, Małgorzata; Kryza, Maciej [Department of Climatology and Atmosphere Protection, University of Wrocław (Poland); Abbot, John [Ricardo-AEA, Didcot (United Kingdom); Nemitz, Eiko [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (United Kingdom); Dore, Christopher J. [Aether Ltd., Oxford (United Kingdom); Malcolm, Heath; Vieno, Massimo; Reis, Stefan; Fowler, David [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-01

    An atmospheric chemical transport model was adapted to simulate the concentration and deposition of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc) in the United Kingdom. The model showed that wet deposition was the most important process for the transfer of metals from the atmosphere to the land surface. The model achieved a good correlation with annually averaged measurements of metal concentrations in air. The correlation with measurements of wet deposition was less strong due to the complexity of the atmospheric processes involved in the washout of particulate matter which were not fully captured by the model. The measured wet deposition and air concentration of heavy metals were significantly underestimated by the model for all metals (except vanadium) by factors between 2 and 10. These results suggest major missing sources of annual heavy metal emissions which are currently not included in the official inventory. Primary emissions were able to account for only 9%, 21%, 29%, 21%, 36%, 7% and 23% of the measured concentrations for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. A likely additional contribution to atmospheric heavy metal concentrations is the wind driven re-suspension of surface dust still present in the environment from the legacy of much higher historic emissions. Inclusion of two independent estimates of emissions from re-suspension in the model was found to give an improved agreement with measurements. However, an accurate estimate of the magnitude of re-suspended emissions is restricted by the lack of measurements of metal concentrations in the re-suspended surface dust layer. - Highlights: • Concentrations and deposition of 9 heavy metals in the UK were simulated. • Modelled data were well correlated to measured concentrations and deposition. • The model greatly underestimated metal deposition and air concentrations. • Under-estimation was attributed to wind-driven re-suspension of surface dust.

  6. Quantifying missing annual emission sources of heavy metals in the United Kingdom with an atmospheric transport model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Anthony J; Hallsworth, Stephen; McDonald, Alan G; Werner, Małgorzata; Kryza, Maciej; Abbot, John; Nemitz, Eiko; Dore, Christopher J; Malcolm, Heath; Vieno, Massimo; Reis, Stefan; Fowler, David

    2014-05-01

    An atmospheric chemical transport model was adapted to simulate the concentration and deposition of heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, selenium, vanadium, and zinc) in the United Kingdom. The model showed that wet deposition was the most important process for the transfer of metals from the atmosphere to the land surface. The model achieved a good correlation with annually averaged measurements of metal concentrations in air. The correlation with measurements of wet deposition was less strong due to the complexity of the atmospheric processes involved in the washout of particulate matter which were not fully captured by the model. The measured wet deposition and air concentration of heavy metals were significantly underestimated by the model for all metals (except vanadium) by factors between 2 and 10. These results suggest major missing sources of annual heavy metal emissions which are currently not included in the official inventory. Primary emissions were able to account for only 9%, 21%, 29%, 21%, 36%, 7% and 23% of the measured concentrations for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. A likely additional contribution to atmospheric heavy metal concentrations is the wind driven re-suspension of surface dust still present in the environment from the legacy of much higher historic emissions. Inclusion of two independent estimates of emissions from re-suspension in the model was found to give an improved agreement with measurements. However, an accurate estimate of the magnitude of re-suspended emissions is restricted by the lack of measurements of metal concentrations in the re-suspended surface dust layer.

  7. Mapping the Relative Probability of Common Toad Occurrence in Terrestrial Lowland Farm Habitat in the United Kingdom.

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    Rosie D Salazar

    Full Text Available The common toad (Bufo bufo is of increasing conservation concern in the United Kingdom (UK due to dramatic population declines occurring in the past century. Many of these population declines coincided with reductions in both terrestrial and aquatic habitat availability and quality and have been primarily attributed to the effect of agricultural land conversion (of natural and semi-natural habitats to arable and pasture fields and pond drainage. However, there is little evidence available to link habitat availability with common toad population declines, especially when examined at a broad landscape scale. Assessing such patterns of population declines at the landscape scale, for instance, require an understanding of how this species uses terrestrial habitat.We intensively studied the terrestrial resource selection of a large population of common toads in Oxfordshire, England, UK. Adult common toads were fitted with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags to allow detection in the terrestrial environment using a portable PIT antenna once toads left the pond and before going into hibernation (April/May-October 2012 and 2013. We developed a population-level resource selection function (RSF to assess the relative probability of toad occurrence in the terrestrial environment by collecting location data for 90 recaptured toads.The predicted relative probability of toad occurrence for this population was greatest in wooded habitat near to water bodies; relative probability of occurrence declined dramatically > 50 m from these habitats. Toads also tended to select habitat near to their breeding pond and toad occurrence was negatively related to urban environments.

  8. An integrated appraisal of energy recovery options in the United Kingdom using solid recovered fuel derived from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, A; Smith, R; Hill, D; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Simms, N J

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports an integrated appraisal of options for utilising solid recovered fuels (SRF) (derived from municipal solid waste, MSW) in energy intensive industries within the United Kingdom (UK). Four potential co-combustion scenarios have been identified following discussions with industry stakeholders. These scenarios have been evaluated using (a) an existing energy and mass flow framework model, (b) a semi-quantitative risk analysis, (c) an environmental assessment and (d) a financial assessment. A summary of results from these evaluations for the four different scenarios is presented. For the given ranges of assumptions; SRF co-combustion with coal in cement kilns was found to be the optimal scenario followed by co-combustion of SRF in coal-fired power plants. The biogenic fraction in SRF (ca. 70%) reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly ( approximately 2500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired cement kilns and approximately 1500 g CO(2) eqvt./kg DS SRF in co-fired power plants). Potential reductions in electricity or heat production occurred through using a lower calorific value (CV) fuel. This could be compensated for by savings in fuel costs (from SRF having a gate fee) and grants aimed at reducing GHG emission to encourage the use of fuels with high biomass fractions. Total revenues generated from coal-fired power plants appear to be the highest ( 95 pounds/t SRF) from the four scenarios. However overall, cement kilns appear to be the best option due to the low technological risks, environmental emissions and fuel cost. Additionally, cement kiln operators have good experience of handling waste derived fuels. The scenarios involving co-combustion of SRF with MSW and biomass were less favourable due to higher environmental risks and technical issues.

