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Sample records for united coal company

  1. Duquesne Light Company`s modifications for nitric oxide RACT compliance on a 200 MW face fired pulverized coal unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, B.P.; Bionda, J.P.; Gabrielson, J.E. [Energy Systems Associates, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hallo, A.; Gretz, G.F. [Duquesne Light Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the results of a research test program conducted on Duquesne Light Company`s Elrama Unit 4. The program was designed to determine the viability of achieving compliance with the recently enacted PA DER Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) regulations. These regulations stipulate presumptive RACT requirements for wall fired boilers which include the installation and operation of low NO{sub x} burners with separated overfire air. Duquesne Light Company contracted Energy Systems Associates (ESA) to aide in the design and testing of a novel low NO{sub x} burner design and separated overfire air system. A three-dimensional computational furnace model was developed by ESA of the Elrama Unit 4 furnace, and a two-dimensional fluid dynamics model was developed of the coal burner. By modifying the coal burners, it has been possible to reduce the nitric oxide emissions by 30% on Unit 4, with minimal impact of the unburned carbon in the ash. The burner modifications create fuel rich streams which are surrounded by air rich zones in the primary flame region, thus staging combustion at the burner. Additional nitric oxide reductions are realized when the combustion is further staged by use of the separated overfire air system.

  2. Application of Over-Winding and Over-Falling Buffer Unit in Coal Mines of Datong Coal Group Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-qing; WANG Jian-li

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic force of BS buffer unit in the enwinding hoisting system is calculated, and the buffer unit is installed and tested. The result shows that this buffer unit is accurate in its regulated braking force and convenient in adjustment and restoration. It can be repeatedly used as a bumper for both over-winding and over-falling without replacing any parts, providing an applicable device for safety operation in coal mining.

  3. Coal companies worldwide: competition and performance indicators. Volume 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The current volume provides extensive information on coal companies worldwide for 1996 and 1995 and examines the fortunes of leading companies as the world coal industry continues to expand and restructure. Data are included on 116 parent companies, incorporation 400 coal-producing subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures. Together they span 26 countries and account for 86 of world hard coal production. Section headings are: introduction and key points; company listings and who owns whom; company production and reserves; company sales; company profitability; company labour and labour productivity; company assets and capital expenditure; and takeover and merger activity. A technical appendix and a company directory are included. 42 tabs.

  4. Coal companies worldwide: competition and performance indicators. Volume 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, I.; Wright, P.

    1996-06-01

    This report provides comparative coal company information for 1994, 1993 and 1985. It was compiled from an analysis of 104 companies both public and private, encompassing 420 subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures. Sales, profits and productivity of these companies are examined, as well as the coal industry structure and markets.

  5. Evaluation of a novel fine coal dry cleaning process at Greenfields Coal Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratton, R.; Luttrell, G.; Kasindorf, H.; McGraw, G.; Robbins, R. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Coal mining and processing operations have in the past and continue to create large tonnages of fine coal and waste particles. While technological advances in wet processing has made it possible to efficiently recover coal fines, difficulties associated with dewatering make these fine particles unattractive economically for most coal markets. A novel system has been developed for cleaning fine raw coal utilizing a multistage dry classification process that removes the clay particles that are typically much smaller than the majority of the clean coal particles and that reduces the product surface moisture to as low as 1%. In this article, the novel dry coal-cleaning process under license to Greenfields Coal Company was evaluated. The classification process offers a viable alternative to traditional wet processing and dewatering of the fine particles, especially for operations recovering abandoned impoundments where a sufficient water source and/or a waste slurry disposal site are unavailable. This article presents the separation performance and operating results obtained from field testing with a 2t/hr pilot-scale unit located at an abandoned impoundment in southern West Virginia.

  6. New Coke Oven Facilities at Linhuan Coal Chemical Company Adopt LyondellBasell's Aromatics Extraction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The new 80 kt/a coal chemical unit at the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company in Anhui province will adopt the aro-matics extraction process licensed by LyondellBasell Company. This unit is expected to come on stream by 2009.This technology is suitable for manufacture of high-purity aromatics with broad adaptability and large scale produc-tion capability. In the previous year LyondellBasell was awarded six patents on aromatics extraction process. It is told that the achievements to be adopted by the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company are partly a series of aromatics extrac-tion processes for recovery of coke oven light oil performed by LyondellBasell.

  7. Coal handling management system for Soma Kyodo Power Company, Ltd.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The software that manages the planning for the coal storage and consumption in Soma Kyodo Power Company, Ltd. was created by IHI. This system provides an exact calculation in a short period of time using engineering workstation and has a conversational simulation function. Power station No.1 of Soma Kyodo Power Company, Ltd. has a coal storage volume of 490,000 tons, a receiving conveyor of 3300 tons/H {times} 1 line, a discharging conveyor of 1000 tons/H {times} 2 lines, a stacker, a reclaimer, and a reclaiming conveyor. The software consists of four subsystems; coal yard simulation system, coal inventory management system, master data management system, and coal consumption plan supporting system. These systems are linked using LAN and can exchange data in real-time. Moreover, a graphical user interface is used in these systems. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Coal companies worldwide: competition and performance indicators; Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, I.; Wright, P.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents an analytical survey of company-level performance in the world coal industry. The 120 parent companies covered incorporate 440 separate coal-producing subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures, spanning 28 countries. Sections cover: introduction and keypoints; production and reserves; sales; profitability; labour and labour productivity; assets and financial structure; environmental indicators; takeover activity; technical appendix; and a company directory. A special feature is the consistent profitability data for each of the five years between 1988 and 1992, and also for 1985. In addition to profit margin data, this also now includes rate of return data for the same period.

  9. Reflotation of Coal Slurries from OKD company, Mine Lazy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Èernotová L.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the work is a verification of selective flotation on the black coal slurries sampled from slurry ponds of Mine Lazy, OKD company. Reflotation was realized with 6 collectors: Flotakol NX, Flotalex Ekofol 440, Montanol, MP 125 and AF 2. The technology of main flotation was applied. The variance analysis was used for the selectivity evaluation of particular collectors, whereby both the yield and flotation concentrate quality were tested. The goal of the flotation experiments was to achieve the flotation concentrate quality under 10% of ash. From the results follows that by using basic flotation it is possible (with the slurry samples to reach the marketable coal concentrates with the ash content under 10% by Flotalex collector application.

  10. FACTORS AFFECTING TOBIN'S Q COAL MINING COMPANY REGISTERED IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Batara Manurung

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of capital structure (debt to asset ratio and debt to equity ratio, economic value added, and coal reserves towards Tobin’s Q, as a proxy of firms’ value, of coal companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX. This study also aims to examine the contribution of Tobin’s Q towards sectoral stock index price of coal production companies. From a total population of 23 companies, this study took a sample of 16 coal production companies using purposive sampling method. The data used is collected from the companies audited financial statements and annual reports in IDX’s website from 2009 to 2014. The results of multiple linear regression analysis show that there is significant impact of economic value added, coal reserves and profitability dummy towards Tobin’s Q. Furthermore, the results of linear regression analysis show that there is significant impact of Tobin’s Q towards sectoral stock index price of coal production companies. Based on the results of this study, the financial decision makers in coal production companies are advised to use economic value added, availability of coal reserves and profitability in improving firm value reflected in its share price.Keywords: capital structure, coal reserves, economic value added, Tobin’s Q

  11. Measurement of the Industrial Collaboration of the Diversified Coal Industry: China Coal Energy Company as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Mao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the diversified development of coal enterprises in China, the industries related to coal, including coal chemical, electric power, transportation, and building materials, have witnessed rapid development. There is a collaboration relation between the coal industries and most of the aforementioned industries. Based on the synergy theory and the theory of industrial cooperation, the collaboration among coal industries is assessed in this research. Examining China Coal Energy Company as an example, this research divides the compound enterprise system into subsystems such as coal-electric, coal-chemical, and coal-equipment. Next, collaboration indices, including market, scale, and management, are created for each subsystem. Then, the overall collaboration degree of the China Coal Energy Company since it was listed was calculated by standardizing data and estimating the order degree of order parameters and subsystems. Thus, a model measuring the industrial collaboration degree of coal enterprises was established to quantitatively reflect the collaboration degree between various industries. At the same time, the factors influencing the collaboration effect between various industries were analyzed so as to improve this effect, which then can provide a decision basis for enterprises.

  12. Management of local economic and ecological system of coal processing company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, T. V.; Mikhailov, V. G.; Karasev, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    The management issues of local ecological and economic system of coal processing company - coal processing plant - are considered in the article. The objectives of the research are the identification and the analysis of local ecological and economic system (coal processing company) performance and the proposals for improving the mechanism to support the management decision aimed at improving its environmental safety. The data on the structure of run-of-mine coal processing products are shown. The analysis of main ecological and economic indicators of coal processing enterprises, characterizing the state of its environmental safety, is done. The main result of the study is the development of proposals to improve the efficiency of local enterprise ecological and economic system management, including technical, technological and business measures. The results of the study can be recommended to industrial enterprises to improve their ecological and economic efficiency.

  13. La United Fruit Company en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice P. Brungardt

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo discute los antecedentes de las compañías bananeras en América Central y el Caribe en el siglo XIX. En el contexto de las fusiones de finales de siglo que dieron lugar a los trusts norteamericanos tuvo lugar la fundación de la United Fruit Company. El autor discute el carácter "dual" de la inversión norteamericana en la región: de una parte, desarrollo económico, de otra, corrupción y presiones políticas. Narra los orígenes de los cultivos de banano en el Departamento del Magdalena, la instalación de la multinacional norteamericana en la región, lo mismo que las estrategias de la compañía para monopolizar el cultivo y la exportación del fruto. Termina con los hechos de la Masacre de las Bananeras en 1928 y sus repercusiones en la política nacional de la época.

  14. Coal Fields of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows the coal fields of Alaska and the conterminous United States. Most of the material for the conterminous United States was collected from James...

  15. 77 FR 50686 - Notice of Approval of Title V Operating Permit for Peabody Western Coal Company (Navajo Nation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... AGENCY Notice of Approval of Title V Operating Permit for Peabody Western Coal Company (Navajo Nation EPA... 40 C.F.R. Part 71, has issued a federal Clean Air Act Title V operating permit to Peabody Western Coal Company (``Peabody'') governing air emissions from Peabody's mining operation at the Kayenta...

  16. Characterization of seven United States coal regions. The development of optimal terrace pit coal mining systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, R.L.; Adams, M.A.; Jurich, D.M.

    1981-02-01

    This report characterizes seven United State coal regions in the Northern Great Plains, Rocky Mountain, Interior, and Gulf Coast coal provinces. Descriptions include those of the Fort Union, Powder River, Green River, Four Corners, Lower Missouri, Illinois Basin, and Texas Gulf coal resource regions. The resource characterizations describe geologic, geographic, hydrologic, environmental and climatological conditions of each region, coal ranks and qualities, extent of reserves, reclamation requirements, and current mining activities. The report was compiled as a basis for the development of hypothetical coal mining situations for comparison of conventional and terrace pit surface mining methods, under contract to the Department of Energy, Contract No. DE-AC01-79ET10023, entitled The Development of Optimal Terrace Pit Coal Mining Systems.

  17. Company Law Modernisation and Corporate Governance in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Tomasic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many elements of British company law are deeply embedded in nineteenth-century assumptions. Change has come very slowly when efforts have been made to modernise company law in the United Kingdom. The passage of the Companies Act 2006 was a significant advance after a lengthy period of debate and consultation, but the outcome is far from perfect. This legislation has, however, introduced some important new concepts into this body of British law. The Act sought to simplify company law and to start with a small firm focus as these comprise the vast majority of companies. For the first time, the Act also codified the duties of directors and introduced the concept of ‘enlightened shareholder value’, to give greater attention to stakeholders other than shareholders and to encourage companies to adopt more long-term perspectives. This paper explores some of these important changes.

  18. Emission and commercial utilization of coal mine methane in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin illustrated by the example of Katowice Coal Holding Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kędzior Sławomir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of the release of methane from coal seams and its emission to the atmosphere from the mines of Katowice Coal Holding Company in the years of 1997-2011. This period is characterized by organizational changes in Polish mining industry involving liquidation or a merger of mines, an increase in both the concentration of coal mining activity, and the depth of the exploitation at which the amount of methane in coal seams grows ever larger. The analysis of the variation in the methane emission from the coal mines in that period points out a decline in the intensity of the emission until 2005, probably owing to the liquidation of some mines, later, but in the years of 2006-2010 - a considerable increase in both the absolute methane emission of the mines and the methane emission to the atmosphere despite a dropping coal extraction. This signifies that mining activity takes place in increasingly difficult gas conditions prevailing at great depths. Despite a slight decrease in both the absolute methane emission and methane emission to the atmosphere in 2011, a continuously growing trend of this phenomenon should be expected in the future. A similar tendency is also visible in the whole Upper Silesian Coal Basin, however the methane emission peak falls in 2008. In order to curb the growth of the amount of the emitted methane, it should be commercially utilized. Particularly vital is considering methane as an unconventional resource, following the example of other countries.

  19. United States Nuclear Rocket Company (USNRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the development of advanced space technology has been accomplished by the federal government providing funding to commercial companies through the standard contracting process. Although recently, commercial space ventures, such as Space X, have begun to develop enhanced commercial space launch capabilities, and many companies provide space related services - including satellite development and operations, advanced technology development still requires (and should require) participation by the federal agency assigned this role - the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). However, this standard funding model may not be the most efficient and stable means of developing the advanced technology systems. And while the federal government does not need to be involved in areas where private industry can reasonably operate, it should remain the leader in supporting the development of new and advanced space technologies to further increase our national capability. And as these technologies mature, then private industry can begin the commercialization process, freeing up resources and funds for NASA to develop the next generations of advanced space technology. In fact, simply examining the last decades of space technology development shows that there is room for improvement. Part of the problem is that there are realistically two space frontiers. There is the commercialization frontier (the realm of Space X and others) and the exploratory frontier (the realm of NASA.). Often technologies that can support the exploratory frontier can also immediately support the commercialization frontier. Yet, these technologies are still developed under the standard model of federal funding and contracting. Is that really the best way to proceed? In this paper, the argument is put forward that a new process is required, a new paradigm. A consortium of federal agencies as well as commercial companies is needed - in a collaborative rather than a contractual

  20. The South Manchurian Railway Company and the Mining Industry: The Case of the Fushun Coal Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-yu Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Following the Japanese victory over Czarist Russia in the Russo-Japanese War and the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1905, the southernmost section of the southern branch of the China Far East Railway (Changchun–Port Arthur was transferred to Japanese control. A new, semi-privately held company, the South Manchuria Railway Company (SMR, Mantetsu, was established with 85.6 percent capitalization by the Japanese government and foreign bonds to operate the railroad and to develop settlements (including highways, public health facilities, educational institutions, and industries (coal mines, harbor facilities, electrical power plants, shale oil plants, chemical plants, and restaurants along its route. SMR nonetheless emphasized railway and mining investment. The centerpiece of its mining interests was the Fushun Coal Mine. Starting in 1917, SMR began to prosper, with most profits coming from its coal mines, and it soon spun off subsidiary companies. In this sense, although the factors that influenced development of the Fushun Coal Mine in each period were different, this development still shows continuity of the business management.

  1. Coal facies studies in the eastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, James C. [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, 2540 Research Park Drive, Lexington, KY 40511-8433 (United States); Eble, Cortland F. [Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2004-04-23

    Coals in the eastern United States (east of the Mississippi River) have been the subject of a number of coal facies studies, going back to the 19th century. Such studies would not necessarily fall within a strict modern classification of coal facies studies, but if a study encompassed some aspects of paleobotany, palynology, petrology, geochemistry, or sedimentology, we assumed that some data and interpretations may be of use in evaluations of the facies. References are presented, as a guide for further research, with annotation in the tables.

  2. The Imposition Environmental Cost-Loading Of Companies Investing In Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi Risman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The instrument of environment is an effort to prevent environmental problems caused by mining activities both in forms and its nature. The aims of the study are to analyze and understanding the essence of environment cost-loading in order to restore the environment from coal mining activities both when mining taken place and post-mining. The type of research used is a normative-legal research. This research was conducted in the province of South Kalimantan with the consideration that the South Kalimantan is one of the largest coal-producing Provinces in Indonesia. In addition the environment cost-loading for investor in coal mining have the same properties in all coal mining sites in Indonesia. The results of the research indicated that the imposition and environment-cost in investment activity in the field of coal mining can be seen from the two approaches i.e the economic and legal approach. Economic approach is an approach that emphasizes the economic benefits gained by the owner of activities when they comply with the environmental requirements stipulated by laws and environmental regulations. Realizing the importance of environmental cost-loading for the company that manages the coal mining especially for the utilization of prevention of pollution caused by coal mining activity it is necessary to develop an institutional guarantee of recovery from the effects of pollution by establishing fund insurance for environmental restoration as a result of pollution. Thus in order to optimize the implementation of guarantee fund for environmental restoration are specifically utilized for post-mining reclamation then granting the status of Clean and Clear C amp C for coal mining investor must be presupposing the proof of guarantee fund has been placed for environmental restoration post-mining.

  3. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  4. Analysis of factors determining enterprise value of company merger and acquisition: A case study of coal in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candra, Ade; Pasasa, Linus A.; Simatupang, Parhimpunan

    2015-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is looking at the relationship between the factors of technical, financial and legal with enterprise value in mergers and acquisitions of coal companies in Kalimantan, Indonesia over the last 10 years. Data obtained from secondary data sources in the company works and from published data on the internet. The data thus obtained are as many as 46 secondary data with parameters resources, reserves, stripping ratio, calorific value, distance from pit to port, and distance from ports to vessels, production per annum, the cost from pit to port, from port to vessel costs, royalties, coal price and permit status. The data was analysis using structural equation modeling (SEM) to determine the factors that most significant influence enterprise value of coal company in Kalimantan. The result shows that a technical matter is the factor that most affects the value of enterprise in coal merger and acquisition company. Financial aspect is the second factor that affects the enterprise value.

  5. The Influence Of Supply Chain And Strategic Orientation Through Competitive Strategy AndIts Impact On Coal Business Performance Studies On Coal Company In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Gunawan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Coal is one of the alternative energy sources instead of petroleum. It results in the coal mining industry as an industry that is highly prospective. But the growth of coal production both domestics and export coal sales in the period 2005-2012 was experiencing turbulence tends to decrease. The decline in world coal prices directly impact the business performance of coal mining companies of Indonesia. Preliminary survey results show the phenomenon of the weak performance of the business due to the coal mining industry management tends not yet fully capable of formulating competitive strategy appropriated. In addition there is a weakness for supply chain management and strategic orientation. On that basis then do research on supply chains and strategic orientation on competitive strategy and its implications on the business performance of the coal mining industry in Indonesia. The study was conducted using an explanatory method. Duration of the study is the time horizon which is cross sectionone shoots. Objects of research are taking by sampling that takes part members of the population to be studied. The results show that the supply chain strategic orientation and competitive strategy on coal mining companies in Indonesia are generally located in either category but found that business performance in general cannot be expressed well so that the cause of the low performance achieved during this business. It shows the implementation of all activities associated with the business activity has not gone as expected.

  6. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station Unit Number 1. Annual report, January--December, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report satisfies the requirements of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-91MC27363, novated as of March 5, 1992, to provide an annual update report on the year`s activities associated with Tampa Electric Company`s 250 MW IGCC demonstration project for the year 1993. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,000 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Approximately 50% of the raw, hot syngas is cooled to 900 F and passed through a moving bed of zinc-based sorbent which removes sulfur containing compounds from the syngas. The remaining portion of the raw, hot syngas is cooled to 400 F for conventional acid gas removal. Sulfur-bearing compounds from both cleanup systems are sent to a conventional sulfuric acid plant to produce a marketable, high-purity sulfuric acid by-product. The cleaned medium-BTU syngas from these processes is routed to the combined cycle power generation system where it is mixed with air and burned in the combustion section of the combustion turbine. Heat is extracted from the expanded exhaust gases in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) to produce steam at three pressure levels for use throughout the integrated process. A highly modular, microprocessor-based distributed control system (DCS) is being developed to provide continuous and sequential control for most of the equipment on PPS-1.

  7. 75 FR 75708 - American United Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... COMMISSION American United Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application November 30, 2010. AGENCY... securities. Applicants: American United Life Insurance Company (``AUL''), AUL American Unit Trust (``AUL.... Applicants: c/o Richard M. Ellery, Esq., American United Life Insurance Company, One American...

  8. 78 FR 48468 - Hewlett Packard Company, Hewlett Packard Enterprise Business Unit, EG HP Storage, Enterprise...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Company, Hewlett Packard Enterprise Business Unit, EG HP Storage, Enterprise Storage, Servers and Networking Storage, APP Management, Research and... behalf of workers of Hewlett Packard Company, Hewlett Packard Enterprise Business Unit, EG HP Storage...

  9. The adjusting mining technology of combining fully mechanized with individual prop, rotating, hilt, irregular form, and double unit face on thin coal seam of Tianchen Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hua-ling; WEN Guo-feng; LI Jin-ke

    2008-01-01

    Analyzed the situations and characteristics of thin coal seam mining and its mining technologies, and introduced the mining innovation technology used by Tianchen Coal Mine of Zhaozhuang Coal Company of China. This innovation technology combined the fully mechanized mining with individual props, and the working face of mining is over length, irregular form and double units. The rotational adjusting mining technology on thin coal seam is also practiced in this new mining technology. The detail technologies, such as outlays of working face and ways, mining methods, equipments of cutting, transporting and sporting, have been introduced. So that, using the synthetic and creative mining tech-nologies, Tianchen Coal Mine solves the mining problems of thin coal seam successfully.

  10. Construction of First GSP Gasification Unit Was Kicked off at Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry (Group)Co.,Ltd.in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The construction of the core unit for the coal-based olefin project-the GSP gasification unit,the investment in which totals 20 billion RMB,has been kicked off at Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry (Group) Co.,Ltd.,in Ningxia,China.It is told that this is the first gasification unit that adopts the GSP gasification technology in China.The GSP gasification unit adopts the Siemens technology,the basic design of which is implemented by the Uhde Engineering Company and the detailed design and procurement service of which will be performed by the No.2 Design Institute of Chemical Industry under the China National Chemical Engineering Group Corporation.

  11. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Coals and Coal Combustion Residuals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Nancy E; Hower, James C; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Taggart, Ross K; Vengosh, Avner

    2015-09-15

    The distribution and enrichment of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in coal combustion residuals (CCRs) from different coal source basins have not been fully characterized in the United States. Here we provide a systematic analysis of the occurrence of NORM ((232)Th, (228)Ra, (238)U, (226)Ra, and (210)Pb) in coals and associated CCRs from the Illinois, Appalachian, and Powder River Basins. Illinois CCRs had the highest total Ra ((228)Ra + (226)Ra = 297 ± 46 Bq/kg) and the lowest (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratio (0.31 ± 0.09), followed by Appalachian CCRs (283 ± 34 Bq/kg; 0.67 ± 0.09), and Powder River CCRs (213 ± 21 Bq/kg; 0.79 ± 0.10). Total Ra and (228)Ra/(226)Ra variations in CCRs correspond to the U and Th concentrations and ash contents of their feed coals, and we show that these relationships can be used to predict total NORM concentrations in CCRs. We observed differential NORM volatility during combustion that results in (210)Pb enrichment and (210)Pb/(226)Ra ratios greater than 1 in most fly-ash samples. Overall, total NORM activities in CCRs are 7-10- and 3-5-fold higher than NORM activities in parent coals and average U.S. soil, respectively. This study lays the groundwork for future research related to the environmental and human health implications of CCR disposal and accidental release to the environment in the context of this elevated radioactivity.

  12. Life cycle assessment analysis of supercritical coal power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Hoinka, Krzysztof; Liszka, Marcin

    2010-09-01

    This paper presents the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis concerning the selected options of supercritical coal power units. The investigation covers a pulverized power unit without a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) installation, a pulverized unit with a "post-combustion" installation (MEA type) and a pulverized power unit working in the "oxy-combustion" mode. For each variant the net electric power amounts to 600 MW. The energy component of the LCA analysis has been determined. It describes the depletion of non-renewable natural resources. The energy component is determined by the coefficient of cumulative energy consumption in the life cycle. For the calculation of the ecological component of the LCA analysis the cumulative CO2 emission has been applied. At present it is the basic emission factor for the LCA analysis of power plants. The work also presents the sensitivity analysis of calculated energy and ecological factors.

  13. Coal-water slurry fuel production: Its evolution and current status in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Interest in the US in utilizing bituminous coal in a slurry form has evolved substantially over the last two decades. In the mid-1970`s, technologies to utilize coal-oil mixtures (COMs) as potential fuel oil replacements for utility and industrial boilers were developed as a consequence of escalating world oil prices. To further reduce dependency on imported oil, interest shifted away from COMs to coal-water slurry fuels (CWSFs) because higher solids loadings were obtainable while eliminating the use of oil. Research which focused on the use of CWSF as a potential fuel oil replacement peaked in the mid to late-1980`s as a result of a decline in world oil prices. During the late 1980`s and early 1990`s, coal suppliers and coal-fired utilities began to evaluate the production of CWSF using bituminous coal fines from fine coal cleaning circuits in an effort to reduce dewatering/drying costs. This marked a philosophical change in the driving force behind the utilization of CWSF in the US. In an effort to broaden the supply of coal fines, The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) and the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) surveyed a series of fine coal impoundments in western Pennsylvania to determine the quality, cleanability, and slurryability of the coal fines contained therein. The development and commercialization of recovery technologies, cleaning techniques, and CWSF reentrainment circuits, coupled with an interest by utilities to utilize low-cost fuels, has fostered the recovery of impounded coal fines. In addition to the fine coal impoundments, fine coal cleaning circuits which actively dispose of process water having suspended coal fines (e.g. centrifuge effluent) are being examined to determine if the fines can be recovered and thickened into a low solids CWSF. The paper describes required physical and chemical properties of a CWSF for boiler applications. There is a growing awareness that CWSF is a fuel form that can be cofired with coal. The

  14. Structure of the organic crystallite unit in coal as determined by X-ray diffraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Dangyu; Yang Cunbei; Zhang Xiaokui; Su Xianbo; Zhang Xiaodong

    2011-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to study the structure of the organic crystallite unit (La,Lc,d002) in coals collected from Henan and Shanxi Provinces,XRD patterns of coal were collected in a step-scan mode (0.1 °/step) over an angular range of 2-90° (2θ),allowing 8 s at each step.The structure of the crystallite unit was determined from the Scherrer equation and peak parameters deduced from whole pattern fitting.The results show that the structure of the crystallite unit in coal is mainly controlled by the coal rank.As the coal rank increases the average diameter of a coal crystallite unit (La) increases,the interlayer spacing (d002) decreases slightly,and the average height of a coal crystallite unit (Lc) increases at first but then decreases.A new diffraction peak from the crystallite unit in coal was found at a low scattering angle in the XRD pattern (2-10°).This suggests a structure with an inter-layer spacing from 1.9 to 2.8 nm exists in coal crystallites.

  15. The Lexis plot for run-off non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Humaida Banu

    2014-06-01

    This study is intended to look at the company's age to be one of the predictor for financially distressed non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom. Financial distress is a condition where a company has difficulty paying off its obligations to its creditors. For this study, Lexis plot is used to identify either younger companies or older companies are in run-off. Run-off is a process where many insurance companies stop underwriting policies long before they reach financial crisis or financial distress. The study utilises financial data of 22 years from year 1985 to year 2006 for 397 companies. From the study, it is identified that younger companies are more in financial distress than older companies.

  16. Failure factors in non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Humaida Banu

    2013-04-01

    Failure in insurance company is a condition of financial distress where a company has difficulty paying off its financial obligations to its creditors. This study continues the research from the study in identifying the determinants for run-off non-life insurance companies in United Kingdom. The analysis continues to identify other variables that could lead companies to financial distress that is macroeconomic factors (GDP rates, inflation rates and interest rates); total companies failed a year before and average size for failed companies'. The result from the analysis indicates that inflation rates, interest rates, total companies failed a year before and average sizes for failed companies are the best predictors. An early detection of failure can prevent companies from bankruptcy and allow management to take action to reduce the failure costs.

  17. Success of Family Company: Critical Evidence from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Petlina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article The purpose of the paper is to define the point of family company’s success. The object of research is family business as an economical phenomenon. There is a double subject of this study: firstly, to find out the main resources, from which information about successful companies can be detected and, secondly, to analyze one big family company as case study for identification its key success factors. Methodology/methods The article was prepared on the basis of general theoretical scientific methods, in particular analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison, generalizations, deduction and methods of expert estimates. In the first phase secondary research of scientific literature and electronic resources about the paper topic was conducted. On the base of that result, the primary research was conduct, which is based on analysis of family company E. & J. Gallo Winery. Based on the received information, the key success factors were identified. The sources of the research are internet web-pages of the company, articles about company in famous Czech business magazines and scientific journals form Emerald database, reports of company and financial data from Amadeus database and The Global Family Business Index. Scientific aim The aim of scientific research is to improve the understanding of family company’s success from the perspective of difficulties faced by family company. Findings The results of this study allowed the finding of a main point for the family company’s success based on review of key sources about successful family companies. In addition, activity of E. & J. Gallo Winery was analyzed as the case study for critical evidence that phenomenon. Conclusions This study has contributed to the theoretical body of family business research providing an important first step to gaining insights into the family company’s success and its key factors which influence effective functioning of family company.

  18. La United Fruit Company en Cuba: Organización del trabajo y resistencia obrera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Zanetti Lecuona Lecuona

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Cuba la United Fruit actuó como una empresa azucarera, situación hasta cierto punto excepcional dentro de la especialización bananera que trazó el perfil de esa empresa a escala continental. El estudio que aquí se propone sobre las prácticas de la Compañía en Cuba, en particular respecto a su manejo de la fuerza de trabajo y las relaciones laborales, contribuye a esclarecer algunas constantes de la conducta empresarial de la United en sus diferentes ámbitos de operación.Palabras Clave: Cuba; United Fruit Company; trabajadores; condiciones de trabajo; relaciones laborales. The United Fruit Company in Cuba: Work organization and labor resistanceAbstractIn Cuba, the United Fruit Company was a sugar company, a situation to some extent exceptional in the banana profile of this company. The analysis of the practices of the United Fruit in Cuba, in particular with regard to its handling of the labor force and of labor relations, will contribute to a better knowledge of the entrepreneurial behavior of this company in its different areas of operations.Keywords: Cuba; United Fruit Company; workers; labor conditions; labor relations.

  19. The impact of TTIP agreement on the European Union-United States coal trade potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkuski Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to assess the impact of currently negotiated TTIP agreement (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership on the use of hard coal in the EU and the US. Hard coal is the most important fuel in global electricity generation. This also applies to the United States, a leading manufacturer and exporter of this energy source. The US coal is exported to the EU market. The article presents the estimated exports of hard coal from the US to the EU. Due to the fact that price has a major impact on the size of exports, the paper presents the estimated prices, including freight costs, of power coal for the analyzed scenarios. According to one scenario, the US and European prices will be equalized (including freight costs by 2020, while from 2025 on the comparative advantage and competitiveness of the US hard coal will decrease. Taking into account the fact that the export of coal from the United States is free from customs duties, the acceptance of TIPP should not affect the currently existing trade between the two continents and the amount of exported coal. Nevertheless, the question of hard coal economy cannot be separated from other sectors of the energy market, which can be significantly affected by the future agreement.

  20. Coal Fires in the United States: A Case Study in Government Inattention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal producing nations. Like most other environmental problems fires are not confined by political boundaries. Important economic coal seams in the United States are found across the Inter-montaine west, the Midwest, and Appalachia. The age of these deposits differs, as does the grade and sulfur content of the coal, the mining techniques utilized for exploitation of this resource, and the markets in which the coal is traded. Coal fires are ordinary occurrences under extraordinary conditions. Every coal bed exposed in an underground or surface mine has the potential to ignite. These fires are spread thinly over the political geography and over time, so that constituencies rarely coalesce to petition government to address the coal fire problem. Coal fires produce serious problems with long term consequences for society. They threaten mine safety, consume a non-renewable resource, and produce toxic gases with serious health effects for local populations. Additionally, as coal production in the developing world intensifies, these problems worsen. The lack of government attention to coal fires is due to the confluence of at least four independent political factors: 1) The separated powers, federated system in which decisions in the United States are made; 2) Low levels of political energy available in Congress to be expended on coal fires, measured by the magnitude of legislative majorities and seniority; 3) The mid-twentieth century model of scientific and technical information moving indirectly to legislators through the bureaucratic agencies; 4) The chronic and diffuse nature of fires across space and time.

  1. CSR, environment-friendly investments and innovations - the three elements necessary to build a modern and strong coal mining company?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hałasik Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, strongly increasing globalization forces companies around the world to search new ways to build competitive advantage and achieving goals. Society having wider access to information and products, began to pay attention not only to the attractiveness of the goods, but also to the credibility of the environmental and social of functioning companies. This makes, that the concept of corporate social responsibility and the green revolution, which are strongly associated with innovations, in last years become widely discussed in the literature, as well as popular in the activities of enterprises. This article is an attempt to answer the question, whether the combination of these three elements is a guarantee for the creations of a positive image, and thus the value of a modern and strong company. The research literature aims to identify the current approach to these three factors and their characteristics. In contrast, the analysis of Polish hard coal mining sector indicates the role of innovation, environmental protection and CSR in the industry - whether the actions in this area are present and to what extent. In addition, it will be presented to outline the current state of Polish hard coal mining sector

  2. 75 FR 28604 - The United Illuminating Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The United Illuminating Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order... Illuminating Company filed a Petition for Declaratory Order, requesting the Commission to issue an...

  3. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  4. How Tobacco Companies are Perceived Within the United Kingdom: An Online Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Sinclair, Lesley; Mackintosh, Anne Marie; Power, Emily; Bauld, Linda

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how consumers perceive tobacco companies in the United Kingdom. An online cross-sectional survey with those aged 16 years and over (N = 2253) explored perceptions of, and attitudes towards, tobacco companies. This included awareness of tobacco companies, views on tobacco companies' practices (targeting the most vulnerable, encouraging smoking to replace those who quit or die, making cigarettes more addictive) and values (honesty, ethics, interest in harm reduction), perceptions of regulation of tobacco companies (whether tobacco companies have the same marketing rights as other companies, should be allowed to promote cigarettes, be required to sell cigarettes in plain packs, and pay for associated health costs), and locus of responsibility for health problems caused by tobacco use. Prompted awareness of tobacco companies was high (68%). Almost a third of the sample had a negative perception of tobacco companies' practices, for example, they thought they made cigarettes more addictive. In terms of tobacco companies' values, less than a fifth considered tobacco companies honest, ethical, and interested in reducing the harm caused by cigarettes. Indeed, tobacco company executives were rated lower than the seven other professions asked about, except car salesman, in terms of ethics and honesty. More than half the sample supported greater regulation, for example, requiring tobacco companies to pay for health costs due to tobacco use. Most attributed responsibility for smoking-related health problems to smokers (88%) and tobacco companies (55%). The findings suggest that consumers are not fully informed about tobacco company practices. Few studies outside of North America have explored perceptions of tobacco companies' practices, values and regulation and responsibility for smoking-related illness. Adults surveyed within the United Kingdom considered tobacco companies dishonest, unethical and untrustworthy, but only a third of the sample thought

  5. The Interaction of the Logistics System with the Structural Units of the Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Shapovalov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article detects major flows that occur in business activities of any business entity. The examined flows describe the interaction of the logistic system with the structural units of the company.

  6. Coal reserves in the United States and around the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubert, K.; Masudi, H.

    1995-03-01

    There is an urgent need to examine the role that coal might play in meeting world energy needs during the next 20 years. Oil from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) can no longer be relied upon to provide expanding supplies of energy, even with rapidly rising prices. Neither can nuclear energy be planned on for rapid expansion worldwide until present uncertainties about it are resolved. Yet, the world`s energy needs will continue to grow, even with vigorous energy conservation programs and with optimistic rates of expansion in the use of solar energy. Coal already supplies 25% of the world`s energy, its reserves are vast, and it is relatively inexpensive. This study, with the aid of reports from the World Coal Study (WOCOL) examines the needs for coal on a global scale, its availability past and present, and its future prospects.

  7. PREVENTING COAL COMPANIES FROM USING COMPLIANCE SCHEDULES TO LOOPHOLE AROUND THE MOUNTAINS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jessica Morgan

    2011-01-01

    .... Despite federal statutes to protect the waters of West Virginia from the harmful effects of selenium, the coal industry in West Virginia used compliance schedules in its NPDES permits to delay...

  8. Report to the United States Congress clean coal technology export markets and financing mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This report responds to a Congressional Conference Report that requests that $625,000 in funding provided will be used by the Department to identify potential markets for clean coal technologies in developing countries and countries with economies in transition from nonmarket economies and to identify existing, or new, financial mechanisms or financial support to be provided by the Federal government that will enhance the ability of US industry to participate in these markets. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects world coal consumption to increase by 30 percent between 1990 and 2010, from 5.1 to 6.5 billion short tons. Five regions stand out as major foreign markets for the export of US clean coal technologies: China; The Pacific Rim (other than China); South Asia (primarily India); Transitional Economies (Central Europe and the Newly Independent States); and Other Markets (the Americas and Southern Africa). Nearly two-thirds of the expected worldwide growth in coal utilization will occur in China, one quarter in the United States. EIA forecasts nearly a billion tons per year of additional coal consumption in China between 1990 and 2010, a virtual doubling of that country`s coal consumption. A 30-percent increase in coal consumption is projected in other developing countries over that same period. This increase in coal consumption will be accompanied by an increase in demand for technologies for burning coal cost-effectively, efficiently and cleanly. In the Pacific Rim and South Asia, rapid economic growth coupled with substantial indigenous coal supplies combine to create a large potential market for CCTS. In Central Europe and the Newly Independent States, the challenge will be to correct the damage of decades of environmental neglect without adding to already-considerable economic disruption. Though the situation varies, all these countries share the basic need to use indigenous low-quality coal cleanly and efficiently.

  9. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  10. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1... request to generically extend the rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but...

  11. 77 FR 13156 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1. The license provides, among other things, that the facility is...) 50.46, ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light- water nuclear...

  12. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP). The license provides, among other things... operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's regulations provide mechanisms...

  13. Origin and influence of coal mine drainage on streams of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Degradation of water quality related to oxidation of iron disulfide minerals associated with coal is a naturally occurring process that has been observed since the late seventeenth century, many years before commencement of commercial coal mining in the United States. Disturbing coal strata during mining operations accelerates this natural deterioration of water quality by exposing greater surface areas of reactive minerals to the weathering effects of the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Degraded water quality in the temperate eastern half of the United States is readily detected because of the low mineralization of natural water. Maps are presented showing areas in the eastern United States where concentrations of chemical constituents in water affected by coal mining (pH, dissolved sulfate, total iron, total manganese) exceed background values and indicate effects of coal mining. Areas in the East most affected by mine drainage are in western Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, western Maryland, West Virginia, southern Illinois, western Kentucky, northern Missouri, and southern Iowa. Effects of coal mining on water quality in the more arid western half of the United States are more difficult to detect because of the high degree of mineralization of natural water. Normal background concentrations of constituents are not useful in evaluating effects of coal mine drainage on streams in the more arid West. Three approaches to reduce the effects of coal mining on water quality are: (1) exclusion of oxygenated water from reactive minerals, (2) neutralization of the acid produced, (3) retardation of acid-producing bacteria population in spoil material, by application of detergents that do not produce byproducts requiring disposal. These approaches can be used to help prevent further degradation of water quality in streams by future mining. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  14. Coal Gasification Unit Using CO2 as Gasifying Agent Developed by Shell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Zhongyuan Dahua Group of Henan province has announced that the first in the world Shell's coal gasification unit using CO2 as the gasifying agent has been operating successfully,delivering syngas produced by the gasifier to fully meet the needs for methanol synthesis,which can increase the methanol output by 200 tons a day under full load of the methanol unit.

  15. The Influence of Profitability, Solvency, and Auditor’s Opinion to Audit Report Lag at Coal Mining Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlina Nindra Hapsari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Submitting financial statements adapted in accordance with accounting standards audited by a registered public accountant with Financial Service Authority known as Otoritas Jasa Keuangan (OJK is required for every public company. In delivering financial reports to the public, there would be a delay affected by a period of audit reporting (audit report lag. The goal of this research was to determine the impact of profitability, solvency, and auditor’s opinion to audit report lag on sub-sector coal mining companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange. Quantitative study with purposive sampling method was used as the research method. In addition, the data were obtained from the company’s financial statements which have been published. Multiple linear regression and hypothesis testing using t and f statistics with a confidence level of 5% were applied as the analysis technique. The amount of the research objects was 18 out of 22 classified companies from the period of 2012 to 2014. From this study, it can be concluded that both profitability and auditor’s opinion have significant influence on audit report lag. In contrast, solvency has no significant influence on audit report lag.

  16. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) Input Coal Analyses and Off-Gass Filter (OGF) Content Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, Carol M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Missimer, David M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Guenther, Chris P. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Shekhawat, Dushyant [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); VanEssendelft, Dirk T. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Means, Nicholas C. [AECOM Technology Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-23

    A full engineering scale Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) system is being used at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) to stabilize acidic Low Activity Waste (LAW) known as Sodium Bearing Waste (SBW). The INTEC facility, known as the Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU), underwent an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) and a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) in March 2014. The IWTU began non-radioactive simulant processing in late 2014 and by January, 2015 ; the IWTU had processed 62,000 gallons of simulant. The facility is currently in a planned outage for inspection of the equipment and will resume processing simulated waste feed before commencing to process 900,000 gallons of radioactive SBW. The SBW acidic waste will be made into a granular FBSR product (carbonate based) for disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In the FBSR process calcined coal is used to create a CO2 fugacity to force the waste species to convert to carbonate species. The quality of the coal, which is a feed input, is important because the reactivity, moisture, and volatiles (C,H,N,O, and S) in the coal impact the reactions and control of the mineralizing process in the primary steam reforming vessel, the Denitration and Mineralizing Reformer (DMR). Too much moisture in the coal can require that additional coal be used. However since moisture in the coal is only a small fraction of the moisture from the fluidizing steam this can be self-correcting. If the coal reactivity or heating value is too low then the coal feedrate needs to be adjusted to achieve the desired heat generation. Too little coal and autothermal heat generation in the DMR cannot be sustained and/or the carbon dioxide fugacity will be too low to create the desired carbonate mineral species. Too much coal and excess S and hydroxide species can form. Excess sulfur from coal that (1) is too rich in sulfur or (2) from overfeeding coal can promote wall scale and contribute to corrosion

  17. 78 FR 45987 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to... COLs were issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe... Search.'' For problems with ADAMS, please contact the NRC's Public Document Room (PDR) reference staff...

  18. 78 FR 45989 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to... COLs were issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., and Georgia Power Company, Oglethorpe..., select ``ADAMS Public Documents'' and then select ``Begin Web-based ADAMS Search.'' For problems...

  19. 77 FR 63308 - J. William Foley Incorporated v. United Illuminating Company; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission J. William Foley Incorporated v. United Illuminating Company; Notice of... Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 824(e) and 825(e), J. William Foley Incorporated (Complainant) filed a...

  20. 77 FR 51071 - Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ..., operational, or storing processes). The fuel storage and handling, radioactive waste, and other systems which... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Indiana Michigan Power Company, Donald C. Cook Nuclear Plant, Unit 2, Environmental Assessment and...

  1. The Imposition Environmental Cost-Loading Of Companies Investing In Coal Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Tomi Risman; Marthen Arie; Abrar Saleng; M. Yunus Wahid

    2015-01-01

    The instrument of environment is an effort to prevent environmental problems caused by mining activities both in forms and its nature. The aims of the study are to analyze and understanding the essence of environment cost-loading in order to restore the environment from coal mining activities both when mining taken place and post-mining. The type of research used is a normative-legal research. This research was conducted in the province of South Kalimantan with the consideration that the Sout...

  2. Role of coal water mixture in utility coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, N.; Butcher, T.

    1984-05-01

    To indicate the role of coal water mixtures (CWM) in utility coal conversions, the pertinent technical, economic, environmental, and regulatory factors involved in CWM conversion are reviewed. CWM technology provides an attractive option for utility companies to convert to coal. There appear to be no major technical problems in CWM production and use that cannot be overcome. Environmental considerations, however, play an important role in utilities' decisions to convert to coal. In general, coal conversions would be seriously impeded if the installation of flue gas desulfurization units cannot be avoided, as it now can because of the DOE program, and they are also inhibited by present uncertainties regarding impending acid rain regulations. Preliminary estimates of the economics of conversion seem attractive; however, site-specific evaluation is needed to justify conversion in a given situation. Although conversion to pulverized coal appears competitive with that to CWM, some non-economic factors tend to favor CWM over PC.

  3. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  4. Clinchfield Coal Co. v. District 28, United Mine Workers: a standard for judicial review of labor arbitration awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woody, C.L.

