WorldWideScience

Sample records for united aircraft research

  1. Propulsion controlled aircraft research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, C. Gordon

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has been conducting flight, ground simulator, and analytical studies to investigate the use of thrust modulation on multi-engine aircraft for emergency flight control. Two general methods of engine only control have been studied; manual manipulation of the throttles by the pilot, and augmented control where a computer commands thrust levels in response to pilot attitude inputs and aircraft motion feedbacks. This latter method is referred to as the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) System. A wide variety of aircraft have been investigated. Simulation studies have included the B720, F-15, B727, B747 and MD-11. A look at manual control has been done in actual flight on the F15, T-38, B747, Lear 25, T-39, MD-11 and PA-30 Aircraft. The only inflight trial of the augmented (PCA) concept has been on an F15, the results of which will be presented below.

  2. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  3. Research on Emerging and Descending Aircraft Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bartkevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Along with an increase in the aircraft engine power and growth in air traffic, noise level at airports and their surrounding environs significantly increases. Aircraft noise is high level noise spreading within large radius and intensively irritating the human body. Air transport is one of the main sources of noise having a particularly strong negative impact on the environment. The article deals with activities and noises taking place in the largest nationwide Vilnius International Airport.The level of noise and its dispersion was evaluated conducting research on the noise generated by emerging and descending aircrafts in National Vilnius Airport. Investigation was carried out at 2 measuring points located in a residential area. There are different types of aircrafts causing different sound levels. It has been estimated the largest exceedances that occur when an aircraft is approaching. In this case, the noisiest types of aircrafts are B733, B738 and AT72. The sound level varies from 70 to 85 dBA. The quietest aircrafts are RJ1H and F70. When taking off, the equivalent of the maximum sound level value of these aircrafts does not exceed the authorized limits. The paper describes the causes of noise in aircrafts, the sources of origin and the impact of noise on humans and the environment.Article in Lithuanian

  4. Aircraft emission research within ISTC project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dedesh, V.; Leut, A.; Boris, S. [Scientific Research Center at the Gromov Flight, Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2001-08-01

    This research is aimed at obtaining experimental data on contamination of the atmosphere by emissions from aircraft engines in cruise flight conditions, to establish and improve models of the physical and chemical processes which take place in the aircraft wake and in the general zone of air traffic corridors. An Su-24 'sounder' aircraft equipped with an air sampling and collection system has been established to obtain the necessary atmospheric samples in flight, and procedures have been developed for performing the research flights. Techniques have also been developed for chemical analysis of the samples. (authors)

  5. Research related to variable sweep aircraft development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polhamus, E. C.; Toll, T. A.

    1981-01-01

    Development in high speed, variable sweep aircraft research is reviewed. The 1946 Langley wind tunnel studies related to variable oblique and variable sweep wings and results from the X-5 and the XF1OF variable sweep aircraft are discussed. A joint program with the British, evaluation of the British "Swallow", development of the outboard pivot wing/aft tail configuration concept by Langley, and the applied research program that followed and which provided the technology for the current, variable sweep military aircraft is outlined. The relative state of variable sweep as a design option is also covered.

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 62: The Influence of Knowledge Diffusion on Aeronautics Innovation: The Research, Development, and Production of Large Commercial Aircraft in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golich, Vicki L.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on how European public policies-individually and collectively - influence the diffusion of knowledge and technology. It begins with an overview of the roles played historically and currently by European governments in the Research, Development and Production (RD&P) of Large Commercial Aircraft (LCA). The analytical framework brings together literature from global political economy, comparative politics, business management, and science and technology policy studies. It distinguishes between the production of knowledge, on the one hand, and the dissemination of knowledge, on the other. France, Germany, and the United Kingdom serve as the analytical cases. The paper concludes with a call for additional research in this area, some tentative lessons learned, and a discussion of the consequences of national strategies and policies for the diffusion of knowledge and technology in an era of globalizaton.

  7. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  8. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  9. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  10. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hlaváček David

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  11. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172 Section 173.172 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power...

  12. Research on aircraft emissions. Need for future work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A. [German Aerospace Establishment, Cologne (Germany). Transport Research Div.