  9. Factors driving the development of healthcare waste management in the United Kingdom over the past 60 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, William K; Cheeseman, Christopher; Edgar, Jen; Tudor, Terry

    2009-06-01

    Since the creation of the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom in 1948 there have been significant changes in the way waste materials produced by healthcare facilities have been managed due to a number of environmental, legal and social drivers. This paper reviews the key changes in legislation and healthcare waste management that have occurred in the UK between 1948 and the present time. It investigates reasons for the changes and how the problems associated with healthcare wastes have been addressed. The reaction of the public to offensive disposal practices taking place locally required political action by the UK government and subsequently by the European legislature. The relatively new UK industry of hazardous healthcare waste management has developed rapidly over the past 25 years in response to significant changes in healthcare practices. The growth in knowledge and appreciation of environmental issues has also been fundamental to the development of this industry. Legislation emanating from Europe is now responsible for driving change to UK healthcare waste management. This paper examines the drivers that have caused the healthcare waste management to move forward in the 60 years since the NHS was formed. It demonstrates that the situation has moved from a position where there was no overall strategy to the current situation where there is a strong regulatory framework but still no national strategy. The reasons for this situation are examined and based upon the experience gained; suggestions are made for the benefit of countries with systems for healthcare waste management still in the early stages of development or without any provisions at all.

  10. Reforging the Wedding Ring: Exploring a Semi-Artificial Model of Population for the United Kingdom with Gaussian process emulators

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    Viet Dung Cao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: We extend the "Wedding Ring‟ agent-based model of marriage formation to include some empirical information on the natural population change for the United Kingdom together with behavioural explanations that drive the observed nuptiality trends. Objective: We propose a method to explore statistical properties of agent-based demographic models. By coupling rule-based explanations driving the agent-based model with observed data we wish to bring agent-based modelling and demographic analysis closer together. Methods: We present a Semi-Artificial Model of Population, which aims to bridge demographic micro-simulation and agent-based traditions. We then utilise a Gaussian process emulator - a statistical model of the base model - to analyse the impact of selected model parameters on two key model outputs: population size and share of married agents. A sensitivity analysis is attempted, aiming to assess the relative importance of different inputs. Results: The resulting multi-state model of population dynamics has enhanced predictive capacity as compared to the original specification of the Wedding Ring, but there are some trade-offs between the outputs considered. The sensitivity analysis allows identification of the most important parameters in the modelled marriage formation process. Conclusions: The proposed methods allow for generating coherent, multi-level agent-based scenarios aligned with some aspects of empirical demographic reality. Emulators permit a statistical analysis of their properties and help select plausible parameter values. Comments: Given non-linearities in agent-based models such as the Wedding Ring, and the presence of feedback loops, the uncertainty in the model may not be directly computable by using traditional statistical methods. The use of statistical emulators offers a way forward.

  11. Rate of first recorded diagnosis of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders in United Kingdom general practice, 1988 to 2001

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    Smith Peter G

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been concern that the incidence of autism and other pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs is increasing. Previous studies have been smaller, restricted to autism (excluding other pervasive developmental disorders such as Asperger's syndrome, included boys only, or have not been based on a national sample. We investigated time trends in the rates of diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders. Methods We analysed the rates of first diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders among people registered with a practice contributing to the United Kingdom General Practice Research Database during the period 1988 to 2001. We included 1410 cases from over 14 million person-years of observation. The main outcome measures were rates of diagnosis of pervasive developmental disorders by year of diagnosis, year of birth, gender and geographical region. Results The rate increased progressively from 0.40/10,000 person-years (95% CI 0.30 to 0.54 in 1991 to 2.98/10,000 (95% CI 2.56 to 3.47 in 2001. A similar change occurred in the age standardised incidence ratios, from 35 (95% CI: 26–47 in 1991 to 365 (95% CI: 314–425 in 2001. The temporal increase was not limited to children born during specific years nor to children diagnosed in a specific time period. The rate of diagnosis of PDDs other than autism rose from zero for the period 1988–1992 to 1.06/10,000 person-years in 2001. The rate of diagnosis of autism also increased but to a lesser extent. There was marked geographical variation in rates, with standardised incidence ratios varying from 66 for Wales to 141 for the South East of England. Conclusions Better ascertainment of diagnosis is likely to have contributed to the observed temporal increase in rates of diagnosis of PDD, but we cannot exclude a real increase.

  12. The role of hormones in the differences in the incidence of breast cancer between Mongolia and the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Troisi

    Full Text Available There are striking differences in breast cancer incidence between Asian and western women. Rates vary substantially within Asia also, with Mongolia's even lower than China's. These profound differences have been speculated to be due in part to diet, mediated by circulating hormone concentrations.Sex steroid hormone concentrations were measured in women living in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia and the United Kingdom (U.K.. Diet was obtained by interview and national survey data. Mean hormone differences were compared by country, and systematic variation by number of days since last menstrual period was modeled and adjusted for age and parity; difference in overall area under the curves was assessed.The diet in Mongolia was higher in meat and dairy than in the U.K. Mean testosterone concentrations were 18.5% lower (p<0.0001 while estradiol concentrations were 19.1% higher (p = 0.02 in Mongolian than British women, adjusted for age and parity. Progesterone was almost 50% higher in Mongolian women (p = 0.04, particularly during the follicular phase and early luteal surge. Hormone concentrations generally were similar in Mongolian women born in Ulaanbaatar compared with those born in rural areas, although there was a decreasing progesterone trend by degree of westernization (rural Mongolia; urban Mongolia; U.K.. Mean hormone differences were similar when restricted to parous women, and with further adjustment for body mass index, height, and smoking status.These data augment accumulating evidence that circulating estrogens are unlikely to explain reduced breast cancer rates in Asia compared with the west, and suggest casting a wider net with respect to biomarkers. Lower testosterone and higher progesterone in Mongolian women raise the possibility that these hormones may be important to consider. In addition, the almost exclusive dietary reliance of Mongolians on meat and dairy argues against beneficial effects of a low-fat diet on circulating hormones

  13. Pace of change in coronary heart disease mortality in Finland, Ireland and the United Kingdom from 1985 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Tom; Bennett, Kathleen; O'Flaherty, Martin; Jennings, Siobhan