    A review of the Clinchfield Coal Company case suggests that the Fourth Circuit Court may be expanding the limitations that the Steelworkers Trilogy established in terms of the judicial review standards in federal labor law. The decision signals coal companies that the parties to collective bargaining agreements are responsible for the quality of their arbitrators in keeping with the philosophy of industrial self-government. If new standards are evolving, it may indicate that such self-government is not working. If the industry seeks court review, it may end up with decisions that are more onerous in the long term than isolated arbitration decisions.

  5. Regional Differences in Demand for Coal as A Basis for Development of A Product Distribution Model for Mining Companies in the Individual Customers Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magda, Roman; Bogacz, Paweł; Franik, Tadeusz; Celej, Maciej; Migza, Marcin

    2014-10-01

    The article presents a proposal of methodology based on the process of relationship marketing, serving to determine the level of demand for coal in the individual customer segment, as well as fuel distribution model for this customer group in Poland developed on the basis of this methodology. It also includes selected results of tests carried out using the proposed methods. These proposals have been defined on the basis of market capacity indicators, which can be determined for the district level based on data from the Polish Central Statistical Office. The study also included the use of linear programming, based on the cost of coal logistics, data concerning railway, road and storage infrastructure present on the Polish market and taking into account the legal aspects. The presented results may provide a basis for mining companies to develop a system of coal distribution management in the locations with the highest demand values.

  6. Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. Annual report, January--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-10-01

    As part of the Tampa Electric Polk Power Unit No. 1, a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasifier will convert approximately 2300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) into a medium-BTU fuel gas with a heat content of about 250 BTU/scf (LHV). Syngas produced in the gasifier flows through a high-temperature heat recovery unit which cools the gases prior to entering two parallel clean-up areas. A portion (up to 50%) of the hot syngas is cooled to 1000{degrees}F and passed through a moving bed of zinc titanate sorbent which removed sulfur containing components of the fuel gas. The project will be the first in the world to demonstrate this advanced metal oxide hot gas desulfurization technology at a commercial scale. The remaining portion of the syngas is cooled to 400{degrees}F for conventional acid gas removal. This portion of the plant is capable of processing between 50% and 100% of the dirty syngas. The cleaned low-BTU syngas is then routed to the combined cycle power generation system where it is mixed with air and burned in the gas turbine combustor. Heat is extracted from the expanded exhaust gases by a heat recovery steam generator to produce high pressure steam. This steam, along with the steam generated in the gasification process, drives a steam turbine to generate an additional 132MW of power. Internal process power consumption is approximately 62MW, and includes power for coal grinding, air separation, and feed pumps. Net output from the IGCC demonstration plant will be 260MW.

  7. Listing of United States companies that supply goods and services for geothermal explorers, developers and producers internationally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-08-01

    This List is composed solely of US companies with major offices within the United States. All of the companies listed are involved in selling geothermally related goods and services internationally, or have the proven capability to do so. Each specific listing includes the company name, the name or title of the key contact person, address, telephone and if available a facsimile machine or telex number.

  8. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  9. Demonstration of natural gas reburn for NO{sub x} emissions reduction at Ohio Edison Company`s cyclone-fired Niles Plant Unit Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borio, R.W.; Lewis, R.D.; Koucky, R.W. [ABB Power Plant Labs., Windsor, CT (United States); Lookman, A.A. [Energy Systems Associates, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Manos, M.G.; Corfman, D.W.; Waddingham, A.L. [Ohio Edison, Akron, OH (United States); Johnson, S.A. [Quinapoxet Engineering Solutions, Inc., Windham, NH (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Electric utility power plants account for about one-third of the NO{sub x} and two-thirds of the SO{sub 2} emissions in the US cyclone-fired boilers, while representing about 9% of the US coal-fired generating capacity, emit about 14% of the NO{sub x} produced by coal-fired utility boilers. Given this background, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Gas Research Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, and the Ohio Coal Development Office sponsored a program led by ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) to demonstrate reburning on a cyclone-fired boiler. Ohio Edison provided Unit No. 1 at their Niles Station for the reburn demonstration along with financial assistance. The Niles Unit No. 1 reburn system was started up in September 1990. This reburn program was the first full-scale reburn system demonstration in the US. This report describes work performed during the program. The work included a review of reburn technology, aerodynamic flow model testing of reburn system design concepts, design and construction of the reburn system, parametric performance testing, long-term load dispatch testing, and boiler tube wall thickness monitoring. The report also contains a description of the Niles No. 1 host unit, a discussion of conclusions and recommendations derived from the program, tabulation of data from parametric and long-term tests, and appendices which contain additional tabulated test results.

  10. 77 FR 50541 - STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... COMMISSION STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project, Units 1 and 2; Application for Amendment to... of STP Nuclear Operating Company (the licensee) to withdraw its application dated June 2, 2011 (ADAMS... ``Begin Web- based ADAMS Search.'' For problems with ADAMS, please contact the NRC's Public Document...

  11. Application of Olefin-Reducing Catalyst in FCC Unit at Daqing Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinfeng; Yang Daoxue; Zhang Guojing; Yao Hua

    2003-01-01

    This article refers to the application of DOCO olefin-reducing catalyst developed by RIPP and manufactured by the Catalyst Factory of Changling Refining and Chemical Company in the 1.4 Mt/a RFCCU at Daqing Petrochemical Company. Results of operation over two months had revealed that this catalyst had good olefin-reducing ability and heavy oil converting ability adapted to paraffinic feedstock. The gasoline olefin yield had been reduced to 36.1 v% from 54.2 v% with gasoline RON rating decreased by 1.4 units. The induction period of gasoline had significantly increased to 952 mm, while the coke yield was increased by 0.05 percentage point with light oil yield dropping by only 0.02 percentage point. The FCC product distribution is favorable.

  12. The Research on Construction of Xiangning Coal Company Modern Coal Trade Logistics System%乡宁煤销公司现代煤炭贸易物流体系建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆

    2014-01-01

    As The research on construction of XiangNing coal company modern coal trade logistics system is a heavy issue,the author should master clear thinking,scientific method,and multi-disciplinary knowledge. In this text the author upheld the guiding role of Modern scientific logistics theory,adhered to orientation of the linking theory with practice,and applied the means of document study,comparative analysis,and combination of emphasis study and or-dinary study. In this paper,the author has carried on the preliminary discussion about the XiangNing coal company coal trade modern logistics system and focuses on the connotation of modern logistics system of coal trade,constitu-ent elements,XiangNing company to establish the importance of modern logistics system of coal trade,the advanta-ges and challenges facing and XiangNing coal company to establish the strategic way of modern logistics system of coal trade. Pin to the scientific outlook on development,according to the shanxi coal group to build logistics industry"big MAC" strategic thinking and linfen pin coal logistics industry development planning strategy,continue to change business ideas,innovative business model,stick to the"market-oriented operation,modern logistics" two big priorities,entity project as the gripper,guided by the market rules,on the basis of controlling logistics cost,with the goal of maximizing the benefits,specialization,market-oriented logistics development road .%采用文献研究、比较分析、重点研究与一般研究相结合等研究方法,对乡宁煤销公司现代煤炭贸易物流体系进行了探讨,重点研究了现代煤炭贸易物流体系的研究背景、乡宁公司建立现代煤炭贸易物流体系的重要意义、面临的有利条件和挑战以及乡宁煤销公司建立现代煤炭贸易物流体系的战略途径。以科学发展观为统领,按照山西煤销集团打造物流产业“巨无霸”的战略思路和临汾煤销物流产业发展规划

  13. 76 FR 73733 - Union Electric Company; Callaway Plant, Unit 1; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... COMMISSION Union Electric Company; Callaway Plant, Unit 1; Notice of Consideration of Issuance of Amendment to Facility Operating License, Proposed No Significant Hazards Consideration Determination, and... involves no significant hazards consideration. Under the Commission's regulations in Title 10 of the...

  14. Local Nordic tobacco interests collaborated with multinational companies to maintain a united front and undermine tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton A

    2013-03-01

    To analyse how local tobacco companies in the Nordic countries, individually and through National Manufacturers' Associations, cooperated with British American Tobacco and Philip Morris in denying the health hazards of smoking and undermining tobacco control. Analysis of tobacco control policies in the Nordic countries and tobacco industry documents. Nordic countries were early adopters of tobacco control policies. The multinational tobacco companies recognised this fact and mobilised to oppose these policies, in part because of fear that they would set unfavourable precedents. Since at least 1972, the Nordic tobacco companies were well informed about and willing to participate in the multinational companies activities to obscure the health dangers of smoking and secondhand smoke and to oppose tobacco control policies. Cooperation between multinational companies, Nordic national manufacturer associations and local companies ensured a united front on smoking and health issues in the Nordic area that was consistent with the positions that the multinational companies were taking. This cooperation delayed smoke-free laws and undermined other tobacco control measures. Local tobacco companies worked with multinational companies to undermine tobacco control in distant and small Nordic markets because of concern that pioneering policies initiated in Nordic countries would spread to bigger market areas. Claims by the local Nordic companies that they were not actively involved with the multinationals are not supported by the facts. These results also demonstrate that the industry appreciates the global importance of both positive and negative public health precedents in tobacco control.

  15. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20141574 Chen Hao(Exploration and Development Research Institute,Daqing Oilfield Company,Daqing 163712,China)High-Resolution Sequences and Coal Accumulating Laws in Nantun Formation of Huhe Lake Sag(Petroleum Geology&Oilfield Development in Daqing,ISSN1000-3754,CN23-1286/TQ,32(4),2013,p.15-19,5 illus.,15 refs.)Key words:coal accumulation regularity,coal

  16. Multi-model Predictive Control of Ultra-supercritical Coal-fired Power Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoliang Wang; Weiwu Yan; Shihe Chen; Xi Zhang; Huihe Shao

    2014-01-01

    The control of ultra-supercritical (USC) power unit is a difficult issue for its characteristic of the nonlinearity, large dead time and coupling of the unit. In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) based on multi-model and double layered optimization is introduced for coordinated control of USC unit. The linear programming (LP) com-bined with quadratic programming (QP) is used in steady optimization for computation of the ideal value of dynamic optimization. Three inputs (i.e. valve opening, coal flow and feedwater flow) are employed to control three outputs (i.e. load, main steam temperature and main steam pressure). The step response models for the dynamic matrix control (DMC) are constructed using the three inputs and the three outputs. Piecewise models are built at selected operation points. Double-layered multi-model predictive controller is implemented in sim-ulation with satisfactory performance.

  17. Quality criteria for blast-furnace injection coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lherbier, L.W.Jr.; Serrano, E.J. [United States Steel Corp., Munhall, PA (United States). Research and Technology Center

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviewed the history of coal injection at United States Steel Corporation. Currently, pulverized coal (PC) is injected on 10 blast furnaces at the company's facilities at 5 different plants in the United States, Canada and Slovakia. Although low-volatile bituminous coal was used extensively at several sites in the past, all the furnaces now inject high-volatile bituminous coal. The choice of coal injection depends on cost, physical and chemical properties an intended application. Any type of coal can be used for low injection levels. As injection rates increase however, the choice of coal or coal blends depend on more complex characteristics such as combustibility, char reactivity and flow characteristics. Although low-volatile, higher rank bituminous coals usually provide higher coke replacement ratios, they can be more difficult to convey and burn. In contrast, high-volatile, lower rank coals are typically more reactive and easier to convey, but offer lower coke replacement ratios and could even contribute to furnace instability. This paper presented lessons learned with various types of injection coal. It also reviewed existing and emerging standards for choosing injection coals. The parameters that must be considered when choosing from a set of coals include moisture and hardness; carbon and hydrogen content; oxygen content; impurities; coal value; coal rank; conveying properties; reactivity; and coal type and injection rate. Coals with less ash, sulphur and alkali are usually preferred. For ironmaking, coals ranging in rank from anthracite to high-volatile bituminous coal are suitable for low to moderate injection rates. 14 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Interim report on the performance of 400-megawatt and larger nuclear and coal-fired generating units: performance through 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-01

    This report is an update of DOE/ERA-0007, Interim Report on the Performance of 400 Megawatt and Larger Nuclear and Coal-Fired Generating Units - Performance Through 1975. The most recent EEI data for nuclear units and for coal units less than 600 MW(e) and having at least one full year of commercial operation are included in this analysis. The analyses cover the following: coal and nuclear units, 400-MW nameplate and larger; historical data through 1976; four industry-recognized performance indices (capacity factor, availability factor, equivalent availability, and forced outage rate); four types of geographical analysis (national, individual, individual utilities, and individual utilities by states); and rankings of states and utilities by performance indices. (MCW)

  19. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  20. The directory of United States coal & technology export resources. Profiles of domestic US corporations, associations and public entities, nationwide, which offer products or services suitable for export, relating to coal and its utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of available U.S. coal and coal related resources to potential purchasers of those resources abroad. The directory lists business entities within the US which offer coal related resources, products and services for sale on the international market. Each listing is intended to describe the particular business niche or range of product and/or services offered by a particular company. The listing provides addresses, telephones, and telex/fax for key staff in each company committed to the facilitation of international trade. The content of each listing has been formulated especially for this directory and reflects data current as of the date of this edition. The directory listings are divided into four primary classifications: coal resources; technology resources; support services; and financing and resource packaging. The first three of which are subdivided as follows: Coal Resources -- coal derivatives, coal exporters, and coal mining; Technology Resources -- advanced utilization, architects and engineers, boiler equipment, emissions control and waste disposal systems, facility construction, mining equipment, power generation systems, technical publications, and transport equipment; Support Services -- coal transport, facility operations, freight forwarders, sampling services and equipment, and technical consultants. Listings for the directory were solicited on the basis of this industry breakdown. Each of the four sections of this directory begins with a matrix illustrating which companies fall within the particular subclassifications specific to that main classification. A general alphabetical index of companies and an index by product/service classification are provided following the last section of the directory.

  1. 78 FR 49305 - Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Application... Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, respectively, located in Somervell County, Texas. The...

  2. 78 FR 14361 - In the Matter of Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Luminant Generation Company LLC, Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Order Approving the... authorizes the possession, use, and operation of the Comanche Peak Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2 (CPNPP... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  3. 75 FR 4426 - Florida Power and Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Units 3 and 4; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... the beltline region of the Turkey Point Units 3 and 4 reactor pressure vessels. Environmental Impacts... COMMISSION Florida Power and Light Company; Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Units 3 and 4; Environmental..., located in Miami, Florida. In accordance with 10 CFR 51.21, the NRC prepared an environmental assessment...

  4. Pre-commissioning of 120 kt/a Unit for Hydrotreating Crude Coke Oven Benzene Implemented at Baoyuan Chemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Baoyuan Chemical Company, Ltd. in Taiyuan has per-formed the precommissioning of a 120 kt/a unit for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene. This unit is the phase II construction of the 300 kt/a crude benzene hydrotreating project, which adopts the process technology for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene developed indepen-dently by our own efforts.

  5. 川煤达竹公司本质安全型煤矿建设探讨%Discussion on construction experience of intrinsic safety coal mine in Dazhu Coal Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    奚光荣

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic safety coal construction is an effective measure to promote coal work safety. Dazhu Coal Company obtained certain experience and achievement during the intrinsic safety coal construction. In this paper the process and practice in the intrinsically safe mine construction were introduced. Based on the enterprise actual, the essential safety concept was carried out, and the safety management mode was innovated. By means of information construction, safety management platform was established; through the" team" management, the safety management of the grass roots was strengtheded; the enterprise safety culture was promoted to ensure the scientific and sustainable development of enterprise. From the concept, technology, management and culture four aspects, the intrinsic safety coal construction was enhanced, and the characteristic thought of work safety was formed.%本质安全型矿井的建设是促进煤矿安全生产的有效措施.川煤集团达竹公司致力于本质安全型煤矿企业的建设,取得了一定的经验和成绩.介绍了川煤集团在本质安全型矿井建设的过程和实践中,立足企业实际,推行本质安全理念,创新安全管理模式;利用信息化手段,构建安全管理平台;通过“班组”管理,夯实基层安全管理;提升企业安全文化,确保企业科学可持续发展.从理念、技术、管理和文化四个方面,加强本质安全型矿井的建设,形成了具有特色的本质安全发展思路.

  6. Making War Work for Industry: The United Alkali Company's Central Laboratory During World War One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Peter

    2015-02-01

    The creation of the Central Laboratory immediately after the United Alkali Company (UAC) was formed in 1890, by amalgamating the Leblanc alkali works in Britain, brought high expectations of repositioning the company by replacing its obsolete Leblanc process plant and expanding its range of chemical products. By 1914, UAC had struggled with few exceptions to adopt new technologies and processes and was still reliant on the Leblanc process. From 1914, the Government would rely heavily on its contribution to the war effort. As a major heavy-chemical manufacturer, UAC produced chemicals for explosives and warfare gases, while also trying to maintain production of many essential chemicals including fertilisers for homeland consumption. UAC's wartime effort was led by the Central Laboratory, working closely with the recently established Engineer's Department to develop new process pathways, build new plant, adapt existing plant, and produce the contracted quantities, all as quickly as possible to meet the changing battlefield demands. This article explores how wartime conditions and demands provided the stimulus for the Central Laboratory's crucial R&D work during World War One.

  7. Enterprise coordination at Long Island Lighting Company Northport Station Unit 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Kula, J.M. [Northport Power Station, NY (United States); Broske, D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hubby, R.N. [MAX Control Systems, Inc., North Wales, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Today`s focus on the need for improvement of controls and monitoring for cycle operation stems from a power industry requirement to assume an ever larger share of the system load change requirements. The source of this need is the significant growth of power sources that provide no assistance in load regulation such as cogenerators and independent power producers. Management of today`s fossil fired power plants must recognize two broader constraints in addition to simply meeting the load demand: first-the need for reliable operation with minimum expenditure of equipment life; and second-the need to conform to environmental regulations including NO{sub x} and other environmental emission limits. The authors will discuss two approaches currently being implemented at Long Island Lighting Company`s Northport 3 Station to enable power plants to provide the best performance achievable with equipment in service with minimum expenditure of equipment life within the requisite environmental constraints. Implementation will be accomplished thorough the following task development: (1) The plant automation coordinator which provides expert best operating practice for plant start-up and shutdown supervision with optional equipment automation available for critical plant operations. (2) The process constraint coordinator to provide the easy incorporation of plant operating constraints, plant life expenditure, environmental and regulatory constraints in to the real-time operating strategy of boiler control. By the dynamic on-line calculation of maximum allowable unit rate of change and maximum and minimum operating limits based on available equipment in service and life expenditure and environmental restrictions, intelligent automatic unit dispatch is readily achievable. Operating experience with these new strategies will be shared as available.

  8. Analysis on the environmental information disclosure of Chinese coal listed companies%煤炭行业上市公司环境信息披露研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 朱杨慧; 冯波

    2013-01-01

    Using content analysis method,this paper studies the quantity and quality of envi-ronmental information disclosure of Chinese coal listed companies from 2008 to 201 1 It analyzes the reasons of quantitative fluctuation Then,it makes comparison of quality with SINOPEC from integrity,readability,comparability and objectivity Finally,it gives some suggestions to improve the environmental information disclosure of coal listed companies.%采用内容分析法,对煤炭行业上市公司2008-2011年环境信息披露的数量和质量进行研究,剖析其数量上发生波动的可能原因,并从完整性、可读性、可比性和客观性4个方面与同属能源行业的中国石化进行质量比较,最后提出完善煤炭行业上市公司环境信息披露的对策。

  9. Options for near-term phaseout of CO(2) emissions from coal use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharecha, Pushker A; Kutscher, Charles F; Hansen, James E; Mazria, Edward

    2010-06-01

    The global climate problem becomes tractable if CO(2) emissions from coal use are phased out rapidly and emissions from unconventional fossil fuels (e.g., oil shale and tar sands) are prohibited. This paper outlines technology options for phasing out coal emissions in the United States by approximately 2030. We focus on coal for physical and practical reasons and on the U.S. because it is most responsible for accumulated fossil fuel CO(2) in the atmosphere today, specifically targeting electricity production, which is the primary use of coal. While we recognize that coal emissions must be phased out globally, we believe U.S. leadership is essential. A major challenge for reducing U.S. emissions is that coal provides the largest proportion of base load power, i.e., power satisfying minimum electricity demand. Because this demand is relatively constant and coal has a high carbon intensity, utility carbon emissions are largely due to coal. The current U.S. electric grid incorporates little renewable power, most of which is not base load power. However, this can readily be changed within the next 2-3 decades. Eliminating coal emissions also requires improved efficiency, a "smart grid", additional energy storage, and advanced nuclear power. Any further coal usage must be accompanied by carbon capture and storage (CCS). We suggest that near-term emphasis should be on efficiency measures and substitution of coal-fired power by renewables and third-generation nuclear plants, since these technologies have been successfully demonstrated at the relevant (commercial) scale. Beyond 2030, these measures can be supplemented by CCS at power plants and, as needed, successfully demonstrated fourth-generation reactors. We conclude that U.S. coal emissions could be phased out by 2030 using existing technologies or ones that could be commercially competitive with coal within about a decade. Elimination of fossil fuel subsidies and a substantial rising price on carbon emissions are the

  10. Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, S.D.; Shafer, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the construction phase for the new Polk Power Station, Unit {number_sign}1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology for power generation. The unit will utilize oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle technology, to provide nominal net 26OMW of generation. As part of the environmental features of this process, the sulfur species in the coal will be recovered as a commercial grade sulfuric acid by-product. The sulfur will be removed from the synthesis gas utilizing a cold gas clean-up system (CGCU).

  11. An annular-furnace boiler for the 660-MW power unit for ultrasupercritical parameters intended for firing brown slagging coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serant, F. A.; Belorutskii, I. Yu.; Ershov, Yu. A.; Gordeev, V. V.; Stavskaya, O. I.; Katsel, T. V.

    2013-12-01

    We present the main technical solutions adopted in designing annular-furnace boilers intended for operation on brown coals of the prospective Maikubensk open-cast mine in Kazakhstan as part of 660-MW power units for ultrasupercritical steam conditions. Results from 3D modeling of combustion processes are presented, which clearly show the advantages furnaces of this kind have over a traditional furnace in burning heavily slagging brown coals. The layout of the main and boiler auxiliary equipment in the existing boiler cell of the 500-MW power unit at the Ekibastuz GRES-1 district power station is shown. Appropriate attention is paid to matters concerned with decreasing harmful emissions.

  12. Geochemical database of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCPs) from five power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Ronald H.; Groves, Steve; Betterton, William J.; William, Benzel; Conrad, Kelly L.; Swanson, Sharon M.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Clough, James G.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Kolker, Allan; Hower, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The principal mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program (ERP) is to (1) understand the processes critical to the formation, accumulation, occurrence, and alteration of geologically based energy resources; (2) conduct scientifically robust assessments of those resources; and (3) study the impacts of energy resource occurrence and (or) their production and use on both the environment and human health. The ERP promotes and supports research resulting in original, geology-based, non-biased energy information products for policy and decision makers, land and resource managers, other Federal and State agencies, the domestic energy industry, foreign governments, non-governmental groups, and academia. Investigations include research on the geology of oil, gas, and coal, and the impacts associated with energy resource occurrence, production, quality, and utilization. The ERP's focus on coal is to support investigations into current issues pertaining to coal production, beneficiation and (or) conversion, and the environmental impact of the coal combustion process and coal combustion products (CCPs). To accomplish these studies, the USGS combines its activities with other organizations to address domestic and international issues that relate to the development and use of energy resources.

  13. Study on Expansion of Steam Cracking Unit to 660 kt/a at Yanshan Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xianghong

    2003-01-01

    Yanshan Petrochemical Company after having expanded its 300 kt/a steam cracking unit to 450 kt/a in 1994 is still experiencing such problems as low feedstock flexibility, high energy consumption and smaller scale of ethylene unit. In order to fully improve technical capability of steam crackers, reduce energy consumption, improve feedstock flexibility and increase production capacity, a lot of technical revamp cases on steam cracking were studied and compared. Revamp of relevant facilities has expanded the ethylene capacity to the target of 660 kt/a with the actual capacity reaching 710 kt/a. This revamp project has remarkably reduced the energy consumption, which is capable of using naphtha, light diesel fuel, heavy diesel fuel and the hydrocracked tail oil as the steam cracking feedstock. This project is the first to apply refrigeration by means of a mixed cooling agent and has succeeded in using C3 catalytic rectification/hydrogenation technology, which has given an impetus to the progress of steam cracking industry in the world.

  14. Application of Discounted Cash Flow Method to Listing Coal Company%贴现现金流量法在煤炭上市公司价值评估中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朋程

    2012-01-01

    The paper introduced the discounted cash flow rate method applied to evaluate the resources value of a listing coal company and thus further to realize the evaluation of the listing company value.Meanwhile think this method was applied to evaluate the resource value of Jingyuan Coal and Electric Power Company and the listing company value.%介绍了采用贴现现金流量法评价煤炭上市公司资源价值,从而进一步实现对上市公司价值的评价的方法。同时使用该方法对靖远煤电公司的资源价值以及上市公司价值进行了评估。

  15. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-05

    This project evolved from a 1995, DOE-NETL competitive solicitation for practical CMM capture and utilization concepts. Appalachian Pacific was one of three companies selected to proceed with the construction and operation of a cost-shared demonstration plant. In the course of trying to proceed with this demonstration plant, AP examined several liquefaction technologies, discussed obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, studied in great detail the impact of a carbon credit exchange, and developed a suite of analytical tools with which to evaluate possible project options. In the end, the newness of the product, reluctance on the part of the coal companies to venture away from time tested practices, difficulty with obtaining financing, the failure of a carbon credit market to develop and the emergence of shale derived gas production prevented a demonstration plant from being built.

  16. 75 FR 28057 - Notice of Invitation To Participate; Coal Exploration License Application WYW179009, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... basis in its program for the exploration of coal deposits owned by the United States of America. DATES... Management, Rock Springs Field Office, 280 Highway 191 North, Rock Springs, WY 82901. The written notice to participate should be sent to the following addresses: Bridger Coal Company, c/o Interwest Mining...

  17. Assessing coal burnout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, A. [Pacific Power, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1999-11-01

    Recent research has allowed a quantitative description of the basic process of burnout for pulverized coals to be made. The Cooperative Research Centre for Black Coal Utilization has built on this work to develop a coal combustion model which will allow plant engineers and coal company representatives to assess their coals for combustion performance. The paper describes the model and its validation and outlines how it is run. 2 figs.

  18. Understanding the Contribution of Mining and Transportation to the Total Life Cycle Impacts of Coal Exported from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Mutchek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The construction of two marine bulk terminals in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States are currently under review and would open up additional thermal coal exports to Asia on the order of almost 100 million additional tonnes per year. The major exporters of coal to Asian markets include Indonesia and Australia. This life cycle analysis (LCA seeks to understand the role of transportation and mining in the cradle-to-busbar environmental impacts of coal exports from the Powder River Basin (PRB to Asian countries, when compared to the competitor countries. This LCA shows that: (1 the most significant greenhouse gas (GHG impacts in the cradle-to-busbar life cycle of coal for power generation come from the combustion of coal in a power plant, even when 90% carbon capture is applied; (2 for non-GHG air impacts, power plant combustion impacts are less dominant and variations in upstream impacts (mining and transportation are more important; and (3 when comparing impacts between countries, upstream impacts vary for both GHG and non-GHG results, but conclusions that rank countries cannot be made. Future research should include expansion to include non-air impacts, potential consequential effects of coal exports, and a better understanding around the characterization of non-GHG ocean transport impacts.

  19. A CONTENT ANALYSIS OF THE MISSION STATEMENTS OF IRAN, TURKEY, INDIA AND UNITED STATES PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahriar AZIZI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies play a critical role in healthcare economy. Articulating mission statement of a Pharmaceutical company results in guiding strategies and activities of the firm. In this survey, mission statements of Iranian, Turkish, Indian and American pharmaceutical companies are analyzed. By using content analysis, frequencies of nine elements of the mission statement according to Fred R. David including: customers, product/service, market, technology, survival/growth/profitability, philosophy, self-perception, public image and employee were investigated. 98 mission statements of pharmaceutical companies (32 iranain companies, 16 Turkish companies, 30 Indian companies, and 20 American companies were analyzed. Simple correspondence analysis was used to extract the perceptual map. Results indicate that two dimensions of perceptual map include: focus of mission (throughput or input/output, and focus of mission elements (market or support. Iranian companies placed on the quarter of throughput /support, American and Turkish companies placed on the quarter of throughput/market. Indian companies placed on the quarter of input and output/market.

  20. Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA). Coal Preparation Div.); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 184 raw coal channel samples, including anthracite, bituminous and lignite coals, collected from the Central Region of the United States. This is the second of a three volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in-depth characterization of each sample are presented alphabetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Central Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, section and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Partitioning of selected trace elements in coal combustion products from two coal-burning power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Engle, Mark A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Jones, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of feed coal (FC), bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA) were collected from power plants in the Central Appalachian basin and Colorado Plateau to determine the partitioning of As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in coal combustion products (CCPs). The Appalachian plant burns a high-sulfur (about 3.9 wt.%) bituminous coal from the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed and operates with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), with flue gas temperatures of about 163 °C in the ESPs. At this plant, As, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in FA samples, compared to BA and EFA. A mass balance (not including the FGD process) suggests that the following percentages of trace elements are captured in FA: As (48%), Cr (58%), Pb (54%), Se (20%), and Hg (2%). The relatively high temperatures of the flue gas in the ESPs and low amounts of unburned C in FA (0.5% loss-on-ignition for FA) may have led to the low amount of Hg captured in FA. The Colorado Plateau plant burns a blend of three low-S (about 0.74 wt.%) bituminous coals from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and operates with fabric filters (FFs). Flue gas temperatures in the baghouses are about 104 °C. The elements As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in the fine-grained fly ash product (FAP) produced by cyclone separators, compared to the other CCPs at this plant. The median concentration of Hg in FA (0.0983 ppm) at the Colorado Plateau plant is significantly higher than that for the Appalachian plant (0.0315 ppm); this higher concentration is related to the efficiency of FFs in Hg capture, the relatively low temperatures of flue gas in the baghouses (particularly in downstream compartments), and the amount of unburned C in FA (0.29% loss-on-ignition for FA).

  2. 75 FR 75704 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company (Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 And 2); Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company (Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 And 2); Notice of... Dr. Tianqing Cao, Senior Seismologist, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, has...

  3. Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel and coal in a cyclone furnace at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, C. P. Crane Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    A co-combustion demonstration burn of coal and fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was conducted by Teledyne National and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. This utility has two B and W cyclone furnaces capable of generating 400 MW. The facility is under a prohibition order to convert from No. 6 oil to coal; as a result, it was desirable to demonstrate that RDF, which has a low sulfur content, can be burned in combination with coals containing up to 2% sulfur, thus reducing overall sulfur emissions without deleterious effects. Each furnace consists of four cyclones capable of generating 1,360,000 pounds per hour steam. The tertiary air inlet of one of the cyclones was modified with an adapter to permit fluff RDF to be pneumatically blown into the cyclone. At the same time, coal was fed into the cyclone furnace through the normal coal feeding duct, where it entered the burning chamber tangentially and mixed with the RDF during the burning process. Secondary shredded fluff RDF was prepared by the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility. The RDF was discharged into a receiving station consisting of a belt conveyor discharging into a lump breaker, which in turn, fed the RDF into a pneumatic line through an air-lock feeder. A total of 2316 tons were burned at an average rate of 5.6 tons per hour. The average heat replacement by RDF for the cyclone was 25%, based on Btu input for a period of forty days. The range of RDF burned was from 3 to 10 tons per hour, or 7 to 63% heat replacement. The average analysis of the RDF (39 samples) for moisture, ash, heat (HHV) and sulfur content were 18.9%, 13.4%, 6296 Btu/lb and 0.26% respectively. RDF used in the test was secondary shredded through 1-1/2 inch grates producing the particle size distribution of from 2 inches to .187 inches. Findings to date after inspection of the boiler and superheater indicate satisfactory results with no deleterious effects from the RDF.

  4. A Validity Review of the Color Company Competition at the United States Naval Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    from one company is broken up such that individuals move to different companies throughout the brigade (i.e. one or two plebes from 15th company...shuffling’ and ‘shot gunning’ break up the team cohesion that develops over the course of a year, especially during plebe (freshman) year. After...J. S. (2002). A Qualitative Analysis Of The Performance Measurement and Outcome Management Procedures Applied To The Plebe Summer Program At The

  5. A Comparative Review on Company Specific Determinants for Sustainability Reporting in United Kingdom (UK and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Xue Fa

    2017-01-01

    The Spearman’s correlation has identified a negative association on leverage with TQCSR for UK companies. In contrast, the TQCSR in the Malaysian sample was positively associated with directors’ CSR-related experiences and profitability but negatively associated with company size. Results from MLR analyses presented company size as a significant determinant on sustainability reporting in the UK model, while directors’ experiences were indicated as the crucial determinant in the Malaysian model. This first, direct cross-market sustainability reporting study highlights the importance of board of directors’ CSR-relevant experience in influencing the level of CSR disclosures in publicly-traded companies.

  6. Forest restoration potentials of coal-mined lands in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipper, C E; Burger, J A; McGrath, J M; Rodrigue, J A; Holtzman, G I

    2011-01-01

    The Appalachian region in the eastern United Sates is home to the Earth's most extensive temperate deciduous forests, but coal mining has caused forest loss and fragmentation. More than 6000 km in Appalachia have been mined for coal since 1980 under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA). We assessed Appalachian areas mined under SMCRA for forest restoration potentials. Our objectives were to characterize soils and vegetation, to compare soil properties with those of pre-SMCRA mined lands that were reforested successfully, and to determine the effects of site age on measured properties. Soils were sampled and dominant vegetation characterized at up to 10 points on each of 25 post-SMCRA mines. Herbaceous species were dominant on 56%, native trees on 24%, and invasive exotics on 16% of assessed areas. Mean values for soil pH (5.8), electrical conductivity (0.07 dS m(-1)), base saturation (89%), and coarse fragment content (50% by mass) were not significantly different from measured levels on the pre-SMCRA forested sites, but silt+clay soil fraction (61%) was higher, bicarbonate-extractable P (4 mg kg(-1)) was lower, and bulk density (1.20 g cm(-1)) was more variable and often unfavorable. Pedogenic N and bicarbonate-extractable P in surface soils increased with site age and with the presence of weathered rocks among coarse fragments. Our results indicate a potential for many of these soils to support productive forest vegetation if replanted and if cultural practices, including temporary control of existing vegetation, soil density mitigation, and fertilization, are applied to mitigate limitations and aid forest tree reestablishment and growth. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA)); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 543 raw coal samples collected from the Eastern Region of the United States. This is the first volume of a three-volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in- depth characterization of each sample are presented alphbetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties, and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Eastern Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, section, and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 14 refs., 27 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. PARTICULARITIES OF ORGANIZING MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN THE CASE OF COAL EXTRACTION UNITS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DINA IONELA-CLAUDIA

    2013-01-01

    ..., the current paper aims at analyzing the manner of organizing managerial accountability at the level of the coal extraction societies staring from a succinct presentation of the particularities...

  9. 75 FR 3943 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    .... NPF-68 and NPF-81, issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), for... contained in 10 CFR 73.55 by the March 31, 2010, implementation deadline. SNC has proposed an alternate...

  10. 论晚清政府的保护与萍乡煤矿的开发%On the Protection to Pingxiang Coal Mine of Hanyeping Company From Jiangxi Local Authorities in Late Qing Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左世元; 刘小畅

    2015-01-01

    Pingxiang Coal Mine has the features such as rich reserves, high grade and long history of mining. After Sheng Xuanhuai (1844—1916), official merchant and entrepreneur in late Qing Dynasty , took over Hanyeping Iron Company, he decided to exploit Pingxiang Coal Mine on large scale by machine to solve the problem of fuel shortage.As an official merchant, Sheng Xuanhuai and Hanyeping Iron Company obtained the support of local authorities in Jiangxi Province and late Qing Government in terms of mining right and ex-pansion of Pingxiang Coal Mine , tax waiving and military protection , which promoted the development of Pingxiang Coal Mine and Hanyeping Company .%萍乡煤炭储量丰富、品位高,开采历史悠久. 盛宣怀接手汉阳铁厂后,为解决燃料匮乏的问题,决定使用机器大规模开采萍乡煤矿. 由于有官办的背景,盛宣怀及汉阳铁厂在进驻萍矿、扩张矿权、减免税厘、军事保护方面均获得了江西地方政府和晚清政府一定的支持,推动了萍矿的开发,促进了汉冶萍公司的发展.

  11. Work Engagement, Intrinsic Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Employees of A Coal Mining Company in South Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish the relationships between three job characteristics constructs, namely work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction in a workplace notorious for discord and conflict between workers and employers. A quantitative methodology was adopted using a cross-sectional survey. Respondents were selected from the workers at a mining company, with a final sample of 156 employees participating in the study. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Intrinsic Mot...

  12. A novel explosion-proof walking system:Twin dual-motor drive tracked units for coal mine rescue robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雨潭; 朱华; 李猛钢; 李鹏

    2016-01-01

    A new explosion-proof walking system was designed for the coal mine rescue robot (CMRR) by optimizing the mechanical structure and control algorithm. The mechanical structure innovation lies mainly in the dual-motor drive tracked unit used, which showed high dynamic performance compared with the conventional tracked unit. The control algorithm, developed based on decision trees and neural networking, facilitates autonomous switching between “Velocity-driven Mode” and “Torque- driven Mode”. To verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the control strategy, we built a self-designed test platform and used it to debug the control program; we then made a robot prototype and conducted further experiments on single-step, ramp, and rubble terrains. The results show that the proposed walking system has excellent dynamic performance and the control strategy is very efficient, suggesting that a robot with this type of explosion-proof walking system can be successfully applied in Chinese coal mines.

  13. Influence of laminar flow on preorientation of coal tar pitch structural units: Raman microspectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, O.; Jehlička, J.; Pokorný, J.; Rouzaud, J. N.

    2003-08-01

    In order to estimate the role of laminar flow of viscous, aromatic matter of carbonaceous precursor on microtextural preorientation in pregraphitization stage, we performed experiments with coal tar pitch (CTP). The principal hypothesis of preorientation of basic structural units (BSUs) in the case of laminar flow (pressure impregnation of CTP into porous matrix) and secondary release of volatiles during carbonization were studied. Glass microplates, planar porous medium with average distance between single microplates 5 μm were used as suitable porous matrix. Samples of CTP were carbonized up to 2500 °C. Optical microscopy reveals large flow domains in the sample of cokes carbonized between glass microplates. Raman microspectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) show that at nanometric scale, the samples do not support the proposed hypotheses. With increasing temperature of pyrolysis, the graphitization of CTP impregnated into porous matrix proceeds to lower degree of structural ordering in comparison with single pyrolyzed CTP. This is explained by the release of volatile matter during carbonization in geometrically restricted spaces. More evident structural changes were discovered with the sample of single coke, where parts of fine grain mosaics, relicts of 'so called QI parts', reveal higher structural organization, in comparison with large and prolonged flow domains, similar to flow domains of cokes from microplates.

  14. The influence of selected parameters on the efficiency and economic charactersistics of the oxy-type coal unit with a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janusz Kotowicz; Sylwia Berdowska

    2016-01-01

    .... The economic analysis with the use of the break-even point method was carried out. The economic calculations were realized in view of the break-even price of electricity depending on a coal unit availability.

  15. A Review of Underground Coal Gasification Research and Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    An intense and productive period of research and development on underground coal gasification (UCG) took place in the United States from the mid-1970’s through the late 1980’s. It began with the translation and review of Soviet literature and ended with the Rocky Mountain 1 field test. This demonstrated the feasibility of newly-developed technologies that form the basis of many UCG projects around the world today. This period began with little domestic understanding of UCG and ended with an accurate observation-based conceptual model and a corresponding predictive multi-physics mathematical model of the process. The many accomplishments of this period form the main content of this report. This report also covers recent U.S. activities and accomplishments during the period 2004-2015, and touches briefly on the Bureau of Mines efforts between 1948 and 1963. Most of the activities were funded by the United States Department of Energy and its predecessors. While private/commercially-funded activities are reviewed here, the emphasis is on government-funded work. It has a much greater extent of publicly available reports and papers, and they generally contain much greater technical detail. Field tests were the marquis activities around which an integrated multi-faceted program was built. These are described in detail in Section 4. Highlights from modeling efforts are briefly covered, as the program was integrated and well-rounded, with field results informing models and vice-versa. The primary goal of this report is to review what has been learned about UCG from the U.S. experience in aggregate. This includes observations, conclusions, lessons-learned, phenomena understood, and technology developed. The latter sections of this report review these things.

  16. Commercial Application of RMC Technology in the 1.5 Mt/a Hydrocracking Unit at Shanghai Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Zhenlin; Wang Yiguan; Zhang Maoying; Lin Baohua; Mao Yichao

    2003-01-01

    The RMC technology developed by RIPP has been applied in a 1.5 Mt/a medium pressure hydrocracking unit at Shanghai Petrochemical Company. The unit was successfully put on stream in September 2002. Calibration of the performance of the commercial unit has shown that the RMC technology has higher hydrogenation activity and selectivity, and high quality product can be obtained under lower reaction temperature. The heavy naphtha with less than 0.5 ppm of sulfur and 58.5 m% potential aromatic content is a good feedstock for catalytic reforming unit. The diesel with less than 0.5 ppm of sulfur, 6.6 m% aromatics and cetane rating of 56 is a high-grade diesel fuel. The hydrocracked tail oil containing more than 14 m% hydrogen and mere 1.7m% aromatics could be used as a good feedstock for steam cracking process to produce ethylene.

  17. Does ERP add company value? : A study for The Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2010-01-01

    This study is dedicated to one of the main IT developments in the past thirty years, namely Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Thousands of companies have invested billions in ERP. The empirical support for the financial value of ERP implementations, however, is scarce. This led to the central them

  18. Peru: coal over the past three years: future trends. El desarrollo de la situacion del carbon en el Peru durante los ultimos tres anos y su evolucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunin Borkoroski, E.; Goluchoweska, K.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985, annual coal production in Peru reached 150 to 200 mt and has since remained at roughly the same level. The coal comes from between 50 and 100 small and sometimes rather antiquated mining units which are run by small firms or individuals. Only a handful of coal mining operations are run by large companies and these too are small units. 85% of production is anthracite and the remainder bituminous coal. Only in rare cases is lignite or graphite mined and this only in very small quantities. Anthracite is mined in the Libertad, Ancash and Cajamarca departments, bituminous coal in Pasco and Junin and both types of coal in Lima and Arequipa. Current production patterns do not reflect the distribution and abundance of the coal. Coal has been found nearly everywhere in Peru and appears to have great potential whereas measured reserves are minimal and scattered across the country.

  19. Sunrise coal, an innovative New Indiana player continues to grow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-07-15

    Sunrise Coal LLC's Carliste (Indiana) underground mine began development in 2006. Today, the room and pillar operation has grown to a 3 million tpy four unit continuous miner mine. Its coal has low (0.06%) chlorine level and is now being purchased to blend down high chlorine in Illinois Basin coal. The article describes the mining operation and equipment traces the growth of the company, founded in the 1970s by Row and Steve Laswell, emphasizing its focus on employee safety. 5 photos.

  20. Work Engagement, Intrinsic Motivation and Job Satisfaction among Employees of A Coal Mining Company in South Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Sartono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to establish the relationships between three job characteristics constructs, namely work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction in a workplace notorious for discord and conflict between workers and employers. A quantitative methodology was adopted using a cross-sectional survey. Respondents were selected from the workers at a mining company, with a final sample of 156 employees participating in the study. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Intrinsic Motivation Inventory and the Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire were used to collect data. The results of the study indicate positive relationships between job satisfaction, work engagement and intrinsic motivation among the workers. Age and marital status were found to be significant contributors to workers’ job satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and work engagement. Implications of these results are that human resource interventions are required in order to deal with enhancing work engagement, intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicate that intrinsic motivation and work engagement can enhance job satisfaction. The current study adds to the research pointing at job satisfaction as a promising underlying mechanism for employees’ to be internally motivated and engaged at work.

  1. Study of the interrelationships among chemical and petrographic variables of United States coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waddell, C.; Davis, A.; Spackman, W.; Griffiths, J. C.

    1978-03-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques are used in a study of the interrelationships among various coal properties. The properties chosen for study are the components of the ultimate analysis (carbon, hydrogen, organic sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen); moisture; volatile matter; calorific value; maximum reflectance of the vitrinite-group macerals; and the relative proportions of the vitrinite-, liptinite-, and inertinite-group macerals. The coals included in the study are from four coal provinces (Eastern, Interior, Rocky Mountain, and Northern Great Plains) and range in rank from lignite to anthracite. A coal's characteristics, properties, and utilization behavior are determined by the maceral and mineral materials composing the coal. The level of coalification achieved by the maceral materials is of critical importance in fixing the properties. A factor analysis performed on all data together indicates that most variation in the data set is correlated with changes in rank (variables which vary with rank include carbon, oxygen, calorific value, moisture, volatile matter, and reflectance). The maceral groups account for the next greatest amount of variation. Nitrogen and sulfur are each independent of all other variables. A cluster analysis indicates that the data set represents a continuum with no distinct groups; however, the data set may be dissected into four groups distinguished from each other on the basis of rank, on the relative proportions of the maceral groups, and on the organic sulfur content. Factor analyses of the individual groups provide insights into coalification at various stages of rank.