    1997-12-31

    Reflecting the present status of the research on aircraft emissions and their impacts upon the atmosphere, task-fields for a work programme for the research on aircraft emissions can be derived. Most important measures are to support the efforts to define adequate reduction measures, and (with highest priority) scenario-writing for the long-term development in aircraft emissions, to be able to include into the decision making process the aspect of in-time-reaction against unwanted future. Besides that, a steady monitoring of global aircraft emissions will be necessary. (author) 5 refs.

  13. Flight test evaluations of the head-up display and the inertial reference unit of the NAL QSTOL experimental aircraft (Aska) by the NAL B-65 Queen Air research aircraft. Teisoon STOL jikkenkiyo HUD (head up display) oyobi IRU (kansei kijun sochi) no hiko hyoka shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    A head-up display (HUD) and an inertial reference unit (IRU) were developed by the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) for the NAL QSTOL (Quiet Short Take Off and Landing) experimental air craft (Aska). In order to evaluate both the performance of the HUD which provides the pilot with landing aid information, and the accuracy and characteristics of the IRU to be used for flight control and measurements, flight tests were conducted on board the B-65 Queen Air research aircraft. The results indicated that the characteristics of the HUD as an approach and landing aid system were good, and also that the IRU was useful as a sensor for flight control and measurements. Furthermore, it was shown that fundamental methods of evaluating the HUD characteristics and the IRU accuracy in actual flight were established for application of the HUD and the IRU to a new aircraft in the future. In addition, possibility of a new technology with landing aid information by means of the HUD was made clear. 21 refs., 48 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Fine aerosol bulk composition measured on WP-3D research aircraft in vicinity of the Northeastern United States – results from NEAQS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Warneke

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available During the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS in the summer of 2004, airborne measurements were made of the major inorganic ions and the water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC of the submicron (PM1.0 aerosol. These and ancillary data are used to describe the overall aerosol chemical characteristics encountered during the study. Fine particle mass was estimated from particle volume and a calculated density based on measured particle composition. Fine particle organic matter (OM was estimated from WSOC and a mass balance analysis. The aerosol over the northeastern United States (U.S. and Canada was predominately sulfate and associated ammonium, and organic components, although in unique plumes additional ionic components were also periodically above detection limits. In power generation regions, and especially in the Ohio River Valley region, the aerosol tended to be predominantly sulfate (~60% μg μg−1 and apparently acidic, based on an excess of measured anions compared to cations. In all other regions where sulfate concentrations were lower and a smaller fraction of overall mass, the cations and anions were balanced suggesting a more neutral aerosol. In contrast, the WSOC and estimated OM were more spatially uniform and the fraction of OM relative to PM mass largely influenced by sources of sulfate. The study median OM mass fraction was 40%. Throughout the study region, sulfate and organic aerosol mass were highest near the surface and decreased rapidly with increasing altitude. The relative fraction of organic mass to sulfate was similar within the boundary layer (altitude less than ~2.5 km, but was significantly higher in the free troposphere (above ~2.5 km. A number of distinct biomass burning plumes from fires in Alaska and the Yukon were periodically intercepted, mostly at altitudes between 3 and 4 km. These plumes were associated with highest aerosol concentrations of the study and were largely comprised of organic aerosol components

  15. Prototype-Technology Evaluator and Research Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Area-I team has developed and flight tested the unmanned Prototype-Technology Evaluation and Research Aircraft or PTERA ("ptera" being Greek for wing, or...

  16. The Pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Gijs; Palo, Scott; Argrow, Brian; LoDolce, Gabriel; Mack, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Telg, Hagen; Trussel, Cameron; Fromm, Joshua; Long, Charles N.; Bland, Geoff; Maslanik, James; Schmid, Beat; Hock, Terry

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU) "Pilatus" unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg, and it is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU) and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and its orientation to the upward-looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured temperature, as might

  17. The pilatus unmanned aircraft system for lower atmospheric research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. de Boer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents details of the University of Colorado (CU Pilatus unmanned research aircraft, assembled to provide measurements of aerosols, radiation and thermodynamics in the lower troposphere. This aircraft has a wingspan of 3.2 m and a maximum take off weight of 25 kg and is powered by an electric motor to reduce engine exhaust and concerns about carburetor icing. It carries instrumentation to make measurements of broadband up- and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, aerosol particle size distribution, atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and pressure and to collect video of flights for subsequent analysis of atmospheric conditions during flight. In order to make the shortwave radiation measurements, care was taken to carefully position a high-quality compact inertial measurement unit (IMU and characterize the attitude of the aircraft and it's orientation to the upward looking radiation sensor. Using measurements from both of these sensors, a correction is applied to the raw radiometer measurements to correct for aircraft attitude and sensor tilt relative to the sun. The data acquisition system was designed from scratch based on a set of key driving requirements to accommodate the variety of sensors deployed. Initial test flights completed in Colorado provide promising results with measurements from the radiation sensors agreeing with those from a nearby surface site. Additionally, estimates of surface albedo from onboard sensors were consistent with local surface conditions, including melting snow and bright runway surface. Aerosol size distributions collected are internally consistent and have previously been shown to agree well with larger, surface-based instrumentation. Finally the atmospheric state measurements evolve as expected, with the near-surface atmosphere warming over time as the day goes on, and the atmospheric relative humidity decreasing with increased temperature. No directional bias on measured

  18. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 2: Preliminary design of research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary design study was conducted to establish a minimum sized, low cost V/STOL tilt-rotor research aircraft with the capability of performing proof-of-concept flight research investigations applicable to a wide range of useful military and commercial configurations. The analysis and design approach was based on state-of-the-art methods and maximum use of off-the-shelf hardware and systems to reduce development risk, procurement cost and schedules impact. The rotors to be used are of 26 foot diameter and are the same as currently under construction and test as part of NASA Tilt-Rotor Contract NAS2-6505. The aircraft has a design gross weight of 12,000 lbs. The proposed engines to be used are Lycoming T53-L-13B rated at 1550 shaft horsepower which are fully qualified. A flight test investigation is recommended which will determine the capabilities and limitations of the research aircraft.

  19. Exploratory flight investigation of aircraft response to the wing vortex wake generated by the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, R. A.; Drinkwater, F. J., III

    1975-01-01

    A brief exploratory flight program was conducted at Ames Research Center to investigate the vortex wake hazard of a powered-lift STOL aircraft. The study was made by flying an instrumented Cessna 210 aircraft into the wake of the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft at separation distances from 1 to 4 n.mi. Characteristics of the wake were evaluated in terms of the magnitude of the upset of the probing aircraft. Results indicated that within 1 n.mi. separation the wake could cause rolling moments in excess of roll control power and yawing moments equivalent to rudder control power of the probe aircraft. Subjective evaluations by the pilots of the Cessna 210 aircraft, supported by response measurements, indicated that the upset caused by the wake of the STOL aircraft was comparable to that of a DC-9 in the landing configuration.

  20. The Royal Aircraft Establishment - 100 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-02

    OF RESIARCH.(U) OCT 61 A J SMITH UNCLASSIFIED RAE-TN-FS-432 DRIC-BR-80894 NLslomommmmoimco IE-E,,.IuENE 1111U1IIIjj -. ’ jI2 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TESI ...Aircraft Estpblishment - 100 years of research 7a. (For Translations ) .Title in Foreign Language 7b. (For Conference Papers) Title, Place and Date of

  1. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  2. Correction of static pressure on a research aircraft in accelerated flight using differential pressure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rodi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A method is described that estimates the error in the static pressure measurement on an aircraft from differential pressure measurements on the hemispherical surface of a Rosemount model 858AJ air velocity probe mounted on a boom ahead of the aircraft. The theoretical predictions for how the pressure should vary over the surface of the hemisphere, involving an unknown sensitivity parameter, leads to a set of equations that can be solved for the unknowns – angle of attack, angle of sideslip, dynamic pressure and the error in static pressure – if the sensitivity factor can be determined. The sensitivity factor was determined on the University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft by comparisons with the error measured with a carefully designed sonde towed on connecting tubing behind the aircraft – a trailing cone – and the result was shown to have a precision of about ±10 Pa over a wide range of conditions, including various altitudes, power settings, and gear and flap extensions. Under accelerated flight conditions, geometric altitude data from a combined Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS and inertial measurement unit (IMU system are used to estimate acceleration effects on the error, and the algorithm is shown to predict corrections to a precision of better than ±20 Pa under those conditions. Some limiting factors affecting the precision of static pressure measurement on a research aircraft are discussed.

  3. Application Technology Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To conduct fundamental and developmental research on new and improved application technologies to protect floricultural, nursery, landscape, turf, horticultural, and...

  4. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  5. Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  6. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II. Instructional Unit I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, James D.

    This publication provides guidelines for teachers using the Aerospace Education II series publication entitled "Theory of Aircraft Flight." The organization of the guide for each chapter is according to objectives (traditional and behavioral), suggested outline, orientation, suggested key points, suggestions for teaching, instructional aids,…

  7. Research on uncertainty in measurement assisted alignment in aircraft assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhehan; Du Fuzhou; Tang Xiaoqing

    2013-01-01

    Operations in assembling and joining large size aircraft components are changed to novel digital and flexible ways by digital measurement assisted alignment. Positions and orientations (P&O) of aligned components are critical characters which assure geometrical positions and rela-tionships of those components. Therefore, evaluating the P&O of a component is considered nec-essary and critical for ensuring accuracy in aircraft assembly. Uncertainty of position and orientation (U-P&O), as a part of the evaluating result of P&O, needs to be given for ensuring the integrity and credibility of the result; furthermore, U-P&O is necessary for error tracing and quality evaluating of measurement assisted aircraft assembly. However, current research mainly focuses on the process integration of measurement with assembly, and usually ignores the uncer-tainty of measured result and its influence on quality evaluation. This paper focuses on the expres-sion, analysis, and application of U-P&O in measurement assisted alignment. The geometrical and algebraical connotations of U-P&O are presented. Then, an analytical algorithm for evaluating the multi-dimensional U-P&O is given, and the effect factors and characteristics of U-P&O are dis-cussed. Finally, U-P&O is used to evaluate alignment in aircraft assembly for quality evaluating and improving. Cases are introduced with the methodology.

  8. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center: Unmanned Aircraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several topics related to operating unmanned aircraft in particular sharing aspects of unmanned aircraft from the perspective of a pilot. There is a section on the Global Hawk project which contains information about the first Global Hawk science mission, (i.e., Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac). Included in this information is GloPac science highlights, a listing of the GloPac Instruments. The second Global Hawk science mission was Genesis and Rapid Intensification Process (GRIP), for the NASA Hurricane Science Research Team. Information includes the instrumentation and the flights that were undertaken during the program. A section on Ikhana is next. This section includes views of the Ground Control Station (GCS), and a discussion of how the piloting of UAS is different from piloting in a manned aircraft. There is also discussion about displays and controls of aircraft. There is also discussion about what makes a pilot. The last section relates the use of Ikhana in the western states fire mission.

  9. An Indispensable Ingredient: Flight Research and Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorn, Michael H.

    2003-01-01

    Flight research-the art of flying actual vehicles in the atmosphere in order to collect data about their behavior-has played a historic and decisive role in the design of aircraft. Naturally, wind tunnel experiments, computational fluid dynamics, and mathematical analyses all informed the judgments of the individuals who conceived of new aircraft. But flight research has offered moments of realization found in no other method. Engineer Dale Reed and research pilot Milt Thompson experienced one such epiphany on March 1, 1963, at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Dryden Flight Research Center in Edwards, California. On that date, Thompson sat in the cockpit of a small, simple, gumdrop-shaped aircraft known as the M2-F1, lashed by a long towline to a late-model Pontiac Catalina. As the Pontiac raced across Rogers Dry Lake, it eventually gained enough speed to make the M2-F1 airborne. Thompson braced himself for the world s first flight in a vehicle of its kind, called a lifting body because of its high lift-to-drag ratio. Reed later recounted what he saw:

  10. Digital simulation of V/STOL aircraft for autopilot research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicolani, L. S.; Meyer, G.

    1975-01-01

    Simulations of V/STOL aircraft for autopilot research were introduced as examples of large scale systems. A hierarchy of simulations was assembled, and a modular organization was given to the simulations. The dynamics of the system were subdivided into translational and rotational degrees of freedom, based on the different frequencies at which significant variations in motion variables, control forces and moments occur in two subsystems. This is the basis of the autopilot partitioning into two smaller control problems.

  11. 31 CFR 515.548 - Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Services rendered by Cuba to United... REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 515.548 Services rendered by Cuba to United States aircraft. Specific licenses are issued for payment to Cuba of charges for services...

  12. European Commission research on aircraft impacts in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amanatidis, G.T.; Angeletti, G. [European Commission (CEC), Brussels (Belgium)

    1997-12-31

    Aircraft engines release in the troposphere and lower stratosphere a number of chemical compounds (NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, hydrocarbons, sulphur, soot, etc.) which could potentially affect the ozone layer and the climate through chemical, dynamical and radiative changes. The global amount of gases and particles emitted by current subsonic and projected supersonic aircraft fleets can be estimated, but significant uncertainties remain about the fate of these emissions in the atmosphere. The European efforts concerning these potential atmospheric impacts of aircraft emissions are conducted by the Environment and Climate Research Programme of the European Commission (EC) as well as by national programmes of the Member States of the European Union (EU). The European research activities in this field, are described, divided for practical reasons in two periods. The first includes activities supported under the 3. Framework Programme for R and D activities which covered the period from 1992 up to 1996, while the second period has started in early 1996 and is supported under the 4. Framework Programme. (R.P.) 6 refs.

  13. Broadband electromagnetic sensors for aircraft lightning research. [electromagnetic effects of lightning on aircraft digital equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, T. F.; Zaepfel, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    A set of electromagnetic sensors, or electrically-small antennas, is described. The sensors are designed for installation on an F-106 research aircraft for the measurement of electric and magnetic fields and currents during a lightning strike. The electric and magnetic field sensors mount on the aircraft skin. The current sensor mounts between the nose boom and the fuselage. The sensors are all on the order of 10 cm in size and should produce up to about 100 V for the estimated lightning fields. The basic designs are the same as those developed for nuclear electromagnetic pulse studies. The most important electrical parameters of the sensors are the sensitivity, or equivalent area, and the bandwidth (or rise time). Calibration of sensors with simple geometries is reliably accomplished by a geometric analysis; all the sensors discussed possess geometries for which the sensitivities have been calculated. For the calibration of sensors with more complex geometries and for general testing of all sensors, two transmission lines were constructed to transmit known pulsed fields and currents over the sensors.

  14. The Research on Hidden Failures of Civil Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lie Shu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hidden failure is often appear on civil aircraft, and it is a big risk for normal safe operation. The reason for this failure is the instability of the resistance of the electrical contact. The study on electrical contact is applied science of the reliability, the contact resistance is an important parameter of the reliability of the electrical contact system. In this paper, It also Produces the latest research results from factors that affect contact resistance and contact resistance microscopic model, and then it produces the method of the calculating and measuring engineering about the contact resistance. Lastly, it is point out the future direction of the electrical contacts.

  15. Auxiliary power unit noise of Boeing B737 and B747 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jimmy S. W.; Yang, S. J. Eric

    Most modern civil aircraft have an Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) which provides compressed air for engine starting and the air-conditioning system on ground and electrical power for aircraft use both on-ground and in-fligth. It is basically a gas turbine engine and it consists of a compressor section, a turbine section, and an accessory drive section. For Boeing B737 and B747 aircraft, the APU is located inside a compartment in the tail section of the aircraft and is completely enclosed by a sound-reduction fire-proof titanium shroud. APU noise is one of the major noise sources at many airports and is extremely important for a densely populated city such as Hong Kong. The noise from APU can affect many people, including ground crew aircraft maintenance staff, and people living in the vicinity of the airport. However, there is very little information available in the literature about APU noise. This paper describes the noise measurement method and presents the measurement results for APUs of one B747 and two B737 aircraft under both 'loaded' and 'no-load' conditions.

  16. The NASA Langley Research Center's Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Charles T., III; Jessup, Artie; Jones, Frank; Joyce, Claude; Sugden, Paul; Verstynen, Harry; Mielnik, John

    2010-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into a UAS Surrogate research aircraft to serve as a platform for UAS systems research, development, flight testing and evaluation. The aircraft is manned with a Safety Pilot and systems operator that allows for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). The UAS Surrogate can be controlled from a modular, transportable ground station like a true UAS. The UAS Surrogate is able to file and fly in the NAS with normal traffic and is a better platform for real world UAS research and development than existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. The Cirrus Design SR22 aircraft is a small, singleengine, four-place, composite-construction aircraft that NASA Langley acquired to support NASA flight-research programs like the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project. Systems were installed to support flight test research and data gathering. These systems include: separate research power; multi-function flat-panel displays; research computers; research air data and inertial state sensors; video recording; data acquisition; data-link; S-band video and data telemetry; Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS); Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B); instrumented surfaces and controls; and a systems operator work station. The transformation of the SR22 to a UAS Surrogate was accomplished in phases. The first phase was to modify the existing autopilot to accept external commands from a research computer that was connected by redundant data-link radios to a ground control station. An electro-mechanical auto

  17. Correction of static pressure on a research aircraft in accelerated flight using differential pressure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rodi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Geometric altitude data from a combined Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS and inertial measurement unit (IMU system on the University of Wyoming King Air research aircraft are used to estimate acceleration effects on static pressure measurement. Using data collected during periods of accelerated flight, comparison of measured pressure with that derived from GNSS/IMU geometric altitude show that errors exceeding 150 Pa can occur which is significant in airspeed and atmospheric air motion determination. A method is developed to predict static pressure errors from analysis of differential pressure measurements from a Rosemount model 858 differential pressure air velocity probe. The method was evaluated with a carefully designed probe towed on connecting tubing behind the aircraft – a "trailing cone" – in steady flight, and shown to have a precision of about ±10 Pa over a wide range of conditions including various altitudes, power settings, and gear and flap extensions. Under accelerated flight conditions, compared to the GNSS/IMU data, this algorithm predicts corrections to a precision of better than ±20 Pa. Some limiting factors affecting the precision of static pressure measurement on a research aircraft are examined.

  18. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Concept and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxley, B.; Williams, D.; Consiglio, M.; Adams, C.; Abbott, T.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to conduct concurrent, multiple aircraft operations in poor weather at virtually any airport offers an important opportunity for a significant increase in the rate of flight operations, a major improvement in passenger convenience, and the potential to foster growth of operations at small airports. The Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept is designed to increase capacity at the 3400 non-radar, non-towered airports in the United States where operations are currently restricted to one-in/one-out procedural separation during low visibility or ceilings. The concept s key feature is that pilots maintain their own separation from other aircraft using air-to-air datalink and on-board software within the Self-Controlled Area (SCA), an area of flight operations established during poor visibility and low ceilings around an airport without Air Traffic Control (ATC) services. While pilots self-separate within the SCA, an Airport Management Module (AMM) located at the airport assigns arriving pilots their sequence based on aircraft performance, position, winds, missed approach requirements, and ATC intent. The HVO design uses distributed decision-making, safe procedures, attempts to minimize pilot and controller workload, and integrates with today's ATC environment. The HVO procedures have pilots make their own flight path decisions when flying in Instrument Metrological Conditions (IMC) while meeting these requirements. This paper summarizes the HVO concept and procedures, presents a summary of the research conducted and results, and outlines areas where future HVO research is required. More information about SATS HVO can be found at http://ntrs.nasa.gov.

  19. Current and Future Research in Active Control of Lightweight, Flexible Structures Using the X-56 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.; Suh, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The X-56 Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft system is a versatile experimental research flight platform. The system was primarily designed to investigate active control of lightweight flexible structures, but is reconfigurable and capable of hosting a wide breadth of research. Current research includes flight experimentation of a Lockheed Martin designed active control flutter suppression system. Future research plans continue experimentation with alternative control systems, explore the use of novel sensor systems, and experiments with the use of novel control effectors. This paper describes the aircraft system, current research efforts designed around the system, and future planned research efforts that will be hosted on the aircraft system.

  20. The global decentralization of commercial aircraft production: Implications for United States-based manufacturing activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, David John

    This research explores the role of industrial offset agreements and international subcontracting patterns in the global decentralization of US commercial aircraft production. Particular attention is given to the manufacturing processes involved in the design and assembly of large passenger jets (100 seats or more). It is argued that the current geography of aircraft production at the global level has been shaped by a new international distribution of input costs and technological capability. Specifically, low-cost producers within several of the newly emerging markets (NEMs) have acquired front-end manufacturing expertise as a direct result of industrial offset contracts and/or other forms of technology transfer (e.g. international joint-ventures, imports of advanced machine tools). The economic and technological implications of industrial offset (compensatory trade) are examined with reference to the commercial future of US aircraft production. Evidence gathered via personal interviews with both US and foreign producers suggests that the current Western duopoly (Boeing and Airbus) faces a rather uncertain future. In particular, the dissertation shows that the growth of subcontracting and industrial offset portends the transformation of Boeing from an aircraft manufacturer to a systems integrator. The economic implications of this potential reconfiguration of the US aircraft industry are discussed in the context of several techno-market futures, some of which look rather bleak for US workers in this industry.

  1. Aircraft Engine Noise Research and Testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will begin with a brief introduction to the NASA Glenn Research Center as well as an overview of how aircraft engine noise research fits within the organization. Some of the NASA programs and projects with noise content will be covered along with the associated goals of aircraft noise reduction. Topics covered within the noise research being presented will include noise prediction versus experimental results, along with engine fan, jet, and core noise. Details of the acoustic research conducted at NASA Glenn will include the test facilities available, recent test hardware, and data acquisition and analysis methods. Lastly some of the actual noise reduction methods investigated along with their results will be shown.

  2. RESEARCH OF NIGHT LIGHT EFFECTS ON COLORIMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF IMAGE PERCEIVED BY THE PILOT IN AN AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    OpenAIRE

    I. O. Zharinov; O. O. Zharinov

    2015-01-01

    Subject of Research. The influence of radiation spectra from the source of artificial night light on colorimetric characteristics of image perceived by the pilot in the aircraft cockpit has been studied. The image is displayed on the LCD screen of multifunctional color indication equipment unit. Night illumination of the cockpit is performed with the use of artificial lamps of red, green, blue and, rarely, white light. Method. Any given color to be displayed on the screen is perceived by an o...

  3. Investigations into the triggered lightning response of the F106B thunderstorm research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Terence H.; Perala, Rodney A.; Mckenna, Paul M.; Parker, Steven L.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted into the lightning characteristics of the NASA F106B thunderstorm research aircraft. The investigation includes analysis of measured data from the aircraft in the time and frequency domains. Linear and nonlinear computer modelling has also been performed. In addition, new computer tools have been developed, including a new enhanced nonlinear air breakdown model, and a subgrid model useful for analyzing fine details of the aircraft's geometry. Comparison of measured and calculated electromagnetic responses of the aircraft to a triggered lightning environment are presented.

  4. Evaluation and use of remotely piloted aircraft systems for operations and research - RxCADRE 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Zajkowski; Matthew B. Dickinson; J. Kevin Hiers; William Holley; Brett W. Williams; Alexander Paxton; Otto Martinez; Gregory W. Walker

    2016-01-01

    Small remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS), also known as unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), are expected to provide important contributions to wildland fire operations and research, but their evaluation and use have been limited. Our objectives were to leverage US Air Force-controlled airspace to (1) deploy RPAS in support of the 2012 Prescribed Fire...

  5. Tiltrotor research aircraft composite blade repairs: Lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Paul S.; Groepler, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The XV-15, N703NA Tiltrotor Research Aircraft located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, currently uses a set of composite rotor blades of complex shape known as the advanced technology blades (ATBs). The main structural element of the blades is a D-spar constructed of unidirectional, angled fiberglass/graphite, with the aft fairing portion of the blades constructed of a fiberglass cross-ply skin bonded to a Nomex honeycomb core. The blade tip is a removable laminate shell that fits over the outboard section of the spar structure, which contains a cavity to retain balance weights. Two types of tip shells are used for research. One is highly twisted (more than a conventional helicopter blade) and has a hollow core constructed of a thin Nomex-honeycomb-and-fiberglass-skin sandwich; the other is untwisted with a solid Nomex honeycomb core and a fiberglass cross-ply skin. During initial flight testing of the blades, a number of problems in the composite structure were encountered. These problems included debonding between the fiberglass skin and the honeycomb core, failure of the honeycomb core, failures in fiberglass splices, cracks in fiberglass blocks, misalignment of mated composite parts, and failures of retention of metal fasteners. Substantial time was spent in identifying and repairing these problems. Discussed here are the types of problems encountered, the inspection procedures used to identify each problem, the repairs performed on the damaged or flawed areas, the level of criticality of the problems, and the monitoring of repaired areas. It is hoped that this discussion will help designers, analysts, and experimenters in the future as the use of composites becomes more prevalent.

  6. A United Allocation Method of Spare Parts and Ground Maintenance Equipment for Civil Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yongkai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at multi-echelon inventory allocation problem with finite repair capacity for civil aircraft,a united planning method based on queuing theory and Vari-Metric model is presented to deploy the aircraft spare parts and ground maintenance equipment. Through the analysis of actual engineering, the effect of repair time is quantified by the number of maintenance equipment. On this basis, the available of fleet and the cost expense are selected as the objective and constraint respectively, marginal analysis method is set as the optimization, a new allocation scheme which was suit to civil aircraft’s maintenance resources is put forward. By applied examples analysis, it is shows that this method is reasonable and feasible.

  7. The research of optical windows used in aircraft sensor systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Feng; Li Yan; Tang Tian-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The optical windows used in aircrafts protect their imaging sensors from environmental effects.Considering the imaging performance,flat surfaces are traditionally used in the design of optical windows.For aircrafts operating at high speeds,the optical windows should be relatively aerodynamic,but a flat optical window may introduce unacceptably high drag to the airframes.The linear scanning infrared sensors used in aircrafts with,respectively,a fiat window,a spherical window and a toric window in front of the aircraft sensors are designed and compared.Simulation results show that the optical design using a toric surface has the integrated advantages of field of regard,aerodynamic drag,narcissus effect,and imaging performance,so the optical window with a toric surface is demonstrated to be suited for this application.

  8. Research on Data Distribution Service for Aircraft Collaborative Design System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxing Bian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft designing is a complex, multi-disciplinary process, while the applications are separated from each other due to their particular design and analysis tools. The separated applications are unable to meet the collaborative designing requirements. One of the fundamental problems in Aircraft Collaborative Design System is that how to make each subsystem collaborate. The known solutions, using Existing middlewares to unify data formats, are not reliable due to the tightly coupled architecture, poor portability and reusability, large update latency, etc. To solve this problem, the paper propose that apply DDS into Aircraft Collaborative Design System, and give the solution that how to use open source projects OpenDDS in Aircraft Collaborative Design System.

  9. Research of low boom and low drag supersonic aircraft design

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Xiaoqiang; Li Zhanke; Song Bifeng

    2014-01-01

    Sonic boom reduction will be an issue of utmost importance in future supersonic transport, due to strong regulations on acoustic nuisance. The paper describes a new multi-objective optimization method for supersonic aircraft design. The method is developed by coupling Seebass–George–Darden (SGD) inverse design method and multi-objective genetic algorithm. Based on the method, different codes are developed. Using a computational architecture, a conceptual supersonic aircraft design environment...

  10. The Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS): Research Collaborations with the NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarry, Scott E.; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    The aviation industry is an integral part of the world s economy. Travelers have consistently chosen aviation as their mode of transportation as it is reliable, time efficient and safe. The out- dated Hub and Spoke system, coupled with high demand, has led to delays, cancellations and gridlock. NASA is developing innovative solutions to these and other air transportation problems. This research is being conducted through partnerships with federal agencies, industry stakeholders, and academia, specifically the University of Nebraska at Omaha. Each collaborator is pursuing the NASA General Aviation Roadmap through their involvement in the expansion of the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). SATS will utilize technologically advanced small aircraft to transport travelers to and from rural and isolated communities. Additionally, this system will provide a safe alternative to the hub and spoke system, giving more time to more people through high-speed mobility and increased accessibility.

  11. Learning Styles of Pilots Currently Qualified in United States Air Force Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanske, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was used to identify the predominant learning styles of pilots currently qualified in United States Air Force aircraft. The results indicate that these pilots show a significant preference for facts and things over people and feelings. By understanding the preferred learning styles of the target population, course material can be developed that take advantage of the strengths of these learning styles. This information can be especially useful in the future design of cockpit resource management training. The training program can be developed to demonstrate both that there are different learning styles and that it is possible to take advantage of the relative strengths of each of these learning styles.

  12. Prototype-Technology Evaluator and Research Aircraft (PTERA) Flight Test Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Area-I team has developed and fabricated the unmanned Prototype-Technology Evaluation and Research Aircraft or PTERA ("ptera" being Greek for wing, or...

  13. Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft Joint Navy/NASA Sea Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, S.; Cochrane, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) is a flight facility which Ames Research Center is using to conduct a broad program of terminal area and low-speed, propulsive-life flight research. A joint Navy/NASA flight research program used the QSRA to investigate the application of advanced propulsive-lift technology to the naval aircraft-carrier environment. