WorldWideScience

Sample records for united automobile aerospace

  1. 19 CFR 123.51 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through Canada between ports in the United States. (a) General... samples by automobile through Canada to another place in the United States without displaying the...

  2. 19 CFR 123.52 - Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial samples transported by automobile... Commercial samples transported by automobile through the United States between ports in Canada. (a) General... sealed samples in his automobile without further sealing in the United States, upon compliance with...

  3. Human Requirements of Flight. Aerospace Education III. Instructional Unit IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Arthur D.

    This curriculum guide is prepared for the Aerospace Education III series publication entitled "Human Requirements of Flight." It provides specific guidelines for teachers using the textbook. The guidelines for each chapter are organized according to objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points,…

  4. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, James D.

    This publication provides guidelines for teachers using the Aerospace Education II series publication entitled "Theory of Aircraft Flight." The organization of the guide for each chapter is according to objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points, suggestions for teaching, instructional aids,…

  5. Effects of Automobile Emissions on Air Pollution in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ryan; Singh, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    Currently, about more than 253,000,000 automobiles and trucks, some are new, old, gas and electric, ply on the roads in the United States of America. Around the world, human activities and energy demand are the main sources for the air pollution and ozone depletion, causing dense haze, fog and smog especially during winter season in the country like China and India and also observed in different parts of the world. In recent years, automakers have been pushed by new governmental regulations and global expectations to create more fuel-efficient vehicles that burn less fossil fuels and create fewer harmful emissions. Automakers are exploring alternative fuel options such as hydrogen, natural gas, hybrids, and completely electric vehicles. Since the Nissan Leaf's introduction in 2010, fully electric vehicles have become widely produced and just fewer than 400,000 fully electric cars have been sold in the United States. Taking the influx of more fuel-efficient and alternative energy vehicles in the market into account, we have analyzed satellite and ground observed atmospheric pollution and greenhouse gases during 2009-2014 in the United States of America. Our results show that the increasing population of hybrid and fuel efficient vehicles have cut down the atmospheric pollution and greenhouse emissions in US in general, whereas in California the pollution level has increased as a result frequency of fog and haze events are seen during winter season. We will present a comparison of atmospheric pollution over US and California State in view of the increasing hybrid and fuel efficient vehicles.

  6. 19 CFR 148.39 - Rented automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rented automobiles. 148.39 Section 148.39 Customs... automobiles. (a) Importation for temporary period. An automobile rented by a resident of the United States... (HTSUS) (19 U.S.C. 1202), without payment of duty. The automobile shall be used for the transportation...

  7. Quality and productivity drive innovation and improvement at United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamar, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the emphasis was on meeting the risks and technical challenges of space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc. (UTAO), the battle has developed along four primary fronts. These fronts include programs to motivate and reward people, development and construction of optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specifically tailored management systems, and the application of appropriate measurement and control systems. Each of these initiatives is described. However, to put this quality and productivity program in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are described first.

  8. Estimated 2017 Refrigerant Emissions of 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf) in the United States Resulting from Automobile Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to recent regulations and concern over climate change, the global automotive community is evaluating alternatives to the current refrigerant used in automobile air conditioning units, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a. One potential alternative is 2,3,3,3-tetrafluor...

  9. Estimated 2017 Refrigerant Emissions of 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf) in the United States Resulting from Automobile Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to recent regulations and concern over climate change, the global automotive community is evaluating alternatives to the current refrigerant used in automobile air conditioning units, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a. One potential alternative is 2,3,3,3-tetrafluor...

  10. Microbial communities related to volatile organic compound emission in automobile air conditioning units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Nina; Burghartz, Melanie; Remus, Lars; Kaufholz, Anna-Lena; Nawrath, Thorben; Rohde, Manfred; Schulz, Stefan; Roselius, Louisa; Schaper, Jörg; Mamber, Oliver; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina

    2013-10-01

    During operation of mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in automobiles, malodours can occur. We studied the microbial communities found on contaminated heat exchanger fins of 45 evaporators from car MAC systems which were operated in seven different regions of the world and identified corresponding volatile organic compounds. Collected biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The detected bacteria were loosely attached to the metal surface. Further analyses of the bacteria using PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of isolated 16S rRNA gene fragments identified highly divergent microbial communities with multiple members of the Alphaproteobacteriales, Methylobacteria were the prevalent bacteria. In addition, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Bacillales, Alcanivorax spp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. were found among many others depending on the location the evaporators were operated. Interestingly, typical pathogenic bacteria related to air conditioning systems including Legionella spp. were not found. In order to determine the nature of the chemical compounds produced by the bacteria, the volatile organic compounds were examined by closed loop stripping analysis and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sulphur compounds, i.e. di-, tri- and multiple sulphides, acetylthiazole, aromatic compounds and diverse substituted pyrazines were detected. Mathematical clustering of the determined microbial community structures against their origin identified a European/American/Arabic cluster versus two mainly tropical Asian clusters. Interestingly, clustering of the determined volatiles against the origin of the corresponding MAC revealed a highly similar pattern. A close relationship of microbial community structure and resulting malodours to the climate and air quality at the location of MAC operation was concluded.

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. A Comparison of the Technical Communication Practices of Aerospace Engineers and Scientists in India and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    34The NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project." Government Information Quarterly 8:2 (1991): 219-233. 35 APPENDIX A AEROSPACE KNOWLEDGE... Government Information Quarterly , Volume 8, No. 2 (1991): 219-233. (Available from AIAA 91A35455.) 1 1 Pinelli, Thomas E. and John M. Kennedy. The

  12. Organizational structure and operation of defense/aerospace information centers in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauter, H. E.; Lushina, L. N.

    1983-01-01

    U.S. Government aerospace and defense information centers are addressed. DTIC and NASA are described in terms of their history, operational authority, information services provided, user community, sources of information collected, efforts under way to improve services, and external agreements regarding the exchange of documents and/or data bases. Contents show how DTIC and NASA provide aerospace/defense information services in support of U.S. research and development efforts. In a general introduction, the importance of scientific and technical information and the need for information centers to acquire, handle, and disseminate it are stressed.

  13. A Review of United States Air Force and Department of Defense Aerospace Propulsion Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    ROBERT F. RAGGIO, Dayton Aerospace, Inc. GENE W. RAY, GMT Ventures ELI RESHOTKO, Case Western Reserve University (emeritus) LOURDES SALAMANCA -RIBA...although funding is being actively sought. Nonequilibrium Flow A number of programs are being conducted to validate direct simulation Monte Carlo

  14. Environmentally Benign Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Sperling, Daniel; Schipper, Lee; Deluchi, Mark; Wang, Quanlu

    1992-01-01

    His dream has come true. There's now more than one vehicle for every licensed driver in the United States, and other developed countries are not far behind. But has the car's success created the conditions for its own demise? Conventional wisdom of market researchers, consultants, and other experts is that the automobile and its petroleum-powered internal combustion engine will be with us for a long time and that any energy and environmental problems can be readily solved. T...

  15. The Cost of Trade Restraints: The Case of Japanese Automobile Exports to the United States (Le coût des obstacles au commerce: étude du cas des exportations d'automobiles japonaises aux Etats-Unis) (El costo de las limitaciones del comercio: El caso de la exportación de automóviles japoneses a los Estados Unidos)

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Collyns; Steven Dunaway

    1987-01-01

    This paper assesses the extent to which restraints on exports of Japanese automobiles to the United States affected car sales and prices in the period 1981-84. The estimates are obtained using a model of the U.S. automobile sector that explicitly allows for the effects of the quotas on the average quality of cars purchased. By distinguishing between pure price effects and quality effects, it is possible to assess the welfare costs and income transfers resulting from the imposition of the rest...

  16. Physician training in aerospace medicine--an historical review in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doarn, Charles R; Mohler, Stanley R

    2013-02-01

    The training of U.S. physicians in aviation medicine closely followed the development of reliable airplanes. This training has matured as aviation and space travel have become more routine over the past several decades. In the U.S., this training began in support of military pilots who were flying increasingly complex aircraft in the early part of the 20th century. As individuals reached into the stratosphere, low Earth orbit, and eventually to the Moon, physicians were trained not only through military efforts but in academic settings as well. This paper provides an historical summary of how physician training in aerospace medicine developed in the U.S., citing both the development of the military activities and, more importantly, the perspectives of the academic programs. This history is important as we move forward in the development of commercial space travel and the needs that such a business model will be required to meet.

  17. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  18. Recent trends in automobile recycling: An energy and economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curlee, T.R.; Das, S.; Rizy, C.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schexanyder, S.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1994-03-01

    Recent and anticipated trends in the material composition of domestic and imported automobiles and the increasing cost of landfilling the non-recyclable portion of automobiles (automobile shredder residue or ASR) pose questions about the future of automobile recycling. This report documents the findings of a study sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Analysis to examine the impacts of these and other relevant trends on the life-cycle energy consumption of automobiles and on the economic viability of the domestic automobile recycling industry. More specifically, the study (1) reviewed the status of the automobile recycling industry in the United States, including the current technologies used to process scrapped automobiles and the challenges facing the automobile recycling industry; (2) examined the current status and future trends of automobile recycling in Europe and Japan, with the objectives of identifying ``lessons learned`` and pinpointing differences between those areas and the United States; (3) developed estimates of the energy system impacts of the recycling status quo and projections of the probable energy impacts of alternative technical and institutional approaches to recycling; and (4) identified the key policy questions that will determine the future economic viability of automobile shredder facilities in the United States.

  19. Functional modelling of symmetrical multi-pulse auto- transformer rectifier units for aerospace applications

    OpenAIRE

    YANG Tao; BOZHKO, Serhiy; Asher, Greg

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to develop a functional model of symmetrical multi-pulse Auto-Transformer Rectifier Units (ATRUs) for More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) applications. The ATRU is seen as the most reliable way readily to be applied in the MEA. Interestingly, there is no model of ATRUs suitable for unbalanced or faulty conditions at the moment. This paper is aimed to fill this gap and develop functional models suitable for both balanced and unbalanced conditions. Using the fact that the DC voltage an...

  20. Estimated 2017 refrigerant emissions of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf) in the United States resulting from automobile air conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasavva, Stella; Luecken, Deborah J; Waterland, Robert L; Taddonio, Kristen N; Andersen, Stephen O

    2009-12-15

    In response to recent regulations and concern over climate change, the global automotive community is evaluating alternatives to the current refrigerant used in automobile air conditioning units, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a. One potential alternative is 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFC-1234yf, also known as HFO-1234yf). We have developed a spatially and temporally resolved inventory of likely future HFC refrigerant emissions from the U.S. vehicle fleet in 2017, considering regular, irregular, servicing, and end-of-life leakages. We estimate the annual leak rate emissions for each leakage category for a projected 2017 U.S. vehicle fleet by state, and spatially apportion these leaks to a 36 km square grid over the continental United States. This projected inventory is a necessary first step in analyzing for potential atmospheric and ecosystem effects, such as ozone and trifluoroacetic acid production, that might result from widespread replacement of HFC-134a with HFC-1234yf.

  1. Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; Fajardo Peña, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263.

  2. Designing a curriculum for healthy work: reflections on the United Automobile, Aerospace and Agricultural Implement Workers-General Motors Ergonomics Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurman, S J; Silverstein, B A; Richards, S E

    1994-01-01

    An ambitious ergonomics pilot project sponsored by UAW-GM sought to bypass traditional "top-down" methods of ergonomics training in favor of an in-house "bottom-up" approach that empowered workers to implement basic ergonomic improvements in their own work areas. UAW and GM eventually used the program as the model for a corporate-wide ergonomics program that they later implemented.

  3. An Aerospace Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-25

    Airlines lamented, “[We are] now laggards in every category.”13 Once we were visionaries, and integrated aerospace was a core cultural , industrial...share of advanced technology jobs in the United States lags behind the Czech Republic, Slovenia, Germany, Hungary, Sweden , Finland, Italy, Denmark

  4. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 61: The Technical Communications Practices of ESL Aerospace Engineering Students in the United States: Results of a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, John R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1997-01-01

    When engineering students graduate and enter the world of work, they make the transition from an academic to a professional community of knowledge. The importance of oral and written communication to the professional success and advancement of engineers is well documented. For example, studies such as those conducted by Mailloux (1989) indicate that communicating data, information, and knowledge takes up as much as 80% of an engineer's time. However, these same studies also indicate that many engineering graduates cannot (a) write technical reports that effectively inform and influence decisionmaking, (b) present their ideas persuasively, and (c) communicate with their peers. If these statements are true, how is learning to communicate effectively in their professional knowledge community different for engineering students educated in the United States but who come from other cultures-cultures in which English is not the primary language of communication? Answering this question requires adequate and generalizable data about these students' communications abilities, skills, and competencies. To contribute to the answer, we undertook a national (mail) survey of 1,727 student members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The focus of our analysis and this paper is a comparison of the responses of 297 student members for whom English is a second language with the responses of 1,430 native English speaking students to queries regarding career choice, bilingualism and language fluency, communication skills, collaborative writing, computer use, and the use of electronic (computer) networks.

  5. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  6. Solar Energy Automobile

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The thesis was to design a solar energy automobile, which is using solar power as energy re-source. At the moment, Finland was chosen as an example place. It was necessary to calculate the related data, which are the solar angle and the day length when designing the solar energy automobile. Also the seats and dashboard to improve the performance. Actually, in Finland it is possible to use solar energy automobile in summer. But in winter, the day length is so short and the solar constant i...

  7. Aerospace dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Arora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry.

  8. Aerospace Dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Gp Capt Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Evolutionarily, man is a terrestrial mammal, adapted to land. Aviation and now space/microgravity environment, hence, pose new challenges to our physiology. Exposure to these changes affects the human body in acute and chronic settings. Since skin reflects our mental and physical well-being, any change/side effects of this environment shall be detected on the skin. Aerospace industry offers a unique environment with a blend of all possible occupational disorders, encompassing all systems of the body, particularly the skin. Aerospace dermatologists in the near future shall be called upon for their expertise as we continue to push human physiological boundaries with faster and more powerful military aircraft and look to colonize space stations and other planets. Microgravity living shall push dermatology into its next big leap-space, the final frontier. This article discusses the physiological effects of this environment on skin, effect of common dermatoses in aerospace environment, effect of microgravity on skin, and occupational hazards of this industry.

  9. Wastewater treatment plant in Buholz, Lucerne: operational optimisation of a combined heat and power unit, remote heating for RUAG Aerospace; ARA Buholz, 6000 Luzern. Betriebsoptimierung BHKW. Fernwaermeleitung RUAG Aerospace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, R.

    2004-07-01

    This preliminary report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the use of sewage gas generated at central Switzerland's largest wastewater treatment and sludge incineration plant. Experience gained with the previously used combined heat and power (CHP) unit and the use of gas in a heating boiler is looked at. Operational experience gained after the implementation of a first set of measures is commented on. The optimisation measures taken are discussed and the use of waste heat to provide energy for a nearby facility of the RUAG Aerospace company is described. The report also describes a catalyzer system installed in a second phase of the project to clean the waste gas from the sludge incineration plant. Also, the system used for the preparation of the sewage gas to make it suitable for injection into the local natural gas mains is described. The results of measurements made on the success of the project are presented and commented on and the ecological profits of the plant are discussed.

  10. Aerospace gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, A.

    1982-01-01

    The relevancy of gerontology and geriatrics to the discipline of aerospace medicine is examined. It is noted that since the shuttle program gives the facility to fly passengers, including specially qualified older persons, it is essential to examine response to acceleration, weightlessness, and re-entry over the whole adult lifespan, not only its second quartile. The physiological responses of the older person to weightlessness and the return to Earth gravity are reviewed. The importance of the use of the weightless environment to solve critical problems in the fields of fundamental gerontology and geriatrics is also stressed.

  11. Aerospace Systems Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposal Title: Aerospace Systems Monitor PHASE 1 Technical Abstract: This Phase II STTR project will continue development and commercialization of the Aerospace...

  12. On the automobile lightweight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Mingtu; Yi Hongliang; Lu Hongzhou; Wan Xinming

    2012-01-01

    The significance, description parameters, evaluation method, implement way and design for lightweight of au- tomobile are comprehensively reviewed. The relationship among the performances of auto parts & components, the prop- erties of materials and application of advanced technologies is also elaborated. According to recently related progress of lightweight and authors' research and developing work, lightweight of automobile is comprehensively and systematically overviewed.

  13. Hydrogen storage for automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, G.

    1979-01-01

    Results of an analysis of hydrogen-fueled automobiles are presented as a part of a continuing study conducted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) on Energy Storage Systems for Automobile Propulsion. The hydrogen is stored either as a metal hydride at moderate pressure in TiFe/sub 0/ /sub 9/Mn/sub 0/ /sub 1/H/sub x/ and at low pressure in MgH/sub x/ catalyzed with 10 wt % Ni, or it is stored in hollow glass microspheres at pressures up to about 400 atm. Improved projections are given for the two hydrides, which are used in combination to take advantage of their complementary properties. In the dual-hydride case and in the microsphere case where Ti-based hydride is used for initial operation, hydrogen is consumed in an internal-combustion engine; whereas in the third case, hydrogen from Ti-based hydride is used with air in an alkaline fuel cell/Ni-Zn battery combination which powers an electric vehicle. Each system is briefly described; and the results of the vehicle analysis are compared with those for the conventional automobile and with electric vehicles powered by Pb-acid or Ni-Zn batteries. Comparisons are made on the basis of automobile weight, initial user cost, and life-cycle cost. In this report, the results are limited to those for the 5-passenger vehicle in the period 1985-1990, and are provided as probable and optimistic values.

  14. 49 CFR 523.4 - Passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Passenger automobile. 523.4 Section 523.4... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.4 Passenger automobile. A passenger automobile is any automobile (other than an automobile capable of off-highway operation)...

  15. Okoliš i automobil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Štrumberger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Constant increase of the number of automobiles causes demand for individual materials to get on the rise, thus giving an impulse to the development of recycling logistics. Used automobiles get disassembled and individual parts which can be used as raw materials or additives get recycled. Automobile tires can be reclaimed or vulcanized. In July 1978 the environmental-friendly "Blauer Engel" or "Blue Angel" symbol was first introduced for reclaimed tires. Later, emblems were introduced for other recycled automobile pans. The awarding of the emblem is being controlled and approved by authorized institutes, because the emblem rightfully designates traffic safety.

  16. Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automobile Starting and Lighting System Maintenance Training Manual for Effective Learning ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2015) > ... College Minna and Automobile Supervisors in automobile companies in Minna to establish its reliability.

  17. The automobile after tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Technology (ETH), Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    This talk discusses the technical options available for automobiles within the next 5 to 10 years. With the objective to reduce consumption and pollution, several alternative approaches are presented and analyzed using simplified but realistic calculations. Main emphasis is laid on CO{sub 2} emission of the complete energy transformation path from the primary energy carrier to the energy dissipated in test cycles. It is shown that no single optimal solution exist but that a trade-off between consumption, pollution and cost must be made for each specific situation. (author) 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Automobile Club CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club CERN

    2010-01-01

     L’Assemblée Générale Ordinaire de «L’Automobile Club du CERN» s’est tenue le mercredi 12 janvier 2010. Le Président, J. Pierlot, souhaite la bienvenue aux membres présents, annonce l’agenda et résume les activités et événements du club pour l’année 2009. Le Club compte environ 600 membres, une petite diminution par rapport aux précédentes années dû surtout aux départs anticipés à la retraite. La cotisation reste inchangée : 50 CHF. Notre trésorier, E. Squadrani, présente de façon détaillée la situation du compte d’exploitation pour 2009 ainsi que le bilan de l’Automobile Club. Les comptes sont équilibrés, la situation de la trés...

  19. Application of Wireless Sensor Networks to Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Jorge; Velez, Fernando J.; Ferro, João M.

    2008-01-01

    Some applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) to the automobile are identified, and the use of Crossbow MICAz motes operating at 2.4 GHz is considered together with TinyOS support. These WSNs are conceived in order to measure, process and supply to the user diverse types of information during an automobile journey. Examples are acceleration and fuel consumption, identification of incorrect tire pressure, verification of illumination, and evaluation of the vital signals of the driver. A brief survey on WSNs concepts is presented, as well as the way the wireless sensor network itself was developed. Calibration curves were produced which allowed for obtaining luminous intensity and temperature values in the appropriate units. Aspects of the definition of the architecture and the choice/implementation of the protocols are identified. Security aspects are also addressed.

  20. Alternative propulsion for automobiles

    CERN Document Server

    Stan, Cornel

    2017-01-01

    The book presents – based on the most recent research and development results worldwide - the perspectives of new propulsion concepts such as electric cars with batteries and fuel cells, and furthermore plug in hybrids with conventional and alternative fuels. The propulsion concepts are evaluated based on specific power, torque characteristic, acceleration behaviour, specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. The alternative fuels are discussed in terms of availability, production, technical complexity of the storage on board, costs, safety and infrastructure. The book presents summarized data about vehicles with electric and hybrid propulsion. The propulsion of future cars will be marked by diversity – from compact electric city cars and range extender vehicles for suburban and rural areas up to hybrid or plug in SUV´s, Pick up´s and luxury class automobiles.

  1. 49 CFR 523.3 - Automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automobile. 523.3 Section 523.3 Transportation..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.3 Automobile. (a) An automobile is any 4-wheeled... pounds and less than 10,000 pounds gross vehicle weight are determined to be automobiles: (1)...

  2. The Linguistic Features of English Automobile Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琼璐

    2014-01-01

    Household cars are largely demanded today, stimulating the economic development throughout the automobile industry. To enlarge market, all automobile producers pay great efforts to advertisements which result in a large quantity of automobile advertisements. Due to the rare analysis on the linguistic features of automobile advertisements, this essay makes a specific study on this. Analysis will be done through the perspectives of the lexical level, the syntactic level and the rhetoric level. Hence, valid references could be offered to future automobile advertisers.

  3. Comfort model for automobile seat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lizandra da; Bortolotti, Silvana Ligia Vincenzi; Campos, Izabel Carolina Martins; Merino, Eugenio Andrés Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Comfort on automobile seats is lived daily by thousands of drivers. Epistemologically, comfort can be understood under the theory of complexity, since it emerges from a chain of interrelationships between man and several elements of the system. This interaction process can engender extreme comfort associated to the feeling of pleasure and wellbeing or, on the other hand, lead to discomfort, normally followed by pain. This article has for purpose the development of a theoretical model that favours the comfort feature on automobile seats through the identification of its facets and indicators. For such, a theoretical study is resorted to, allowing the mapping of elements that constitute the model. The results present a comfort model on automobile seats that contemplates the (physical, psychological, object, context and environment) facets. This model is expected to contribute with the automobile industry for the development of improvements of the ergonomic project of seats to increase the comfort noticed by the users.

  4. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  5. 40 CFR 600.315-82 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classes of comparable automobiles. 600... 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.315-82 Classes of comparable automobiles. (a) The Secretary will classify automobiles as passenger automobiles or light trucks (nonpassenger automobiles)...

  6. The Relationship of Skilled Aerospace Manufacturing Workforce Performance to Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsberry, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    A major economic driver, the aerospace industry contributes to exports and higher wage jobs, which the United States requires to maintain robust economic health. Despite the investment in vocational educational training programs, insufficient workers have been available to aerospace companies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the…

  7. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  8. The Hybrid Automobile and the Atkinson Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2008-01-01

    The hybrid automobile is a strikingly new automobile technology with a number of new technological features that dramatically improve energy efficiency. This paper will briefly describe how hybrid automobiles work; what are these new technological features; why the Toyota Prius hybrid internal combustion engine operates on the Atkinson cycle…

  9. Delegating to the automobile: experimenting with automotive restraints in the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetmore, Jameson M

    2015-04-01

    This article explores the attempts in the United States in the 1970s to implement a new paradigm for automobile safety-crashworthiness, the idea that automobile passengers should be protected in the event of a crash. A large number of strategies were proposed, including air bags, seatbelt modifications, mandatory belt-use laws, and ignition interlocks. Many of these did not initially come to fruition, but they did give the automobile safety community a chance to experiment with different ways of distributing responsibilities between automobile occupants, automobile manufacturers, and, to a lesser extent, government agencies. These experiments helped pave the way for the successful implementation of a number of new strategies in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s.

  10. Aerospace Systems Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I STTR project will demonstrate the Aerospace System Monitor (ASM). This technology transforms the power distribution network in a spacecraft or aircraft...

  11. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Millsaps, Knox T.; Gordis, J. H.; Brophy, C. M.; Stephens, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    This brochure explains the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering program at the Naval Postgraduate School. Sections include: Advancing your career, student research, degree programs, special programs, research and distance learning programs. The Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering (MAE) Department, the founding department of the Naval Postgraduate School in 1909, offers a wide range of graduate degree programs including M.S. and Ph.D., in either Mechanical or Astronautical En...

  12. Bundled automobile insurance coverage and accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Peng, Sheng-Chang

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of automobile accidents by taking into account two types of automobile insurance coverage: comprehensive vehicle physical damage insurance and voluntary third-party liability insurance. By using a unique data set in the Taiwanese automobile insurance market, we explore the bundled automobile insurance coverage and the occurrence of claims. It is shown that vehicle physical damage insurance is the major automobile coverage and affects the decision to purchase voluntary liability insurance coverage as a complement. Moreover, policyholders with high vehicle physical damage insurance coverage have a significantly higher probability of filing vehicle damage claims, and if they additionally purchase low voluntary liability insurance coverage, their accident claims probability is higher than those who purchase high voluntary liability insurance coverage. Our empirical results reveal that additional automobile insurance coverage information can capture more driver characteristics and driving behaviors to provide useful information for insurers' underwriting policies and to help analyze the occurrence of automobile accidents.

  13. Aerospace Accident - Injury Autopsy Data System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aerospace Accident Injury Autopsy Database System will provide the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) Aerospace Medical Research Team (AMRT) the ability to...

  14. Energy autonomous sensors in the automobile; Energieautarke Sensorik im Automobil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehne, Ingo [Hochschule Heilbronn (Germany). Studiengang Energieoekologie; Schreiter, Matthias [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany); Li, Xiaoming [Daimler AG, Sindelfingen (Germany); Hehn, Thorsten [Hahn-Schickard-Gesellschaft fuer angewandte Forschung e.V., Freiburg (Germany). HSG-IMIT, Inst. fuer Mikro- und Informationstechnik; Thewes, Marcell; Scholl, Gerd [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany); Wagner, Dieter [Continental Automotive GmbH, Regensburg (Germany); Manoli, Yiannos [Univ. Freiburg (Germany). IMTEK; Frey, Alexander [Hochschule Augsburg (Germany). Fakultaet Elektrotechnik

    2013-04-01

    A brief outline of energy autonomous sensors in the automobile is given. For this purpose the variety of sensors in today's automotive vehicles is reported. The rationale for the deployment of energy autonomous sensors is given. In addition the potential of using environmental energy and the possibilities of their energy conversion are presented. As part of the funded project ASYMOF, two pioneer applications - a tire pressure monitoring and an anti-theft alarm system - are studied and discussed.

  15. Automobile accessories: Assessment and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1995-11-01

    With mandates and regulatory policies to meet both the California Air Resources Board (CARB) and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), designing vehicles of the future will become a difficult task. As we look into the use of electric and hybrid vehicles, reduction of the required power demand by influential automobile components is necessary in order to obtain performance and range goals. Among those automobile components are accessories. Accessories have a profound impact on the range and mileage of future vehicles with limited amounts of energy or without power generating capabilities such as conventional vehicles. Careful assessment of major power consuming accessories helps us focus on those that need improvement and contributes to attainment of mileage and range goals for electric and hybrid vehicles.

  16. Managing complexity of aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaskar, Shashank

    Growing complexity of modern aerospace systems has exposed the limits of conventional systems engineering tools and challenged our ability to design them in a timely and cost effective manner. According to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), in 2009 nearly half of the defense acquisition programs are expecting 25% or more increase in unit acquisition cost. Increase in technical complexity has been identified as one of the primary drivers behind cost-schedule overruns. Thus to assure the affordability of future aerospace systems, it is increasingly important to develop tools and capabilities for managing their complexity. We propose an approach for managing the complexity of aerospace systems to address this pertinent problem. To this end, we develop a measure that improves upon the state-of-the-art metrics and incorporates key aspects of system complexity. We address the problem of system decomposition by presenting an algorithm for module identification that generates modules to minimize integration complexity. We demonstrate the framework on diverse spacecraft and show the impact of design decisions on integration cost. The measure and the algorithm together help the designer track and manage complexity in different phases of system design. We next investigate how complexity can be used as a decision metric in the model-based design (MBD) paradigm. We propose a framework for complexity enabled design space exploration that introduces the idea of using complexity as a non-traditional design objective. We also incorporate complexity with the component based design paradigm (a sub-field of MBD) and demonstrate it on several case studies. The approach for managing complexity is a small but significant contribution to the vast field of complexity management. We envision our approach being used in concert with a suite of complexity metrics to provide an ability to measure and track complexity through different stages of design and development. This will not

  17. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  18. 49 CFR 523.5 - Non-passenger automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-passenger automobile. 523.5 Section 523.5... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION VEHICLE CLASSIFICATION § 523.5 Non-passenger automobile. A non-passenger automobile means an automobile that is not a passenger automobile or a work truck and...

  19. Managing the Risks of the Automobile: A Study of a Swedish Car Manufacturer

    OpenAIRE

    Ola Svenson

    1984-01-01

    Hazard management of the risks of human injury and death related to the automobile are described and exemplified by the Swedish car manufacturer Volvo. The study presents the Volvo units engaged in accident hazard management and their roles in the elaborate system of feedbacks (information, penalties and rewards) created by the company and society for maintaining a high level of automobile safety. Improvements are suggested although the overall quality of the accident hazard management proces...

  20. ScienceScope: Aerospace

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available technologies. These include advanced light materials, high-resolution sensors and advanced electronics. Of the 26 technology areas designated by the European Space Agency, 18 are covered to varying degrees within CSIR Defence, Peace, Safety and Security, CSIR.... Light metals initia- tives focus on the reduction of aircraft structural weight and automobile weight, while increasing local content. Another priority technology flagship is advanced electronics, which includes sensor development, technology and fusion...

  1. Roadway Automobile Stability. A Numerical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Nedev, Valentin; Bachvarov, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    A mathematical model of the roadway automobile motion is numerically analyzed. This model is intended to describe the roadway automobile stability. A previous paper [6] described the model in detail and the general method of qualitative analysis. In the present paper, we continue the discussion of stability by numerical simulations and the specific question we attempted to answer is: which parameter(s) of automobile geometry and quality of the roadway can serve as a reliable predictor(s) for ...

  2. Coatings Manufacturing Technology for China's Automobile Industry Conference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    China's automobile industry is experiencing continued phenomenal growth with the first 11 months of 2003 seeing an output of over 4 million units.This has lead to a huge growth in the consumption of automotive coatings with a 30% growth expected in 2004,reaching 200,000 tons-compared to a 7% average growth for the coatings industry as a whole.Output is predieted to reach 300,000 tons by 2010!

  3. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  4. Study of Delft aerospace alumni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, G.N.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis reports on an alumni study of the Faculty Aerospace Engineering at Delft University of Technology to discover what the impact is of the degree in aerospace engineering on an alumnus' professional success and comment on what are important qualities for aerospace engineers to have in order

  5. The construction of a Danish automobile culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Michael

    The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation.......The aim of this article is to discuss the way the automobile was introduced and promoted as a vehicle for modern leisure life in Denmark 1900-1970., and to demonstrate how automobilism was constructed around an ideology of consumption for leisure and recreation....

  6. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd (hereafter referred to as "Jiangqi Group"),established on May 18, 1997 with approval of Anhui provincial government, is one of 12 key provincial owned enterprises. Its predecessor was Hefei Jianghuai Automobile Factory built in 1964.……

  7. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Co., Ltd (hereafter referred to as "Jiangqi Group"),established on May 18, 1997 with approval of Anhui provincial government, is one of 12 key provincial owned enterprises. Its predecessor was Hefei Jianghuai Automobile Factory built in 1964.

  8. CRUISE FUZZY CONTROL FOR AUTOMOBILE WITH CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To develop cruise control system of an automobile with the metal pushing V-belt type CVT, the dynamic model of automobile travelling longitudinally is established, and the fuzzy controller of control system is designed. Considering uncertainty system parameter and exterior resistance disturbances, the stability of controller is investigated by simulating. The results of its simulation show that the fuzzy controller designed has practicability.

  9. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project: Chronology of Selected Literature, Reports, Policy Instruments, and Significant Events Affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States, 1945-1990. Report Number 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; And Others

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting federal scientific and technical information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest that relate to the evolution of aerospace and aerospace knowledge…

  10. EVOLUTIONS IN GLOBAL AUTOMOBILES INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Pop

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a brief overview of the evolution of the global automotive industry during the 20th century, with reference to the main manufacturers, oil crises of 1970-1980, and also the global financial and economic crisis that began in 2008. The analyzed period covers the rise of the Asian Continent, beginning with Japan, then South Korea and more recently the emerging countries: China and India. What was predicted 20-25 years ago, became reality: Asia becomes the economic centre of the world, surpassing unexpectedly fast even the Euro-Atlantic area. Regarding Romania, the revival delay of the automobiles industry, led to the loss of the trucks and bus industry, and after a much awaited rehabilitation of car production, this has stuck now at an unsatisfactory level.

  11. CSIR ScienceScope: Aerospace

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available fighter aircraft, or additional applications in other areas such as the automotive and power generation industries. Aerospace capabilities are essential to national safety and security. A large proportion of products in the aerospace sector has... of the technology is perva- sive and can, as such, be refined to fulfil the harsh environmental parameters required in both near and outer space. Technologies focusing on the aerospace sector are also likely to find application in the automotive...

  12. Thoughts of Project Cost and Price Management Optimization in Aerospace Military Units%航天军工单位项目成本和价格管理优化的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张妍

    2012-01-01

    Through the investigation of project valuation and cost management problems in aerospace military units in recent years, this paper put forward to research policy and perfect system, at the same time use a plurality of cost compensation and multiple classification valuation mode, pay attention to strategic management, realize the value chain analysis and activity-based cost management integration. In addition, the paper uses the earned value method of project cost and progress comprehensive control for the research of project cost control and performance measurement.%通过调研航天军工单位近年来科研项目计价和成本管理存在的问题,提出应进一步研究政策、完善制度,同时采用多元化的成本补偿方式和多种分类计价模式,注重战略管理,实现价值链分析与作业成本管理的融合。另外,采用能够对项目成本、进度进行综合控制的挣值法进行科研项目成本控制和绩效度量。

  13. 10 CFR 611.207 - Small automobile and component manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small automobile and component manufacturers. 611.207... VEHICLES MANUFACTURER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Facility/Funding Awards § 611.207 Small automobile and component... individuals; and (2) Manufactures automobiles or components of automobiles. (b) Set Aside—Of the amount...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1218 - Exclusion of the automobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of the automobile. 416.1218 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Resources and Exclusions § 416.1218 Exclusion of the automobile. (a) Automobile; defined. As used in this section, the term automobile includes, in addition to passenger cars,...

  15. 49 CFR 529.4 - Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for incomplete automobile... AUTOMOBILES § 529.4 Requirements for incomplete automobile manufacturers. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, §§ 529.5 and 529.6, each incomplete automobile manufacturer is considered,...

  16. Lessons from China’s automobile industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世锦

    2009-01-01

    Two controversies have emerged in the development of China’s automobile industry.The first is the role of government approval in economy of scale,industrial concentration and redundant construction.Second is the role of foreign-funded companies in the growth of China’s automobile industry.Correct understanding of these matters offers a unique"intellectual asset"for approaching the institutional and policy matters of China’s automobile industry and other sectors.It also serves as guidance in the selection of growth patterns.

  17. Random torsional vibration in automobile transmissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The action of a road profile to the torsional vibrations in automobile transmissions is studied. The model to calculate the random torsional vibrations in the transmissions is proposed and the values of the model parameters are determined by both computation and experiment. Furthermore, the dynamic characteristics and the responses of automobile transmissions to the random excitation of road profile are calculated. The results of road experiment demonstrate that the theoretic analyses and the calculation are correct, which imply that the low frequency torsional vibrations in automobile transmissions are caused by the random excitation of a road profile.