    2008-12-01

    Finland, Ireland and the United Kingdom have the highest rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality among EU-15 countries. This study examines the pace of change in CHD mortality in these countries from 1985-2006. The percentage change in 5-year average all age, under 65 and 65 years and over age standardized mortality rates from 1985-89 to 2002-06 was calculated for each country. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to analyse age standardized mortality rates to identify points (years) where the slope of the linear trend changed significantly. The pace of change in the CHD mortality rate was measured using annual percentage change (APC). The percentage change in 5-year age standardized (under 65) CHD mortality rates was similar in Finland and the UK for both genders whereas in Ireland the rate of change was greater, especially for females. The percentage change in >/=65 year and all age rates was between 8.2% and 12.4% lower for Finnish males, and between 11.6% and 13% lower for Finnish females compared to their Irish and UK counterparts. There were different turning points in the downward trend in CHD mortality across the three countries varying from 1991-2003. The APC in CHD mortality after the turning point was greatest for Irish males (all age = -7.3%, under 65 = -8.2% and 65 and over = -7.1%), and Irish females (under 65 = -7.2%). We have identified differing pace of decline in three countries with similar burden of disease and successful national strategies to control CHD.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance risk factors and characterisation of faecal E. coli isolated from healthy Labrador retrievers in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Vanessa M; Pinchbeck, Gina L; Nuttall, Tim; McEwan, Neil; Dawson, Susan; Williams, Nicola J

    2015-04-01

    Antimicrobial resistant bacteria are increasingly detected from canine samples but few studies have examined commensal isolates in healthy community dogs. We aimed to characterise faecal Escherichia coli from 73 healthy non-veterinarian-visiting and non-antimicrobial treated Labrador retrievers, recruited from dog shows in the North West United Kingdom between November 2010 and June 2011. Each enrolled dog provided one faecal sample for our study. E. coli were isolated from 72/73 (99%) faecal samples. Disc diffusion susceptibility tests were determined for a range of antimicrobials, including phenotypic extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC-production. PCR assay detected phylogenetic groups and resistance genes (blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaTEM, blaOXA, blaCIT, qnr), and conjugation experiments were performed to investigate potential transfer of mobile genetic elements. Multivariable logistic regression examined potential risk factors from owner-questionnaires for the presence of antimicrobial resistant faecal E. coli. Antimicrobial resistant, multi-drug resistant (≥3 antimicrobial classes; MDR) and AmpC-producing E. coli were detected in 63%, 30% and 16% of samples, respectively. ESBL-producing E. coli was detected from only one sample and conjugation experiments found that blaCTX-M and blaCIT were transferred from commensal E. coli to a recipient strain. Most isolates were phylogenetic groups B1 and A. Group B2 isolates were associated with lower prevalence of resistance to at least one antimicrobial (PE. coli were surprisingly prevalent in this group of non-antimicrobial treated and non-veterinarian-visiting dogs and consumption of raw meat was a significant risk factor for antimicrobial resistance. These findings are of concern due to the increasing popularity of raw-meat canine diets, and the potential for opportunistic infection, zoonotic transmission and transmission of antimicrobial resistant determinants from commensal isolates to potential pathogenic

  15. The Impact of a Potential Shale Gas Development in Germany and the United Kingdom on Pollutant and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, L.; Cremonese, L.; Bartels, M. P.; Butler, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Several European countries with domestic shale gas reserves are considering extracting this natural gas resource to complement their energy transition agenda. Natural gas, which produces lower CO2 emissions upon combustion compared to coal or oil, has the potential to serve as a bridge in the transition from fossil fuels to renewables. However, the generation of shale gas leads to emissions of CH4 and pollutants such as PM, NOx and VOCs, which in turn impact climate as well as local and regional air quality. In this study, we explore the impact of a potential shale gas development in Europe, specifically in Germany and the United Kingdom, on emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants. In order to investigate the effect on emissions, we first estimate a range of wells drilled per year and production volume for the two countries under examination based on available geological information and on regional infrastructural and economic limitations. Subsequently we assign activity data and emissions factors to the well development, gas production and processing stages of shale gas generation to enable emissions quantification. We then define emissions scenarios to explore different storylines of potential shale gas development, including low emissions (high level of regulation), high emissions (low level of regulation) and middle emissions scenarios, which influence fleet make-up, emission factor and activity data choices for emissions quantification. The aim of this work is to highlight important variables and their ranges, to promote discussion and communication of potential impacts, and to construct possible visions for a future shale gas development in the two study countries. In a follow-up study, the impact of pollutant emissions from these scenarios on air quality will be explored using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model.

  16. Prevalence of GMC performance assessments in the United Kingdom: a retrospective cohort analysis by country of medical qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, L; Potts, H W W; Sturrock, A; Dacre, J

    2017-04-04

    The demographics of doctors working in the UK are changing. The United Kingdom (UK) has voted to leave the European Union (EU) and there is heightened political discourse around the world about the impact of migration on healthcare services. Previous work suggests that foreign trained doctors perform worse than UK graduates in postgraduate medical examinations. We analysed the prevalence by country of primary medical qualification of doctors who were required to take an assessment by the General Medical Council (GMC) because of performance concerns. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of data routinely collected by the GMC. We compared doctors who had a GMC performance assessment between 1996 and 2013 with the medical register in the same period. The outcome measures were numbers experiencing performance assessments by country or region of medical qualification. The rate of performance assessment varied significantly by place of medical qualification and by year; χ (2)(17) = 188, p medical qualification. This is the first study to explore the risk of performance assessment by individual places of medical qualification. While concern has largely focused on the competence of non-EEA, International Medical Graduates, we discuss implications for how to ensure European trained doctors are fit to practise before their medical licence in the UK is granted. Further research is needed to investigate whether these country effects hold true when controlling for factors like doctors' sex, age, length of time working in the UK, and English language skills. This will allow evidence-based decisions to be made around the regulatory environment the UK should adopt once it leaves the EU. Patients should be reassured that the vast majority of all doctors working in the UK are competent.

  17. Implementing health promotion in schools: protocol for a realist systematic review of research and experience in the United Kingdom (UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearson Mark

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School-based interventions and campaigns are used to promote health and address a wide variety of public health problems. Schools are considered to be key sites for the implementation of health promotion programmes for their potential to reach the whole population in particular age-groups and instil healthy patterns of behavior early in life. However, evidence for the effectiveness of school-based health promotion interventions is highly variable. Systematic reviews of the evidence of school-based interventions tend to be highly problem- or intervention- specific, thereby missing potential generic insights into implementation and effectiveness of such programmes across problems. Methods/design A realist systematic review will be undertaken to explain how, why and in what circumstances schools can provide feasible settings for effective health promotion programmes in the United Kingdom (UK. The review will be conducted in two phases. Phase 1 will identify programme theories about implementation (ideas about what enables or inhibits effective health promotion to be delivered in a school setting. Phase 2 will test the programme theories so that they can be challenged, endorsed and/or refined. A Review Advisory Group of education and health professionals will be convened to help identify and choose potential programme theories, provide a ‘reality check’ on the clarity and explanatory strength of the mechanisms to be tested, and help shape the presentation of findings to be usable by practitioners and decision-makers. Review findings will be disseminated through liaison with decision-makers, and voluntary and professional groups in the fields of education and health.