  2. Commercial Application of UFR to VRDS Unit Expansion at Qilu Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Lili

    2007-01-01

    Technology and commercial application of UFR to VRDS unit expansion at Qilu Petrochemical Comply,for which engineering work was done by SINOPEC Engineering Incorporation(the former Beijing Design Institute),were introduced.Successful experience for the first commercial application of up-flow reactor technology and debottlenecking of the unit were summarized.The findings revealed a new route for inferior residue hydrotreating and revamping the existing units of the like.

  3. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  4. Biota of the 300-FF-1 operable unit. [Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Fitzner, R.E.; Brandt, C.A.

    1990-10-01

    This report summarizes Task 5a-2 of the Phase I Remedial Investigation -- Operable Unit Characterization of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit on the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. The ultimate goal of Phase I is to determine the nature and extent of the threat to public health and the environment from releases of hazardous substances from the operable unit. The purpose of Task 5a-2 was to determine what species inhabit the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit and how they use the unit. The focus is on those species listed as endangered or threatened, those that are economically important, or those that constitute significant components of the human food chain. 39 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Structure formation of aerated concrete containing waste coal combustion products generated in the thermal vortex power units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. I.; Stolboushkin, A. Yu; Temlyanstev, M. V.; Syromyasov, V. A.; Fomina, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    The results of fly ash research, generated in the process of waste coal combustion in the thermal vortex power units and used as an aggregate in aerated concrete, are provided. It is established that fly ash can be used in the production of cement or concrete with low loss on ignition (LOI). The permitted value of LOI in fly ash, affecting the structure formation and operational properties of aerated concrete, are defined. During non-autoclaved hardening of aerated concrete with fly ash aggregate and LOI not higher than 2%, the formation of acicular crystals of ettringite, reinforcing interporous partitions, takes place.

  6. PAHs underfoot: Contaminated dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement is widespread in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.; Wilson, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    We reported in 2005 that runoff from parking lots treated with coal-tar-based sealcoat was a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to streams in Austin, Texas. Here we present new data from nine U. S. cities that show nationwide patterns in concentrations of PAHs associated with sealcoat Dust was swept from parking lots in six cities in the central and eastern U. S., where coal-tar-based sealcoat dominates use, and three cities in the western U. S., where asphalt-based sealcoat dominates use. For six central and eastern cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are 2200 and 27 mg/kg, respectively. For three western cities, median ?? PAH concentrations in dust from sealcoated and unsealcoated pavement are similar and very low (2. 1 and 0. 8 mg/kg, respectively). Lakes in the central and eastern cities where pavement was sampled have bottom sediments with higher PAH concentrations than do those in the western cities relative to degree of urbanization. Bottom-sediment PAH assemblages are similar to those of sealcoated pavement dust regionally, implicating coal-tar-based sealcoat as a PAH source to the central and eastern lakes. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in dust from coal-tar sealcoated pavement and adjacent soils greatly exceed generic soil screening levels, suggesting that research on human-health risk is warranted.

  7. Unit Manning System: Human Dimensions Field Evaluation of the COHORT company Replacement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-18

    tha: their superiors make such an attempt. Whether we speak of "unit cohesion" (Henderson, 1985; Johns, 1984), "unit morale" (Gal, 1986), "combat...differences. Generally speaking , mean differences on the five point scales must now be in the .4 to .5 range instead of the .2 to .3 range in order to...Marlowe, et al., 1985). Training in basic skiils , along with the maintenance of barracks standards and physical readiness, were all areas where COHORT

  8. Commercial low-Btu coal-gasification plant. Feasibility study: General Refractories Company, Florence, Kentucky. Volume I. Project summary. [Wellman-Galusha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-11-01

    In response to a 1980 Department of Energy solicitation, the General Refractories Company submitted a Proposal for a feasibility study of a low Btu gasification facility for its Florence, KY plant. The proposed facility would substitute low Btu gas from a fixed bed gasifier for natural gas now used in the manufacture of insulation board. The Proposal from General Refractories was prompted by a concern over the rising costs of natural gas, and the anticipation of a severe increase in fuel costs resulting from deregulation. The proposed feasibility study is defined. The intent is to provide General Refractories with the basis upon which to determine the feasibility of incorporating such a facility in Florence. To perform the work, a Grant for which was awarded by the DOE, General Refractories selected Dravo Engineers and Contractors based upon their qualifications in the field of coal conversion, and the fact that Dravo has acquired the rights to the Wellman-Galusha technology. The LBG prices for the five-gasifier case are encouraging. Given the various natural gas forecasts available, there seems to be a reasonable possibility that the five-gasifier LBG prices will break even with natural gas prices somewhere between 1984 and 1989. General Refractories recognizes that there are many uncertainties in developing these natural gas forecasts, and if the present natural gas decontrol plan is not fully implemented some financial risks occur in undertaking the proposed gasification facility. Because of this, General Refractories has decided to wait for more substantiating evidence that natural gas prices will rise as is now being predicted.

  9. Evaluation of Gas Reburning & Low NOx Burners on a Wall Fired Boiler Performance and Economics Report Gas Reburning-Low NOx Burner System Cherokee Station Unit 3 Public Service Company of Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-07-01

    Under the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology Program (Round 3), a project was completed to demonstrate control of boiler NOX emissions and to a lesser degree, due to coal replacement, SO2 emissions. The project involved combining Gas Reburning with Low NOX Burners (GR-LNB) on a coal-fired electric utility boiler to determine if high levels of NOX reduction (70%) could be achieved. Sponsors of the project included the U.S. Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, Public Service Company of Colorado, Colorado Interstate Gas, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation. The GR-LNB demonstration was performed on Public Service Company of Colorado's (PSCO) Cherokee Unit #3, located in Denver, Colorado. This unit is a 172 MW~ wall-fired boiler that uses Colorado Bituminous, low-sulfur coal. It had a baseline NOX emission level of 0.73 lb/106 Btu using conventional burners. Low NOX burners are designed to yield lower NOX emissions than conventional burners. However, the NOX control achieved with this technique is limited to 30-50%. Also, with LNBs, CO emissions can increase to above acceptable standards. Gas Reburning (GR) is designed to reduce NOX in the flue gas by staged fuel combustion. This technology involves the introduction of natural gas into the hot furnace flue gas stream. When combined, GR and LNBs minimize NOX emissions and maintain acceptable levels of CO emissions. A comprehensive test program was completed, operating over a wide range of boiler conditions. Over 4,000 hours of operation were achieved, providing substantial data. Measurements were taken to quantify reductions in NOX emissions, the impact on boiler equipment and operability and factors influencing costs. The GR-LNB technology achieved good NOX emission reductions and the goals of the project were achieved. Although the performance of the low NOX burners (supplied by others) was less than expected, a NOX reduction of

  10. Assessment of the relative socioeconomic effects of increased coal development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenehjem, E.J.; Santini, D.J.

    1979-12-01

    This report contains a description of the Social and Economic Assessment Model, which is used to analyze the social and economic effects of energy development at the regional and county levels. Using the SEAM, the effects of coal mines and coal-fired utilities projected for over 340 US counties are examined. The study utilizes a clustering algorithm to determine the assimilative capacity of a county, that is, the county's ability to sustain the effects of an influx of population and thus an increased demand on its resources. The results of the clustering algorithm are used, together with county demographic data, as well as data on projected facility location, size, timing, and type, to estimate socioeconomic effects in terms of public costs that will be imposed on the affected populations. These results are aggregated to the regional level to give a rough estimate of the relative regional effects of coal development. The results indicate that 93% of the entire long-term, adverse impact from coal will be borne by states and counties of the Rocky Mountain area, whereas only 14% of the short-term impacts will be borne by this region. About 42% of the short-term costs will occur in the Southern region and 33% in the North Central region, but only 5% of the long-term costs are estimated for these two regions. Of the four major Census regions (Northeast, South, North Central, and West) only the Northeast is expected to be relatively free of community growth problems caused by coal development.

  11. Data on greenhouse gases emission in condensate separation unit of a petrochemical company in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Dastorian, Mehrshad; Jafarzadeh, Nemat; Jorfi, Sahand; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    Since global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions is no respecter of geographical boundaries of countries, concerted mitigation activities such as Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), are suitable. In this mechanism, some developed countries can gain certified emission reduction credits from emission reduction actions undertaken in developing countries. Thus, the data of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries would be informative for implementing of CDM. Herein, the data of greenhouse gas emissions of Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex, one of the biggest petrochemical companies in the Middle East region is presented. The data was acquired using emission factor method and self-presented raw information of the Bandar Imam Petrochemical Complex. Overall, the data will be interesting for environmentalists, non-governmental organization (NGO), and developed countries to perform CDM.

  12. Corporate changes in the coal sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-20

    The article highlights major trends in the corporate structure and performance in the international coal business as recorded in the latest volume of `Coal companies worldwide` published by Sheffield Energy and Resources Information Services (SERIS). The document draws on information from 116 parent companies with coal or lignite mining operations, incorporating 400 subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures.

  13. The influence of selected parameters on the efficiency and economic charactersistics of the oxy-type coal unit with a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a 600 MW oxy-type coal unit with a pulverized bed boiler and a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator and carbon capture installation was analyzed. A membrane-cryogenic oxygen separation installation consists of a membrane module and two cryogenic distillation columns. In this system oxygen is produced with the purity equal to 95%. Installation of carbon capture was based on the physical separation method and allows to reduce the CO2 emission by 90%. In this work the influence of the main parameter of the membrane process – the selectivity coefficient, on the efficiency of the coal unit was presented. The economic analysis with the use of the break-even point method was carried out. The economic calculations were realized in view of the break-even price of electricity depending on a coal unit availability.

  14. Coal mining in socioeconomic aspect

    OpenAIRE

    ZALOZNOVA YU. S.

    2014-01-01

    The article investigate the correlation of economic and social factors in the development of coal mining on example of vertically integrated companies with both domestic and foreign assets. The effect of socioeconomic aspects which have led to the American paradox of coal is studied to understand the essence of the coal mining industry at the present stage of the global economic management.

  15. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  16. 77 FR 26793 - Florida Power and Light Company, St. Lucie Plant, Unit No. 2, Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... Engineering (CE) Owners Group Topical Report CE NPSD-683-A, Revision 6, ``Development of a RCS Pressure and... pressure-temperature (P-T) operating limits for St. Lucie, Unit 2. In requesting the revisions to the P-T... pressure boundary during normal operating and hydrostatic or leak rate testing conditions. Specifically,...

  17. Assessment and Design of Illumination in the Unit of Carbon Dioxide Gas of Khuzestan Zam Zam Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangkooy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Light is the first that necessary for any effort. This factor, more than any physical variable, affects human labor. Two properties of cognitive and psychological lighting in the workplace can affect human performance. Objectives This study aimed to assess the illuminance in CO2 Gas unit of Khuzestan Zam Zam Company, and resolve its light deficiency through artificial lighting design. Materials and Methods This study is a descriptive-analytical based on survey of natural and artificial lighting sources in the workplace. It also included measurement of lighting levels in 3 shifts, calculating the average illuminance and comparing with recommended values, drawing graphs of results measured illuminance and finally designing the lighting of the unit by lumen method with room index (Kr. The study was conducted between March and June 2006 and its data were analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results Mean ± SD level of illuminance in the morning, evening, and night was 211.31 ± 292.07, 182.16 ± 205.16, 67.47 ± 71.10 (lx, respectively. The results showed that there is a significant difference (P < 0.001 between average illuminance of 3 shifts of morning (day light, evening, and night (artificial light and the standard illuminance value (300 lx, which entails the lighting design’s work area for this unit. According to the design of artificial lighting base on the lumen method calculations in CO2 Gas unit, 400, 250 watt Metal Halides and 10585 watt compact fluorescent lamps were required, which their numbers were 610 and 44, respectively. Conclusions This paper considered the method based on comprehensive surveys of workplace illuminance levels (natural light and artificial light and design of lighting system as one of workplace physical factors in order to increase the efficiency of the production unit, decrease in carelessness, fatigue errors, and work accident.

  18. Information disclosure of energy saving and emission reduction in listed companies of coal industry%煤炭行业上市公司节能减排信息披露分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵亚香; 蒋卫东

    2011-01-01

    This paper talks about the disclosure style of energy saving and emission reduction information in coal industry firstly.Then energy saving and emission reduction index is built to measure the level of information disclosure.Finally, the factors which affect the level of information disclosure are analyzed through an empirical study.The results show that the companies listed in coal industry disclose energy saving and emission reduction information through reports of directors, financial statement notes and social responsibility report.The overall information disclosure level in coal industry is generally low and great differences exist among companies.Company size, debt level and disclosure style are important factors which affect the level of energy saving and emission reduction information disclosure.%本文以煤炭行业上市公司为研究对象,分析节能减排信息的披露方式,构建节能减排信息披露指数、衡量节能减排信息的披露水平,并对影响节能减排披露水平的因素进行了实证研究.结果表明,煤炭行业上市公司主要在董事会报告、财务报表附注、独立社会责任报告中披露节能减排信息;煤炭行业上市公司节能减排信息披露水平有所提高,但行业总体披露水平不高且公司之间差异较大;公司规模、负债水平和披露方式是影响节能减排信息披露水平的重要因素.

  19. Expected ozone benefits of reducing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinciguerra, Timothy; Bull, Emily; Canty, Timothy; He, Hao; Zalewsky, Eric; Woodman, Michael; Aburn, George; Ehrman, Sheryl; Dickerson, Russell R

    2017-03-01

    On hot summer days in the eastern United States, electricity demand rises, mainly because of increased use of air conditioning. Power plants must provide this additional energy, emitting additional pollutants when meteorological conditions are primed for poor air quality. To evaluate the impact of summertime NOx emissions from coal-fired electricity generating units (EGUs) on surface ozone formation, we performed a series of sensitivity modeling forecast scenarios utilizing EPA 2018 version 6.0 emissions (2011 base year) and CMAQ v5.0.2. Coal-fired EGU NOx emissions were adjusted to match the lowest NOx rates observed during the ozone seasons (April 1-October 31) of 2005-2012 (Scenario A), where ozone decreased by 3-4 ppb in affected areas. When compared to the highest emissions rates during the same time period (Scenario B), ozone increased ∼4-7 ppb. NOx emission rates adjusted to match the observed rates from 2011 (Scenario C) increased ozone by ∼4-5 ppb. Finally in Scenario D, the impact of additional NOx reductions was determined by assuming installation of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) controls on all units lacking postcombustion controls; this decreased ozone by an additional 2-4 ppb relative to Scenario A. Following the announcement of a stricter 8-hour ozone standard, this analysis outlines a strategy that would help bring coastal areas in the mid-Atlantic region closer to attainment, and would also provide profound benefits for upwind states where most of the regional EGU NOx originates, even if additional capital investments are not made (Scenario A). With the 8-hr maximum ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) decreasing from 75 to 70 ppb, modeling results indicate that use of postcombustion controls on coal-fired power plants in 2018 could help keep regions in attainment. By operating already existing nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal devices to their full potential, ozone could be significantly curtailed, achieving ozone reductions by

  20. Petrographic and Vitrinite Reflectance Analyses of a Suite of High Volatile Bituminous Coal Samples from the United States and Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Kolak, Jonathan J.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents vitrinite reflectance and detailed organic composition data for nine high volatile bituminous coal samples. These samples were selected to provide a single, internally consistent set of reflectance and composition analyses to facilitate the study of linkages among coal composition, bitumen generation during thermal maturation, and geochemical characteristics of generated hydrocarbons. Understanding these linkages is important for addressing several issues, including: the role of coal as a source rock within a petroleum system, the potential for conversion of coal resources to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and the interactions between coal and carbon dioxide during enhanced coalbed methane recovery and(or) carbon dioxide sequestration in coal beds.

  1. Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit. Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, October-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, M. H.

    1981-01-20

    This represents the second quarterly progress report on Phase 2 of the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) Program. Phase 1 of this program started in March 1976 and included the design, construction, and initial operation of the PDU. On June 25, 1980, Phase 2 of the program was initiated. It covers a 1-year operations program utilizing the existing PDU and is planned to include five runs with a targeted total operating time of 9 weeks. During this report period, Run 6, the initial run of the Phase 2 program was completed. The gasification system was operated for a total of 95 h at pressures up to 10 atm. Average product gas HHV values of 100 Btu/scf were recorded during 10-atm operation, while gasifying coal at a rate of 1100 lb/h. The run was terminated when the melt overflow system plugged after 60 continuous hours of overflow. Following this run, melt withdrawal system revisions were made, basically by changing the orifice materials from Monofrax to an 80 Cobalt-20 Chromium alloy. By the end of the report period, the PDU was being prepared for Run 7.

  2. Greening coal : clean coal and carbon capture and storage projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundararajan, B.

    2008-09-15

    Clean coal technology and carbon capture and storage (CCS) programs used in Canada were discussed. EPCOR's Genesee 3 project uses supercritical combustion methods and has committed $90 towards the implementation of clean air technologies. The company is also constructing new waste water systems and is expanding its environmental remediation programs. The company has recently constructed a 450 MW supercritical coal-fired unit in Edmonton. The plant uses supercritical boiler technology and high efficiency steam turbines that result in significant reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. The Alberta Saline Aquifer Project (ASAP) is an industry-supported carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration project developed to identify locations for the long-term sequestration of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers. ASAP is expected to play a major role in advancing the knowledge of CCS technology in Canada. The Integrated CO{sub 2} Network (ICO{sub 2}N) is supported by a consortium of Canadian companies dedicated to meeting Canada's climate change commitments through the widespread implementation of CCS and the creation of infrastructure needed to implement CCS technologies. The Wabamun Lake area was selected by the Alberta Geological Survey as a potential site for CCS due to its proximity to several industrial sources of CO{sub 2}. A new CCS demonstration conducted at SaskPower's Boundary Dam Power Station in Estevan, Saskatchewan. The project aims to capture 500,000 tonnes of CO{sub 2} annually by integrating carbon capture technology with a coal-fired generation unit. 3 figs.

  3. Tianjin smokeless coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reuvid, J.M. [Information Services Trans Europe B.V. (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    A feasibility study was started to evaluate the technical barriers and the commercial possibilities of forming a joint venture between the Tianjin Coal and Building Materials Company (TCBM) and Coalite hereby coal from the Shanxi coalfields would be converted by the Coalite process to a smokeless fuel, which would reduce Taijin`s heavy level of air pollution. The project was, however, aborted in October 1996 because Tianjin had been allocated a connection to domestic natural gas fields. The project did identify the suitability of coals from the Shanxi coalfields for the Coalite process and the likely market acceptability of the product. It demonstrated the necessity of establishing good contacts in the relevant industries and Ministries in China - and highlighted the benefits of an effective collaboration between three types of organisation - an investment and consultancy company with expertise in China, a UK clean coal technology company, and a local consultant. 4 apps.

  4. 德士古煤气化装置设计问题探讨%Study on Design of Texaco Coal Gasification Units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭宾

    2001-01-01

    本文对国内德士古煤气化装置运行中暴露出的设计问题进行了探讨。%This paper studies the design problems which are exposed at therunning of Texaco coal gasification units in China.

  5. Uncertainty and variability in health-related damages from coal-fired power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, J.I.; Baxter, L.K.; Schwartz, J. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). Harvard School of Public Health

    2009-07-15

    The health-related damages associated with emissions from coal-fired power plants can vary greatly across facilities as a function of plant, site, and population characteristics, but the degree of variability and the contributing factors have not been formally evaluated. In this study, we modeled the monetized damages associated with 407 coal-fired power plants in the United States, focusing on premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We applied a reduced-form chemistry-transport model accounting for primary PM2.5 emissions and the influence of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions on secondary particulate formation. Outputs were linked with a concentration-response function for PM2.5-related mortality that incorporated nonlinearities and model uncertainty. We valued mortality with a value of statistical life approach, characterizing and propagating uncertainties in all model elements. At the median of the plant-specific uncertainty distributions, damages across plants ranged from $30,000 to $500,000 per ton of PM2.5, $6,000 to $50,000 per ton of SO{sub 2}, $500 to $15,000 per ton of NOx, and $0.02 to $1.57 per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated. Variability in damages per ton of emissions was almost entirely explained by population exposure per unit emissions (intake fraction), which itself was related to atmospheric conditions and the population size at various distances from the power plant. Variability in damages per kilowatt-hour was highly correlated with SO{sub 2} emissions, related to fuel and control technology characteristics, but was also correlated with atmospheric conditions and population size at various distances.

  6. Impact of petroleum industry horizontal divestiture on the coal market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, D.L.; Dymond, L.H.; Marris, R.L.

    1979-06-22

    Volume 2 contains appendices as follows: coal supply curves, coal supply model modifications, coal mine financing data, legislative proposals for horizontal divestiture, overview of oil companies in coal industry (including their coal reserves) and the major sources of data and bibliography. (LTN)

  7. Impact of petroleum industry horizontal divestiture on the coal market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, D.L.; Dymond, L.H.; Marris, R.L.

    1979-06-22

    Volume 2 contains appendices as follows: coal supply curves, coal supply model modifications, coal mine financing data, legislative proposals for horizontal divestiture, overview of oil companies in coal industry (including their coal reserves) and the major sources of data and bibliography. (LTN)

  8. The improvement of internal accounting control of the coal company in new era%新时期下煤炭企业内部会计控制的完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海风

    2011-01-01

    The new situation of the new era put forward more stringent requirements for the internal accounting system of the coal companies. Based on these new conditions, this paper proposed appropriate recommendations to how to improve the internal accounting system to promote the improvement of internal accounting control of the coal companies to meet the constant challenge of new situation of new era.%新时期出现的新情况,给煤炭企业内部会计制度的完善提出了更高的要求.本文在详细分析这些新情况的基础上,对煤炭企业如何改进内部会计制度提出相应的建议,以期推动煤炭企业内部会计控制的完善,迎接新时期新形势的不断挑战.

  9. Competence and Human Resource Development in Multinational Companies in Three European Union Member States: A Comparative Analysis between Austria, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. CEDEFOP Panorama Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Kollinger, Iris; Warmerdam, John; Moerel, Hans; Konrad, John; Burell, Catherine; Guile, David

    A comparative analysis of human resources development and management in the subsidiaries of three multinational companies (Xerox, Glaxo Wellcome, and AXA Nordstern Colonia) was conducted in these three European Union (EU) member states: Austria, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Case studies were used, focusing on competence needs and…

  10. 76 FR 24064 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Units 1, 2, and 3, Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... supercritical coal-fired generation; natural gas combined-cycle generation; new nuclear generation; a... water reactors located in Maricopa County, Arizona. The application for the renewed licenses complied...

  11. Development of a Coal Quality Expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-20

    Task 3 provides detailed characterization of fuel properties of the test coals and in-depth evaluation of their performance characteristics under controlled pilot-scale combustion testing. Results from this task provide fundamental information required to develop some of the improved algorithms for the CQE. Both bench-scale fuel characterization and test furnace performance evaluations are being performed under this task. All pilot-scale combustion tests under this task have been completed. Topical reports for the coals evaluated under the Public Service Oklahoma's Northeastern Unit 4 and Northern States Power's King Unit 1 test series have been issued. Work continued during the past quarter on preparation of the final report for the Mississippi Power Company's Watson Unit 4 tests (to be completed first quarter 1993) and analyzing pilot-scale combustion data from the Alabama Power Company's Gaston tests; a topical report for the Gaston study will also be issued in 1993. Bench-scale testing and data analyses continued in support of the development of the slagging and fouling models. Data obtained from the analysis of samples of deposits, inflame solids, fly ash, and coal from CQE pilot-scale and drop tube combustion tests were evaluated for use in devising and verifying the slagging and fouling algorithms.

  12. 78 FR 42798 - Notice of Invitation To Participate; Coal Exploration License Application WYW182164, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... the United States of America in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. DATES: This notice of invitation will be..., Wyoming 82003; and BLM, Rock Springs Field Office, 280 Highway 191 North, Rock Springs, Wyoming 82901. The written notice should be sent to the following addresses: Bridger Coal Company, c/o Interwest Mining...

  13. Cofiring coal-water slurry fuel with pulverized coal as a NOx reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; Miller, S.F.; Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A low solids, low viscosity coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) was formulated and produced from impounded bituminous coal fines and burned in a utility-scale boiler to investigate NOx emissions reduction during the cofiring of CWSF with pulverized coal. Tests were conducted at the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) Seward Station, located near Seward, Pennsylvania in a Babcock and Wilcox (B and W), front-wall fired, pulverized coal boiler (34 MWe). Two B and W pulverizers feed coal to six burners (two burner levels each containing three low-NOx burners). Approximately 20% of the thermal input was provided by CWSF, the balance by pulverized coal. There was a significant reduction of NOx emissions when cofiring CWSF and pulverized coal as compared to firing 100% pulverized coal. The level of reduction was dependent upon the cofiring configuration (i.e., cofiring in the upper three, lower three, or all six burners), with NOx emissions being reduced by as much as 26.5%. The reduction in NOx emissions was not due to the tempering effect of the water in the CWSF, because a greater reduction in NOx occurred when cofiring CWSF than when injecting the same quantity of water at the same boiler firing rate. This paper discusses the tests in detail and the proposed reburn mechanism for the NOx reduction. In addition, combustion test results from the front-wall fired unit at the Seward Station will be compared to CWSF cofire tests that have been conducted at cyclone-fired units at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Paradise Station (704 MWe), Drakesboro, Kentucky and Southern Illinois Power Cooperative`s (SIPC) Marion, Illinois Station (33 MWe).

  14. Reduction of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from a Coal-Fired Boiler Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuikov Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During combustion of fossil fuels a large amount of harmful substances are discharged into the atmospheres of cities by industrial heating boiler houses. The most harmful substances among them are nitrogen oxides. The paper presents one of the most effective technological solutions for suppressing nitrogen oxides; it is arrangement of circulation process with additional mounting of the nozzle directed into the bottom of the ash hopper. When brown high-moisture coals are burnt in the medium power boilers, generally fuel nitrogen oxides are produced. It is possible to reduce their production by two ways: lowering the temperature in the core of the torch or decreasing the excess-air factor in the boiler furnace. Proposed solution includes the arrangement of burning process with additional nozzle installed in the lower part of the ash hopper. Air supply from these nozzles creates vortex involving large unburned fuel particles in multiple circulations. Thereby time of their staying in the combustion zone is prolonging. The findings describe the results of the proposed solution; and recommendations for the use of this technological method are given for other boilers.

  15. Column flotation in coal: does it make `cents?`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurila, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Column flotation technology was introduced into the coal industry in 1986. The column can produce higher grade concentrates than conventional cells. This has created a niche market for columns in recovering ultrafine (-100 mesh) coal from waste streams. However, column flotation is much more expensive than froth flotation and columns can only process a maximum of 20 tons per hour per unit and consume more reagents than conventional cells. Researchers at Michigan Technological University have found that baffles along the axis of a column vastly improved performance. Today only two companies in the US participate in the column flotation market, ICF Kaiser and Deister.

  16. Application of Hydrocracking Process for Upgrading Tail Oil Quality in 1.0 Mt/a Hydrocracker Unit at SINOPEC Yangzi Petrochemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Haichun; Dong Jianwei

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the hydrocracking technology for upgrading the quality of tail oil and the first commercial application of the RN-32V/RHC-1 catalysts in the 1.0 Mt/a hydrocracker at the Yangzi Petrochemical Company, which was started up successfully in September 2008. One month after start-up of the hydrocracking unit, an evaluation opera-tion has been conducted for assessing the catalysts performance. The technical calibration results showed that the RN-32V/RHC-1 catalysts had high activity, and the product yield distribution was reasonable. The hydrocracker can provide abundant feedstocks for the downstream aromatic production unit and ethylene production unit.

  17. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. 1996 DOE annual technical report, January--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project uses a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,000 tons per day of coal to syngas. The gasification plant is coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 BTUs/cf (HHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product. Approximately 10% of the raw, hot syngas at 900 F is designed to pass through an intermittently moving bed of metal-oxide sorbent which removes sulfur-bearing compounds from the syngas. PPS-1 will be the first unit in the world to demonstrate this advanced metal oxide hot gas desulfurization technology on a commercial unit. The emphasis during 1996 centered around start-up activities.

  18. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. 1996 DOE annual technical report, January--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project uses a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,000 tons per day of coal to syngas. The gasification plant is coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 BTUs/cf (HHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product. Approximately 10% of the raw, hot syngas at 900 F is designed to pass through an intermittently moving bed of metal-oxide sorbent which removes sulfur-bearing compounds from the syngas. PPS-1 will be the first unit in the world to demonstrate this advanced metal oxide hot gas desulfurization technology on a commercial unit. The emphasis during 1996 centered around start-up activities.

  19. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Mohanty, M.K.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a run-of-mine coal sample collected from Amax Coal Company`s Delta Coal mine using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in circuitry arrangements. The {minus}60 mesh run-of-mine sample having an ash content of about 22% was cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 87% and a sulfur rejection value of 53% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Packed-Column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  20. HOZOP在400万t/a煤炭间接液化中的应用研究%Application Research of HOZOP Software Method to the Air Separation Unit in 4 Million t/a Coal Indirect Liquefaction Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马磊; 杨阳

    2014-01-01

    神华宁煤400万t/a煤炭间接液化项目上游10万空分装置初步设计HAZOP分析的目的是,针对杭州杭氧股份有限公司的设计,通过人工HAZOP分析(危险与可操作性分析)的方式,识别初设中存在的不足及风险隐患,帮助设计承包方及时改进和优化设计,以提升整个工艺系统的安全性,为设计承包方的详细设计及后期业主方的生产运营,提供坚实的保障。%According to the related standard requirements of the state and group company, this project should be carried out the HAZOP analysis for the further improvement of the project security level, to identi⁃fy the security issues exist in the design and to ensure the success of the 4 million t/a coal indirect liquefac⁃tion project (hereinafter referred to as the“project”) of Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group, and lay the foundation to realize“secure with optimal”device. The purpose of the ten thousand upstream air separation unit preliminary design of HAZOP analysis of the 4 million t/a coal indirect liquefaction project of Shenhua Ningxia Coal Industry Group is direct at the preliminary design of Hangzhou Hangyang Co., Ltd.. To identify the shortage and potential risks exist in the preliminary design and help design contractors to improve and optimize their design through artificial HAZOP analysis (analysis of risk and operability) method. In order to enhance the security of the entire process system, and it provides solid guarantee for the design contractors detailed design and for the owners later period production and operation.

  1. Advanced coal conversion process demonstration. Technical progress report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high moisture, low rank coals to a high quality, low sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal{reg_sign} process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal process enhances low rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,500 to 9,000 Btu/lb, by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. The 45 ton per hour unit is located adjacent to a unit train load out facility at Western Energy Company`s Rosebud coal mine near Colstrip, Montana. The demonstration plant is sized at about one-tenth the projected throughput of a multiple processing train commercial facility. During this report period the primary focus has been to continue the operation of the demonstration facility. Production has been going to area power plants. Modifications and maintenance work was also performed this quarter.

  2. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

  3. Mercury transportation in soil via using gypsum from flue gas desulfurization unit in coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kelin; Orndorff, William; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2013-09-01

    The mercury flux in soils was investigated, which were amended by gypsums from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units of coal-fired power plants. Studies have been carried out in confined greenhouses using FGD gypsum treated soils. Major research focus is uptakes of mercury by plants, and emission of mercury into the atmosphere under varying application rates of FGD gypsum, simulating rainfall irrigations, soils, and plants types. Higher FGD gypsum application rates generally led to higher mercury concentrations in the soils, the increased mercury emissions into the atmosphere, and the increased mercury contents in plants (especially in roots and leaves). Soil properties and plant species can play important roles in mercury transports. Some plants, such as tall fescue, were able to prevent mercury from atmospheric emission and infiltration in the soil. Mercury concentration in the stem of plants was found to be increased and then leveled off upon increasing FGD gypsum application. However, mercury in roots and leaves was generally increased upon increasing FGD gypsum application rates. Some mercury was likely absorbed by leaves of plants from emitted mercury in the atmosphere.

  4. Field tests of fabric filters on full-scale coal-fired utility boilers. Volume 1. Martin Drake Unit 6, Ray D. Nixon Unit 1, Cherokee Unit 3, Cameo Unit 2, and Arapahoe Unit 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, L.G.; Cushing, K.M.; Merritt, R.L.; Smith, W.B.

    1985-10-01

    This report discusses the results of a field investigation of full-scale baghouses collecting fly ash at five coal-fired power plants. All five plants burned western, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal and were equipped with baghouses cleaned by reverse gas. Since all of the baghouses operated with clear stacks, particulate collection efficiencies were not measured. Instead, attention was focused on parameters associated with pressure drop, which is important because it is directly related to operating and capital costs. Cleaning-cycle information was taken at the baghouses, and measurements were made of air-to-cloth ratio and tube sheet pressure drop. In addition, seasoned bags and bag samples cut from seasoned bags were weighed to determie dustcake areal loading. Average drag (presure drop/air-to-cloth ratio) and drag measured using these bag samples were recorded. Also, data on the chemical analysis of the coals and their resultant fly ash were gathered, and particle size distribution measurements were made on fly ash samples. Electrical resistivity was measured on fly ash from three locations. 8 refs., 33 figs., 38 tabs.

  5. 75 FR 13600 - Virginia Electric and Power Company, North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2, Surry Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... permit the licensee the use of Mine Safety Appliance Company (MSA) Firehawk Air Mask (FireHawk) Self... offsite. There is no significant increase in occupational or public radiation exposure. Therefore,...

  6. 75 FR 9620 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ....0 Background Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), is the holder of Renewed... SNC letter dated November 6, 2009, as supplemented November 20, 2009, the licensee is required to...

  7. 75 FR 3761 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc., Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    .... DPR-57 and NPF-5, issued to Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), for....55 by the March 31, 2010, deadline. SNC has proposed an alternate full compliance implementation...

  8. 75 FR 9622 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc.; Vogtle Electric Generating Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ...; Exemption 1.0 Background Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. (SNC, the licensee), is the holder of... specified in the SNC letter dated November 6, 2009, as supplemented November 20, 2009, the licensee...

  9. Analysis of factors impacting on long-term safety of coal companies based on ISM model%基于 ISM 模型的煤矿企业长效安全影响因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞柒; 阮平南

    2014-01-01

    This paper adopts the ISM model in an effort to establish a long-term safety sys-tem for coal companies. By analyzing the causal relations between factors within the system,this paper employs the methodology of Interpretative Structural Modeling to transform the previously complex and ambiguous structure into a clear and well-defined system. It has thus come to the conclusion that:when it comes to safe production,coal companies,while ensuring balanced bas-ic,important and key causal factors,should also focus on issues such as public opinion and hu-manistic considerations,core corporate values and morality.%采用 ISM 模型分析方法,构建了煤矿企业长效安全系统结构。通过分析系统内各因素之间的相互因果关系,运用解释结构模型方法,将复杂的、模糊不清的结构,理顺为清晰的层级结构。得到的结论是,在煤矿企业在安全生产中,除了解决好基本原因因素、重要原因因素、关键原因因素之外,着重需要解决好社会群众舆论与人文关怀、企业的核心观念文化和人的伦理道德问题。

  10. 晋能公司保安煤矿防突管理的经验初探%Probe into the Experiences of Baoan Coal Mine of Jinneng Company in Outburst Prevention Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建兵

    2014-01-01

    从健全组织机构、采取点面结合的防突措施、实现防突安全质量标准化、注重实效的精细化管理4个方面,详细介绍了晋能公司保安煤矿防突管理的经验,以期切实提高煤矿安全生产水平和市场竞争能力,实现经济效益和社会效益的双丰收。%This paper introduces in detail the experiences of Baoan Coal Mine of Jinneng Company in outburst prevention management from four aspects of perfecting the institutional framework, adopting the outburst prevention measures based on point and surface combination, and paying attention to effective fine management for actually improving the level of coal mine’s safety production and realizing both economic and social benefits.

  11. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. Final public design report; Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This final Public Design Report (PDR) provides completed design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the operating parameters and benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. Pending development of technically and commercially viable sorbent for the Hot Gas Cleanup System, the HGCU also is demonstrated. The report is organized under the following sections: design basis description; plant descriptions; plant systems; project costs and schedule; heat and material balances; general arrangement drawings; equipment list; and miscellaneous drawings.

  12. Thermography in the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van De Ven, H., E-mail: hvandeven@thesnellgroup.com [The Snell Group, Barre, VT (United States)

    2013-03-15

    In the past, maintenance in the coal industry was using the 'run-to-failure' philosophy. This mindset is not only costly; it can also be dangerous. Today, some of the more progressive coal companies are trying to find ways to be more cost effective in their maintenance practices including adding infrared thermography for to their maintenance process. (author)

  13. Comparative study on the impact of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation in the western United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1979-06-01

    A comparative study and quantitative assessment of the impacts, costs and benefits associated with the mining, processing and transportation of coal and uranium within the western states, specifically Arizona, California, Colorado, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington and Wyoming are presented. The western states possess 49% of the US reserve coal base, 67% of the total identified reserves and 82% of the hypothetical reserves. Western coal production has increased at an average annual rate of about 22% since 1970 and should become the major US coal supplier in the 1980's. The Colorado Plateau (in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Utah) and the Wyoming Basin areas account for 72% of the $15/lb U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ resources, 76% of the $30/lb, and 75% of the $50/lb resources. It is apparent that the West will serve as the major supplier of domestic US coal and uranium fuels for at least the next several decades. Impacts considered are: environmental impacts, (land, water, air quality); health effects of coal and uranium mining, processing, and transportation; risks from transportation accidents; radiological impact of coal and uranium mining; social and economic impacts; and aesthetic impacts (land, air, noise, water, biota, and man-made objects). Economic benefits are discussed.

  14. Coal resources available for development; a methodology and pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Jane R.; Carter, M. Devereux; Cobb, James C.

    1990-01-01

    Coal accounts for a major portion of our Nation's energy supply in projections for the future. A demonstrated reserve base of more than 475 billion short tons, as the Department of Energy currently estimates, indicates that, on the basis of today's rate of consumption, the United States has enough coal to meet projected energy needs for almost 200 years. However, the traditional procedures used for estimating the demonstrated reserve base do not account for many environmental and technological restrictions placed on coal mining. A new methodology has been developed to determine the quantity of coal that might actually be available for mining under current and foreseeable conditions. This methodology is unique in its approach, because it applies restrictions to the coal resource before it is mined. Previous methodologies incorporated restrictions into the recovery factor (a percentage), which was then globally applied to the reserve (minable coal) tonnage to derive a recoverable coal tonnage. None of the previous methodologies define the restrictions and their area and amount of impact specifically. Because these restrictions and their impacts are defined in this new methodology, it is possible to achieve more accurate and specific assessments of available resources. This methodology has been tested in a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kentucky Geological Survey on the Matewan 7.5-minute quadrangle in eastern Kentucky. Pertinent geologic, mining, land-use, and technological data were collected, assimilated, and plotted. The National Coal Resources Data System was used as the repository for data, and its geographic information system software was applied to these data to eliminate restricted coal and quantify that which is available for mining. This methodology does not consider recovery factors or the economic factors that would be considered by a company before mining. Results of the pilot study indicate that, of the estimated

  15. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Quarterly report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L. [Canadian Energy Development, Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1994-07-01

    A detailed evaluation of the bench unit data on Black Thunder feedstocks was completed. The results show that in a once-through operation using counterflow, reactor technology coal conversions in excess of 90% could be obtained, giving distillable oil yields in the range 60--65 wt % on MAF coal. The remaining non-distillable oil fraction which represents 20--25 wt % on MAF coal is a source of additional distillable oil in further processing, for example, bottoms recycle operation. C{sub 1}-C{sub 3} gas yields were generally in the order of 6--8 wt %. In autoclave studies, Illinois No. 6 coal was found to be much less reactive than Black Thunder coal, and did not respond well to solubilization with carbon monoxide/steam. Process severity was, therefore, increased for bench unit operations on Illinois No. 6 coal, and work has concentrated on the use of hydrogen rather than carbon monoxide for solubilization. Preliminary coking studies on the resid from bench unit runs on Black Thunder coal were also carried out. Distillable liquid yields of 55--60 wt % were obtained. The technical and economic study to be carried out by Kilborn Engineering Company has been initiated.

  16. Are drug companies living up to their human rights responsibilities? The perspective of the former United Nations Special Rapporteur (2002-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hunt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: The human rights responsibilities of drug companies have been considered for years by nongovernmental organizations, but were most sharply defined in a report by the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to health, submitted to the United Nations General Assembly in August 2008. The "Human Rights Guidelines for Pharmaceutical Companies in relation to Access to Medicines" include responsibilities for transparency, management, monitoring and accountability, pricing, and ethical marketing, and against lobbying for more protection in intellectual property laws, applying for patents for trivial modifications of existing medicines, inappropriate drug promotion, and excessive pricing. Two years after the release of the Guidelines, the PLoS Medicine Debate asks whether drug companies are living up to their human rights responsibilities. Sofia Gruskin and Zyde Raad from the Harvard School of Public Health say more assessment is needed of such responsibilities; Geralyn Ritter, Vice President of Global Public Policy and Corporate Responsibility at Merck & Co. argues that multiple stakeholders could do more to help States deliver the right to health; and Paul Hunt and Rajat Khosla introduce Mr. Hunt's work as the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to the highest attainable standard of health, regarding the human rights responsibilities of pharmaceutical companies and access to medicines.

  17. Energy consumption and distribution of 1 000 MW coal-fired power generating unit%1000MW燃煤机组能耗及其分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志平; 杨勇平

    2012-01-01

    目前火力发电机组的性能分析方法仍基于热力学第一定律与第二定律,应用基于热力学第一定律的热量法和基于热力学第二定律的单耗分析法,以1 000 MW机组为研究对象,以机组设计参数进行建模分析,确定机组在不同工况下的发电煤耗及其在各个环节中的附加煤耗分布,并对评价方法进行比较,进而从设计层面分析机组的节能方向和潜力.%The current performance analysis method is still based on the first law and second law of thermodynamics a-bout Thermal power generating units. This paper used heat balance method based the first law of thermodynamics and the specific consumption analysis method based the second law of thermodynamics to analyze 1000MW power generating unit. Math model to the unit design parameters was established. Coal consumption and distribution in the different conditions and all aspects of the unit were determined. Compared with the evaluation methods, then the energy-saving direction and potentials of coal-fired generating unit from the design level was analyzed.

  18. Cooperative evaluation of San Juan Basin, Phillips Petroleum Company, openhole well recompletion efforts. Topical report, May 1, 1993-January 15, 1994. Western cretaceous coal seam project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavor, M.J.; Logan, T.L.; Robinson, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    Over 920 San Juan Basin Fruitland Formation openhole coal gas wells have been drilled. Significantly greater gas deliverabilty is possible if substandard productivity can be improved. Two low productivity wells were recompleted. The first was recompleted using conventional and high pressure dynamic openhole procedures. The second was recompleted using hydraulic fracturing techniques. None of the stimulation techniques increased the reservoir deliverablity above that achieved by the original openhole completion. Hydraulic fracturing damaged the near-wall permeability and productivity of the no. 234 well. Extensive testing and production logging were performed to support the conclusions.

  19. Reconstruction of the aero-mixture channels of the pulverized coal plant of the 100MW power plant unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanovic Vladan B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After the last revitalization of thermal power block of 100 MW in TPP “Kostolac A”, made in the year 2004, during the operation of the plant, pulverized coal deposition often occurred in horizontal sections of the aero-mixture channels. Deposition phenomenon manifested itself in places ahead of spherical compensators in the direction of flow of pulverized coal to the burners, due to unfavorable configuration of these channels. Coal dust deposited in the channels dried and spontaneously combusted, causing numerous damage to channels and its isolation as well as the frequent stoppage of the operation for necessary interventions. The paper presents the original solution of reconstruction of aero-mixture channels which prevented deposition of coal dust and its eventual ignition. In this way the reliability of the mill plant is maximized and higher availability of boiler and block as a whole is achieved.