  18. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  19. Contact Dermatitis In Automobile Repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi M P

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Automobile repair workers are at risk of developing skin morbidity including occupational dermatoses because of their exposure to mineral oils, petroleum products and its derivatives and lubricating oil. This cross- sectional study was carried out at Maharashtra State Road Transport Corporation workshops in Nagpur city to investigate prevalence of skin morbidity including contact dermatitis in automobile repair workers. The study included 288 (49.9% automobile repair workers 180 (31.3% workshop office staff and 109 (18.8% divisional office employees. Dermatitis was the commonest skin morbidity in all the study subjects and it was significantly more prevalent in automobile repair workers. Folliculitis was detected in 13.2% of auto â€" repair workers and was not seen in the other two groups. Increasing trend of skin morbidity was correlated with the length of service of employees. Proper protective measures along with suitable washing facilities should be provided

  20. Information searches by consumers of miniature automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dao-ping; LIU Wei

    2008-01-01

    We studied the information search behaviors of Chinese consumers of miniature automobiles. First, we identified the main sources where consumers acquire or seek information about miniature automobiles and discussed their extent of information search. Then, based on logistic regression and optimal scaling regression of statistics, we studied the influences of characteristics of consumers of miniature automobiles on the extent of information search and on Internet usage. The results indicate that consumers often utilize four sources to obtain information about miniature automobiles. The dominant information source for consumers is their friends/family, followed by dealers, newspapers, and TV. Age, occupation, education and income significantly affect the extent of information search, but gender and city of residence do not have significant impacts. Age, city of residence, occupation, education and income produce significant influences on Internet usage. Gender has an insignificant influence on whether a consumer uses the Internet to search for information.

  1. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  2. Dynamics of aerospace vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1991-01-01

    The focus of this research was to address the modeling, including model reduction, of flexible aerospace vehicles, with special emphasis on models used in dynamic analysis and/or guidance and control system design. In the modeling, it is critical that the key aspects of the system being modeled be captured in the model. In this work, therefore, aspects of the vehicle dynamics critical to control design were important. In this regard, fundamental contributions were made in the areas of stability robustness analysis techniques, model reduction techniques, and literal approximations for key dynamic characteristics of flexible vehicles. All these areas are related. In the development of a model, approximations are always involved, so control systems designed using these models must be robust against uncertainties in these models.

  3. OFF-ROAD CAPABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF MAZ-AUTOMOBILE HAVING AGRICULTURAL MODIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Bobrovnik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains requirements to parameters of an automobile being designed with axle arrangement 6x4 and technically permissible mass of 25 tons with its all year round operation in agricultural industry with the purpose to ensure in-time load transportation and technological cycle in crop production of the agricultural complex in accordance with time schedule of the executed mechanized works. The future automobile should also have a power takeoff device.The paper presents operation chart flowsheets for cultivation of main crops on mineral and peat soils with indication of automobile motion modes and type of transported loads. Specific properties of peat-bog soils are given in the paper. The paper considers off-road capability of mobile machines when they are moving on soils with low bearing capacity. The paper indicates field applications of automobiles with limited and high off-road capability. Description of wheel interaction with bearing surface area, values of soil resistivity after multiple automobile passages have been given in the paper.The paper specifies values of rolling resistance coefficient and adhesion coefficient of the automobile undercarriage systems in spring and autumn for wheeled and crawler units. Schemes of the automobile front axle drives (electric, hydraulic, mechanical and their characteristics have been analyzed in the paper. An elastic flexible drive with separation of flow power has been proposed for reduction of dynamic loads in a power transmission drive. The paper describes a drive system of auto-analogue steering wheels with hydraulic hydrostatic drive which is located within a front wheel hub that ensure additional thrust. Recommendations for MAZ-automobile modernization with axle arrangement 6x4 have been given with the purpose to improve its off- road capability.Metallic anti-skid chain, segment and small link, track and crawler chains, wideners have obtained a wide application for improvement of automobile

  4. Aerospace engineering training: universities experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mertins Kseniya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary professional working in aerospace engineering must have a set of soft and hard skills. The experience gained in universities shows that training of a competent professional is impossible without an employer involved in this process. The paper provides an analysis of missions, tasks and experience of aerospace professionals and identifies the present and future roles, missions and required skills of a highly qualified specialist in aerospace engineering. This analysis can be used to design a master’s program aiming at providing students with the required knowledge, know-how and attitudes needed to succeed as professionals in industrial companies.

  5. China To Boost Civil Aerospace Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) announced on January 30,2008 that it had approved the overall development planning of three national aerospace industrial bases.Building a civil aerospace industry base serves to optimize and integrate aerospace resources to further increase the potential for technological innovation and product R&D in China's aerospace industry.

  6. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  7. Aerospace materials and material technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wanhill, R

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of chapters on materials (both established and evolving) and material technologies that are important for aerospace systems. It considers aerospace materials in three Parts. Part I covers Metallic Materials (Mg, Al, Al-Li, Ti, aero steels, Ni, intermetallics, bronzes and Nb alloys); Part II deals with Composites (GLARE, PMCs, CMCs and Carbon based CMCs); and Part III considers Special Materials. This compilation has ensured that no important aerospace material system is ignored. Emphasis is laid in each chapter on the underlying scientific principles as well as basic and fundamental mechanisms leading to processing, characterization, property evaluation and applications. A considerable amount of materials data is compiled and presented in appendices at the end of the book. This book will be useful to students, researchers and professionals working in the domain of aerospace materials.

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 11: Chronology of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Henderson, Madeline; Bishop, Ann P.; Doty, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The chronology is a comprehensive bibliography. It contains 512 entries covering a variety of selected literature, reports, policy instruments, and significant events affecting Federal Scientific and Technical Information (STI) from 1945 to 1990. It includes some publications and events of historic interest which relate to the evaluation of aerospace and aerospace knowledge diffusion. Each entry has been given an item number and items are arranged by columns. To provide an overview of Federal STI developments, the entries are generally arranged by date of publication and event.

  9. Ablation response testing of aerospace power supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, S. A.; Chan, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    An experimental program was performed to assess the aerothermal ablation response of aerospace power supplies. Full-scale General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) test articles, Graphite Impact Shell (GIS) test articles, and Lightweight Radioisotope Heater Unit (LWRHU) test articles were all tested without nuclear fuel in simulated reentry environments at the NASA Ames Research Center. Stagnation heating, stagnation pressure, stagnation surface temperature, stagnation surface recession profile, and weight loss measurements were obtained for diffusion-limited and sublimation ablation conditions. The recession profile and weight loss measurements showed an effect of surface features on the stagnation face. The surface features altered the local heating which in turn affected the local ablation.

  10. Future possibilities for energy-storage automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, L.G.

    1981-04-23

    Because of the potential threat of a future petroleum shortage, there is increased interest in developing alternative propulsion systems for automobiles, systems that will allow the nation to reduce its demand for petroleum by this part of the transportation sector. A four-year study which assessed the future of energy storage devices for use in automobile propulsion systems has been completed. Results of the energy storage device evaluation are presented. This includes projections of future device characteristics. In addition, the results of the propulsion system analysis are given. Future energy storage automobiles were conceptually designed and they are compared to each other and the baseline internal combustion engine vehicle for several levels of performance.

  11. Research of Dynamic Material Handling in an Automobile General Assembly Line Based on Real-time Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Nan; LI Shi-qi; WANG Jun-feng; ZHANG Zhen-li

    2012-01-01

    The status of material delivery of an automobile general assembly line is analyzed, and the technique to achieve the real-time tracking of assembly status information is proposed based on RFID( Radio Frequency Identification). Thus the consumption of line-side buffer is obtained dynamically, then the type and quantity of needed material are fed back to the subsystem of material handling; the algorithm for determining the best time departure time of delivery driver based on minimizing of total time penalty function is proposed. This approach makes the material amount of a single delivery trip maximized and improves the efficiency of delivery drivers significantly in the case of does not affect the assembly line normal throughput. Additionally, although this dynamic material handling method is developed for the automobile assembly plant, it should be pointed out that this method is also applicable to other mixed model assembly plants such as electronics, semiconductor and aerospace industry.

  12. Consumption values and consumer attitude towards automobile purchase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Naveed Altaf; Selvan Perumal; Zolkifli Hussin

    2017-01-01

    .... A survey of 200 automobile consumers from Islamabad, Pakistan, selected via convenience sampling, was used to draw results on how consumers' consumption values affected their attitude towards automobile purchase...

  13. 38 CFR 17.156 - Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobile adaptive equipment. 17.156 Section 17.156 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Automotive Equipment and Driver Training § 17.156 Eligibility for automobile adaptive equipment. Automobile adaptive equipment may be authorized if the Under Secretary for Health...

  14. 38 CFR 3.808 - Automobiles or other conveyances; certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automobiles or other....808 Automobiles or other conveyances; certification. (a) Entitlement. A certificate of eligibility for financial assistance in the purchase of one automobile or other conveyance in an amount not exceeding...

  15. 32 CFR 220.11 - Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special rules for automobile liability insurance and no-fault automobile insurance. 220.11 Section 220.11 National Defense Department of Defense... OF REASONABLE CHARGES FOR HEALTHCARE SERVICES § 220.11 Special rules for automobile...

  16. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  17. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  18. Active Engine Mount Technology for Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Z.; Spanos, J.

    1996-01-01

    We present a narrow-band tracking control using a variant of the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm [1,2,3] for supressing automobile engine/drive-train vibration disturbances. The algorithm presented here has a simple structure and may be implemented in a low cost micro controller.

  19. Summary of aerospace and nuclear engineering activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The Texas A&M Nuclear and Aerospace engineering departments have worked on five different projects for the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program during the 1987/88 year. The aerospace department worked on two types of lunar tunnelers that would create habitable space. The first design used a heated cone to melt the lunar regolith, and the second used a conventional drill to bore its way through the crust. Both used a dump truck to get rid of waste heat from the reactor as well as excess regolith from the tunneling operation. The nuclear engineering department worked on three separate projects. The NEPTUNE system is a manned, outer-planetary explorer designed with Jupiter exploration as the baseline mission. The lifetime requirement for both reactor and power-conversion systems was twenty years. The second project undertaken for the power supply was a Mars Sample Return Mission power supply. This was designed to produce 2 kW of electrical power for seven years. The design consisted of a General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) utilizing a Stirling engine as the power conversion unit. A mass optimization was performed to aid in overall design. The last design was a reactor to provide power for propulsion to Mars and power on the surface. The requirements of 300 kW of electrical power output and a mass of less than 10,000 Rg were set. This allowed the reactor and power conversion unit to fit within the Space Shuttle cargo bay.

  20. DESIGNING OF AN AUTOMOBILE FLEET NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Ivut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investment volume is considered as an important factor in regional development under current conditions. Logistical infrastructure which ensures a complex transport, distributive, information and other services exerts a significant influence on regional investment attractiveness. Lack of clear vision on development and execution of development strategy for logistics infrastructure from the side of regional authorities results in unwillingness of large federal and transnational companies to provide investments in infrastructure projects. Network of automotive transport terminals is one of the main elements in logistics infrastructure. The network allows to optimize a flow of material goods from the point of their origin to the point of their consumption with the lowest possible costs and the required level of service. Automobile transport is one of the main objects of transport infrastructure and it is characterized by rather high flexibility in comparison with other types of transport facilities that preconditions its widespread application. Network of automobile fleets (terminals has been formed for redistribution of goods traffic within the concerned regions. The purpose of the present research is to develop a mathematical model for formation of transport infrastructure on the territory of regions. The paper proposes an approach for formation of automobile fleet (terminal network on the territory of a large region with due account of the established network of distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities. A model has been developed for solving the problem pertaining to minimization of aggregate costs related to maintenance of automobile fleets, delivery of goods to and from distribution and sorting-out warehouse facilities to consumers, ferry of empty trucks and goods handling. The model makes it possible to determine optimal number and location area of automobile fleets (terminals while accounting for their possible locations, capacity

  1. Photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Burner, Alpheus W.; Jones, Thomas W.; Barrows, Danny A.

    2012-10-01

    Photogrammetric techniques have been used for measuring the important physical quantities in both ground and flight testing including aeroelastic deformation, attitude, position, shape and dynamics of objects such as wind tunnel models, flight vehicles, rotating blades and large space structures. The distinct advantage of photogrammetric measurement is that it is a non-contact, global measurement technique. Although the general principles of photogrammetry are well known particularly in topographic and aerial survey, photogrammetric techniques require special adaptation for aerospace applications. This review provides a comprehensive and systematic summary of photogrammetric techniques for aerospace applications based on diverse sources. It is useful mainly for aerospace engineers who want to use photogrammetric techniques, but it also gives a general introduction for photogrammetrists and computer vision scientists to new applications.

  2. Challenges in aerospace medicine education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenon, S Marlene; Saary, Joan

    2011-11-01

    Aerospace medicine training and research represents a dream for many and a challenge for most. In Canada, although some opportunities exist for the pursuit of education and research in the aerospace medicine field, they are limited despite the importance of this field for enabling safe human space exploration. In this commentary, we aim to identify some of the challenges facing individuals wishing to get involved in the field as well as the causal factors for these challenges. We also explore strategies to mitigate against these.

  3. Automobile emissions in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaton, S.; Bishop, G.; Stedman, D.

    1996-09-01

    In order to determine the exhaust characteristics of the Mexico City vehicle fleet, a Fuel Efficiency Automotive Test (FEAT) unit was placed at 5 different sites over a 10 day period from 11 February 1991 through 21 February 1991. Valid data for the percent of carbon Monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) were obtained on 31 838 vehicles. This represents approximately 1 % of the entire Mexico City fleet.

  4. Aerospace Training. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Aerospace is an economic powerhouse that generates jobs and fuels our economy. Washington's community and technical colleges produce the world-class employees needed to keep it that way. With about 1,250 aerospace-related firms employing more than 94,000 workers, Washington has the largest concentration of aerospace expertise in the nation. To…

  5. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  6. Ceramic composites: Enabling aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    Ceramics and ceramic matrix composites (CMC) have the potential for significant impact on the performance of aerospace propulsion and power systems. In this paper, the potential benefits are discussed in broad qualitative terms and are illustrated by some specific application case studies. The key issues in need of resolution for the potential of ceramics to be realized are discussed.

  7. Occupational injuries in automobile repair workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Heer; Das, Subir; Mehta, Shashank

    2011-01-01

    Mechanics are exposed to varied work stressors such as hot noisy environments, strenuous postures, improperly designed tools and machinery and poor psycho-social environments which may exert an influence on their health and safety. The study aimed to examine the occupational injury patterns and identify work stressors associated with injury amongst automobile mechanics. A descriptive ergonomic checklist and questionnaire on general health and psycho-social issues were administered to male workers (N=153). The relative risk factors and correlation statistics were used to identify the work stressors associated with occupational injury. 63% of the workers reported injuries. Cuts were the chief injuries being reported. Poor work environment, machinery and tool characteristics, suffering from poor health and psycho-social stressors were associated with injury occurrence amongst automobile repair workers.

  8. Automobile active suspension system with fuzzy control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘少军; 黄中华; 陈毅章

    2004-01-01

    A quarter-automobile active suspension model was proposed. High speed on/off solenoid valves were used as control valves and fuzzy control was chosen as control method . Based on force analyses of system parts, a mathematical model of the active suspension system was established and simplified by linearization method. Simulation study was conducted with Matlab and three scale coefficients of fuzzy controller (ke, kec, ku) were acquired. And an experimental device was designed and produced. The results indicate that the active suspension system can achieve better vibration isolation performance than passive suspension system, the displacement amplitude of automobile body can be reduced to 55%. Fuzzy control is an effective control method for active suspension system.

  9. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D. T. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal energy storage (TES) system developed for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has gravimetric and volumetric storage densities which are competitive with electric battery storage systems, meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle, and can be packaged in compact sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept described is also useful for a dual mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short duration trips (approximately 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried on board the vehicle used for long duration trips. The dual mode approach offers the potential of 50 percent savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States.

  10. Pulmonary function in automobile repair workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattopadhyay O

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Automobile repair shop is a place where workers are exposed to harmful chemicals and toxic substances. Objective : To study the occurrence of obstructive and restrictive pulmonary impairment among automobile garage workers. Methods : A cross sectional study involving 151 automobile garage workers from 14 randomly selected garages of urban Kolkata. The study variables were Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV 1 , Forced Vital Capacity (FVC, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PE FR, age, smoking habit, duration of work, type of work, and respiratory symptoms. The study was analysed using Regression equations, and Chi-square test. Results : All the workers were male. Obstructive impairment was seen in 25.83% of the workers whereas restrictive impairment was seen in 21.19% of the workers. Mixed obstructive and restrictive impairment was seen in 10.6% of the workers. The frequency of obstructive impairment was higher in older workers. In the age group of less than 20 years, 13.6% of the workers had obstructive impairment while 42.86% of workers above 40 years of age had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in battery repair workers (58.33% and spray painters (37.5% while 16.67% of the body repair workers and 30.19% of the engine mechanics had obstructive impairment. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in smokers (53.1 % as compared to ex-smokers (33.3% and non-smokers (6.4%. Obstructive impairment was more frequently observed in workers who had been working for a longer duration. Conclusion: Nearly 36.4% of the automobile garage workers had some form of pulmonary function impairment; obstructive and/or restrictive. The use of personal protective equipment, worker education, and discontinuation of the use of paints containing toxic pigments are recommended.

  11. UNICEF and automobile CO2 negotiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Seok Hun [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Yongin (Korea)

    2000-06-01

    The EU automobile negotiation was very suggestive since it was the first international trade negotiation related with UNFCCC. It generated considerable reactions in association with {sup v}oluntary negotiation{sup i}n semiconductor sector. Most of all, such a new car negotiation shows well that it is hard to free from global environmental responsibilities even for a company in a developing country in UNFCCC.

  12. Thermal energy storage for the Stirling engine powered automobile. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D T [ed.

    1979-03-01

    A detailed design of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for use with the Stirling engine as an automotive power system has been developed. The gravimetric and volumetric storage densities are competitive with electric battery storage systems. The TES/Stirling engine system meets all operational requirements for a practical vehicle and can be packaged in compact-sized automobiles with minimum impact on passenger and freight volume. The TES/Stirling system is the only storage approach for direct use of combustion heat from fuel sources not suitable for direct transport and use on the vehicle. The particular concept developed in this study is also useful for a dual-mode TES/liquid fuel system in which the TES (recharged from an external energy source) is used for short-duration trips (approx. 10 miles or less) and liquid fuel carried onboard the vehicle used for long-duration trips (as in current automobiles). The dual-mode approach permits an automobile with the convenience and flexibility of current automobiles while offering the potential of 50% savings in the consumption of premium liquid fuels for automotive propulsion in the United States. Relative to the TES-only vehicle, the dual mode approach also reduces the TES cost significantly because of the much smaller TES capacity required.

  13. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Barreto Gomez, L.; Dietrich, Ph. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A.; Jacoby, H.D. [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  14. Leaking Methane from Natural Gas Vehicles: Implications for US Greenhouse Gas Reductions from the Automobile Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Victor, D.G.

    1989-01-01

    A model of the US automobile market is used to test the role that natural gas vehicles (NGVs) might play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Since natural gas (methane) emits less CO2 per unit of energy than petroleum products, NGVs are an obvious pathway to lower CO2 emissions. High and low demand scenarios are used to forecast the emissions from unrestricted growth and a modest program of conservation, respectively. Based on these scenarios, a reference scenario is developed that projects...

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 55: Career goals and educational preparation of aerospace engineering and science students: An international perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1995-01-01

    Results are presented of a survey of aerospace engineering and science students conducted in India, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The similarities and differences among aerospace engineering and science students from the five countries are examined in the context of two general aspects of educational experience. First, the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that led to the choice of a career in aerospace, their current levels of satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives is considered. Second, the importance of certain communications/information-use skills for professional use is examined, as well as the frequency of use and importance of specific information sources and products to meet students' educational needs. Overall, the students who participated in this research remain relatively happy with the choice of a career in aerospace engineering, despite pessimism in some quarters about the future of the industry. Regardless of national identity, aerospace engineering and science students appear to share a similar vision of the profession in terms of their career goals and aspirations. The data also indicate that aerospace engineering and science students are well aware of the importance of communications/information-use skills to professional success and that competency in these skills will help them to be productive members of their profession. Collectively, all of the students appear to use and value similar information sources and products, although some differences appear by country.

  16. Lattice Structures For Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Olmo, E.; Grande, E.; Samartin, C. R.; Bezdenejnykh, M.; Torres, J.; Blanco, N.; Frovel, M.; Canas, J.

    2012-07-01

    The way of mass reduction improving performances in the aerospace structures is a constant and relevant challenge in the space business. The designs, materials and manufacturing processes are permanently in evolution to explore and get mass optimization solutions at low cost. In the framework of ICARO project, EADS CASA ESPACIO (ECE) has designed, manufactured and tested a technology demonstrator which shows that lattice type of grid structures is a promising weight saving solution for replacing some traditional metallic and composite structures for space applications. A virtual testing methodology was used in order to support the design of a high modulus CFRP cylindrical lattice technology demonstrator. The manufacturing process, based on composite Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP) technology developed by ECE, allows obtaining high quality low weight lattice structures potentially applicable to a wide range of aerospace structures. Launcher payload adaptors, satellite platforms, antenna towers or instrument supports are some promising candidates.

  17. Damage growth in aerospace composites

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book presents novel methods for the simulation of damage evolution in aerospace composites that will assist in predicting damage onset and growth and thus foster less conservative designs which realize the promised economic benefits of composite materials. The presented integrated numerical/experimental methodologies are capable of taking into account the presence of damage and its evolution in composite structures from the early phases of the design (conceptual design) through to the detailed finite element method analysis and verification phase. The book is based on the GARTEUR Research Project AG-32, which ran from 2007 to 2012, and documents the main results of that project. In addition, the state of the art in European projects on damage evolution in composites is reviewed. While the high specific strength and stiffness of composite materials make them suitable for aerospace structures, their sensitivity to damage means that designing with composites is a challenging task. The new approaches describ...

  18. Sandwiched composites in aerospace engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, J. P.; Silva,J.F.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter considers sandwiched composites used in aerospace applications. Typical sandwich composites consist of two thin, stiff, high-strength facing skins separated by a thick and light core. New developments in the type of face and core materials, production methods and joining and repair techniques are discussed in this chapter. It also discusses various properties as well as their main design methods for existing and future applications of sandwiched composites.

  19. Magnetic Gearboxes for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Diaz, Jose Luis; Diez-Jimenez, Efren; Alvarez-Valenzuela, Marco A.; Sanchez-Garcia-Casarrubios, Juan; Cristache, Christian; Valiente-Blanco, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic gearboxes are contactless mechanisms for torque-speed conversion. They present no wear, no friction and no fatigue. They need no lubricant and can be customized for other mechanical properties as stiffness or damping. Additionally, they can protect structures and mechanisms against overloads, limitting the transmitted torque. In this work, spur, planetary and "magdrive" or "harmonic drive" configurations are compared considering their use in aerospace applications. The most recent test data are summarized to provide some useful help for the design engineer.

  20. Carbon nanotechnology for future aerospace

    OpenAIRE

    Inam, Fawad

    2014-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene are being widely investigated for their addition in polymer, ceramic and metal matrices to prepare nanocomposites owing to the combination of the superlative mechanical, thermal, and electronic properties attributed to them. These materials are subject of significant research interest for their utilisation in an increasing number of applications including energy, transportation, defence, automotive, aerospace, sporting goods, and infrastructure sectors. Pa...

  1. Communication for performance in aerospace

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelian Virgil BALUTA; Gabriela IOSIF

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlines rules for employees in the aerospace field about general procedures, accounting, budgets, employees involvement in the companies goals as a team or as a group. The quality of all communications activities is presented in correlation with performance. For us, performance means economic and social references, stability and credibility of the business and, not least, a good communication within the existing groups or teams. We take in account long-term, medium and short perfor...

  2. KIBO Industry, innovates in aerospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Jean-Philippe

    2016-07-01

    The conquest of space is a true inspiration. Imagine a long-duration mission to a distant destination. What shall we take to produce our food? A cow, fish, chicken, or just eggs. In the current state of the animal production technologies are complicated and expensive to implement, except perhaps one: the breeding of edible insects. Based on this postulate KIBO in partnership with Space Agriculture Task Force and the university's department of Nutrition Nagoya most innovative research program is created in modern nutrition. This program is called Pegasus. Pegasus research program aims to develop food productions and modules applicable to the aerospace conquest. Kibo industry is the first entomocole production company creat in Europe to human food; it aims to become the world leader by 2020. Kibo industry is particularly specialized in producing entomosource (products with insects). The first phase of the program is to achieve an outcome cereal bar edible insect to aerospace. So we will present the issues and objectives of the project, for aerospace and us. Jean-Philippe Paillard is the KIBO industry CEO and Vice President of the FFPIDI insects farms federation. He is also the co computer alone authorization dossier on the market in Europe and therefore the privileged interlocutor of the General Directorate for Health and Customer Review on this topic. He intervened at the last conference on the insect organized by FAO in Wageningen and various universities in France.

  3. 76 FR 44402 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...' eligibility for automobile adaptation equipment or other conveyance allowance. DATES: Written comments and... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Application for Automobile or...

  4. SLIDING MODE CONTROL FOR ACTIVE AUTOMOBILE SUSPENSIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear control methods are presented based on theory of sliding mode control (SMC) or variable structure control (VSC) for application to active automobile suspensions. Requirements of reducing manufacturing cost and energy consumption of the active suspension system may be satisfiedby reasonable design of the sliding surface and hydraulic servo system. Emphasis is placed on the study of the discrete sliding mode control method (DSMC) applicable for a new sort of speed on-off solenoid valves of anti-dust capability and low price. Robustness and effectiveness of the feedback linearized controller in typical road conditions are demonstrated by numerical results fora quarter-car suspension model.

  5. Information, complexity and efficiency: The automobile model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenby, B. [Lucent Technologies (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-08-08

    The new, rapidly evolving field of industrial ecology - the objective, multidisciplinary study of industrial and economic systems and their linkages with fundamental natural systems - provides strong ground for believing that a more environmentally and economically efficient economy will be more information intensive and complex. Information and intellectual capital will be substituted for the more traditional inputs of materials and energy in producing a desirable, yet sustainable, quality of life. While at this point this remains a strong hypothesis, the evolution of the automobile industry can be used to illustrate how such substitution may, in fact, already be occurring in an environmentally and economically critical sector.

  6. WIND DRIVEN MOBILE CHARGING OF AUTOMOBILE BATTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUDHIR KUMAR SINHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with implementation of mobile wind driven generator technology to produce electricity in charging of two wheeler (12V automobile battery. The use of PWM methodology with pulse charging method at a constant rate has been adopted for this purpose. The low speed PMSG driven by wind at speed of 15/40 km/hour has been used to eliminate gear box to achieve high efficiency. The output of three phase bridge rectifier is fed to boost converter which provides pulses of constant current to the battery.

  7. STRATEGY AND PROSPECTS OF UKRAINIAN AUTOMOBILE MOTOR INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kryvokon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research of strategy and prospects of Ukrainian automobile motor industry development has been done: the measures of public policy, which must be realized for the development of national automobile industry, a car production volume and expected working place in motor industry under state support have been described.

  8. The Need for an Aerospace Pharmacy Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayuse, T.; Schuyler, C.; Bayuse, Tina M.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph poster presentation reviews the rationale for a call for a new program in residency for aerospace pharmacy. Aerospace medicine provides a unique twist on traditional medicine, and a specialty has evolved to meet the training for physicians, and it is becoming important to develop such a program for training in pharmacy designed for aerospace. The reasons for this specialist training are outlined and the challenges of developing a program are reviewed.

  9. Advanced Ceramic Materials for Future Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    With growing trend toward higher temperature capabilities, lightweight, and multifunctionality, significant advances in ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) will be required for future aerospace applications. The presentation will provide an overview of material requirements for future aerospace missions, and the role of ceramics and CMCs in meeting those requirements. Aerospace applications will include gas turbine engines, aircraft structure, hypersonic and access to space vehicles, space power and propulsion, and space communication.

  10. Index of International Publications in Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Aerospace Medicine technical reports are available in full-text from the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute’s publications Web site: www.faa.gov/library...Other Topics Related to Aerospace Medicine IBERIA Dirección Servicios al Cliente. Pasajeros con Movilidad Reducida. Consejos para el Viaje. Madrid...Enfermos. Madrid, Spain: Ministerio del Aire, Servicio Información Aeronáutica, 1956. National Air Transportation Association. NATA Bloodborne Pathogens

  11. Developing Digital Aerospace to Build The Advanced Aerospace Corporation in The World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HouJunjie; LiuHaibin; GaoShiwen

    2005-01-01

    It is the strategic goal to develop digital aerospace for ChinaAerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) to realize its leap development. In the paper, we expound the connotation of developing digital aerospace, i.e. the digitization of aerospace products, the informatization of R&D and manufacturing, the industrialization of software products, and the integration of information of ground and space sectors.

  12. Microelectronics packaging research directions for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, L.

    2003-01-01

    The Roadmap begins with an assessment of needs from the microelectronics for aerospace applications viewpoint. Needs Assessment is divided into materials, packaging components, and radiation characterization of packaging.

  13. Effect of automobiles on global warming: A modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sundar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global warming threatens our environment as well as basic human needs. In the present scenario, increasing demand and excessive use of automobiles have increased the level of carbon dioxide emission in the environment, providing a significant contribution to increase the global warming. This paper deals with the modeling of the effect of automobiles on global warming. For this, three nonlinearly interacting variables namely; density of human population, density of automobiles and the concentration of carbon dioxide have been taken into account. In the modeling process, it is assumed that the density of automobiles increases in proportion to human population following a logistic growth. The model is analyzed using stability theory of ordinary differential equations. Local and global stability conditions are established to study the feasibility of the model system. It is shown that with increase in human population, the demand for automobiles increases which has significant effect on global warming increase.

  14. Automobile Industry Strategic Alliance Partner Selection: The Application of a Hybrid DEA and Grey Theory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding the right strategic alliance partner is a critical success factor for many enterprises. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose an effective approach based on grey theory and data envelopment analysis (DEA for selecting better partners for alliance. This study used grey forecasting to predict future business performances and used DEA for the partner selection of alliances. This research was implemented with realistic public data in four consecutive financial years (2009–2012 of the world’s 20 biggest automobile enterprises. Nissan Motor Co., Ltd was set to be the target decision making unit (DMU. The empirical results showed that, among 19 candidate DMUs, Renault (DMU10 and Daimler (DMU11 were the two feasible beneficial alliance partners for Nissan. Although this research is specifically applied to the automobile industry, the proposed method could also be applied to other manufacturing industries.

  15. Adaptive control with aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadient, Ross

    Robust and adaptive control techniques have a rich history of theoretical development with successful application. Despite the accomplishments made, attempts to combine the best elements of each approach into robust adaptive systems has proven challenging, particularly in the area of application to real world aerospace systems. In this research, we investigate design methods for general classes of systems that may be applied to representative aerospace dynamics. By combining robust baseline control design with augmentation designs, our work aims to leverage the advantages of each approach. This research contributes the development of robust model-based control design for two classes of dynamics: 2nd order cascaded systems, and a more general MIMO framework. We present a theoretically justified method for state limiting via augmentation of a robust baseline control design. Through the development of adaptive augmentation designs, we are able to retain system performance in the presence of uncertainties. We include an extension that combines robust baseline design with both state limiting and adaptive augmentations. In addition we develop an adaptive augmentation design approach for a class of dynamic input uncertainties. We present formal stability proofs and analyses for all proposed designs in the research. Throughout the work, we present real world aerospace applications using relevant flight dynamics and flight test results. We derive robust baseline control designs with application to both piloted and unpiloted aerospace system. Using our developed methods, we add a flight envelope protecting state limiting augmentation for piloted aircraft applications and demonstrate the efficacy of our approach via both simulation and flight test. We illustrate our adaptive augmentation designs via application to relevant fixed-wing aircraft dynamics. Both a piloted example combining the state limiting and adaptive augmentation approaches, and an unpiloted example with

  16. Cybersecurity for aerospace autonomous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    High profile breaches have occurred across numerous information systems. One area where attacks are particularly problematic is autonomous control systems. This paper considers the aerospace information system, focusing on elements that interact with autonomous control systems (e.g., onboard UAVs). It discusses the trust placed in the autonomous systems and supporting systems (e.g., navigational aids) and how this trust can be validated. Approaches to remotely detect the UAV compromise, without relying on the onboard software (on a potentially compromised system) as part of the process are discussed. How different levels of autonomy (task-based, goal-based, mission-based) impact this remote characterization is considered.

  17. Time Resolved FTIR Analysis of Tailpipe Exhaust for Several Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Allen R.; Allen, James; Devasher, Rebecca B.

    2011-06-01

    The automotive catalytic converter reduces or eliminates the emission of various chemical species (e.g. CO, hydrocarbons, etc.) that are the products of combustion from automobile exhaust. However, these units are only effective once they have reached operating temperature. The design and placement of catalytic converters has changed in order to reduce both the quantity of emissions and the time that is required for the converter to be effective. In order to compare the effectiveness of catalytic converters, time-resolved measurements were performed on several vehicles, including a 2010 Toyota Prius, a 2010 Honda Fit, a 1994 Honda Civic, and a 1967 Oldsmobile 442 (which is not equipped with a catalytic converter but is used as a baseline). The newer vehicles demonstrate bot a reduced overall level of CO and hydrocarbon emissions but are also effective more quickly than older units. The time-resolved emissions will be discussed along with the impact of catalytic converter design and location on the measured emissions.

  18. Outsourcing within aerospace manufacturing enterprises: A phenomenological study and outsourcing leadership model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Enrique, Jr.

    Many aerospace workers believe transferring work projects abroad has an erosive effect on the U.S. aerospace industry (Pritchard, 2002). This qualitative phenomenological study examines factors for outsourcing decisions and the perceived effects of outsourcing on U.S. aerospace workers. The research sample consists of aerospace industry leaders and nonleaders from the East Coast, Midwest, and West Coast of the United States. Moustakas' modified van Kaam methods of analysis (1994) and Decision Explorer analysis software were applied to the interview transcripts. Resultant data identified five core themes: communication, best value, opportunities, cost, and offset consideration. The themes provided the framework for a model designed to assist leaders in making effective decisions and communicating the benefits of those decisions when considering outsourcing of work projects.

  19. Learning Achievement Packages in Social Studies. Procedimientos para Manejar. Mantenimiento del Automovil. Llantas. (Procedures for Driving. Maintenance of an Automobile. Tires.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Rene

    This publication presents three suggested social studies curriculum units designed for the bilingual Spanish-English classroom, but which would also be useful in advanced Spanish language classes for English speakers. The units, developed for grades 7-11, are entitled, "Procedures for Driving,""Maintenance of an Automobile,"…

  20. Ultrasonic Characterization of Aerospace Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara; Johnston, Patrick; Haldren, Harold; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Composite materials have seen an increased use in aerospace in recent years and it is expected that this trend will continue due to the benefits of reduced weight, increased strength, and other factors. Ongoing work at NASA involves the investigation of the large-scale use of composites for spacecraft structures (SLS components, Orion Composite Crew Module, etc). NASA is also involved in work to enable the use of composites in advanced aircraft structures through the Advanced Composites Project (ACP). In both areas (space and aeronautics) there is a need for new nondestructive evaluation and materials characterization techniques that are appropriate for characterizing composite materials. This paper will present an overview of NASA's needs for characterizing aerospace composites, including a description of planned and ongoing work under ACP for the detection of composite defects such as fiber waviness, reduced bond strength, delamination damage, and microcracking. The research approaches include investigation of angle array, guided wave, and phase sensitive ultrasonic methods. The use of ultrasonic simulation tools for optimizing and developing methods will also be discussed.

  1. Communication for performance in aerospace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Virgil BALUTA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines rules for employees in the aerospace field about general procedures, accounting, budgets, employees involvement in the companies goals as a team or as a group. The quality of all communications activities is presented in correlation with performance. For us, performance means economic and social references, stability and credibility of the business and, not least, a good communication within the existing groups or teams. We take in account long-term, medium and short performance for a new and modern field such as the aerospace industry. The paper highlights the group communication aspects, the process needed to optimize communication within a group, the team characteristics and mission, the team involvement versus group involvement, organization of the work team and defining/definition of roles in a team according to individual skills and some technics; to apply the Belbin test for determining the role of individuals within the team, for identifying the types of communication in order to get the information transmitted to the different types of individuals such as “analytical type”, “director type”, “friendly type”, “expressive type”, the needs and interest of these individuals, assessing how the information was received and the impact of the feedback.

  2. iSTEM: The Aerospace Engineering Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Lyn D.; King, Donna T.; Hudson, Peter; Dawes, Les

    2014-01-01

    The authors developed The Paper Plane Challenge as one of a three-part response to The Aerospace Engineering Challenge. The Aerospace Engineering Challenge was the second of three multi-part activities that they had developed with the teachers during the year. Their aim was to introduce students to the exciting world of engineering, where they…

  3. The 42nd Aerospace Mechanism Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor); Hakun, Claef (Editor)

    2014-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production, and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development, and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  4. Henkel Technologies and Products for China Aerospace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Cichon; Helen Wei Li; Alex Wong; Stan Lehmann; Raymond Wong

    2006-01-01

    Epoxy structural adhesives and composites have been in use for many years for the construction of aerospace vehicles. Henkel provides many epoxy products. Many other resin systems have been evaluated and several, such as imide,phenolic and cyanate ester, have also achieved significant use. Henkel's newly developed "Epsilon" chemistry demonstrates unique features that benefit application in aerospace structure that use adhesives and composites.