  18. Periprocedural Prophylactic Antithrombotic Strategies in Interventional Radiology: Current Practice in the Netherlands and Comparison with the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersema, Arno M., E-mail: arno@wiersema.nu [Westfriesgasthuis, Hoorn, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Vos, Jan-Albert, E-mail: j.a.vos@antonius.net [St Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (Netherlands); Bruijninckx, Cornelis M. A., E-mail: cmabruijninckx@planet.nl [Equipe Zorg Bedrijven, Rotterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Division of Interventional Radiology (Netherlands); Reijnen, Michel M. P. J., E-mail: mmpj.reijnen@gmail.com [Rijnstate Hospital, Arnhem, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Vahl, Anco, E-mail: a.c.vahl@olvg.nl [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Amsterdam, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Zeebregts, Clark J., E-mail: czeebregts@hotmail.com [University of Groningen, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University Medical Centre Groningen (Netherlands); Moll, Frans L., E-mail: F.L.Moll@umcutrecht.nl [University of Utrecht, Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University Medical Centre Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The use of prophylactic antithrombotic drugs to prevent arterial thrombosis during the periprocedural period during (percutaneous) peripheral arterial interventions (PAIs) is still a matter of dispute, and clear evidence-based guidelines are lacking. To create those guidelines, a study group was formed in the Netherlands in cooperation with the Dutch Society of Vascular Surgery and the Society of Interventional Radiology. The study group is called 'Consensus on Arterial PeriProcedural Anticoagulation (CAPPA).' Materials and Methods: The CAPPA study group devised and distributed a comprehensive questionnaire amongst Dutch interventional radiologists (IRs). Results: One hundred forty-two IRs responded (68 %) to the questionnaire. Almost no IR stopped acetyl salicylic acid before interventions, and 40 % stopped clopidogrel before PAI but not before carotid artery stenting (CAS). A flushing solution on the sideport of the sheath was used routinely by 30 % of IRs in PAI and by 50 % of IRs during CAS. A minority of IRs used a heparinised flushing solution (28 %). Unfractionated heparin was used by 95 % of IRs as bolus; 5000 IU was the most used dosage. Timing of administration varied widely. A majority of IRs (75 %) repeated heparin administration after 1 h. Conclusion: A substantial variety exists amongst IRs in the Netherlands regarding the use of prophylactic periprocedural antithrombotic drugs to prevent arterial thrombosis during PAI. When compared with varying results regarding the use of heparin in the United Kingdom, the variety in the Netherlands showed a different pattern. The proven variety in these countries, and also between these countries, emphasises the need for authoritative studies to develop evidence-based practical guidelines.

  19. Tooth loss in the United Kingdom--trends in social inequalities: an age-period-and-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed trends in social inequalities in tooth loss in the United Kingdom between 1988 and 2009. Data from 20,126 adults who participated in the latest three national Adult Dental Health Surveys in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were used. Social class was determined using the 6-point Registrar General's Social Class. Three indicators of tooth loss were analysed; the proportion of edentate people among all adults and the number of teeth and the proportion with functional dentition (defined as having 20+ teeth) among dentate adults. Trends were modelled within an age, period and cohort framework using partial least squares regression (PLSR). Confidence intervals for PLSR estimates were obtained using non-parametric bootstrapping. The Slope and Relative Index of Inequality (SII and RII) were used to quantify social inequalities in tooth loss. Between 1988 and 2009, absolute inequalities in total tooth loss narrowed (SII changed from -28.4% to -15.3%) while relative inequalities widened (RII from 6.21 to 20.9) in the whole population. On the other hand, absolute and relative social inequality in tooth loss remained fairly stable over time among dentate adults. There was an absolute difference of 2.5-2.9 in number of teeth and 22-26% in the proportion with functional dentition between the lowest and highest social classes. In relative terms, the highest social class had 10-11% more teeth and 25-28% higher probability of having functional dentition than the lowest social class. The findings show pervasive inequalities in tooth loss by social class among British adults despite marked improvements in tooth retention in recent years and generations. In the whole adult population, absolute inequalities in tooth loss have narrowed while relative inequalities have increased steadily. Among dentate adults, absolute and relative inequalities in number of teeth and proportion of people with functional dentition have remained significant but unchanged over time.

  20. Prescribing trends in bipolar disorder: cohort study in the United Kingdom THIN primary care database 1995-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hayes

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine changes in prescribing patterns in primary care of antipsychotic and mood stabiliser medication in a representative sample of patients with bipolar disorder in the United Kingdom over a fifteen year period and association with socio-demographic factors. METHODS: We identified 4700 patients in the Health Improvement Network (THIN primary care database, who had received treatment for bipolar disorder between 1995 and 2009. The proportion of time for which each individual was prescribed a particular medication was studied, along with variation by sex, age and social depravation status (quintiles of Townsend scores. The number of drugs an individual was taking within a particular year was also examined. RESULTS: In 1995, 40.6% of patients with bipolar disorder were prescribed a psychotropic medication at least twice. By 2009 this had increased to 78.5% of patients. Valproate registered with the greatest increase in use (22.7% followed by olanzapine (15.7% and quetiapine (9.9%. There were differences by age and sex; with young (18-30 year old women having the biggest increase in proportion of time on medication. There were no differences by social deprivation status. By 2009, 34.2% of women of childbearing age were treated with valproate. CONCLUSIONS: Lithium use overall remained relatively constant, whilst second generation antipsychotic and valproate use increased dramatically. Changes in prescribing practice preceded published trial evidence, especially with the use of second generation antipsychotics, perhaps with inferences being made from treatment of schizophrenia and use of first generation antipsychotics. Women of childbearing age were prescribed valproate frequently, against best advice.