  20. Methanogenic pathways of coal-bed gas in the Powder River Basin, United States: The geologic factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, R.M.; Rice, C.A.; Stricker, G.D.; Warden, A.; Ellis, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Coal-bed gas of the Tertiary Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, U.S. was interpreted as microbial in origin by previous studies based on limited data on the gas and water composition and isotopes associated with the coal beds. To fully evaluate the microbial origin of the gas and mechanisms of methane generation, additional data for 165 gas and water samples from 7 different coal-bed methane-bearing coal-bed reservoirs were collected basinwide and correlated to the coal geology and stratigraphy. The C1/(C2 + C3) ratio and vitrinite reflectance of coal and organic shale permitted differentiation between microbial gas and transitional thermogenic gas in the central part of the basin. Analyses of methane ??13C and ??D, carbon dioxide ??13C, and water ??D values indicate gas was generated primarily from microbial CO2 reduction, but with significant gas generated by microbial methyl-type fermentation (aceticlastic) in some areas of the basin. Microbial CO2 reduction occurs basinwide, but is generally dominant in Paleocene Fort Union Formation coals in the central part of the basin, whereas microbial methyl-type fermentation is common along the northwest and east margins. Isotopically light methane ??13C is distributed along the basin margins where ??D is also depleted, indicating that both CO2-reduction and methyl-type fermentation pathways played major roles in gas generation, but gas from the latter pathway overprinted gas from the former pathway. More specifically, along the northwest basin margin gas generation by methyl-type fermentation may have been stimulated by late-stage infiltration of groundwater recharge from clinker areas, which flowed through highly fractured and faulted coal aquifers. Also, groundwater recharge controlled a change in gas composition in the shallow Eocene Wasatch Formation with the increase of nitrogen and decrease of methane composition of the coal-bed gas. Other geologic factors, such as

  1. Full-scale ash deposition measurements at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 during suspension-firing of wood with and without coal ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    The formation of deposits during suspension-firing of wood at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 (AVV2) was studied by using an advanced deposit probe system. The tests were conducted both with and without coal ash addition, and at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 1250-1300 oC and 750......-800 oC respectively. The deposit formation process was studied quantitatively though the mass uptake data from the load-cell of the probe, while camera pictures were used to qualitatively verify the obtained mass uptake data and to explain the deposit buildup/shedding mechanisms. The collected deposits...... along with the fly ash and bottom ash from the plant were characterized extensively by SEM-EDS, ICP-OES/IC and XRD. Based on the results from the present work, the deposit formation and shedding mechanisms under different operational conditions were proposed and discussed. The influence of coal ash...

  2. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  3. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  4. 75 FR 11681 - United States v. Daily Gazette Company and Medianews Group, Inc.; Proposed Final Judgment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... mix of news, features and editorials to readers. All of these decisions were outside the cooperation... consummated, Gazette Company stopped all promotions and discounts for the Charleston Daily Mail; it stopped... promotions therein. O. ``Relating to'' or ``Relates to'' means in whole or in part constituting, containing...

  5. Logistics Company Partner 2.0.15 Tool: Quick Start Guide, 2015 Data Year - United States Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA document provides focused guidance and worksheets for SmartWay Logistics Company Partners on how to complete the SmartWay Logistics Tool and participate in the SmartWay program. (EPA publication # EPA-420-B-16-063)

  6. Logistics Company Partner 2.0.15 Tool: Data Entry and Troubleshooting Guide, 2015 Data Year - United States Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA document provides detailed data entry and troubleshooting guidance for SmartWay Logistics Company Partners on how to complete the SmartWay Logistics Tool and participate in the SmartWay program. (EPA publication # EPA-420-B-16-062)

  7. Logistics Company Carrier Partner 2.0.15 Tool: Technical Documentation 2015 Data Year - United States Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SmartWay Logistics 2.0.15 Tool is intended to help logistics companies estimate and assess their emission performance levels as well as their total emissions associated with goods movement in the U.S. freight rail, barge, air and t

  8. 75 FR 69137 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company Inc. Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant, Unit No. 2 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ..., issued to Southern Nuclear Company (SNC, the licensee), for operation of the Edwin I. Hatch Nuclear Plant.... ] Environmental Assessment Identification of the Proposed Action The proposed action would allow SNC to use GNF... that SNC can use GNF-Ziron as an advanced alloy for fuel rod cladding and other assembly...

  9. Development of a new set-up mathematical model for the tandem hot rolling unit of the brazilian National Steel Company; Desenvolvimento de novo modelo matematico de set up do LTQ-2 da CSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, Aquiles A. da; Dornelas, Francisco C.; Tirello, Jonas; Brandao, Jose M.M. [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    This paper shows the development of a set-up mathematical model for the tandem hot rolling unit of the brazilian National Steel Company, specifically for the cylinder opening and chair speed. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  10. 78 FR 63506 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    .... Units 2 and 3 at PBAPS have a common once-through heat dissipation system that draws water from and..., and as a source of public water. Units 2 and 3 use six circulating water pumps (three per unit), each... canal. Three adjustable discharge gates at the end of the discharge canal control the flow to Conowingo...

  11. REFORMING DRUG APPROVAL IN THE UNITED STATES: MEASURES NECESSARY TO ALLEVIATE THE CASH CRUNCH FACED BY SMALL BIOTECHNOLOGY COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    McWilliams, Douglas E.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, the infant biotechnology industry, led by small biotechnology companies, has produced numerous breakthrough drugs which have saved lives, reduced suffering and cut the cost of health care. Given that the biopharmaceutical industry has only been in existence for a little over 20 years, biotechnology holds enormous potential for the advancement of medical treatments. Unfortunately, even with biotechnology, as with the more traditional methods of drug development, the gover...

  12. An Empirical Analysis of the Factors That Affect the Capital Structure of Listed Companies of Coal Industry%煤炭行业上市公司资本结构影响因素的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓; 韩丽红

    2012-01-01

    With 29 listed companies of coal industry in Shanghai and Shenzhen as samples, by adopting factor analysis and multiple linear regression, this paper carries out an empirical analysis to the factors that affect listed companies" capital structure of coal industry. The result shows that the influence of asset liquidity, growth and prof- itability on capital structure is rather remarkable and the influence of enterprise scale, non - debt tax shield and collateral value of assets on the capital structure of listed eompanied is not so remarkable. In addition, there exists positive relation between its growth, non - debt tax shield , collateral value of asset and the listed companies" asset structure. And the rest variables shows negative relationship.%以沪深两市29家煤炭行业上市公司为研究样本,采用因子分析和多元回归方法对煤炭行业上市公司资本结构的影响因素进行了实证研究,分析结果显示:资产流动性、成长性和盈利能力对资本结构的影响比较显著,企业规模、非债务税盾以及资产担保价值对上市公司资本结构的影响并不显著。并且成长性、非债务税盾、资产担保价值与公司的资本结构成正相关关系,其余变量则呈负相关关系。

  13. State-of-the-art combustion controls CO{sub 2} emissions from coal : part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farzan, H.; Vecci, S.; McDonald, D.; McCauley, K [Babcock and Wilcox Canada Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Pranda, P.; Varagani, R.; Gautier, F.; Tranier, J.P.; Perrin, N. [Air Liquide Canada Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2007-11-15

    Power plant operators use the cost of electricity (COE) as a way to compare different generating technologies, including those that require investment into costly carbon management. This article addressed issues regarding the goals that management sets and how they are measured in terms of economic profit. It was noted that power companies are not as likely to invest in carbon management technologies until there is assurance that competing power companies will do the same, or until incentives encourage it. A few power companies are well located to provide carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery, but others intend to master the technology of carbon management in preparation for a time when it may be a key competitive advantage. This article described key elements of oxy-coal combustion feasibility and competitiveness. This included oxygen production and specification for oxy-coal combustion. It was shown that for oxy-coal combustion plants, the best solution to purify the flue gas from the boiler is a lower temperature partial condensation scheme as soon as oxygen removal is considered. Oxy-coal combustion technology for retrofitting coal-fired boilers was also presented. A Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) project in Ohio for oxy-coal combustion was described along with the proposed development of a 300 MWe commercial oxy-coal boiler by SaskPower, Babcock and Wilcox Canada and AL. It was concluded that the ability to capture carbon dioxide from power plants is feasible in advanced modes of current technology and with new technology under development. However, oxy-combustion technology requires introducing new equipment to power plants, such as the air separation unit (ASU) and the carbon dioxide central processing unit (CPU). 1 tab., 5 figs.

  14. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendryx, Michael; Fedorko, Evan; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS) techniques--exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping--to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and "other" age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  15. A geographical information system-based analysis of cancer mortality and population exposure to coal mining activities in West Virginia, United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hendryx

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer incidence and mortality rates are high in West Virginia compared to the rest of the United States of America. Previous research has suggested that exposure to activities of the coal mining industry may contribute to elevated cancer mortality, although exposure measures have been limited. This study tests alternative specifications of exposure to mining activity to determine whether a measure based on location of mines, processing plants, coal slurry impoundments and underground slurry injection sites relative to population levels is superior to a previously-reported measure of exposure based on tons mined at the county level, in the prediction of age-adjusted cancer mortality rates. To this end, we utilize two geographical information system (GIS techniques – exploratory spatial data analysis and inverse distance mapping – to construct new statistical analyses. Total, respiratory and “other” age-adjusted cancer mortality rates in West Virginia were found to be more highly associated with the GIS-exposure measure than the tonnage measure, before and after statistical control for smoking rates. The superior performance of the GIS measure, based on where people in the state live relative to mining activity, suggests that activities of the industry contribute to cancer mortality. Further confirmation of observed phenomena is necessary with person-level studies, but the results add to the body of evidence that coal mining poses environmental risks to population health in West Virginia.

  16. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Jurassic coals from the Gheshlagh mine, Eastern Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Hossein Shamanian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Alborz structural zone in northern Iran is the host of a number of important coal deposits. The Gheshlagh coal mine is one of them, which is located 35 km southeast of Azadshahr. Coal bearing strata in the Gheshlagh mining district occur in the middle part of the Lower Jurassic Shemshak Formation which consists mainly of shales, siltstones and sandstones. The Geshlagh coals have a low sulfur content and a low ash yield. The ash content of coal and its geochemical character depends on the environment of deposition and subsequent geological history (Yazdi and Esmaeilnia, 2004. The purpose of this study was to investigate the texural and mineralogical characteristcs of the Ghashlagh coals and to identify the geochemistry of the major and trace elements and their relationship to specific mineralogical components. These results are necessary to improve the understanding of coal characterization and to relate the mineralogy of different materials to their potential for producing acidic or alkaline mine waters associated with mining and preparation processes. Materials and methods About 20 samples were collected from the main coal seams. These samples were taken from fresh faces of the mine to avoid weathered surfaces and get fresh samples. The petrography of the samples was carried out by the conventional microscopic methods at the Golestan University. Mineralogical analyses were done by a X-ray diffractometer equipped with a CuKα tube and monochrometer (XRD Philips PW 1800 at the Kansaran Binaloud Company. The coal samples were initially crushed to less than 200 μm and homogenized. Then, 50 g from each sample was heated to 525 oC according to the United States Geological Survey procedure(Bullock et al., 2002. The concentration of the major and trace elements in the resulting ash samples was determined using a wavelength Xray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF Philips PW1480 at the Kansaran Binaloud Company. Results The Coal

  17. 公司治理对煤炭上市公司并购绩效的影响∗%Impact of corporate governance on merger and acquisition performance of listed coal companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茜; 樊燕萍

    2014-01-01

    以煤炭上市公司2008-2012年年报数据为样本,首先采用因子分析法对构建的财务比例指标体系综合打分以衡量并购绩效,然后使用多元线性回归分析法从股权结构、董事会结构和管理层激励3个方面实证检验了公司治理与并购绩效的关系。研究表明:中国煤炭上市公司并购绩效的总体趋势是先下降后上升;国有股比例和股权集中度与并购绩效正相关;董事会规模和独立董事比例与并购绩效负相关;管理层激励与并购绩效正相关。最后针对研究结果分别提出对策建议。%In this paper,on the basis of annual report data from 2008 to 2012 of the listed coal companies,the factor analysis is used to comprehensively score the financial ratio index sys-tem to measure M&A performance first,and then the multiple linear regression method is adopt-ed from the aspects of shareholding structure,board structure and management incentive to veri-fy the relationship between corporate governance and M&A performance.Research shows that the overall trend of M&A performance of China's listed coal companies is rising after declining;state-owned shares proportion and shareholding concentration has a positive correlation with M&A performance;the board size and the proportion of independent directors is negatively relat-ed to the M&A performance;management incentive and M&A performance are positively relat-ed.Finally,based on the research results,some countermeasures and suggestions are put for-ward.

  18. Computer controlled measurement of spontaneous combustion in coal stockpiles of the Western Lignite Corporation, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The spontaneous combustion event in coal stockpiles is inevitable when appropriate environmental conditions are available.The objective of a computerized measurement system is to measure temperature changes existing in a coal stockpile.In order to achieve this intention, the electrical signal conversion of temperatures sensed by 20 temperature sensors placed in certain points inside the coal stockpile, the transfer of these electrical signals into computer media by using analogue-digital conversion unit after applying necessary filterization and upgrading processes and the record of these information into a database in particular time intervals are provided.Afterwards, the diagrams of these time-temperature data are plotted.With the help of these graphs, the competent company will be able to examine the behavior of coal stockpiles in terms of spontaneous combustion and take necessary precautions against self-combustion beforehand.

  19. Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict

  20. Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict

  1. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN PROJECTS OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION AMONG UNITS OF A MULTINATIONAL COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jugend

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the topic of integration in product development is widely debated in the literature, there are few studies that address the participation by subsidiaries of multinational and R & D centers around the world in development projects of new products. Focusing on the perception of the Brazilian unit, this paper aims to present and analyze integration practices among subsidiaries, headquarters and R&D centers in product development projects in a multinational high tech company. For this purpose, was conducted an exploratory and qualitative researched operationalized by case study. Among the main results, it was noted collaboration between locals marketing and engineering with the R & D centers, important role of senior management in the Brazilian unit to communicate outcomes of the strategic planning of products and technologies established by the headquarters to the subsidiary, the adoption of technological and information mechanisms and the application of methods such as technology roadmap.

  2. Coal washing scenario in India and future prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Venugopal; J.P.Patel; C.Bhar

    2016-01-01

    Coal Washing Exploration in India dates back to 1900s;though,first coking coal washeries in India were installed after independence.At present,most of the coking coal washeries are owned by Public Sector Companies;whereas,most of the non-coking coal washeries are owned by Private Sector.Even after six decades of coal washing practices,there has not been significant development in the coal washing intelligentsia.Indian Coal Washing industry is still dependent on imported equipment,which has been designed to treat coal that is significantly different from Indian coal of drift origin.In this paper,authors have ventured into evolution of Indian Coal Washing Industry (with a focus on coking coal washing sector),its present condition and future prospect for growth.The paper emphasizes need for developing indigenous solutions to industrial challenges and highlights importance of increased coordination among academia-research institutions and coal industry.

  3. Mitigating Community Impacts of Energy Development: Some Examples for Coal and Nuclear Generating Plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelle, Elizabeth

    The Hartsville, Tennessee nuclear reactor site, the coal plant at Wheatland, Wyoming, and the nuclear plant at Skagit, Washington have mitigation plans developed in response to a federal, state, and local regulatory agency, respectively; the three mitigation plans aim at internalizing community-level social costs and benefits during the…

  4. Managers' perception regarding information systems that provide decision making support: a case study in an organizational unit of a petroleum derivatives company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Raldi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In a globalization scenario, uncertainty and high competitive edge between the companies, every manager needs to make decisions that bring competitive advantage to his/her organization. These decisions are increasingly complex, which demands more rapid and precise information to allow efficient decision-making. It is in this scenario that Information Systems (IS have gained importance in the decision-making process. Yet, many of these IS may not be adequate to the manager’s needs. This study aims to identify the perception of the managers of an Organizational Unit at an oil and derivatives company about the support given by ISs regarding their decision making. To obtain the expected results, a questionnaire based on the critical factors involved in IS quality and directed to the managers of the Organizational Unit. Results of this study will enable professionals responsible for developing ISs, as well as managers and those working with these systems to identify strengths and weaknesses of existing systems.

  5. Coal competition: prospects for the 1980s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    This report consists of 10 chapters which present an historical overview of coal and the part it has played as an energy source in the economic growth of the United States from prior to World War II through 1978. Chapter titles are: definition of coals, coal mining; types of coal mines; mining methods; mining work force; development of coal; mine ownership; production; consumption; prices; exports; and imports. (DMC)

  6. Coal distribution, January--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-17

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents information for January through June 1990. Coal distribution data are shown (in tables 1--34) by coal-producing state of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and state of destination. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  7. Coal can be a Clean Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Redevelopment and expansion of United States coal resources are economic necessities. Environmentalists' objections to the less expensive, available United States coal, that introduces large amounts of SOx and particulates into the air, may be overcome with the options of coal cleaning, tall stacks, material recovery and stack cleaning. (BT)

  8. (Coal utilization in India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, R.P.

    1991-01-15

    Under the Phase II, Alternative Energy Resources Development (AERD) project of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of India (GOI), five collaborative coal projects have been initiated in the areas of: (1) NO{sub x}/SO{sub x} control from coal-fired power plants, (2) slagging combustor development for high-ash Indian coals, (3) characterization of Indian coals for combustion and gasification, (4) diagnostic studies for prediction of power plant life expectancy, and (5) environmental and natural resource analysis of coal cycle. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) has the implementation responsibility for these projects. The Indian collaborative institutions identified for these projects are the Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. (BHEL), Trichy, (Projects 1--4), and the Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI) for Project 5. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is providing cross-cut technical coordination and support for these five projects.

  9. Pyrolysis of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachimoellah; Endah [Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopemba, Surabaya (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering; Karaman, N.; Kusuma, S.A. [UPN Surabaya, (Indonesia). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1997-04-01

    It has been estimated that there is 36 billion tons of coal resource potential in Indonesia. Over 21.4 billion tons is classified as low rank (lignitic) coal. The coal deposits are located mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan. As an energy source, low rank coals are not widely used, because of their high moisture content, low calorific value and variable ash content. One of the key questions for utilizing low rank coal is whether lignite can be upgraded into another form which is more economically viable. In this study tests were carried out in a pilot plant fixed bed pyrolysis reactor unit provided with hopper, electric heater, coolers and product receivers. The yield of char, tar and gases was found to depend on temperature which also affected the composition of gas produced. Results also indicated the temperature and particle size giving maximum tar yield, gas concentration, and the atmosphere of inert nitrogen. 1 tab., 2 figs., 10 refs.

  10. 水煤浆提浓技术在新能能源有限公司的应用%Application of coal water slurry mass fraction improvement technology in Xinneng Energy Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张胜局; 何国锋; 段清兵

    2015-01-01

    To improve mass fraction of gasification coal water slurry ( CWS) and reduce production cost,an advanced process which adopted low-rank coal to prepare high mass fraction CWS was introduced by Xinneng Energy Company.The quality of CWS and each gasification index before and after transformation were analyzed.The influence of CWS mass fraction on specific coal and oxygen utilization, volume fraction of effective synthesis gas and methanol yield was studied.After transformation,the mass fraction of CWS increased from 59.11%to 61.36%.The handing capacity of each rod mill increased from 65 t/h to 78 t/h,specific coal and oxygen utilization decreased to 595.2 g/m3 and 384.0 dm3/m3 from 602.5 g/m3 and 392.0 dm3/m3 respectively.The effective synthesis gas was raised from 81.78% to 82.86%.The crude methanol production increased by 47.3 m3 every day.%为提高气化水煤浆浓度,降低生产成本,新能能源有限公司于2012年引进低阶煤制备高浓度水煤浆工艺及设备对现有水煤浆制备系统进行改造,通过对比分析改造前后的气化水煤浆质量和气化各项性能指标,阐述了水煤浆浓度对比煤耗、比氧耗、有效合成气体积分数及甲醇产量的影响。结果表明,水煤浆制备系统进行提浓改造后,水煤浆质量与气化效果显著改善。水煤浆浓度由改造前的59.11%提高至61.36%,提高了2.25%,单台棒磨机原煤处理量由65 t/h提高至78 t/h,比煤耗由602.5 g/m3降至595.2 g/m3,比氧耗从392.0 dm3/m3降至384.0 dm3/m3,气化有效合成气体积分数也由81.78%提高至82.86%,最终每天增产粗甲醇47.3 m3。

  11. Workplace conflict resolution and the health of employees in the Swedish and Finnish units of an industrial company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Martin; Jappinen, Paavo; Theorell, Tores; Oxenstierna, Gabriel

    2006-10-01

    New patterns of working, the globalisation of production and the introduction of information technologies are changing the way we work. This new working environment has eliminated some risks whilst introducing others. The importance of the psychosocial working environment for the health of employees is now well documented, but the effects of managerial style have received relatively little attention. Yet management is an increasingly important aspect of companies' policies. In this paper, we examine the relationship between conflict management in the workplace and self-reported measures of stress, poor general health, exhaustion and sickness absence due to overstrain or fatigue. Our sample consists of non-supervisory employees (N = 9309) working in the Swedish and Finnish plants of a multinational forestry company who were surveyed in 2000. Bivariate analyses show that those who report that differences are resolved through discussion are least likely to report stress, poor general health, exhaustion or sickness absence. Those who report that authority is used or that no attempts are made to resolve differences have quite similar rates across all measures. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed for all health outcomes controlling for age, sex, occupational group, job complexity, job autonomy and support from superiors. Results show significantly lower likelihoods of reporting stress, poor general health, exhaustion or sickness absence amongst employees who report that differences of opinion are resolved through discussion compared to those who report that no attempts are made. No significant differences were found between those who reported that differences were resolved through use of authority and subjects in the 'no attempt' category. These results suggest that the workplace conflict resolution is important in the health of employees in addition to traditional psychosocial work environment risk factors.

  12. Status of coal ash corrosion resistant materials test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, D.K.; Meisenhelter, D.K.; Sikka, V.K.

    1999-07-01

    In November of 1998, Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) began development of a system to permit testing of several advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam conditions of 1100 F and higher in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO), B and W, and First Energy's Ohio Edison jointly fund the project. CONSOL Energy Company is also participating as an advisor. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. The coal-ash corrosion resistant materials test program will provide full scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater and reheater tube materials. These newer materials may be capable of operating at higher steam temperatures while resisting external/fire-side corrosion. For high sulfur coal applications, this is a key issue for advanced cycle pulverized coal-fired plants. Fireside corrosion is also a critical issue for many existing plants. Previous testing of high temperature materials in the United States has been based primarily on using laboratory test coupons. The test coupons did not operate at conditions representative of a high sulfur coal-fired boiler. Testing outside of the United States has been with low sulfur coal or natural gas firing and has not addressed corrosion issues. This test program takes place in an actual operating boiler and is expected to confirm the performance of these materials with high sulfur coal. The system consists of three identical sections, each containing multiple pieces of twelve different materials. They are cooled by reheater steam, and are located just above the furnace exit in Ohio Edison's Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. After one year of operation, the first section will be removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation. The second and third sections will operate for

  13. The influence of capacity management on the unit cost of production: a case study in a flexible plastic packaging company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tálita Floriano Goulart Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the relationship between capacity management and cost management in determining the unit cost. The objective was to show how the use of effective capacity decreases the unit cost of manufacturing. For this, follow these steps: 1 Knowledge and analysis of production process and PPPC; 2 Data Collection; 3 Application of the Method Cost Center; 4Verification of the relationship between the Capacity Management and Cost Management. Through the company’s accounting reports, observations and interviews, the following results was possible: knowledge of the production process and functioning of PPCP, measuring the cost of each step of the production process and the unit cost of each product. Subsequently, we compared the unit cost using the effective capacity and normal capacity. The results showed that the unit costs decrease with the use of effective capacity, while increasing the margin for each product, even with the lower sale price, thus establishing a virtuous circle: effective capacity utilization, reduced unit cost, most competitive prices and increase in the number of requests.

  14. Rapid declines in FEV1 and subsequent respiratory symptoms, illnesses, and mortality in coal miners in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeckman, L.A.F.; Wang, M.L.; Petsonk, E.L.; Wagner, G.R. [NIOSH, Morgantown, WV (USA). Division of Respiratory District Studies, Center for District Control and Prevention and Human Services

    2001-03-01

    Coal mine dust exposure is associated with accelerated loss of lung function. The authors assessed long-term health outcomes in two groups of underground coal miners who during previous mine surveys had shown either high rates of FEV1 decline (cases, n = 310) or relatively stable lung function (referents, n = 324). Cases and referents were matched initially for age, height, smoking status, and FEV,. The authors determined vital status for 561 miners, and obtained a follow-up questionnaire for 121 cases and 143 referents. Responses on the follow-up questionnaire were compared with those on the last previous mine health survey questionnaire. Cases showed a greater incidence of symptoms than did referents for cough, phlegm production, Grades II and III dyspnea, and wheezing, and greater incidences than referents of chronic bronchitis and self-reported asthma and emphysema. More cases than referents (15% versus 4%) left mining before retirement because of chest illnesses. After controls were applied for age and smoking, cases had twice the risk of dying of cardiovascular and nonmalignant respiratory diseases and a 3.2-fold greater risk of dying of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than did referents. Rapid declines in FEV1 experienced by some coal miners are associated with subsequent increases in respiratory symptoms, illnesses, and mortality from cardiovascular and nonmalignant respiratory diseases.

  15. Reinventing an industry at Western Canadian Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.

    2006-09-15

    Western Canadian Coal is applying lessons learned from past disruptions to coal production operations in British Columbia in order to build a low cost, long term production operation. Northeast British Columbia has huge coal deposits and an established infrastructure that includes the town of Tumbler Ridge, rail facilities, and access to Port Rupert. The company is developing 50,000 hectares of coal-bearing property. Production commenced in 2004, and it is planned to produce four million tonnes of coal per year by the end of 2007, increasing to 10 million tonnes by 2012. Equipment, staffing, and activities at the Dillon, Wolverine, and Brule mines are described. 2 photos.

  16. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Technical progress report, first quarter, 1993, January 1993--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 NM capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project will be funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  17. Coal resources, production, and quality in the Eastern kentucky coal field: Perspectives on the future of steam coal production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hower, J.C.; Hiett, J.K.; Wild, G.D.; Eble, C.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Eastern Kentucky coal field, along with adjacent portions of Virginia and southern West Virginia, is part of the greatest production concentration of high-heating-value, low-sulfur coal in the United States, accounting for over 27% of the 1993 U.S. production of coal of all ranks. Eastern Kentucky's production is spread among many coal beds but is particularly concentrated in a limited number of highquality coals, notably the Pond Creek coal bed and its correlatives, and the Fire Clay coal bed and its correlatives. Both coals are relatively low ash and low sulfur through the areas of the heaviest concentration of mining activity. We discuss production trends, resources, and the quality of in-place and clean coal for those and other major coals in the region. ?? 1994 Oxford University Press.

  18. 75 FR 76052 - Southern Nuclear Operating Company, Inc. Joseph M. Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    .... Farley Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (FNP). The licenses provide, among other things, that the facility is... consistent with the approach set forth by the Commission as discussed in the June 4, 2009, letter. FNP... regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 73.55 for the FNP, as issued on March 27, 2009. 4.0 Conclusion for Part...

  19. 75 FR 53985 - Arizona Public Service Company, et al., Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Temporary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ..., core physics, and neutronic capability of the NGF LFAs in the PVNGS, Unit 3 reactor core. The thermal...-coolant accident (LOCA) and non-LOCA criteria, mechanical design, thermal hydraulic, seismic, core physics..., which the licensee commits to being due October 30, 2010, shall include thermal hydraulic...

  20. 76 FR 29277 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering... waste (LLRW), from Exelon's Limerick Generating Station, Units 1 and 2 (LGS). The LLRW will be stored in...

  1. New wave seeks Indonesian coal mining concessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symon, A.

    1996-03-01

    A further wave of new mine exploration and development is on the horizon in Indonesia with 40 companies seeking major new concessions. Successful companies will enjoy a more attractive regulatory framework than their predecessors. The Indonesian Government is recasting the terms of the agreements under which it allows private domestic and foreign invested companies to operate large scale operations in order to encourage more investment in the industry. The Government`s intent to encourage expansion of the industry reflects looming pressure to provide sufficient coal to meet ambitious power plant expansion plans, while being able to maintain coal`s now important role as an export earner. In 1995, steam coal exports reached 40 billion tonnes, and contributed more than 1 billion dollars to Indonesia`s trade accounts. With Indonesia facing a widening current account deficit - combined with high foreign debt - the coal industry is playing a not insignificant role in helping to stabilise Indonesia`s external accounts. 1 tab.

  2. UK coal mining engineering capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    The document outlines the current position of underground coal mining in the UK and identifies the key suppliers of equipment and services, in the following sections: longwall face machinery; roadway drivage; seismic exploration; ventilation; methane drainage; underground transport; electrical and control systems; underground safety; research and development; consultancy services; coal associations. A directory of 43 companies organizations and academic institutions is included. 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Design and construction of coal/biomass to liquids (CBTL) process development unit (PDU) at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Andrew [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Liu, Kunlei [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Challman, Don [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Andrews, Rodney [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Jacques, David [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This report describes a first phase of a project to design, construct and commission an integrated coal/biomass-to-liquids facility at a capacity of 1 bbl. /day at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) – specifically for construction of the building and upstream process units for feed handling, gasification, and gas cleaning, conditioning and compression. The deliverables from the operation of this pilot plant [when fully equipped with the downstream process units] will be firstly the liquid FT products and finished fuels which are of interest to UK-CAER’s academic, government and industrial research partners. The facility will produce research quantities of FT liquids and finished fuels for subsequent Fuel Quality Testing, Performance and Acceptability. Moreover, the facility is expected to be employed for a range of research and investigations related to: Feed Preparation, Characteristics and Quality; Coal and Biomass Gasification; Gas Clean-up/ Conditioning; Gas Conversion by FT Synthesis; Product Work-up and Refining; Systems Analysis and Integration; and Scale-up and Demonstration. Environmental Considerations - particularly how to manage and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from CBTL facilities and from use of the fuels - will be a primary research objectives. Such a facility has required significant lead time for environmental review, architectural/building construction, and EPC services. UK, with DOE support, has advanced the facility in several important ways. These include: a formal EA/FONSI, and permits and approvals; construction of a building; selection of a range of technologies and vendors; and completion of the upstream process units. The results of this project are the FEED and detailed engineering studies, the alternate configurations and the as-built plant - its equipment and capabilities for future research and demonstration and its adaptability for re-purposing to meet other needs. These are described in

  4. Feed Quality and Its Effect on the Performance of the Fluid Catalytic Cracking Unit (A Case Study of Nigerian Based Oil Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Garba ISAH

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of the study of feed quality and its effect on the performance of the fluid catalytic cracking unit using Port-Harcourt Refinery Company (PHRC as a case study. The important feed qualities used are the hydrocarbon content and a hydrotreated feed. Data on the feed properties used in PHRC were collected and a product mass balance was carried out on the fluid catalytic cracking unit. Conversion and gasoline yield of the unit were found to be 73.43 vol% and 52.07 vol% respectively. On comparison with cracking of aromatic feed, from literature, with 61.3 vol% conversion and 45.64 vol% gasoline yields, the feed is said to be paraffinic because of its higher conversion and gasoline yield. On comparison with that collected for hydrotreated feed, 80.62 vol% conversion and 63.9 vol% gasoline yield, it is concluded that feed hydrotreating increases conversion and gasoline yield by a significant amount.

  5. 煤气化装置中蒸汽管道的设计要点分析%Analysis on Key Points of Steam Piping Design of Coal Gasification Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴光坤

    2015-01-01

    蒸汽作为煤气化装置中重要的工艺及公用工程物料,对煤气化装置生产运行至关重要,本文结合煤气化装置的布置特点,对煤气化装置中不同用途的蒸汽管道的布置特点进行分析与研究,提出了煤气化装置蒸汽管道的布置要点及建议。%Steam, as an important process and utility material in coal gasification unit, exerts significant influence on operation of coal gasification unit. As per the layout features of coal gasification unit, this paper analyzes and studies the layout features of varied steam pipelines in the unit and also presents key points and suggestions for steam piping layout of coal gasification unit.

  6. The shell coal gasification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O. [Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V., The Hague (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  7. The mortality of companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daepp, Madeleine I. G.; Hamilton, Marcus J.; West, Geoffrey B.; Bettencourt, Luís M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The firm is a fundamental economic unit of contemporary human societies. Studies on the general quantitative and statistical character of firms have produced mixed results regarding their lifespans and mortality. We examine a comprehensive database of more than 25 000 publicly traded North American companies, from 1950 to 2009, to derive the statistics of firm lifespans. Based on detailed survival analysis, we show that the mortality of publicly traded companies manifests an approximately constant hazard rate over long periods of observation. This regularity indicates that mortality rates are independent of a company's age. We show that the typical half-life of a publicly traded company is about a decade, regardless of business sector. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of births and deaths of publicly traded companies and identify some of the necessary ingredients of a general theory of firms. PMID:25833247

  8. Development of a Coal Quality Expert. Final technical progress report No. 11, [October 1--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-20

    Task 3 provides detailed characterization of fuel properties of the test coals and in-depth evaluation of their performance characteristics under controlled pilot-scale combustion testing. Results from this task provide fundamental information required to develop some of the improved algorithms for the CQE. Both bench-scale fuel characterization and test furnace performance evaluations are being performed under this task. All pilot-scale combustion tests under this task have been completed. Topical reports for the coals evaluated under the Public Service Oklahoma`s Northeastern Unit 4 and Northern States Power`s King Unit 1 test series have been issued. Work continued during the past quarter on preparation of the final report for the Mississippi Power Company`s Watson Unit 4 tests (to be completed first quarter 1993) and analyzing pilot-scale combustion data from the Alabama Power Company`s Gaston tests; a topical report for the Gaston study will also be issued in 1993. Bench-scale testing and data analyses continued in support of the development of the slagging and fouling models. Data obtained from the analysis of samples of deposits, inflame solids, fly ash, and coal from CQE pilot-scale and drop tube combustion tests were evaluated for use in devising and verifying the slagging and fouling algorithms.

  9. The relationship between elemental carbon and diesel particulate matter in underground metal/nonmetal mines in the United States and coal mines in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, James; Gilles, Stewart; Wu, Hsin Wei; Rubinstein, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, total carbon (TC) is used as a surrogate for determining diesel particulate matter (DPM) compliance exposures in underground metal/nonmetal mines. Since TC can be affected by interferences and elemental carbon (EC) is not, one method used to estimate the TC concentration is to multiply the EC concentration from the personal sample by a conversion factor to avoid the influence of potential interferences. Since there is no accepted single conversion factor for all metal/nonmetal mines, one is determined every time an exposure sample is taken by collecting an area sample that represents the TC/EC ratio in the miner's breathing zone and is away from potential interferences. As an alternative to this procedure, this article investigates the relationship between TC and EC from DPM samples to determine if a single conversion factor can be used for all metal/nonmetal mines. In addition, this article also investigates how well EC represents DPM concentrations in Australian coal mines since the recommended exposure limit for DPM in Australia is an EC value. When TC was predicted from EC values using a single conversion factor of 1.27 in 14 US metal/nonmetal mines, 95% of the predicted values were within 18% of the measured value, even at the permissible exposure limit (PEL) concentration of 160 μg/m(3) TC. A strong correlation between TC and EC was also found in nine underground coal mines in Australia.

  10. Exploratory and heuristic investigation into the impact of inconsistent accounting practices in the coal-extraction industry - a survey approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffee, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of these inconsistent accounting practices and to consider the relative significance of the basic accounting conventions of matching and realization in producing the inconsistent accounting practices. An expert opinion survey is employed as a measurement instrument. A purposive sampling plan is developed, using judgment to obtain a representative group of individuals who are expert in the financial accounting practices of coal-extraction companies. This group consists of the chief financial officers of 183 coal-producing companies and 54 representatives of national accounting firms. Included in the group are representatives from the 99 largest coal-producing companies in the United States and 54 individuals in public accounting from each of the traditional big eight national accounting firms. An overall response rate of 53% was obtained, including a 79% response from the national accounting firm personnel. The findings of the expert opinion survey support the conclusion that inconsistent accounting practices in the coal industry may seriously impair users' ability to compare financial results of coal producers. The findings support the need for authoritative or quasi-authoritative accounting standards.

  11. South African coal statistics 2006. Marketing manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-08-15

    The report shows that South African thermal exports increased 5% from 66.6Mt to 69.9Mt in 2005 and that the country was the world's third largest seaborne exporter of thermal coal last year. Covering local coal consumption, South African coal imports, exports, prices and qualities, the report offers a complete statistical review of 2005. The report also includes details on labour, individual collieries, export and rail infrastructure and Black Empowerment (BEE) companies.

  12. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of coal liquefaction pilot plants supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, history and progress during the July-September 1979 quarter. Supporting projects such as test facilities, refining and upgrading coal liquids, catalyst development, and gasification of residues from coal gasification plants are discussed similarly. (LTN)

  13. Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This publicity brochure profiles the Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation, one of the largest coal companies in the US and a major producer in the Powder River Basin. Aspects covered include: Corporate profiles; Jacobs Ranch Mine (Wyoming); Galatia Mine (Illinois); the subsidiary Pioneer Fuel Corporation; Clovis Point Mine (Wyoming); environment; people; and marketing.

  14. Home safely, everyone, everyday : the drive to an injury-free workplace at Arch Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-02-15

    This article described the efforts of one of the largest coal producers in the United States to improve the safety performance of its mine operations. Although St. Louis-based Arch Coal already had an industry-leading safety record, the company believed it was time to reach for the ultimate goal of zero injuries and environmental violations. In 2006, Arch Coal and its subsidiaries launched an initiative to adopt a tailored behaviour-based safety process at its major mining sites. Steering committees were selected at each location to develop a list of critical behaviours that could be observed by trained peers on the job. Safe and at-risk behaviours were thereby identified. Data from the observations were also tracked to identify trends and remove barriers. To date, nearly 1000 subsidiary employees have been trained as observers and 688 barriers to safe performance have been removed. In 2007, 10 Arch Coal subsidiary operations were completed without a single reportable safety incident, thus proving that zero is attainable. Arch Coal emphasized that more work has yet to be done until the perfect zero is achieved company-wide.

  15. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE-supported

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-01-01

    Progress in US DOE-supported demonstration plants for the gasification and liquefaction of coal is reported: company, contract number, process description and flowsheet, history and progress in the current quarter. Related projects involve coal feeders, lock hoppers, values, etc. for feeding coal into high pressure systems, coal grinding equipment and measuring and process control instrumentation. (LTN)

  16. Carbon dioxide from coal combustion: Variation with rank of US coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J.C.; Glick, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from combustion of US coal systematically varies with ASTM rank indices, allowing the amount of CO2 produced per net unit of energy to be predicted for individual coals. No single predictive equation is applicable to all coals. Accordingly, we provide one equation for coals above high volatile bituminous rank and another for lower rank coals. When applied to public data for commercial coals from western US mines these equations show a 15% variation of kg CO2 (net GJ)-1. This range of variation suggests reduction of US CO2 emissions is possible by prudent selection of coal for combustion. Maceral and mineral content are shown to slightly affect CO2 emissions from US coal. We also suggest that CO2 emissions increased between 6 and 8% in instances where Midwestern US power plants stopped burning local, high-sulfur bituminous coal and started burning low-sulfur, subbituminous C rank coal from the western US.

  17. Company analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenster, Per V.; Hussey, David

    This volume looks at the company appraisal as a whole, examining the continuing need to appraise companies as part of the continuing strategy process. Building from a sound basis of theory, the text aims to be practical and to give guidance to senior managers and others involved in the strategy p...

  18. Coal Combustion Products Extension Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarunjit S. Butalia; William E. Wolfe

    2003-12-31

    The primary objective of the CCP Extension Program is to promote the responsible uses of Ohio CCPs that are technically sound, environmentally safe, and commercially competitive. A secondary objective is to assist other CCP generating states (particularly neighboring states) in establishing CCP use programs within their states. The goal of the CCP extension program at OSU is to work with CCP stakeholders to increase the overall CCP state utilization rate to more than 30% by the year 2005. The program aims to increase FGD utilization for Ohio to more than 20% by the year 2005. The increased utilization rates are expected to be achieved through increased use of CCPs for highway, mine reclamation, agricultural, manufacturing, and other civil engineering uses. In order to accomplish these objectives and goals, the highly successful CCP pilot extension program previously in place at the university has been expanded and adopted by the university as a part of its outreach and engagement mission. The extension program is an innovative technology transfer program with multiple sponsors. The program is a collaborative effort between The Ohio State University (College of Engineering and University Extension Service), United States Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, Ohio Department of Development's Coal Development Office, and trade associations such as the American Coal Ash Association as well as the Midwest Coal Ash Association. Industry co-sponsors include American Electric Power, Dravo Lime Company, and ISG Resources. Implementation of the proposed project results in both direct and indirect as well as societal benefits. These benefits include (1) increased utilization of CCPs instead of landfilling, (2) development of proper construction and installation procedures, (3) education of regulators, specification-writers, designers, construction contractors, and the public, (4) emphasis on recycling and decrease in the need for landfill

  19. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  20. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. First and second quarterly technical progress reports, [January--June 1995]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia (NH{sub 3}) into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor containing a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW nameplate capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  1. Advanced technology applications for second and third general coal gasification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, R.; Hyde, J. D.; Mead, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    The historical background of coal conversion is reviewed and the programmatic status (operational, construction, design, proposed) of coal gasification processes is tabulated for both commercial and demonstration projects as well as for large and small pilot plants. Both second and third generation processes typically operate at higher temperatures and pressures than first generation methods. Much of the equipment that has been tested has failed. The most difficult problems are in process control. The mechanics of three-phase flow are not fully understood. Companies participating in coal conversion projects are ordering duplicates of failure prone units. No real solutions to any of the significant problems in technology development have been developed in recent years.

  2. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2003-08-31

    . The body of this report compares these for all of the samples in the test section. The 'Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing Program' is being conducted by The Babcock & Wilcox Company (B&W), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) at Reliant Energy's Niles plant in Niles, Ohio to provide full-scale, in-situ testing of recently developed boiler superheater materials. Fireside corrosion is a key issue for improving efficiency of new coal fired power plants and improving service life in existing plants. In November 1998, B&W began development of a system to permit testing of advanced tube materials at metal temperatures typical of advanced supercritical steam temperatures (1100 F and higher) in a boiler exhibiting coal ash corrosive conditions. Several materials producers including Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributed advanced materials to the project. In the spring of 1999 a system consisting of three identical sections, each containing multiple segments of twelve different materials, was installed. The sections are cooled by reheat steam, and are located just above the furnace entrance in Niles Unit No.1, a 110 MWe unit firing high sulfur Ohio coal. In November 2001 the first section was removed for thorough metallurgical evaluation after 29 months of operation. The second section was removed in August of 2003. Its evaluation has been completed and is the subject of this report. The final section remains in service and is expected to be removed in the spring of 2005. This paper describes the program; its importance, the design, fabrication, installation and operation of the test system, materials utilized, and experience to date. This report briefly reviews the results of the evaluation of the first section and then presents the results of the evaluation of the second section.

  3. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Technical progress report, second & third quarters, 1993, April 1993--June 1993, July 1993--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NOx) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NOx to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by constructing and operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of this project.

  4. Nesting success of grassland and savanna birds on reclaimed surface coal mines of the midwestern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galligan, E.W.; DeVault, T.L.; Lima, S.L. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Reclaimed surface coal mines in southwestern Indiana support many grassland and shrub/savanna bird species of conservation concern. We examined the nesting success of birds on these reclaimed mines to assess whether such 'unnatural' places represent productive breeding habitats for such species. We established eight study sites on two large, grassland-dominated mines in southwestern Indiana and classified them into three categories (open grassland, shrub/savanna, and a mixture of grassland and shrub/savanna) based on broad vegetation and landscape characteristics. During the 1999 and 2000 breeding seasons, we found and monitored 911 nests of 31 species. Daily nest survival for the most commonly monitored grassland species ranged from 0.903 (Dickcissel, Spiza americana) to 0.961 (Grasshopper Sparrow, Ammodramus savannarum). Daily survival estimates for the dominant shrub/savanna nesting species ranged from 0.932 (Brown Thrasher, Toxostoma rufum) to 0.982 (Willow Flycatcher, Empidonax traillii). Vegetation and landscape effects on nesting success were minimal, and only Eastern Meadowlarks (Sturnella magna) showed a clear time-of-season effect, with greater nesting success in the first half of the breeding season. Rates of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism were only 2.1% for grassland species and 12.0% for shrub/savanna species. The nesting success of birds on reclaimed mine sites was comparable to that in other habitats, indicating that reclaimed habitats on surface mines do not necessarily represent reproductive traps for birds.

  5. Application of the Lean Office philosophy and mapping of the value stream in the process of designing the banking units of a financial company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Antônio Calsavara

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to conduct a critical analysis of the effects of Lean Office on the design process of the banking units of a financial company and how the implementation of this philosophy may contribute to productivity, thus reducing implementation time. A literature review of the Toyota Production System was conducted, as well as studies on its methods, with advancement to lean thinking and consistent application of Lean philosophies in services and Office. A bibliographic and documentary survey of the Lean processes and procedures for opening bank branches was taken. A Current State Map was developed, modeling the current operating procedures. Soon after the identification and analysis of waste, proposals were presented for reducing deadlines and eliminating and grouping stages, with consequent development of the Future State Map, implementation and monitoring of stages, and the measurement of estimated time gains in operation, demonstrating an estimated 45% reduction, in days, from start to end of the process, concluding that the implementation of the Lean Office philosophy contributed to the process.