  5. The challenges of automobile-dependent urban transport strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Miomir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental aims of sustainable urban development and the pro-automobile oriented economic development are on a collision course. It is obvious that automobile-dependent urban development is under heavy/powerful influence of the automobile lobby (automobile and oil industries, along with construction. In this domain famous land-use-transportation studies (or ‘grand transportation studies’ are, unfortunately, still prevailing - a vicious circle of self-fulfilling prophecy of congestion, road building, sprawl, congestion and more road building. Until recently, it was commonly thought that investment in public transport was not economically sustainable and that focusing on the development of the automobile industry and financing the construction of roadways stimulated economic growth. In this paper we clearly show that automobile industry is now overcapitalized, less profitable than many other industries (and may become even less profitable in the future, that transport market is characterized with huge distortions (more than a third of motor-vehicle use can be explained by underpriced driving, while new road investment does not have a major impact on economic growth (especially in a region with an already well-developed infrastructure, and that pro-automobile transport strategy inexorably incurs harmful global, regional and local ecological consequences. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37010

  6. Opportunities for energy harvesting in automobile factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, E. I.; Edwards, R. M.; Whittow, Will; Bindel, Axel; Peca, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the opportunities of deploying distributed sensors within the manufacturing environment of a large scale automobile plant using energy harvesting techniques. Measurements were taken in three domains at the plant in order to characterize ambient energy. Due to the location of the plant, the RF power density for radio access technologies present varied between -127 dBm/cm2 and -113 dBm/cm2. The maximum temperature difference measured within accessible distance from machine parts on the production lines surveyed was 10°C. Indoor lighting was dominant at the plant via fluorescent tubes, with average irradiance of 1 W/m2. The results obtained from this measurement campaign showed that indoor lighting was the most suitable ambient source for energy harvesting.

  7. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  8. Female identity discourse in automobile advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat López Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the way in which the modern car-advertisement defines the identity of women as potential purchasers – to whom it is designed to get through. The research includes language and iconic instruments by which this type of advertisement aims to create a feminized market of products formerly recognized as traditionally masculine. The identification of the addressee of each publicity material might be subsumed under a set of stereotypes, thus enabling advertisers to get across their message using the code of addressee’s own values. The present paper concentrates on the linguistic specifity of the ads for high-tech goods (automobiles targeting the feminine public and eventually points out their high degree of markedness according to the sex of addressees. Discourse analysis and a closer look at linguistic means appearing in French, Spanish and Polish automotive commercials both reveals a stereotyped woman’s image and shows how they happen to perpetutate it.

  9. Methemoglobinemia secondary to automobile exhaust fumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laney, R.F.; Hoffman, R.S. (Department of Emergency Medicine, Morristown Memorial Hospital, NJ (United States))

    1992-09-01

    Methemoglobinemia is an uncommon cause of cyanosis. A 28-year-old male presented to the emergency department cyanotic and short of breath after exposure to noxious automobile fumes. He did not improve with the administration of 100% oxygen therapy. The initial arterial blood gas with cooximetry was: pH of 7.38, PaCO2 of 43 mm Hg, PaO2 of 118 mm Hg, measured oxygen saturation of 70%, and a methemoglobin level of 24.8%. Methylene blue was given (2 mg/kg intravenously) and the patient's symptoms resolved. On the following day he was discharged home without complication. A comprehensive review of the literature revealed no reported cases of methemoglobinemia secondary to accidental exposure to exhaust fumes.17 references.

  10. Stability analysis of automobile driver steering control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    In steering an automobile, the driver must basically control the direction of the car's trajectory (heading angle) and the lateral deviation of the car relative to a delineated pathway. A previously published linear control model of driver steering behavior which is analyzed from a stability point of view is considered. A simple approximate expression for a stability parameter, phase margin, is derived in terms of various driver and vehicle control parameters, and boundaries for stability are discussed. A field test study is reviewed that includes the measurement of driver steering control parameters. Phase margins derived for a range of vehicle characteristics are found to be generally consistent with known adaptive properties of the human operator. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of driver adaptive behavior.

  11. Measurement of volatile organic compounds inside automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoruk, Marion J; Kerger, Brent D

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the types and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the passenger cabin of selected sedan automobiles under static (parked, unventilated) and specified conditions of operation (i.e., driving the vehicle using air conditioning alone, vent mode alone, or driver's window half open). Data were collected on five different passenger sedan vehicles from three major automobile manufacturers. Airborne concentrations were assessed using 90-min time-weighted average (TWA) samples under U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method IP-1B to assess individual VOC compounds and total VOCs (TVOCs) calibrated to toluene. Static vehicle testing demonstrated TVOC levels of approximately 400-800 microg/m(3) at warm interior vehicle temperatures (approximately 80 degrees F), whereas TVOCs at least fivefold higher were observed under extreme heat conditions (e.g., up to 145 degrees F). The profile of most prevalent individual VOC compounds varied considerably according to vehicle brand, age, and interior temperature tested, with predominant compounds including styrene, toluene, and 8- to 12-carbon VOCs. TVOC levels under varied operating conditions (and ventilation) were generally four- to eightfold lower (at approximately 50-160 microg/m(3)) than the static vehicle measurements under warm conditions, with the lowest measured levels generally observed in the trials with the driver's window half open. These data indicate that while relatively high concentrations of certain VOCs can be measured inside static vehicles under extreme heat conditions, normal modes of operation rapidly reduce the inside-vehicle VOC concentrations even when the air conditioning is set on recirculation mode.

  12. Powered Flight The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Greatrix, David R

    2012-01-01

    Whilst most contemporary books in the aerospace propulsion field are dedicated primarily to gas turbine engines, there is often little or no coverage of other propulsion systems and devices such as propeller and helicopter rotors or detailed attention to rocket engines. By taking a wider viewpoint, Powered Flight - The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion aims to provide a broader context, allowing observations and comparisons to be made across systems that are overlooked by focusing on a single aspect alone. The physics and history of aerospace propulsion are built on step-by-step, coupled with the development of an appreciation for the mathematics involved in the science and engineering of propulsion. Combining the author’s experience as a researcher, an industry professional and a lecturer in graduate and undergraduate aerospace engineering, Powered Flight - The Engineering of Aerospace Propulsion covers its subject matter both theoretically and with an awareness of the practicalities of the industry. To ...

  13. The ergonomics simulation and evaluation architecture for the automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianfeng; Yang, Ying; Sun, Shouqian; Liu, Tao

    2005-12-01

    The architecture of ergonomics simulation and evaluation for the automobile was described. Ergonomics analysis and evaluation is one of the most important processes in product design at present. This ergonomics simulation system based on the elements of ergonomics analysis and evaluation can provide an excellent solution to take human element into account earlier in the design phase and make proactive choices in automobile design than those traditional methods. Thinking of the characteristics of the automobile industry, this system adopted the anatomy-based and parameterized human model for Chinese, the simulation technique using motion editing and the mathematical models of ergonomics to solve real ergonomic design problems in the design phases.

  14. Standardization Boosts the Development ofCHANGAN AUTOMOBILE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades,CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE has been sticking to its core value of "technology innovation and consistent care" and dedicating to lead the automobile culture by technology innovation.Till now,it has a complete product range of micro vehicles,passenger cars,buses,trucks,SUV,MPV,etc.,and engineplatforms ranging from 0.8L to 2.5L.CHANGAN AUTOMOBILE brand output ranked 13th in the world and first in China in 2009.Its brand value reached 30.515 billion RMB in 2011,among most valuable brands in China.

  15. Service Quality Challenges in an Indian Automobile Service Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Mangesh D. Jadhao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Market scenario in past decade changes very fast due to computation in a market. Changing a technology and launching new models in market are as per customer demand. Providing service quality is a big task to many organizations. Today automobile service sector faces many problems due to increase of customer expectation from branded company. This study overview the challenges faced by an Indian automobile service sector and find the various gaps which will directly or indirectly affects on service quality and factor which affects the service. The paper concludes with the gaps that affects on current position of four wheeler service industries their market share in automobile service industries.

  16. A Study of the Translation of Automobile Trademark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘硕

    2014-01-01

    Name is an interesting thing, almost everything has its name. Nowadays along with the rising of consumption levels in China, the brand name of the car becomes an important topic. And the translation of the name of the automobile is the primary task for establishing the global image of the brand. In this paper, I summarize the translation methods for automobile trademarks and point out the importance of the translation of automobile’s trademarks. In addition, this paper explores the trend in the trans-lation of automobile names in China.

  17. Reliability-based design for automobiles in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yimin ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    The level of automobile design and manufac-turing is an important sign of leadership in science and technology and economic power. The achievements of theories and methods for reliability-based design of auto-mobiles in China are reviewed. For reliability-based design, the theories and practices, optimization, sensitiv-ity, and robustness are estimated. The techniques of reli-ability-based design for automobiles are developed. The techniques service to the "hollow" phenomena of kernel technology, product innovative power, and independent development power can be solved.

  18. Digital Library for Aerospace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudashev, Å. B.

    The article reviews the experience of the development of digital digital library for the problems in organisation of state-of-the-art education in remote sensing for environmental research. Information-education resources are installed on the Web-Server of Space Research Institute. Web Server was organized in the form the Remote Sensing Data Server, and Metadata Server on the base of digital catalogues with satellite imagery. The integration of Russian Satellite Data of Remote Sensing would conclude the Digital Library. For this project we had the following guiding principles: create the Web resources of Satellite Data, Metadata, and Geospatial Information for University community; provide the information support for the Inter-University Aerospace Centre; provide free Web access and obtaining satellite images over Internet; provide the information exchange and data acquisition.

  19. Nondestructive Evaluation for Aerospace Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, Cara; Cramer, Elliott; Perey, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for enabling NASA's missions in space exploration and aeronautics. The expanded and continued use of composite materials for aerospace components and vehicles leads to a need for advanced NDE techniques capable of quantitatively characterizing damage in composites. Quantitative damage detection techniques help to ensure safety, reliability and durability of space and aeronautic vehicles. This presentation will give a broad outline of NASA's range of technical work and an overview of the NDE research performed in the Nondestructive Evaluation Sciences Branch at NASA Langley Research Center. The presentation will focus on ongoing research in the development of NDE techniques for composite materials and structures, including development of automated data processing tools to turn NDE data into quantitative location and sizing results. Composites focused NDE research in the areas of ultrasonics, thermography, X-ray computed tomography, and NDE modeling will be discussed.

  20. Energy Storage for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Hoberecht, Mark A.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Burke, Kenneth A.; Cabrera, Carlos R.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has long been a major contributor to the development and application of energy storage technologies for NASAs missions and programs. NASA GRC has supported technology efforts for the advancement of batteries and fuel cells. The Electrochemistry Branch at NASA GRC continues to play a critical role in the development and application of energy storage technologies, in collaboration with other NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academia. This paper describes the work in batteries and fuel cell technologies at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It covers a number of systems required to ensure that NASAs needs for a wide variety of systems are met. Some of the topics covered are lithium-based batteries, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells, and nanotechnology activities. With the advances of the past years, we begin the 21st century with new technical challenges and opportunities as we develop enabling technologies for batteries and fuel cells for aerospace applications.

  1. Aerogels in Aerospace: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiir Bheekhun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerogels are highly porous structures prepared via a sol-gel process and supercritical drying technology. Among the classes of aerogels, silica aerogel exhibits the most remarkable physical properties, possessing lower density, thermal conductivity, refractive index, and dielectric constant than any solids. Its acoustical property is such that it can absorb the sound waves reducing speed to 100 m/s compared to 332 m/s for air. However, when it comes to commercialization, the result is not as expected. It seems that mass production, particularly in the aerospace industry, has dawdled behind. This paper highlights the evolution of aerogels in general and discusses the functions and significances of silica aerogel in previous astronautical applications. Future outer-space applications have been proposed as per the current research trend. Finally, the implementation of conventional silica aerogel in aeronautics is argued with an alternative known as Maerogel.

  2. 43rd Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesiger, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    The Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium (AMS) provides a unique forum for those active in the design, production and use of aerospace mechanisms. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms. Sponsored and organized by the Mechanisms Education Association, responsibility for hosting the AMS is shared by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC). Now in its 43rd symposium, the AMS continues to be well attended, attracting participants from both the U.S. and abroad. The 43rd AMS was held in Santa Clara, California on May 4, 5 and 6, 2016. During these three days, 42 papers were presented. Topics included payload and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and mechanism testing. Hardware displays during the supplier exhibit gave attendees an opportunity to meet with developers of current and future mechanism components. The high quality of this symposium is a result of the work of many people, and their efforts are gratefully acknowledged. This extends to the voluntary members of the symposium organizing committee representing the eight NASA field centers, LMSSC, and the European Space Agency. Appreciation is also extended to the session chairs, the authors, and particularly the personnel at ARC responsible for the symposium arrangements and the publication of these proceedings. A sincere thank you also goes to the symposium executive committee who is responsible for the year-to-year management of the AMS, including paper processing and preparation of the program. The use of trade names of manufacturers in this publication does not constitute an official endorsement of such products or manufacturers, either expressed or implied, by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  3. Analysis for the Dynamic Characteristic of the Automobile Transmission Gearbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujin Yu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Automobile transmission gearbox, as one of the major components, which will inevitably bring about the vibration and noise of automobile vehicle. The objective of this study to reduce the noise and vibration of automobile transmission by structural optimization of the gearbox in order to better control its functional operation and improve its performance. For this purpose, based on the working characteristics of the gearbox, modal analysis of automobile transmission gearbox is formulated using 3D graphics software Pro/E together with Finite Element Method. In addition, the modal test of gearbox is conducted also. Through comparing model analysis results to test results, test results verify the correctness of the finite element analysis results, thus provide the theoretic basis to analyze its dynamic characteristics of the gearbox structure as well as its improvement to reduce vibration and noise.

  4. Titanium in the family automobile: The cost challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froes, F. H.; Friedrich, H.; Kiese, J.; Bergoint, D.

    2004-02-01

    With advances in extraction/fabrication techniques and ever-increasing gasoline prices, the advantage of using lightweight materials such as aluminum, magnesium, and titanium in automobiles continues to increase, particularly for the first two metals. The major drawback for titanium, much more so than the other light metals, is high cost. However, innovative extraction and fabrication approaches are leading to decreased cost. This paper discusses the present status and future potential for titanium use in the family automobile.

  5. Strength Check Analysis for Gear Shaft of Automobile Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Yongxiang Li; Weiqiang Xia; Liwen Nan; Youjia Zhao; Fujin Yu

    2013-01-01

    As the main drive components of the automobile transmission, the performance of gear shaft plays an important role on transmission performance. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional strength check method of gear shaft, the objective of this study is to take a five-speed transmission as an example, to accomplish the strength analysis of gear shaft of the automobile transmission based on the MASTA software. Furthermore, the simulation modeling of the transmission is built completel...

  6. Emissions reductions as a result of automobile improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Sajal S; Bishop, Gary A; Stedman, Donald H; Slott, Robert

    2003-11-15

    Remote sensing of light duty vehicle on-road tailpipe exhaust has been used to measure on-road mass emissions of automobile fleets in Denver for 13 years and in two other U.S. cities for 5 years. Analysis of these fleets shows that newer automobiles, during a period of fairly constant new car standards, have become continually less polluting independent of measurement location. Improving emissions control technology spurred by federal regulations is thought to have brought about these trends.

  7. The 1990 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Lewis M. (Compiler)

    1991-01-01

    This document contains the proceedings of the 21st annual NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop, hosted by the Marshall Space Flight Center on December 4-6, 1990. The workshop was attended by scientists and engineers from various agencies of the U.S. Government, aerospace contractors, and battery manufacturers as well as participation in like kind from the European Space Agency member nations. The subjects covered included nickel-cadmium, nickel-hydrogen, silver-zinc, lithium based chemistries, and advanced technologies as they relate to high reliability operations in aerospace applications.

  8. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  9. Addressing Climate Change at the State and Local Level: Using Land Use Controls to Reduce Automobile Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Medina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Automobiles are a major source of CO2 emissions. Because there is no immediate technological fix to reduce these emissions, the most promising current strategy is to promote less automobile use. In the United States, this is difficult because federal programs such as the interstate highway system and local land use planning and regulation have encouraged suburban sprawl. In 2006, the state of California passed legislation to roll back greenhouse emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. This legislation did not link the roll back target with land use policies. However, NGOs and the state Attorney General used the state’s pre-existing environmental impact assessment act to sue a large county east of Los Angeles alleging that its revised land use plan was inconsistent with the 2006 legislation. The state and the county settled the suit after the county agreed to new greenhouse gas mitigation duties, and in 2008 California passed additional legislation to implement its 2006 statute. Communities are strongly encouraged to adopt compact, transit-oriented development strategies to limit automobile use. The new legislation gives the attorney general and NGOs additional legal authority to challenge local land use plans and regulatory decisions which fail to adopt these strategies. California’s important experiment has lessons for all urban areas struggling to reduce automobile CO2 emissions. It suggests that local land use controls can be added to the list of workable greenhouse gas mitigation strategies.

  10. 76 FR 1600 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission AGENCY: International Trade.... Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission to Montreal, Canada on May 2-4, 2011. This aerospace mission is an ] ideal opportunity for U.S. aerospace companies to gain valuable international business leads in a...

  11. 75 FR 39911 - Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... International Trade Administration Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China AGENCY: International Trade... Aerospace Supplier Development Mission to China from November 7-17, 2010. The 2010 Aerospace Supplier... industry. It is intended to include representatives from a variety of U.S. aerospace industry...

  12. Direct Numerical Simulation of Automobile Cavity Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskii, Konstantin; Tam, Christopher K. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Navier Stokes equation is solved computationally by the Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme for the flow and acoustic fields associated with a laminar boundary layer flow over an automobile door cavity. In this work, the flow Reynolds number is restricted to R(sub delta*) < 3400; the range of Reynolds number for which laminar flow may be maintained. This investigation focuses on two aspects of the problem, namely, the effect of boundary layer thickness on the cavity tone frequency and intensity and the effect of the size of the computation domain on the accuracy of the numerical simulation. It is found that the tone frequency decreases with an increase in boundary layer thickness. When the boundary layer is thicker than a certain critical value, depending on the flow speed, no tone is emitted by the cavity. Computationally, solutions of aeroacoustics problems are known to be sensitive to the size of the computation domain. Numerical experiments indicate that the use of a small domain could result in normal mode type acoustic oscillations in the entire computation domain leading to an increase in tone frequency and intensity. When the computation domain is expanded so that the boundaries are at least one wavelength away from the noise source, the computed tone frequency and intensity are found to be computation domain size independent.

  13. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  14. Autoclaves for Aerospace Applications: Issues and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Upadhya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Council of Scientific and Industerial Research National Aerospace Laboratories (CSIR-NAL, Bangalore, India has been engaged in the research of autoclaves for the past three decades and has pioneered their development and usage in India for aerospace/aircraft structural applications. The autoclaves at CSIR-NAL have played a significant role in all the major national aircraft/aerospace programs. The largest aerospace autoclave in India (working size of 4.4 m diameter and 9.0 m length has been successfully commissioned at CSIR-NAL. This paper gives the technological challenges faced and the innovative concepts that were introduced in these autoclaves.

  15. Aerospace Grade Carbon Felt Preform Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) will develop an aerospace-grade carbon felt preform by employing application specific materials with effective processes and fabrication...

  16. Probability and Statistics in Aerospace Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinfurth, M. H.; Howell, L. W.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph was prepared to give the practicing engineer a clear understanding of probability and statistics with special consideration to problems frequently encountered in aerospace engineering. It is conceived to be both a desktop reference and a refresher for aerospace engineers in government and industry. It could also be used as a supplement to standard texts for in-house training courses on the subject.

  17. Introduction to NASA's Academy of Aerospace Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Alice; Smith, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Academy of Aerospace Quality (AAQ) is an internet-based public domain forum of quality assurance-related educational modules for students and faculty at academic institutions targeting those involved in aerospace research, technology development, and payload design and development including Cube Sats, Small Sats, Nano Sats, Rockets and High Altitude Balloons. The target users are university project and research teams but the academy has also been used by K-12 teams, independent space...

  18. Novel Wiring Technologies for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Tracy L.; Parrish, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Because wire failure in aerospace vehicles could be catastrophic, smart wiring capabilities have been critical for NASA. Through the years, researchers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have developed technologies, expertise, and research facilities to meet this need. In addition to aerospace applications, NASA has applied its knowledge of smart wiring, including self-healing materials, to serve the aviation industry. This webinar will discuss the development efforts of several wiring technologies at KSC and provide insight into both current and future research objectives.

  19. (1) H-NMR with Multivariate Analysis for Automobile Lubricant Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Siwon; Yoon, Dahye; Lee, Dong-Kye; Yoon, Changshin; Kim, Suhkmann

    2017-02-23

    Identification of suspected automobile-related lubricants could provide valuable information in forensic cases. We examined that automobile lubricants might exhibit the chemometric characteristics to their individual usages. To compare the degree of clustering in the plots, we co-plotted general industrial oils that were highly dissimilar with automobile lubricants in additive compositions. (1) H-NMR spectroscopy was used with multivariate statistics as a tool for grouping, clustering, and identification of automobile lubricants in laboratory conditions. We analyzed automobile lubricants including automobile engine oils, automobile transmission oils, automobile gear oils, and motorcycle oils. In contrast to the general industrial oils, automobile lubricants showed relatively high tendencies of clustering to their usages. Our pilot study demonstrated that the comparison of known and questioned samples to their usages might be possible in forensic fields.

  20. Optimal control with aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Longuski, James M; Prussing, John E

    2014-01-01

    Want to know not just what makes rockets go up but how to do it optimally? Optimal control theory has become such an important field in aerospace engineering that no graduate student or practicing engineer can afford to be without a working knowledge of it. This is the first book that begins from scratch to teach the reader the basic principles of the calculus of variations, develop the necessary conditions step-by-step, and introduce the elementary computational techniques of optimal control. This book, with problems and an online solution manual, provides the graduate-level reader with enough introductory knowledge so that he or she can not only read the literature and study the next level textbook but can also apply the theory to find optimal solutions in practice. No more is needed than the usual background of an undergraduate engineering, science, or mathematics program: namely calculus, differential equations, and numerical integration. Although finding optimal solutions for these problems is a...

  1. Materials Selection for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Cebon, David; Ashby, Mike

    2012-01-01

    A systematic design-oriented, five-step approach to material selection is described: 1) establishing design requirements, 2) material screening, 3) ranking, 4) researching specific candidates and 5) applying specific cultural constraints to the selection process. At the core of this approach is the definition performance indices (i.e., particular combinations of material properties that embody the performance of a given component) in conjunction with material property charts. These material selection charts, which plot one property against another, are introduced and shown to provide a powerful graphical environment wherein one can apply and analyze quantitative selection criteria, such as those captured in performance indices, and make trade-offs between conflicting objectives. Finding a material with a high value of these indices maximizes the performance of the component. Two specific examples pertaining to aerospace (engine blades and pressure vessels) are examined, both at room temperature and elevated temperature (where time-dependent effects are important) to demonstrate the methodology. The discussion then turns to engineered/hybrid materials and how these can be effectively tailored to fill in holes in the material property space, so as to enable innovation and increases in performance as compared to monolithic materials. Finally, a brief discussion is presented on managing the data needed for materials selection, including collection, analysis, deployment, and maintenance issues.

  2. Aerospace Technology Innovation. Volume 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Janelle (Editor); Cousins, Liz (Editor); Bennett, Evonne (Editor); Vendette, Joel (Editor); West, Kenyon (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    Whether finding new applications for existing NASA technologies or developing unique marketing strategies to demonstrate them, NASA's offices are committed to identifying unique partnering opportunities. Through their efforts NASA leverages resources through joint research and development, and gains new insight into the core areas relevant to all NASA field centers. One of the most satisfying aspects of my job comes when I learn of a mission-driven technology that can be spun-off to touch the lives of everyday people. NASA's New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging is one such initiative. Not only does it promise to provide greater dividends for the country's investment in aerospace research, but also to enhance the American quality of life. This issue of Innovation highlights the new NASA-sponsored initiative in medical imaging. Early in 2001, NASA announced the launch of the New Partnerships in Medical Diagnostic Imaging initiative to promote the partnership and commercialization of NASA technologies in the medical imaging industry. NASA and the medical imaging industry share a number of crosscutting technologies in areas such as high-performance detectors and image-processing tools. Many of the opportunities for joint development and technology transfer to the medical imaging market also hold the promise for future spin back to NASA.

  3. Aerospace Avionics and Allied Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra R. Raol

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Avionics is a very crucial and important technology, not only for civil/military aircraft but also for missiles, spacecraft, micro air vehicles (MAVs and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. Even for ground-based vehicles and underwater vehicles (UWVs, avionics is a very important segment of their successful operation and mission accomplishment. The advances in many related and supporting technologies, especially digital electronics, embedded systems, embedded algorithms/software, mobile technology, sensors and instrumentation, computer (network-communication, and realtime operations and simulation, have given a great impetus to the field of avionics. Here, for the sake of encompassing many other applications as mentioned above, the term is used in an expanded sense: Aerospace Avionics (AA, although it is popularly known as Aviation Electronics (or Avionics. However, use of this technology is not limited to aircraft, and hence, we  can incorporate all the three types-ground, land, and underwater vehicles-under the term avionics.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(4, pp.287-288, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.1122

  4. Aerospace power systems technology; Proceedings of the Aerospace Technology Conference and Exposition, Anaheim, CA, Oct. 3-6, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    The present conference on aircraft auxilliary power systems discusses aircraft thermal management, highly reliable DC power sources for avionic subsystems, a cascaded doubly-fed variable-speed/constant-frequency generator, the evolution of battery systems employed by USAF aircraft, electrical power system architectures for future aerospace vehicles, and high-reliability aircraft generators. Also discussed are the benefits of digital control and management system integration in secondary power systems, pneumatic link secondary power systems for military aircraft, the combination of emergency power with an APU, X-29A subsystems integration, and the T-100 multipurpose small power unit.

  5. Ground Operations Aerospace Language (GOAL). Volume 3: Data bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The GOAL (Ground Operations Aerospace Language) test programming language was developed for use in ground checkout operations in a space vehicle launch environment. To insure compatibility with a maximum number of applications, a systematic and error-free method of referencing command/response (analog and digital) hardware measurements is a principle feature of the language. Central to the concept of requiring the test language to be independent of launch complex equipment and terminology is that of addressing measurements via symbolic names that have meaning directly in the hardware units being tested. To form the link from test program through test system interfaces to the units being tested the concept of a data bank has been introduced. The data bank is actually a large cross-reference table that provides pertinent hardware data such as interface unit addresses, data bus routings, or any other system values required to locate and access measurements.

  6. Mind the Gap: The Vicious Circle of Measuring Automobile Fuel Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; author), L. Schipper (main; Price, L.

    1993-01-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data...... of gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. We note that significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety...

  7. Advancements in medicine from aerospace research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1972-01-01

    A program designed to find second applications for space technology in the medical field is described. Illustrative examples and clinical test results are included for prosthetic urethral devices, ear oximeter for monitoring leukemia patients, devices for measuring low level CO effects on automobile drivers, radiation dosimeter probe for detecting radiation levels in cancerous areas, and electromyographic muscle trainer.

  8. Zero sequence blocking transformers for multi-pulse rectifier in aerospace applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zhang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    The power electronics technology plays an even more important role in the aerospace applications of More Electric Aircrafts (MEA). AutoTransformer Rectifier Units (ATRU) have been widely adopted in aircrafts due to its simplicity and reliability. In this paper, Zero Sequence Blocking Transformers...

  9. 49 CFR 536.9 - Use of credits with regard to the domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...

  10. Cost Reduction Key Drivers Within a Small Batch Aerospace Manufacturing Line

    OpenAIRE

    Delamare, Adrien

    2016-01-01

    This report details my work at the endpoint of the internship I spent within the Composite Manufacturing Unit of Airbus Defence & Space in Les Mureaux, France. It is as well the conclusion of the master’s program in aerospace engineering that I attended at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.This document gives an overview of the cost reduction key drivers within a small batch aerospace manufacturing line. Some of the suggested leads developed in the paper have been set up in the pa...

  11. The association of physical activity, cognitive processes and automobile driving ability in older adults: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sally M; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Insel, Kathleen C

    2016-01-01

    As the number of older adults in the United States grows, the number of automobile drivers over the age of 65 will also increase. Several cognitive processes necessary for automobile driving are vulnerable to age-related decline. These include declines in executive function, working memory, attention, and speed of information processing. The benefits of physical activity on physical, psychological and particular cognitive processes are well-documented; however few studies have explored the relationship between physical activity and driving ability in older adults or examined if cognitive processes mediate (or moderate) the effect of physical activity on driving ability. The purpose of this paper is to review the existing literature regarding physical activity, cognition and automobile driving. Recommendations for further research and utility of the findings to nursing and the health care team are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Automobile Tire Assessment: A Multi-Criteria Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateekh-Ur-Rehman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In response to the present dynamic market, automobile manufacturing industries are constantly evaluating and improving their manufacturing strategies to stay competitive. It is also evident that they evaluate those strategies considering multiple criteria. In one such case, an automobile project manager has to ensure that the selected tire (among the available alternatives complies with the prospective automobile’s performance. This paper presents an approach for the assessment of alternative automobile tires taking into account multiple criteria, such as tire sustainability, tire road performance, environmental issues, tire purchase cost and tire road grip. The presented approach is quite helpful to any decision maker who is interested not only in ranking alternatives but also in establishing the superiority of an alternative over others. The approach also helps to specify the position of each alternative with respect to ideal solution. A case illustration is used to demonstrate an application of the approach.

  13. Advanced Materials and Coatings for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    2004-01-01

    In the application area of aerospace tribology, researchers and developers must guarantee the highest degree of reliability for materials, components, and systems. Even a small tribological failure can lead to catastrophic results. The absence of the required knowledge of tribology, as Professor H.P. Jost has said, can act as a severe brake in aerospace vehicle systems-and indeed has already done so. Materials and coatings must be able to withstand the aerospace environments that they encounter, such as vacuum terrestrial, ascent, and descent environments; be resistant to the degrading effects of air, water vapor, sand, foreign substances, and radiation during a lengthy service; be able to withstand the loads, stresses, and temperatures encountered form acceleration and vibration during operation; and be able to support reliable tribological operations in harsh environments throughout the mission of the vehicle. This presentation id divided into two sections: surface properties and technology practice related to aerospace tribology. The first section is concerned with the fundamental properties of the surfaces of solid-film lubricants and related materials and coatings, including carbon nanotubes. The second is devoted to applications. Case studies are used to review some aspects of real problems related to aerospace systems to help engineers and scientists to understand the tribological issues and failures. The nature of each problem is analyzed, and the tribological properties are examined. All the fundamental studies and case studies were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center.

  14. Automobile air-conditioning its energy and environmental impact; La climatisation automobile impact energetique et environnemental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbusse, St.; Gagnepain, L.

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maxi-mum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the inter-national climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-condition ng (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential ed ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. All of these studies and additional data are presented in greater detail in the document,-'Automobile Air-conditioning' (ADEME reference no. 4985). (author)

  15. The K-1 reusable aerospace vehicle: managing to achieve low cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller (HM), George E.; Lepore, Debra Facktor

    2000-03-01

    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is developing the world's first privately funded, fully reusable aerospace vehicle, the K-1. This vehicle represents a new implementation of proven technologies, designed by an elite, experienced team of engineers and managers and implemented by the best manufacturing capability in the United States. Kistler Aerospace expects to begin commercial operations of the K-1 in 2000. Market researchers predict that during the next decade telecommunications satellite ventures will require launch services for over 1,400 payloads to LEO. This prediction greatly exceeds the current available industry capacity. The K-1 was designed primarily to meet this anticipated growth in demand. Significant progress has been made in constructing the K-1 vehicle fleet. The fully reusable K-1 vehicle is designed to lower the cost of access to space, increase launch reliability, and reduce lead-time-to-launch requirements. The K-1 will offer significant cost benefits and aircraft type reliability based on a proven flight record.

  16. Illustrating Newton's Second Law with the Automobile Coast-Down Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Ronald A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes a run test of automobiles for applying Newton's second law of motion and the concept of power. Explains some automobile thought-experiments and provides the method and data of an actual coast-down test. (YP)

  17. Interior Noise Prediction of the Automobile Based on Hybrid FE-SEA Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, S. M; Wang, D. F; Zan, J. M

    2011-01-01

    In order to predict the interior noise of the automobile in the low and middle frequency band in the design and development stage, the hybrid FE-SEA model of an automobile was created using hybrid FE-SEA method...

  18. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 21: Technological innovation and technical communications: Their place in aerospace engineering curricula. A survey of European, Japanese, and US Aerospace Engineers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Holland, Maurita Peterson; Keene, Michael L.; Kennedy, John M.

    1991-01-01

    Aerospace engineers and scientists from Western Europe, Japan, and the United States were surveyed as part of the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Questionnaires were used to solicit their opinions regarding the following: (1) the importance of technical communications to their profession; (2) the use and production of technical communications; and (3) their views about the appropriate content of an undergraduate course in technical communications. The ability to communicate technical information effectively was very important to the aerospace engineers and scientists who participated in the study. A considerable portion of their working week is devoted to using and producing technical information. The types of technical communications used and produced varied within and among the three groups. The type of technical communication product used and produced appears to be related to respondents' professional duties. Respondents from the three groups made similar recommendations regarding the principles, mechanics, and on-the-job communications to be included in an undergraduate technical communications course for aerospace majors.

  19. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

  20. Design of a TFT-LCD Based Digital Automobile Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsong Xu

    2014-01-01

    instrument and gives an introduction to the sampling circuits and interfaces related to these signals. Following this is the functional categorizing of the circuit modules, such as video buffer circuit, CAN bus interface circuit, and TFT-LCD drive circuit. Additionally, the external EEPROM stores information of the vehicle for history data query, and the external FLASH enables the display of high quality figures. On the whole, the accomplished automobile instrument meets the requirements of automobile instrument markets with its characters of low cost, favorable compatibility, friendly interfaces, and easy upgrading.

  1. Adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长生

    2008-01-01

    The adhesion coefficient of automobile tire and road surface was analyzed and the formula about it was derived.Some suggestions about highway construction,driving safety of the drivers and the judgment of the traffic accidents were presented.The results show that the adhesion coefficient is a function with the extreme value.If there is atmospheric pressure in the tire,the load of the vehicle and the degree of the coarse on the road surface is not selected properly,it will reach the least and affect the safety of the running automobile.

  2. Aerospace concurrent engineering: a modern global approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbert, Mariano; Li, Xiaoxing

    2009-12-01

    System engineering aspects, like concurrent engineering (CE) in the aerospace sector, has been studied by many authors. The change and evolution in this regard is continually influenced by the information technology advances. But global cooperation is only discussed by developed countries and high technology corporations. A review of CE and its ramifications in the aerospace industry is presented. Based on the current literature, the general lifecycle of a spacecraft and its phases are explained as well as the tools that are implemented in today's industry. In this paper we propose a new approach for the product development process in the spacecraft production industry the Aerospace Concurrent Engineering (ACE), which is mainly focused in the technology itself, its optimal design and environment impact rather than costs and marketing impact. And the potential of globally oriented research and implementation of space programs is discussed for its consideration.

  3. Machine intelligence and autonomy for aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Ewald (Editor); Lum, Henry (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The present volume discusses progress toward intelligent robot systems in aerospace applications, NASA Space Program automation and robotics efforts, the supervisory control of telerobotics in space, machine intelligence and crew/vehicle interfaces, expert-system terms and building tools, and knowledge-acquisition for autonomous systems. Also discussed are methods for validation of knowledge-based systems, a design methodology for knowledge-based management systems, knowledge-based simulation for aerospace systems, knowledge-based diagnosis, planning and scheduling methods in AI, the treatment of uncertainty in AI, vision-sensing techniques in aerospace applications, image-understanding techniques, tactile sensing for robots, distributed sensor integration, and the control of articulated and deformable space structures.

  4. Common Cause Failure Modeling: Aerospace Versus Nuclear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.

  5. Wireless Sensing Opportunities for Aerospace Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Wilson

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensors and sensor networks is an emerging technology area with many applications within the aerospace industry. Integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM of aerospace vehicles is needed to ensure the safety of the crew and the vehicle, yet often high costs, weight, size and other constraints prevent the incorporation of instrumentation onto spacecraft. This paper presents a few of the areas such as IVHM, where new wireless sensing technology is needed on both existing vehicles as well as future spacecraft. From ground tests to inflatable structures to the International Space Station, many applications could receive benefits from small, low power, wireless sensors. This paper also highlights some of the challenges that need to overcome when implementing wireless sensor networks for aerospace vehicles.

  6. Sealed aerospace metal-hydride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Dwaine

    1992-01-01

    Nickel metal hydride and silver metal hydride batteries are being developed for aerospace applications. There is a growing market for smaller, lower cost satellites which require higher energy density power sources than aerospace nickel-cadmium at a lower cost than space nickel-hydrogen. These include small LEO satellites, tactical military satellites and satellite constellation programs such as Iridium and Brilliant Pebbles. Small satellites typically do not have the spacecraft volume or the budget required for nickel-hydrogen batteries. NiCd's do not have adequate energy density as well as other problems such as overcharge capability and memory effort. Metal hydride batteries provide the ideal solution for these applications. Metal hydride batteries offer a number of advantages over other aerospace battery systems.

  7. Aerospace manpower transfer to small business enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M. K.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a program to effect transfer of aerospace professional people from the ranks of the unemployed into gainful employment in the small business community was investigated. The effectiveness of accomplishing transfer of technology from the aerospace effort into the private sector through migration of people rather than products or hardware alone was also studied. Two basic methodologies were developed. One involves the matching of ex-aerospace professionals and small companies according to their mutual needs. A training and indoctrination program is aimed at familiarizing the professional with the small company environment, and a program of follow-up counseling is defined. The second methodology incorporates efforts to inform and arouse interest among the nonaerospace business community toward affirmative action programs that will serve mutual self-interests of the individuals, companies, and communities involved.

  8. Three-dimensional aerodynamic simulations of two-box automobile using kappa-epsilon turbulence model with quick scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Kenji; Kuriyama, Toshihiko

    1993-09-01

    A new computational method that can be actually useful for an initial designing phase of automobile development has being developed. Standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model and QUICK (Quadratic Upwind Interpolation for Convective Kinematics) of the third-order-upwind scheme were used. A commercial CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) code, BFC (Boundary Fitted Coordinate) /SCRYU is applied. With this method, the reattachment point of backward-facing step flow is improved even in a rough calculational grid. When it was applied to 3-D (three dimensional) two-box automobile, it is able to improve the error of C(sub D) from 27 percent to 2 percent. The CPU (Central Processing Unit) time was within 20 hours by CRAY Y-MP (1 CPU), and the total analysis time was shortened from three weeks to five days.

  9. Aerospace medicine at Brooks AFB, TX: hail and farewell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunneley, Sarah A; Webb, James T

    2011-05-01

    With the impending termination of USAF operations at Brooks Air Force Base (AFB) in San Antonio, TX, it is time to consider its historic role in Aerospace Medicine. The base was established in 1917 as a flight training center for the U.S. Army Air Service and in 1926 became home to its School of Aviation Medicine. The school moved to San Antonio's Randolph Field in 1931, but in 1959 it returned to Brooks where it occupied new facilities to support its role as a national center for U.S. Air Force aerospace medicine, including teaching, clinical medicine, and research. The mission was then expanded to encompass support of U.S. military and civilian space programs. With the abrupt termination of the military space program in 1969, research at Brooks focused on clinical aviation medicine and support of advanced military aircraft while continuing close cooperation with NASA in support of orbital spaceflight and the journey to the Moon. Reorganization in the 1990s assigned all research functions at Brooks to the Human Systems Division and its successors, leaving to USAFSAM the missions related to clinical work and teaching. In 2002 the USAF and the city of San Antonio implemented shared operation of Brooks as a "City-Base" in the hope of deflecting threatened closure. Nevertheless, under continuing pressure to consolidate military facilities in the United States, the 2005 Base Closure and Realignment Commission ordered Brooks closed by 2011, with its aerospace medicine functions relocated to new facilities at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, OH.

  10. 40 CFR 600.311-86 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-86 Section 600.311-86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-86 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of city and the range of highway...

  11. 40 CFR 600.311-08 - Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... automobiles. 600.311-08 Section 600.311-08 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Regulations for 1977 and Later Model Year Automobiles-Labeling § 600.311-08 Range of fuel economy for comparable automobiles. (a) The Administrator will determine the range of combined fuel economy values...

  12. 76 FR 61779 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Application for Automobile or Other Conveyance and Adaptive... refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0067.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Application for Automobile or..., servicepersons and their survivors complete VA Form 21-4502 to apply for automobile or other conveyance...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4061(a)-5 - Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. 48..., Tread Rubber, and Taxable Fuel Automotive and Related Items § 48.4061(a)-5 Sale of automobile truck bodies and chassis. (a) Sale of completed vehicle. An automobile truck (as defined by §...

  14. 76 FR 31467 - Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... CFR Part 259 Guide Concerning Fuel Economy Advertising for New Automobiles AGENCY: Federal Trade... Advertising for New Automobiles (``Fuel Economy Guide'' or ``Guide'') pending completion of ongoing review by... prevent deceptive fuel economy advertising for new automobiles and to facilitate the use of fuel...

  15. 49 CFR 393.128 - What are the rules for securing automobiles, light trucks and vans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the rules for securing automobiles, light... automobiles, light trucks and vans? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of automobiles, light trucks, and vans which individually weigh 4,536 kg. (10,000 lb) or...

  16. 17 CFR 256.309 - Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automobiles, other vehicles... § 256.309 Automobiles, other vehicles, and related garage equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned automobiles, vans, trucks, and other vehicles used by...

  17. MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, Michael

    2013-01-01

    MEMS for automotive and aerospace applications reviews the use of Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) in developing solutions to the unique challenges presented by the automotive and aerospace industries.Part one explores MEMS for a variety of automotive applications. The role of MEMS in passenger safety and comfort, sensors for automotive vehicle stability control applications and automotive tire pressure monitoring systems are considered, along with pressure and flow sensors for engine management, and RF MEMS for automotive radar sensors. Part two then goes on to explore MEMS for

  18. Digital radiography in the aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, R. A.; Bueno, C.; Barry, R. C.; Barker, M. D.

    An account is given of the bases of digital radiography (DR), with a view to the identification of NDE systems with the greatest usefulness to the aerospace industry and the nature of the advanced image processing and reconstruction techniques that have been devised thus far. The spatial resolution of any DR system is fundamentally limited by the number of pixels in the digital image and the system field-of-view. Attention is given to the problems of image geometric unsharpness and radiation quantum noise limits, as well as to the potential role of advanced DR in future NDT of aerospace components.

  19. Variational analysis and aerospace engineering mathematical challenges for the aerospace of the future

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammadi, Bijan; Pironneau, Olivier; Cipolla, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    This book presents papers surrounding the extensive discussions that took place from the ‘Variational Analysis and Aerospace Engineering’ workshop held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in 2015. Contributions to this volume focus on advanced mathematical methods in aerospace engineering and industrial engineering such as computational fluid dynamics methods, optimization methods in aerodynamics, optimum controls, dynamic systems, the theory of structures, space missions, flight mechanics, control theory, algebraic geometry for CAD applications, and variational methods and applications. Advanced graduate students, researchers, and professionals in mathematics and engineering will find this volume useful as it illustrates current collaborative research projects in applied mathematics and aerospace engineering.

  20. Hysteretic Current Controlled Zvs Dc/Dc Converter For Automobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cernat, M.; Scortarul, P.; Tanase, A.

    2007-01-01

    A novel bi-directional dc-dc converter with ZVS and interleaving for dual voltage systems in automobiles is presented. A variable frequency extended band hysteretic current control method is proposed. In comparison with classical fixed frequency current control PWM, the reverse polarity peak curr...

  1. BEGA-a biaxial excitation Generator for automobiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scridon, S.; Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results for a biaxial excitation generator/motor for automobiles (BEGA), which has a three-phase stator and a salient-pole excited heteropolar rotor with multiple flux barriers filled with low-cost permanent magnets (PMs). For this new generator, the low...

  2. Classification of Surface Quality of Automobile Lamp—Reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁旭军; 贺莉清; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces an installation for quickly classifying automobile's metal reflectors based on their roughness.The measuring principle and the mechanical structure are presented.Schematics of circuits and experimental results are given.Elimination and reduction of the effect of background lights or different bulbs on the measuring results are also described in detail.

  3. Vehicles motors and environment; Moteurs automobiles et environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dionnet, F.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents the problem of the pollutants emission by the motors of automobiles. The european regulations lead the automotive industry to develop research programs to decrease the emission level more and more difficult to raise. He discusses the new catalysts, the diesel engines, the direct injection and the natural gas fuels. (A.L.B.)

  4. Market Energy efficient and new fuel automobile developments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Tsinghua University develops mini electric car OUYANG Mingbao, dean of automotive engineering and director of the key national laboratory of automobile safety and energy efficiency, has recently delivered a speech on the development of mini electric car in the university.

  5. Technology Demonstration of General Black box Standard for Automobiles (GBSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available GBSA is an upcoming proposal towards Automobile industry and to the federal governing bodies around the world. Here we are intent to create a disciplinary system to save city sons from accident death and to abolish insurance piracy. The proposal is actually developed from the loss of mankind in society but pulled by technology and humanity facts..

  6. Magnetic properties and heavy metal contents of automobile emission particulates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sheng-gao; BAI Shi-qiang; CAI Jing-bo; XU Chuang

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of the magnetic properties and total contents of Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe in 30 automobile emission particulate samples indicated the presence of magnetic particles in them. The values of frequency dependent susceptibility (χfd)showed the absence of superparamagnetic (SP) grains in the samples. The IRM20 mT (isothermal remanent magnetization at 20 mT)being linearly proportional to SIRM (saturation isothermal remanent magnetization) (R2=0.901), suggested that ferrimagnetic minerals were responsible for the magnetic properties of automobile emission particulates. The average contents of Cu, Cd, Pb and Fe in automobile emission particulates were 95.83, 22.14, 30.58 and 34727.31 mg/kg, respectively. Significant positive correlations exist between the magnetic parameters and the contents of Pb, Cu and Fe. The magnetic parameters of automobile emission particulates reflecting concentration of magnetic particles increased linearly with increase of Pb and Cu content, showed that the magnetic measurement could be used as a preliminary index for detection of Pb and Cu pollution.

  7. Six changes with the new Regulations on Automobile Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> On Aug 16, 2004, the People’s Bank of China and China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) jointly issued the new version of the Regulations on Automobile Loans. Due to be put into implementation on Oct 1, the new Regulations change radically compared with the previous version in terms of creditors, possible borrowers, rate of down payments, loan periods, etc.

  8. ANALYSIS OF CONSUMER PREFERENCES ON THE MARKET AUTOMOBILE GASOLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Safina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the statistical analysis based on results of selective investigation of customers in the market of automobile gasoline is offered. The analysis makes the possibility for finding preferences of respondents in choices of gasoline brand depending of social and economics status of customers.

  9. 40 CFR 600.315-08 - Classes of comparable automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... vehicles (such as battery electric vehicles, fuel cell vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and... accordance with 49 CFR part 523. (1) The Administrator will classify passenger automobiles by car line into... seaters. A car line shall be classed as “Two Seater” if the majority of the vehicles in that car line have...

  10. 76 FR 50881 - Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LP Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...-025-AD; Amendment 39-16771; AD 2011-17-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LP.... SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain M7 Aerospace LP Models SA226-T... AD, contact M7 Aerospace, LC, 10823 NE. Entrance Road, San Antonio, Texas 78216; telephone (210)...

  11. 77 FR 58413 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, October 12, 2012, 12:00 p.m. to 1:00 p.m.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive...

  12. 76 FR 2923 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, February 4, 2011, 11:30 a.m. to 1:30 p.m... CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics...

  13. 76 FR 36937 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, July 15, 2011, 10 a.m. to 12 p.m. ADDRESSES... INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National...

  14. 78 FR 57903 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of renewal and amendment of the charter of the Aerospace... the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel is in the public interest in connection with the performance...

  15. 75 FR 61219 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, October 22, 2010, 12:30 p.m. to 2 p.m... 77058. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel...

  16. 78 FR 56941 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, October 11, 2013, 10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive...

  17. 78 FR 77618 - Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all M7 Aerospace LLC Models SA226-AT... bulkhead. This proposed AD also requires reporting certain inspection results to M7 Aerospace LLC. We...

  18. 76 FR 58776 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission AGENCY: International Trade... Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing a U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission to Montreal, Canada, May 6-9, 2012. This aerospace mission is an ideal opportunity for...

  19. 75 FR 36697 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, July 16, 2010, 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. ADDRESSES... CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics...

  20. Three Major Aerospace Industrial Projects Settled In Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Three major aerospace industrial projects settled in Xi'an National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base and the signing ceremonywas held on August 13. The settlement of the 3 projects will promote the development of space science and technologyindustry and the local economy while speeding up the construction of Xi'an National Civil Aerospace Industrial Base.

  1. 78 FR 36793 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP). DATES: Friday, July 12, 2013, 09:00-10:00 a.m.... Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics and...

  2. 76 FR 19147 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, April 29, 2011, from 11 p.m. to 1 p.m..., FL 32899. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel...

  3. 78 FR 15976 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Wednesday April 3, 2013, 11:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m..., Greenbelt, MD 20771-0001. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety...

  4. 78 FR 1265 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. ] DATES: Friday, January 25, 2013, 10:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m... CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive Director, National Aeronautics...

  5. 32 CFR 705.30 - Aerospace Education Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aerospace Education Workshop. 705.30 Section 705... REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.30 Aerospace Education Workshop. (a) This... of Naval Operations has cognizance of all assistance provided by the Navy to all Aerospace...

  6. CASC To Build A New Aerospace Industrial System By 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Huiting

    2008-01-01

    @@ CASC held its fourth working conference in July 2008. At this conference, CASC proposed a new development target, "to build a new innovative, open and integrated aerospace industrial system by 2015", thus making CASC a large international leading aerospace group. The proposed new aerospace industrial system will mainly include the following aspects:

  7. 77 FR 54787 - Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ...-17177; AD 2012-18-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all M7 Aerospace LLC Models SA226-AT, SA226-T, SA226-T(B), SA226... information identified in this AD, contact M7 Aerospace LP, 10823 NE Entrance Road, San Antonio, Texas...

  8. 77 FR 38090 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting. AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, July 20, 2012, 11:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. EDT... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers, Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel Executive...

  9. 77 FR 75908 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Aerospace Corporation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Aerospace Corporation Model GV and GV-SP airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of two failures... in this proposed AD, contact Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Technical Publications Dept., P.O....

  10. 76 FR 65750 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Charter Renewal AGENCY: National Aeronautics and... Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. SUMMARY: Pursuant to sections 14(b)(1) and 9(c) of the Federal Advisory... of the NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel is in the public interest in connection with...

  11. 76 FR 26316 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... Federal Register of April 26, 2011, announcing a meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) to... Administration, Washington, DC 20546, (202) 358-0732. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Aerospace Safety...

  12. 78 FR 77501 - NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and... forthcoming meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Thursday, January 23, 2014, 1:00 p.m. to 2..., Houston, TX 77058. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Marian Norris, Aerospace Safety Advisory...

  13. 78 FR 30243 - Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... all Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Model EA500 airplanes equipped with Avio, Avio with ETT, or Avio NG 1.0... identified in this proposed AD, contact Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. 26 East Palatine Road, Wheeling,...

  14. A Model Aerospace Curriculum: August Martin High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    This document presents an operational model of a thematic aerospace education school--the August Martin High School (New York). Part 1 briefly describes the nature of aviation/aerospace education and the background of the school. This background information includes how the school was formed, rationale for an aerospace thematic school, research…

  15. Aerospace applications of PMR polyimide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, T. T.

    1985-01-01

    The current status of the novel class of processable, addition-type polyimides known as PMR (for in situ polymerization of monomer reactants) polyimides, developed by NASA at the Lewis Research Center, is reviewed. Highlights of PMR technology studies conducted at NASA Lewis are presented. Several examples of industrial applications of PMR-15 polyimide composites to aerospace structural components are examined.

  16. Using Aerospace Technology To Design Orthopedic Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1996-01-01

    Technology originally developed to optimize designs of composite-material aerospace structural components used to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants. Development effort focused on designing knee implants, long-term goal to develop method for optimizing designs of orthopedic implants in general.

  17. Advancements in medicine from aerospace research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, F. T.

    1971-01-01

    Discussion of a NASA-sponsored medical program under which work is done by multidiscipline teams to provide an interface between aerospace and medicine. A prosthetic urethral valve, an ear oximeter for measurement of oxygen content in the blood, a radiation dosimeter and an electromyographic muscle trainer are noted as the products of this program.

  18. Occupant modeling in the aerospace environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaklin, P.; Lim, T.; Marshall, R.

    1999-01-01

    Dynamic testing and occupant protection standards are a reality in the aerospace industry. Methods to model these situations are evolving. A method of modeling an occupant on a crew seat, in a drop test is presented. This method combines a rigid body occupant model with a finite element model of the

  19. Divorce your car: ending the love affair with the automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvord, K.

    2000-07-01

    This book is a guide for people wishing to liberate themselves from their addiction to cars and the automobile culture. It is a repository of examples and actions that individuals and communities can take to reduce dependence on the automobile. The range of possibilities run from using cars less to not owning one at all. The book provides a humorous yet clear-headed approach to a greener world and maps out the road to how people can live happily ever after by breaking free of 'auto-cracy', without insisting on people in car-dependent countries quit their automotive addiction instantly. Nevertheless, it clearly articulates the connection between automobiles, their arteries (i.e. highways) and effluents (i.e. greenhouse gases and particulate emissions), and the increasing number and severity of natural disasters between the urban renewal and freeway construction that, in the author's view, helped ignite the riots in Watts, Newark and Detroit. The disastrous societal and geophysical effects of the automobile are demonstrated in great abundance, and the mountain of evidence of the systematic abuse of the planet that the book provides is a stunning refutation of the notion that technology is neutral. The automobile is accused of being not only the linchpin of Western and primarily American industrialism and resource extraction, it is also accused of being the chief suspect in a century-long theft of time, conviviality and beauty. How to bring about a change in people's love affair with their cars is difficult to comprehend but this author has a multitude of useful suggestions which seem to suggest that it is possible. There is a list of 104 'selected references' and an extensive list of 'other resources'.

  20. Competence: sciences, clean engines: the automobile safety; Competences: sciences, moteurs propres: le salut de l'automobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quiret, M.

    2004-05-01

    In the framework of the greenhouse gases emission reduction in the automobile sector, this paper presents the possible technological innovations for the engines: an optimization prior to the combustion hopeful the electronic of the injections, the consumption decrease and the electromagnetic valves. (A.L.B.)

  1. Potential aerospace applications of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Raouf

    1994-01-01

    The recent discovery of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) with superconducting transition temperature, T(sub c), above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen has opened the door for using these materials in new and practical applications. These materials have zero resistance to electric current, have the capability of carrying large currents and as such have the potential to be used in high magnetic field applications. One of the space applications that can use superconductors is electromagnetic launch of payloads to low-earth-orbit. An electromagnetic gun-type launcher can be used in small payload systems that are launched at very high velocity, while sled-type magnetically levitated launcher can be used to launch larger payloads at smaller velocities. Both types of launchers are being studied by NASA and the aerospace industry. The use of superconductors will be essential in any of these types of launchers in order to produce the large magnetic fields required to obtain large thrust forces. Low Temperature Superconductor (LTS) technology is mature enough and can be easily integrated in such systems. As for the HTS, many leading companies are currently producing HTS coils and magnets that potentially can be mass-produced for these launchers. It seems that designing and building a small-scale electromagnetic launcher is the next logical step toward seriously considering this method for launching payloads into low-earth-orbit. A second potential application is the use of HTS to build sensitive portable devices for the use in Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE). Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUID's) are the most sensitive instruments for measuring changes in magnetic flux. By using HTS in SQUID's, one will be able to design a portable unit that uses liquid nitrogen or a cryocooler pump to explore the use of gradiometers or magnetometers to detect deep cracks or corrosion in structures. A third use is the replacement of Infra-Red (IR) sensor leads on

  2. Aerospace applications of mass market MEMS products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Karin; Kroetz, Gerhard; Schalk, Josef; Mueller, Gerhard

    2002-07-01

    Aerospace applications of MEMS products, originally developed for automotive mass markets, are discussed. Various sensor examples with a high dual use potential are presented: inertial sensing, flow and gas sensing, robust micro sensors including SiC- and GaN-based devices, as well as first approaches towards flexible and distributed microsystems. In Europe the automotive industry is one of the main MEMS market drivers, simply because of the sheer size of this market and Europe's strong position in this industrial field. Main MEMS activities are development and integration of vehicle dynamics sensing systems, passenger safety and navigation systems, air and fuel intake systems, as well as sensor systems for exhaust gas after treatment and climate control. Benefits on the customer side are increased safety, passenger comfort and reduced fuel consumption. Benefits on the manufacturer's side are increased sub-system integration, modularity and reduced production cost. In the future the aerospace industry is likely to benefit from the introduction of micro-systems for the same reasons as the automotive industry. Interests of the aerospace industry are increasing safety and reliability of airplane operation, health and state monitoring of fuselage and airplane subsystems as well as improving service and maintenance procedures. In comparison to automotive applications, the numbers of devices needed is likely to be much smaller, however, new challenges arise in so far as distributed sensing and actuating microsystems will be needed. The idea is to identify and to exploit synergies between automotive mass market MEMS applications and lower-volume aerospace ones. The effort necessary to meet aerospace requirements and the extent of necessary trade-offs in customizing automotive MEMS is addressed considering the above-mentioned examples.

  3. Mind the gap; The vicious circle of measuring automobile fuel use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, L.; Figueroa, M.J.; Price, L. (Strategic Air Command, Offutt AFB, NE (United States). Aircraft Engineering Div.); Espey, M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural Economics)

    1993-12-01

    We review the circularity between estimates of automobile use, fuel consumption and fuel intensity. We find that major gaps exist between estimates of road gasoline, the quantity most often used to represent automobile fuel use in economic studies of transport fuel use, and the actual sales data of gasoline, diesel and other fuels used for automobiles. Significant uncertainties exist in values of both the number of automobiles in use and the distance each is driven, which together yield total automobile use. We present our own calculations for total automobile fuel use for a variety of OECD countries. We comment briefly on the impact of these gaps on econometric estimates of the price and income elasticities of automobile fuel use. (author)

  4. Hopes in the Crisis——Chinese Automobile Market in the World Auto manufacturing Industry Shuffle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shurong

    2009-01-01

    @@ Global automobile markets shuffle against the economic crisis The economic crisis spread rapidly around the world,making automobile industry one of the victims who are shocked hardest,leading to an industrial shuffle in global automobile industry.USA,EU and Japan,the traditional top three leading countries in global automobile industry,could not have their lucks to escape from the crisis.The weak global automobile market forces these transnational auto companies to be more cautious about the future than ever.As reflected in the latest performance reports,though governments took measures to maintain the market,the sharp decline in global automobile sales volume continued in the first quarter.Automobile market bottomed out in the second quarter.US auto industrywas affected the most,with two out of the top three manufacturers getting bankrupt and regrouped.

  5. Advances in control system technology for aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to Control System Technology applied to aerospace and covers the four disciplines Cognitive Engineering, Computer Science, Operations Research, and Servo-Mechanisms. This edited book follows a workshop held at the Georgia Institute of Technology in June 2012, where the today's most important aerospace challenges, including aerospace autonomy, safety-critical embedded software engineering, and modern air transportation were discussed over the course of two days of intense interactions among leading aerospace engineers and scientists. Its content provide a snapshot of today's aerospace control research and its future, including Autonomy in space applications, Control in space applications, Autonomy in aeronautical applications, Air transportation, and Safety-critical software engineering.

  6. Aerospace Robotic Implementations: An Assessment and Forecast. Phase 2,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    WELDING STATION Source : ROBOTIQUE , IV, 1985 ROB TODAY 12/85 P.26 Company ID No. 6 19 Non-aerospace Application Non-aerospace Application Appl. Axis...PROJECT Source . ROBOTIQUE , IV, 1985 AEROSPACE 8.85 P.4 D-3 1.0 WELDING 2.0 INSPECTION Company ID No. 8 21 Non-aerospace Application Non-aerospace...DIMENSIONAL CAL. Source . ROBOTIQUE , IV, 1985 Company ID No. Appl. Axis Code Task Performed Other Comments Source Company ID No. Appl. Axis Code Task

  7. Polímeros e a indústria automobilística Polymers and the automobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Hemais

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Gradativamente, devido a razões econômicas e tecnológicas, nos últimos trinta anos, os plásticos passaram a ocupar um lugar de destaque como um dos materiais mais utilizados pela indústria automobilística. Este trabalho tem por objetivo identificar a intensidade do uso de polímeros pela indústria automobilística brasileira. Inicialmente é apresentada uma classificação dos polímeros, de acordo com suas características técnicas e econômicas. Em seguida, é feita uma breve explanação sobre a indústria de polímeros no Brasil, bem como sobre a indústria automobilística, com seu grande potencial de atrair inovações tecnológicas. São apresentados, também, os principais polímeros com aplicação no automóvel. Por último, é discutida a questão da inovação tecnológica na indústria brasileira de polímeros, tendo como fator catalisador a indústria automobilística.Gradually, owing to economic and technological reasons, in the last thirty years, plastics have gained an increasing presence in automobiles. This paper examines the use of plastics in the Brazilian car industry. First, polymers are classified according to their technical and economic characteristics. The paper then reports briefly on the Brazilian polymer industry, as well as on the auto industry, focusing on its great potential for attracting technological innovations. The main applications for plastics in cars are also outlined. Finally, the paper discusses the question of technological innovation in the Brazilian polymer industry, with the auto industry as a catalyst.

  8. Research on Feature Extraction of Remnant Particles of Aerospace Relays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The existence of remnant particles, which significantly reduce the reliability of relays, is a serious problem for aerospace relays.The traditional method for detecting remnant particles-particle impact noise detection (PIND)-can be used merely to detect the existence of the particle; it is not able to provide any information about the particles' material. However, information on the material of the particles is very helpful for analyzing the causes of remnants. By analyzing the output acoustic signals from a PIND tester, this paper proposes three feature extraction methods: unit energy average pulse durative time, shape parameter of signal power spectral density(PSD), and pulse linear predictive coding coefficient sequence. These methods allow identified remnants to be classified into four categories based on their material. Furthermore, we prove the validity of this new method by processing PIND signals from actual tests.

  9. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18:] Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  10. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18: Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  11. Automobile ride quality experiments correlated to iso-weighted criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, A. J.; Young, R. K.; Smith, C. C.

    1975-01-01

    As part of an overall study to evaluate the usefulness of ride quality criteria for the design of improved ground transportation systems an experiment was conducted involving subjective and objective measurement of ride vibrations found in an automobile riding over roadways of various roughness. Correlation of the results led to some very significant relationships between passenger rating and ride accelerations. The latter were collapsed using a frequency-weighted root mean square measure of the random vibration. The results suggest the form of a design criterion giving the relationship between ride vibration and acceptable automobile ride quality. Further the ride criterion is expressed in terms that relate to rides with which most people are familiar. The design of the experiment, the ride vibration data acquisition, the concept of frequency weighting and the correlations found between subjective and objective measurements are presented.

  12. Design of MEMS accelerometer based acceleration measurement system for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, K. Arun; Mathivanan, N.

    2012-10-01

    Design of an acceleration measurement system using a MEMS accelerometer to measure acceleration of automobiles in all the three axes is presented. Electronic stability control and anti-lock breaking systems in automobiles use the acceleration measurements to offer safety in driving. The system uses an ARM microcontroller to quantize the outputs of accelerometer and save the measurement data on a microSD card. A LabVIEW program has been developed to analyze the longitudinal acceleration measurement data and test the measurement system. Random noises generated and added with measurement data during measurement are filtered by a Kalman filter implemented in LabVIEW. Longitudinal velocity of the vehicle is computed from the measurement data and displayed on a graphical chart. Typical measurement of velocity of a vehicle at different accelerations and decelerations is presented.

  13. Study on the Fuzzy COntrol Strategy of Automobile with CVT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuJianjun; QINDatong; 等

    2002-01-01

    In order to study the dynamic characteristics of automobile with a CVT system, a bond graph analysis model of continuously variable transmission is established.On the base of the simulation state space equations that are established with bond graph theory,a fuzzy control strategy with an expert system of starting process has been introduced.Considering uncertain system parameters and exterior resistance disturbing,the effect of the profile of membership function and the defuzzification algorthm on the capacity of the fuzzy controller has been studied.The result of simulation proves that the proposed fuzzy controller is effective and feasible,Such controller has been employed in the actual control and has proved practicable.The study lays a foundation for design of the fuzzy controller for automobile with a CVT system.

  14. AN FE ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED SUBGRADE UNDER AUTOMOBILE LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Shuwang; ZHANG Xinqiang; LIU Run

    2004-01-01

    An FE analysis procedure was presented to predict the behavior of soil-geogrid interaction under automobile loading. The dynamic interactions between the transverse bars, the longitudinal ribs and the soil were simulated by a system consisting of nonlinear springs, dashpots and masses, to study the deformation properties of the reinforced soil. The equivalent stiffness and damping ratios could be determined with the shaking table. The dynamic responses of a reinforced subgrade were analyzed with the 3D finite element approach. This approach is programmed and applied to analyze the soil-geogrid interaction under dynamic loading. The comparative analysis of the response of the reinforced subgrade and that of the subgrade without reinforcement shows that the geogrid placed at the bottom of the base layer may effectively reduce the accumulative plastic deformation due to the cyclic automobile loading.

  15. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  16. The Inherited Traditional Culture of Automobile Molding DNA Design Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of automobile modeling DNA is the core that makes enterprises establish a good and unique brand image to win on market. This paper described the definition and meaning of production DNA, also discussed the composition of production DNA and researched the design ideas of production DNA from both macro and micro aspects. Finally, it recommended would research the traditional culture into the past, present and future of three periods, explored the idea of traditional culture that the automobile modeling DNA inherited under these three periods and analyzed with the red flag car as an example. This research provided a guideline to help automotive corporations to implement brand strategies, and helped to design autos with Chinese elements, sense of the times and fashion trends and can perform the modern mental outlook of Chinese people.

  17. IT Data Mining Tool Uses in Aerospace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Gilena A.; Freeman, Kenneth; Jones, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Data mining has a broad spectrum of uses throughout the realms of aerospace and information technology. Each of these areas has useful methods for processing, distributing, and storing its corresponding data. This paper focuses on ways to leverage the data mining tools and resources used in NASA's information technology area to meet the similar data mining needs of aviation and aerospace domains. This paper details the searching, alerting, reporting, and application functionalities of the Splunk system, used by NASA's Security Operations Center (SOC), and their potential shared solutions to address aircraft and spacecraft flight and ground systems data mining requirements. This paper also touches on capacity and security requirements when addressing sizeable amounts of data across a large data infrastructure.

  18. The Effect of Changes in World Crude Oil Prices on U.S. Automobile Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Belenkiy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes an export model where consumers differentiate between different types of automobiles by the distance they can travel on one dollar’s worth of fuel. The model predicts that the overall demand for vehicles falls as crude oil prices rise, and that the demand for less fuel-efficient vehicles falls relatively more. In particular, we estimate that between 2007 and 2008, when the crude oil prices increased by 32 percent, the export demand for the SUVs manufactured in the United States declined by over $700 million. This implies that the relatively less fuel-efficient U.S.-model vehicles will tend to suffer a competitive disadvantage worldwide when crude oil prices are high. We discuss the potential role of the proposed CAFÉ standards in improving fuel-efficiency and growing exports of the U.S. vehicle fleet.

  19. Research Into Automobile Movement on a Curve Under Winter Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Kemzūraitė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the movement of the car on the curve on the slippery and snowy road surface with asphalted ruts. The paper reviews literature related to lateral and longitudinal vehicle acceleration and dynamics of vehicle movement. The experimental facts of vehicle lateral acceleration are given in graphical charts. The article also describes the acceleration values and stability of the automobile depending on the speed in the curve. The findings are given based on the results.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Ensuring the quality of logistic service of automobile dealers

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana A. Salimova; Lyudmila A. Fedos’kina

    2017-01-01

    Objective to substantiate the functional directions of activities of the enterprises of dealer chain of an automotive company aimed at ensuring the quality of logistics servicing of automobiles. Methods the study is based on the use of general scientific methods comparison scientific generalization logical analysis analogy and specific scientific methods systemic functional simulation. Results the article states that one of the key criteria of consumer behavior of car buye...

  1. Public health, autonomous automobiles, and the rush to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ben

    2017-01-23

    The USA has the worst motor vehicle safety problem among high-income countries and is pressing forward with the development of autonomous automobiles to address it. Government guidance and regulation, still inadequate, will be critical to the safety of the public. The analysis of this public health problem in the USA reveals the key factors that will determine the benefits and risks of autonomous vehicles around the world.

  2. Chang Jiang and Her "Automobiles and China" Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    ANCHORWOMAN Chang Jiang of China Central Television (CCTV) enjoys popularity for her Automobiles and China program, which she writes and hosts. The program which started in 1994 aroused a comparatively strong response in the society because of its serious and deep thought about this absorbing topic. It took her twenty months to finish this program. Hundreds of people were interviewed and five notebooks were filled with reference materials. The script was revised seven times.

  3. Simulation Research in Mutualism Behavior ofAutomobile Industry Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zhang; Guangle Yan

    2011-01-01

    This paper adopts the concept and mechanism of mathematical ecology theory, researches the revolutionary of automobile industry chain by setting up mutualism model of two species. Results of simulation show that automakers are more sensitive to the change of environmental resource. Automakers depending on suppliers excessively will increase the structural risk of the industry. Suppliers must make efficient utilization of the system resources; otherwise they inhibit the growth of automakers.

  4. Comment la production modulaire transforme l'industrie automobile

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Frigant; Bernard Jullien

    2014-01-01

    ?In this paper, we explain why and how the ado? ?ption of a modular product-architecture transforms the organisation of industry. Considering the auto industry, we show that modularity-as-process transforms the overall automobile industry: carmakers, suppliers and buyer/suppliers relationships. Modularity-as-process is a key driver of carmakers’ vertical disintegration, growth of suppliers and emergence of mega-suppliers, international division of labour and delocalizations. This single-indus...

  5. Automobile shredder residue: some recycling, resource recovery and disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Obsolete automobiles are the most recycled high-volume consumer product, with a recovery rate of between 75 and 80 per cent by weight. Ferrous scrap metal from old automobiles in North America amounts to about 10 million tons per year. However, each ton of steel that is recovered, produces about 300 kg of automobile shredder residue (ASR), comprised of plastics, rubber, glass, foam, and textiles, contaminated by oil and other fluids. All combined, this represents about 0.3 million tons of waste materials from the 22 shredders in Canada. This amount is likely to increase as the amount of steel in automobiles decreases due to downsizing and weight reduction, emphasizing the need for new resource recovery and application techniques to deal with the ASR problem. This paper describes a number of new initiatives primarily in two areas: separation technologies, ranging from selective disassembly to physical/mechanical/chemical separation processes, and pyrolysis techniques for the recovery of valuable hydrocarbon resources contained in the plastics in the ASR. Recycling of the material into high performance composite materials, such as additives to concrete for increased tensile strength, shrinkage and crack resistance, without adverse effect on other properties such as durability and workability, also received attention. Energy recovery options and engineered landfilling wherein ASR is used as a landfill day cover material, are some other techniques that show considerable promise. In landfill applications the high absorption capacity of ASR for heavy metals such as lead, its high compressibility, erosion resistance, and good traction make it a highly desirable choice for use as day cover material. 25 refs.

  6. Image Branding of Locally Manufactured Automobiles (Cars & Motorcycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ehtisham Ali

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the brand identity and image of locally manufactured automobiles of Pakistan. A composite model for assessing image branding was developed and close ended questionnaire based on a Likert rating scale was administered to vendors. The field survey was carried out in November 2006. Results present individual vehicle scores on different dimensions of brand image and standard statistical tests were applied to assess significant difference among mean scores.

  7. MANAGEMENT TOOLS USED IN THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Beuren, Ilse Maria; Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB; Guth, Sérgio Cavagnoli; Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB

    2010-01-01

    The durability of business strategies is diminishing at the same rate as the rhythm of environmental changes is increasing, which implies the necessity for uninterrupted transformations and processes of restructuring within organizations. From this perspective, this work’s objective is to demonstrate the management tools that were, are or will be used in those automobile industries established in Brazil. To this purpose, an empirical descriptive study, in the form of a survey, was conducted e...

  8. 130 Modeling of the automobile suspension by the functional model

    OpenAIRE

    桐山, 啓; 角田, 鎭男; 長松, 昭男; 御法川, 学; 岩原, 光男; Kiriyama, Akira; Sumida, Shizuo; Nagamatsu, Akio; Minorikawa, Gaku; Iwahara, Mitsuo

    2003-01-01

    Modeling for an action simulation is performed focusing on the suspension system of a car using the modeling technique called the functional model that had been developed by one of the authors. Simulation analysis of the suspension system of a car was performed in the three dimensional field. It was shown that the method based on the modeling concept of functional model can express the general dynamic characteristic of the automobile suspension.

  9. Translation of Automobile Brands from the Perspective of Skopos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竹林; 王俊

    2013-01-01

    With the steady growth of the Chinese economy, more and more countries are focusing on China. A great number of brands are entering the Chinese market and auto brand is one of them. Brand translation plays an important role for success of opening international market. This paper applies the Skopos theory to automobile brand translation, so as to provide a new angle to translation practice.

  10. Nonlinear modeling of an aerospace object dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydov, I. E.; Davydov, E. I.

    2017-01-01

    Here are presented the scientific results, obtained by motion modeling of complicated technical systems of aerospace equipment with consideration of nonlinearities. Computerized panel that allows to measure mutual influence of the system's motion and stabilization device with consideration of its real characteristics has been developed. Analysis of motion stability of a system in general has been carried out and time relationships of the system's motion taking in account nonlinearities are presented.

  11. Ultra High Temperature Ceramics for aerospace applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jankowiak, A.; Justin, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Après relecture une erreur est apparue dans le document et doit être retiré; International audience; The Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTCs) are of great interest for different engineering sectors and notably the aerospace industry. Indeed, hypersonic flights, re-entry vehicles, propulsion applications and so on, require new materials that can perform in oxidizing or corrosive atmospheres at temperatures higher than 2000°C and sometimes, for long life-time. To fulfil these requirements, U...

  12. Developing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamani, Ravi; Saxena, Abhinav; Kramer, Frank; Augustin, Mike; Schroeder, John B.; Goebel, Kai; Shao, Ginger; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Lin, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The term Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) describes a set of capabilities that enable sustainable and safe operation of components and subsystems within aerospace platforms. However, very little guidance exists for the systems engineering aspects of design with IVHM in mind. It is probably because of this that designers have to use knowledge picked up exclusively by experience rather than by established process. This motivated a group of leading IVHM practitioners within the aerospace industry under the aegis of SAE's HM-1 technical committee to author a document that hopes to give working engineers and program managers clear guidance on all the elements of IVHM that they need to consider before designing a system. This proposed recommended practice (ARP6883 [1]) will describe all the steps of requirements generation and management as it applies to IVHM systems, and demonstrate these with a "real-world" example related to designing a landing gear system. The team hopes that this paper and presentation will help start a dialog with the larger aerospace community and that the feedback can be used to improve the ARP and subsequently the practice of IVHM from a systems engineering point-of-view.

  13. Bearing and gear steels for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1990-01-01

    Research in metallurgy and processing for bearing and gear steels has resulted in improvements in rolling-element bearing and gear life for aerospace application by a factor of approximately 200 over that obtained in the early 1940's. The selection and specification of a bearing or gear steel is dependent on the integration of multiple metallurgical and physical variables. For most aerospace bearings, through-hardened VIM-VAR AISI M-50 steel is the material of preference. For gears, the preferential material is case-carburized VAR AISI 9310. However, the VAR processing for this material is being replaced by VIM-VAR processing. Since case-carburized VIM-VAR M-50NiL incorporates the desirable qualities of both the AISI M-50 and AISI 9310 materials, optimal life and reliability can be achieved in both bearings and gears with a single steel. Hence, this material offers the promise of a common steel for both bearings and gears for future aerospace applications.

  14. Automobile park and greenhouse effect. Acting upon the automobile park to reduce the greenhouse effect; Parc automobile et effet de serre. Agir sur le parc automobile pour reduire l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cauret, L. [INESTENE, 75 - Paris (France); Crozet, Y. [Lyon-1 Univ. Louis Lumiere, LET, 69 (France); Darbera, R. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees (ENPC-LATTS), 75 - Paris (France); Faudry, D. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Golovtchenko, N.; Zelem, M.C. [Toulouse-2 Univ., CERTOP, 31 (France); Mirabel, F. [Universite de Montpellier, CREDEN, 34 - Montpellier (France); Nicolas, J.P. [Centre International de Recherche sur l' Evironnement et le Developpement (CIRED), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-03-01

    This study is the result of the works carried out by eight research teams (LET, LATTS, IEPE-CNRS, CERTOP, CREDEN, ENTPE, CIRED and INESTENE). These teams belong to the same coordinated research program named Ecodev and which aims at studying the institutional, economical, fiscal, regulatory etc. conditions of selective diffusion policies of technical advances for the benefit of durable development. This study analyzes the impact of automobile development on the consumption of fossil fuels and its consequences on the local and global environment. It deals with the conditions of renewal of the automobile park for a better mastery of its impact on the greenhouse effect (purchase criteria, conditions of use and public policies to be developed): 1 - the evolution of the automobile park: development factors (economic and socio-demographic factors, pollution and public opinion), the aging of the park (causes, role of public policies), development of diesel vehicles, increase of vehicles power (impact on fuel consumptions and pollutant emissions, purchase criteria and lifestyles, fiscality regulation and evolution of vehicles characteristics); 2 - instruments of action: action on the demand (fiscality, regulation, financial incentives for an anticipated withdrawal), action on the offer (average consumption standards, voluntary agreement with makers, labelling etc..), the role of mediators, public information and education. (J.S.)

  15. STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CASE IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Carneiro Lima

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses an entrepreneurial phenomenon of strategic administration within the automobile industry: the creation of the automaker Troller Veículos Especiais (TVE. The case study at hand is justified by the positioning of this company around two market niches and its relative success in an industry characterized by few and powerful players. Our aim was to analyze the entrepreneurial and strategic process of discovering opportunity, the analysis used for internal and external factors, and the adoption of its strategic positioning in exploring two automobile market niches: in the B2B market, vehicles adapted to specific operational functions; and in the B2C, off-road vehicles with a strong appeal to consumers’ life styles. This case study allowed us to visualize the challenging path of a genuinely Brazilian small company in a sector dominated by large multinational groups, besides demonstrating decision-related dilemmas and aspects related to managerial creativity.Key-words: Automobile industry. Case study. Strategic entrepreneurship. Discovery theory. Strategic positioning.

  16. Strength Check Analysis for Gear Shaft of Automobile Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxiang Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the main drive components of the automobile transmission, the performance of gear shaft plays an important role on transmission performance. Aiming at the existing problems of the traditional strength check method of gear shaft, the objective of this study is to take a five-speed transmission as an example, to accomplish the strength analysis of gear shaft of the automobile transmission based on the MASTA software. Furthermore, the simulation modeling of the transmission is built completely to simulate the actual load conditions and complete the process of analysis for the gear shaft. Analytical results show that all gear shafts can fully meet the strength requirements, in addition to the input shaft which has any further improvements. Hence, it is indicated that a new design concept is put forward, that is, using specialized software MASTA for transmission modeling and simulation analysis can heavily improve the design level of the gear shaft, provide the theoretic basis to analyze the dynamic characteristics of gear shaft as well. Finally, it can provide references for the development and application of gear shaft of the automobile transmission.

  17. Hybrid modeling and empirical analysis of automobile supply chain network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jun-yan; Tang, Jian-ming; Fu, Wei-ping; Wu, Bing-ying

    2017-05-01

    Based on the connection mechanism of nodes which automatically select upstream and downstream agents, a simulation model for dynamic evolutionary process of consumer-driven automobile supply chain is established by integrating ABM and discrete modeling in the GIS-based map. Firstly, the rationality is proved by analyzing the consistency of sales and changes in various agent parameters between the simulation model and a real automobile supply chain. Second, through complex network theory, hierarchical structures of the model and relationships of networks at different levels are analyzed to calculate various characteristic parameters such as mean distance, mean clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. By doing so, it verifies that the model is a typical scale-free network and small-world network. Finally, the motion law of this model is analyzed from the perspective of complex self-adaptive systems. The chaotic state of the simulation system is verified, which suggests that this system has typical nonlinear characteristics. This model not only macroscopically illustrates the dynamic evolution of complex networks of automobile supply chain but also microcosmically reflects the business process of each agent. Moreover, the model construction and simulation of the system by means of combining CAS theory and complex networks supplies a novel method for supply chain analysis, as well as theory bases and experience for supply chain analysis of auto companies.

  18. Ideas as Institutions: Explaining the Air Force’s Struggle With Its Aerospace Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    necessitate, prepare and maintain plans, in consonance with the latest information to provide for destruction of the decisive units of the key...soldier goes where his leaders point, and with little question. Thus, the subtle signs of dissonance between airmen and the aerospace concept that...occasionally to adopt language more consonant with the language framing the national discourse. This subtle perspective shift of Air Force

  19. Des automobiles et des hommes : les débuts de l'Automobile Club Dauphinois (1899-1904)

    OpenAIRE

    Arriola, Élodie

    2008-01-01

    Publication partielle du vol. 1 (22 p. sur 143).; Dès son invention, l'automobile passionne les hommes. Son introduction dans la société est le résultat de l'action de quelques hommes, des passionnés de modernité qui voient en ce nouveau moyen de transport une façon d'affirmer la suprématie de l'homme sur la machine et le temps. En Isère, ces hommes s'organisent autour de l'Automobile Club Dauphinois (ACD), dès la fin du XIXe siècle. L'aventure de l'ACD est remarquable. Cette association uniq...

  20. Reinforcement of poly ether sulphones (PES) with exfoliated graphene oxide for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    2012-09-01

    Composite materials have been used for aerospace for some time now and have gained virtually 100% acceptance as the materials of choice. Speciality polymers like poly ether sulphones (PES), poly ether ether ketones(PEEK), poly ether imides (PEI) are highly preferred materials as plastic matrix due to their superior temperature performance, excellent wear & friction resistance, excellent dimensional accuracy, high tensile strength, high modulus, precise machinability and chemical resistance. In recent years nanoadditives like single and multiwall carbon nanotubes, graphenes and graphene oxides(GO) are finding huge market potential in aerospace and automobile industries. But manufacture related factors such as particle/ matrix interphases, surface activation, mixing process, particle agglomeration, particle size and shape may lead to different property effects. In this research GO/PES composites were prepared by high shear melt blending technique. GO monolayers were exfoliated from natural graphite flake and dispersed homogeneously in PES matrix for the GO content ranging between 0.5 to 2.0 volume percentage with a high shear twin screw batch mixer. These melt blended nanocomposites were injection moulded for mechanical property validation of tensile strength, flexural modulus and impact resistance. Addition of 0.5 volume percentage of GO enhanced the tensile strength and flexural modulus by 40% and 90% respectively. The results show that addition of GO to PES increase mechanical properties due to the formation of continuous network, good dispersion and strong interfacial interactions. The strong interfacial interactions were accounted for the increase in glass transition temperature. Also there was a significant improvement in the impact resistance of the PES/ GO nanocomposite. The injection moulded samples were tested for stealth performance by measuring the electromagnetic shielding property.

  1. 41 CFR 301-10.310 - What will I be reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reimbursed if I am authorized to use a Government automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead... automobile and I use a privately owned automobile instead? (a) Reimbursement based on Government costs—Unless you are committed to using a Government automobile as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  2. Capital raising of aerospace companies: equities or debts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui-Shan, L.; Taw-Onn, Y.; Wai-Mun, H.

    2016-10-01

    Aerospace products enhance national and economic activities, thus maintaining the sustainability of aerospace industry is crucial. One of the perspectives in ensuring sustainability of aerospace companies is expansion of firms by raising funds for research and development in order to provide a reasonable profitability to the firms. This study comprises a sample of 47 aerospace companies from 2009 to 2015 to analyze the impact of raising fund by equities or debts to the profitability of the firms. The result indicates that capital raising through equities is preferable than debts. Moreover, the study also identifies that the profit of aerospace industry is volatile and there is cyclical reduction of the net income in the first quarter of the year. The management needs to make wise decisions in raising fund to ensure a healthy growth of the aerospace company.

  3. Effect of automobile operating condition on the subjective equivalence of steering wheel vibration and sound

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    For the manufacturers of automobiles, automobile components and fuels, subjective equivalence relationships between vibration and sound can be used as a reference against which to plot the results from simulations or tests of specific operational conditions. The research described here was performed to define curves of subjective equivalence between steering wheel rotational vibration and sound using stimuli from different automobile operating conditions. The steering wheel acceleration stimu...

  4. Assessment of Lateral Driving Stability of Automobiles Passing by the Pylon Zone under Cross Wind

    OpenAIRE

    Dalei Wang; Airong Chen

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the reason of lateral instability of automobile passing by the pylon zone of cablesupported bridge under cross wind, a new evaluation method of lateral driving stability of automobile considering alternative cross wind is established based on multi-objective driving stability criteria and subjective assessment. Typical driving control process and dynamic response of automobile passing by the pylon zone is given by numerical simulation based on steering wheel fixed-control ...

  5. Interrupted innovation : innovation system dynamics in latecomer aerospace industries

    OpenAIRE

    Vertesy, D.; Szirmai, A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the role of sectoral innovation systems in the emergence and catch-up of aerospace industries in latecomer economies. We argue that the aerospace sector is characterized by a process of interrupted innovation. Competitive pressures and the cyclical nature of the industry not only require shifts in the direction of innovation and changes in the production system, but also periodical restructuring of the whole sectoral system of innovation. Aerospace manufacturing requi...

  6. High oil price compel automobile to 'slim',Light metal castings enjoy great popularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The fuel consumption of automobiles has a close relationship with their weight, and due to short supply and high prices of energy sources, numerous automakers are trying every means to make the automobile "slim" (or less heavy).According to available data, every 100-kg reduction in automobile weight will result in a 0.3-liter gasoline saving for every hundred kilometers of driving. Therefore, automobile parts with light weight, thin wall, excellent dimensional accuracy and high strength and toughness become the development trend.

  7. Computational Modeling of Flow Control Systems for Aerospace Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear Science Corp. proposes to develop computational methods for designing active flow control systems on aerospace vehicles with the primary objective of...

  8. Aerospace Structures Test Facility Environmental Test Chambers (ETC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The ETCs test the structural integrity of aerospace structures in representative operating temperatures and aerodynamic load distributions. The test article...

  9. High Performing, Low Temperature Operating, Long Lifetime, Aerospace Lubricants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to synthesize, characterize, and test new ionic liquids and formulations as lubricants for aerospace applications. The...

  10. High Performing, Low Temperature Operating, Long Lifetime, Aerospace Lubricants Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to synthesize, characterize, and test new ionic liquids and formulations as lubricants for aerospace applications. The...

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 39: The role of computer networks in aerospace engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Ann P.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents selected results from an empirical investigation into the use of computer networks in aerospace engineering. Such networks allow aerospace engineers to communicate with people and access remote resources through electronic mail, file transfer, and remote log-in. The study drew its subjects from private sector, government and academic organizations in the U.S. aerospace industry. Data presented here were gathered in a mail survey, conducted in Spring 1993, that was distributed to aerospace engineers performing a wide variety of jobs. Results from the mail survey provide a snapshot of the current use of computer networks in the aerospace industry, suggest factors associated with the use of networks, and identify perceived impacts of networks on aerospace engineering work and communication.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 28: The technical communication practices of aerospace engineering and science students: Results of the phase 4 cross-national surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Hecht, Laura M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes similarities and differences between undergraduate and graduate aerospace engineering and science students in the context of two general aspects of the educational experience. First, we explore the extent to which students differ regarding the factors that lead to the choice of becoming an aerospace engineer or a scientist, current satisfaction with that choice, and career-related goals and objectives. Second, we look at the technical communication skills, practices, habits, and training of aerospace engineering and science students. The reported data were obtained from a survey of students enrolled in aerospace engineering and science programs at universities in India, Japan, Russia, and the United Kingdom. The surveys were undertaken as part of the NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Data are reported for the following categories: student demographics; skill importance, skill training, and skill helpfulness; collaborative writing; computer and information technology use and importance, use of electronic networks; use and importance of libraries and library services; use and importance of information sources and products; use of foreign language technical reports; and foreign language (reading and speaking) skills.

  13. Oklahoma Aerospace Intellectual Capital/Educational Recommendations: An Inquiry of Oklahoma Aerospace Executives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Erin M.

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this qualitative study was to conduct detailed personal interviews with aerospace industry executives/managers from both the private and military sectors from across Oklahoma to determine their perceptions of intellectual capital needs of the industry. Interviews with industry executives regarding…

  14. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowle, D. [Mission Research Corporation, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  15. National aero-space plane: Flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mciver, Duncan E.; Morrell, Frederick R.

    1990-01-01

    The current status and plans of the U.S. National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program are reviewed. The goal of the program is to develop technology for single stage, hypersonic vehicles which use airbreathing propulsion to fly directly to orbit. The program features an X-30 flight research vehicle to explore altitude-speed regimes not amenable to ground testing. The decision to build the X-30 is now scheduled for 1993, with the first flight in the late 1990's. The flight mechanics, controls, flight management, and flight test considerations for the X-30 are discussed.

  16. Dielectric barrier discharge processing of aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, S. J.; Figgures, C. C.; Dixon, D. G.

    2004-08-01

    We report the use of atmospheric pressure, air based, dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) to treat materials commonly used in the aerospace industries. The material samples were processed using a test-bed of a conventional DBD configuration in which the sample formed one of the electrodes and was placed in close proximity to a ceramic electrode. The discharges generated a powerful, cold oxidizing environment which was able to remove organic contaminants, etch primer and paint layers, oxidize aluminium and roughen carbon fibre composites by the selective removal of resin.

  17. Aerospace Technologies and Applications for Dual Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

     the Planet safety and security. In this frame, the concept of dual use - the set of technologies and applications that can be exploied for both civil and military purposes - becomes a key-topic. In addition, the aerospace is a strategic building block in the deployment of a network centric environment......Events which occurred over the past years have shown how the threat related to both intentional and natural disasters could bring the civil and the miliary worlds closer in the conception and deployment of countermeasures, as well as in the identification of effective strategies for enhancing...

  18. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems cryocooler overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, J.; Tward, E.

    2010-09-01

    Mechanical long life cryocoolers are an enabling technology used to cool a wide variety of detectors in space applications. These coolers provide cooling over a range of temperatures from 2 K to 200 K, cooling powers from tens of mW to tens of watts. Typical applications are missile warning, Earth and climate sciences, astronomy and cryogenic propellant management. Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems (NGAS) has delivered many of the US flight cooler systems and has 12 long life pulse tube and Stirling coolers on orbit with two having over 11 years of continuous operation. This paper will provide an overview of the NGAS cryocooler capabilities.

  19. Surface Treatment for New Engineered Aerospace Systems

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    During this EngD project, two pigmented, anti-corrosion polymer/sol-gel hybrid coatings were developed with the aim of producing an eco-friendly alternative to conventional, toxic hexavalent chromate conversion and anodized anti-corrosion alloy treatments for the aircraft manufacturer; Airbus S.A.S. The polymer/sol-gel hybrid coatings were then tested and validated as anti-corrosion coatings on the AA2024-T3 aluminium aerospace alloy and in certain cases, their performance was compared agains...

  20. Individualized solutions to environmental problems: a case of automobile pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urmetzer, P.; Blake, D. E.; Guppy, N. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Air pollution associated with motor vehicle use is one of the prime indicators of the tension between consumerism and the environment. The use of private automobiles seems so convenient, whereas the alternatives are off-putting enough to make significant changes in personal transportation behaviour well-nigh impossible. At the same time, combating the air pollution associated with extensive use of cars has become one of the major policy objectives for cities around the world. Available policy alternatives can be divided into two categories: (1) incentives, such as improved public transportation, and (2) disincentives, such as environmental tax on gasoline. This paper attempt to directly assess links between these two alternatives, associated attitudes towards them, the level of public support for command and control (i.e. regulatory) policy approaches as well as for economic incentive/disincentive policies. Answers are sought and findings discussed relative to the link between opinions about the environment and support for different types of environmental policies, the usefulness of a rational choice perspective in explaining support for environmental policy alternatives, the role that partisan political attachments play in support of environmental policy approaches, and the roles played by environmental activism, knowledge, and action in shaping support for environmental policy alternatives. Overall results indicate that while most people living in urban environments support the ideas of environmental protection and would be willing to incur costs to confront the problem, exposure to air pollution plays an inconsequential (actually nearly non-existent) role in support of automobile-related environmental problems. Automobile users act like 'free-riders' i.e. they tend to support policies that socialize the cost of solutions rather than policies that attempt to pass the cost of pollution directly on to individual car owners. A sample of the responses to

  1. Meteorological Conditions for Functioning Automobile Transport in Moscow Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiryaeva, Alexandra

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate weather and climate conditions of functioning automobile transport in Moscow region. For this, statistics on the daily number of accidents in the City of Moscow in 2013-2014 were studied and compared with the weather conditions. Various weather phenomena and meteorological parameters that affect the increase and decrease in the number of accidents in warm and cold seasons were identified; the extent of this influence was assessed. Moreover, an analysis of the distribution and change of the frequency of occurrence of these phenomena and meteorological parameters in 1961-2010 in Moscow region was conducted. In the cold season, there are much more weather events influencing the growth in the number of accidents than in the warm season. Fallout of more than 2 cm of snow per date, the reduction in meteorological visibility, drizzle and snow storms lead to an increase of accident rate by 5-15%. In the warm season, when thunderstorms and heavy rainfall there is a decrease in accidents; increase in the number of accidents happens in hot weather (maximum air temperatures over +30 °C). In the period 1991-2010 compared to 1961-1990 in the Moscow oblast the sustained cold period and amount of precipitation under negative air temperature has reduced; a decrease in the number of days with reduced visibility range and the offset of the date of the fallout of the first snow aside winter months is observed, which is favorable for automobile transport. At the same time, there is an increase in the number of days with transitions of air temperature through 0 °C, and the number of hot days, which negatively affects the functioning automobile transport.

  2. Characteristics of motorcyclists involved in accidents between motorcycles and automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Lima de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: traffic accidents are one of the main causes of death and disability, with motorcyclists representing the great majority of both the victims and the perpetrators. Objective: this work studied the characteristics of motorcyclists injured in accidents involving motorcycles and automobiles. Method: this study sought to interview 100 motorcyclists who had been injured in collisions between motorcycles and automobiles, and who were undergoing emergency hospital treatment in the region of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The questionnaires included demographic information (age, gender, skin color, education level, profession and questions about years of licensed driving practice, how often they would drive an automobile, how long they had had a motorcycle driver’s license, how often they would ride a motorcycle, the number of prior accidents involving a car, and the number of prior accidents not involving a car. Results: of the 100 consecutive accidents studied, 91 occurred with men and 9 with women, aged between 16 and 79 (m = 29 ± 11 years. Regarding their reason for using a motorcycle, 83% reported using it for transport, 7% for work, and 10% for leisure. Most of these accident victims had secondary or higher education (47%. Of the motorcyclists who held a car driver’s license, 68.3% drove the vehicle daily or weekly and held the license for more than one year. Sixty-seven percent of the accident victims used a motorcycle daily and had a motorcycle driver’s license for at least one year. Conclusion: among the motorcyclists injured, most were men aged 20 years or older, with complete secondary education, and experienced in driving both motorcycles and cars, indicating that recklessness while driving the motorcycle is the main cause of traffic accidents.

  3. Dynamic Gas Flow Effects on the ESD of Aerospace Vehicle Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Kapat, Jayanta; Ahmed, Kareem; Cox, Rachel E.; Wilson, Jennifer G.; Calle, Luz M.; Mulligan, Jaysen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a dynamic version of Paschen's Law that takes into account the flow of ambient gas past aerospace vehicle surfaces. However, the classic Paschen's Law does not take into account the flow of gas of an aerospace vehicle, whose surfaces may be triboelectrically charged by dust or ice crystal impingement, traversing the atmosphere. The basic hypothesis of this work is that the number of electron-ion pairs created per unit distance by the electric field between the electrodes is mitigated by the electron-ion pairs removed per unit distance by the flow of gas. The revised Paschen equation must be a function of the mean velocity, v(sub xm), of the ambient gas and reduces to the classical version of Paschen's law when the gas mean velocity, v(sub xm) = 0. New formulations of Paschen's Law, taking into account Mach number and dynamic pressure, derived by the authors, will be discussed. These equations will be evaluated by wind tunnel experimentation later this year. Based on the results of this work, it is hoped that the safety of aerospace vehicles will be enhanced with a redefinition of electrostatic launch commit criteria. It is also possible that new products, such as new anti-static coatings, may be formulated from this data.

  4. Photorealistic ray tracing to visualize automobile side mirror reflective scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hocheol; Kim, Kyuman; Lee, Gang; Lee, Sungkoo; Kim, Jingu

    2014-10-20

    We describe an interactive visualization procedure for determining the optimal surface of a special automobile side mirror, thereby removing the blind spot, without the need for feedback from the error-prone manufacturing process. If the horizontally progressive curvature distributions are set to the semi-mathematical expression for a free-form surface, the surface point set can then be derived through numerical integration. This is then converted to a NURBS surface while retaining the surface curvature. Then, reflective scenes from the driving environment can be virtually realized using photorealistic ray tracing, in order to evaluate how these reflected images would appear to drivers.

  5. Ocular alkali burn associated with automobile air-bag activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J E; McClafferty, K; Orton, R B; Tokarewicz, A C; Nowak, E S

    1995-01-01

    Alkali burns of the eye can result in permanent visual impairment and are therefore potentially devastating. Immedicate diagnosis and treatment are essential to a good prognosis. The authors report the case of a 52-year-old woman who suffered alkali keratitis as the result of the activation of an automobile air bag. This type of injury will be seen more frequently as more cars are equipped with air bags and should be suspected in drivers and passengers involved in accidents in which air bags have been activated. PMID:7553495

  6. Measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, L.B.; Cobas Flores, E.; McMichael, F.C.; Hendrickson, C.T.; Horvath, A.; Joshi, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    In the paper the following topics are discussed: - the need for public education and involvement in the decision process, - the difficulty of defining sustainability, - the occasional difference between the goals of sustainability and environmental quality, - the need for life cycle analysis to analyze the sustainability and environmental quality implications of a product, process, or material. The importance of environmental input-output analysis is stressed. This new tool can provide the life cycle information cheaply, quickly, and with much less uncertainty. Examples are presented for making an automobile, a seat out of plastic or aluminium, and an electric vehicle. (author) 4 tabs., refs.

  7. Ensuring the quality of logistic service of automobile dealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Salimova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to substantiate the functional directions of activities of the enterprises of dealer chain of an automotive company aimed at ensuring the quality of logistics servicing of automobiles. Methods the study is based on the use of general scientific methods comparison scientific generalization logical analysis analogy and specific scientific methods systemic functional simulation. Results the article states that one of the key criteria of consumer behavior of car buyers is the availability of presales and aftersales service. The current research works in the sphere of logistics services are analyzed which refer to the approaches to its definition as well as selecting the criteria for its functional quality. It is established that the increase of interest in the activities of logistics centers of car service is due to several reasons such as the growing complexity of their construction and the increased competition in this area. The critical review of the scientific literature was conducted as well as the analysis of the scientific problem of determining the functional areas of logistics service of an automobile company with a view to ensuring quality and enhancing the satisfaction of end users of automobiles. The key areas of corporate logistics services were systematized and classified detailing for each of these areas was made. Different approaches were described to defining the range of services at different stages of the life cycle of technical means. Basing on the studied viewpoints four components of the functional activities of service centers were formulated presales service car sales aftersales maintenance and disposal of vehicles. Basing on these components a model of brand service of a car company was formed taking into account the functional characteristics of each component. Scientific novelty a functional model was developed of the system of service vehicles in a brand servicesales chain automotive company allowing to provide

  8. Community Essay: Sustainable approach to automobile society in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Fujimoto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the difference between electric vehicles (EVs in society and an EV society? “EVs in society” means simply the replacement of gasoline-powered cars with EVs without taking into consideration pervasive social issues. By contrast, an “EV society” is a concept whereby EVs are more fundamentally woven into the fabric of society with the aim of solving a range of social problems, while at the same time questioning the meaning of what an automobile “is” and “can be.” It is this “game-changing” principle of integration that drives our research.

  9. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Ryosuke; Todoroki, Akira

    2008-12-09

    This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  10. Wireless Monitoring of Automobile Tires for Intelligent Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Todoroki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses key technologies of intelligent tires focusing on sensors and wireless data transmission. Intelligent automobile tires, which monitor their pressure, deformation, wheel loading, friction, or tread wear, are expected to improve the reliability of tires and tire control systems. However, in installing sensors in a tire, many problems have to be considered, such as compatibility of the sensors with tire rubber, wireless transmission, and battery installments. As regards sensing, this review discusses indirect methods using existing sensors, such as that for wheel speed, and direct methods, such as surface acoustic wave sensors and piezoelectric sensors. For wireless transmission, passive wireless methods and energy harvesting are also discussed.

  11. ABOUT CERTIFICATION IN THE AUTOMOBILE FIELD (in Russian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor NORDIN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The transport industry development in the Russian Federation makes urgent the problem of transportation security, rendering qualitative services in the goods (passengers transportation field, checkup and repairing motor transport vehicle and etc. Certification is the basic mechanism the work of which should be directed not only at the conformity of service assessment at automobile transport to the specified requirements but also be a regulator of preventing negative developments due to implementing services quality and security improvement. Particularities and stages of conformity assessment are considered in the article also it is offered to differentiate transportation services in levels according to the value of their complex quality level.

  12. Automobile Transmission Shift Control Based on MMAS and BP Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxue Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The neural network control model of automobile automatic transmission has been developed, which make the optimum shift decision based on the vehicle velocity, the vehicle acceleration and the throttle opening. The MAX-MIN ant syste (MMAS is introduced to train the neural network weights and thresholds. The basic theory and steps of MMAS algorithm are given, and applied in the automatic transmission shift control. Experimental results show that the automatic transmission shift control system based on MMAS, comparing to the system based on ACO-BP, has better capability of gear recognition, and can make shift decision promptly and effectively.

  13. Automated Sequencing and Subassembly Detection in Automobile Body Assembly Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The choice of the sequence in which parts or subass em blies are put together in the mechanical assembly of a product can drastical ly affect the efficiency of the assembly process. Unlike metal cutting operation s where computer aided system have been available for some 15 to 25 years to hel p manufacturing engineers in generating cutting sequences and NC programs, the m ajority of assembly planning tasks in automobile body design is still manually p erformed by assembly designers according to their pa...

  14. CUSTOMER IMPORTANCE RATING OF SERVICE QUALITY DIMENSIONS FOR AUTOMOBILE SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATYENDRA SHARMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Customers are the center of an organization’s universe: they define quality. They expect performance, reliability, responsiveness, competitive prices, on-time delivery, service, clear and correct transaction processing and more. Customer satisfaction/Service quality management has become a strategic imperative for most firms. In the present circumstances, it is vital to measure customer perceptions and how well the company delivers on the critical factors/dimensions of the business. The main objective of this paper is to be acquainted with customer importance rating of service quality dimensions or Voice of Customers for an Automobile service centre. A questionnaire has been used for the purpose.

  15. A Review of Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schnoor

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here is a full-on celebration of cars and someone’s addiction to cars. In its midst drives Le Corbusier. The book, Voiture Minimum. Le Corbusier and the Automobile (Cambridge, Mass. and London: MIT Press, 2011, has recently been published by Spanish architect and academic Antonio Amado. What a curious book. It is something between a detective story circling around determining the date of a single drawing (1928 or 1936 and, simultaneously, it is “Everything you always wanted to know about Le Corbusier and cars but were afraid to ask”.

  16. Development of Parametric Mass and Volume Models for an Aerospace SOFC/Gas Turbine Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornabene, Robert; Wang, Xiao-yen; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.

    2005-01-01

    In aerospace power systems, mass and volume are key considerations to produce a viable design. The utilization of fuel cells is being studied for a commercial aircraft electrical power unit. Based on preliminary analyses, a SOFC/gas turbine system may be a potential solution. This paper describes the parametric mass and volume models that are used to assess an aerospace hybrid system design. The design tool utilizes input from the thermodynamic system model and produces component sizing, performance, and mass estimates. The software is designed such that the thermodynamic model is linked to the mass and volume model to provide immediate feedback during the design process. It allows for automating an optimization process that accounts for mass and volume in its figure of merit. Each component in the system is modeled with a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches. A description of the assumptions and design analyses is presented.

  17. Combustion Power Unit--400: CPU-400.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion Power Co., Palo Alto, CA.

    Aerospace technology may have led to a unique basic unit for processing solid wastes and controlling pollution. The Combustion Power Unit--400 (CPU-400) is designed as a turboelectric generator plant that will use municipal solid wastes as fuel. The baseline configuration is a modular unit that is designed to utilize 400 tons of refuse per day…

  18. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  19. 75 FR 6407 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Wednesday, February 24, 2010, 12:30 p.m. to 2:30 p... Center Visitor's Center to gain access.) ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Kathy Dakon,...

  20. Aerospace Technology Curriculum Guide. Invest in Success. Vo. Ed. #260.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains standards for an articulated secondary and postsecondary curriculum in aerospace technology. The curriculum standards can be used to ensure that vocational programs meet the needs of local business and industry. The first part of the document contains a task list and student performance standards for the aerospace technology…

  1. 77 FR 25502 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... meeting of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. DATES: Friday, May 25, 2012, 10:00-11:00 a.m. CST... Visitor Control Center to gain access.) FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Harmony Myers,...

  2. 76 FR 23339 - Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space... Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel (ASAP) to take place on April 29, 2011, at the Kennedy Space Center, FL....

  3. 76 FR 55614 - Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace... (AD) for Pacific Aerospace Limited Models FU24-954 and FU24A-954 airplanes modified with an...

  4. 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M. B. (Editor); Stanley, D. Cross (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Records are presented from the 5th Conference on Aerospace Materials, Processes, and Environmental Technology. Topics included pollution prevention, inspection methods, advanced materials, aerospace materials and technical standards,materials testing and evaluation, advanced manufacturing,development in metallic processes, synthesis of nanomaterials, composite cryotank processing, environmentally friendly cleaning, and poster sessions.

  5. 75 FR 28547 - Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... general and trade media, e-mail, direct mail, broadcast fax, notices by industry trade associations and... International Trade Administration Aerospace Supplier Mission to Russia AGENCY: International Trade..., International Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service, is organizing an Aerospace Supplier...

  6. Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory. 1993 Command History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    MSC USN, Aerospace Physiologist Helen Karl , PRI USN, Aviation Survival Equipmentman Judy Strand, LT MSC USNR, Aerospace Physiologist Gretchen Wavell...Proceedings 540, pp. 32-1 to 32-10, 1993. Neri, D,F, and Shappell, S.A., Work/Rest Schedules and Petformance of S-3 Aviators During Fleet Exe,’ Lise 1992

  7. REACH Impact on Aerospace Materials - U.S. Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Problems •Phthalates – Used to make stuff flexible •Aerospace Uses – sleeving, wire sheath , plastic panels, adhesives, etc, etc •Out of 30 most...offset cost • Apparently not for zinc chromate • Will the criticality of Aerospace products convince ECHA to exempt Hex Chrome or only Restrict

  8. 29 CFR 785.40 - When private automobile is used in travel away from home community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When private automobile is used in travel away from home community. 785.40 Section 785.40 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... WORKED Application of Principles Traveltime § 785.40 When private automobile is used in travel away...

  9. 32 CFR 552.73 - Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. 552.73 Section 552.73 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... Military Reservations § 552.73 Minimum requirements for automobile insurance policies. Policies sold...

  10. 77 FR 63917 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Certain Measures Affecting the Automobile and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (``SCM Agreement''). In addition, it appears that China has failed to... Measures for the Administration of National Export Bases of Automobiles and Parts and Components (for Trial... Administration of National Export Bases of Automobiles and Parts and Components (Revised Draft); MOFCOM,...

  11. 75 FR 80350 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... date for the final rule published on November 29, 2010 at 75 FR 72965 remains November 29, 2010. The...-AJ09 Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous...

  12. Automotive History and Development of the Automobile; Automotive Mechanics I: 9043.01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The automotive history and development of the automobile course is designed to familiarize the beginning student with basic concepts common to the automobile history and general information that is required for successful advancement in the automotive mechanics field. A course outline is provided and seven pages of post-tests are included in the…

  13. 25 CFR 11.419 - Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. 11... OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.419 Unauthorized use of automobiles and other vehicles. A person commits a misdemeanor if he or she operates another person's...

  14. 41 CFR 102-34.45 - How are passenger automobiles classified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Obtaining Fuel Efficient Motor Vehicles § 102-34.45 How are passenger automobiles classified... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How are passenger automobiles classified? 102-34.45 Section 102-34.45 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  15. Designing Logistic Information Platform to Fostering Development Trend in China Automobile Manufacturing Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yue

    2009-01-01

    The logistics resource in China's automobile group can't be optimized and allocated because of the "information island" problem in the group's logistics information platform in the whole group. In addition, it is the development trend of China's automobile group LIN to build a logistics e - market in the range of the group.

  16. Application of high-strength steel sheets for automobiles in Japan; Utilisation des aciers a haute resistance dans l'industrie automobile au Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M.; Ohashi, H. [Nippon Steel Corporation (United Kingdom)

    2001-10-01

    In Japan, automobile and steel engineers are working together for automotive body weight reduction. They are focusing on weight reduction from the point of view of both body structure and material. In order to meet the increasingly severe requirements for weight reduction, aiming at the limitation of the fuel consumption, an expansion in the range of application of HSS is vital. To realize further reduction, joint research by steelmakers and automobile manufacturers will become increasingly important. (authors)

  17. Ergonomic and usability analysis on a sample of automobile dashboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Raíssa; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This is a research study based on an analysis which sets out to identify and pinpoint ergonomic and usability problems found in a sample of automobile dashboards. The sample consisted of three dashboards, of three different makes and characterized as being a popular model, an average model and a luxury model. The examination was conducted by observation, with the aid of photography, notes and open interview, questionnaires and performing tasks with users, the bases of which are on the principles laid down by methodologies. From this it was possible to point to the existence of problems such as: complaints about the layout, lighting, colors, available area, difficult access to points of interaction, such as buttons, and the difficult nomenclature of dials. Later, the findings and recommendations presented show the need for a further, deeper study, using more accurate tools, a larger sample of users, and an anthropometric study focused on the dashboard, since reading and understanding it have to be done quickly and accurately, and that more attention be given to the study of automobile dashboards, particularly in the most popular vehicles in order to maintain the standards of usability, and drivers' comfort and safety.

  18. ASSES SMENT OF PREVALENCE OF HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG AUTOMOBILE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep P.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The global automotive repair and maintenance service industries are expected to be worth almost $306 billion by 2015. The automotive service sectors currently are having employees an estimated 787 , 77702 and increasing at rate of 12% per annum. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: ( 1 To assess the prevalence morbidities among automobile workers (2 To increase the awareness about safety (PPE at work place (3 To motivate about social security schemes coverage. MATERIAL & METHODS: A cross - sectional study was carried out in the territory area of IMSR M edical C ollage of Satara districts. The total no of 117 participants were included for the study. A pretested , predesigned Prof o rma was used to collect the Information’s under supervisi on & analyzed & interpreted with help of percentages & chi square test. RESULT: About 32.76% were only having less than 10 years of service. 68.41% of subjects have dropped their study before high school. Only 25.74% have their own garage , along with 29.25 % of subjects were having specialized training. PPE was available with 29.25% of subjects. Stress , Muscle/bony pain & dyspepsia along with bowl disorders were significant morbidities observed. CONCLUSION: P revalence of morbidities is significant in this st udy & need more medical attention towards automobile workers.

  19. [Cohort mortality study of workers in an automobile foundry factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yu-Yu; Liu, Fu-Ying; Zhang, Min; Lu, Rui; Yao, Hui-Lin; Yang, Qiu-Ling; Chen, Wei-Hong

    2008-10-01

    To understand the major causes of death in automobile foundry workers and investigate casting manipulations hazards to health. A cohort study of 3529 foundry workers registered in one big automobile factory in Shiyan city of China was performed. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for the main causes of death by using Chinese national mortality rates as reference. The cohort mortality was traced from 1980 to the end of 2005 with an accumulation of 84 999 person-years, revealed 265 deaths. The results of this study showed that the standardized mortality ratio for all subjects was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.85 approximately 1.08), which was very close to that expected on the basis of the China national mortality rates. The SMR increased with age, the SMR became greater than 1 in all groups of age 50 and higher. The results showed that malignant neoplasm (3.43%), accidents (1.16%), cerebro-vascular diseases (1.08%), cardio-vascular diseases (0.79%) were the first four illnesses that threatened workers' life span. Statistically significant mortality of malignant neoplasm (SMR = 7.87), accidents (SMR = 2.70), cardio-vascular diseases (SMR = 2.68) and digestive diseases (SMR = 2.79) were found in the foundry workers. The relative risk of malignant neoplasm for first line workers to assistant workers was 1.99 (P < 0.05). The occupational hazards in foundry factory have harmful impact on the workers' health and life span.

  20. Automobile shredder residue : a waste or a resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Inst. for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology

    2000-07-01

    In recent years several recycling and resource recovery technologies have been tested for the challenging task of recycling automobile shredder residues (ASR) with varying degrees of success. ASR is the nonrecyclable residue that remains after recyclable metals are extracted from old automobiles. The use of ASR as a landfill day cover seems to be a viable alternative for this material. Scientific evidence suggests that ASR is capable of acting as a sponge for heavy metals. The absorption capacity of ASR for heavy metal lead was presented along with evaluations for both standard leaching test protocols and dynamic column testing. Compared to soil, ASR has a greater absorption capacity for heavy metals such as lead. ASR also has other desirable features that make it an ideal choice for landfill day cover. For example, ASR provides a stable mat for vehicle traffic, minimizes erosion due to rainfall run off and is less prone to dusting. ASR is also capable of compression to less than 5 cm when overfilled. This conserves landfill volume and allows excavated soil to be used for other purposes. In addition, the use of ASR could prevent contamination of groundwater by preventing the leaching of heavy metals from landfills. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Automobile shredded residue valorisation by hydrometallurgical metal recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Giuseppe; Moscardini, Emanuela; Furlani, Giuliana; Pagnanelli, Francesca; Toro, Luigi

    2011-01-15

    The aim of this work was developing a hydrometallurgical process to recover metals from automobile shredded residue (or car fluff). Automobile shredded residue (ASR) was characterised by particle size distribution, total metal content and metal speciation in order to guide the choice of target metals and the operating conditions of leaching. Characterisation results showed that Fe is the most abundant metal in the waste, while Zn was the second abundant metal in the fraction with diameter lower than 500 μm. Sequential extractions denoted that Zn was easily extractable by weak acid attack, while Fe and Al required a strong acid attack to be removed. In order to recover zinc from leaching tests were operated using acetic acid, sulphuric acid and sodium hydroxide at different concentrations. Sulphuric acid determined the highest zinc extraction yield, while acetic acid determined the highest zinc extractive selectivity. Sodium hydroxide promoted an intermediate situation between sulphuric and acetic acid. Zn recovery by electro winning using acetic leach liquor determined 95% of Zn electro deposition yield in 1h, while using sulphuric leach liquor 40% yield in 1h and 50% yield in 2h were obtained. Simulation results showed that the sulphuric leaching process was more attractive than acetic leaching process.

  2. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  3. BODY PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION OF AUTOMOBILE DRIVING HUMAN MACHINE CONTACT INTERFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Juan; HONG Jun; ZHANG E; LIANG Jian; LU Bingheng

    2007-01-01

    Aiming at the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact Interface in automobile driving and based on physiological and anatomical principle, the physiological and biochemical process of muscles and nerves in the formation and development of fatigue is analyzed systematically. The fatigue-causing physiological characteristic Indexes are mapped to biomechanical Indexes like muscle stress-strain, the compression deformation of Wood vessels and nerves etc.from the perspective of formation mechanism. The geometrical model of skeleton and parenchyma is established by applying CT-scanned body data and MRI images. The general rule of comfort body pressure distribution is acquired through the analysis of anatomical structure of buttocks and femoral region. The comprehensive lest platform for sitting comfort of 3D adjustable contact Interface is constructed. The lest of body pressure distribution of human-machine contact interface and its comparison with subjective evaluation indicates that the biomechanical Indexes of automobile driving human-machine contact interface and body pressure distribution rule studied can effectively evaluate the fatigue and comfort issues of human-machine contact interface and provide theoretical basis for the optimal design of human-machine contact interface.

  4. Skill gap analysis and training needs in Indian aerospace industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premkumar Balaraman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of the paper is on assessing the global aerospace industry as well as Indian scenario, and attempts to assess the skill gaps and training needs of Indian aerospace industry.  Design/methodology/approach: The study is qualitative in nature, and employs wide array of qualitative tools which includes desktop study, focus group interviews and secondary sources of information. Around 10 focus groups were used in the study, with each focus group having a minimum of 6 members of experts in the aerospace and allied industries. The study evolved into a 2 staged one, with the first study elucidating the growing importance and potential of aerospace industry, justifying the significance to take forward the second part of the study. And the second study specifically focuses on skill gaps and training needs. Findings and Originality/value: The Study yields varied results on existing generic expectations of aerospace industry, specific needs of aerospace industry, identification of aerospace job categories unique to aerospace industry, key issues of training in Indian scenario and recommendations. The paper in summary reflects the current scenario of aerospace industry potentials for India and its likely impact on skills gap and training needs. Practical implications: Skills gap is a significant gap between an organization’s current capabilities and the skills it needs to achieve its goals. As a number of Global forecasts project, India as an emerging aviation market, the skill gaps in this sector is predicted to be huge and necessitates the study on assessing the skill gaps and its allied training needs. Originality/value: The Study is highly original and first one of its kind in reflecting the current situation of the skills gap and training needs in Indian Aerospace industry. The focus group interviews were conducted with the experts at various levels in the industyr without any bias yielding valid and realtime data for the

  5. 29 CFR 779.371 - Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments may qualify for exemption under section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Some automobile, truck, and farm implement establishments... OR SERVICES Exemptions for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Automobile, Truck, Farm Implement, Trailer, and Aircraft Sales and Services § 779.371 Some automobile, truck, and farm...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal compliance date for automobile... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2301 Federal compliance date for automobile and..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of §...

  7. 77 FR 29922 - Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry, Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... CFR Part 20 Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry, Request... FTC's ``Guides for the Rebuilt, Reconditioned and Other Used Automobile Parts Industry.'' DATES... used parts (e.g., engines and transmissions). The Commission first addressed the used automobile...

  8. 41 CFR 301-10.220 - What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? 301-10.220 Section 301-10.220 Public... ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 10-TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES Government Vehicle Government Automobiles § 301-10.220 What requirements must I meet to operate a Government automobile for official travel? You must...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart B of... - Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59 Protection of Environment... Automobile Refinish Coatings Pt. 59, Subpt. B, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart B of Part 59—Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Content Limits for Automobile Refinish Coatings Coating category Grams VOC per liter...

  10. Technical communications in aerospace - An analysis of the practices reported by U.S. and European aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.; Glassman, Myron

    1990-01-01

    The flow of scientific and technical information (STI) at the individual, organizational, national, and international levels is studied. The responses of U.S and European aerospace engineers and scientists to questionnaires concerning technical communications in aerospace are examined. Particular attention is given to the means used to communicate information and the social system of the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. Demographic data about the survey respondents are provided. The methods used to communicate technical data and the sources utilized to solve technical problems are described. The importance of technical writing skills and the use of computer technology in the aerospace field are discussed. The derived data are useful for R&D and information managers in order to improve access to and utilization of aerospace STI.

  11. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 19: Computer and information technology and aerospace knowledge diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Bishop, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    To remain a world leader in aerospace, the US must improve and maintain the professional competency of its engineers and scientists, increase the research and development (R&D) knowledge base, improve productivity, and maximize the integration of recent technological developments into the R&D process. How well these objectives are met, and at what cost, depends on a variety of factors, but largely on the ability of US aerospace engineers and scientists to acquire and process the results of federally funded R&D. The Federal Government's commitment to high speed computing and networking systems presupposes that computer and information technology will play a major role in the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. However, we know little about information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The use of computer and information technology by US aerospace engineers and scientists in academia, government, and industry is reported.

  12. Exploring Stakeholder Definitions within the Aerospace Industry: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Jonathan R.

    A best practice in the discipline of project management is to identify all key project stakeholders prior to the execution of a project. When stakeholders are properly identified, they can be consulted to provide expert advice on project activities so that the project manager can ensure the project stays within the budget and schedule constraints. The problem addressed by this study is that managers fail to properly identify key project stakeholders when using stakeholder theory because there are multiple conflicting definitions for the term stakeholder. Poor stakeholder identification has been linked to multiple negative project outcomes such as budget and schedules overruns, and this problem is heightened in certain industries such as aerospace. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore project managers' and project stakeholders' perceptions of how they define and use the term stakeholder within the aerospace industry. This qualitative exploratory single-case study had two embedded units of analysis: project managers and project stakeholders. Six aerospace project managers and five aerospace project stakeholders were purposively selected for this study. Data were collected through individual semi-structured interviews with both project managers and project stakeholders. All data were analyzed using Yin's (2011) five-phased cycle approach for qualitative research. The results indicated that the aerospace project managers and project stakeholder define the term stakeholder as "those who do the work of a company." The participants build upon this well-known concept by adding that, "a company should list specific job titles" that correspond to their company specific-stakeholder definition. Results also indicated that the definition of the term stakeholder is used when management is assigning human resources to a project to mitigate or control project risk. Results showed that project managers tended to include the customer in their stakeholder definitions

  13. Science, Engineering, Mathematics and Aerospace Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This is an annual report on the Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Aerospace Academy (SEMAA), which is run as a collaborative effort of NASA Lewis Research Center, and Cuyahgoga Community College. The purpose of SEMA is to increase the percentage of African Americans, and Hispanics in the fields of science and technology. The SEMAA program reaches from kindergarden, to grade 12, involving the family of under-served minorities in the education of the children. The year being reported (i.e., 1996-1997) saw considerable achievement. The program served over 1,939 students, and 120 parents were involved in various seminars. The report goes on to review the program and its implementation for each grade level. It also summarizes the participation, by gender and ethnicity.

  14. Hypersonic characteristics of an advanced aerospace plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccandless, R. S.; Cruz, C. I.

    1985-01-01

    A series of hypersonic wind-tunnel tests have been conducted in the NASA Langley Hypersonic Facilities Complex to obtain the static longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced aerospace plane. Data were obtained at 0 to 20 deg angles of attack and -3 to 3 deg angles of sideslip at Mach numbers of 6 and 10 in air and 20 in helium. Results show that stable trim capability exists at angles of attack near maximum lift-drag ratio (L/D). Both performance and stability exhibited some Mach number dependency. The vehicle was longitudinally unstable at low angles of attack but stable at angles of attack near and above maximum L/D. It was directionally unstable with positive dihedral effect. The rudder showed an inability to provide lateral-directional control, and removing the vertical tail resulted in increased directional instability. Analytical predictions of the static longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients gave relatively good comparisons with the experimental data.

  15. Computational Control of Flexible Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Lonnie, Jr.; Shen, Ji Yao

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish a distributed parameter modeling technique for structural analysis, parameter estimation, vibration suppression and control synthesis of large flexible aerospace structures. This report concentrates on the research outputs produced in the last two years of the project. The main accomplishments can be summarized as follows. A new version of the PDEMOD Code had been completed. A theoretical investigation of the NASA MSFC two-dimensional ground-based manipulator facility by using distributed parameter modelling technique has been conducted. A new mathematical treatment for dynamic analysis and control of large flexible manipulator systems has been conceived, which may provide a embryonic form of a more sophisticated mathematical model for future modified versions of the PDEMOD Codes.

  16. Machining distortion prediction of aerospace monolithic components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-bo BI; Qun-lin CHENG; Hui-yue DONG; Ying-lin KE

    2009-01-01

    To predict the distortion of aerospace monolithic components.a model is established to simulate the numerical control (NC)milling process using 3D finite element method(FEM).In this model,the cutting layer is simplified firstly.Then,the models of cutting force and cutting temperature are established to gain the cutting loads,which are applied to the mesh model of the part.Finally,a prototype of machining simulation environment is developed to simulate the milling process of a spar.Key factors influencing the distortion,such as initial residual stress,cutting loads,fixture layout,cutting sequence,and tool path are considered all together.The total distortion of the spar is predicted and an experiment is conducted to validate the numerical results.It is found that the maximum discrepancy between the simulation results and experiment values is 19.0%

  17. Science, Engineering, Mathematics and Aerospace Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This is an annual report on the Science, Engineering, Mathematics, and Aerospace Academy (SEMAA), which is run as a collaborative effort of NASA Lewis Research Center, and Cuyahgoga Community College. The purpose of SEMA is to increase the percentage of African Americans, and Hispanics in the fields of science and technology. The SEMAA program reaches from kindergarden, to grade 12, involving the family of under-served minorities in the education of the children. The year being reported (i.e., 1996-1997) saw considerable achievement. The program served over 1,939 students, and 120 parents were involved in various seminars. The report goes on to review the program and its implementation for each grade level. It also summarizes the participation, by gender and ethnicity.

  18. Analytical prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, J. F.; Piersol, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    Considerable attention has been given recently to the formulation and validation of analytical models for the prediction of aerospace vehicle vibration response to acoustic and fluctuating pressures. This paper summarizes the development of such analytical models for two applications, (1) structural vibrations of the Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle due to broadband rocket noise and aerodynamic boundary layer turbulence, and (2) structural vibrations of general aviation aircraft due to discrete frequency propeller and reciprocating engine exhaust noise. In both cases, the spatial exterior excitations are convected pressure fields which are described on the basis of measured cross spectra (coherence and phase) information. Structural modal data are obtained from analytical predictions, and structural responses to appropriate excitation fields are calculated. The results are compared with test data, and the strengths and weaknesses of the analytical models are assessed.

  19. Life cycle models of conventional and alternative-fueled automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Heather Louise

    This thesis reports life cycle inventories of internal combustion engine automobiles with feasible near term fuel/engine combinations. These combinations include unleaded gasoline, California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasoline, alcohol and gasoline blends (85 percent methanol or ethanol combined with 15 percent gasoline), and compressed natural gas in spark ignition direct and indirect injection engines. Additionally, I consider neat methanol and neat ethanol in spark ignition direct injection engines and diesel fuel in compression ignition direct and indirect injection engines. I investigate the potential of the above options to have a lower environmental impact than conventional gasoline-fueled automobiles, while still retaining comparable pricing and consumer benefits. More broadly, the objective is to assess whether the use of any of the alternative systems will help to lead to the goal of a more sustainable personal transportation system. The principal tool is the Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Analysis model which includes inventories of economic data, environmental discharges, and resource use. I develop a life cycle assessment framework to assemble the array of data generated by the model into three aggregate assessment parameters; economics, externalities, and vehicle attributes. The first step is to develop a set of 'comparable cars' with the alternative fuel/engine combinations, based on characteristics of a conventional 1998 gasoline-fueled Ford Taurus sedan, the baseline vehicle for the analyses. I calculate the assessment parameters assuming that these comparable cars can attain the potential thermal efficiencies estimated by experts for each fuel/engine combination. To a first approximation, there are no significant differences in the assessment parameters for the vehicle manufacture, service, fixed costs, and the end-of-life for any of the options. However, there are differences in the vehicle operation life cycle components and the state of technology

  20. An analysis of disruptions in aerospace/defense organizations that affect the supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Toscha L.

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine whether or not functions of procurement organizations structures' and aerospace suppliers were perceived as disruptions and to identify their effects on lead time and costs within a supply chain. An analysis of employees' perception of centralized and decentralized procurement functions, aerospace and defense suppliers, lead times of goods and services, price increases, and schedule delays was conducted. Prior studies are limited in regards to understanding how specific procurement functions affects an organization procurement structure. This non-experimental quantitative study allowed for a survey to be administered to aerospace and defense companies throughout the United States to obtain information from sourcing and procurement professionals with 5 or more years of experience. The current study utilized a 10 question survey based on the 5- point Likert -type scale to determine the findings. Through descriptive and inferential statistics, using regression analysis, standard deviation, and P-value; findings indicated that the majority of the participants surveyed perceived both centralized and decentralized procurement functions affected lead time and cost of goods and services resulted in a positive effect and were considered as supply chain disruptions.

  1. Applications of aerospace technology in biology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Utilization of NASA technology and its application to medicine is discussed. The introduction of new or improved commercially available medical products and incorporation of aerospace technology is outlined. A biopolar donor-recipient model of medical technology transfer is presented to provide a basis for the methodology. The methodology is designed to: (1) identify medical problems and NASA technology that, in combination, constitute opportunities for successful medical products; (2) obtain the early participation of industry in the transfer process; and (3) obtain acceptance by the medical community of new medical products based on NASA technology. Two commercial transfers were completed: the ocular screening device, a system for quick detection of vision problems in preschool children, and Porta-Fib III, a hospital monitoring unit. Two institutional transfers were completed: implant materials testing, the application of NASA fracture control technology to improve reliability of metallic prostheses, and incinerator monitoring, a quadrupole mass spectrometer to monitor combustion products of municipal incinerators. Mobility aids for the blind and ultrasound diagnosis of burn depth are also studied.

  2. Dynamic Data Driven Methods for Self-aware Aerospace Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-08

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0127 Dynamic Data Driven Methods for Self-aware Aerospace Vehicles Karen Willcox MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Final...Methods for Self-aware Aerospace Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0339 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Karen E...Back (Rev. 8/98) Dynamic Data Driven Methods for Self-aware Aerospace Vehicles Grant # FA9550-11-1-0339 Final Report Participating Institutions

  3. Study on the evaluation of aerospace microelectronic industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江帆; 陈荣秋

    2004-01-01

    Aerospace microelectronic technology has become the core competence of aerospace technology. For evaluating the aerospace microelectronic industry, it is necessary to change descriptive language of goal to quantitative index that can be measured. Knowing quantified goals or tree structure and array of general goal system, with certain algorithm and processing each corresponding list or array, we can bring out a quantified general goal value. The multi-objective (multi-attribute) evaluation method and the relevant weight sum algorithm have been adopted to quantitatively evaluate and forecast the developing state of the industry. A practical example illustrates that the applied decision technique and the algorithm are feasible and effective.

  4. Environmental practices of the auxiliary companies to the Spanish automobile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torre, Pilar L.; González, Beatriz A.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The automobile manufacturing industry plays a very important role in a country's economy. The importance of automobile manufacturing industry lies in its sheer size and complexity in terms of the direct and indirect influence it commands across many other industries. While millions of people are employed in the automobile manufacturing industry, it is estimated that more than two and half times that number are employed in the auxiliary companies that supply parts to the automobile manufacturing companies. The auxiliary companies represent a group of businesses of various sizes, types, and geographical locations, producing a vast variety of products ranging from the very simple to the extremely intricate. In this study, the current environmental practices of management in the core Spanish auxiliary companies that do business with the automobile manufacturing industry (and thus form a large part of the automobile manufacturing industry's supply chain) are investigated. We show that while automobile manufacturing companies are under scrutiny to become more and more environmentally friendly, not only at their manufacturing stage but also at their products' useful and EOL stages, there appears to be no such burden on the auxiliary companies. Our conclusion is based on an elaborate survey conducted during the fall of 2004 of Spanish auxiliary companies with questions about the characteristics, environmental practices and reverse logistics related activities carried out by the companies.

  5. Dynamic modelling of household automobile transactions within a microsimulation framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadian, A.

    2002-07-01

    This thesis presents a newly developed dynamic model of household automobile transactions within an integrated land-use transportation and environment (ILUTE) modeling system framework. It is a market-based decision-making tool for use by individuals who have to choose between adding new vehicles to a fleet, disposing of vehicles, trading one of the vehicles of a fleet, or do-nothing. Different approaches were used within the model, including an artificial neural network, hedonic price, regression, and vehicle class and vintage choices. The model can also predict the complex activity of individuals' behaviour to become active in the market. An estimation approach was used to incorporate the vehicle type choice model into the main dynamic transaction choice model.

  6. PRIORITY DISPATCH SCHEDULING IN AN AUTOMOBILE REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE WORKSHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOYEJO OYEBOLA T.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research work applied a simulation model in determining the optimal number of artisans to employ to carry out routine checks on vehicles on a waiting line. The waiting line under consideration is that of an automobile repair and maintenance workshop in South- Western Nigeria. The data collection was based on arrival pattern of vehicles and service pattern of artisans in the maintenance workshop. A discrete distribution was assumed for both the inter–arrival and service time patterns. An optimal number of 7 servers serving one queue were obtained as against 4 servers and 1 queue in the system in use. There was also a savings in cost of N2.45 Million per month when compared to the system in use. The results of this research work will be significant and important for decision making.

  7. A knowledge-based system for controlling automobile traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravas, Alexander; Stengel, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    Transportation network capacity variations arising from accidents, roadway maintenance activity, and special events as well as fluctuations in commuters' travel demands complicate traffic management. Artificial intelligence concepts and expert systems can be useful in framing policies for incident detection, congestion anticipation, and optimal traffic management. This paper examines the applicability of intelligent route guidance and control as decision aids for traffic management. Basic requirements for managing traffic are reviewed, concepts for studying traffic flow are introduced, and mathematical models for modeling traffic flow are examined. Measures for quantifying transportation network performance levels are chosen, and surveillance and control strategies are evaluated. It can be concluded that automated decision support holds great promise for aiding the efficient flow of automobile traffic over limited-access roadways, bridges, and tunnels.

  8. Pulmonary adverse effects of welding fume in automobile assembly welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifian, Seyed Akbar; Loukzadeh, Ziba; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Aminian, Omid

    2011-01-01

    Welding is one of the key components of numerous manufacturing industries, which has potential physical and chemical health hazards. Many components of welding fumes can potentially affect the lung function. This study investigates the effects of welding fumes on lung function and respiratory symptoms among welders of an automobile manufacturing plant in Iran. This historical cohort study assesses 43 male welders and 129 office workers by a questionnaire to record demographic data, smoking habits, work history and respiratory symptoms as well as lung function status by spirometry. The average pulmonary function values of welders were lower relative to controls with dose-effect relationship between work duration and pulmonary function impairment. The prevalence of chronic bronchitis was higher in welders than controls. Our findings suggest that welders are at risk for pulmonary disease.

  9. Mechanical behavior of plastic materials for automobile cockpit module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Changsu.; Park, Hyunsung.; Jo, Jinho.

    2013-12-01

    Engineering plastics are used in instrument panels, interior trims, and other vehicle applications, and the thermo-mechanical behaviors of plastic materials are strongly influenced by many environmental factors such as temperature, sunlight, and rain. As the material properties change, the mechanical parts create unexpected noise. In this study, the dynamic mechanical property changes of plastics used in automobiles are measured to investigate the effect of temperature. Visco-elastic properties such as the glass transition temperature and storage modulus and loss factors under temperature and frequency sweeps were measured. The data results were compared with the original ones before aging to analyze the behavioral changes. It was found that as the temperature increased, the storage modulus decreased and the loss factor increased slightly.

  10. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  11. ALGORITHM OF PRETREATMENT ON AUTOMOBILE BODY POINT CLOUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; ZHOU Yu; DU Farong; QU Weiwei; XIONG Yonghua

    2007-01-01

    As point cloud of one whole vehicle body has the traits of large geometric dimension, huge data and rigorous reverse precision, one pretreatment algorithm on automobile body point cloud is put forward. The basic idea of the registration algorithm based on the skeleton points is to construct the skeleton points of the whole vehicle model and the mark points of the separate point cloud, to search the mapped relationship between skeleton points and mark points using congruence triangle method and to match the whole vehicle point cloud using the improved iterative closed point (ICP) algorithm. The data reduction algorithm, based on average square root of distance, condenses data by three steps, Computing datasets' average square root of distance in sampling cube grid, sorting order according to the value computed from the first step, choosing sampling percentage. The accuracy of the two algorithms above is proved by a registration and reduction example of whole vehicle point cloud of a certain light truck.

  12. Catalytically and noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust: biological effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, G.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati); Lewkowski, J.P.; Hastings, L.; Malanchuk, M.

    1977-12-01

    Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaust resulted in significant reductions in growth rate and food and water intake. However, these effects were not evident in the exposure to catalytically treated exhaust or in the control H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and CO exposures. Blood acid-base analyses indicated that exposure to either catalytically treated exhaust or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ elicits a metabolic alkalosis, while exposure to CO alone results in a metabolic acidosis. All acid-base parameters were within the normal range several weeks after the termination of exposure.

  13. Development of High-Temperature Superconducting DC Motor for Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Hitoshi; Shinzato, Tsuyoshi

    In recent years, electrification of automobiles is in progress. Following the advent of passenger electric vehicles, large size commercial vehicles with electric drive are also being developed. One of the problems in the development of large electric vehicles is the heavy weight which leads to short driving distances. Energy saving by the use of high-efficiency motors will be a solution. The authors have developed a prototype electric vehicle equipped with a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) motor and a refrigerator. The test results showed that the motor has torque of 136 Nm and an output of 30 kW, and the prototype vehicle obtains the maximum speed of 80 km/h.

  14. Biomonitoring of N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone in automobile varnishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslitz, Stephan; Meier, Swetlana; Schindler, Birgit Karin; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger Martin; Brüning, Thomas; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones are important organic solvents for varnishes in industry. This study investigates exposure to N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (NEP) in varnishing of hard plastic components in an automobile plant. Two specific biomarkers of exposure, 5-hydroxy-N-ethyl-2-pyrrolidone (5-HNEP) and 2-hydroxy-N-ethylsuccinimide (2-HESI), were analyzed in urine samples of 14 workers. For this purpose, pre-shift, post-shift and next day pre-shift urine samples were collected midweek. Twelve workers performed regular work tasks (loading, wiping and packing), whereas two workers performed special work tasks including cleaning the sprayer system with organic solvents containing N-alkyl-2-pyrrolidones. Spot urine samples of nine non-exposed persons of the same plant served as controls. Median post-shift urinary levels of workers with regular work tasks (5-HNEP: 0.15 mg/L; 2-HESI: 0.19 mg/L) were ∼5-fold higher compared to the controls (0.03 mg/L each). Continuously increasing metabolite levels, from pre-shift via post-shift to pre-shift samples of the following day, were observed in particular for the two workers with the special working tasks. Maximum levels were 31.01 mg/L (5-HNEP) and 8.45 mg/L (2-HESI). No clear trend was evident for workers with regular working tasks. In summary, we were able to show that workers can be exposed to NEP during varnishing tasks in the automobile industry.

  15. Life cycle optimization of automobile replacement: model and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyung Chul; Keoleian, Gregory A; Grande, Darby E; Bean, James C

    2003-12-01

    Although recent progress in automotive technology has reduced exhaust emissions per mile for new cars, the continuing use of inefficient, higher-polluting old cars as well as increasing vehicle miles driven are undermining the benefits of this progress. As a way to address the "inefficient old vehicle" contribution to this problem, a novel life cycle optimization (LCO) model is introduced and applied to the automobile replacement policy question. The LCO model determines optimal vehicle lifetimes, accounting for technology improvements of new models while considering deteriorating efficiencies of existing models. Life cycle inventories for different vehicle models that represent materials production, manufacturing, use, maintenance, and end-of-life environmental burdens are required as inputs to the LCO model. As a demonstration, the LCO model was applied to mid-sized passenger car models between 1985 and 2020. An optimization was conducted to minimize cumulative carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), and energy use over the time horizon (1985-2020). For CO, NMHC, and NOx pollutants with 12000 mi of annual mileage, automobile lifetimes ranging from 3 to 6 yr are optimal for the 1980s and early 1990s model years while the optimal lifetimes are expected to be 7-14 yr for model year 2000s and beyond. On the other hand, a lifetime of 18 yr minimizes cumulative energy and CO2 based on driving 12000 miles annually. Optimal lifetimes are inversely correlated to annual vehicle mileage, especially for CO, NMHC, and NOx emissions. On the basis of the optimization results, policies improving durability of emission controls, retiring high-emitting vehicles, and improving fuel economies are discussed.

  16. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 12: The diffusion of federally funded aerospace research and development (R/D) and the information seeking behavior of US aerospace engineers and scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D is explored from the perspective of the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. The following three assumptions frame this exploration: (1) knowledge production, transfer, and utilization are equally important components of the aerospace R&D process; (2) the diffusion of knowledge resulting from federally funded aerospace R&D is indispensable for the U.S. to remain a world leader in aerospace; and (3) U.S. government technical reports, produced by NASA and DOD, play an important, but as yet undefined, role in the diffusion of federally funded aerospace R&D. A conceptual model for federally funded aerospace knowledge diffusion, one that emphasizes U.S. goverment technical reports, is presented. Data regarding three research questions concerning the information-seeking behavior of U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists are also presented.

  17. Research on the Bionics Design of Automobile Styling Based on the Form Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aili, Zhao; Long, Jiang

    2017-09-01

    From the heritage of form gene point of view, this thesis has analyzed the gene make-up, cultural inheritance and aesthetic features in the evolution and development of forms of brand automobiles and proposed the bionic design concept and methods in the automobile styling design. And this innovative method must be based on the form gene, and the consistency and combination of form element must be maintained during the design. Taking the design of Maserati as an example, the thesis will show you the design method and philosophy in the aspects of form gene expression and bionic design innovation for the future automobile styling.

  18. Hierarchical functional model for automobile development; Jidosha kaihatsu no tame no kaisogata kino model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, S. [U-shin Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nagamatsu, M.; Maruyama, K. [Hokkaido Institute of Technology, Sapporo (Japan); Hiramatsu, S. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A new approach on modeling is put forward in order to compose the virtual prototype which is indispensable for fully computer integrated concurrent development of automobile product. A basic concept of the hierarchical functional model is proposed as the concrete form of this new modeling technology. This model is used mainly for explaining and simulating functions and efficiencies of both the parts and the total product of automobile. All engineers who engage themselves in design and development of automobile can collaborate with one another using this model. Some application examples are shown, and usefulness of this model is demonstrated. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Edge determination algorithm of game road for intelligent automobile based on plane array CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhi-kun; WANG Fu-bin; PAN Xiao-di; LIU Jie; HUANG Chang-fa

    2009-01-01

    The contribution factor of automobile movement stability on the structure feature of seek road intelligent automobile chassis was analyzed. The kinematic model of linear two-degree freedom for intelligent automobile was established. The noise influence to the image of game road on the image rebuilding of different acquisition data of game road was analyzed. The threshold for image division was determined by the statistical analysis to grey histogram of game road image. This method indicates its adaption to CCD image of low distinguish ability.

  20. The Analysis of Vertical Transaction Behavior and Performance Based on Automobile Brand Trust in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nontrust behaviors among the automobile supply chain members lead to a trust crisis situation. Under such circumstances, this paper studies the mutual influences of trust, enterprise behavior, and transaction performance on the independent brand automobile supply chain. The business behavior concept which consists of information sharing, joint action, and specific asset investment is proposed. Then, the paper tests the reliability and validity of the collected data through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Through empirical test and analysis on mutual relationship among vertical transaction enterprise behaviors, trust, and transaction performance, the vertical transaction enterprise behaviors can be regulated, so as to improve the efficiency of independent brand automobile supply chain.

  1. Risk communication strategy development using the aerospace systems engineering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S.; Sklar, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explains the goals and challenges of NASA's risk communication efforts and how the Aerospace Systems Engineering Process (ASEP) was used to map the risk communication strategy used at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to achieve these goals.

  2. 77 FR 71357 - Airworthiness Directives; Pacific Aerospace Limited Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... applies to Pacific Aerospace Limited Models FU24-954 and FU24A-954 airplanes, all serial numbers, that are... Transport Association of America (ATA) Code 8: Leveling and Weighing. (e) Reason This AD was prompted by...

  3. The electronic transfer of information and aerospace knowledge diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Bishop, Ann P.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Increasing reliance on and investment in information technology and electronic networking systems presupposes that computing and information technology will play a motor role in the diffusion of aerospace knowledge. Little is known, however, about actual information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The authors state that the potential contributions of information technology to increased productivity and competitiveness will be diminished unless empirically derived knowledge regarding the information-seeking behavior of the members of the social system - those who are producing, transferring, and using scientific and technical information - is incorporated into a new technology policy framework. Research into the use of information technology and electronic networks by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists, collected as part of a research project designed to study aerospace knowledge diffusion, is presented in support of this assertion.

  4. High Spatial Resolution shape Sensing for Adaptive Aerospace Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is accepted that adaptive aerospace vehicles whose flight avionic systems are reconfigurable are needed to respond to changing flight parameters, vehicle system...

  5. Challenges for Insertion of Structural Nanomaterials in Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochi, Emilie J.

    2012-01-01

    In the two decades since Iijima's report on carbon nanotubes (CNT), there has been great interest in realizing the benefits of mechanical properties observed at the nanoscale in large-scale structures. The weight savings possible due to dramatic improvements in mechanical properties relative to state-of-the-art material systems can be game changing for applications like aerospace vehicles. While there has been significant progress in commercial production of CNTs, major aerospace applications that take advantage of properties offered by this material have yet to be realized. This paper provides a perspective on the technical challenges and barriers for insertion of CNTs as an emerging material technology in aerospace applications and proposes approaches that may reduce the typical timeframe for technology maturation and insertion into aerospace structures.

  6. Cost-effective lightweight mirrors for aerospace and defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Kenneth S.; Comstock, Lovell E.; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.

    2015-05-01

    The demand for high performance, lightweight mirrors was historically driven by aerospace and defense (A&D) but now we are also seeing similar requirements for commercial applications. These applications range from aerospace-like platforms such as small unmanned aircraft for agricultural, mineral and pollutant aerial mapping to an eye tracking gimbaled mirror for optometry offices. While aerospace and defense businesses can often justify the high cost of exotic, low density materials, commercial products rarely can. Also, to obtain high performance with low overall optical system weight, aspheric surfaces are often prescribed. This may drive the manufacturing process to diamond machining thus requiring the reflective side of the mirror to be a diamond machinable material. This paper summarizes the diamond machined finishing and coating of some high performance, lightweight designs using non-exotic substrates to achieve cost effective mirrors. The results indicate that these processes can meet typical aerospace and defense requirements but may also be competitive in some commercial applications.

  7. Spectroscopic Measurement Techniques for Aerospace Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Johansen, Craig T.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Hurley, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    The conditions that characterize aerospace flows are so varied, that a single diagnostic technique is not sufficient for its measurement. Fluid dynamists use knowledge of similarity to help categorize and focus on different flow conditions. For example, the Reynolds number represents the ratio of inertial to viscous forces in a flow. When the velocity scales, length scales, and gas density are large and the magnitude of the molecular viscosity is low, the Reynolds number becomes large. This corresponds to large scale vehicles (e.g Airbus A380), fast moving objects (e.g. artillery projectiles), vehicles in dense fluids (e.g. submarine in water), or flows with low dynamic viscosity (e.g. skydiver in air). In each of these cases, the inertial forces dominate viscous forces, and unsteady turbulent fluctuations in the flow variables are observed. In contrast, flows with small length scales (e.g. dispersion of micro-particles in a solid rocket nozzle), slow moving objects (e.g. micro aerial vehicles), flows with low density gases (e.g. atmospheric re-entry), or fluids with a large magnitude of viscosity (e.g. engine coolant flow), all have low Reynolds numbers. In these cases, viscous forces become very important and often the flows can be steady and laminar. The Mach number, which is the ratio of the velocity to the speed of sound in the medium, also helps to differentiate types of flows. At very low Mach numbers, acoustic waves travel much faster than the object, and the flow can be assumed to be incompressible (e.g. Cessna 172 aircraft). As the object speed approaches the speed of sound, the gas density can become variable (e.g. flow over wing of Learjet 85). When the object speed is higher than the speed of sound (Ma > 1), the presences of shock waves and other gas dynamic features can become important to the vehicle performance (e.g. SR-71 Blackbird). In the hypersonic flow regime (Ma > 5), large changes in temperature begin to affect flow properties, causing real

  8. Space Benefits: The secondary application of aerospace technology in other sectors of the economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Some 585 examples of the beneficial use of NASA aerospace technology by public and private organizations are described to demonstrate the effects of mission-oriented programs on technological progress in the United States. General observations regarding technology transfer activity are presented. Benefit cases are listed in 20 categories along with pertinent information such as communication link with NASA; the DRI transfer example file number; and individual case numbers associated with the technology and examples used; and the date of the latest contract with user organizations. Subject, organization, geographic, and field center indexes are included.

  9. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum extraction and reservoir engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Back, L. H.; Berdahl, C. M.; Collins, E. E., Jr.; Gordon, P. G.; Houseman, J.; Humphrey, M. F.; Hsu, G. C.; Ham, J. D.; Marte, J. E.; hide

    1977-01-01

    Through contacts with the petroleum industry, the petroleum service industry, universities and government agencies, important petroleum extraction problems were identified. For each problem, areas of aerospace technology that might aid in its solution were also identified, where possible. Some of the problems were selected for further consideration. Work on these problems led to the formulation of specific concepts as candidate for development. Each concept is addressed to the solution of specific extraction problems and makes use of specific areas of aerospace technology.

  10. Human performance in aerospace environments: The search for psychological determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Wilhelm, John A.

    1987-01-01

    A program of research into the psychological determinants of individual and crew performance in aerospace environments is described. Constellations of personality factors influencing behavior in demanding environments are discussed. Relationships between attitudes and performance and attitudes and personality are also reported. The efficacy of training in interpersonal relations as a means of changing attitudes and behavior is explored along with the influence of personality on attitude change processes. Finally, approaches to measuring group behavior in aerospace settings are described.

  11. Calculation of the Thermal Loading of the Cylinder-Piston Group of the Automobile Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchenko, F. B.; Bakulin, V. N.

    2017-05-01

    We propose a mathematical model for calculating thermal loods of parts of the cylinder-piston group of the automobile engine operating under unstable conditions in its complete life cycle. Methods have been described for calculating the boundary conditions to determine the thermal state of the parts of the cylinder-piston group of such an engine with the use of theoretical formulas, empirical and semiempirical relations, and tabulated data. In modeling, we calculated the work of all systems of the engine (pumps, pipelines, heat exchangers) influencing directly or indirectly the thermal state of its cylinder-piston group. The nonstationary thermal state was calculated once in the operating cycle of the engine with the use of the cycle-averaged values of the local heat transfer coefficients and the resulting temperature of the medium. The personal computer counting time for one time step of a transport diesel engine of typical design with a number of units of the order of 500 was 5 s.

  12. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 26: The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the US and Japanese aerospace industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  13. Inspection tools for aerospace critical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Thompson, G. W.; Nerren, Billy H.; Burns, H. Dewitt, Jr.

    1998-03-01

    The measurement and control of cleanliness for critical surfaces during manufacturing and in service operations provides unique challenges in aerospace. For re-usable propulsion systems, such as the solid rocket motors, the current thrust for environmentally benign processes has had a major impact on programs designed for maintaining quality in the production of bondline surfaces. The major goal is to improve upon our ability to detect and identify possible contaminants which are detrimental to the integrity of the bondline. This effort requires an in-depth study of the possible sources of contamination, methodologies to detect and identify contaminants, discriminate between contaminants and chemical species caused by environmental conditions, and the effect of particular contaminants on the bondline integrity of the critical surfaces. This presentation will provide an overview of several optical methods used to detect and identify contamination on critical surfaces, currently being performed by the Surface Contamination and Analysis Team at Marshall Space Flight Center. The methods under development for contamination monitoring include FTIR and Near-IR SPectrometry, UV Fluorescence, and Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry. Comparisons between these methods and the current primary tool, optical stimulation of electron emission for on-line inspection will be presented. Experiments include quantitative measurement of silicone and Conoco HD2 greases, metal hydroxides, tape residues, etc. on solid rocket motor surfaces.

  14. Working at the Ohio Aerospace Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Hortenzia

    2004-01-01

    The Ohio Aerospace Institute is a wonderful place to work. I enjoy coming to work everyday knowing that I will be surrounded by smiling faces. My mentor, Mary Auzenne, is the Program Manager of the LERCIP College Internship Program, however, I spend most of my time working with Akua Soadwa, the Assistant Program Manager. She is in charge of planning, coordinating, and managing every event that is involved with the college internship program such as the socials, picnic, banquet, workshops, and research symposium. My job is to make her job easier. I help out with the planning, coordinating, and managing of these events. When I first got on board Akua was in the process of planning the second social for the interns. The social is a way for the interns to interact with one another as well as to find out more about where the other interns are working at NASA. We ordered the food, went shopping, and set up the Guerin House for the party. I made sign-in sheets, which helped us get a rough count of the attendees. The next event was the Technical Presentation Workshop and the Professional Development Workshop. These workshops are designed to enhance skills of the interns. We were there to sign people in and direct them to the room where the presentation was to take place. I also took pictures of the workshop and provided copies for the presenters, as well as our files.

  15. Robust and Adaptive Control With Aerospace Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lavretsky, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Robust and Adaptive Control shows the reader how to produce consistent and accurate controllers that operate in the presence of uncertainties and unforeseen events. Driven by aerospace applications the focus of the book is primarily on continuous-dynamical systems.  The text is a three-part treatment, beginning with robust and optimal linear control methods and moving on to a self-contained presentation of the design and analysis of model reference adaptive control (MRAC) for nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems. Recent extensions and modifications to MRAC design are included, as are guidelines for combining robust optimal and MRAC controllers. Features of the text include: ·         case studies that demonstrate the benefits of robust and adaptive control for piloted, autonomous and experimental aerial platforms; ·         detailed background material for each chapter to motivate theoretical developments; ·         realistic examples and simulation data illustrating key features ...

  16. Nanocomposites as Advanced Materials for Aerospace Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George PELIN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymer nanocomposites, consisting of nanoparticles dispersed in polymer matrix, have gained interest due to the attractive properties of nanostructured fillers, as carbon nanotubes and layered silicates. Low volume additions (1- 5% of nanoparticles provide properties enhancements comparable to those achieved by conventional loadings (15- 40% of traditional fillers.Structural nanocomposites represent reinforcement structures based on carbon or glass fibers embedded into polymeric matrix modified with nanofillers.Structural composites are the most important application of nanaocomposites, in aerospace field, as, laminates and sandwich structures. Also, they can by used as anti-lightning, anti-radar protectors and paints. The paper presents the effects of sonic dispersion of carbon nanotubes and montmorrilonite on the mechanical, electrical, rheological and trybological properties of epoxy polymers and laminated composites, with carbon or glass fiber reinforcement, with nanoadditivated epoxy matrix. One significant observation is that nanoclay contents higher than 2% wt generate an increase of the resin viscosity, from 1500 to 50000- 100000 cP, making the matrix impossible to use in high performance composites.Also, carbon nanotubes provide the resin important electrical properties, passing from dielectric to semi- conductive class. These effects have also been observed for fiber reinforced composites.Contrarily to some opinions in literature, the results of carbon nanotubes or nanoclays addition on the mechanical characteristics of glass or carbon fiber composites seem to be rather low.

  17. Aerospace Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2016-01-01

    Nonequilibrium plasma/non-thermal plasma/cold plasmas are being used in a wide range of new applications in aeronautics, active flow control, heat transfer reduction, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, noise suppression, and power generation. Industrial applications may be found in pollution control, materials surface treatment, and water purification. In order for these plasma processes to become practical, efficient means of ionization are necessary. A primary challenge for these applications is to create a desired non-equilibrium plasma in air by preventing the discharge from transitioning into an arc. Of particular interest is the impact on simulations and experimental data with and without detailed consideration of non-equilibrium effects, and the consequences of neglecting non-equilibrium. This presentation will provide an assessment of the presence and influence of non-equilibrium phenomena for various aerospace needs and applications. Specific examples to be considered will include the forward energy deposition of laser-induced non-equilibrium plasmoids for sonic boom mitigation, weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges for an annular Hall type MHD generator duct for turbojet energy bypass, and fundamental mechanisms affecting the design and operation of novel plasma-assisted reactive systems in dielectric liquids (water purification, in-pipe modification of fuels, etc.).

  18. Biomimetic optical sensor for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan A.; Gorospe, George E.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Barrett, Steven F.

    2015-05-01

    We report on a fiber optic sensor based on the physiological aspects of the eye and vision-related neural layers of the common housefly (Musca domestica) that has been developed and built for aerospace applications. The intent of the research is to reproduce select features from the fly's vision system that are desirable in image processing, including high functionality in low-light and low-contrast environments, sensitivity to motion, compact size, lightweight, and low power and computation requirements. The fly uses a combination of overlapping photoreceptor responses that are well approximated by Gaussian distributions and neural superposition to detect image features, such as object motion, to a much higher degree than just the photoreceptor density would imply. The Gaussian overlap in the biomimetic sensor comes from the front-end optical design, and the neural superposition is accomplished by subsequently combining the signals using analog electronics. The fly eye sensor is being developed to perform real-time tracking of a target on a flexible aircraft wing experiencing bending and torsion loads during flight. We report on results of laboratory experiments using the fly eye sensor to sense a target moving across its field of view.

  19. Compressive strength of delaminated aerospace composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Richard; Rhead, Andrew T; Liu, Wenli; Kontis, Nikolaos

    2012-04-28

    An efficient analytical model is described which predicts the value of compressive strain below which buckle-driven propagation of delaminations in aerospace composites will not occur. An extension of this efficient strip model which accounts for propagation transverse to the direction of applied compression is derived. In order to provide validation for the strip model a number of laminates were artificially delaminated producing a range of thin anisotropic sub-laminates made up of 0°, ±45° and 90° plies that displayed varied buckling and delamination propagation phenomena. These laminates were subsequently subject to experimental compression testing and nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) using cohesive elements. Comparison of strip model results with those from experiments indicates that the model can conservatively predict the strain at which propagation occurs to within 10 per cent of experimental values provided (i) the thin-film assumption made in the modelling methodology holds and (ii) full elastic coupling effects do not play a significant role in the post-buckling of the sub-laminate. With such provision, the model was more accurate and produced fewer non-conservative results than FEA. The accuracy and efficiency of the model make it well suited to application in optimum ply-stacking algorithms to maximize laminate strength.

  20. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 30: The electronic transfer of information and aerospace knowledge diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Bishop, Ann P.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Increasing reliance on and investment in information technology and electronic networking systems presupposes that computing and information technology will play a major role in the diffusion of aerospace knowledge. Little is known, however, about actual information technology needs, uses, and problems within the aerospace knowledge diffusion process. The authors state that the potential contributions of information technology to increased productivity and competitiveness will be diminished unless empirically derived knowledge regarding the information-seeking behavior of the members of the social system - those who are producing, transferring, and using scientific and technical information - is incorporated into a new technology policy framework. Research into the use of information technology and electronic networks by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists, collected as part of a research project designed to study aerospace knowledge diffusion, is presented in support of this assertion.

  1. Use of powered electric vehicles in automobile fleets. Help elements for decision; Utilisation de vehicules electriques dans les flottes automobiles. Elements d`aide a la decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    One of the primary causes of degradation in the quality of urban life is automobile transportation. The introduction of electric vehicles within automobile fleets can help mitigate some of the associated impacts. This guide has assembled a set of technical tools vital to all fleet managers, whether they be with public-sector agencies or companies, who are involved in vehicle-purchasing decisions. It deals with the specific issues related to the use, maintenance and acquisition of electric vehicles. Besides those elements intended to convince both decision-makers and users alike, the automobile fleet manager will find herein, as a conclusion, some examples of comparative economic assessments. These serve to highlight the opportunities available for using electric vehicles in a wide variety of situations. (authors) 18 refs.

  2. ESTIMATED RATE OF FATAL AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO ACUTE SOLVENT EXPOSURE AT LOW INHALED CONCENTRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute solvent exposures may contribute to automobile accidents because they increase reaction time and decrease attention, in addition to impairing other behaviors. These effects resemble those of ethanol consumption, both with respect to behavioral effects and neurological mecha...

  3. Social Sustainability Issues and Older Adults' Dependence on Automobiles in Low-Density Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hitomi Nakanishi; John Black

    2015-01-01

      An implicit assumption underlying government strategies to achieve a more sustainable urban transportation system is that all automobile users will be encouraged or persuaded to use more "green" transportation...

  4. DETECTION RELEVANCY OF SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING ON AIR POLLUTION FROM AUTOMOBILE AND ROAD COMPLEX

    OpenAIRE

    Radkevich, M.

    2013-01-01

    The dependence between the pavement evenness and the emissions of air pollutants from automobile – road sector is detected. It is proposed to take the pavement evenness for the assessment criterion of greenhouse and other gases emissions.

  5. DETECTION RELEVANCY OF SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING ON AIR POLLUTION FROM AUTOMOBILE AND ROAD COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radkevich, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence between the pavement evenness and the emissions of air pollutants from automobile – road sector is detected. It is proposed to take the pavement evenness for the assessment criterion of greenhouse and other gases emissions.

  6. Main factors influencing the fall of sales in the Russian automobile market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya A. Kurilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify the negative factors affecting the development of the Russian automobile market. Methods systemic approach generalization and comparison of results method of induction. The findings are based on the research results and observations obtained with the comparativehistorical dialecticalsynthetic and abstractlogical methods. Results basing on data of the International organization of motor vehicle manufacturers OICA the rate of vehicles overproduction worldwide was determined the analysis of motorization index in various countries allowed to form the forecast for the development of automotive fleet in Russia basing on the analysis of macroeconomic data the main factors influencing the development of the Russian automobile market were determined. Scientific novelty the regularities of dynamics of development of the global and Russian automobile markets were revealed. The factors influencing the Russian car market were identified. Practical significance the Russian car manufacturers can use information about the development of the global and Russian automobile markets to create plans for their activities. nbsp

  7. Globalization of the automobile industry in China. Dynamics and barriers in the greening of road transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Lin

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of the automobile in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policy making and transport management. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems and stronger emissions control would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. (author)

  8. Brand Loyalty and the Decline of American Automobile Firms; Comments and Discussion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mannering, Fred; Winston, Clifford; Griliches, Zvi; Schmalensee, Richard

    1991-01-01

      The historical quality and value of a brand of automobile and the reputation it has developed among consumers as reflected in brand loyalty directly affect its current and future performance in the marketplace...

  9. The Feasibility Study of the Waste Heat Air—Conditioning System for Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-pingLin; Xiu-ganYuan; 等

    1994-01-01

    In this paper,the feasibility of application of a solid-absorption system using ammonia and chlorides as working pair to automobile air-conditioning system is investigated.This system has the advantages of minimum environmental problem and utilizing waste heat from the automobile engine as thermal energy input.Analyses show that the main problem associated with the application of solid-absorption system is the size of the reactors.Techniques to solve this problem are discussed.

  10. Analytical evaluation of technical and operational indicators impact on the transportation technology by automobile trailers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Tson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of technological and operational indicators on the efficiency of using operational time during goods transportation by automobile trailers is analytically studied. The failure cause of automobile trailers undercarriages is analysed. The analytical dependences for the preliminary assessment of metal undercarriages performance in the design phases are developed. The proposed mathematical standard vehicle-performance test is compared with the obtained experimental data.

  11. Self-Healing Concept for Damaged Composite Structure of Automobile Bonnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Hyunbum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a structural design and analysis on automobile bonnet using natural flax fiber composite is performed. Through the structural analyses using commercial FEM software, it is confirmed that the designed automobile bonnet using natural composite is acceptable for structural safety. And also, the damage is a critical problem in composites during their service in structural applications. Therefore, study on self-healing concept of bonnet structure was performed.

  12. Research on Integrated Casting and Forging Process of Aluminum Automobile Wheel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Cao, Miao; ZHANG, DAWEI; Zhang, Shuai; Sun, Jue

    2014-01-01

    Integrated casting and forging process (ICFP) is a new manufacturing method combining the advantages of both casting and forging. Aluminum structure parts, such as aluminum alloy automobile wheel, with complex shape and excellent mechanical properties can be produced by this process. The effects of different process parameters on the ICFP of the automobile wheel were simulated by Forge software. Microstructure of forging region and the nonforging region were studied by experiment. The results...

  13. Stirling engines. (Latest citations from the Aerospace database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning fuel consumption, engine design and testing, computerized simulation, and lubrication systems relative to the Stirling cycle engine. Solar energy conversion research, thermodynamic efficiency, economics, and utilization for power generation and automobile engines are included. Materials used in Stirling engines are briefly evaluated. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 69: Writing for the Aerospace Industry. Chapter 3; The Practice of Technical and Scientific Communication: Writing in Professional Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Rebecca O.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    The large and complex aerospace industry, which employed approximately 850,000 people in 1994 (Aerospace Facts, 1994-95, p. 11), plays a vital role in the nation's economy. Although only a small percentage of those employed in aerospace are technical communicators, they perform a wide variety of communication duties in government and the private sector.

  15. Studies on pyrolysis and gasification of automobile shredder residue in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Feijian; Chen, Ming

    2014-10-01

    With increasing automobile ownerships in China, the number of end-of-life vehicles has also rapidly increased. However, the automobile shredder residue generated during the dismantling of end-of-life vehicles in China is not treated properly and has caused great resource waste and environmental problems. In this work, automobile shredder residue from a domestic end-of-life vehicles dismantling company was comprehensively studied through element analysis, combustion heat experiment, proximate analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The feasibility of using pyrolysis combined with gasification to treat and recycle automobile shredder residue was investigated. The produced gas, oil, and residue yield was measured and the correlation between their yield and the experimental temperature and ratio of air to automobile shredder residue feed was studied. It is found that when ratio of air and experimental temperature are 1.5 mol kg(-1) and 900 °C, respectively, the heat energy of the gas produced per kilogram treated automobile shredder residue reaches a maximum value of 11.28 MJ. The characteristics of pyrolysis oil and solid residue were studied. The solid residue takes up 4.65%~5.57% of the original end-of-life vehicles weight. This greatly helps to reach the target of a 95% recycling rate.

  16. Theoretical Analysis and Empirical Test on Automobile Demand Based on Product Heterogeneity%基于产品异质的汽车需求理论分析与实证检验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙江永; 孟文强

    2012-01-01

    从产品异质的角度分析中圆人均收入水平与人均汽车拥有量之睫的荧系,结果表明:实际人均GDP与人均民用载客汽车拥有量都是囝阶平稳的时间序列,两者之阃存在协整荚系,实际人均GDP对人均民用载客汽车拥有量存在Granger因果性。人均汽车拥有量的收入弹性大,弦与理论分析中关于收入分布参数的假设一致。%This paper studies the relationship between per capita income and per capita automobile possession in China from the perspective of product heterogeneity. The results of the study show that the time sery of real GDP per capita has the same unit roots with passenger automobile possession per capita. There is a co-integration relationship between the two time series. The real GDP per capita has Granger causal effect on passenger automobile possession per capita. The numerical value of the income elasticity of automobile possession per capita agrees with the hypothesis on the parameter in income contribution.

  17. 77 FR 61818 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping and...-dumping and countervailing duties on certain automobiles from the United States. That request may be...

  18. Ethernet for Aerospace Applications - Ethernet Heads for the Skies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grams, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of aerospace applications is to reduce the cost and complexity of avionic systems. Ethernet is a highly scalable, flexible, and popular protocol. The aerospace market is large, with a forecasted production of over 50,000 turbine-powered aircraft valued at $1.7 trillion between 2012 and 2022. Boeing estimates demand for commercial aircraft by 2033 to total over 36,000 with a value of over $5 trillion. In 2014 US airlines served over 750 million passengers and this is growing over 2% yearly. Electronic fly-by-wire is now used for all airliners and high performance aircraft. Although Ethernet has been widely used for four decades, its use in aerospace applications is just beginning to become common. Ethernet is the universal solution in commercial networks because of its high bandwidths, lower cost, openness, reliability, maintainability, flexibility, and interoperability. However, when Ethernet was designed applications with time-critical, safety relevant and deterministic requirements were not given much consideration. Many aerospace applications use a variety of communication architectures that add cost and complexity. Some of them are SpaceWire, MIL-STD-1553, Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX), and Time-Triggered Ethernet (TTE). Aerospace network designers desire to decrease the number of networks to reduce cost and effort while improving scalability, flexibility, openness, maintainability, and reliability. AFDX and TTE are being considered more for critical aerospace systems because they provide redundancy, failover protection, guaranteed timing, and frame priority and are based on Ethernet IEEE 802.3. This paper explores the use of AFDX and TTE for aerospace applications.

  19. Technology Applications Team: Applications of aerospace technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Highlights of the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Applications Team activities over the past quarter are presented in Section 1.0. The Team's progress in fulfilling the requirements of the contract is summarized in Section 2.0. In addition to our market-driven approach to applications project development, RTI has placed increased effort on activities to commercialize technologies developed at NASA Centers. These Technology Commercialization efforts are summarized in Section 3.0. New problem statements prepared by the Team in the reporting period are presented in Section 4.0. The Team's transfer activities for ongoing projects with the NASA Centers are presented in Section 5.0. Section 6.0 summarizes the status of four add-on tasks. Travel for the reporting period is described in Section 7.0. The RTI Team staff and consultants and their project responsibilities are listed in Appendix A. The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of many individuals to the RTI Technology Applications Team program. The time and effort contributed by managers, engineers, and scientists throughout NASA were essential to program success. Most important to the program has been a productive working relationship with the NASA Field Center Technology Utilization (TU) Offices. The RTI Team continues to strive for improved effectiveness as a resource to these offices. Industry managers, technical staff, medical researchers, and clinicians have been cooperative and open in their participation. The RTI Team looks forward to continuing expansion of its interaction with U.S. industry to facilitate the transfer of aerospace technology to the private sector.

  20. Stanford Aerospace Research Laboratory research overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhaus, W. L.; Alder, L. J.; Chen, V. W.; Dickson, W. C.; Ullman, M. A.

    1993-02-01

    Over the last ten years, the Stanford Aerospace Robotics Laboratory (ARL) has developed a hardware facility in which a number of space robotics issues have been, and continue to be, addressed. This paper reviews two of the current ARL research areas: navigation and control of free flying space robots, and modelling and control of extremely flexible space structures. The ARL has designed and built several semi-autonomous free-flying robots that perform numerous tasks in a zero-gravity, drag-free, two-dimensional environment. It is envisioned that future generations of these robots will be part of a human-robot team, in which the robots will operate under the task-level commands of astronauts. To make this possible, the ARL has developed a graphical user interface (GUI) with an intuitive object-level motion-direction capability. Using this interface, the ARL has demonstrated autonomous navigation, intercept and capture of moving and spinning objects, object transport, multiple-robot cooperative manipulation, and simple assemblies from both free-flying and fixed bases. The ARL has also built a number of experimental test beds on which the modelling and control of flexible manipulators has been studied. Early ARL experiments in this arena demonstrated for the first time the capability to control the end-point position of both single-link and multi-link flexible manipulators using end-point sensing. Building on these accomplishments, the ARL has been able to control payloads with unknown dynamics at the end of a flexible manipulator, and to achieve high-performance control of a multi-link flexible manipulator.

  1. Synthesis of a Novel High Solid Coating Used in Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Lu; CHEN Hua-lin; LIANG Shou-tian; LIU Bai-ling

    2004-01-01

    High solid coating is one of the most important environmental friendly coatings, and has been obtained great attention since 70s' last century. For there are high volatile organic compounds(VOCs) in the conventional coatings, which cause both a serious pollution and consume of a plentiful of natural resource, such as petroleum. The development and production of high solid coatings is pressing target for all the countries, especially for China due to our heavy population and short of resources. Based on the requirement, a novel coating with high solid content has been developed in our lab. The solid content of the resin is 80%, compared to the 55% of conversional resin. This coating is characterized by its unique molecular architecture, it is a kind of hyper-branched polymer with uniform distribution of the reactive groups along the molecular backbone, which can react with other chemicals to form a cross-linking structure at high temperature.The coating has a lower viscosity and lower Tg corresponding to its branched structure( scheme 1).This coating has been applied in the automobile finishing. The experimental results indicated that the developed coating presented high performance properties in fastness, mar resistance, and hardness, it also reduced the baking temperature, resulting in a energy saving.

  2. Critical factors in fatal collisions of adult cyclists with automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bíl, Michal; Bílová, Martina; Müller, Ivo

    2010-11-01

    This article evaluates, by means of multivariate regression, critical factors influencing the collisions of motor vehicles with adult (over 17 years) cyclists that result in fatal injury of cyclists. The analysis is based on the database of the Traffic Police of Czech Republic from the time period 1995-2007. The results suggest that the most consequential categories of factors under study are: inappropriate driving speed of automobile; the head-on crash; and night-time traffic in places without streetlights. The cyclists' faults are of most serious consequence on crossroads when cyclists deny the right of way. Males are more likely to suffer a fatal injury due to a collision with a car than females. The most vulnerable age group are cyclists above 65 years. A fatal injury of a cyclist is more often driver's fault than cyclist's (598 vs. 370). In order to reduce the fatal risk, it is recommended to separate the road traffic of motor vehicles from bicyclists in critical road-sections; or, at least, to reduce speed limits there.

  3. Pulmonary effects of spot welding in automobile assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukzadeh, Zeeba; Sharifian, Seyed Akbar; Aminian, Omid; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad

    2009-06-01

    Spot welding is a type of resistance welding in which pieces of metals are pressed together and an electric current is passed through them. Spot welders are at risk of contact with some potentially hazardous agents but there are few studies about the respiratory effects of spot welding. Our objective was to study lung function and respiratory symptoms among spot welders and office workers at an automobile assembly factory in Iran. This was a cross-sectional study of 137 male spot welders and 129 office workers. We used a questionnaire to record demographic data, smoking habits, work history and respiratory symptoms. Spirometry was performed to assess lung function status. Metal fume samples from the respiratory zone of spot welders were analysed. The concentrations of metal fume were less than the American Conference of Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit values. There were significantly lower values for average forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV(1)), FEV(1)/forced vital capacity and 25-75% forced expiratory flow in spot welders compared to controls. There was also a significantly raised prevalence of respiratory symptoms (sputum and dyspnoea) in spot welders. Fifteen per cent of spot welders and 1% of controls had an obstructive pattern in spirometry. Our survey suggests that spot welders are at risk of developing respiratory symptoms and decreasing pulmonary function values despite their exposure to components of welding fume being within ACGIH guidelines.

  4. Automobile Shredder Residues in Italy: characterization and valorization opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, S; Ruffino, B; Zanetti, M C

    2012-08-01

    At the moment Automobile Shredder Residue (ASR) is usually landfilled worldwide, but European draft Directive 2000/53/CE forces the development of alternative solutions, stating the 95%-wt recovery of an End of Life Vehicle (ELV) weight to be fulfilled by 2015. This work describes two industrial tests, each involving 250-300 t of ELVs, in which different pre-shredding operations were performed. The produced ASR materials underwent an extended characterization and some post-shredding processes, consisting of dimensional, magnetic, electrostatic and densimetric separation phases, were tested on laboratory scale, having as main purpose the enhancement of ASR recovery/recycling and the minimization of the landfilled fraction. The gathered results show that accurate depollution and dismantling operations are mandatory to obtain a high quality ASR material which may be recycled/recovered and partially landfilled according to the actual European Union regulations, with particular concern for Lower Heating Value (LHV), heavy metals content and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) as critical parameters. Moreover post-shredding technical solutions foreseeing minimum economic and engineering efforts, therefore realizable in common European ELVs shredding plants, may lead to multi-purposed (material recovery and thermal valorization) opportunities for ASR reuse/recovery.

  5. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  6. Comparative Frictional Analysis of Automobile Drum and Disc Brakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.P. Khairnar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, a comparative frictional behaviour of drum brakes and disc brakes in automobiles has been investigated. The influential factors; contact force and friction radius were modeled for the estimation of the friction coefficient for drum as well as disc brakes. The effect of contact force and friction radius is studied with varying conditions of parameters; longitudinal force, caliper force and torque on piston side as well as non-piston side. The numerical results obtained have been compared with the similar obtained from virtual Matlab/Simulink models for drum and disc brakes. The results evidenced that friction radius predominantly affects brake pressure and thus the friction coefficient, also the increase in contact force resulted with decrease in friction coefficient both for drum and disc brakes. Further it has been found that disc brakes exhibit gradual decrease of friction coefficient due to the equitable distribution of braking effort while drum brake presents sudden variations in friction coefficient. It can be revealed that frictional behaviour of disc brake is more consistent than drum brake.

  7. Keep the driver in control: Automating automobiles of the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-03-01

    Automated automobiles will be on our roads within the next decade but the role of the driver has not yet been formerly recognised or designed. Rather, the driver is often left in a passive monitoring role until they are required to reclaim control from the vehicle. This research aimed to test the idea of driver-initiated automation, in which the automation offers decision support that can be either accepted or ignored. The test case examined a combination of lateral and longitudinal control in addition to an auto-overtake system. Despite putting the driver in control of the automated systems by enabling them to accept or ignore behavioural suggestions (e.g. overtake), there were still issues associated with increased workload and decreased trust. These issues are likely to have arisen due to the way in which the automated system has been designed. Recommendations for improvements in systems design have been made which are likely to improve trust and make the role of the driver more transparent concerning their authority over the automated system.

  8. Study of hydrogen-powered versus battery-powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, J.J. Jr.; Greayer, W.C.; Nichols, R.J.; Escher, W.J.D.

    1979-05-01

    A study conducted to compare the technological status and the resultant potential vehicle characteristics for hydrogen- and battery-powered automobiles that could be produced from 1985 to 2000 is documented in 3 volumes. The primary objectives of the study were: the assessments of applicable energy storage and propulsion technology for the two basic vehicle types (applied to four-passenger cars); a rigorous comparison of vehicle weight, size, and usefulness versus design range; and an investigation of the relative efficiencies of expending energy from various primary sources to power the subject vehicle. Another important objective, unique to hydrogen powered vehicles, was the assessment of the technology, logistics, and cost implications of a hydrogen production and delivery capability. This volume, Volume III, contains three major sections: the assessment of battery electric vehicle technology for energy storage and the drivetrain system; the technical and economic comparison of hydrogen- and battery-powered vehicles derived primarily from data in the previous vehicle technology assessments, with consideration of alternative energy sources; and a series of appendices that support the vehicle definitions and comparisons.

  9. (Auto-)mobile data acquisition and measurement data management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneuer, E.; Schwartze, S. [Werum Datenverarbeitungssysteme GmbH, Lueneburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This lecture introduces a concept of measurement technology with video integration for commercial vehicles. We would like to present DAVIS-CAR, a system for mobile data acquisition. It enables the simultaneous evaluation of video data and test data and consists of mobile as well as of stationary components in a client/server architecture. The product DAVIS-CAR is suitable not only for testing entire vehicles but for external suppliers developing vehicle components or for analysing a person's driving performance. Even for completely stationary systems DAVIS-CAR provides advantages in situations when video data are recorded to get additional information on tests. The mobile server collects the data of the driving car. The storage of these data can be triggered either manually or by events derived from signal states. The stationary system is capable of administering the measurement data and the associated Meta information from several mobile systems at the same time and of providing this information to the connected clients. The ASAM-ODS interface facilitates the integration of DAVIS-CAR in environments typically found in the automobile industry. The overall architecture also enables the integration of data provided by other measurement systems. (orig.)

  10. Weight Penalty Incurred in Thermoelectric Recovery of Automobile Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, D. M.; Smith, J.; Thomas, G.; Min, G.

    2011-05-01

    Thermoelectric recovery of automobile waste exhaust heat has been identified as having potential for reducing fuel consumption and environmentally unfriendly emissions. Around 35% of combustion energy is discharged as heat through the exhaust system, at temperatures which depend upon the engine's operation and range from 800°C to 900°C at the outlet port to less than 50°C at the tail-pipe. Beneficial reduction in fuel consumption of 5% to 10% is widely quoted in the literature. However, comparison between claims is difficult due to nonuniformity of driving conditions. In this paper the available waste exhaust heat energy produced by a 1.5 L family car when undergoing the new European drive cycle was measured and the potential thermoelectric output estimated. The work required to power the vehicle through the drive cycle was also determined and used to evaluate key parameters. This enabled an estimate to be made of the engine efficiency and additional work required by the engine to meet the load of a thermoelectric generating system. It is concluded that incorporating a thermoelectric generator would attract a penalty of around 12 W/kg. Employing thermoelectric modules fabricated from low-density material such as magnesium silicide would considerably reduce the generator weight penalty.

  11. Automobile, construction and entertainment business sector influences on sedentary lifestyles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Diana C; de Sá, Thiago H; Monteiro, Carlos A; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2016-08-25

    Sedentary lifestyles contribute to premature death and health inequalities. Researchers have studied personal and community-level determinants of inactivity but few have analyzed corporate influences. To reframe the public health debate on inactivity and open new doors for public sector intervention, we conducted a scoping review of evidence from several disciplines to describe how the business and political practices of the automobile, construction, and entertainment sectors have encouraged sedentary lifestyles. In the last 50 years, these industries have found it profitable to produce motor vehicles, housing, and entertainment, which intentionally or unintentionally discourage physical activity. Ceding primary authority for policy decisions in these sectors to the market-based economy has enabled the growth of powerful lobbies that encourage and maintain sedentary lifestyles. To counteract these influences, public health and civil society need to confront more upstream economic and social determinants of sedentary lifestyles. Building on evidence from efforts to change harmful tobacco, alcohol and food industry practices, we propose the creation of research and policy agendas that contribute to public health practice that can modify corporate practices that contribute to physical, social and political environments that discourage physical activity.

  12. KEY FACTORS INFLUENCING PURCHASE INTENTIONS TOWARDS AUTOMOBILES IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED NAVEED ALTAF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors identify and investigate the key factors which influence intentions to purchase passenger cars among consumers in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed to check the significance of these key variables identified from previous studies, especially those conducted in the context of automobile purchasing in Asian countries. Faculty members from universities of two major cities in Pakistan were selected at random as respondents for this study. The findings of the study will be useful to both managers in the auto industry as well as policy makers. It will help managers in the auto industry to gain a better understanding of consumer intentions and identify the factors which influence them. Policy makers in Pakistan’s auto sector would benefit from the insights of this study when developing the long overdue Auto Policy. Analysis of the data collected has revealed that the three key factors identified from studies in other Asian countries are also relevant for Pakistani auto consumers.

  13. High efficiency digital cooler electronics for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkconnell, C. S.; Luong, T. T.; Shaw, L. S.; Murphy, J. B.; Moody, E. A.; Lisiecki, A. L.; Ellis, M. J.

    2014-06-01

    Closed-cycle cryogenic refrigerators, or cryocoolers, are an enabling technology for a wide range of aerospace applications, mostly related to infrared (IR) sensors. While the industry focus has tended to be on the mechanical cryocooler thermo mechanical unit (TMU) alone, implementation on a platform necessarily consists of the combination of the TMU and a mating set of command and control electronics. For some applications the cryocooler electronics (CCE) are technologically simple and low cost relative to the TMU, but this is not always the case. The relative cost and complexity of the CCE for a space-borne application can easily exceed that of the TMU, primarily due to the technical constraints and cost impacts introduced by the typical space radiation hardness and reliability requirements. High end tactical IR sensor applications also challenge the state of the art in cryocooler electronics, such as those for which temperature setpoint and frequency must be adjustable, or those where an informative telemetry set must be supported, etc. Generally speaking for both space and tactical applications, it is often the CCE that limits the rated lifetime and reliability of the cryocooler system. A family of high end digital cryocooler electronics has been developed to address these needs. These electronics are readily scalable from 10W to 500W output capacity; experimental performance data for nominally 25W and 100W variants are presented. The combination of a FPGA-based controller and dual H-bridge motor drive architectures yields high efficiency (>92% typical) and precision temperature control (+/- 30 mK typical) for a wide range of Stirling-class mechanical cryocooler types and vendors. This paper focuses on recent testing with the AIM INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH (AIM) SX030 and AIM SF100 cryocoolers.

  14. Standard Test Methods for Microscopical Sizing and Counting Particles from Aerospace Fluids on Membrane Filters

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the size distribution and quantity of particulate matter contamination from aerospace fluids isolated on a membrane filter. The microscopical techniques described may also be applied to other properly prepared samples of small particles. Two test methods are described for sizing particles as follows: 1.1.1 Test Method A—Particle sizes are measured as the diameter of a circle whose area is equal to the projected area of the particle. 1.1.2 Test Method B—Particle sizes are measured by their longest dimension. 1.2 The test methods are intended for application to particle contamination determination of aerospace fluids, gases, surfaces, and environments. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 These test methods do not provide for sizing particles smaller than 5 μm. Note 1—Results of these methods are subject to variables inherent in any statistical method. The...

  15. Revision of Paschen's Law Relating to the ESD of Aerospace Vehicle Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Cox, Rachel E.; Mulligan, Jaysen; Kapat, Jayanta; Ahmed, Kareem; Wilson, Jennifer G.; Calle, Luz M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a version of Paschen's law that takes into account the flow of ambient gas past electrode surfaces. Paschen's law does not consider the flow of gas past an aerospace vehicle whose surfaces may be triboelectrically charged by dust or ice crystal impingement while traversing the atmosphere. The basic hypothesis of this work is that the number of electron-ion pairs created per unit distance between electrode surfaces is mitigated by the electron-ion pairs removed per unit distance by the flow of gas. The revised theoretical model must be a function of the mean velocity vxm of the ambient gas and reduce to Paschen's law when the mean velocity is zero. A new theoretical formulation of Paschen's law, taking into account the Mach number and compressible dynamic pressure, derived by the authors, will be discussed. This equation has been evaluated by wind tunnel experimentation. Initial data of the baseline wind tunnel experiments show results consistent with the hypothesis. This work may enhance the safety of aerospace vehicles through a redefinition of electrostatic launch commit criteria. It is also possible for new products, such as antistatic coatings, to be formulated based on this data.

  16. Approaches of Japan and Western nations to automobile fuel consumption improvement; Jidosha nenpi kaizen ni kansuru Nippon Obei no torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, M. [Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-01

    Some views are expressed toward the improvement of automobile fuel consumption. There is no need to give up the convenience that the automobile offers for the purpose of energy-saving. What is needed is the effective use of energy, and the most important technological tasks in this connection is the improvement of fuel consumption. Thanks to the efforts exerted by Japanese businesses, and to reduction in automobile size and improvement on engine performance in the Western countries, fuel consumption has steadily improved, only to reach a level where no more large-scale progress is expected without innovative technologies. For example, the adoption of the lean-burn system for higher performance will deteriorate the convenience that automobiles offer and efforts for lightening automobile bodies will encounter constraints (germane to recycling and pricing) in choosing proper materials. This report also evaluates alternate-energy automobiles and comments on Japan`s decision on its fuel consumption improvement targets. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Factors Influencing Advancement of Women Senior Leaders in Aerospace Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Howard, Camille Elaine

    The problem researched in this study was the limited number of women in senior leadership positions in the aerospace industry. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological research study was to interview women senior leaders in the aerospace industry to explore the factors they perceived as beneficial to their advancement to senior leadership positions in the aerospace industry. The research study was guided by a central research question relating to what professional and personal factors might have led to promotional opportunities into senior leadership roles. Transformational leadership was the conceptual framework used to inform the study. The qualitative, phenomenological approach was selected to gain insights of the lived experiences and perceptions relating to career advancement of women to senior leadership positions in the aerospace industry. Data were collected using a modified Van Kaam method, coded, and analyzed to discern themes or patterns. Findings were that the attributes participants contributed to their success, included a focus on leadership, personal development, and the importance of mentoring relationships. This study presented a positive direction in addressing the gaps in the body of knowledge related to women and leadership development by exploring the experiences of women in senior leadership positions in the aerospace industry. Implications for social change include informing organizations and women about specific leadership development practices as one way to promote more women into leadership positions thus reducing the gap between the number of men and women leaders.

  18. Analyzing and simulating supply chain disruptions to the automobile industry based on experiences of the Great East Japan Earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Ono, Kenji; Akakura, Yasuhiro; Kanda, Masami; Ishihara, Masatoyo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake revealed serious weaknesses in the supply chain management (SCM) employed by Japanese industries, and particularly by the automobile industry. Observed supply chain disruptions and production line shutdowns are recognized as symbolic of weaknesses in industrial SCM. The Japanese automobile industry in particular is now keen to improve supply chain resiliency in terms of automobile assembly line continuity. In view of this, we i) review observed negative impacts...

  19. Substance flow analysis and environmental releases of PBDEs in life cycle of automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jonghyun; Jang, Yong-Chul; Kim, Jong-Guk

    2017-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants, have been widely used in many applications in industry such as automobiles, textiles, and electronics. This study focused on a quantitative substance flow analysis (SFA) of PBDEs in automobiles in order to identify their flow by life cycle and treatment pathways of PBDEs-containing materials in end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea. In addition, this study has estimated environmental releases of PBDEs in automobiles by life cycle in Korea. During this study, PBDEs were analyzed for the samples collected from several ELVs treatment facilities using X-ray fluorescence and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. The system boundary for SFA of PBDEs ranged from manufacturing/trade to disposal stage of automobiles by life cycle. Based on the result of the SFA, it was found that the amount of PBDEs in automobiles were the highest in use stage (7748ton/year), followed by production stage (1743ton/year) in 2014. In disposal stage, automobile shredded residues (ASR) and seat fabrics were the main components with relatively high levels of PBDEs in ELVs. The major treatment methods of such components included incineration (84%), energy recovery (9%), and landfilling (6%). This research indicates that PBDEs were emitted the highest amount from interior components during the use stage of automobiles, followed by recycling processes such as dismantling and shredding. This study suggests that PBDEs in ASR and seat fabrics should be properly managed to prevent the widespread dispersion in the environment.

  20. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapeña-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Ortí, Fortunato; Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro

    between the two power sources [N. Lapeña-Rey, J. Mosquera, E. Bataller, F. Ortí, SAE 2007 Aerotech Congress & Exhibition, 2007 (Publication number: 2007-01-3906)]. The demonstrator airplane constitutes an example of the successful implementation of novel clean power sources in aviation. The detailed description of the airplane and its subsystems is given elsewhere [N. Lapeña-Rey, J. Mosquera, E. Bataller, F. Ortí, SAE 2007 Aerotech Congress & Exhibition, 2007 (Publication number: 2007-01-3906)]. This paper focuses specially on the power sources design and pre-flight tests giving special attention to those requirements derived from aerospace applications.

  1. Environmentally friendly power sources for aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapena-Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Bataller, Elena; Orti, Fortunato [Boeing Research and Technology Europe Ltd., Environmental Technologies, C/ Canada Real de las Merinas 1-3, Building 4, 4th floor, Madrid 28042 (Spain); Dudfield, Christopher; Orsillo, Alessandro [Intelligent Energy Ltd., The Innovation Centre, Epinal Way, Loughborough LE11 3EH (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    management between the two power sources [N. Lapena-Rey, J. Mosquera, E. Bataller, F. Orti, SAE 2007 Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, 2007 (Publication number: 2007-01-3906)]. The demonstrator airplane constitutes an example of the successful implementation of novel clean power sources in aviation. The detailed description of the airplane and its subsystems is given elsewhere [N. Lapena-Rey, J. Mosquera, E. Bataller, F. Orti, SAE 2007 Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, 2007 (Publication number: 2007-01-3906)]. This paper focuses specially on the power sources design and pre-flight tests giving special attention to those requirements derived from aerospace applications. (author)

  2. Green Aerospace Fuels from Nonpetroleum Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; DeLaRee, Ana B.; Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark; Hensel, Joseph D.; Kimble, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts to produce green aerospace propellants from nonpetroleum sources are outlined. The paper begins with an overview of feedstock processing and relevant small molecule or C1 chemistry. Gas-to-liquid technologies, notably Fischer-Tropsch (FT) processing of synthesis gas (CO and H2), are being optimized to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to aviation (and other transportation) fuels at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Efforts to produce optimized catalysts are described. Given the high cost of space launch, the recycling of human metabolic and plastic wastes to reduce the need to transport consumables to orbit to support the crew of a space station has long been recognized as a high priority. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon or beyond are taken into account, the importance of developing waste recycling systems becomes still more imperative. One promising way to transform organic waste products into useful gases is steam reformation; this well-known technology is currently being optimized by a Colorado company for exploration and planetary surface operations. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs. A technology that has successfully demonstrated production of fuels and related chemicals from waste plastics developed in Northeast Ohio is described. Technologies being developed by a Massachusetts company to remove sulfur impurities are highlighted. Common issues and concerns for nonpetroleum fuel production are emphasized. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether a terrestrial operation or on the lunar (or Martian) surface; the term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of grid-energy usage. For space exploration, energy efficiency can be an essential concern. Other issues of great concern include minimizing

  3. Non-traditional Machining Techniques for Fabricating Metal Aerospace Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wei; Zhu Di; D.M.Allen; H.J.A.Almondb

    2008-01-01

    Thanks to recent advances in manufacturing technology, aerospace system designers have many more options to fabricate high-quality, low-weight, high-capacity, cost-effective filters. Aside from traditional methods such as stamping, drilling and milling,many new approaches have been widely used in filter-manufacturing practices on account of their increased processing abilities. However, the restrictions on costs, the need for studying under stricter conditions such as in aggressive fluids, the complicity in design, the workability of materials, and others have made it difficult to choose a satisfactory method from the newly developed processes, such as,photochemical machining (PCM), photo electroforming (PEF) and laser beam machining (LBM) to produce small, inexpensive, lightweight aerospace filters. This article appraises the technical and economical viability of PCM, PEF, and LBM to help engineers choose the fittest approach to turn out aerospace filters.

  4. Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminates: A New Aerospace Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. S.; Cobb, Ted Q.; Lowther, Sharon; St.Clair, T. L.

    1998-01-01

    In the realm of aerospace design and performance, there are few boundaries in the never-ending drive for increased performance. This thirst for ever-increased performance of aerospace equipment has driven the aerospace and defense industries into developing exotic, extremely high-performance composites that are pushing the envelope in terms of strength-to-weight ratios, durability, and several other key measurements. To meet this challenge of ever-increasing improvement, engineers and scientists at NASA-Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC) have developed a high-temperature metal laminate based upon titanium, carbon fibers, and a thermoplastic resin. This composite, known as the Hybrid Titanium Composite Laminate, or HTCL, is the latest chapter in a significant, but relatively short, history of metal laminates.

  5. Standard Test Method for Hail Impact Resistance of Aerospace Transparent Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the impact resistance of an aerospace transparent enclosure, hereinafter called windshield, during hailstorm conditions using simulated hailstones consisting of ice balls molded under tightly controlled conditions. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific hazard statements see Section 7.

  6. Automobile materials competition: energy implications of fiber-reinforced plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings-Saxton, J.

    1981-10-01

    The embodied energy, structural weight, and transportation energy (fuel requirement) characteristics of steel, fiber-reinforced plastics, and aluminum were assessed to determine the overall energy savings of materials substitution in automobiles. In body panels, a 1.0-lb steel component with an associated 0.5 lb in secondary weight is structurally equivalent to a 0.6-lb fiber-reinforced plastic component with 0.3 lb in associated secondary weight or a 0.5-lb aluminum component with 0.25 lb of secondary weight. (Secondary weight refers to the combined weight of the vehicle's support structure, engine, braking system, and drive train, all of which can be reduced in response to a decrease in total vehicle weight.) The life cycle transportation energy requirements of structurally equivalent body panels (including their associated secondary weights) are 174.4 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 104.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. The embodied energy requirements are 37.2 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 22.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 87.1 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. These results can be combined to yield total energy requirements of 211.6 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for steel, 126.7 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for fiber-reinforced plastics, and 174.3 x 10/sup 3/ Btu for aluminum. Fiber-reinforced plastics offer the greatest improvements over steel in both embodied and total energy requirements. Aluminum achieves the greatest savings in transportation energy.

  7. Pyrolysis and gasification-melting of automobile shredder residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Seon Ah; Kim, Woo Hyun; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tae Jin; Kwak, Yeon Ho; Seo, Yong Chil

    2013-10-01

    Automobile shredder residue (ASR) from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in Korea has commonly been disposed of in landfills. Due to the growing number of scrapped cars and the decreasing availability of landfill space, effective technology for reducing ASR is needed. However ASR is a complex mixture, and finding an appropriate treatment is not easy on account of the harmful compounds in ASR. Therefore, research continues to seek an effective treatment technology. However most studies have thus far been performed in the laboratory, whereas few commercial and pilot studies have been performed. This paper studies the pyrolysis and gasification-melting of ASR. The pyrolyis characteristics have been analyzed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), a Lindberg furnace, and a fixed-bed pyrolyzer to study the fundamental characteristics of ASR thermal conversion. As a pilot study, shaft-type gasification-melting was performed. High-temperature gasification-melting was performed in a 5000 kg/day pilot system. The gas yield and syngas (H2 and CO) concentration increase when the reaction temperature increases. Gas with a high calorific value of more than 16,800 kJ/m3 was produced in the pyrolyzer. From the gasification-melting process, syngas of CO (30-40%) and H2(10-15%) was produced, with 5% CH4 produced as well. Slag generation was 17% of the initial ASR, with 5.8% metal content and 4% fly ash. The concentration of CO decreases, whereas the H2, CO2, and CH4 concentrations increase with an increase in the equivalence ratio (ER). The emission levels of dioxin and air pollution compounds except nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) were shown to satisfy Korean regulations.

  8. The promise of fuel cell-based automobiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Shukla; C L Jackson; K Scott

    2003-02-01

    Fuel cell-based automobiles have gained attention in the last few years due to growing public concern about urban air pollution and consequent environmental problems. From an analysis of the power and energy requirements of a modern car, it is estimated that a base sustainable power of $ca$. 50 kW supplemented with short bursts up to 80 kW will suffice in most driving requirements. The energy demand depends greatly on driving characteristics but under normal usage is expected to be 200 Wh/km. The advantages and disadvantages of candidate fuel-cell systems and various fuels are considered together with the issue of whether the fuel should be converted directly in the fuel cell or should be reformed to hydrogen onboard the vehicle. For fuel cell vehicles to compete successfully with conventional internal-combustion engine vehicles, it appears that direct conversion fuel cells using probably hydrogen, but possibly methanol, are the only realistic contenders for road transportation applications. Among the available fuel cell technologies, polymer–electrolyte fuel cells directly fueled with hydrogen appear to be the best option for powering fuel cell vehicles as there is every prospect that these will exceed the performance of the internal-combustion engine vehicles but for their first cost. A target cost of $ 50/kW would be mandatory to make polymer–electrolyte fuel cells competitive with the internal combustion engines and can only be achieved with design changes that would substantially reduce the quantity of materials used. At present, prominent car manufacturers are deploying important research and development efforts to develop fuel cell vehicles and are projecting to start production by 2005.

  9. Automobile air-conditioning. Its energy and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-05-01

    Over the last three decades, automobile manufacturers have made a lot of progress in specific fuel consumption and engine emissions of pollutants. Yet the impact of these improvements on vehicle consumption has been limited by increased dynamic performances (maximum speed, torque), increased safety (power steering and power brakes) and increased comfort (noise and vibration reduction, electric windows and thermal comfort). Because of this, the real CO{sub 2}-emission levels in vehicles is still high in a context where road transport is a major factor in the balance sheet of greenhouse gas emissions, thus in complying with the international climate convention. Although European, Japanese and Korean manufacturers signed an important agreement with the European Commission for voluntarily reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from their vehicles, with a weighted average emission goal by sales of 140 grams per km on the MVEG approval cycle by 2008, it has to be noted that the European procedures for measuring fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions do not take accessories into account, especially air-conditioning (A/C). The big dissemination of this equipment-recognized as a big energy consumer and as using a refrigerant with a high global warming potential-led ADEME to implement a set of assessments of A/C's energy and environmental impact. In particular these assessments include studies of vehicle equipment rates, analyses of impact on fuel consumption as well as regulated pollutant emissions in the exhaust, a characterization of the refrigerant leakage levels and an estimate of greenhouse gas emissions for all air-conditioned vehicles. This leaflet summarizes the results of these actions. (author)

  10. Aerospace toxicology overview: aerial application and cabin air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace toxicology is a rather recent development and is closely related to aerospace medicine. Aerospace toxicology can be defined as a field of study designed to address the adverse effects of medications, chemicals, and contaminants on humans who fly within or outside the atmosphere in aviation or on space flights. The environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth is referred to as aerospace. The term aviation is frequently used interchangeably with aerospace. The focus of the literature review performed to prepare this paper was on aerospace toxicology-related subject matters, aerial application and aircraft cabin air quality. Among the important topics addressed are the following: · Aerial applications of agricultural chemicals, pesticidal toxicity, and exposures to aerially applied mixtures of chemicals and their associated formulating solvents/surfactants The safety of aerially encountered chemicals and the bioanalytical methods used to monitor exposures to some of them · The presence of fumes and smoke, as well as other contaminants that may generally be present in aircraft/space vehicle cabin air · And importantly, the toxic effects of aerially encountered contaminants, with emphasis on the degradation products of oils, fluids, and lubricants used in aircraft, and finally · Analytical methods used for monitoring human exposure to CO and HCN are addressed in the review, as are the signs and symptoms associated with exposures to these combustion gases. Although many agricultural chemical monitoring studies have been published, few have dealt with the occurrence of such chemicals in aircraft cabin air. However, agricultural chemicals do appear in cabin air; indeed, attempts have been made to establish maximum allowable concentrations for several of the more potentially toxic ones that are found in aircraft cabin air. In this article, I emphasize the need for precautionary measures to be taken to minimize exposures to aerially

  11. CORBASec Used to Secure Distributed Aerospace Propulsion Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Tammy M.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industry partners are developing a Common Object Request Broker (CORBA) Security (CORBASec) test bed to secure their distributed aerospace propulsion simulations. Glenn has been working with its aerospace propulsion industry partners to deploy the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) object-based technology. NPSS is a program focused on reducing the cost and time in developing aerospace propulsion engines. It was developed by Glenn and is being managed by the NASA Ames Research Center as the lead center reporting directly to NASA Headquarters' Aerospace Technology Enterprise. Glenn is an active domain member of the Object Management Group: an open membership, not-for-profit consortium that produces and manages computer industry specifications (i.e., CORBA) for interoperable enterprise applications. When NPSS is deployed, it will assemble a distributed aerospace propulsion simulation scenario from proprietary analytical CORBA servers and execute them with security afforded by the CORBASec implementation. The NPSS CORBASec test bed was initially developed with the TPBroker Security Service product (Hitachi Computer Products (America), Inc., Waltham, MA) using the Object Request Broker (ORB), which is based on the TPBroker Basic Object Adaptor, and using NPSS software across different firewall products. The test bed has been migrated to the Portable Object Adaptor architecture using the Hitachi Security Service product based on the VisiBroker 4.x ORB (Borland, Scotts Valley, CA) and on the Orbix 2000 ORB (Dublin, Ireland, with U.S. headquarters in Waltham, MA). Glenn, GE Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Aircraft are the initial industry partners contributing to the NPSS CORBASec test bed. The test bed uses Security SecurID (RSA Security Inc., Bedford, MA) two-factor token-based authentication together with Hitachi Security Service digital-certificate-based authentication to validate the various NPSS users. The test

  12. Space Station Freedom - A resource for aerospace education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The role of the International Space Station in future U.S. aerospace education efforts is discussed from a NASA perspective. The overall design concept and scientific and technological goals of the Space Station are reviewed, and particular attention is given to education projects such as the Davis Planetarium Student Space Station, the Starship McCullough, the Space Habitat, the working Space Station model in Austin, TX, the Challenger Center for Space Life Education, Space M+A+X, and the Space Science Student Involvement Program. Also examined are learning-theory aspects of aerospace education: child vs adult learners, educational objectives, teaching methods, and instructional materials.

  13. Optical Characterization of Window Materials for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  14. Optical characterization of window materials for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjojuwono, Ken K.; Clark, Natalie; Humphreys, William M.

    2013-09-01

    An optical metrology laboratory has been developed to characterize the optical properties of optical window materials to be used for aerospace applications. Several optical measurement systems have been selected and developed to measure spectral transmittance, haze, clarity, birefringence, striae, wavefront quality, and wedge. In addition to silica based glasses, several optical lightweight polymer materials and transparent ceramics have been investigated in the laboratory. The measurement systems and selected empirical results for non-silica materials are described. These measurements will be used to form the basis of acceptance criteria for selection of window materials for future aerospace vehicle and habitat designs.

  15. Emergent Cure Chemistry in the Development of Aerospace Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-25

    R4 R3-SHR3-S-CH2-CH2-R4Product Anti-Markovnikov • Thiol-ene chemistry is a hybrid of free radical and condensation chemistry . It combines the speed...Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2015-March 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Emergent cure chemistry in the development of aerospace materials...cure chemistry in the development of aerospace materials Joseph M. Mabry, Ph.D. Air Force Research Laboratory joseph.mabry@us.af.mil (661) 275-5857

  16. Empirical Analysis of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Indian Automobile Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, S.; Garg, D.; Haleem, A.

    2014-04-01

    Environmental sustainability and green environmental issues have an increasing popularity among researchers and supply chain practitioners. An attempt has been made to identify and empirically analyze green supply chain management (GSCM) practices in Indian automobile industry. Six main GSCM practices (having 37 sub practices) and four expected performance outcomes (having 16 performances) have been identified by implementing GSCM practices from literature review. Questionnaire based survey has been made to validate these practices and performance outcomes. 123 complete questionnaires were collected from Indian automobile organizations and used for empirical analysis of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry. Descriptive statistics have been used to know current implementation status of GSCM practices in Indian automobile industry and multiple regression analysis has been carried out to know the impact on expected organizational performance outcomes by current GSCM practices adopted by Indian automobile industry. The results of study suggested that environmental, economic, social and operational performances improve with the implementation of GSCM practices. This paper may play an important role to understand various GSCM implementation issues and help practicing managers to improve their performances in the supply chain.

  17. Summary of semi-initiative and initiative control automobile engine vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Qu, Zhou

    2009-07-01

    Engine vibration accounts for around 55% of automobile vibration, separating the engine vibration from transmitting to automobile to the utmost extent is significant for improving NVH performance. Semi-initiative and initiative control of engine vibration is one of the hot spots of technical research in domestic and foreign automobile industry, especially luxury automobiles which adopt this technology to improve amenity and competitiveness. This article refers to a large amount of domestic and foreign related materials, fully introduces the research status of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension of engine vibration suspension and many kinds of structural style, and provides control policy and method of semi-initiative and initiative control suspension system. Compare and analyze the structural style of semi-initiative and initiative control and merits and demerits of current structures of semi-initiative and initiative control of mechanic electrorheological, magnetorheological, electromagnetic actuator, piezoelectric ceramics, electrostriction material, pneumatic actuator etc. Models of power assembly mounting system was classified.Calculation example indicated that reasonable selection of engine mounting system parameters is useful to reduce engine vibration transmission and to increase ride comfort. Finally we brought forward semi-initiative and initiative suspension which might be applied for automobiles, and which has a promising future.

  18. Integrated studies for automobile wastes management in developing countries; in the concept of environmentally friendly mechanic village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Michael Amamechi; Feng, Huan; Achilike, Kennedy

    2011-07-01

    More cities in developing countries now consider mechanic village (MV) as superior to the city wide auto-workshop practice following the increasing influx of used or waste automobile from industrialized nations. This is because of the numerous advantages of the mechanic village concept as a capacity building, and in poverty alleviation. Nevertheless, mechanic villages are poorly developed with no waste management plan. They are now identified with severe to excessive heavy metal soil pollution, causing ecological and public health hazards. This paper has a wider explanation of what it takes for a mechanic village to be environmentally friendly based on spectroscopic analysis and physical measurements conducted in three MVs. Heavy metal concentrations (mg kg( -1)) above background levels in the upper 100 cm soil profiles of the Okigwe, the Orji, and the Nekede MVs in the Imo River basin collectively range 748-70,606 for Fe; 99-1,090 for Pb; 186-600 for Mn; 102-1,001 for Cu; 8-23 for Cd; 4-27 for Cr; and 3-10 for Ni. The most abundant metals of environmental concerns are Pb, Mn, and Cu, in the order of Pb > Mn > Cu. Three-phase storm water treatment, emission testing, minimum safe farming distance (350 m), extended producer responsibility for disposal or recycling of used motor oil, phyto-remediation using local plants, groundwater monitoring wells, and continuous education of mechanics are recommended. Exporters of waste automobiles to developing countries and the United Nations may assist developing countries in establishing environmentally friendly MVs.

  19. 76 FR 52016 - NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety... International Space Station Advisory Committee and the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel. The purpose of this... consideration by NASA for Commercial Resupply Services for the International Space Station (ISS),...

  20. 77 FR 64767 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Airplanes AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held by Israel... Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Galaxy and Gulfstream 200...

  1. MATH DESCRIPTION OF THE PROCESS OF THE AUTOMOBILE DIAGNOSING PARAMETER CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokorev G. D.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the importance of math description and grounding the function taking into account the process of changing the parameter when developing the methodology of automobile diagnosing. It is pointed out that after all the prediction error and effort depend on the choice of approximating function. The wrong choice of the function can bring to naught all the efforts to manage safety margin and other parameters of cars elements. One can find the requirements to math description and grounding the function of the parameter change. Based on the analysis of factors influencing the process of parameters change and requirements to math description of this process we have noticed that it is necessary to approximate the change (increase of the state variable by the chance ordered function with increasing realizations. One can consider the parameter change realization both strictly and not as a monotone function ranging from zero to the limit change of the parameter. We have mentioned that the fore-quoted reasoning with the account of two groups of factors make possible to investigate the parameter change at this or that moment of work as a sum of two random values. We have made a conclusion that they usually express the link between the change rate (for instance, detail wear rate and the readings of the material properties and functioning conditions (metal skin hardness, unit loading on the detail surface, its relative rate of movement by the functional determined dependence got as a result of lab tests or theoretical study. In the conclusion, one can see that the analysis of the results of math description of the process of the parameter change is sufficient enough

  2. Energy Optimization for a Weak Hybrid Power System of an Automobile Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Quan, Shuhai; Xie, Changjun; Tang, Xinfeng; Ran, Bin; Jiao, Yatian

    2017-07-01

    An integrated starter generator (ISG)-type hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) scheme is proposed based on the automobile exhaust thermoelectric generator (AETEG). An eddy current dynamometer is used to simulate the vehicle's dynamic cycle. A weak ISG hybrid bench test system is constructed to test the 48 V output from the power supply system, which is based on engine exhaust-based heat power generation. The thermoelectric power generation-based system must ultimately be tested when integrated into the ISG weak hybrid mixed power system. The test process is divided into two steps: comprehensive simulation and vehicle-based testing. The system's dynamic process is simulated for both conventional and thermoelectric powers, and the dynamic running process comprises four stages: starting, acceleration, cruising and braking. The quantity of fuel available and battery pack energy, which are used as target vehicle energy functions for comparison with conventional systems, are simplified into a single energy target function, and the battery pack's output current is used as the control variable in the thermoelectric hybrid energy optimization model. The system's optimal battery pack output current function is resolved when its dynamic operating process is considered as part of the hybrid thermoelectric power generation system. In the experiments, the system bench is tested using conventional power and hybrid thermoelectric power for the four dynamic operation stages. The optimal battery pack curve is calculated by functional analysis. In the vehicle, a power control unit is used to control the battery pack's output current and minimize energy consumption. Data analysis shows that the fuel economy of the hybrid power system under European Driving Cycle conditions is improved by 14.7% when compared with conventional systems.

  3. Study on the control mechanism of China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jian; Li Hanling; Wu Weiwei

    2008-01-01

    China's aerospace enterprises carry on the multinational operation and participate in the international competition and the international division of labor and cooperation positively.This article first analyzs China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational business control objective and constructes its model.Then the article analyzes the tangible and intangible control mechanism of China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational operation respectively.Finally,the article constructs the model of China aerospace enterprises' binary multinational operation mechanisms.

  4. 48 CFR 1852.244-70 - Geographic participation in the aerospace program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the aerospace program. 1852.244-70 Section 1852.244-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.244-70 Geographic participation in the aerospace program. As prescribed in 1844.204-70, insert the following clause: Geographic Participation in the Aerospace Program (APR 1985)...

  5. 75 FR 12468 - Airworthiness Directives; Quartz Mountain Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... With the next 10 Follow Quartz aileron pushrod bearings. hours time-in- Mountain Aerospace service (TIS... aileron Within 50 hours TIS Follow Quartz pushrod bearings. after the cleaning Mountain Aerospace and... Aerospace, Inc. Model 11E Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department...

  6. 76 FR 63571 - Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Airplanes Equipped With Pratt & Whitney Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Airplanes Equipped With Pratt & Whitney Canada, Corp. PW610F-A Engines...: We propose to revise an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to all Eclipse Aerospace... 10, 2011), for all Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Model EA500 airplanes equipped with Pratt & Whitney...

  7. 75 FR 39472 - Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. Model EA500 Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eclipse Aerospace... directive (AD) for certain Eclipse Aerospace, Inc. (Eclipse) Model EA500 airplanes. This proposed AD would... proposed AD, contact Eclipse Aerospace, Incorporated, 2503 Clark Carr Loop, SE., Albuquerque, New...

  8. 75 FR 28485 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.) Model Gulfstream 100... adding the following new AD: 2010-11-02 Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate Previously Held by... Gulfstream Aerospace LP (Type Certificate previously held by Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd.)...

  9. Comparison of energy-storage devices for use in future automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, L.G.

    1981-06-20

    The Transportation System Research Program of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a study over a four year period to determine which energy-storage devices and their associated propulsion systems are likely to be capable of providing credible alternatives to current type automotive propulsion systems between now and the year 2000. It was found that a complete spectrum of automotive performance levels can be achieved by energy storage automobiles during this time period. These range from automobiles with general-purpose performance equivalent to internal combustion engine (ICE) performance to performance suitable for vehicles with specific missions. These automobiles will likely be more expensive to purchase than their ICE counterparts. Large scale introduction of such vehicles can be constrained not only by the development of energy storage technology, but also by the abailability of the required manufacturing capability and service infrastructure.

  10. Computer simulations and experimental study on crash box of automobile in low speed collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjie; Ding, Lin; Yan, Shengyuan; Yang, Yongsheng

    2008-11-01

    Based on the problems of energy-absorbing components in the automobile low speed collision process, according to crash box frontal crash test in low speed as the example, the simulation analysis of crash box impact process was carried out by Hyper Mesh and LS-DYNA. Each parameter on the influence modeling was analyzed by mathematics analytical solution and test comparison, which guaranteed that the model was accurate. Combination of experiment and simulation result had determined the weakness part of crash box structure crashworthiness aspect, and improvement method of crash box crashworthiness was discussed. Through numerical simulation of the impact process of automobile crash box, the obtained analysis result was used to optimize the design of crash box. It was helpful to improve the vehicles structure and decrease the collision accident loss at most. And it was also provided a useful method for the further research on the automobile collision.

  11. Assessment of Lateral Driving Stability of Automobiles Passing by the Pylon Zone under Cross Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalei Wang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the reason of lateral instability of automobile passing by the pylon zone of cablesupported bridge under cross wind, a new evaluation method of lateral driving stability of automobile considering alternative cross wind is established based on multi-objective driving stability criteria and subjective assessment. Typical driving control process and dynamic response of automobile passing by the pylon zone is given by numerical simulation based on steering wheel fixed-control model and straight driving ideal-driver model. Finally, taking a medium-size commercial bus as an example, the reason of its lateral instability is interpreted and the influence of cross wind speed and driving speed on its lateral driving stability is shown by parameter study.

  12. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver vehicle system dynamics in regulation tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Klein, R.

    1975-01-01

    A regulation task which subjected the automobile to a random gust disturbance which is countered by driver control action is used to study the effects of various automobile steering characteristics on the driver/vehicle system. The experiments used a variable stability automobile specially configured to permit insertion of the simulated gust disturbance and the measurement of the driver/vehicle system characteristics. Driver/vehicle system dynamics were measured and interpreted as an effective open loop system describing function. Objective measures of system bandwidth, stability, and time delays were deduced and compared. These objective measures were supplemented by driver ratings. A tentative optimum range of vehicle dynamics for the directional regulation task was established.

  13. Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd.—China’s Heavy Truck Giant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.,Ltd. (formerly Shaanxi Automobile Manufacturing Plant) was originally a weak enterprise. Relying on the reorganization of assets,the introduction of the"Double Best"project and opportunities for development,it has entered the fast track of development by es- tablishing a brand image and implementing a forward-looking strategy.In 1990,Shaanxi Automobile Group Co.Ltd.was a loss- making enterprise with an annual sales of 100 million yuan ($14.1 million).In 2007,its sales income surpassed 10 billion yuan ($1.4 billion),and it was not only listed among China’s top 500 companies,but also ranked 37th among the top 500 machinery companies of China and came first in Shaanxi Province

  14. Theoretic Analysis & Study on Automobile EMC Based on the Synergetics Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y. H.; Chang, X.; He, L. Q.; Tian, X. L.

    2006-10-01

    Considering the microelectronic application in the automobile of equipment increases, and the electromagnetic environment of external world worsens day by day, it is important to study the problems of the auto EMC. The traditional researching approaches of EMC have already become riper, but because of the complicated characteristics of the automobile's complex electronic system, there is no simple mathematical model to describe and analyze the auto EMC. The traditional methods mostly proceed with parameters of the circuits, and they have not risen to the system grade. They are based on the thought of reduction. As a kind of brand-new theory, synergetics pay more attention to the cooperation and competition between subsystems, and then it can reach harmonious stability from the whole. This paper investigates a new thought about applying the synergetics theory to the EMC' s analysis of the complex system like the Automobile's, thus received corresponding theory support.

  15. Complex multidisciplinary systems decomposition for aerospace vehicle conceptual design and technology acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoragbon, Amen

    Although, the Aerospace and Defense (A&D) industry is a significant contributor to the United States' economy, national prestige and national security, it experiences significant cost and schedule overruns. This problem is related to the differences between technology acquisition assessments and aerospace vehicle conceptual design. Acquisition assessments evaluate broad sets of alternatives with mostly qualitative techniques, while conceptual design tools evaluate narrow set of alternatives with multidisciplinary tools. In order for these two fields to communicate effectively, a common platform for both concerns is desired. This research is an original contribution to a three-part solution to this problem. It discusses the decomposition step of an innovation technology and sizing tool generation framework. It identifies complex multidisciplinary system definitions as a bridge between acquisition and conceptual design. It establishes complex multidisciplinary building blocks that can be used to build synthesis systems as well as technology portfolios. It also describes a Graphical User Interface Designed to aid in decomposition process. Finally, it demonstrates an application of the methodology to a relevant acquisition and conceptual design problem posed by the US Air Force.

  16. Value-leverage by Aerospace Original Equipment Manufacturers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beelaerts van Blokland, W.W.A.

    2010-01-01

    With the creation of new aircraft products; Embraer E-170/190, Dassault 7X, Airbus A380 and Boeing B787, aerospace original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) involve suppliers not only with the co-production of aircraft sub systems, but also with the entire development of sub systems, like fuselage and

  17. High output paraffin actuators: Utilization in aerospace mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, Scott

    1988-01-01

    High Output Paraffin (HOP) thermal actuators were developed to provide an alternative to conventional aerospace actuators: HOP actuators directly convert temperature changes to useful mechanical work. When fabricated with internal resistance heating elements, they provide an electric linear motor. For applications in which slower response times are acceptable or preferred, HOP actuators have distinct advantages over conventional approaches.

  18. Research and Development of Rapid Design Systems for Aerospace Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Harry G.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the results of research activities associated with the development of rapid design systems for aerospace structures in support of the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). The specific subsystems investigated were the interface between model assembly and analysis; and, the high performance NASA GPS equation solver software system in the Windows NT environment on low cost high-performance PCs.

  19. Liquid crystalline thermosetting polymers as protective coatings for aerospace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerriero, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental regulations are driving the development of new aerospace coating systems, mainly to eliminate chromates and reduce volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. Among the various potential options for new coating materials, liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) are attractive due to their un

  20. Developing Interdisciplinary Workforce to Meet Future Aerospace Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2017-01-01

    The presentation will focus on the importance of interdisciplinary research for addressing future aerospace challenges. Examples of current research activities at NASA's Glenn Research Center will be provided to illustrate the importance of interdisciplinary research. Challenges with conducting interdisciplinary research will be discussed.