  1. Smartphone and medical related App use among medical students and junior doctors in the United Kingdom (UK: a regional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne Karl Frederick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smartphone usage has spread to many settings including that of healthcare with numerous potential and realised benefits. The ability to download custom-built software applications (apps has created a new wealth of clinical resources available to healthcare staff, providing evidence-based decisional tools to reduce medical errors. Previous literature has examined how smartphones can be utilised by both medical student and doctor populations, to enhance educational and workplace activities, with the potential to improve overall patient care. However, this literature has not examined smartphone acceptance and patterns of medical app usage within the student and junior doctor populations. Methods An online survey of medical student and foundation level junior doctor cohorts was undertaken within one United Kingdom healthcare region. Participants were asked whether they owned a Smartphone and if they used apps on their Smartphones to support their education and practice activities. Frequency of use and type of app used was also investigated. Open response questions explored participants’ views on apps that were desired or recommended and the characteristics of apps that were useful. Results 257 medical students and 131 junior doctors responded, equating to a response rate of 15.0% and 21.8% respectively. 79.0% (n=203/257 of medical students and 74.8% (n=98/131 of junior doctors owned a smartphone, with 56.6% (n=115/203 of students and 68.4% (n=67/98 of doctors owning an iPhone. The majority of students and doctors owned 1–5 medical related applications, with very few owning more than 10, and iPhone owners significantly more likely to own apps (Chi sq, p Conclusions This study found a high level of smartphone ownership and usage among medical students and junior doctors. Both groups endorse the development of more apps to support their education and clinical practice.

  2. Prevalence of feline leukaemia virus and antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus in cats in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, M J; Robertson, C; Jarrett, O

    1989-09-09

    A representative sample of the pet cat population of the United Kingdom was surveyed. Blood samples from 1204 sick and 1007 healthy cats of known breed, age and sex were tested for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV). The prevalence of FIV was 19 per cent in sick cats and 6 per cent in healthy cats, and the prevalence of FeLV was 18 per cent in sick cats and 5 per cent in healthy cats; both infections were more common in domestic cats than in pedigree cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus was more prevalent in older cats but FeLV was more prevalent in younger cats. There was no difference between the prevalence of FeLV in male and female cats but male cats were more likely to be infected with FIV than female cats. No interaction was demonstrated between FIV and FeLV infections. Of the cats which were in contact with FIV in households with more than one cat, 21 per cent had seroconverted. The prevalence of FeLV viraemia in cats in contact with FeLV was 14 per cent. The clinical signs associated with FIV were pyrexia, gingivitis/stomatitis and respiratory signs, and with FeLV, pyrexia and anaemia. It was concluded that both viruses were significant causes of disease, and that the cats most likely to be infected with FIV were older, free-roaming male cats and for FeLV, younger, free-roaming cats.

  3. A Global Investigation of Recent Geoscience Graduates, Beginning with Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C. E.; Keane, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    The American Geosciences Institute's Workforce Program has successfully established AGI's Geoscience Student Exit Survey in the United States with yearly reports revealing the motivations of students for majoring in the geosciences, their experiences while working towards the degree, their future plans immediately after finishing their terminal degree, and their development in the workforce as they establish themselves in a career. The reports from 2013, 2014, and 2015 can be found at http://www.americangeosciences.org/workforce/reports. This information has provided important benchmark data to begin investigating the early-career geoscience workforce. With the increasing success of this project, discussions shifted towards a more global understanding of geoscience graduates. Collaborations were established last year with the Council of Chairs of Canadian Earth Science Departments and the Geological Society of London. AGI's Geoscience Student Exit Survey was translated to be relevant to graduates in each of these countries resulting in slightly different but very comparable results between the four countries. The surveys were distributed to the U.K. and Canada in the spring and summer of 2015. This presentation will discuss some of the issues and surprises encountered during the survey translation process and the initial comparisons seen between the recent graduates from the four different countries.

  4. Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Professor Sir Mark Walport Government Chief Scientific Adviser Head of Government Science and Engineering Profession Chief Executive Designate of UK Research and Innovation United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

  5. 20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

    CERN Multimedia

    Pantelia, Anna

    2014-01-01

    20 January 2014 - Members of the Regional Assemblies and Parliaments United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 8 with Technology Department, Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group P. Cruikshank.

  6. Historical temperature and salinity data collected from 1896-04-22 to 1961-03-26 from the World Ocean and provided by United Kingdom hydrographic office (NODC Accession 0073673)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Historical temperature and salinity data collected from 1896-04-22 to 1961-03-26 from the World Ocean. Data were digitized from cards provided by United Kingdom...

  7. Her Excellency Ms Monique T.G. van Daalen Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Her Excellency Ms Monique T.G. van Daalen Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of the Netherlands to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  8. 26 August 2016 - K. Singye Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bhutan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing the CERN Guest book with Adviser P. Fassnacht

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Kinga Singye Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Kingdom of Bhutan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva Friday 26 August 2016

  9. Derivation of greenhouse gas emission factors for peatlands managed for extraction in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D.; Dixon, S. D.; Artz, R. R. E.; Smith, T. E. L.; Evans, C. D.; Owen, H. J. F.; Archer, E.; Renou-Wilson, F.

    2015-09-01

    Drained peatlands are significant hotspots of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and may also be more vulnerable to fire with its associated gaseous emissions. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from peatlands managed for extraction are reported on an annual basis. However, the Tier 1 (default) emission factors (EFs) provided in the IPCC 2013 Wetlands Supplement for this land use category may not be representative in all cases and countries are encouraged to move to higher-tier reporting levels with reduced uncertainty levels based on country- or regional-specific data. In this study, we quantified (1) CO2-C emissions from nine peat extraction sites in the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom, which were initially disaggregated by land use type (industrial versus domestic peat extraction), and (2) a range of GHGs that are released to the atmosphere with the burning of peat. Drainage-related methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions as well as CO2-C emissions associated with the off-site decomposition of horticultural peat were not included here. Our results show that net CO2-C emissions were strongly controlled by soil temperature at the industrial sites (bare peat) and by soil temperature and leaf area index at the vegetated domestic sites. Our derived EFs of 1.70 (±0.47) and 1.64 (±0.44) t CO2-C ha-1 yr-1 for the industrial and domestic sites respectively are considerably lower than the Tier 1 EF (2.8 ± 1.7 t CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) provided in the Wetlands Supplement. We propose that the difference between our derived values and the Wetlands Supplement value is due to differences in peat quality and, consequently, decomposition rates. Emissions from burning of the peat (g kg-1 dry fuel burned) were estimated to be approximately 1346 CO2, 8.35 methane (CH4), 218 carbon monoxide (CO), 1.53 ethane (C2H6), 1.74 ethylene (C2H4), 0.60 methanol (CH3OH), 2.21 hydrogen

  10. Impact of a United Kingdom-wide campaign to tackle antimicrobial resistance on self-reported knowledge and behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaintarli, Katerina; Ingle, Suzanne M; Bhattacharya, Alex; Ashiru-Oredope, Diane; Oliver, Isabel; Gobin, Maya