  6. Survey of finance companies, 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Karen E. Dynan; Kathleen W. Johnson; Samuel M. Slowinski

    2002-01-01

    Against a backdrop of robust economic activity, the finance company sector expanded briskly over the second half of the 1990s. The value of receivables held by finance companies in the United States rose nearly 50 percent, or about 11 percent a year, between 1996 and 2000. Business lending remained finance companies' major line of activity; the importance to the sector of consumer lending and leasing declined slightly, and the importance of real estate lending rose a bit. These and other find...

  7. The German coal market in 2006; Der deutsche Steinkohlenmarkt im Jahr 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luebke, R.; Rohde, R. [Gesamtverband des Deutschen Steinkohlenbergbaus, Essen (Germany)

    2007-04-19

    Following expiry of the coal policy agreement dated 13{sup th} March 1997 at the end of 2005 a basic discussion of the future of the German coal mining industry began in 2006 and culminated on 7{sup th} February 2007 in the historic decision to cease production in 2018 together with a revision of the decision in 2012. Despite the unclear future prospects in 2006 the retrenchment process in the German coal mining industry continued with further reduction of production and job cuts. The remaining eight collieries produced 21.4 mill. t coal units. The total sales of German coal and coke in 2006 amounted to 22.4 mill. t coal units and were thus 4.4 mill. t coal units less than in the previous year. By contrast the total German coal market in 2006 increased by 1.1 mill. to coal units (+1.7%) to 64.0 mill. t coal units. About one third of the German coal market was supplied with German coal, two thirds with imported coal. Deliveries of the German coal mining industry to power stations fell by 9.9% to 18.3 mill. to coal units. The steel industry reduced its purchases by 2.4 mill. t coal units (39.1%) to 3.7 mill. t coal units. The number of employees in the German coal mining industry fell by 2,267 to 32,453 between the beginning and the end of 2006. (orig.)

  8. Construction of comprehensive budget management system in Datun Coal Electricity Company%大屯煤电公司全面预算管理体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄静; 刘洋; 窦韶东

    2014-01-01

    Through analyzing the necessity of comprehensive budget and some existing probG lems in coal enterprise,taking Datun Coal Electricity Co.,as the example,this paper explores the construction of comprehensive budget system in coal enterprises.%分析煤炭企业全面预算的必要性及其存在的问题,以大屯煤电公司为例探讨煤炭企业全面预算体系的构建。

  9. The assessment of mining companies in the private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, D. [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    A large number of the practising mining engineers in the UK coal industry now have to satisfy the assessment procedures applied to Stock Exchange quoted companies. The main direct owners of these companies are pension funds and other collective investments such as unit trusts. The ultimate beneficiaries are individuals who have entrusted these financial institutions with their savings to deliver future pensions, incomes and increases in value so that the returns are superior to those from less risky, openly available, inflation-proofed government securities. Progress towards meeting these requirements is measured continuously by investment analysts and the financial media. They use a range of parameters including price/earnings ratio, dividend yields, relative share prices and profit measurements before and after maintenance of capital. The companies will meet the assessment criteria if they simultaneously increase productivity, improve profit margins, match production with marketing opportunities, select projects whose yield is greater than their costs of capital, generate positive free cash flows, have good safety and environmental records, produce transparent financial statements, maintain good public relations and promote growth either internally and/or by acquisition. Success means that companies retain their independence. Failure results in takeovers, mine closures, sales of profitable sections and bankruptcies.

  10. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available act: Similarities between the accounting of companies and territorial administrative units accounting are the following: organizing double entry accounting; accounting method both in terms of fundamental theoretical principles and specific practical tools. The differences between the accounting of companies and of territorial administrative units refer to: the accounting of territorial administrative units includes besides general accounting (financial also budgetary accounting, and the accounts system of the budgetary accounting is completely different from that of companies; financial statements of territorial administrative units to which leaders are not main authorizing officers are submitted to the hierarchically superior body (not at MPF; the accounts of territorial administrative units are opened at treasury and financial institutions, accounts at commercial banks being prohibited; equity accounts in territorial administrative units are structured into groups of funds; long term debts have a specific structure in territorial administrative units (internal local public debt and external local public debt.

  11. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Final report - Part 10. Variability in the inorganic content of United States' coals: a multivariate statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glick, D.C.; Davis, A.

    1984-07-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques of correlation coefficients, factor analysis, and cluster analysis, implemented by computer programs, can be used to process a large data set and produce a summary of relationships between variables and between samples. These techniques were used to find relationships for data on the inorganic constituents of US coals. Three hundred thirty-five whole-seam channel samples from six US coal provinces were analyzed for inorganic variables. After consideration of the attributes of data expressed on ash basis and whole-coal basis, it was decided to perform complete statistical analyses on both data sets. Thirty variables expressed on whole-coal basis and twenty-six variables expressed on ash basis were used. For each inorganic variable, a frequency distribution histogram and a set of summary statistics was produced. These were subdivided to reveal the manner in which concentrations of inorganic constituents vary between coal provinces and between coal regions. Data collected on 124 samples from three stratigraphic groups (Pottsville, Monongahela, Allegheny) in the Appalachian region were studied using analysis of variance to determine degree of variability between stratigraphic levels. Most variables showed differences in mean values between the three groups. 193 references, 71 figures, 54 tables.

  12. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  13. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091159 Gao Yan(No.3 Prospecting Team of Anhui Bureau of Coal Geology,Suzhou 234000,China) Effect of Depositional Environment of Coal-Bearing Stratum on Major Coal Seams in Suntan Coalmine,Anhui Province(Geology of Anhui,ISSN 1005- 6157,CN34-1111/P,18(2),2008,p.114 -117,5 illus.,1 ref.,with English abstract)

  14. 78 FR 37537 - CHS Inc., Federal Express Corporation, GROWMARK, Inc., HWRT Oil Company LLC, MFA Oil Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ..., MFA Oil Company, Southwest Airline Co., United Airlines, Inc., UPS Fuel Services, Inc. v. Enterprise... Express Corporation; GROWMARK, Inc.; HWRT Oil Company LLC; MFA Oil Company; Southwest Airline Co.;...

  15. The control of coal mine gas and coordinated exploitation of coal bed methane in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-zhong

    2009-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of the coalfield geology and the distribution of coal bed methane (CBM) in China, the geological conditions for exploiting the CBM and drain-ing the coal mine gas were analyzed, as well as the characteristics of CBM production. By comparing the current situation of CBM exploitation in China with that in the United States, the current technology and characteristics of the CBM exploitation in China were summa-rized and the major technical problems of coal mine gas control and CBM exploitation analyzed. It was emphasized that the CBM exploitation in China should adopt the coal mine gas drainage method coordinated with coal mine exploitation as the main model. It was proposed that coal mine gas control should be coordinated with coal mine gas ex-ploitation. The technical countermeasure should be integrating the exploitation of coal and CBM and draining gas before coal mining.

  16. Chemical analyses of coal, coal-associated rocks and coal combustion products collected for the National Coal Quality Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Joseph R.; Bullock, John H.; Finkelman, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the USGS initiated the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) project to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. At the time this project was initiated, the publicly available USGS coal quality data was based on samples primarily collected and analyzed between 1973 and 1985. The primary objective of NaCQI was to create a database containing comprehensive, accurate and accessible chemical information on the quality of mined and prepared United States coals and their combustion byproducts. This objective was to be accomplished through maintaining the existing publicly available coal quality database, expanding the database through the acquisition of new samples from priority areas, and analysis of the samples using updated coal analytical chemistry procedures. Priorities for sampling include those areas where future sources of compliance coal are federally owned. This project was a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry. Funding support came from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  17. The Impact of Talent Management System on the Enterprise Performance: a Study on a Sample of Workers in National Company of Juice and Canned-food Unit MANAA (Batna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Megri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to see the theoretical and practical views of the impact of management talents on the company performance, and following a descriptive approach that helps to stimulate ideas and attract multidimensional interests. To achieve this goal, we focused on modern literature to address this issue through multiple angles, including: educational psychology, demographic changes, historical development of human resources, the location of TM in light of the knowledge economy, and what said the theorists and practitioners. Through the study on the impact of talent management system on the performance of the national company of juice and canned-food unit MANAA, we approved the hypothesis, which states the existence of a significant impact of the talent management system on company performance.

  18. 1000 MW 火电机组水击现象分析及预防处置措施%Water Hammer Analysis,Prevention and Handle in 1 000 MW Coal Combustion Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳海; 张才稳; 王广庭; 许涛; 卢双龙

    2015-01-01

    火力发电机组装机容量越大,发生水击时的危害就越大,一旦发生就可能造成设备的严重损害。结合水击发生的机理,分析了1000MW火力发电机组可能发生水击的重点部位,并结合运行实际,提出了水击的预防与应急处置措施。%The capability of coal combustion unit is larger ,the damage caused by water hammer is greater .Once it happens , may lead to serious damage to equipments .Combined with the mechanism of water hammer ,this paper analyzes the possible position of water hammer in 1 000MW coal combustion unit .It also brings forward the prevention and handle measurement of water hammer .

  19. Estimation of a lifetime unit lung cancer risk for benzo(a)pyrene based on tumour rates in rats exposed to coal tar/pitch condensation aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, U; Roller, M; Pott, F

    1994-06-01

    Female Wistar rats were exposed to coal tar/pitch condensation (CTP) aerosol containing either 20 or 46 micrograms/m3 benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) among other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) 17 h/day and 5 days/week for 10 or 20 months followed by a clean air period of up to 20 or 10 months, respectively. Based on the inhaled BaP, given as BaP exposure concentration multiplied by the total exposure time, the cumulative dose of inhaled BaP of the 4 exposure groups was 71, 142, 158 and 321 mg BaP/m3 x h and the corresponding lung tumour rates were 4.2, 33.3, 38.9 and 97.2%. There was no lung tumour in the control group. Using the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) linearized multistage model, the lifetime lung tumour risk for rats exposed to 1 microgram/m3 BaP as a constituent of a complex PAH mixture may be 2% or correspondingly 2 per 100,000 with a BaP concentration of 1 ng/m3. The estimation of the unit lung cancer risk for BaP based on epidemiological data from coking plants was 7-9%.

  20. Fishes and tetrapods in the upper pennsylvanian (kasimovian) cohn coal member of the mattoon formation of illinois, United States: Systematics, paleoecology, and paleoenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, D.; Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Benton, M.J.; Nelson, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate assemblage is reported from the Upper Pennsylvanian (mid-to upper Kasimovian) Cohn Coal Member of the Mattoon Formation of southeast Illinois, United States. Teeth, scales, and spines of xenacanth (Dicentrodus, Orthacanthus, Triodus, Xenacanthus) and euselachian (Sphenacanthus) sharks dominate the assemblage. Less common are the teeth, scales, and centra of holocephalan (Helodus) and actinopterygian fishes, together with rare tetrapod (mainly pelycosaur) phalanges and centra. The assemblage occurs within a broad, shallow channel incised into a prominent Vertisol. The channel is interpreted as having been cut during a seasonally dry glacial phase when sea level was low, but filled during a subsequent transgression triggered by deglaciation. We interpret this as a brackish water (estuarine) assemblage, based on the co-occurrence of the vertebrate material with spirorbids (putative microconchids) and paleoecological inferences gleaned from a critical analysis of the literature dealing with Pennsylvanian fish ecology. This interpretation is broadly consistent with taphonomic data and the results of 87Sr/86Sr isotope analysis of shark material. The pelycosaur material may have been reworked from the lowstand Vertisol, however, and these animals occupied dryland niches that developed during glacial phases. ?? 2011 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  1. A Pilot-scale Demonstration of Reverse Osmosis Unit for Treatment of Coal-bed Methane Co-produced Water and Its Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱智; 刘新春; 余志晟; 张洪勋; 琚宜文

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the first demonstration project in China for treatment of coal-bed methane(CBM) co-produced water and recycling.The work aims to provide a research and innovation base for solving the pollution problem of CBM extraction water.The reverse osmosis(RO) unit is applied to the treatment of CBM co-produced water.The results indicate that system operation is stable,the removal efficiency of the total dissolved solids(TDS) is as high as 97.98%,and Fe,Mn,and F-are almost completely removed.There is no suspended solids(SS) detected in the treated water.Furthermore,a model for the RO membrane separation process is developed to describe the quantitative relationship between key physical quantities-membrane length,flow velocity,salt concentration,driving pressure and water recovery rate,and the water recovery restriction equation based on mass balance is developed.This model provides a theoretical support for the RO system design and optimization.The TDS in the CBM co-produced water are removed to meet the "drinking water standards" and "groundwater quality standards" of China and can be used as drinking water,irrigation water,and livestock watering.In addition,the cost for treatment of CBM co-produced water is assessed,and the RO technology is an efficient and cost-effective treatment method to remove pollutants.

  2. Perceptions and realities: progressive reform and Utah coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, N.J.

    1985-01-01

    The passage of the Hepburn Act by the United States Congress in 1906 led to intensive federal trust busting aimed particularly at railroad monopolies. As part of this effort, the Gould-owned Rio Grande Western Railroad (later the Denver and Rio Grande) came under fire for its coal monopoly in Utah. The government was continually at a disadvantage during the eleven years of litigation for a variety of reasons and could not win its suit. The antagonists finally reached a negotiated settlement. It was not only very unpopular with the public but destroyed local hopes for widespread change connected with concurrent development of independently-owned mines. Unfortunately, many of the new independent developers also faced federal attack for coal lands irregularities. When America entered the Great War, the United States government demanded that businesses cooperate, not compete. Wartime nationalization of industries improved production and recognized independent ascendancy in Utah coal. Once the mines returned to private ownership at war's end, owners actively combined to combat recession. An oligopoly replaced the old railroad monopoly. Little alteration in corporate structure has resulted since. Energy companies replaced the old independents in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but the pattern of ownership established during the Progressive Era still remains.

  3. Coal fueled diesel system for stationary power applications-technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The use of coal as a fuel for diesel engines dates back to the early days of the development of the engine. Dr. Diesel envisioned his concept as a multi-fuel engine, with coal a prime candidate due to the fact that it was Germany`s primary domestic energy resource. It is interesting that the focus on coal burning diesel engines appears to peak about every twenty years as shortages of other energy resources increase the economic attractiveness of using coal. This periodic interest in coal started in Germany with the work of Diesel in the timeframe 1898-1906. Pawlikowski carried on the work from 1916 to 1928. Two German companies commercialized the technology prior to and during World War II. The next flurry of activity occurred in the United States in the period from 1957-69, with work done at Southwest Research Institute, Virginia Polytechnical University, and Howard University. The current period of activity started in 1978 with work sponsored by the Conservation and Renewable Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy. This work was done at Southwest Research Institute and by ThermoElectron at Sulzer Engine in Switzerland. In 1982, the Fossil Energy Branch of the US Department of Energy, through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) initiated a concentrated effort to develop coal burning diesel and gas turbine engines. The diesel engine work in the METC sponsored program was performed at Arthur D. Little (Cooper-Bessemer as subcontractor), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (now NIPER), Caterpillar, Detroit Diesel Corporation, General Motor Corporation (Electromotive Division), General Electric, Southwest Research Institute, and various universities and other research and development organizations. This DOE-METC coal engine RD & D initiative which spanned the 1982-1993 timeframe is the topic of this review document. The combustion of a coal-water fuel slurry in a diesel engine is described. The engine modifications necessary are discussed.

  4. Engineering development of advance physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Smit, F.J.; Shields, G.L. [AMAX R& D Center/ENTECH Global Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop the engineering design base for prototype fine coal cleaning plants based on Advanced Column Flotation and Selective Agglomeration processes for premium fuel and near-term applications. Removal of toxic trace elements is also being investigated. The scope of the project includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing of each process on six coals followed by design, construction, and operation of a 2 tons/hour process development unit (PDU). Three coals will be cleaned in tonnage quantity and provided to DOE and its contractors for combustion evaluation. Amax R&D (now a subsidiary of Cyprus Amax Mineral Company) is the prime contractor. Entech Global is managing the project and performing most of the research and development work as an on-site subcontractor. Other participants in the project are Cyprus Amax Coal Company, Arcanum, Bechtel, TIC, University of Kentucky and Virginia Tech. Drs. Keller of Syracuse and Dooher of Adelphi University are consultants.

  5. CPICOR{trademark}: Clean power from integrated coal-ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintrell, R.; Miller, R.N.; Harbison, E.J.; LeFevre, M.O.; England, K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The US steel industry, in order to maintain its basic iron production, is thus moving to lower coke requirements and to the cokeless or direct production of iron. The US Department of Energy (DOE), in its Clean Coal Technology programs, has encouraged the move to new coal-based technology. The steel industry, in its search for alternative direct iron processes, has been limited to a single process, COREX{reg_sign}. The COREX{reg_sign} process, though offering commercial and environmental acceptance, produces a copious volume of offgas which must be effectively utilized to ensure an economical process. This volume, which normally exceeds the internal needs of a single steel company, offers a highly acceptable fuel for power generation. The utility companies seeking to offset future natural gas cost increases are interested in this clean fuel. The COREX{reg_sign} smelting process, when integrated with a combined cycle power generation facility (CCPG) and a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU), is an outstanding example of a new generation of environmentally compatible and highly energy efficient Clean Coal Technologies. This combination of highly integrated electric power and hot metal coproduction, has been designated CPICOR{trademark}, Clean Power from Integrated Coal/Ore Reduction.

  6. The oilsands of gas: Massive gas from coal resource being commercialized

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2004-04-05

    Gas companies are flocking to Alberta to try their hand in coalbed methane extraction, following EnCana Corporation's success two years ago in launching Canada's first commercial-scale natural gas from coal (NGC) operation. There is an estimated 550 trillion cubic feet of methane gas trapped in Alberta's coal fields, and while current production is still insignificant, the rise in demand for natural gas and the decline in conventional resources makes coalbed methane an increasingly appealing option. In the United States NGC accounts for some 10 per cent of gas production and there is no doubt that the interest expressed by American companies to bring their experience and technology to Alberta is a big factor in pushing the wave of appeal of NGC in the province. The Manville coal deposits, lying between 800 and 1,300 metres below the surface, and the Horseshoe Canyon deposit, about 200 to 500 metres down, are the coal zones of greatest interest in Alberta, while the Elk Valley zone is said to have the greatest potential in British Columbia. The article explains the challenges faced by prospective producers in terms of water disposal, noise abatement, environmental footprint, costs versus benefits, and the various technological alternatives available. Suggestions for involving stakeholders in all aspects of the planning of NGC facilities, and for gaining their support, are also included.

  7. Remedial investigation report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 2: Appendixes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This report comprises appendices A--J which support the Y-12 Plant`s remedial action report involving Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (filled coal ash pond/Upper McCoy Branch). The appendices cover the following: Sampling fish from McCoy Branch; well and piezometer logs; ecological effects of contaminants in McCoy Branch 1989-1990; heavy metal bioaccumulation data; microbes in polluted sediments; and baseline human health risk assessment data.

  8. 基于虚拟标杆的煤炭企业循环经济绩效评估与特征分析∗%Performance evaluation and pattern analysis of the circular economy in coal companies based on virtual benchmarking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟; 郑一; 王学军; 龙文静

    2014-01-01

    Focused on the coal industry,this study proposed an approach to establish a virtu-al company for benchmarking,based on which the CE performance of individual companies can be evaluated. The study also introduced new indicators to characterize the development pattern of a coal company's CE. As the case study showed,the proposed approach can effectively reveal the main features and critical problems encountered by the companies,as well as the direction for fu-ture improvement. Maj or conclusions from the case study include the following. First,resource productivity indicators are determinant ones in the indicator system. Thus,if data are very limit-ed,a performance evaluation can be based on the resource productivity indicators alone,rather than on the complete indicator system. Second,water resources productivities of those pilot com-panies are not significantly higher than the industry-average level,and further improvements are highly desired. Third,some companies are applying the cleaner production approach,rather than the 3R rules of CE.%提出了构建虚拟标杆用于煤炭企业循环经济绩效评价的思路和方法,并在传统指标体系中引入体现循环经济发展模式特征的指标。实证分析表明,所建方法可有效揭示企业循环经济发展的主要特征、面临问题及努力方向,认为资源产出率指标是综合评价循环经济绩效的决定性指标,在数据有限的情况下,可用其替代复杂的指标体系;煤炭行业循环经济先进企业在水资源产出率方面的表现并未显著优于全行业平均水平,有待改进,以充分发挥示范引领作用;部分试点企业在发展循环经济过程中尚未脱离清洁生产的思路,未能全面体现“3R”原则。

  9. Economic Analysis on Rent of Equipment Lease of Coal Enterprise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童磊; 王立杰

    2002-01-01

    Rent is the key factor in equipment lease. The business that equipment lease company of coal mining often engaged in can be divided into three kinds, that is sublease, operating lease and inter lease, in term of the difference of the role of lease, character of business, object of the trade and condition of t he market. The problem in rent calculating of the three kind s of lease that equipment lease company of coal mining often involved was an alyzed. Hope to b e helpful to the decision-making of the equipment lease company of coal mining.

  10. 78 FR 54691 - American General Life Insurance Company, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... COMMISSION American General Life Insurance Company, et al. August 29, 2013, AGENCY: The Securities and... Life Insurance Company (``American General''), The United States Life Insurance Company in the City of New York (``US Life'') (each, an ``Insurance Company'' and together, the ``Insurance Companies''),...

  11. Evaluation on Energy-saving and Emission Reduction of Pneumatic Induced Draft Fan of 600 MW Coal-fired Units%600 MW燃煤机组汽动引风机节能减排评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂才; 徐齐胜; 吴婕; 马晓茜; 彭晓为; 余岳溪

    2014-01-01

    针对大型燃煤机组改造项目,将给水泵汽轮机驱动引风机的方式应用于600 MW燃煤机组,对其节能减排效果进行评估和分析。计算和分析结果表明:相比于电动机驱动方式,给水泵汽轮机驱动方式具有减少厂用电量、降低供电煤耗、提高发电厂收益、减少污染物排放等优点,其中在亚临界压力机组上应用的节能减排效果最佳。%In the large coal-fired units transformation,the driving mode of induced draft fan of feed pump steam turbine is applied to 600 MW coal-fired units.The effect of energy-saving and emission reduction is evaluated.The calculation and anal-ysis results show that the driving mode,compared to electric driving mode,can reduce auxiliary power consumption,coal consumption for power supply,improve benefit of power plant and reduce pollutant emissions.The application of this mode in subcritical units is more significant in energy-saving and emission reduction.

  12. 高管团队带领煤炭企业转型的能力影响因素研究--基于团队结构与制度环境视角%Empirical Analysis of Factors Influencing TMT's Capabilities for Coal Companies in Transformation Period---From Views of TMT's Structure and Institution Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜秀娟; 侯贵生

    2015-01-01

    Chinese government is pushing forward transformation of China's growth pattern. Transformation and upgrade by means of changing management modes, readjusting industrial structures and technological innovations , have been the only way for large-scale coal companies to develop. Corporate transformation deals with strategy changes of coal companies , which challenge TMT's (top management team) capabilities, including 5 key capabilities, including the capability of transforming cultural reshape, the capability of transforming strategic plan, the capability of resource optimization, the capability of management control and innovation and the capability of sustainable learning. The factors influencing TMT's capabilities are analyzed empirically from views of TMT's structure , institution environment inside coal companies and that outside the companies. The results show that age diversity of TMT, average education level, scale of TMT, average tenure and tenure diversity of TMT, shareholding ratio of TMT, average pay of TMT and regional institution environment can influence TMT's capabilities. At last, the countermeasure is put forward aiming to improve TMT's capabilities.%在中国政府大力促进经济发展方式转变的背景下,通过转变管理模式、调整产业结构以及技术创新等实现转型升级成为煤炭企业发展的必由之路。而这些属于煤炭企业战略层面,对整个企业高管团队的转型文化重塑能力、转型战略规划能力、资源整合能力、管理控制与创新能力、持续学习能力等提出了挑战。文章从高管团队结构、企业内部与外部制度环境三个角度,对高管团队带领煤炭企业转型能力的影响因素进行了实证分析,发现高管团队年龄异质性、学历水平、团队规模、平均任期及任期异质性程度、管理层持股比例、高管团队平均薪酬水平、区域市场化指数都对高管团队带领煤炭企业转型的能力有显著

  13. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, W.S. [W.S. Hinton and Associates, Cantonment, FL (United States); Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.; Hardman, R.R. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.

  14. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.

    1998-08-01

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about US coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. This report presents detailed quarterly data for January through March 1998 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1992 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Appendix A displays, from 1992 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information has been integrated in this report. 58 tabs.

  15. Company analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenster, Per V.; Hussey, David

    This volume looks at the company appraisal as a whole, examining the continuing need to appraise companies as part of the continuing strategy process. Building from a sound basis of theory, the text aims to be practical and to give guidance to senior managers and others involved in the strategy...... process. It is thus a book primarily aimed at managers, but should also be useful for MBA students undertaking strategy assignments It provides helpful, practical guidance and identifies weaknesses of traditional methods. It also presents a variety of tools which may be used in the appraisal process...

  16. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Quarterly report No. 7, January--March 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the amonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO, and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project will be funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  17. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20131668 Chang Huizhen(Key Laboratory of Coalbed Methane Resources and Reservoir Formation Process,CUMT,Ministry of Edu-cation,School of Resource and Earth Science,China University of Mining and Technology,Xuzhou 221008,China);Qin Yong Differences in of Pore Structure of Coals and Their Impact on the Permeability of Coals from the

  18. The strongest links : the Canadian coal chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, E.

    2008-09-15

    Issues related to the transportation of coal in Canada were discussed. Coal mines in Alberta and British Columbia are often required to transport their products over 1000 km for export at Pacific ports to countries in Asia or power plants in Ontario. The effectiveness of the supply chain is dependent on the inter-relationships between mine, rail, terminals, and ship transport. Coal customers are typically required to hire shipping companies and nominate vessels for terminals that have contracts with coal suppliers. Mines typically inform railway lines of the amounts of coal that will need to be transported each month. Many railways have increased the amounts of coal they are transporting by using lighter-weight aluminum train cars. Further efficiencies have been realized due to new braking and power distribution technologies in trains. Multiple locomotives are now also being used to provide improved control over the cars that carry the coal. Despite advances in rail technologies, coal deliveries are often delayed by harsh weather conditions and rain. It was concluded that the Canadian coal industry's success relies on its ability to transport large amounts of coal across long distances. 2 figs.

  19. Characterization of feed coal and coal combustion products from power plants in Indiana and Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brownfield, M.E.; Affolter, R.H.; Cathcart, J.D.; O' Connor, J.T.; Brownfield, I.K.

    1999-07-01

    The US Geological Survey, Kentucky Geological Survey, and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research are collaborating with Indiana and Kentucky utilities to determine the physical and chemical properties of feed coal and coal combustion products (CCP) from three coal-fired power plants. These three plants are designated as Units K1, K2, and I1 and burn high-, moderate-, and low-sulfur coals, respectively. Over 200 samples of feed coal and CCP were analyzed by various chemical and mineralogical methods to determine mode of occurrence and distribution of trace elements in the CCP. Generally, feed coals from all 3 Units contain mostly well-crystallized kaolinite and quartz. Comparatively, Unit K1 feed coals have higher amounts of carbonates, pyrite and sphalerite. Unit K2 feed coals contain higher kaolinite and illite/muscovite when compared to Unit K1 coals. Unit I1 feed coals contain beta-form quartz and alumino-phosphates with minor amounts of calcite, micas, anatase, and zircon when compared to K1 and K2 feed coals. Mineralogy of feed coals indicate that the coal sources for Units K1 and K2 are highly variable, with Unit K1 displaying the greatest mineralogic variability; Unit I1 feed coal however, displayed little mineralogic variation supporting a single source. Similarly, element contents of Units K1 and K2 feed coals show more variability than those of Unit I1. Fly ash samples from Units K1 and K2 consist mostly of glass, mullite, quartz, and spines group minerals. Minor amounts of illite/muscovite, sulfates, hematite, and corundum are also present. Spinel group minerals identified include magnetite, franklinite, magnesioferrite, trevorite, jacobisite, and zincochromite. Scanning Electron Microscope analysis reveals that most of the spinel minerals are dendritic intergrowths within aluminum silicate glass. Unit I1 fly ash samples contain glass, quartz, perovskite, lime, gehlenite, and apatite with minor amounts of periclase, anhydrite

  20. Modelling the coal chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gertenbach, J.-D.; Varendorff, R. von [Knowledge Based Engineering, Sandton (South Africa)

    1999-03-01

    Managing the supply chain in an integrated coal operation involves many operation and control options often too complex for the human mind to comprehend and react to. By integrating all the knowledge of a supply chain into an expert system, both off-line and on-line real time decisions are possible. Knowledge Based Engineering based in South Africa, has gained valuable experience in modelling such mining operations. The article discusses the methodologies that the company has implemented. KBE uses Gensym`s G2 Real Time Expert System as the foundation of the system and the knowledge base is developed modularly.

  1. An Analysis on Cultural Values of Companies from China and the United States-Based on Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占小海; 张若晨

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, commercial competition is becoming fiercer and fiercer, and with the globalization proceeding, when a company tries to expand, promote and develop, it needs to adapt itself to the open business society while not losing its own cul-ture. Since English has been widely used in the world, an effective and suitable English website is essential for a company to use as a kind of advertisement and publicity, where its cultural values are presented.With companies’websites as subjects and Hofst-ede’s cultural dimension theory as the theoretical basis, this study, through text content and data analysis of company profiles, strategies and cultures, tries to find out the tendency of Chinese and American companies on the five cultural value dimensions, which is power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, masculinity and long-term orientation. Accordingly, constructive suggestions are put forward to help appease and avoid misunderstandings, and promote business communication and collabora-tion.

  2. Company profile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Datacon was founded in 1986 and, since the beginning of 2005, has been part of the Dutch Besi group (BE Semiconductor Industries N.V.), an international group of companies operating in the semiconductor industry. Besi is a leading manufacturer of semiconductor die sorting, die bonding, packaging and plating equipment and provides the most cost efficient solution for RFID inlay production.

  3. CoalVal-A coal resource valuation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; McIntosh, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    CoalVal is a menu-driven Windows program that produces cost-of-mining analyses of mine-modeled coal resources. Geological modeling of the coal beds and some degree of mine planning, from basic prefeasibility to advanced, must already have been performed before this program can be used. United States Geological Survey mine planning is done from a very basic, prefeasibility standpoint, but the accuracy of CoalVal's output is a reflection of the accuracy of the data entered, both for mine costs and mine planning. The mining cost analysis is done by using mine cost models designed for the commonly employed, surface and underground mining methods utilized in the United States. CoalVal requires a Microsoft Windows? 98 or Windows? XP operating system and a minimum of 1 gigabyte of random access memory to perform operations. It will not operate on Microsoft Vista?, Windows? 7, or Macintosh? operating systems. The program will summarize the evaluation of an unlimited number of coal seams, haulage zones, tax entities, or other area delineations for a given coal property, coalfield, or basin. When the reader opens the CoalVal publication from the USGS website, options are provided to download the CoalVal publication manual and the CoalVal Program. The CoalVal report is divided into five specific areas relevant to the development and use of the CoalVal program: 1. Introduction to CoalVal Assumptions and Concepts. 2. Mine Model Assumption Details (appendix A). 3. CoalVal Project Tutorial (appendix B). 4. Program Description (appendix C). 5. Mine Model and Discounted Cash Flow Formulas (appendix D). The tutorial explains how to enter coal resource and quality data by mining method; program default values for production, operating, and cost variables; and ones own operating and cost variables into the program. Generated summary reports list the volume of resource in short tons available for mining, recoverable short tons by mining method; the seam or property being mined

  4. Geology Arc Export Layer From Coal Bearing Geology of the Gulf Coast Coal Region (gulf_geol_dd.e00)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a polygon vector coverage of coal bearing geologic units that occur in states which comprise the Gulf Coast Coal Assessment Region as defined by the...

  5. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Third quarterly technical progress report 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  6. Numerical modelling of lighting process in pulverized-coal burner of a boiler unit by the low-temperature plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miloshevich, H.; Rychkov, A.D. [Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Occupational Technologies

    1999-07-01

    The authors numerically modelled the process of aeromixture ignition in a pulverized-coal burner by a central axysymmetric jet of air that is heated in an electrical are plasma generator up to about 5000 K. The aim was to investigate the process of coal particle ignition in the flow and establish the conditions under which the independent combustion of pulverized coal mixture occurs. The results obtained showed the important role of radiation heat transfer in initiating the combustion process of solid fuel particles. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  8. Mercury transportation in soil via using gypsum from flue gas desulfurization unit in coal-fired power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelin Wang; William Orndorff; Yan Cao; Weiping Pan

    2013-01-01

    The mercury flux in soils was investigated,which were amended by gypsums from flue gas desulphurization (FGD) units of coalfired power plants.Studies have been carried out in confined greenhouses using FGD gypsum treated soils.Major research focus is uptakes of mercury by plants,and emission of mercury into the atmosphere under varying application rates of FGD gypsum,simulating rainfall irrigations,soils,and plants types.Higher FGD gypsum application rates generally led to higher mercury concentrations in the soils,the increased mercury emissions into the atmosphere,and the increased mercury contents in plants (especially in roots and leaves).Soil properties and plant species can play important roles in mercury transports.Some plants,such as tall fescue,were able to prevent mercury from atmospheric emission and infiltration in the soil.Mercury concentration in the stem of plants was found to be increased and then leveled off upon increasing FGD gypsum application.However,mercury in roots and leaves was generally increased upon increasing FGD gypsum application rates.Some mercury was likely absorbed by leaves of plants from emitted mercury in the atmosphere.

  9. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.-H.; Basim, B.; Luttrell, G.H.; Phillips, D.I. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Jiang, D.; Tao, D.; Parekh, B.K. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States); Meloy, T. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1997-01-28

    Novel chemicals that can be used for increasing the efficiency of fine coal dewatering was developed at Virginia Tech. During the past quarter, Reagent A was tested on three different coal samples in laboratory vacuum filtration tests. these included flotation products from Middle Fork plant, Elkview Mining Company, and CONSOL, Inc. the tests conducted with the Middle Fork coal sample (100 mesh x 0) showed that cake moisture can be reduced by more than 10% beyond what can be achieved without using dewatering aid. This improvement was achieved at 1 lb/ton of Reagent A and 0.1 inch cake thickness. At 0. 5 inches of cake thickness, this improvement was limited to 8% at the same reagent dosage. the results obtained with the Elkview coal (28 mesh x 0) showed similar advantages in using the novel dewatering aid. Depending on the reagent dosage, cake thickness, drying cycle time and temperature, it was possible to reduce the cake moisture to 12 to 14% rage. In addition to achieving lower cake moisture, the use of Reagent A substantially decreased the cake formation time, indicating that the reagent improves the kinetics of dewatering, The test results obtained with CONSOL coal were not as good as with the other coals tested in the present work, which may be attributed to possible oxidation and/or contamination.

  10. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20111053 Chen Jian(School of Earth and Environment,Anhui University of Science and Technology,Huainan 232001,China);Liu Wenzhong Organic Affinity of Trace Elements in Coal from No.10 Coal-Bed at Western Huagou,Guoyang(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,38(4),2010,p.16-20,24,3 illus.,3 tables,19 refs.)Key words:coal,minor elements,Anhui Province In order to study the organic affinity of trace elements in coal from No.10 coal-bed at western Huagou,Guoyang,10 borehole samples were collected at exploration area of Huaibei mining area.The contents of 12 kinds of trace elements were determined by the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS),the total organic carbon(TOC)of coal was determined by LECO carbon and sulfur analyzer,and the organic affinity of trace elements were deduced from the correlations between contents and TOCs.The results showed that the contents of V,Cr,Co,Ni,Mo,Cd,Sb,Pb and Zn were lower than

  11. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  12. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: National Coal Resource Dataset System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the coal mine density and storage volumes within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the...

  13. Construction And Application Of Thermal Power Plant Coal-Fired Unit Price Analysis Model%火力发电厂燃煤单价分析模型的构建与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐旭; 王树政; 方良兵

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the background, model innovation of analysis coal-fired unit price analysis model construction. It also introduces model construction method and contented model application casesdetail. It finally proposes economic benefits after the model is applied. Through establishment of model embedded into EXCEL table, we can quantitatively analyze the whole the process of coal-fired price from entering the factory to burning in the furnace, it reveals the standard coal unit price change trend and its cause, which help guide the business management practice and provide effective reference for administrators decision-making.%简单介绍了燃煤单价分析模型构建的背景,模型的创新点,详细介绍了模型的构建方法和内容及模型应用的实例,最后给出了模型应用后的经济效益。通过建立模型嵌入到EXCEL表格中,文表并茂进行定量分析,可以实现对燃煤价格从入厂到入炉的全过程分析,揭示标煤单价变化的态势及其成因,有助于指导经营管理实践,为管理者制订决策提供有效的参考。

  14. Summary of fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal in the United States. Part 3. A handbook for meeting fish and wildlife information needs to surface mine coal: OSM Region V. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, C.R.; Ambrose, R.E.; Wenzel, C.R.

    1981-02-01

    This report contains information to assist in protecting, enhancing, and reducing impacts to fish and wildlife resources during surface mining of coal. It gives information on the premining, mining, reclamation and compliance phases of surface mining. This volume is specifically for the states of Washington, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico.

  15. DESIGNING COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM USING BALANCE SCORECARD APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Mukti Soleh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to design how to measure company performance by using balance scorecard approach in coal transportation services industry. Depth interview was used to obtain qualitative data determination of strategic objectives, key performance indicators, strategic initiatives, and in charge units for each balanced scorecard perspectives while the quantitative data were obtained from weighting through questionnaires and analyzed using paired comparison to get a perspective what mostly affected the performance of the company. To measure the achievement of corporate performance, each KPI used (1 the scoring system with the methods that higher is better, lower is better and precise is better; (2 traffic light system with the help of green, yellow, red for identification of target achievement. This research result shows that in the balance scorecard perspective, the most influences on the overall performance of the company include the customer's perspective (31%, financial perspective (29%, internal business processes (21%, learning, and growth 19%. Keywords: balance scorecard, paired comparison, coal transportation serviceABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang pengukuran kinerja perusahaan dengan menggunakan pendekatan balance scorecard di industri jasa pengangkutan batu bara. Data kualitatif diperoleh melalui indepth interview digunakan untuk menentukan sasaran strategik, indikator kinerja utama, inisiatif strategi dan penanggungjawab setiap divisi setiap perspektif balance scorecard, sedangkan data kuantitatif digunakan untuk pembobotan melalui kuesioner dan dianalisis dengan menggunakan metode paired comparisson untuk mendapatkan perspektif yang paling berpengaruh terhadap kinerja perusahaan. Ukuran pencapaian kinerja perusahaan dari setiap KPI menggunakan; (1 scoring system dengan bantuan metode higher is better, lower is better dan precise is better;(2 traffic light system dengan menggunakan bantuan warna hijau, kuning, merah

  16. Comparative Techno-economic assessment of biomass and coal with CCS technologies in a pulverized combustion power plant in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Qayim, K.; Nimmo, W.; Pourkashanian, M

    2015-01-01

    The technical performance and cost effectiveness of white wood pellets (WWP) combustion in comparison to three types of coal namely U.S., Russian and Colombian coals are investigated in this study. Post-combustion capture and storage (CCS) namely with amine FG+, and oxy-fuel with carbon capture and storage (oxy-fuel) are applied to a 650 MW pulverized combustion (PC) plant. The impacts of the Renewable Obligation Certificate (ROC) and carbon price (CP) policy in accelerating the CCS deploymen...

  17. Developing a model of strategic management of coal mining enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komissarova Maria Anatolievna

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In article problems of strategic management of the companies of ugledo-happening branch reveal, and the model of strategic management of the coal-mining enterprise taking into account their branch specificity is offered to consideration.

  18. British coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, M.

    2009-03-15

    The paper describes a visit to UK's Daw Mill in north Warwickshire to find out about a planned expansion of the coal mine. Daw Mill, 10 km west of Coventry is the UK's largest underground coal mine. The coal is extracted by an Eckhoff Sl500 coal shearer that traverses the coalface. Overarching the shearer is a series of electro-hydraulically operated powered roof supports (PRS) over the roof and coalface that are advanced forward after each pass of the shearer. The void behind the PRS is then allowed to collapse. The coalface is currently 295 m long, but there are plans to extend the replacement coalface to 357 m. Under the shearer is an armored face conveyor (AFC) that receives and transports the coal along the coalface and deposits it onto the beam stage loader, which sits at 90{sup o} to the AFC. The coal is turned by a deflector plough on the AFC headframe and is transferred to the belt conveyor to begin its journey out of the mine. Last year two significant records were broken at Daw Mill - the fastest million tonnes achieved and the European record for a single face of 3.2 Mt. The 300s area of the mine has already been mapped out and development teams are constructing roadways to facilitate more mining. To maintain annual production in excess of three million tonnes will require at least 5,000 m of roadways to access the coal, and install equipment. These investments are supported by proven reserves. Seismic surveys and borehole drilling has shown approximately 20 Mt of extractable coal in the 300s area which extends over 15 km{sup 2}. These panels will be the next to be mined in a sequence that extends to 2014. 2 photos.

  19. CNPC Develops Effective Coal-bed Methane Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The technology for recovery of coal-bed methane developed by China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), which is the parent company of PetroChina, will help the nation lower reliance on overseas companies and better position itself to produce that resource at a low cost. Trapped in coal deposits, the special type of methane is one among several types of high-energy unconventional gases that are expected to become important sources of the country's energy.

  20. Coal mining: coal in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Arguelles Martinez, A.; Lugue Cabal, V.

    1984-01-01

    The Survey of Spanish Coal Resources published by the Centre for Energy Studies in 1979 is without doubt the most serious and full study on this subject. The coal boom of the last few years and the important role it will play in the future, as well as the wealth of new information which has come to light in the research carried out in Spanish coalfields by both the public and private sector, prompted the General Mine Management of the Ministry of Industry and Energy to commission IGME to review and update the previous Survey of Spanish Coal Resources of November 1981.

  1. 太阳能集热器与燃煤机组回热系统耦合的性能研究%Performance research on thermal regenerative system coupling solar collector with coal-fired unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海平; 于鑫玮; 鲁光武; 高沛; 张学镭

    2013-01-01

    提出了利用LS-3型抛物面槽式太阳能集热器对燃煤机组凝结水或给水进行辅助加热的两种集成方案,分别对N300-16.67/537/537,N600-24.2/566/566,N1000-25/600/600等3种不同型号的机组进行经济性能评价.研究结果表明:与大容量机组相比,小容量燃煤机组的投资节煤比较大,节煤量较大,投资成本较小;集成系统热经济性随太阳能集热系统辅助加热的凝结水(给水)流量比率的增大而提高,投资节煤比则相反;用太阳能集热器加热给水泵出口到省煤器人口的水,对改善机组热经济性和降低投资成本有利;在太阳能辐射强度1 000 W/m2的情况下,N300-16.67/537/537型机组的流量比率为5%时,节煤率为3.29 g/kWh.%Two integration solutions were put forward,which heat the condensate or feed water of the coal-fired unit by using type of LS-3 parabolic trough solar energy collector, the economic performance of the unit such as type N300-16.67/537/537, N600-24.2/566/566 and N1000-25/600/600 has been evaluated respectively. The results show that coal saving investment ratio (the ratio of coal saving to investment) of small capacity coal-fired unit is larger, more coal saving, less investment cost, comparing with large capacity units;The thermal economy of integration system improves with increasing flow rate of the condensate water (feed water) through the auxiliary heating solar system, coal saving investment ratio is just the opposite;To heat the water from the water pump outlet to economizer inlet by the solar collectors is better to increase the thermal economy and decrease the investment cost. N300-16.67/537/537 type unit saves coal 3.29 g/kWh at solar radiation intensity of 1 000 W/m2 and the flow rate of 5%.

  2. ACARP Project C10059. ACARP manual of modern coal testing methods. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurovs, R.; Creelman, R.; Pohl, J.; Juniper, L. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The Manual summarises the purpose, applicability, and limitations of a range of standard and modern coal testing methods that have potential to assist the coal company technologist to better evaluate coal performance. It is presented in two volumes. This second volume provides more detailed information regarding the methods discussed in Volume 1.

  3. 2007 coal preparation buyer's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 86 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 24th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 30 April - 3 May 2007, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

  4. 2009 coal preparation buyer's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-04-15

    The guide contains brief descriptions and contact details of 926 US companies supplying coal preparation equipment who exhibited at the 26th annual Coal Prep exhibition and conference, 28-30 April - May 2009, in Lexington, KY, USA. An index of categories of equipment available from the manufacturers is included.

  5. SAFER - Company Snapshot - SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  6. Blended coals for improved coal water slurries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Tian-ye; WU Guo-guang; LI Qi-hui; SUN Zhi-qiang; ZENG Fang; WANG Guang-you; MENG Xian-liang

    2008-01-01

    Three coal samples of different ranks were used to study the effect of coal blending on the preparation of Coal Water Slurry (CWS). The results show that by taking advantage of two kinds of coal, the coal concentration in slurry made from hard-to-pulp coal can be effectively improved and increased by 3%-5% generally. DLT coal (DaLiuTa coal mine) is very poor in slurryability and the stability and rheology of the resulting slurry are not very good. When the amount of easily slurried coal is more than 30%, all properties of the CWS improve and the CWS meets the requirements for use as fuel. Coalification, porosity, surface oxygenic functional groups, zeta potential and grindability have a great effect on the performance of blended coal CWS. This leads to some differences in performance between the slurry made from a single coal and slurry made from blended coal.

  7. Characterization of coal water slurry prepared for PRB coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Yi; Akshay Gopan; Richard L. Axelbaum

    2014-01-01

    Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, which accounts for over 40% of the coal consumed for power generation in the United States, was investigated for preparation of coal water slurry ( CWS). The static stability and rheology of the CWS were characterized as a function of loading. The coal loading was varied from 30% to 50% and both ionic ( sodium polystyrene sulphonate (PSS)) and nonionic (Triton X-100) surfactants were employed as additives. The addition of PSS to PRB slurries was found to yield poor static stability. On the other hand, Triton X-100 was found to be an effective surfactant, reducing the sedimentation by more than 50% compared to the one without surfactant in 45% CWS. Adding Triton X-100 reduces the viscosity of the CWS for coal loadings of 30% and 40% . Although the viscosities for coal loading of 42. 5% and 45% are higher when Triton X-100 is added, the static stability is significantly better than for samples without surfactant. The highest coal loading for PRB slurry with acceptable viscosity for pumping is 42. 5% .

  8. Application of direct current electrical technique in the prevention and control of water in Tang mouth coal company%直流电法技术在唐口煤业公司煤矿防治水方面的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺成森

    2016-01-01

    该文简要介绍了井下直流电法技术在唐口煤业公司煤矿防治水几个方面的应用,如探测工作面顶底板砂岩和底板三灰的富水性、工作面内是否发育隐伏断层以及工作面是否发育陷落柱、巷道掘进迎头前方导水断层的含(导)水性、评价工作面回采时的水害安全性等,同时对直流电法的特点和在应用中需注意的问题进行归纳。%This paper briefly introduces the application of mine DC electrical method in the Tang mouth coal company coal mine water prevention and control several aspects, such as detection of working face roof floor sandstone and the bottom three ash rich water, the development of buried fault and the development of subsided column in the working face, the aquosity of the fault with water permeability in the front of tunneling, the evaluation of the flood safety during mining, at the same time inducted the DC electrical characteristics and problems needing attention in the application.

  9. Recent trend in coal utilization technology. Coal utilization workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chon Ho; Son, Ja Ek; Lee, In Chul; Jin, Kyung Tae; Kim, Seong Soo [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The 11th Korea-U.S.A. joint workshop on coal utilization technology was held in somerset, Pennsylvania, U.S.A. from october 2 to 3, 1995. In the opening ceremony, Dr.C. Low-el Miller, associate deputy assistant secretary of office of clean coal technology, U.S.DOE, gave congratulatory remarks and Dr. Young Mok Son, president of KIER, made a keynote address. In this workshop, 30 papers were presented in the fields of emission control technology, advanced power generation systems, and advanced coal cleaning and liquid fuels. Especially, from the Korean side, not only KIER but also other private research institutes and major engineering companies including KEPCO, Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Jindo Engineering and Construction Co. Daewoo Institute for Advanced Engineering and universities participated in this workshop, reflecting their great interests. Attendants actively discussed about various coal utilization technologies and exchanged scientific and technical information on the state-of-art clean coal technologies under development. (author)

  10. On design for gas drainage of coal seam at 15th Seam at Shangshe Coal Company of Yangquan%阳泉上社煤炭公司15号煤层本煤层瓦斯抽放设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武风元

    2012-01-01

    The paer introduces the gas drainage design at the coal seam of 15103 fully mechanized coal face of Shangshe Coal Mine in Yan- gquan, illustrates the design for the advanced deficient pumping holing and the drilling connection craft, sums up the safety operation points for the drainage of the coal seam, and proves by the practice that it has better gas drainage effect of the coal seam, so as to provide some precious experience for similar projects in future.%对阳泉上社煤矿15103综采工作面本煤层瓦斯抽放孔设计进行了介绍,分别阐述了预抽钻孔设计,钻孔连接工艺等内容,并总结出本煤层抽放的安全操作要点,经实践取得了良好的煤层瓦斯抽放效果,为今后类似工程提供了宝贵经验。

  11. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.; Senior, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  12. Development of the scheme of stepwise combustion of coal in the inverter firebox of a power unit of 1000 MW power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, V. B.; Chernov, S. L.; Kirichkov, V. S.

    2017-09-01

    The desire to increase the efficiency of using the heat of burned solid fuel leads to the significant growth of the initial steam parameter at steam-turbine plants. At the maximum temperatures of fresh and secondary steam of 700-720°C, the price of connecting of steam pipelines between the boiler and turbine is up to 20% of the price of a power plant unit, which dictates the necessity to decrease their length. One of the methods to achieve this is the application of an inverter firebox. An M-shaped profile of boiler, allowing one to decrease the length of heat-resistant steam pipelines, was developed at NRU MPEI. A distinctive feature of the profile is two inclined connecting gas flues between the firebox and convective shaft, starting from the gas windows located in the lower third of the firebox height. The boiler was designed for the steam production of 2493 t/h with the parameters of fresh steam of 35 MPa and 710°C. Thermal and aerodynamic calculations made it possible to get the sizes of boiler and dimensions of heating surfaces, and they also allow one to get the values of temperatures in the characteristic points along the gas path. On the basis of the results of calculations, the coefficient of efficiency of the boiler was 93.07% and the fuel consumption was 91.13 kg/s. For this boiler, the technology of effective stepwise burning of coal in a direct-flow-vortex torch (DFVT) in a system of vertical and horizontal tangential torches in the mode of solid slag removal, previously successively used in boilers with a traditional profile and upgraded to an inverter firebox, is proposed. The layouts of the direct-flow burners and nozzles for even and odd vertical sections of the firebox and also in a horizontal section were proposed. Organization of staged air supply in the vertical direction with a high fraction of in-firebox recycle of hot gases leads to low concentration of nitrogen oxides.

  13. Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction technology for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, W.S.; Powell, C.A.; Maxwell, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    This paper describes the status of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project to demonstrate SCR technology for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from flue gas of utility boilers burning US high-sulfur coal. The funding participants are the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS), on behalf of the entire Southern Company, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing all aspects of the project. The project is being conducted on Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (75-MW nominal capacity), located near Pensacola, Florida, on US coals that have a sulfur content near 3.0%. The SCR facility treats a 17,400 scfm slip-stream of flue gas and consists of three 2.5-MW (5000 scfm) and six 0.2-MW (400 scfm) SCR reactors. The reactors operate in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from vendors throughout the world. The design engineering and construction have been completed, and the startup/shakedown was completed in June 1993. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and will be conducted for two years. Test facility description and test plans, as well as start-up issues and preliminary commissioning test results are reported in this paper.

  14. GIS representation of coal-bearing areas in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Matthew D.

    2016-03-11

    Understanding the distribution of coal-bearing geologic units in Antarctica provides information that can be used in sedimentary, geomorphological, paleontological, and climatological studies. This report is a digital compilation of information on Antarctica’s coal-bearing geologic units found in the literature. It is intended to be used in small-scale spatial geographic information system (GIS) investigations and as a visual aid in the discussion of Antarctica’s coal resources or in other coal-based geologic investigations. Instead of using spatially insignificant point markers to represent large coal-bearing areas, this dataset uses polygons to represent actual coal-bearing lithologic units. Specific locations of coal deposits confirmed from the literature are provided in the attribution for the coal-bearing unit polygons. Coal-sample-location data were used to confirm some reported coal-bearing geology. The age and extent of the coal deposits indicated in the literature were checked against geologic maps ranging from local scale at 1:50,000 to Antarctic continental scale at 1:5,000,000; if satisfactory, the map boundaries were used to generate the polygons for the coal-bearing localities.

  15. Got Coal? Teaching about the Most Dangerous Rock in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Bill

    2011-01-01

    In 30 years of teaching, the author never taught explicitly about coal. Coal appeared in his social studies curriculum solely as a labor issue, and coal was mostly invisible in his history classes. The world cannot afford this kind of curricular invisibility today. Forty percent of the main greenhouse gas produced in the United States, carbon…

  16. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Safety and Health Administration 30 CFR Part 75 RIN 1219-AB84 Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal... training for miners to deploy and use refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. The U.S. Court of... in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of America (UMWA)...

  17. The machinations in coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Round, C.

    1996-12-31

    The book presents a view of coal mining as seen by the author over a career of more than 40 years working in several coalfields in the UK and also undertaking consultancies and visits to coal mines in several other counties. It takes the format of episodes reported by the author of events and discussions with the people involved. There are three strands running through the book. Firstly, there is the biography of a family within the mining industry in the United Kingdom. The second strand of the book reflects the progress in mechanisation within the nationalised coal industry. Thirdly, the book traces the changes in the structural organisation of the British coal industry. The book captures the social side of the mining communities.

  18. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO sub x ) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the amonia reacts with NO{sub x} to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe, there are numerous technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO, and SO{sub 3}. (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project will be funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), and the Electric Power Research Institute.

  19. Analyzing the role of the government from the perspective of coal resources management in the United States%从美国煤炭资源管理看政府定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昆

    2014-01-01

    China shares some similarities with the United States in terms of area ,population and GDP . This article analyzes the role of the government from the perspective of the coal resources management in the United States ,which hopefully could help to improving China's mineral resources management .The United States is abundant of coal resources ..The coal industry shares 40% of mining sector and play an important role in the United States . The coal industry is highly concentrated and shows a good safety record .The top 5 producers contribute over half of production .The mineral management in the United States has two characteristics :different types of mineral ownership coexist ;three catalogues of mineral resources are subject to different management system .Coal is leased competitively .Government makes many efforts to realize multiple uses ,fair return ,diligent development and conservation of coal resources . The role of government is far more than a "night watcher"in the modern market economy .We should take national conditions , development stages and legal system into consideration and choose a right way to improve mineral resources management constantly .%美国疆域辽阔、经济总量大、人口较多,和我国有较强的可比性。本文通过对美国煤炭资源管理的研究,分析政府在资源管理中的定位,为完善我国矿产资源管理提供借鉴。美国煤炭资源、地位重要,占矿业比重大,集中度高,安全生产水平高。矿产资源管理制度的主要特点是产权多元、分类管理。煤炭租约原则上一律实行竞争性出让。在以规划统筹各类资源的利用,实现资源公平收益,抑制投机,防止资源浪费等方面做了相应的制度安排,体现了政府"干预"。现代市场经济中政府的角色不仅仅是"守夜人",美国矿产资源管理的一些理念和做法值得进一步研究,我们应综合考虑国情矿情、发展阶段、现实法

  20. Influence of Geological Structure on Coal and Gas Outburst Occurrences in Turkish Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Olgun; Özer, Samet Can; Fişne, Abdullah

    2015-04-01

    Coal and gas outbursts are sudden and violent releases of gas and in company with coal that result from a complex function of geology, stress regime with gas pressure and gas content of the coal seam. The phenomena is referred to as instantaneous outbursts and have occurred in virtually all the major coal producing countries and have been the cause of major disasters in the world mining industry. All structures from faults to joints and cleats may supply gas or lead to it draining away. Most geological structures influence the way in which gas can drain within coal seams. From among all the geological factors two groups can be distinguished: parameters characterising directly the occurrence and geometry of the coal seams; parameters characterising the tectonic disturbances of the coal seams and neighbouring rocks. Also dykes may act as gas barriers. When the production of the coal seam is advanced in mine working areas, these barriers are failed mostly in the weak and mylonitized zones. Geology also plays a very important role in the outburst process. Coal seams of complex geological structure including faults, folds, and fractured rocks are liable to outbursts if coal seams and neighbouring rocks have high gas content level. The purpose of the study is to enlighten the coal industry in Turkey to improving mine safety in underground coal production and decrease of coal and gas outburst events due to increasing depth of mining process. In Turkey; the years between 1969 and 2013, the number of 90 coal and gas outbursts took place in Zonguldak Hard Coal Basin in both Kozlu and Karadon Collieries. In this study the liability to coal and gas outburst of the coal seams are investigated by measuring the strength of coal and the rock pressure. The correlation between these measurements and the event locations shows that the geological structures resulted in 52 events out of 90 events; 19 events close to the fault zones, 25 events thorough the fault zones and 8 events in

  1. COAL GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20091749 Cai Hou’an(College of Energy Geology,China University of Geosciences,Beijing 100083,China);Xu Debin SHRIMP U-Pb Isotope Age of Volcanic Rocks Distributed in the Badaohao Area,Liaoning Province and Its Significance(Coal Geology & Exploration,ISSN1001-1986,CN61-1155/P,36(4),2008,p.17-20,2 illus.,1 table,16 refs.)Key words:coal measures,volcanic rocks,U-Pb dating,LiaoningA set of andesite volcanic rocks distributes in the Badaohao area in Heishan County,Liaoning Province.It’s geological age and stratigraphy sequence relationship between the Lower Cretaceous Badaohao Formation and the volcanic rocks can not make sure till now and is influencing the further prospect for coals.Zircon

  2. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-02

    The Quarterly Coal Report provides comprehensive information about US coal production, exports, imports, receipts, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. This issue presents detailed quarterly data for April 1990 through June 1990, aggregated quarterly historical data for 1982 through the second quarter of 1990, and aggregated annual historical data for 1960 through 1989 and projected data for selected years from 1995 through 2010. To provide a complete picture of coal supply and demand in the United States, historical information and forecasts have been integrated in this report. 7 figs., 37 tabs.

  3. Environmentally Benign Coal Mining: Target One Billion Tonne Coal Production by CIL by 2019-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurdeep Singh1,2 and

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Coal is the most abundant fuel resource in India. Coal is the major source of energy and is the principal contributor for the industrial growth of the developing nation like India. Coal is a bridge component in a current, balanced energy group. It is connection for the future as a vital low cost energy solution for achieving sustainability challenges for competing with the developed countries. The largest consumer of coal in India is power sector, and the industrial sector is coming next to power sector. The major consumption of coal in India is in steel plant, cement plant and brick-manufacturing units.52%of primary energy is coal dependent1.About 66% of India's power generation is based upon coal production1. While coal is considered the most significant element for the growth of country, it faces major and massive social and environmental issues. Environmental worries are the most important parameter for the coal industry’s future. In comparison to the other fossil fuels, coal is more pollution causing and less energy efficient. Coal has an important role in fulfillment of current needs. 212.10 Million Tonnes of coal was imported in the financial year 2014-152.The coal demand will be increasing due to increase in electricity demand of the country. Coal India being the largest producer of coal in India has to plan accordingly to fulfill the coal demand of country. A road map for enhancement of coal production up to 1 Billion of coal by 2019-2020 has been prepared by Coal India3. Due to coal mining the key environmental impacts are on air, water, land, forest, biodiversity, and climate etc. The biggest challenge is to put on the innovative technologies in the most efficient and environmentally friendly manner and to solve social issues by taking care of the implementation of rehabilitation and resettlement (R&R.Thrust is now to promote inclusive growth of mining areas by adequate corporate social responsibilities (CSR activities4,5. Thus the

  4. Geochemistry of Selected Coal Samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,000 islands that stretches astride the equator for about 5,200 km in southeast Asia (figure 1) and includes major Cenozoic volcano-plutonic arcs, active volcanoes, and various related onshore and offshore basins. These magmatic arcs have extensive Cu and Au mineralization that has generated much exploration and mining in the last 50 years. Although Au and Ag have been mined in Indonesia for over 1000 years (van Leeuwen, 1994), it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that the Dutch explored and developed major Sn and minor Au, Ag, Ni, bauxite, and coal resources. The metallogeny of Indonesia includes Au-rich porphyry Cu, porphyry Mo, skarn Cu-Au, sedimentary-rock hosted Au, epithermal Au, laterite Ni, and diamond deposits. For example, the Grasberg deposit in Papua has the world's largest gold reserves and the third-largest copper reserves (Sillitoe, 1994). Coal mining in Indonesia also has had a long history beginning with the initial production in 1849 in the Mahakam coal field near Pengaron, East Kalimantan; in 1891 in the Ombilin area, Sumatra, (van Leeuwen, 1994); and in South Sumatra in 1919 at the Bukit Asam mine (Soehandojo, 1989). Total production from deposits in Sumatra and Kalimantan, from the 19thth century to World War II, amounted to 40 million metric tons (Mt). After World War II, production declined due to various factors including politics and a boom in the world-wide oil economy. Active exploration and increased mining began again in the 1980's mainly through a change in Indonesian government policy of collaboration with foreign companies and the global oil crises (Prijono, 1989). This recent coal revival (van Leeuwen, 1994) has lead Indonesia to become the largest exporter of thermal (steam) coal and the second largest combined thermal and metallurgical (coking) coal exporter in the world market (Fairhead and others, 2006). The exported coal is desirable as it is low sulfur

  5. ACARP Project C10059. ACARP manual of modern coal testing methods. Volume 1: The manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurovs, R.; Creelman, R.; Pohl, J.; Juniper, L. [CSIRO Energy Technology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    The Manual summarises the purpose, applicability, and limitations of a range of standard and modern coal testing methods that have potential to assist the coal company technologist to better evaluate coal performance. The first volume sets out the Modern Coal Testing Methods in summarised form that can be used as a quick guide to practitioners to assist in selecting the best technique to solve their problems.

  6. Development of new bond release criteria for surface coal mines in the eastern and interior coal provinces of the United States. Open file report (final) 18 jul 77-18 jul 78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, W.M.; Fritz, E.L.; Schad, J.A.; Nagle, W.F.

    1978-09-18

    This study involved a review of bonding and bond release practices in the States of the eastern and midwestern coal provinces. Data was collected from regulatory authorities and site visits to document the bonding and release procedures in the States related to achieving successful reclamation. The regulations related to PL95-87 were reviewed. The analysis included suggested modified or new bond release criteria based on a review of applicable bond release inspection techniques, a conceptual graduated bonding system, and incentive procedures for reclamation of surface mine sites to alternative or higher land uses.

  7. Pilot plant development of a new catalytic process for improved electrostatic separation of fly ash in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares del Valle, J.; Martinez, L.S.; Baum, B.M.; Galeano, V.C. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The design and operation of pulverized-coal-fired power plants (PCFPP) are usually regarded as fuel range in terms of sulphur and ash contents. These units may give severe environmental problems of fly ash emissions as a result of lower SO{sub 3} contents in the flue gas (FG) because the electrical resistivity of the solid particles is correspondingly lower, with consequent adverse effects on electrostatic precipitator (ESP) efficiency. More stringent air pollution laws cause many power companies to burn lower sulphur coal under boilers in plants that formerly burned higher S coal or ran with abnormal operational conditions (only remediable by shutdown and repairs). This presentation of the GASOX process is a contribution to the improvement of existing technology for flue gas conditioning (FGC), which is defined as a control system for (ESP) efficiency in PCFPP.

  8. Current status and human resources development strategy of the Vietnam National Coal Corporation (VINACOAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doc, V.V. [VINACOAL (Vietnam). Technology, Technique and Environment Dept.

    2002-09-01

    In 1994, the Government of Vietnam decided to establish the Vietnam National Coal Corporation (VINACOAL) to control in a comprehensive manner to the coal industry. With 19 coal producing companies, in 2001 VINACOAL produced 14.6 million tons of coal, in which 13.1 million tons were sold. According to the 2002 plan, 17 million tons of coal will be produced of which 14.5-15 million tons will be sold. This paper briefly outlines VINACOAL's development plan for coal production until 2010 and forecasts the future toward 2020. 2 tabs.

  9. Coal Seams in the Horna Nitra Valley – the Cigel Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Fazekaš

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics data, coal will become with no doubt the most important energy source in the 21-st century. The HornaNitra Valley represents one of the main fuels – energy centre of Slovakia. Deposits of caustobioliths – brown coal and lignite presentsignificant raw material potential. The mining companies, along with run-in extraction methods of coal reserves, are giving their timeto a research of untraditional coal processing technologies. An in-situ monitoring of coal seams geo-technological propertiescontributes in a significant way to obtain some complex knowledge on interactions of certain determining factors which influencethe coal gases formation underground.

  10. Quarterly coal report, April--June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-26

    In the second quarter of 1993, the United States produced 235 million short tons of coal. This brought the total for the first half of 1993 to 477 million short tons, a decrease of 4 percent (21 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first half of 1992. The decrease was due to a 26-million-short-ton decline in production east of the Mississippi River, which was partially offset by a 5-million-short-ton increase in coal production west of the Mississippi River. Compared with the first 6 months of 1992, all States east of the Mississippi River had lower coal production levels, led by West Virginia and Illinois, which produced 9 million short tons and 7 million short tons less coal, respectively. The principal reasons for the drop in coal output for the first 6 months of 1993 compared to a year earlier were: a decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets, particularly the steam coal markets; a draw-down of electric utility coal stocks to meet the increase in demand for coal-fired electricity generation; and a lower producer/distributor stock build-up. Distribution of US coal in the first half of 1993 was 15 million short tons lower than in the first half of 1992, with 13 million short tons less distributed to overseas markets and 2 million short tons less distributed to domestic markets.

  11. Coal demonstration plants. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of two coal liquefaction demonstration plants and of four coal gasification demonstration plants is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, contract number, funding, process name, process description, flowsheet, schedule, history and progress during the July-September quarter, 1979. Supporting projects in coal feeding systems, valves, grinding equipment, instrumentation, process control and water treatment are discussed in a similar way. Conceptual design work on commercial plants for coal to methanol and for a HYGAS high BTU gas plant were continued. (LTN)

  12. Coal industry annual 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  13. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  14. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  15. 77 FR 5787 - Consumers Energy Company, Detroit Edison Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ...: Consumers Energy Company & Detroit Edison Company. e. Name of Projects: Ludington Pumped Storage. f...-turbine/motor generating units of the Ludington pumped storage project, one unit at a time over the period... hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public inspection: a. Types of...

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN PROJECTS OF NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY ON RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT INTEGRATION AMONG UNITS OF A MULTINATIONAL COMPANY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel Jugend; Sérgio Luis da Silva

    2012-01-01

    ... & D centers around the world in development projects of new products. Focusing on the perception of the Brazilian unit, this paper aims to present and analyze integration practices among subsidiaries, headquarters...

  17. Technological Innovation In Projects Of New Product Development: An Exploratory Study On Relationship Management Integration Among Units Of A Multinational Company

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel Jugend; Sérgio Luis da Silva

    2012-01-01

    ... & D centers around the world in development projects of new products. Focusing on the perception of the Brazilian unit, this paper aims to present and analyze integration practices among subsidiaries, headquarters and...

  18. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from US, Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur US coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO[sub x]) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO[sub x] to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur, coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to US coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in US coals that are not present in other fuels. (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO[sub 2] and SO[sub 3] and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties will be explored by constructing a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high-sulfur US coal. The demonstration will be performed at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida.

  19. King Coal: Facing a troubled resurrection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricca, J.

    1979-01-22

    The most economic and efficient uses for coal are direct burning for power generation, gasification, and liquefaction. Coal's resurrection as the primary energy source remains controversial, however, because of environmental problems and a general dislike of its physical properties. The argument is made that natural market forces will guarantee adequate energy supplies, but that years of government interference may have created too big an obstacle. The impact on industry of government regulations on fuels, pollution, and siting means that industries will explore every possible alternative before turning to coal. Companies like General Motors will consider prohibitive regulations and whether electric power supplies are reliable when choosing plant locations. The conflicting goals of the DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency will continue to confuse the issue until they are reconciled or until a decision is made to rely on large-scale coal-fired power, gas, or liquid plants for end-use energy.

  20. NAFTA opportunities: Bituminous coal and lignite mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) secures and improves market access in Mexico and Canada for the United States bituminous coal and lignite mining sector. Canada is one of the United States' largest export markets for bituminous coal and lignite, with exports of $486.7 million in 1992. Conversely, the Mexican market is one of the smallest export markets for U.S. producers with exports of $1.8 million in 1992. Together, however, Canada and Mexico represent approximately 15 percent of total U.S. coal exports. The report presents a sectoral analysis.

  1. Social potential growth of a mining company on the basis of human capital and occupational safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Jarosławska-Sobór

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies conducted in coal companies and collieries in Poland attempted to explain which components are crucial for mining companies and how they have been used in operational practice; conclusions can be used in company management. Surveys like this have not been conducted in Poland to date. These surveys allow the social potential of a mining company and the consequences of its development or weakening to be understood.

  2. 三顶瓦斯回收技术在玉门常减压装置中的应用%Application of Gas Recovery Technology in Atmospheric and Vacuum Distillation Units of Yumen Oilfield Company Refinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓山; 贾丹; 李晓辉

    2015-01-01

    介绍了玉门炼化总厂常减压装置自产瓦斯的成分及原有瓦斯处理技术,分析了常减压装置三顶瓦斯回收的必要性。简述了三顶瓦斯的回收技术改造方案及改造后的工艺流程。结果表明,改造后的瓦斯回收系统可有效提高二次能源利用率,实现装置节能环保的目的。%Composition of gas from atmospheric and vacuum distillation units of Yumen oilfield company refinery was introduced as well as the gas processing technology. The necessity of gas recovery was analyzed. Then the technical transformation program of gas recycling unit was introduced as well as the process flow of gas recovery unit after transformation. The results show that the gas recovery unit after transformation can improve the utilization of energy and achieve the aim of energy saving and environmental protection.

  3. Coal gasification power generation, and product market study. Topical report, March 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheesley, D.; King, S.B.

    1998-12-31

    This Western Research Institute (WRI) project was part of a WRI Energy Resource Utilization Program to stimulate pilot-scale improved technologies projects to add value to coal resources in the Rocky Mountain region. The intent of this program is to assess the application potential of emerging technologies to western resources. The focus of this project is on a coal resource near the Wyoming/Colorado border, in Colorado. Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company operates a coal mine in Jackson County, Colorado. The coal produces 10,500 Btu/lb and has very low sulfur and ash contents. Kerr Coal Company is seeking advanced technology for alternate uses for this coal. This project was to have included a significant cost-share from the Kerr Coal Company ownership for a market survey of potential products and technical alternatives to be studied in the Rocky Mountain Region. The Energy Fuels Corporation/Kerr Coal Company and WRI originally proposed this work on a cost reimbursable basis. The total cost of the project was priced at $117,035. The Kerr Coal Company had scheduled at least $60,000.00 to be spent on market research for the project that never developed because of product market changes for the company. WRI and Kerr explored potential markets and new technologies for this resource. The first phase of this project as a preliminary study had studied fuel and nonfuel technical alternatives. Through related projects conducted at WRI, resource utilization was studied to find high-value materials that can be targeted for fuel and nonfuel use and eventually include other low-sulfur coals in the Rocky Mountain region. The six-month project work was spread over about a three-year period to observe, measure, and confirm over time-any trends in technology development that would lead to economic benefits in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming from coal gasification and power generation.

  4. Coal industry annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-06

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  5. Coal - proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-14

    This Standard establishes a practice for the proximate analysis of coal, that is, the coal is analysed for the content of moisture, ash and volatile matter; fixed carbon is calculated. The standard provides a basis for the comparison of coals.

  6. Development of technical solutions on a coal-fired boiler for a power plant unit of 800 MW with steam parameters of 35 MPa and 700/720°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvarts, A. L.; Verbovetsky, E. Kh.; Somova, E. V.; Smolin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Development of a coal-fired boiler for a power plant unit of 800 MW with advanced ultra-supercritical steam parameters of 35 MPa and 700/720°C is presented. The main technical solutions providing the reliability, profitability, and low emissions of harmful substances in the atmosphere are given. The fuel is the black coal of (Taldinskoye field, Kuznetsk basin). The gross efficiency of the boiler is 94%. The U-shaped configuration of a boiler is chosen, which allows the reduction of the capital expenditure for steam turbine piping made of expensive nickel alloys. The horizontal connection flue of the boiler, where the primary and reheat steam screens are located, is equipped with two cold funnels. The upper section of the convection shaft is separated with a vertical screen wall into two parallel "split tail" flues, which allows one to control the reheat steam temperature by redistributing the flue gas between the gas flues. The URS screens are two-stage with a lifting motion of the medium and a partial bypassing of the first stage. The lower radiant section is two-stage. To reduce the temperature of screen walls at the fire chamber outlet, the lowering motion of the working medium and combustion gases is used. The hydrodynamics of the screens with the lowering motion of the medium for preventing the aperiodic instability in the start regimes is analyzed. Besides the stepwise combustion of coal dust providing the improved environmental parameters, the boiler plant is equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system, an ash collector (an electric filter combined with a filter bag), and a desulphurization device.

  7. Discuss on the coal enterprise professional team development with Shendong Company model%“神东模式”煤炭企业专业化队伍建设的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵磊

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the Shendong Company model and also compares this model with traditional mode. The establishment of professional team is the needs of Shendong Company model scale and intensive production,technical advantage and reduce the security management risk. Professional team have been detailed discussed from different aspects,including business strategy,scientific classification of business responsibility,establishing the internal evaluation mechanism,implement the business and operation process,staff training system and summary of tacit knowledge.%对“神东模式”进行了说明,并对“神东模式”与传统模式进行了比较。阐述了组建专业化队伍是“神东模式”规模化与集约化生产、发挥技术优势与降低安全管理风险的需求,并从与企业战略相适应、业务责任科学划分、建立内部考核机制、实现业务与作业流程化、建立员工培训体系、总结提炼隐性知识等方面进行了具体探讨。

  8. Preburn versus postburn mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of overburden and coal at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1983-12-01

    Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

  9. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  10. Research and countermeasures of reducing the number of coal mills in million units%百万机组降低磨煤机运行台数研究与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索中举

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of safety, economy, environmental protection under the new situation, power plants do research for good methods of al kinds of active. Reducing the number of coal mil s is a very important task. This paper introduces main factors affecting the number of coal mil s and analyzes the economic and environmental advancement. It provides experience for large units of energy saving and emission reduction work.%发电企业为了适应新形势下安全、经济、环保运行的要求,都在积极探寻节能降耗的好办法,降低磨煤机运行台数是其中重要的课题。本文介绍了影响百万机组磨煤机运行台数的主要因素以及应对办法,并分析了降低磨煤机运行台数后经济和环保运行情况,为大机组节能减排工作提供了经验。

  11. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Bo-qiang; Liu, Jiang-hua [China Center for Energy Economics Research (CCEER), Xiamen University, No. 422, Siming South Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. (author)

  12. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Boqiang, E-mail: bqlin@xmu.edu.c [China Center for Energy Economics Research (CCEER), Xiamen University, No. 422, Siming South Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Liu Jianghua [China Center for Energy Economics Research (CCEER), Xiamen University, No. 422, Siming South Road, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security.

  13. Estimating coal production peak and trends of coal imports in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo-qiang Lin; Jiang-hua Liu [Xiamen University, Xiamen (China). China Center for Energy Economics Research (CCEER)

    2010-01-15

    More than 20 countries in the world have already reached a maximum capacity in their coal production (peak coal production) such as Japan, the United Kingdom and Germany. China, home to the third largest coal reserves in the world, is the world's largest coal producer and consumer, making it part of the Big Six. At present, however, China's coal production has not yet reached its peak. In this article, logistic curves and Gaussian curves are used to predict China's coal peak and the results show that it will be between the late 2020s and the early 2030s. Based on the predictions of coal production and consumption, China's net coal import could be estimated for coming years. This article also analyzes the impact of China's net coal import on the international coal market, especially the Asian market, and on China's economic development and energy security. 16 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. The influence of coal mixtures on the performance of NO{sub x}-free pulverised coal firing on Unit 9 at Amer Power Station in The Netherlands; Einfluss von Kohlemischungen auf die Leistung der NO{sub x}-armen Kohlenstaubfeuerung des Blockes 9 im Kraftwerk Amer in den Niederlanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozendaal, C.M. [N.V. Kema, Arnheim (Netherlands); Korthout, A.J.C. [EPZ Elektriciteits-Produktiemaatschappij Zuid-Nederland N.V., Geertruidenberg (Netherlands); Meerkerk, A. [Schelde Industrial Engineers and Contractors, Breda (Netherlands)

    1998-06-01

    Unit 9 at Amer Power Station is designed with tangential firing for a wide range of fuel and is fitted with effective primary NO{sub x} reduction equipment. Three coals with different proportions of volatile matter have been burned in order to investigate the influence of coal mixtures of NO{sub x} emissions and on burn-up rate. Two different methods of mixing have been tested: Mixing of fuel prior to drying in the mills (normal method) and mixing during firing with injection at various burner levels. This paper reports on the results. (orig.) [Deutsch] Block 9 des Kraftwerkes Amer ist mit einer Tangentialfeuerung fuer ein breites Brennstoffband ausgelegt und mit wirksamen Primaer-NO{sub x}-Minderungseinrichtungen ausgeruestet. Drei Kohlen mit unterschiedlichem Gehalt an fluechtigen Bestandteilen wurden verfeuert, um den Einfluss von Kohlemischungen auf die NO{sub x}-Emissionen und den Ausbrand zu untersuchen. Zwei unterschiedliche Mischmethoden wurden getestet: Mischung der Brennstoffe vor der Mahltrocknung (uebliches Verfahren) und Mischung in der Feuerung mit Einblasung in verschiedenen Brennerebenen. Ueber die Ergebnisse wird berichtet. (orig.)

  15. Remedial Investigation Report on Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit 2 (Filled Coal Ash Pond/Upper McCoy Branch) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This document is a report on the remedial investigation (RI) of Chestnut Ridge Operable Unit (OU) 2 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 consists of Upper McCoy Branch (UMB), the Filled Coal Ash Pond (FCAP), and the area surrounding the Sluice Channel formerly associated with coal ash disposal in the FCAP. Chestnut Ridge OU 2 is located within the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Oak Ridge Reservation in Anderson County, Tennessee, approximately 24 miles west of Knoxville. The pond is an 8.5-acre area on the southern slope of Chestnut Ridge, 0.5 mile south of the main Y-12 Plant and geographically separated from the Y-12 Plant by Chestnut Ridge. The elevation of the FCAP is {approximately} 950 ft above mean sea level (msl), and it is relatively flat and largely vegetated. Two small ponds are usually present at the northeast and northwest comers of the FCAP. The Sluice Channel Area extends {approximately}1000 ft from the northern margin of the FCAP to the crest of Chestnut Ridge, which has an elevation of {approximately}1100 ft above msl. The Sluice Channel Area is largely vegetated also. McCoy Branch runs from the top of Chestnut Ridge across the FCAP into Rogers Quarry and out of the quarry where it runs a short distance into Milton Hill Lake at McCoy Embayment, termed UMB. The portion south of Rogers Quarry, within Chestnut Ridge OU 4, is termed Lower McCoy Branch. The DOE Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant disposed of coal ash from its steam plant operations as a slurry that was discharged into an ash retention impoundment; this impoundment is the FCAP. The FCAP was built in 1955 to serve as a settling basin after coal ash slurried over Chestnut Ridge from the Y-12 Plant. The FCAP was constructed by building an earthen dam across the northern tributary of McCoy Branch. The dam was designed to hold 20 years of Y-12 steam plant ash. By July 1967, ash had filled up the impoundment storage behind the dam to within 4 ft of the top.

  16. Queensland coal inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-01

    Australia's black coal resources rank in the top five globally, around 50% of which are located in the sedimentary basins of Queensland. The Bowen Basin is the most prolific coal repository, hosting over 60% of the currently established resource inventory. Large volumes of thermal coal are present in the Surat and Galilee basins as well as small extensional and pull apart basins such as Blair Athol and Tarong. The article examines Queensland's coal industry from a government perspective. It first discusses the current coal market, then introduces the concept of inventory coal and explains the Australia Joint Ore Reserves Committee (JORC) code - a resource evaluation system. The stratigraphy of each of Queensland's coal basins is then discussed in sections headed Permian coals, Triassic coals, Jurassic and Cretaceous coals, and Tertiary coals. 3 figs.

  17. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

  18. LOCATION DECISIONS OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the location decisions of foreign direct investments by the most important global multinational companies in Romania. The study covers the top 100 multinational companies, according to Fortune and underline that all of them have the headquarters location in the United States. In particular, this analysis presents the distribution of global companies based on the main industry and major economic sectors. The first company, from the rank 100, that invests in our country is Exxon Mobil (the number two on the list and has numerous projects in petroleum refining industry in many other countries, because energy sector is one of the most important ones in the global economy.

  19. LOCATION DECISIONS OF MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the location decisions of foreign direct investments by the most important global multinational companies in Romania. The study covers the top 100 multinational companies, according to Fortune and underline that all of them have the headquarters location in the United States. In particular, this analysis presents the distribution of global companies based on the main industry and major economic sectors. The first company, from the rank 100, that invests in our country is Exxon Mobil (the number two on the list and has numerous projects in petroleum refining industry in many other countries, because energy sector is one of the most important ones in the global economy.

  20. Numerical analysis on coal-breaking process under high pressure water jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jin-hua; LIANG Yun-pei; CHENG Guo-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theory of nonlinear dynamic finite element, the control equation of coal and water jet was acquired in the coal breaking process under a water jet. The calcu-lation model of coal breaking under a water jet was established; the fluid-structure cou-pling of water jet and coal was implemented by penalty function and convection calculation. The dynamic process of coal breaking under a water jet was simulated and analyzed by combining the united fracture criteria of the maximum tensile strain and the maximal shear strain in the two cases of damage to coal and damage failure to coal.

  1. Estimation of in situ resources, recoverable reserves and marketable reserves from a coal quality perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, B.; Whitby, K.; Meyers, A. [A & B Mylec Pty. Ltd., Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia)

    2000-10-01

    The competitive nature of the coal industry currently has meant that attention to detail in estimating coal resources, and recoverable and marketable reserves is of greater importance now than probably at any other time in the history of the Australian coal industry. This paper describes the mechanisms applied in deriving the best possible resource and reserve estimates in evaulating a coal lease, largely from the coal quality perspective. It attempts to show one way of uniting the geological model of a coal deposit to quality aspects such as in situ density and tonnage and ultimately to the anticipated product coal tonnes. 2 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC project: Project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, J.E.; Carlson, M.R.; Hurd, R.; Pless, D.E.; Grant, M.D. [Tampa Electric Co., FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round II award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow IGCC technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation to demonstrate significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. In addition, this project demonstrates the technical feasibility of commercial scale IGCC and Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) technology. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. This paper addresses the operating experiences which occurred in the start-up and shakedown phase of the plant. Also, with the plant being declared in commercial operation as of September 30, 1996, the paper discusses the challenges encountered in the early phases of commercial operation. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit in the first quarter of 1997 and beyond, as well as plans for future alternate fuel test burns, are detailed. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update on actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall Unit capacity, heat rate, and availability. In addition, the current status of the start-up activities for the HGCU portion of the plant is discussed.

  3. Liquidation of the company

    OpenAIRE

    Procházka, Michal

    2011-01-01

    This work deals with the liquidation of the company focusing on commercial companies. It describes whole process of liquidation from decision to liquidate to delete the company from the Commercial Register. The work also focuses on legal, accounting and tax site of liquidation. Accounting practices in the liquidation process are illustrated on the example of a fictive company.

  4. Coal assessments and coal research in the Appalachian basin: Chapter D.4 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Coal is one of our most important domestic energy resources, producing 37 percent of the Nation’s electricity in 2012. Coal mining within the Appalachian basin has been ongoing for three centuries and, cumulatively, the basin is the most productive coal region in the United States. In 2012, only the Powder River basin produced more coal than the Appalachian basin. Coal is the most important mined product within the basin, and research on the quality and quantity of the coal is one of the primary functions of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the State geological surveys of Alabama, Kentucky, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The USGS and the State geological surveys historically have worked together on coal research and assessment projects to achieve mutually beneficial science goals.

  5. Trace fossils in coal-bearing sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, J.E.

    1988-03-01

    In the past decade trace fossils have been recorded extensively from coal-bearing sediments, differing widely in facies, age and location. Westphalian or Stephanian 'coal-measures' in Britain, Europe and Eastern Canada contain an ichnofauna produced by invertebrates and/or vertebrates in upper delta plain sediments. This contrasts with the marine-related lower delta plain ichnofaunas known from Pennsylvanian rocks of the United States and Permian Gondwana 'coal-measures' of South Africa. Deltaic complexes of Middle Jurassic age in the North Sea basin and Upper Cretaceous age in North America contain marine trace fossils and dinosaur footprints in coastal coal- bearing facies. These case histories illustrate the importance of trace fossils both in facies analysis of coal-bearing sequences and in recording the presence of animals rarely known as body fossils in such clastic sediments. 80 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Engineering properties of coal measure rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thill, R.E.; Jessop, J.A.

    1982-04-01

    Engineering properties of rock are essential in most phases of mining from site reconaissance through mineral processing. Review of the literature indicates, however, that property data is scarce for most coal measure rocks in the United States. The Bureau of Mines has undertaken a wide-ranging testing program to provide more complete property data for coal strata in the U.S. coal basins. The property data are expected to have applications in geophysical exploration, development of premining and hazard detection probes and instrumentation, mine design, engineering and rock mass classification, subsidence engineering, and ground control. This paper describes the comprehensive program encompassing in situ geological, geophysical, and geotechnical properties and laboratory determinations of acoustic, electromagnetic, physical, mechanical, and index properties and discusses results for 500 feet of coal measures at a mine site in the northern Appalachian, eastern coal province.

  7. Colombia's coal exports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantillo, J.; McCloskey, G.

    2004-10-01

    Colombia's Coal Exports gives essential insight into the country's export prospects. It outlines the current structure of the industry and plots its likely development. It places Colombia's aspirations in a context of the Atlantic market and addresses the key questions facing the industry and its investors. The contents are: executive summary; introduction; Colombian economics and politics; coal reserves and mining operations; costs; current mines and mining companies; transportation infrastructure; market; and the future. 39 tabs., 2 maps.

  8. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Public design report (preliminary and final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This Public Design Report presents the design criteria of a DOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 (500 MW) near Rome, Georgia. The technologies being demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NO{sub x} burner. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NO{sub x} burners, advanced overfire systems, and digital control system.

  9. Applied coal petrology: the role of petrology in coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isabel Suarez-Ruiz; John Crelling [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    This book is an integrated approach towards the applications of coal (organic) petrology and discusses the role of this science in the field of coal and coal-related topics. Contents are: Introduction 2. Basic factors controlling coal quality and technological behaviour of coal 3. Mining and benefication 4. Coal combustion 5. Coal gasification 6. Coal liquefaction 7. Coal carbonisation 8. Coal-derived carbons 9. Coal as a Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock 10. Environmental and health aspects 11. Other applications of coal petrology.

  10. Japan`s sunshine project. 17.. 1992 annual summary of coal liquefaction and gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the achievement of coal liquefaction and gasification technology development in the Sunshine Project for FY 1992. It presents the research and development of coal liquefaction which includes studies on reaction mechanism of coal liquefaction and catalysts for coal liquefaction, the research and development of coal gasification technologies which includes studies on gasification characteristics of various coals and improvement of coal gasification efficiency, the development of bituminous coal liquefaction which includes engineering, construction and operation of a bituminous coal liquefaction pilot plant and research by a process supporting unit (PSU), the development of brown coal liquefaction which includes research on brown coal liquefaction with a pilot plant and development of techniques for upgrading coal oil from brown coal, the development of common base technologies which includes development of slurry letdown valves and study on upgrading technology of coal-derived distillates, the development of coal-based hydrogen production technology with a pilot plant, the development of technology for entrained flow coal gasification, the assessment of coal hydrogasification, and the international co-operation. 4 refs., 125 figs., 39 tabs.

  11. Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Stricker, Gary D.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2004-01-01

    Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines in these two provinces. Alaskan coal resources have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. The identified resources are near existing and planned infrastructure to promote development, transportation, and marketing of this low-sulfur coal. The relatively short distances to countries in the west Pacific Rim make them more exportable to these countries than to the lower 48 States of the United States. Another untapped but potential resource of large magnitude is coalbed methane, which has been estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters) by T.N. Smith 1995, Coalbed methane potential for Alaska and drilling results for the upper Cook Inlet Basin: Intergas, May 15 - 19, 1995, Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama, p. 1 - 21.

  12. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  13. Quarterly coal report, January--March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-20

    The United States produced 242 million short tons of coal in the first quarter of 1993, a decrease of 6 percent (14 million short tons) from the amount produced during the first quarter of 1992. The decrease was due to a decline in production east of the Mississippi River. All major coal-producing States in this region had lower coal production levels led by West Virginia, which produced 5 million short tons less coal. The principal reasons for the overall drop in coal output compared to a year earlier were: A decrease in demand for US coal in foreign markets; a slower rate of producer/distributor stock build-up; and a drawn-down of electric utility coal stocks. Distribution of US coal in the first quarter of 1993 was 10 million short tons lower than in the first quarter of 1992, with 5 million short tons less distributed to both electric utilities and overseas markets. The average price of coal delivered to electric utilities during the first quarter of 1993 was $28.65 per short ton, the lowest value since the first quarter of 1980. Coal consumption in the first quarter of 1993 was 230 million short tons, 4 percent higher than in the first quarter of 1992, due primarily to a 5-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Total consumer stocks, at 153 million short tons, and electric utility stocks, at 144 million short tons, were at their lowest quarterly level since the end of 1989. US. coal exports totaled 19 million short tons, 6 million short tons less than in the first quarter of 1992, and the lowest quarterly level since 1988. The decline was primarily due to a 1-million-short-ton drop in exports to each of the following destinations: Italy, France, Belgium and Luxembourg, and Canada.

  14. National coal resource assessment non-proprietary data: Location, stratigraphy, and coal quality for selected tertiary coal in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Ochs, A.M.; Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.S.; Roberts, S.B.; Keighin, C.W.; Murphy, E.C.; Cavaroc, V.V.; Johnson, R.C.; Wilde, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the objectives of the National Coal Resource Assessment in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region was to compile stratigraphic and coal quality-trace-element data on selected and potentially minable coal beds and zones of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene) and equivalent formations. In order to implement this objective, drill-hole information was compiled from hard-copy and digital files of the: (1) U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) offices in Casper, Rawlins, and Rock Springs, Wyoming, and in Billings, Montana, (2) State geological surveys of Montana, North Dakota, and Wyoming, (3) Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality in Cheyenne, (4) U.S. Office of Surface Mining in Denver, Colorado, (5) U.S. Geological Survey, National Coal Resource Data System (NCRDS) in Reston, Virginia, (6) U.S. Geological Survey coal publications, (7) university theses, and (8) mining companies.

  15. Simulation of heat and mass transfer processes in the experimental section of the air-condensing unit of Scientific Production Company "Turbocon"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemov, V. I.; Minko, K. B.; Yan'kov, G. G.; Kiryukhin, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    A mathematical model was developed to be used for numerical analysis of heat and mass transfer processes in the experimental section of the air condenser (ESAC) created in the Scientific Production Company (SPC) "Turbocon" and mounted on the territory of the All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute. The simulations were performed using the author's CFD code ANES. The verification of the models was carried out involving the experimental data obtained in the tests of ESAC. The operational capability of the proposed models to calculate the processes in steam-air mixture and cooling air and algorithms to take into account the maldistribution in the various rows of tube bundle was shown. Data on the influence of temperature and flow rate of the cooling air on the pressure in the upper header of ESAC, effective heat transfer coefficient, steam flow distribution by tube rows, and the dimensions of the ineffectively operating zones of tube bundle for two schemes of steam-air mixture flow (one-pass and two-pass ones) were presented. It was shown that the pressure behind the turbine (in the upper header) increases significantly at increase of the steam flow rate and reduction of the flow rate of cooling air and its temperature rise, and the maximum value of heat transfer coefficient is fully determined by the flow rate of cooling air. Furthermore, the steam flow rate corresponding to the maximum value of heat transfer coefficient substantially depends on the ambient temperature. The analysis of the effectiveness of the considered schemes of internal coolant flow was carried out, which showed that the two-pass scheme is more effective because it provides lower pressure in the upper header, despite the fact that its hydraulic resistance at fixed flow rate of steam-air mixture is considerably higher than at using the one-pass schema. This result is a consequence of the fact that, in the two-pass scheme, the condensation process involves the larger internal surface of tubes

  16. Study on coal mines accidents based on the grey relational analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuai; ZHANG Jin-long

    2008-01-01

    The subject investigated the system of people-machine-environment in coal mines. The coal mines working process was researched and the theory of grey system was applied to analyze coal mines safety accidents and those relevant factors. This re-search reveals that this analysis method is easy and highly available and the result is of great credibility, which can not only provide theoretical supports to the quantitative study of coal mines safety accident, but offer basis for coal mines companies' safety management.

  17. Coal resources of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Frank Darwyn

    1953-01-01

    The Indiana coal field forms the eastern edge of the eastern interior coal basin, which is near some of the most densely populated and highly productive manufacturing areas of the United States. (See fig. 1. ) For this reason Indiana coal reserves are an important State and National asset. In dollar value the coal mining industry is the largest of Indiana's natural-resource-producing industries. The total value of coil production for the year 1950 was more than 100 million dollars, or more than that of all other natural-resource industries in the State combined. As estimated herein, the original coal reserves of Indiana total 37,293 million tons, of which 27,320 million tons is contained in beds more than 42 inches thick; 7,632 million tons in beds 28 to 49. inches thick; and 2,341 million tons in beds 14 to 28 inches thick. The remaining reserves as of January 1951, total 35,806 million tons, of which 18,779 million tons is believed to be recoverable. The distribution of the reserves in these several categories is summarized by counties in table 1. Of the total original reserves of 37,293 million tons, 6,355 million tons can be classified as measured; 8,657 million tons as indicated; and 22,281 million tons as inferred. Strippable reserves constitute 3,524 million tons, or 9.5 percent of the total original reserves. The distribution of the strippable and nonstrippable original reserves is summarized in tables 2 and 3 by counties and by several categories, according to the thickness of the beds and the relative abundance and reliability of the information available for preparing the estimates. The distribution of the estimated 18,779 million tons of recoverable strippable and nonstrippable reserves in Indiana is further summarized by counties in table 4, and the information is presented graphically in figures 2 and 3. The tables i to 4 and figures 2 and 3 include beds in the 14- to 28-inch category, because thin beds have been mined in many places. However, many

  18. 600 MW燃煤空冷机组特殊材料的焊接工艺%Special material welding process of 600 MW coal-fired air cooling unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德云; 石南辉

    2013-01-01

    In order to of air cooling unit welding construction can have a better understanding, through their participation in the installation of the observation of shanxi mountain power plant phase ii 2×600 MW coal-fired empty cold engineering #3 unit project construction management experience was summarized, with emphasis on the special materials of the main parts of welding process (such as: SA335 - P91 joint of hot,WB36 steel welding,TP347H welding) were introduced,the hope can give similar unit installation construction and provide some reference,this project won the "2009 annual national excellent welding engineering award".%为更好地了解空冷机组焊接施工,通过对某发电厂二期2×600 MW燃煤空冷工程#3机组工程的施工管理经验进行总结,重点对特殊材料主要部件的焊接工艺(如:SA335-P91焊口的后热、WB36钢焊接、TP347H的焊接)加以介绍,希望能给类似机组的安装施工提供一些借鉴.

  19. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project: Public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (the Project), conceived in October of 1990 and selected by the US Department of Energy as a Clean Coal IV demonstration project in September 1991, is expected to begin commercial operations in August of 1995. The Participants, Destec Energy, Inc., (Destec) of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc., (PSI) of Plainfield, Indiana, formed the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (the JV) to participate in the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program by demonstrating the coal gasification repowering of an existing 1950`s vintage generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The Participants, acting through the JV, signed the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE in July 1992. The Participants jointly developed, and separately designed, constructed, own, and will operate an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant using Destec`s coal gasification technology to repower Unit {number_sign}1 at PSI`s Wabash River Generating Station located in Terre Haute, Indiana. PSI is responsible for the new power generation facilities and modification of the existing unit, while Destec is responsible for the coal gasification plant. The Project demonstrates integration of the pre-existing steam turbine generator, auxiliaries, and coal handling facilities with a new combustion turbine generator/heat recovery steam generator tandem and the coal gasification facilities.

  20. Water produced with coal-bed methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas produced from coal beds (coal-bed methane, CBM) accounts for about 7.5 percent of the total natural gas production in the United States. Along with this gas, water is also brought to the surface. The amount of water produced from most CBM wells is relatively high compared to conventional natural gas wells because coal beds contain many fractures and pores that can contain and transmit large volumes of water. In some areas, coal beds may function as regional or local aquifers and important sources for ground water. The water in coal beds contributes to pressure in the reservoir that keeps methane gas adsorbed to the surface of the coal. This water must be removed by pumping in order to lower the pressure in the reservoir and stimulate desorption of methane from the coal (fi g. 1). Over time, volumes of pumped water typically decrease and the production of gas increases as coal beds near the well bore are dewatered.

  1. Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Phase 3, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Energy International Corporation (El) was awarded a contract to evaluate a new concept for utilization of the fine coal wetcake produced by many of the physical beneficiation processes now under development. EI proposed development of a stabilized wetcake with properties that would facilitate storage, handling, transport, and subsequent conversion of the material into Coal-Water Fuel (CWF) at the point of use. The effort was performed in three phases. Phase I established the technical feasibility of stabilizing the fine coal ``wetcake`` in a form that can be readily handled and converted into a desired fuel form at the combustion site. The preferred form of stabilized ``wetcake`` was a granular free flowing material with the moisture encapsulated with the fine coal particles. The product was termed Mulled Coal. Phase I results indicated that the Mulled Coal was not only suitable as a CWF intermediate, but also had potential as a solid fuel. Phase II demonstrated the utilization of the Mulled Coal process to store and move fine coal products as a stable ``wetcake.`` Tasks in this phase tested components of the various systems required for storage, handling and combustion of the fine coals. Phase III expanded the technology by: 1. Evaluating Mulled Coal from representative coals from all producing regions in the US. 2. Development of bench-scale tests. 3. Design, construction, and operation of a 1 ton/hr continuous processing unit. 4. Evaluation of the effects of beneficiation. and 5. Developing an estimate of capital and operating costs for commercial units.

  2. Coal geology and assessment of coal resources and reserves in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the final results of the first assessment of both coal resources and reserves for all significant coal beds in the entire Powder River Basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. The basin covers about 19,500 square miles, exclusive of the part of the basin within the Crow and Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservations in Montana. The Powder River Basin, which contains the largest resources of low-sulfur, low-ash, subbituminous coal in the United States, is the single most important coal basin in the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey used a geology-based assessment methodology to estimate an original coal resource of about 1.16 trillion short tons for 47 coal beds in the Powder River Basin; in-place (remaining) resources are about 1.15 trillion short tons. This is the first time that all beds were mapped individually over the entire basin. A total of 162 billion short tons of recoverable coal resources (coal reserve base) are estimated at a 10:1 stripping ratio or less. An estimated 25 billion short tons of that coal reserve base met the definition of reserves, which are resources that can be economically produced at or below the current sales price at the time of the evaluation. The total underground coal resource in coal beds 10–20 feet thick is estimated at 304 billion short tons.

  3. Quality assessment of occupational health and safety management at the level of business units making up the organizational structure of a coal mine: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korban, Zygmunt

    2015-01-01

    The audit of the health and safety management system is understood as a form and tool of controlling. The objective of the audit is to define whether the undertaken measures and the obtained results are in conformity with the predicted assumptions or plans, whether the agreed decisions have been implemented and whether they are suitable in view of the accepted health and safety policy. This paper presents the results of an audit examination carried out on the system of health and safety management between 2002 and 2012 on a group of respondents, the employees of two mining departments (G-1 and G-2) of Jan, a coal mine. The audit was carried out using the questionnaire developed by the author based on the MERIT-APBK survey.

  4. Colombian coal focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warden-Fernandez, J.; Rodriguez, L.E. [University of Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-01

    The paper reviews the development of Colombia's coal industry over recent years. Colombia has recently modernised its mining code, Law 685 of 2001 concerning mineral rights and including the concept of sustainable development. The article discusses the legislation, analyses trends in Columbia's income from the coal and mineral industries (nickel, gold, emerald), and briefly discusses coal reserves, mining projects, coal exports and markets for Colombian coal. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Coal markets in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romer, R.

    1990-01-01

    Describes Colorado's coal industry, and the implementation of a nine point mining plan announced in 1988. This plan includes an environmental regulatory review, coal royalty reform, production and marketing incentives, clean coal and clean air issues, and promotion of the coal industry. Other issues to be addressed are abandoned mine reclamation, abandoned mine safety and land reclamation after surface mining. International markets for Colorado coal are also discussed.

  6. Coal combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Coal-burning powerplants, which supply more than half of U.S. electricity, also generate coal combustion products, which can be both a resource and a disposal problem. The U.S. Geological Survey collaborates with the American Coal Ash Association in preparing its annual report on coal combustion products. This Fact Sheet answers questions about present and potential uses of coal combustion products.

  7. CoalCorp annual report 1990/1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A report of performance of the CoalCorp during 1990/91 is given by the Chairman and the Directors and Chief Executive's review discusses the New Zealand market for coal, the export market, the company's involvement with the community, privatization, industrial relations and the environmental issues facing the company. Financial statements for the year ended 31 March 1991 are included. After tax profit of 8.9M dollars was less than in 1989/90. The company was affected by the recession, the deferral of energy use decisions and the government's decision to dedicate Maui gas to electricity generation. The sale of CoalCorp awaits resolution of legal issues arising from a claim by the Tianui Maori Trust Board.

  8. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Coal data: A reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  10. 77 FR 65419 - Virginia Electric and Power Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... and Power Company AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Partial Director's Decision; issuance... Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (North Anna 1 and 2), by the Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO or... August 23, 2011, Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee) should be required to obtain...

  11. 77 FR 24357 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...-002-AD; Amendment 39-17030; AD 2012-08-13] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company... new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain The Boeing Company Model 777-200 and -300 series... Boeing Company and United Airlines both support the NPRM (76 FR 68366, November 4, 2011). Request...

  12. 17 CFR 270.35d-1 - Investment company names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment company names. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.35d-1 Investment company names. (a... words “United States” or “U.S. government.” (2) Names suggesting investment in certain investments...

  13. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  14. Report on the 1997 Coal Engineer Training Program General Course Training; 1997 nendo sekitan gijutsusha yosei jigyo ippan course kenshu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The paper reported training in the fiscal 1997 coal engineer training course. The training was made in a period from June 9 to November 12 in terms of actual training, English training, joint seminar, visits to the related facilities in Japan, overseas training, etc. for 10 engineers from mining companies, oil companies and electric power companies. In the actual training, the following lectures were given at International Resource University in Akita prefecture: coal exploration technology, coal situation of Australia, physical/chemical characteristics of coal and the application, coal preparation technology, coal situation in India, coal situation in the U.S., trend of general coal demand, coal situation in China, coal mining technology, actual surface mining technology, coal situation in Canada, commercial English, trend of raw coal demand, coal geology, environmental protection technology related to coal utilization, etc. Overseas training, which was divided into an Australia group and a Canada/America group, was conducted for about a month. Training in Indonesia was canceled because of a large scale forest fire which broke out immediately before the start. 88 figs., 52 tabs.

  15. Global electricity company profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Global Electricity Company Profiles examines the operations and strategies of 60 of the leading electricity companies in the world. Through its analysis of the key players, the report provides a comprehensive review of the current state of the global electricity industry. Using electricity sales as its criteria, the most successful companies are compared in terms of their national, regional and global importance. Global Electricity Company Profiles provides an outline of each company, its structure and operations, as well as key financial data. The detailed performance benchmarking and review of expectations for future development for each individual company provide a wealth of invaluable strategic information not available elsewhere. (author)

  16. Company activities - central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayling, G.

    2007-06-15

    The first section of the article gives an overview of exploration and new developments in the field of gold, nickel, diamond and opal mining in central Queensland. The second part looks at coal, coal seam gas and petroleum exploration and development projects in the area. 1 fig.

  17. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes China's coal industry by focusing on four related areas. First, data are reviewed to identify the major drivers of historical and future coal demand. Second, resource constraints and transport bottlenecks are analyzed to evaluate demand and growth scenarios. The third area assesses the physical requirements of substituting coal demand growth with other primary energy forms. Finally, the study examines the carbon- and environmental implications of China's past and future coal consumption. There are three sections that address these areas by identifying particular characteristics of China's coal industry, quantifying factors driving demand, and analyzing supply scenarios: (1) reviews the range of Chinese and international estimates of remaining coal reserves and resources as well as key characteristics of China's coal industry including historical production, resource requirements, and prices; (2) quantifies the largest drivers of coal usage to produce a bottom-up reference projection of 2025 coal demand; and (3) analyzes coal supply constraints, substitution options, and environmental externalities. Finally, the last section presents conclusions on the role of coal in China's ongoing energy and economic development. China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. In 2007 Chinese coal production contained more energy than total Middle Eastern oil production. The rapid growth of coal demand after 2001 created supply strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about sustainability. Urbanization, heavy industrial growth, and increasing per-capita income are the primary interrelated drivers of rising coal usage. In 2007, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement production accounted for 66% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units would save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand for the power sector. A new wedge of

  18. The status of utah coal in global resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbani, F. R.

    1998-12-01

    Coal resources have had a historical effect on the development of Utah and a far-reaching influence in the western expansion of the United States. Although Utah’s production is just more than two percent of the total national production, the resource quality is higher than most other coal fields in the United States. Coal production surpassed 25 million tons in 1995 and has increased in recent years. In this article, the specific properties of Utah’s various coal fields are discussed in terms of marketability, mining difficulty, and transport to markets. The broad spectrum of Utah’s coal production—past, present, and potential future growth—is reviewed through distribution and coal usage data spanning a ten-year period.

  19. Economic effects of western Federal land-use restrictions on U.S. coal markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William Downing; Medlin, A.L.; Krohn, K.K.; Brookshire, D.S.; Bernknopf, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Current regulations on land use in the Western United States affect access to surface minable coal resources. This U.S. Geological Survey study analyzes the long-term effects of Federal land-use restrictions on the national cost of meeting future coal demands. The analysis covers 45 years. The U.S. Bureau of Land Management has determined the environmental, aesthetic, and economic values of western Federal coal lands and has set aside certain areas from surface coal mining to protect other valued land uses, including agricultural, environmental, and aesthetic uses. Although there are benefits to preserving natural areas and to developing areas for other land uses, these restrictions produce long-term national and regional costs that have not been estimated previously. The Dynamic Coal Allocation Model integrates coal supply (coal resource tonnage and coal quality by mining cost for 60 coal supply regions) with coal demand (in 243 regions) for the entire United States. The model makes it possible to evaluate the regional economic impacts of coal supply restrictions wherever they might occur in the national coal market. The main factors that the economic methodology considers are (1) coal mining costs, (2) coal transportation costs, (3) coal flue gas desulfurization costs, (4) coal demand, (5) regulations to control sulfur dioxide discharges, and (6) specific reductions in coal availability occurring as a result of land-use restrictions. The modeling system combines these economic factors with coal deposit quantity and quality information--which is derived from the U.S. Geological Survey's National Coal Resources Data System and the U.S. Department of Energy's Demonstrated Reserve Base--to determine a balance between supply and demand so that coal is delivered at minimum cost.

  20. Analysis of the danger zone liable to spontaneous ignition around coal roadway at fully mechanized long-wall top-coal caving face

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓军; 徐通模; 徐精彩

    2002-01-01

    The intensity of heat output of coal, the rate of oxygen consumption and the influence function of coal size are tested by the big coal spontaneous combustion experiment unit. The independence of the coefficient of heat convection is studied. And based on the conservation principle of energy and the real conditions, such as coal temperature,air temperature, the geometry size of roadway, air flux, the oxygen concentration in the loose coal around the roadway, the threshold parameters resulting coal spontaneous combustion are put forward, and the index determining the danger zone liable to self-ignite are evaluated. Finally, the method determining the danger zone liable to spontaneous ignition around coal roadway at fully mechanized long wall top-coal caving face is put forward. Based on the determination method and real conditions in the roadway, the coal around roadway can be divided four zones.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF AN ON-LINE COAL WASHABILITY ANALYZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Miller

    1999-09-30

    Washability analysis is the basis for nearly all coal preparation plant separations. Unfortunately, there are no on-line techniques for determining this most fundamental of all coal cleaning information. In light of recent successes at the University of Utah, it now appears possible to determine coal washability on-line through the use of x-ray computed tomography (CT) analysis. The successful development of such a device is critical to the establishment of process control and automated coal blending systems. In this regard, Virginia Tech, Terra Tek Inc., and several eastern coal companies have joined with the University of Utah and agreed to undertake the development of a x-ray CT-based on-line coal washability analyzer with financial assistance from DOE. The three-year project will cost $594,571, of which 33% ($194,575) will be cost-shared by the participants. The project involves development of appropriate software and extensive testing/evaluation of well-characterized coal samples from operating coal preparation plants. Each project participant brings special expertise to the project which is expected to create a new dimension in coal cleaning technology. Finally, it should be noted that the analyzer may prove to be a universal analyzer capable of providing not only washability analysis, but also particle size distribution analysis, ash analysis and perhaps pyritic sulfur analysis.

  2. Economic assessment of coal-burning locomotives: Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    The General Electric Company embarked upon a study to evaluate various alternatives for the design and manufacture a coal fired locomotive considering various prime movers, but retaining the electric drive transmission. The initial study was supported by the Burlington-Northern and Norfolk-Southern railroads, and included the following alternatives: coal fired diesel locomotive; direct fired gas turbine locomotives; direct fired gas turbine locomotive with steam injection; raw coal gasifier gas turbine locomotive; and raw coal fluid bed steam turbine locomotive. All alternatives use the electric drive transmission and were selected for final evaluation. The first three would use a coal water slurry as a fuel, which must be produced by new processing plants. Therefore, use of a slurry would require a significant plant capital investment. The last two would use classified run-of-the-mine (ROM) coal with much less capital expenditure. Coal fueling stations would be required but are significantly lower in capital cost than a coal slurry plant. For any coal fired locomotive to be commercially viable, it must pass the following criteria: be technically feasible and environmentally acceptable; meet railroads' financial expectations; and offer an attractive return to the locomotive manufacturer. These three criteria are reviewed in the report.

  3. Coal mines around Accrington and Blackburn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadin, J.

    1999-12-01

    A companion to an earlier book on 'The coal-mines of East Lancashire', this volume covers coal mining in the townships of Church, Accrington, Oswaldthistle, Baxenden, Blackburn and Lower and Over Darmen, which are to the west. After a short history of the mining companies George Hargreaves & Co., and Simpson & Young, the book gives short historical accounts of all known coalmines, arranged in alphabetical order. It gives copious accounts of accidents and injuries in the pits, to both men and young children. The text and plates give an interesting insight into an area where coal mining goes back at least to the 15th century. Large scale extraction began at the turn of the 19th century. Many articles are reproduced from the local newspapers. An index of personnel names mentioned is included. 19 refs., 30 figs., 23 plates.

  4. Fluidized bed coal combustion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed coal reactor includes a combination nozzle-injector ash-removal unit formed by a grid of closely spaced open channels, each containing a worm screw conveyor, which function as continuous ash removal troughs. A pressurized air-coal mixture is introduced below the unit and is injected through the elongated nozzles formed by the spaces between the channels. The ash build-up in the troughs protects the worm screw conveyors as does the cooling action of the injected mixture. The ash layer and the pressure from the injectors support a fluidized flame combustion zone above the grid which heats water in boiler tubes disposed within and/or above the combustion zone and/or within the walls of the reactor.

  5. Integration between solar energy collection system and 600 MW coal-fired unit and its performance analysis%太阳能集热系统与600MW燃煤机组集成及性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于鑫玮; 陈海平

    2013-01-01

    为了避免工质两相流带来传热效果的恶化和流体分层现象,提出了抛物面槽式太阳能集热器与600 MW燃煤机组热力系统集成的优化设计.以呼和浩特地区为例,针对600 MW机组最优集成方案的研究结果表明,取代2段抽汽方案为最优,其太阳能热电转换率达35.85%,全年可节约标煤12 494.09t,减排二氧化碳29 610.99t,投资回收期为12.5a.%In order to overcome the deterioration of heat transfer caused by two-phase flow and avoid flow separation,a design of integration between parabolic trough solar energy collector and 600 MW coal-fired power plant thermodynamic system was put forward and optimized.An optimal integration scheme for 600 MW unit is achieved and discussed in Hohhot area.Results show that the scheme,in which the second stage extraction steam is replaced by solar energy,can save 12494.09 t standard coal equivalent with 29610.99 t carbon emission reduction a year,thermoelectric conversion rate up to 35.85%,and investment payback period only 12.5 years.

  6. Cost Analysis on the Project of 1 O00-MW Class Coal-Fired Generating Units%1 000 MW级燃煤机组工程造价分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建焕

    2012-01-01

    燃煤电站工程造价是投资决策的重要依据之一,也是决定项目是否可行及主管部门进行项目审批的重要内容.对目前正在建设和已经投产的几个1 000 MW级燃煤电站工程造价数据进行了指标计算和分析归纳,将1 000 MW级超超临界燃煤机组造价水平按统一的静态投资基准期,采用类比的方法进行分析研究,通过各项费用的变动情况,分析建设性质、技术方案和厂址条件对工程造价的影响.%The cost of coal-fired generating projects is one of the vital bases for investment decisions. Meanwhile, it is also a decisive reference for the management departments to evaluate the feasibility of project during the approval process. By taking advantage of the data from several 1 000-MW class coal-fired generating projects (some are still under construction while some are already put into operation) the index calculation and analytical induction are performed. The cost of several 1 000-MW class ultra-supercriticai units in static investment period is studied with analogy. The impacts of construction properties, technical plans and site conditions on engineering cost are analyzed considering the variances of each single item cost.

  7. The need for a global robotic response to coal mine rescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault, Sean

    2011-02-15

    The author writes about the the lack of effective robotic response specifically designed for mine rescue which would improve worker safety and diminish the risk of international embarrassment by governments and industry. An international consortium is needed in which the major coal mining countries and companies contribute to the development, deployment and maintenance of a global robotic coal mine rescue system. This robotic system should be designed to allow transportation, deployment and maintenance of a global robotic coal mine rescue, the author writes.

  8. Recovery bituminous coal fines: a discussion on the production of coal-water slurry fuels and its relationship to fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.L.; Scaroni, A.W.; Battista, J.J. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The recovery of bituminous coal fines from slurry impoundments and fine coal cleaning circuits has received considerable attention over the last decade from both coal suppliers and coal-fired utilities. Several coal-fired utilities are presently determining whether a low-solids, low viscosity coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) produced from fine coal can be co-fired with their normal coal feedstock in order to lower their fuel cost and reduce their NO{sub x} emissions. One of the most visible CWSF demonstration programs in the United States is being conducted by GPU Generating, Inc. (GPU Genco). GPU Genco has conducted intermittent demonstration co-fire testing at their 218 MWe-Seward Station since 1993. These tests successfully demonstrate that a low-solids CWSF can be co-fired with pulverized coal in wall-and tangentially-fired boilers. The majority of the CWSF tested at Seward has been prepared from impounded coal fines cleaned via froth flotation and, on a more limited basis, a CWSF prepared from coal fines concentrated from a screen-bowl centrifuge effluent. The production of alow-solids CWSF from wet, fine coal provides an alternative to dewatering. This paper summarizes several fine coal recovery and utilization programs conducted by Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) and GPU Genco during the last five years. These programs range from performing bench-to-pilot-scale cleanability and pilot-scale combustion testing to full-scale utility demonstration tests. All of these successful programs have a common thread of integrating and addressing the issues of fine coal characterization, cleaning handling, and the combustion performance of the CWSF. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Fiscal 2000 coal engineer training program. Report on research study of general training course; 2000 nendo sekitan gijutsusha yosei jigyo. Ippan kosu kenshu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-22

    In connection with fiscal 2000 coal engineer training program, a research study of the general course was implemented with eight participants for the period from June 12 to November 22. In the field training, lectures were given at International Resources University by speakers from related companies, universities and laboratories, on such subjects as coal geology, coal mining technology, coal probing technology, marine cargo transportation, analysis, coal utilization technology, environmental preservation technology, overseas coal mine development project, and foreign coal situations. Also, in the seminar, on-the-spot training was conducted at such places as Taiheiyo Tanko Kushiro mining station, Nippon Kokan KK Keihin ironworks, Electric Power Development Co., Isogo thermal power station, Idemitsu Kosan Co., coal laboratory, MITI Agency of Natural Resources and Energy. In the overseas training, research study in China was carried out during the period from July 2 to July 7 while research study in the U.S./Canada and Australia/Indonesia were conducted separately by two groups through 35 day trip from Oct 7 to November 10. The major places for visit were energy-related organizations, coal mining companies, railway companies, coal handling harbors, coal thermal power stations, coal analysis companies, etc.. (NEDO)

  10. Role of the Liquids From Coal process in the world energy picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, J.P.; Knottnerus, B.A. [ENCOAL Corp., Gillette, WY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly owned indirect subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company, has essentially completed the demonstration phase of a 1,000 Tons per day (TPD) Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) plant near Gillette, Wyoming. The plant has been in operation for 4{1/2} years and has delivered 15 unit trains of Process Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}), the low-sulfur, high-Btu solid product to five major utilities. Recent test burns have indicated the PDF{trademark} can offer the following benefits to utility customers: lower sulfur emissions, lower NO{sub x} emissions, lower utilized fuel costs to power plants, and long term stable fuel supply. More than three million gallons of Coal Derived Liquid (CDL{trademark}) have also been delivered to seven industrial fuel users and one steel mill blast furnace. Additionally, laboratory characteristics of CDL{trademark} and process development efforts have indicated that CDL{trademark} can be readily upgraded into higher value chemical feedstocks and transportation fuels. Commercialization of the LFC{trademark} is also progressing. Permit work for a large scale commercial ENCOAL{reg_sign} plant in Wyoming is now underway and domestic and international commercialization activity is in progress by TEK-KOL, a general partnership between SGI International and a Zeigler subsidiary. This paper covers the historical background of the project, describes the LFC{trademark} process and describes the worldwide outlook for commercialization.

  11. Valuating the Investment Efficiency of Distribution Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karajica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of this study is to valuate the investment efficiency of distribution companies. Although a series of publications and studies has been dedicated to this topic, it is difficult to find a general consensus in defining the investment efficiency of a company. Nevertheless if we simplify an imaginary  company as a production unit in which a series of actions transforms inputs to outputs, efficiency can be understood as like an effort to achieve maximum value of the outputs together with minimum usage of inputs, where the inputs constitute investments by a company. The investment efficiency of a company can be measured by expressing the absolute values of selected inputs and outputs, a relative expression of inputs and outputs, and perhaps an expression of the difference between them. However, an examination of the efficiency of a certain company is impossible without a valuation of other companies. In view of the amount of benchmarking, it should be emphasized, that this study is dedicated to a certain category of benchmarking, which we may term investment benchmarking. This benchmarking can be defined as a comparison of companies in terms investment efficiency. The purpose of this comparison is not only to investigate levels of investment efficiency and to relate them to other companies from the same branch, but also to locate the greatest efficiency and indicate potential improvement. 

  12. 75 FR 44978 - Notice of Availability of the Wright Area Coal Final Environmental Impact Statement That Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... is as follows: North and South Hilight Field Tracts On October 7, 2005, Ark Land Company applied for.... West Hilight Field Tract On January 17, 2006, Ark Land Company applied for Federal coal reserves in a... applications after it reviewed the tracts that were applied for by Ark Land Company and Jacobs Ranch...

  13. North American Free Trade: another challenge to coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, R.L. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States). College of Earth and Mineral Economics)

    1993-01-01

    Since trade in coal between the United States and Canada was never restricted and since the prospects for US-Mexican coal trade are small, any effects of NAFTA will be indirect. Changes in gas and electricity trade might arise. The uncertainties are such that even the direction of the indirect impacts is unclear. Thus, it would be folly to predict the magnitudes. NAFTA then may prove the smallest of many disruptive influences acting on coal markets. 27 refs., 6 tabs.

  14. 300 MW机组磨煤机总风门优化控制的应用研究%Research on the Application of Optimization Control in Total Air Damper of Coal Pulverizers in 300 MW Power Generation Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜烈伟

    2013-01-01

    通过分析总风门控制回路及其执行机构的现场环境,找到了造成韶关电厂300 MW机组磨煤机总风门故障的原因.针对故障原因,提出了解决气缸内活塞在全开位置不固定的方案.该方案重新设计了控制原理图,完善了行程开关检测方式.实际运行证明,该方案能够满足机组负荷需求,保证了锅炉安全运行,达到了节能降耗的目的.%Through analyzing the site environment of the control loop and its actuator, the causes of the malfunctions of the total air damper of coal pulverizers in 300 MW power generating unit of Shaoguan power plant are found. In accordance with the causes of malfunctions, the strategy for solving the problem of unfixed fully open position of piston in air cylinder is proposed. The control principle of the strategy has been redesigned, the detection pattern of the travel switch is improved. The practical operation verifies that the correctness of the design scheme meets the load demand of the unit, ensures the safety operation of boiler, and reaches the goal of energy conservation.

  15. Environmental support to the clean coal technology program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Work during this period focused on the preparation for DOE`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of a final Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) Project in Warren, Pennsylvania. Proposed by the Pennsylvania Electric Company (Penelec) and selected by DOE in the fifth solicitation of the CCT Program, the project would be sited at one of the two units at Penelec`s Warren Station. The EFCC Project proposes to replace two existing boilers with a new {open_quotes}power island{close_quotes} consisting of a staged coal combustor, slag screen, heat exchanger, an indirectly fired gas turbine, and a heat recovery steam generator. Subsequently, Unit 2 would operate in combined-cycle mode using the new gas turbine and the existing steam turbine simultaneously. The gas turbine would generate 25 megawatts of electricity so that Unit 2 output would increase from the existing 48 megawatts generated by the steam turbine to a total of 73 megawatts. Operation of a conventional flue gas desulfurization dry scrubber as part of the EFCC technology is expected to decrease SO{sub 2} emissions by 90% per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated, and NO{sub x} emissions are anticipated to be 60% less per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated because of the staged combustor. Because the EFCC technology would be more efficient, less carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) would be emitted to the atmosphere per kilowatt-hour of electricity produced.

  16. Coal gasification and occupational health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; McKay, W J; Evans, J M

    1978-12-01

    Identification and prevention of health effects due to occupational exposures in coal gasification processes requires a basic knowledge of the technological process by which gasification proceeds. This paper presents an overview of the technology and a rational approach to health hazard identification based upon the concept of the unit operation specific micro environment. A final section is devoted to summarizing current research efforts being carried out under the aegis of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

  17. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  18. German coal industry faces truth and consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson-Smith, N.

    1997-01-01

    The last two years have been ones of momentous change for the German hard coal industry. Up to the end of 1995, the industry operated within the context of politically-based sales regulations. But with a substantial reduction in subsidies after the introduction of the Article Act from January 1, 1996. German hard coal now is in direct competition with imported coal in the power generation sector. The full world market price and dollar exchange rate risks are borne by the mining companies. In an already tight economic environment, the mining companies must now adjust to the new conditions while Germany`s port sector prepares to handle the resulting increase in coal imports. Such increases will be a welcome relief for the ports, however, since most are struggling with decreases in primary bulk traffics with little prospect of a swift upturn. The situation at ports in Hamburg, on the River Weser, at Rostock and in Duisburg is described, together with port development plans. 3 figs.

  19. Energy Information Administration quarterly coal report, October--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-21

    The United States produced just over 1 billion short tons of coal in 1992, 0.4 percent more than in 1991. Most of the 4-million-short-ton increase in coal production occurred west of the Mississippi River, where a record level of 408 million short tons of coal was produced. The amount of coal received by domestic consumers in 1992 totaled 887 million short tons. This was 7 million short tons more than in 1991, primarily due to increased coal demand from electric utilities. The average price of delivered coal to each sector declined by about 2 percent. Coal consumption in 1992 was 893 million short tons, only 1 percent higher than in 1991, due primarily to a 1-percent increase in consumption at electric utility plants. Consumer coal stocks at the end of 1992 were 163 million short tons, a decrease of 3 percent from the level at the end of 1991, and the lowest year-end level since 1989. US coal exports fell 6 percent from the 1991 level to 103 million short tons in 1992. Less coal was exported to markets in Europe, Asia, and South America, but coal exports to Canada increased 4 million short tons.

  20. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Encoal project final report, July 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This document is the summative report on the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. It covers the time period from September 17, 1990, the approval date of the Cooperative Agreement between ENCOAL and the US Department of Energy (DOE), to July 17, 1997, the formal end of DOE participation in the Project. The Cooperative Agreement was the result of an application by ENCOAL to the DOE soliciting joint funding under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program. By June 1992, the ENCOAL Plant had been built, commissioned and started up, and in October 1994, ENCOAL was granted a two-year extension, carrying the project through to September 17, 1996. No-cost extensions have moved the Cooperative Agreement end date to July 17, 1997 to allow for completion of final reporting requirements. At its inception, ENCOAL was a subsidiary of Shell Mining Company. In November 1992, Shell Mining Company changed ownership, becoming a subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company (Zeigler) of Fairview Heights, Illinois. Renamed successively as SMC Mining Company and then Bluegrass Coal Development Company, it remained the parent entity for ENCOAL, which has operated a 1,000-ton/day mild coal gasification demonstration plant near Gillette, Wyoming for nearly 5 years. ENCOAL operates at the Buckskin Mine owned by Triton Coal Company (Triton), another Zeigler subsidiary.

  1. 基于完全成本的矿产资源定价机制改革——以国投新集公司的煤炭资源为例%The Reform of Mineral Resource Pricing Mechanism Based on the Full Cost :A Case Study of SDIC XINJI Company 's Coal Resource

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾先峰; 李印

    2015-01-01

    The reform of pricing mechanism of mineral resources is essential for the transformation of development mode ,and to build a resource-saving society .This article argues that the full cost (including the cost of production ,the cost of capital ,the user cost and the external environmental cost ) should be taken as a benchmark for the theoretical price of mineral resources .Taking SDIC XINJI Company as an example , this paper calculates the theoretical price of the company 's coal resources .T he study found that the theoretical price and the actual market price exists three distortions including depletion costs ,environmental external costs and the cost of capital .The key to improve the pricing mechanism of mineral resources lies in reforming the recourse tax system in accordance with the fully internalize the external costs ,and improving ecological compensation mechanism with mining enterprises as the main body as soon as possible .%完善的矿产资源定价机制对于促进发展方式转变 ,构建节约型社会至关重要.文章认为 ,矿产资源的理论价格应该以其完全成本(包括生产成本、资本成本、使用者成本和环境外部成本)为基准 ,并以国投新集公司为例核算了该公司2011年煤炭资源的理论价格.研究发现 ,理论价格与实际市场价格存在耗竭成本、环境外部成本与资本成本三方面扭曲 ,而改革和完善矿产资源定价机制的关键是按照完全内部化两个外部成本的要求改革资源税费制度 ,并尽快完善矿区以矿业企业为主体的生态补偿机制.

  2. Profile - Wyee Colliery Minesite Teaching Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Wyee Colliery Minesite Teaching Unit, established by Professor Jim Galvin, has provided students of the University of New South Wales (UNSW) with the opportunity to gain hands-on experience in an operating coal mine since its launch in late 1995. The colliery is a modern underground coal mine operated by Pacific Coal`s subsidiary Powercoal, using longwall, bord and pillar first working and pillar first working and pillar excavation. Students study a range of coal mining subjects covering mining operations, ventilation, mine design, transport etc. The source on `Methods of mining coal deposits`, covering surface and underground operations, has been modulised and presented using the self-directed learning approach.

  3. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  4. CO2 Sequestration Potential of Texas Low-Rank Coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duane A. McVay; Walter B. Ayers Jr; Jerry L. Jensen

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate the feasibility of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration in Texas low-rank coals and to determine the potential for enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) recovery as an added benefit of sequestration. The main objectives for this reporting period were to further characterize the three areas selected as potential test sites, to begin assessing regional attributes of natural coal fractures (cleats), which control coalbed permeability, and to interview laboratories for coal sample testing. An additional objective was to initiate discussions with an operating company that has interests in Texas coalbed gas production and CO{sub 2} sequestration potential, to determine their interest in participation and cost sharing in this project. Well-log data are critical for defining depth, thickness, number, and grouping of coal seams at the proposed sequestration sites. Therefore, we purchased 15 well logs from a commercial source to make coal-occurrence maps and cross sections. Log suites included gamma ray (GR), self potential (SP), resistivity, sonic, and density curves. Other properties of the coals in the selected areas were collected from published literature. To assess cleat properties and describe coal characteristics, we made field trips to a Jackson coal outcrop and visited Wilcox coal exposures at the Sandow surface mine. Coal samples at the Sandow mine were collected for CO{sub 2} and methane sorption analyses. We contacted several laboratories that specialize in analyzing coals and selected a laboratory, submitting the Sandow Wilcox coals for analysis. To address the issue of cost sharing, we had fruitful initial discussions with a petroleum corporation in Houston. We reviewed the objectives and status of this project, discussed data that they have already collected, and explored the potential for cooperative data acquisition and exchange in the future. We are pursuing a cooperative agreement with them.

  5. Coal Combustion Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

  6. RELACIÓN ENTRE EL CLIMA ORGANIZACIONAL Y EL SÍNDROME DE BURNOUT EN EMPLEADOS DE UNA FIRMA DE VIGILANCIA EN UNA EMPRESA CARBONERA DE LA GUAJIRA (COLOMBIA - RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AND EMPLOYEE BURNOUT SYNDROME OF A SURVEILLANCE FIRM IN A COAL COMPANY OF GUAJIRA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA MILENA MORENO CÁRDENAS

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work raised, as a principal objective, describe the relation between Organizational Climate and Burnout Syndrome in Security Guards in a Colombian Coal Company. The type of research used was primarily transversal and non-experimental. The sample consistedof 393 persons; of this group, only two incompletely filled out the two questionnaires, so that the figure fell to 391 valid subjects. This research found that there is no evident BS and the OC is generally good within the organization studied. From this you can assert that positive OC may therefore be effective in preventing the onset of BS within the organization, as is suggested in other studies.ResumenEl presente trabajo planteó, como objetivo principal, describir la relación existente entre el Clima Organizacional (CO y el Síndrome de Burnout (SB en guardias de seguridad de una empresa colombiana productora de carbón. El tipo de investigación utilizado fue no experimental, de tipo transversal y la muestra estuvo conformada por 393 sujetos. De este grupo, solo dos individuos diligenciaron de manera incompleta los dos cuestionarios, por lo que la cifra válida se redujo a 391 personas. La presente investigación halló que no existe SB y el CO es bueno en la organización objeto del estudio. Estos resultados sugieren que un buen CO podría ser un factor protector para la aparición del SB en la organización, tal como lo sugieren otros estudios.

  7. Characterization and Recovery of Rare Earths from Coal and By-Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granite, Evan J. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Roth, Elliot [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Alvin, Mary Anne [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-03-25

    Coal is a precious resource, both in the United States and around the world. The United States has a 250-year supply of coal, and generates between 30 - 40% of its electricity through coal combustion. Approximately 1 Gt of coal has been mined annually in the US, although the 2015 total will likely be closer to 900 Mt (http://www.eia.gov/coal/production/quarterly/). Most of the coal is burned for power generation, but substantial quantities are also employed in the manufacture of steel, chemicals, and activated carbons. Coal has a positive impact upon many industries, including mining, power, rail transportation, manufacturing, chemical, steel, activated carbon, and fuels. Everything that is in the earth’s crust is also present within coal to some extent, and the challenge is always to utilize abundant domestic coal in clean and environmentally friendly manners. In the case of the rare earths, these valuable and extraordinarily useful elements are present within the abundant coal and coal by-products produced domestically and world-wide. These materials include the coals, as well as the combustion by-products such as ashes, coal preparation wastes, gasification slags, and mining by-products. All of these materials can be viewed as potential sources of rare earth elements. Most of the common inorganic lanthanide compounds, such as the phosphates found in coal, have very high melting, boiling, and thermal decomposition temperatures, allowing them to concentrate in combustion and gasification by-products. Furthermore, rare earths have been found in interesting concentrations in the strata above and below certain coal seams. Much of the recent research on coal utilization in the United States has focused upon the capture of pollutants such as acid gases, particulates, and mercury, and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide. The possible recovery of rare earth and other critical elements from abundant coal and by-products is an exciting new research area, representing a

  8. MERGER ACCOUTING FOR COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Companies, especially nowadays, are characterized through great mobility, fast circulation of capital, occurring in their chase for profit. In this context, companies look for alliances, economical and political assistance. These objectives can materialize through merging of companies. The merger can be internal (between Romanian companies or transboundary, which includes foreign companies. In order to correctly reflect these events, the merger operations must be regulated and must respect national and international regulations. One important request concerning the merger operations is that the accounting values of the assets, debts and ownership equity must be brought to the present financial value.

  9. Meeting processing challenges in clean coal utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Patwardhan, A.; Barnwal, J.P. [Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Resources Engineering

    2003-02-01

    The paper identifies some of the major challenges facing processing for clean coal utilization today. Some of the ongoing research at Southern Illinois University in the areas of plant optimization, fine coal cleaning and dewatering, fine coal-water slurry combustion, development of multiple products and mine-mouth utilization for lower grade products, and co-management of coal processing wastes and coal combustion byproducts underground, or as a cover material suitable for vegetation in surface mine reclamation is approaching commercialization. Additional research has been initiated recently in low cost desulfurization for SOx reduction, and/or reducing scrubbing costs. An integrated approach to evaluating processing unit operation for enhancing overall profitability of a mining complex is paying dividends. The approach is a good tool to assess role of processing for clean coal utilization in any setting. The authors have attempted to demonstrate its use for Indian coals. They plan to develop a computer program for making this integrated assessment approach more user friendly. 33 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. US coal reserves: A review and update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is the third in series of ``U.S. Coal Reserves`` reports. As part of the Administration of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) program to provide information on coal, it presents detailed estimates of domestic coal reserves, which are basic to the analysis and forecasting of future coal supply. It also describes the data, methods, and assumptions used to develop such estimates and explain terminology related to recent data programs. In addition, the report provides technical documentation for specific revisions and adjustments to the demonstrated reserve base (DRB) of coal in the United States and for coal quality and reserve allocations. It makes the resulting data available for general use by the public. This report includes data on recoverable coal reserves located at active mines and on the estimated distribution of rank and sulfur content in those reserves. An analysis of the projected demand and depletion in recoverable reserves at active mines is used to evaluate the areas and magnitude of anticipated investment in new mining capacity.

  11. CO2 Emission Factors for Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Orlović-Leko

    2015-03-01

    (calcite and siderite directly contribute CO2 when they decompose during coal combustion. Variations in the maceral content can also influence CO2 emissions; high inertinite contents increase CO2 emissions. Sulphur in coal reduces EF(CO2. Fuel analysis is very important when estimating greenhouse gas emissions and emission factors. In this preliminary study, based on the results of the fuel analysis, CO2 emission factors for coals and peat from Livno, B&H have been calculated. EF(CO2 is defined as the amount of carbon dioxide emission per unit net calorific values of the fuel. Net calorific value (the lower heating value corresponds to the heat produced by combustion where total water in the combustion products exists as water vapour. The EF(CO2 obtained for sub-bituminous coal, lignite and peat were: 98.7, 109.5, and 147.9 t TJ−1, respectively, which correspond to the following net calorific values: 20.6, 11.5 and 3.6 MJ kg−1. The heating value is generally known to increase with the increase in carbon content (this parameter is connected with the degree of coalification, coal age. The other indispensable parameters are hydrogen, which has a positive effect on the net calorific value, and oxygen and water which impact the net calorific value negatively. The differences in net calorific values can be explained in part by the difference of total moisture content among the different fuel types. The CO2 emission factors calculated in this study were compared with those of IPCC. A significant difference was observed for peat (39.5 %, followed by lignite (8.2 % and sub-bituminous coal (4.3 %.

  12. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the

  13. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-03-15

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall

  14. East Kootenay coal projects : agitation by Montana against East Kootenay development and the U.S. Federal Court decision extending liability to Teck Cominco in Trail, B.C.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podowski, D. [Fasken Martineau duMoulin LLP, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Higgins, C.; Derksen, A. [Fasken Martineau duMoulin LLP, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    The growing interest in coal exploration and development in southeastern British Columbia can be attributed to the favourable price outlooks for metallurgical coal and coalbed methane (CBM). The East Kootenay contains 3 coalfields, namely the Crowsnest, Elk Valley and Flathead, which combined contain over 50 billion tonnes of coal and 19 trillion cubic feet of CBM resource. Cline Mining is in the pre-application phase of the development of a metallurgical coal mine, and BP Energy Canada plans to begin exploration of a $3 billion CBM project in the Crowsnest Coal field. However, future development may be affected by the breakdown of negotiations between Montana and British Columbia regarding a joint environmental framework for the Flathead River ecosystem, an area in southern East Kootenay that spans both Montana and British Columbia. Development may also be affected by a United States statute known as Pakootas v. Teck Cominco Metals, in which the United States Environmental Protection Agency had ordered Teck Cominco to carry out a remediation feasibility study on slag discharged from a Canadian smelter up the Columbia River that had leached heavy metals in U.S. waters. This article described the political pressure that coal and CBM companies will face from the various forces organized against Flathead development. Although Montana does not have any legal means by which it can stop coal and CBM projects in British Columbia on a case-by-case basis, Montana could request that the State Department refer a question to the International Joint Committee, which could lead to a report of recommendations. Such a report could act as a catalyst to various project opponents. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  15. East Kootenay coal projects : agitation by Montana against East Kootenay development and the U.S. Federal Court decision extending liability to Teck Cominco in Trail, B.C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podowski, D. [Fasken Martineau duMoulin LLP, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Higgins, C.; Derksen, A. [Fasken Martineau duMoulin LLP, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2007-09-15

    The growing interest in coal exploration and development in southeastern British Columbia can be attributed to the favourable price outlooks for metallurgical coal and coalbed methane (CBM). The East Kootenay contains 3 coalfields, namely the Crowsnest, Elk Valley and Flathead, which combined contain over 50 billion tonnes of coal and 19 trillion cubic feet of CBM resource. Cline Mining is in the pre-application phase of the development of a metallurgical coal mine, and BP Energy Canada plans to begin exploration of a $3 billion CBM project in the Crowsnest Coal field. However, future development may be affected by the breakdown of negotiations between Montana and British Columbia regarding a joint environmental framework for the Flathead River ecosystem, an area in southern East Kootenay that spans both Montana and British Columbia. Development may also be affected by a United States statute known as Pakootas v. Teck Cominco Metals, in which the United States Environmental Protection Agency had ordered Teck Cominco to carry out a remediation feasibility study on slag discharged from a Canadian smelter up the Columbia River that had leached heavy metals in U.S. waters. This article described the political pressure that coal and CBM companies will face from the various forces organized against Flathead development. Although Montana does not have any legal means by which it can stop coal and CBM projects in British Columbia on a case-by-case basis, Montana could request that the State Department refer a question to the International Joint Committee, which could lead to a report of recommendations. Such a report could act as a catalyst to various project opponents. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Coal fires in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHE Yao(车遥); HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); ZHANG Ai-yun(张爱云)

    2004-01-01

    Coal fires have a very long history in China; the oldest coal fires have being burning for many million years. Up to now more than 56 coal fires spots were distinguished. They mainly locate in West-North of China, North of China and East-North of China. About millions of tons of coal have been burned in fires every year. Xinjiang Autonomy is the most serious region in coal fires as it has 38 coal fires spots and about 6.85 million tons of coal was burned every year. Coal fires in China ignited by wildfires, spontaneous combustion and human being during mining activities. These fires have released about 0.9 million tons of gasses (including CO, CO2, SO2, NO2 CH4, CO2, H2S etc.) into the atmosphere every year, most of which are brought to the east by wind and resulting more heavier air pollution in northern China.

  17. Continuous coal processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryason, P. R.

    1980-06-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  18. Nitrogen in Chinese coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Lei, J.; Zheng, B.; Tang, X.; Wang, M.; Hu, Jiawen; Li, S.; Wang, B.; Finkelman, R.B.

    2011-01-01

    Three hundred and six coal samples were taken from main coal mines of twenty-six provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China, according to the resource distribution and coal-forming periods as well as the coal ranks and coal yields. Nitrogen was determined by using the Kjeldahl method at U. S. Geological Survey (USGS), which exhibit a normal frequency distribution. The nitrogen contents of over 90% Chinese coal vary from 0.52% to 1.41% and the average nitrogen content is recommended to be 0.98%. Nitrogen in coal exists primarily in organic form. There is a slight positive relationship between nitrogen content and coal ranking. ?? 2011 Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis is a lung disease that results ...

  20. Fluidized coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, P. I.; Young, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Fluidized-bed coal combustion process, in which pulverized coal and limestone are burned in presence of forced air, may lead to efficient, reliable boilers with low sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions.

  1. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  2. Chemicals from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold A. Wittcoff; Bryan G. Reuben; Jeffrey S. Plotkin

    2004-12-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Chemicals from Coke Oven Distillate; The Fischer-Tropsch Reaction; Coal Hydrogenation; Substitute Natural Gas (SNG); Synthesis Gas Technology; Calcium Carbide; Coal and the Environment; and Notes and References

  3. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  4. Survey of electric utility demand for coal. [1972-1992; by utility and state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asbury, J.G.; Caruso, J.V.; Kouvalis, A.; Maslowski, C.S.

    1979-08-01

    This report presents the results of a survey of electric utility demand for coal in the United States. The sources of survey information are: (1) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Form 423 data on utility coal purchases during the period July 1972 through December 1978 and (2) direct telephone survey data on utility coal-purchase intentions for power plants to be constructed by 1992. Price and quantity data for coal used in existing plants are presented to illustrate price and market-share trends in individual coal-consuming states during recent years. Coal source, quality, quantity, and transportation data are reported for existing and planned generating plants.

  5. 78 FR 2424 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the United... competitive sale by sealed bid, in accordance with the Federal regulations for competitive lease sale...

  6. Coal Extraction - Environmental Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, C. Blaine; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Coal from the Appalachian region has supplied energy to the Nation for more than 200 years. Appalachian coal fueled America through a civil war and helped win two world wars. Appalachian coal has also provided fuel for keeping America warm in the winter and cool in the summer and has served as the basis for the steel, automobile, organic chemicals, chlorine, and aluminum industries. These benefits have not come without environmental costs, however. Coal extraction and utilization have had significant environmental impacts.

  7. Need for Clean Coal Mining in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribas Goswami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining contributes largely towards economic development of the nation although it has a great impact on the human health. It also has an impact on a socio-cultural aspect of workers and people residing in and around coal mining areas. Thus a holistic approach to taking up with mining activities, keeping in mind the concerns over adjoining habitats and ecosystem, is the need of the hour. This requires identification of various sites where minerals exist, of various factors ranging from an appropriate angle of the slope of overburden dumps to safe disposal drains, of safe techniques to various silt control structures etc. In India, coal companies are now working towards “clean coal” strategies which aim to reduce environmental impacts. The reduced ash contents of the washed coal increase thermal efficiency of combustion which, in turn, makes a direct impact on reducing emissions of pollutants. However, the coal washing requires extra water and it can turn towards a pollution free society.

  8. Coal conversion. 1978 technical report. [US DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    The United States has more energy available in coal than in petroleum, natural gas, oil shale, and tar sands combined. Nationwide energy shortages, together with the availability of abundant coal reserves, make commercial production of synthetic fuels from coal vital to the Nation's total supply of clean energy. In response to this need, the Division of Fossil Fuel Processing - US Department of Energy is conducting a research, development and demonstration program to provide technology that will permit rapid commercialization of processes for converting coal into products that substitute for those derived from oil and natural gas. These substitute fuels include crude oil, fuel oil and distillates; chemical feedstocks; pipeline quality and fuel gas; and other products such as char that may be useful in energy production.

  9. IT ENABLED KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT IN MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P.THAPLIYAL

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a high dependence on IT for knowledge sharing in multinationals and the expectations from IT is high. The risk to fall into the trap of investments for expensive IT solutions is very high for multinational companies. Multinational companies possess dispersed knowledge all around the world and it is important to recognize that most of the part of this knowledge is tacit. Therefore even though IT facilitate the knowledge management and sharing between different units of multinational companies, it is crucial to develop other means to share the tacit part of the knowledge base.

  10. Considerations on coal gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  11. Prediction of coal hydrophobicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuschagne, B.C.J. [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). Div. of Energy Technology; Wheelock, T.D.; Guo, R.K.; David, H.T. [Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames, IA (United States); Markuszewski, R. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1988-12-31

    Many coals exhibit a certain degree of native hydrophobicity. The more hydrophobic coals (the higher-rank coals) are easily beneficiated by froth flotation or oil agglomeration, while the more hydrophilic coals (the lower-rank coals) are floated or agglomerated with difficulty. Coals of different ranks and often even of the same rank sometimes differ greatly in hydrophobicity as measured by contact angle or natural floatability. Although the degree of hydrophobicity of a coal is related to its rank and has been correlated with other surface properties of the coal , the known information is still not sufficient to allow a good estimation to be made of the hydrophobicity of a given coal and does not explain the variation of coal hydrophobicity as a function of rank. A statistical analysis of previously published data, as well as newly acquired data, shows that coal hydrophobicity correlates better with moisture content than with carbon content, and better with the moisture/carbon molar ratio than with the hydrogen/carbon or oxygen/carbon atomic ratios. These findings indicate that there is a strong association between hydrophobicity and coal moisture content.

  12. Coal production 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  13. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 14. Gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the fourteen volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Kemmerer subbituminous coal, from August 11, 1984 to August 15, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  14. UNDERGROUNG PLACEMENT OF COAL PROCESSING WASTE AND COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS BASED PASTE BACKFILL FOR ENHANCED MINING ECONOMICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Biswas; D. Deb

    2002-06-01

    height is adequate to minimize surface deformations. Freeman United Coal Company performed engineering economic evaluation studies for commercialization. They found that the costs for underground management at the Crown III mine would be slightly higher than surface management at this time. The developed technologies have commercial potential but each site must be analyzed on its merit. The Company maintains significant interest in commercializing the technology.

  15. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is

  16. Outlook and Challenges for Chinese Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Fridley, David G.; Zheng, Nina

    2008-06-20

    China has been, is, and will continue to be a coal-powered economy. The rapid growth of coal demand since 2001 has created deepening strains and bottlenecks that raise questions about supply security. Although China's coal is 'plentiful,' published academic and policy analyses indicate that peak production will likely occur between 2016 and 2029. Given the current economic growth trajectory, domestic production constraints will lead to a coal gap that is not likely to be filled with imports. Urbanization, heavy industry growth, and increasing per-capita consumption are the primary drivers of rising coal usage. In 2006, the power sector, iron and steel, and cement accounted for 71% of coal consumption. Power generation is becoming more efficient, but even extensive roll-out of the highest efficiency units could save only 14% of projected 2025 coal demand. If China follows Japan, steel production would peak by 2015; cement is likely to follow a similar trajectory. A fourth wedge of future coal consumption is likely to come from the burgeoning coal-liquefaction and chemicals industries. New demand from coal-to-liquids and coal-to-chemicals may add 450 million tonnes of coal demand by 2025. Efficient growth among these drivers indicates that China's annual coal demand will reach 4.2 to 4.7 billion tonnes by 2025. Central government support for nuclear and renewable energy has not been able to reduce China's growing dependence on coal for primary energy. Few substitution options exist: offsetting one year of recent coal demand growth would require over 107 billion cubic meters of natural gas, 48 GW of nuclear, or 86 GW of hydropower capacity. While these alternatives will continue to grow, the scale of development using existing technologies will be insufficient to substitute significant coal demand before 2025. The central role of heavy industry in GDP growth and the difficulty of substituting other fuels suggest that coal consumption is

  17. Utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning based on GIS-based optimization method : study case at PT Adaro coal mine in South Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Anis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coal mining activities may cause a series of environmental and socio-economic issues in communities around the mining area. Mining can become an obstacle to environmental sustainability and a major hidden danger to the security of the local ecology. Therefore, the coal mining industry should follow some specific principles and factors in achieving sustainable development. These factors include geological conditions, land use, mining technology, environmental sustainability policies and government regulations, socio-economic factors, as well as sustainability optimization for post-mining land use. Resources of the remains of the coal which is defined as the last remaining condition of the resources and reserves of coal when the coal companies have already completed the life of the mine or the expiration of the licensing contract (in accordance with government permission. This research uses approch of knowledge-driven GIS based methods mainly Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Fuzzy logic for utilizing coal remaining resources and post-mining land use planning. The mining area selected for this study belongs to a PKP2B (Work Agreement for Coal Mining company named Adaro Indonesia (PT Adaro. The result shows that geologically the existing formation is dominated by Coal Bearing Formation (Warukin Formation which allows the presence of remains coal resource potential after the lifetime of mine, and the suitability of rubber plantation for the optimization of land use in all mining sites and also in some disposal places in conservation areas and protected forests.

  18. Open Source Telecommunication Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Liu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about companies whose core business is selling telecommunications products that lever open source projects. Open source telecommunications (OST companies operate in markets that are very different from typical software product markets. The telecommunications market is regulated, vertically integrated, and proprietary designs and special chips are widely used. For a telecommunications product to be useful, it must interact with both access network products and core network products. Due to specifications in Service Agreements Levels, penalties for failures of telecommunications products are very high. This article shares information that is not widely known, including a list of OST companies and the open source projects on which they depend, the size and diversity of venture capital investment in OST companies, the nature of the commercial product-open source software and company-project relationships, ways in which OST companies make money, benefits and risks of OST companies, and competition between OST companies. Analysis of this information provides insights into the ways in which companies can build business models around open source software. These findings will be of interest to entrepreneurs, top management teams of incumbent companies that sell telecommunications products, and those who care about Ontario's ability to compete globally.

  19. ENEL's strategy for clean coal utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrighi, Leonardo [ENEL Generation and Energy Management Division, Rome (Italy). Thermal Plant Development and Assistance Technical Area; Pasini, Sauro [ENEL Engineering and Innovation Division, Pisa (Italy). Research Technical Area

    2009-07-01

    Enel is targeting an increase of coal-fired capacity in order to balance the mix of fuel for electricity production. Replacement of old coal- and oil-fired units by new coal-fired ones, more efficient and environmentally friendlier, is the main approach. The launch of several prototype projects in the field of CO{sub 2} separation, oxy-combustion, hydrogen electricity production and the partnership in advanced projects (VGB COMTES700 and EPRI IGCC P66) complete the strategy to reduce greenhouse gases emissions associated with coal combustion. (orig.)

  20. Assessing U.S. coal resources and reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Brian N.

    2017-09-27

    The U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Energy Resources Program, conducts systematic, geology-based, regional assessments of significant coal beds in major coal basins in the United States. These assessments detail the quantity, quality, location, and economic potential of the Nation’s remaining coal resources and reserves and provide objective scientific information that assists in the formulation of energy strategies, environmental policies, land-use management practices, and economic projections.

  1. Dynamic Game Analysis of Coal Electricity Market Involving Multi-Interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiaobao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coal consumption of China reached 2.75 billion tons of standard coal in 2013, which accounted for 67.5% of total energy consumption and more than 50% of global coal consumption. Therefore, the impact of coal price is huge on coal market and even energy market in China. As a large consumer of coal, thermal power enterprise has a strong sensitivity to coal price. In order to balance the rising cost of enterprises due to coal price, we need to analyze the interests of multiple stakeholders. Firstly, this paper combined the Nash equilibrium and cobweb model and proposed the characteristics in different cobweb model. Then, for coal, power, and energy companies, the dynamic game analysis model is constructed. This model gives a game analysis in four scenarios and quantifies the decision of each stakeholder in different coal prices. Finally, the impact figure of different coal prices on each stakeholder has been drawn. The impacts of different coal or thermal power prices on different markets have been put forward, so relevant policy recommendations have been proposed combined with the cobweb model.

  2. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  3. Coal geology of the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox Group) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson Group) in east-central Texas; field trip guidebook for the Society for Organic Petrology, Twelfth Annual Meeting, The Woodlands, Texas, August 30, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Peter D.; Crowley, Sharon S.

    1995-01-01

    The Jackson and Wilcox Groups of eastern Texas (fig. 1) are the major lignite producing intervals in the Gulf Region. Within these groups, the major lignite-producing formations are the Paleocene-Eocene Calvert Bluff Formation (Wilcox) and the Eocene Manning Formation (Jackson). According to the Keystone Coal Industry Manual (Maclean Hunter Publishing Company, 1994), the Gulf Coast basin produces about 57 million short tons of lignite annually. The state of Texas ranks number 6 in coal production in the United States. Most of the lignite is used for electric power generation in mine-mouth power plant facilities. In recent years, particular interest has been given to lignite quality and the distribution and concentration of about a dozen trace elements that have been identified as potential hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. As pointed out by Oman and Finkelman (1994), Gulf Coast lignite deposits have elevated concentrations of many of the HAPs elements (Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Se, U) on a as-received gm/mmBtu basis when compared to other United States coal deposits used for fuel in thermo-electric power plants. Although regulations have not yet been established for acceptable emissions of the HAPs elements during coal burning, considerable research effort has been given to the characterization of these elements in coal feed stocks. The general purpose of the present field trip and of the accompanying collection of papers is to investigate how various aspects of east Texas lignite geology might collectively influence the quality of the lignite fuel. We hope that this collection of papers will help future researchers understand the complex, multifaceted interrelations of coal geology, petrology, palynology and coal quality, and that this introduction to the geology of the lignite deposits of east Texas might serve as a stimulus for new ideas to be applied to other coal basins in the U.S. and abroad.

  4. Underground Coal Gasification - Experience of ONGC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is expected to be game changer for nation like ours that requires large amounts of energy but have few natural resources other than coal. ONGC, being an integrated energy company and due to synergy between E & P operations and UCG, envisaged opportunities in UCG business. Its first campaign on UCG started in 1980s. With its initiative, a National Committee for UCG was constituted with representatives from Ministry of Petroleum, Dept. of Coal, CSIR, CMPDIL, State of Gujarat and ONGC for experimenting a pilot. It was decided in mid-1986 to carry out a UCG pilot in Sobhasan area of Mehsana district which was to be funded by OIDB. Two information wells were drilled to generate geological, geophysical, geo-hydrological data and core/coal samples. 3-D seismic survey data of Mehsana area was processed and interpreted and geological model was prepared. Basic designing of pilot project, drilling and completion, strategy of process wells and designing of surface facilities were carried out. The project could not be pursued further due to escalation in cost and contractual difficulty with design consultant. ONGC second UCG campaign commenced with signing of an agreement of collaboration (AOC) with Skochinsky Institute of Mining (SIM), Russia on 25th November 2004 for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). In parallel, MOUs were signed with major coal and power companies, namely, Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd (GIPCL), Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (GMDC), Coal India Ltd (CIL), Singareni Colliery Company Ltd (SCCL) and NLC India Ltd. Under the AOC, suitability study was carried out for different sites belonging to MOU companies. Only Vastan mine block, Nani Naroli, Surat, Gujarat was found to be suitable for UCG. Therefore, subsequent stages of detailed characterization & pilot layout, detailed engineering design were taken up for Vastan site. After enormous efforts for quite long since 2006, in the absence of UCG policy

  5. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Hugo Caram

    2006-03-01

    U.S. low rank coals contain relatively large amounts of moisture, with the moisture content of subbituminous coals typically ranging from 15 to 30 percent and that for lignites from 25 and 40 percent. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit, for it can result in fuel handling problems and it affects heat rate, stack emissions and maintenance costs. Theoretical analyses and coal test burns performed at a lignite fired power plant show that by reducing the fuel moisture, it is possible to improve boiler performance and unit heat rate, reduce emissions and reduce water consumption by the evaporative cooling tower. The economic viability of the approach and the actual impact of the drying system on water consumption, unit heat rate and stack emissions will depend critically on the design and operating conditions of the drying system. The present project evaluated the low temperature drying of high moisture coals using power plant waste heat to provide the energy required for drying. Coal drying studies were performed in a laboratory scale fluidized bed dryer to gather data and develop models on drying kinetics. In addition, analyses were carried out to determine the relative costs and performance impacts (in terms of heat rate, cooling tower water consumption and emissions) of drying along with the development of optimized drying system designs and recommended operating conditions.

  6. The economics of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Global aspects of the production, consumption and trade in coal are described. World reserves and resources, production (both by region and country), international trade (exporters and importers), coal consumption (by region and sector), and the demand for primary energy (1960-1979). Each of the producing and consuming countries are discussed individually. The electricity sector and its future demand for coal, and the future demand for coking coal are covered. Prices for metallurgical and steam coal are also given. Statistics are presented in tables.

  7. Radionuclides in US coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  8. The status of Utah coal in global resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahanbani, F.R. [Department of Natural Resources State Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Coal resources have had an historical effect on the development of Utah and has influenced the western expansion of the United States. Although Utah`s production is just over two percent of the total national production, the resource quality is higher than most other coal fields in the country. Coal production surpassed 25 million tons in 1995 and has increased in recent years. This paper discusses the specific properties of Utah`s various coal fields in terms of marketability, mining difficulty, and transport to markets. The broad spectrum of Utah`s coal production (past, present, and potential future growth) is reviewed through distribution and coal usage data spanning a ten-year period.

  9. Survey of environmental-control technologies for industrial coal use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, W.H.; Hollis, J.R.; Opalanko, R.S.

    1978-12-01

    This report presents the results of a screening study done by Mittelhauser Corporation for Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of the study is to examine current and possible future constraints on the use of coal and coal-derived fuels in industry. Current environmental regulations pertaining to industrial fuel usage are listed and summarized. A Technology-Applications Matrix (TAM), which correlates generic types of industrial fuel-burning equipment with potential fuels, is a key element in this report. The study has led to several conclusions. Current environmental constraints may reduce significantly the attractiveness of coal-derived solid fuels. Coal-derived medium-Btu gases and methanol are unlikely to be economically competitive with natural gas, fuel oil, or other coal-derived synthetic fuels by 1985. It is unlikely that National Energy Act provisions, which force conversion of industrial facilities to coal-use, will be effective in changing the industrial fuel-use pattern in the United States in the near future. The most attractive application of coal technology in the industrial sector appears to be direct use of high-sulfur coal with post-combustion pollution control. It is recommended that this alternative be examined, along with the use of atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal-oil mixtures, solvent-refined coal liquids, and high-Btu synthetic gas.

  10. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The status of 18 coal gasification pilot plants or supporting projects supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract number, funding, gasification process, history, process description, flowsheet and progress in the July-September 1979 quarter. (LTN)

  11. A novel model for cost performance evaluation of pulverized coal injected into blast furnace based on effective calorific value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐润生; 张建良; 左海滨; 李克江; 宋腾飞; 邵久刚

    2015-01-01

    The combustion process of pulverized coal injected into blast furnace involves a lot of physical and chemical reactions. Based on the combustion behaviors of pulverized coal, the conception of coal effective calorific value representing the actual thermal energy provided for blast furnace was proposed. A cost performance evaluation model of coal injection was built up for the optimal selection of various kinds of coal based on effective calorific value. The model contains two indicators: coal effective calorific value which has eight sub-indicators and coal injection cost which includes four sub-indicators. In addition, the calculation principle and application of cost performance evaluation model in a Chinese large-scale iron and steel company were comprehensively introduced. The evaluation results finally confirm that this novel model is of great significance to the optimal selection of blast furnace pulverized coal.

  12. Monitoring coal mine induced residual land subsidence using SBAS and PSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzovic, M.; Ghulam, A.

    2013-12-01

    Underground coal mining can cause damage to both property and the environment as a result of mining-induced land subsidence. Illinois, a major coal producer in the United States, is particularly susceptible to mining-induced land subsidence because it has large reserves of underground coal. Identifying and monitoring mining-induced land subsidence is important in order to assist in subsidence planning, minimizing damage to the environment, and prevent damage to structures. Since 1983, coal mining companies are responsible for preventing or correcting damage caused by mining-induced land subsidence. During active mining, land subsidence is monitored using traditional surveying methods, but this monitoring ends after active mining has stopped. In addition, mining-induced land subsidence can continue for decades after the completion of active mining. Traditional surveying methods are time consuming and expensive; therefore, a low-cost method of monitoring land subsidence is of great interest. Satellite based synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) provides a way to remotely measure land subsidence at low-cost, and with multitemporal methods of processing satellite data it reduces problems with standard InSAR and becomes a valuable tool to monitor mining-induced land subsidence. Permanent scatterer interferometry (PSI; Ferretti, et al., 2000, 2001) is a proven method that uses temporally coherent objects, such as buildings and rock outcrops, to improve the accuracy of land displacement measurements. PSI works well in urban areas because of the abundance of buildings, but it is less useful in rural areas. Small baseline subset (SBAS; Berardino, et al., 2002) interferometry uses multiple differential interferograms with small satellite baselines to improve spatial correlation. Both of these methods were used to measure land subsidence from 1992 to 2009 in Springfield, Illinois. Springfield presents a challenge because of the large surrounding rural areas. By

  13. Coal; Le charbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F. [TotalFinaElf, La Defense, 92 - Courbevoie (France)

    2001-12-15

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  14. The CIS coal summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The presentations (overhead/viewgraphs) include: the impacts of EU environmental legislation on Russian coal market (A. Sankovski); how Caterpillar and Cat dealers create value in the global mining industry (D. Mohr); new coal preparation technology and application in the Russian coal market (D. Morris); UK demand outlook and import growth (G. Parker); new technologies in blasting operations and services (J. Petzold and others); a global bank's view of the coal sector (M. Seleznev); ELGA coal deposit, Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia (M. Tsikanov); Russia's economic outlook (P. Forrest); Renaissance Capital (investment bank) (R. Edwards); Russian coal for Korean gencos (S. Kim); and coking coal in Ukraine (V. Khilko).

  15. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Commercial plant feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    In order to determine the viability of any Liquids from Coal (LFC) commercial venture, TEK-KOL and its partner, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), have put together a technical and economic feasibility study for a commercial-size LFC Plant located at Zeigler Coal Holding Company`s North Rochelle Mine site. This resulting document, the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Plant: Commercial Plant Feasibility Study, includes basic plant design, capital estimates, market assessment for coproducts, operating cost assessments, and overall financial evaluation for a generic Powder River Basin based plant. This document and format closely resembles a typical Phase II study as assembled by the TEK-KOL Partnership to evaluate potential sites for LFC commercial facilities around the world.

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  17. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  18. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  20. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward Levy

    2005-10-01

    Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits

  1. TRW Advanced Slagging Coal Combustor Utility Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    The TRW Advanced Slagging Coal Combustor Demonstration Project consists of retrofitting Orange and Rockland (O R) Utility Corporation's Lovett Plant Unit No. 3 with four (4) slagging combustors which will allow the gas/ou desip unit to fire 2.5 sulfur coal. The slogging combustor process will provide NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emissions that meet NSPS and New York State Envirommental Standards. TRW-CBU scope of work includes the engineering, design and supply of the slogging combustors, coal and limestone feed systems and a control system for these components. During this report period, the design activities for all systems progressed to permit the release of specifications and requests for proposals. Award of contracts for long-delivery items and major equipment are being placed to meet the revised program schedule.

  2. COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced �cars�) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993�1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High

  3. Experimental simulation and numerical analysis of coal spontaneous combustion process at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文虎; 徐精彩; 葛岭梅

    2001-01-01

    The characteristic of coal spontaneous, combustion includes oxidative property and exothermic capacity. It can really simulate the process of coal spontaneous combustion to use the large-scale experimental unit loading coal ! 000 kg. According to the field change of gas concentration and coal temperature determined through experiment of coal self-ignite at low temperature stage, and on the basis of hydromechanics and heat-transfer theory, some parameters can be calculated at different low temperature stage, such as, oxygen consumption rate, heat liberation intensity. It offers a theoretic criterion for quantitatively analyzing characteristic of coal self-ignite and forecasting coal spontaneous combustion. According to coal exothermic capability and its thermal storage surroundings, thermal equilibrium is applied to deduce the computational method of limit parameter of coal self-ignite. It offers a quantitative theoretic criterion for coal self-ignite forecasting and preventing. According to the measurement and test of spontaneous combustion of Haibei coal, some token parameter of Haibei coal,spontaneous combustion is quantitatively analyzed, such as, spontaneous combustion period of coal, critical temperature, oxygen consumption rate, heat liberation intensity, and limit parameter of coal self-ignite.

  4. Experimental simulation and numerical analysis of coal spontaneous combustion process at low temperature*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Hu; XU Jing-cai; GE Ling-mei

    2001-01-01

    The characteristic of coal spontaneous combustion includes oxidative p roperty and exothermic capacity. It can really simulate the process of coal spon taneous combustion to use the large-scale experimental unit loading coal 1 000 kg. According to the field change of gas concentration and coal temperature determi ned through experiment of coal self-ignite at low temperature stage, and on the basis of hydromechanics and heat-transfer theory, some parameters can be calcul at ed at different low temperature stage, such as, oxygen consumption rate, heat li beration intensity. It offers a theoretic criterion for quantitatively analyzing characteristic of coal self-ignite and forecasting coal spontaneous combustion . According to coal exothermic capability and its thermal storage surroundings, t hermal equilibrium is applied to deduce the computational method of limit parame ter of coal self-ignite. It offers a quantitative theoretic criterion for coal s elf-ignite forecasting and preventing. According to the measurement and test of spontaneous combustion of Haibei coal, some token parameter of Haibei coal spont aneous combustion is quantitatively analyzed, such as, spontaneous combustion pe riod of coal, critical temperature, oxygen consumption rate, heat liberation int ensity, and limit parameter of coal self-ignite.

  5. Coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The United States has more energy available in coal than in petroleum, natural gas, oil shale, and tar sands combined. Nationwide energy shortages, together with the availability of abundant coal reserves, make commercial production of synthetic fuels from coal vital to the Nation's total supply of clean energy. In response to this need, the Office of Fossil Energy of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) is conducting a research and development program to provide technology that will permit rapid commercialization of processes for converting coal to synthetic liquid and gaseous fuels and for improved direct combustion of coal. These fuels must be storable and suitable for power generation, transportation, and residential and industrial uses. ERDA's program for the conversion of coal to liquid fuels was begun by two of ERDA's predecessor agencies: Office of Coal Research (OCR) in 1962, and Bureau of Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, in the 1930's. Current work in coal liquefaction is aimed at improved process configurations for both catalytic and non-catalytic processes to provide more attractive processing economics and lower capital investment. Coal liquefaction can now be achieved under more moderate processing conditions and more rapidly than was the case in the 1930's. The advantage of coal liquefaction is that the entire range of liquid products, including heavy boiler fuel, distillate fuel oil, gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel oil, can be produced from coal by varying the type of process and operating conditions used in the process. Furthermore, coal-derived liquid fuels also have the potential for use as chemical feedstocks. To determine the most efficient means of utilizing coal resources, ERDA is sponsoring the development of several conversion processes that are currently in the pilot plant stage. Nineteen projects under development are described and progress for each in the quarter is detailed briefly

  6. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08

    on CCW disposal practices and State regulatory requirements at landfills and surface impoundments that were permitted, built, or laterally expanded between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2004. The scope of the study excluded waste units that manage CCWs in active or abandoned coal mines. The EPA identified the following three areas of interest: (1) Recent and current CCW industry surface disposal management practices, (2) State regulatory requirements for CCW management, and (3) Implementation of State requirements (i.e., the extent to which States grant or deny operator requests to waive or vary regulatory requirements and the rationales for doing so). DOE and the EPA obtained data on recent and current disposal practices from a questionnaire that the Utility Solid Waste Activities Group (USWAG) distributed to its members that own or operate coal-fired power plants. USWAG, formed in 1978, is responsible for addressing solid and hazardous waste issues on behalf of the utility industry. It is an informal consortium of approximately 80 utility operating companies, the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the American Gas Association (AGA). EEI is the principal national association of investor-owned electric power and light companies. NRECA is the national association of rural electric cooperatives. APPA is the national association of publicly owned electric utilities. AGA is the national association of natural gas utilities. Together, USWAG member companies and trade associations represent more than 85% of the total electric generating capacity of the United States and service more than 95% of the nation's consumers of electricity. To verify the survey findings, the EPA also asked State regulators from nine selected States that are leading consumers of coal for electricity generation for information on disposal units that may not have been covered in the

  7. Coal-based 50 kt/a Vinyl Acetate Project Is To Be Constructed in Bashan, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The largest in western Yunnan Chemical projects -the 200 kt/a calcium carbide project and the 50 kt/a vinyl acetate project- will be officially constructed in Baoshan city by the Yunwei Company under Yunnan Coal Chemical Group.

  8. Baseload coal investment decisions under uncertain carbon legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergerson, Joule A; Lave, Lester B

    2007-05-15

    More than 50% of electricity in the U.S. is generated by coal. The U.S. has large coal resources, the cheapest fuel in most areas. Coal fired power plants are likely to continue to provide much of U.S. electricity. However, the type of power plant that should be built is unclear. Technology can reduce pollutant discharges and capture and sequester the CO2 from coal-fired generation. The U.S. Energy Policy Act of 2005 provides incentives for large scale commercial deployment of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems (e.g., loan guarantees and project tax credits). This analysis examines whether a new coal plant should be Pulverized Coal (PC) or IGCC. Do stricter emissions standards (PM, SO2, NOx, Hg) justify the higher costs of IGCC over PC? How does potential future carbon legislation affect the decision to add carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology? Finally, can the impact of uncertain carbon legislation be minimized? We find that SO2, NOx, PM, and Hg emission standards would have to be far more stringent than twice current standards to justify the increased costs of the IGCC system. A C02 tax less than $29/ton would lead companies to continuing to choose PC, paying the tax for emitted CO2. The earlier a decision-maker believes the carbon tax will be imposed and the higher the tax, the more likely companies will choose IGCC w/CCS. Having government announce the date and level of a carbon tax would promote more sensible decisions, but government would have to use a tax or subsidy to induce companies to choose the technology that is best for society.

  9. Coal consumption and economic growth revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane [135 Carnwath Road, London SW6 3HR (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    This paper revisits the causal relationship between coal consumption and real GDP for six major coal consuming countries for the period 1965-2005 within a vector autoregressive (VAR) framework by including capital and labour as additional variables. Applying a modified version of the Granger causality test due to Toda and Yamamoto [Toda HY, Yamamoto T. Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated process. J Econom 1995;66:225-50], we found a unidirectional causality running from coal consumption to economic growth in India and Japan while the opposite causality running from economic growth to coal consumption was found in China and South Korea. In contrast there was a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and coal consumption in South Africa and the United States. Variance decomposition analysis seems to confirm our Granger causality results. The policy implication is that measures adopted to mitigate the adverse effects of coal consumption may be taken without harming economic growth in China and South Korea. In contrast, for the remaining four countries conservation measures can harm economic growth. (author)

  10. Coal distribution, January--June 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-21

    The Coal Distribution report provides information on coal production, distribution, and stocks in the United States to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. The data in this report are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275, Sections 5 and 13, as amended). This issue presents information for January through June 1991. Coal distribution data are shown (in Tables 1--34) by coal-producing Sate of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination. All data in this report were collected by the EIA on Form EIA-6, Coal Distribution Report.'' A copy of the form and the instructions for filing appear in Appendix B. All data in this report for 1991 are preliminary. Data for previous years are final. 6 figs., 34 tabs.

  11. Correlation between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on China's coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hong-guan; YUAN Jian; SONG Ji-yong; LENG Shu-wei

    2007-01-01

    It is highly important to investigate relationship between coal characteristics and methane adsorption on coal in the fields of coalbed methane recovery. Based on data examination of coal quality indexes collected from the literatures, regression equations for Langmuir adsorption constants, VL or VL/PL, and coal quality indexes for selected coal samples were developed with multiple linear regression of SPSS software according to the degree of coal metamorphosis. The regression equations built were tested with data collected from some literatures, and the influences of coal quality indexes on CH4 adsorption on coals were studied with investigation of regression equations, and the reasons of low accuracy to Langmuir constants calculated with regression equation for a few coal samples were investigated. The results show that the regression equations can be employed to predict Langmuir constants for methane adsorption isotherms on coals obtained using volumetric gas adsorption experiments, which are conducted at 30 ℃ on a wet or dried coal samples with less than 30% ash content in coal. The influence of same coal quality index with various coal rank or influence of various coal quality indexes for same coal rank on CH4 adsorption is not consistent. The regression equations have different accuracy to different coal rank, in which the VL equations supply better prediction accuracy for anthracite and higher prediction error for lower metamorphosis coal, and the PL prediction error with VL and VL/PL equations is lower to bituminous coal and higher to anthracite.

  12. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  13. Virtual Company and Modelbank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1996-01-01

    Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank......Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank...

  14. Allocation for manufacturing companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Assuring a high material availability for production is while reducing sourcing costs remains a major logistical challenge for producing companies. Lean economic processes, flexibility and responsiveness - beneficial both for the customer and for the supplier - are characteristics of an excellent customer-supplier relationship. Standard sourcing models offer a field-tested approach for setting up across company boarders processes.

  15. Task 2: Mild gasification technology development process research unit tests using slipstream sampling, February 1988--March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Wootten, J.M.; Duthie, R.G.

    1990-07-01

    Under USDOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), Peabody Holding Company, Inc., and Bechtel Group is developing a process for the mild gasification of coal in a 100-pound/hour capacity isothermal process research unit (PRU) at IGT in Chicago. The IGT process is capable of converting bituminous coals to value-added co-products that can open new markets for the US coal industry. The conceptual IGT mild gasification process incorporates an integrated fluidized-/entrained-bed reactor supplying heat indirectly by a combination of char and gas recycle. The use of mild operating conditions (1000{degree} to 1300{degree}F), low pressures (<50 psig), and continuous operation in closed reactors, combined with the sale of value-added co-products, offer an environmentally sound and economical approach to advanced coal utilization. The PRU consists of an 8-inch-ID {times} 8-foot-long fluidized-bed reactor closely coupled to a 4-inch-ID {times} 13-foot-long entrained-bed reactor. The PRU test results have demonstrated process performance, including the effect of coal type and temperature on mild gasification co-product yields and their properties. The fates of the heteroatoms have also been analyzed. 9 refs., 16 figs., 41 tabs.

  16. Study on technological efficiency of listed companies in coal industry based on two-stage DEA model%基于两阶段 DEA 模型的煤炭行业上市公司科技效率研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜伟

    2015-01-01

    将煤炭行业的科技创新过程分解为科技研发和科技转化两个子过程,构建链式两阶段数据包络分析(DEA)模型,针对每个子过程设置具体的投入产出观测指标,收集煤炭行业上市公司2013年数据,计算其整体科技创新效率及分阶段的科技研发效率和科技转化效率,并与经典的数据包络分析 CCR 模型结果进行对比分析。结果表明,尽管科技转化效率较高,但是由于低效的科技研发投入使得科技资源运用仍然处于无效状态,因此,煤炭行业上市公司的整体科技效率比较低。%The process of technology innovation is decomposed into two sub-processes,in-cluding process of technology research & development (R&D)and process of technology trans-formation,based on the existing research results,in order to build two-stage tandem data enve-lope analysis model.Then the specific inputs and outputs are set up corresponding to each stage to calculate efficiency of the whole system and the two sub-processes independently including effi-ciency of technology R&D as well as efficiency of technology transformation,after collecting the datum from annual reports of listed companies.The results are also made a comparative analysis with those from the classical data envelope analysis CCR model,which shows that although tech-nology transformation efficiencies of listed companiesare generally high,consumption of technol-ogy resources are still in invalid state due to inefficient technology R&D inputs.As a result,the overall technology efficiency of coal industry is still low.

  17. Wabash River Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program. Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The proposed project would result in a combined-cycle power plant with lower emissions and higher efficiency than most existing coal-fired power plants of comparable size. The net plant heat rate (energy content of the fuel input per useable electrical generation output; i.e., Btu/kilowatt hour) for the new repowered unit would be a 21% improvement over the existing unit, while reducing SO{sub 2} emissions by greater than 90% and limiting NO{sub x} emissions by greater than 85% over that produced by conventional coal-fired boilers. The technology, which relies on gasified coal, is capable of producing as much as 25% more electricity from a given amount of coal than today`s conventional coal-burning methods. Besides having the positive environmental benefit of producing less pollutants per unit of power generated, the higher overall efficiency of the proposed CGCC project encourages greater utilization to meet base load requirements in order to realize the associated economic benefits. This greater utilization (i.e., increased capacity factor) of a cleaner operating plant has global environmental benefits in that it is likely that such power would replace power currently being produced by less efficient plants emitting a greater volume of pollutants per unit of power generated.

  18. Disability as diversity in Fortune 100 companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Phoebe; Monaco, Gregory; Schmeling, James; Schartz, Helen; Blanck, Peter

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the inclusion of people with disabilities in the diversity policies of the most successful businesses in the United States, we examined the publicly available workforce and supplier diversity policies of the top 100 companies on Fortune Magazine's 2003 list of the 500 most profitable companies in the nation. The majority of these companies have extensive information about their diversity policies and practices available on their corporate website. The information was used to categorize the policies into those that include people with disabilities, do not define diversity, and enumerate what is meant by diversity (e.g. in terms of race or gender) but do not expressly mention disability. In addition, we looked beyond the diversity policies to information available on corporate websites relating to a variety of diversity initiatives. Findings suggest that the majority of the companies that top the Fortune 500 list have developed and implemented diversity policies. Of these, 42% have diversity policies that include people with disabilities in the definition of a diverse workforce. Furthermore, 47% of companies with workplace diversity policies discuss diversity in a way that neither expressly includes nor excludes people with disabilities. Far fewer (15%) supplier diversity policies include disability in the definition of diversity, but a significant number of companies use criteria that allow a business owner with a disability to benefit from the company's supplier diversity program. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Marketing potential of industrial companies of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Oliynyk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the essence of the marketing potential of the company as a part of improving the efficiency of the company’s activity forming a united mechanism along with industrial and financial subsystems. The components of the total potential of the company, the factors forming structure of the marketing potential of the company and the approaches to the evaluation of such a potential of the company are considered. It is determined that the marketing potential of the company integrates all the marketing resources, reserves and the possibility of their use, and the functioning as well as development of the system are subjected to the achievement of the main company’s goals. The differences in the interpretation of economic, market and marketing potential of the company are identified, although they are related to the subject of entrepreneurship, but they differ in their essence. The substantiation of the essence of marketing potential of the company, the development of an effective mechanism of its management with the possibility of evaluation will contribute to the maximum satisfaction of interests of information consumers’ groups, the formation of strategic directions of the activity, making management decisions at the micro level, the effective functioning in the internal and external markets.

  20. Southern company energy storage study :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.