    2016-05-12

    As part of the 2014 European Antibiotic Awareness Day plans, a new campaign called Antibiotic Guardian (AG) was launched in the United Kingdom, including an online pledge system to increase commitment from healthcare professionals and members of the public to reduce antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The aim of this evaluation was to determine the impact of the campaign on self-reported knowledge and behaviour around AMR. An online survey was sent to 9016 Antibiotic Guardians (AGs) to assess changes in self-reported knowledge and behaviour (outcomes) following the campaign. Logistic regression models, adjusted for variables including age, sex and pledge group (pledging as member of public or as healthcare professional), were used to estimate associations between outcomes and AG characteristics. 2478 AGs responded to the survey (27.5 % response rate) of whom 1696 (68.4 %) pledged as healthcare professionals and 782 (31.6 %) as members of public (similar proportions to the total number of AGs). 96.3 % of all AGs who responded had prior knowledge of AMR. 73.5 % of participants were female and participants were most commonly between 45 and 54 years old. Two thirds (63.4 %) of participants reported always acting according to their pledge. Members of the public were more likely to act in line with their pledge than professionals (Odds Ratio (OR) =3.60, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI): 2.88-4.51). Approximately half of participants (44.5 %) (both healthcare professionals and members of public) reported that they acquired more knowledge about AMR post-campaign. People that were confused about AMR prior to the campaign acquired more knowledge after the campaign (OR = 3.10, 95 % CI: 1.36-7.09). More participants reported a sense of personal responsibility towards tackling AMR post-campaign, increasing from 58.3 % of participants pre-campaign to 70.5 % post-campaign. This study demonstrated that the campaign increased commitment to tackling AMR in both healthcare

  11. Home Language Will Not Take Care of Itself: Vocabulary Knowledge in Trilingual Children in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieszkowska, Karolina; Łuniewska, Magdalena; Kołak, Joanna; Kacprzak, Agnieszka; Wodniecka, Zofia; Haman, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Language input is crucial for language acquisition and especially for children's vocabulary size. Bilingual children receive reduced input in each of their languages, compared to monolinguals, and are reported to have smaller vocabularies, at least in one of their languages. Vocabulary acquisition in trilingual children has been largely understudied; only a few case studies have been published so far. Moreover, trilingual language acquisition in children has been rarely contrasted with language outcomes of bilingual and monolingual peers. We present a comparison of trilingual, bilingual, and monolingual children (total of 56 participants, aged 4;5-6;7, matched one-to-one for age, gender, and non-verbal IQ) in regard to their receptive and expressive vocabulary (measured by standardized tests), and relative frequency of input in each language (measured by parental report). The monolingual children were speakers of Polish or English, while the bilinguals and trilinguals were migrant children living in the United Kingdom, speaking English as a majority language and Polish as a home language. The trilinguals had another (third) language at home. For the majority language, English, no differences were found across the three groups, either in the receptive or productive vocabulary. The groups differed, however, in their performance in Polish, the home language. The trilinguals had lower receptive vocabulary than the monolinguals, and lower productive vocabulary compared to the monolinguals. The trilinguals showed similar lexical knowledge to the bilinguals. The bilinguals demonstrated lower scores than the monolinguals, but only in productive vocabulary. The data on reported language input show that input in English in bilingual and trilingual groups is similar, but the bilinguals outscore the trilinguals in relative frequency of Polish input. Overall, the results suggest that in the majority language, multilingual children may develop lexical skills similar to those of

  12. Evaluating alternate models to estimate genetic parameters of calving traits in United Kingdom Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eaglen Sophie A E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The focus in dairy cattle breeding is gradually shifting from production to functional traits and genetic parameters of calving traits are estimated more frequently. However, across countries, various statistical models are used to estimate these parameters. This study evaluates different models for calving ease and stillbirth in United Kingdom Holstein-Friesian cattle. Methods Data from first and later parity records were used. Genetic parameters for calving ease, stillbirth and gestation length were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method, considering different models i.e. sire (−maternal grandsire, animal, univariate and bivariate models. Gestation length was fitted as a correlated indicator trait and, for all three traits, genetic correlations between first and later parities were estimated. Potential bias in estimates was avoided by acknowledging a possible environmental direct-maternal covariance. The total heritable variance was estimated for each trait to discuss its theoretical importance and practical value. Prediction error variances and accuracies were calculated to compare the models. Results and discussion On average, direct and maternal heritabilities for calving traits were low, except for direct gestation length. Calving ease in first parity had a significant and negative direct-maternal genetic correlation. Gestation length was maternally correlated to stillbirth in first parity and directly correlated to calving ease in later parities. Multi-trait models had a slightly greater predictive ability than univariate models, especially for the lowly heritable traits. The computation time needed for sire (−maternal grandsire models was much smaller than for animal models with only small differences in accuracy. The sire (−maternal grandsire model was robust when additional genetic components were estimated, while the equivalent animal model had difficulties reaching convergence. Conclusions

  13. Home Language Will Not Take Care of Itself: Vocabulary Knowledge in Trilingual Children in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Mieszkowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Language input is crucial for language acquisition and especially for children’s vocabulary size. Bilingual children receive reduced input in each of their languages, compared to monolinguals, and are reported to have smaller vocabularies, at least in one of their languages. Vocabulary acquisition in trilingual children has been largely understudied; only a few case studies have been published so far. Moreover, trilingual language acquisition in children has been rarely contrasted with language outcomes of bilingual and monolingual peers. We present a comparison of trilingual, bilingual, and monolingual children (total of 56 participants, aged 4;5–6;7, matched one-to-one for age, gender, and non-verbal IQ in regard to their receptive and expressive vocabulary (measured by standardized tests, and relative frequency of input in each language (measured by parental report. The monolingual children were speakers of Polish or English, while the bilinguals and trilinguals were migrant children living in the United Kingdom, speaking English as a majority language and Polish as a home language. The trilinguals had another (third language at home. For the majority language, English, no differences were found across the three groups, either in the receptive or productive vocabulary. The groups differed, however, in their performance in Polish, the home language. The trilinguals had lower receptive vocabulary than the monolinguals, and lower productive vocabulary compared to the monolinguals. The trilinguals showed similar lexical knowledge to the bilinguals. The bilinguals demonstrated lower scores than the monolinguals, but only in productive vocabulary. The data on reported language input show that input in English in bilingual and trilingual groups is similar, but the bilinguals outscore the trilinguals in relative frequency of Polish input. Overall, the results suggest that in the majority language, multilingual children may develop lexical skills

  14. Are students' symptoms and health complaints associated with perceived stress at university? Perspectives from the United Kingdom and Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Haghgoo, Ghollamreza

    2014-09-26

    This cross-sectional survey assessed and compared by country, the levels and correlates of 21 self-reported symptoms/health complaints. We examined the associations between self-reported symptoms and perceived stress. Data was collected from universities in the United Kingdom and Egypt (N = 3706 and 3271 undergraduates, respectively). A self-administered questionnaire assessed a range of self-reported symptoms, perceived stress, sociodemographic (gender, age, marital status, year of study, living arrangements during semester, income sufficiency), lifestyle (tobacco smoking, illicit drug/s use, alcohol consumption frequency), and health variables (subjective health status, health awareness, BMI), along with religiosity, and quality of life. Factor analysis categorized the 21 self-reported symptoms into four components. Correlation analysis and linear regression tested the associations between the self-reported symptoms and stress. Factor analysis of the health symptoms generated four symptom groups for each of the UK and Egypt (psychological; circulatory/breathing; gastrointestinal; and, pains/aches), and factor loadings were quite similar for both countries. Whilst the two samples showed similarities as to the kind of symptoms most frequently reported by students, the Egyptian sample had significantly higher frequency than the UK for every symptom. Frequent complaints (both countries) included difficulties to concentrate, fatigue, headaches, nervousness/anxiety, and back pain (UK) and mood swings (Egypt). Significantly more Egyptian students reported ≥ 4 symptoms over the past year than the UK. For each of the UK and Egypt, across each of the four symptom groups, there was a stepladder appearance whereby the frequency of symptoms increased with increasing quartiles of perceived stress. Not controlling for other variables, for both countries, there were significant positive correlations between each of the four symptom groups and stress; the highest correlation

  15. Effectiveness of an intervention to facilitate prompt referral to memory clinics in the United Kingdom: Cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Livingston

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Most people with dementia do not receive timely diagnosis, preventing them from making informed plans about their future and accessing services. Many countries have a policy to increase timely diagnosis, but trials aimed at changing general practitioner (GP practice have been unsuccessful. We aimed to assess whether a GP's personal letter, with an evidence-based leaflet about overcoming barriers to accessing help for memory problems-aimed at empowering patients and families-increases timely dementia diagnosis and patient presentation to general practice.Multicentre, cluster-randomised controlled trial with raters masked to an online computer-generated randomisation system assessing 1 y outcome. We recruited 22 general practices (August 2013-September 2014 and 13 corresponding secondary care memory services in London, Hertfordshire, and Essex, United Kingdom. Eligible patients were aged ≥70 y, without a known diagnosis of dementia, living in their own homes. There were 6,387 such patients in 11 intervention practices and 8,171 in the control practices. The primary outcome was cognitive severity on Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Main secondary outcomes were proportion of patients consulting their GP with suspected memory disorders and proportion of those referred to memory clinics. There was no between-group difference in cognitive severity at diagnosis (99 intervention, mean MMSE = 22.04, 95% confidence intervals (CIs = 20.95 to 23.13; 124 control, mean MMSE = 22.59, 95% CI = 21.58 to 23.6; p = 0.48. GP consultations with patients with suspected memory disorders increased in intervention versus control group (odds ratio = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.28, 1.54. There was no between-group difference in the proportions of patients referred to memory clinics (166, 2.5%; 220, 2.7%; p = .077 respectively. The study was limited as we do not know whether the additional patients presenting to GPs had objective as well as subjective memory problems and

  16. Nutritional content of supermarket ready meals and recipes by television chefs in the United Kingdom: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the energy and macronutrient content of main meals created by television chefs with ready meals sold by supermarkets, and to compare both with nutritional guidelines published by the World Health Organization and UK Food Standards Agency. Design Cross sectional study. Setting Three supermarkets with the largest share of the grocery market in the United Kingdom, 2010. Samples 100 main meal recipes from five bestselling cookery books by UK television chefs and 100 own brand ready meals from the three leading UK supermarkets. Main outcome measures Number of meals for which the nutritional content complied with WHO recommendations, and the proportion of nutrients classified as red, amber, or green using the UK FSA’s “traffic light” system for labelling food. Results No recipe or ready meal fully complied with the WHO recommendations. The ready meals were more likely to comply with the recommended proportions of energy derived from carbohydrate (18% v 6%, P=0.01) and sugars (83% v 81%, P=0.05) and fibre density (56% v 14% P<0.01). The recipes were more likely to comply with the recommended sodium density (36% v 4%, P<0.01), although salt used for seasoning was not assessed. The distributions of traffic light colours under the FSA’s food labelling recommendations differed: the modal traffic light was red for the recipes (47%) and green for ready meals (42%). Overall, the recipes contained significantly more energy (2530 kJ v 2067 kJ), protein (37.5 g v 27.9 g), fat (27.1 g v 17.2 g), and saturated fat (9.2 g v 6.8 g; P<0.01 for all) and significantly less fibre (3.3 g v 6.5 g, P<0.01) per portion than the ready meals. Conclusions Neither recipes created by television chefs nor ready meals sold by three of the leading UK supermarkets complied with WHO recommendations. Recipes were less healthy than ready meals, containing significantly more energy, protein, fat, and saturated fat, and less fibre per portion than the ready meals. PMID:23247976

  17. Comparative Pathogenicity of United Kingdom Isolates of the Emerging Pathogen Candida auris and Other Key Pathogenic Candida Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Andrew M; Szekely, Adrien; Johnson, Elizabeth M

    2016-01-01

    Candida auris, first described in 2009, has since emerged as an important, multidrug-resistant, nosocomial agent of candidemia, with large outbreaks reported worldwide and high mortality rates associated with therapeutic failure. The current study employed C. auris isolates from a variety of centers in the United Kingdom to evaluate the pathogenicity of this emerging pathogen compared to that of other common pathogenic yeast species in the invertebrate Galleria mellonella infection model. We showed that C. auris isolates differ in their growth characteristics in vitro, with a proportion of isolates failing to release daughter cells after budding, resulting in the formation of large aggregates of cells that cannot be physically disrupted. Our results also demonstrate strain-specific differences in the behavior of C. auris in G. mellonella, with the aggregate-forming isolates exhibiting significantly less pathogenicity than their nonaggregating counterparts. Importantly, the nonaggregating isolates exhibited pathogenicity comparable to that of C. albicans, which is currently accepted as the most pathogenic member of the genus, despite the fact that C. auris isolates do not produce hyphae and produce only rudimentary pseudohyphae either in vitro or in G. mellonella. IMPORTANCE The incidence of invasive candidiasis, which includes candidemia and deep tissue infections, continues to rise and is associated with considerable mortality rates. Candida albicans remains the most common cause of invasive candidiasis, although the prevalence of non-albicans species has increased over recent years. Since its first description in 2009, Candida auris has emerged as a serious nosocomial health risk, with widespread outbreaks in numerous hospitals worldwide. However, despite receiving considerable attention, little is known concerning the pathogenicity of this emerging fungal pathogen. Here, using the Galleria mellonella insect systemic infection model, we show strain

  18. The distribution of lung cancer across sectors of society in the United Kingdom: a study using national primary care data

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    Iyen-Omofoman Barbara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is pressing need to diagnose lung cancer earlier in the United Kingdom (UK and it is likely that research using computerised general practice records will help this process. Linkage of these records to area-level geo-demographic classifications may also facilitate case ascertainment for public health programmes, however, there have as yet been no extensive studies of data validity for such purposes. Methods To first address the need for validation, we assessed the completeness and representativeness of lung cancer data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN national primary care database by comparing incidence and survival between 2000 and 2009 with the UK National Cancer Registry and the National Lung Cancer Audit Database. Secondly, we explored the potential of a geo-demographic social marketing tool to facilitate disease ascertainment by using Experian's Mosaic Public Sector ™ classification, to identify detailed profiles of the sectors of society where lung cancer incidence was highest. Results Overall incidence of lung cancer (41.4/100, 000 person-years, 95% confidence interval 40.6-42.1 and median survival (232 days were similar to other national data; The incidence rate in THIN from 2003-2006 was found to be just over 93% of the national cancer registry rate. Incidence increased considerably with area-level deprivation measured by the Townsend Index and was highest in the North-West of England (65.1/100, 000 person-years. Wider variations in incidence were however identified using Mosaic classifications with the highest incidence in Mosaic Public Sector ™types 'Cared-for pensioners, ' 'Old people in flats' and 'Dignified dependency' (191.7, 174.2 and 117.1 per 100, 000 person-years respectively. Conclusions Routine electronic data in THIN are a valid source of lung cancer information. Mosaic ™ identified greater incidence differentials than standard area-level measures and as such could be used as a tool

  19. Ethnic Variation in the Prevalence of Visual Impairment in People Attending Diabetic Retinopathy Screening in the United Kingdom (DRIVE UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaprasad, Sobha; Gupta, Bhaskar; Gulliford, Martin C.; Dodhia, Hiten; Mann, Samantha; Nagi, Dinesh; Evans, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To provide estimates of visual impairment in people with diabetes attending screening in a multi-ethnic population in England (United Kingdom). Methods The Diabetic Retinopathy In Various Ethnic groups in UK (DRIVE UK) Study is a cross-sectional study on the ethnic variations of the prevalence of DR and visual impairment in two multi-racial cohorts in the UK. People on the diabetes register in West Yorkshire and South East London who were screened, treated or monitored between April 2008 to July 2009 (London) or August 2009 (West Yorkshire) were included in the study. Data on age, gender, ethnic group, visual acuity and diabetic retinopathy were collected. Ethnic group was defined according to the 2011 census classification. The two main ethnic minority groups represented here are Blacks (“Black/African/Caribbean/Black British”) and South Asians (“Asians originating from the Indian subcontinent”). We examined the prevalence of visual impairment in the better eye using three cut-off points (a) loss of vision sufficient for driving (approximately visual impairment (visual impairment (visual impairment in the minority ethnic groups to the age-structure of the white population. Results Data on visual acuity and were available on 50,331individuals 3.4% of people diagnosed with diabetes and attending screening were visually impaired (95% confidence intervals (CI) 3.2% to 3.5%) and 0.39% severely visually impaired (0.33% to 0.44%). Blacks and South Asians had a higher prevalence of visual impairment (directly age standardised prevalence 4.6%, 95% CI 4.0% to 5.1% and 6.9%, 95% CI 5.8% to 8.0% respectively) compared to white people (3.3%, 95% CI 3.1% to 3.5%). Visual loss was also more prevalent with increasing age, type 1 diabetes and in people living in Yorkshire. Conclusions Visual impairment remains an important public health problem in people with diabetes, and is more prevalent in the minority ethnic groups in the UK. PMID:22761840

  20. Orofacial pain in young adults and associated childhood and adulthood factors: results of the population study, Wales, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Kenealy, Pamela; Kingdon, H Anne; Mohlin, Benght; Pilley, J Richard; Mwangi, Caroline W; Hunter, Lindsay; Richmond, Steve; Shaw, William C

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of orofacial pain (OFP) among young adults (30-31 years old) and to determine the effect of childhood and adulthood risk factors on the occurrence of OFP. Prospective cohort study to investigate dental and social effects of malocclusion and effectiveness of orthodontic treatment was conducted in Wales, United Kingdom. At 20-year follow-up 337 subjects aged 30-31 participated (74% from previous follow-up aged 19-20 and 33% from the baseline) and were asked about OFP. The prevalence of OFP was 23% (95% CI: 19%, 28%). Childhood factors, socio-demographic, lifestyle, health behavior factors, history of orthodontic treatment and tooth wear were not associated with OFP. Participants with OFP were more likely to report that their teeth did not fit together properly [odds ratio (OR) = 12.4, 95% CI: 2.7-56.5) and reported previous trauma to the jaws (2.3; 1.3-4.2). Both diurnal and nocturnal teeth clenching and grinding were significantly associated with OFP (3.1; 1.4-7.1). Participants with frequent headaches had increased risk of having OFP (3.7; 1.6-8.4) while having reported 4-10 types of pain in other parts of the body other than the head, was associated with OR = 9.2 (3.7-23.0). An increased tendency to have OFP was seen in those individuals with higher levels of psychological distress (2.3; 1.4-3.9), high score on Life Event Inventory (2.6; 1.3-5.3), depressive symptoms (2.2; 1.2-4.0) and stress (2.2; 1.2-4.0). High self-esteem associated with lower risk of OFP (0.5; 0.3-0.9). This study shows that OFP is frequently reported by young adults aged 30-31 and supports a multifactorial etiology with factors from many domains, including local mechanical factors, psychological and co-morbidities. However, none of the childhood factors considered in this study were associated with OFP in adulthood.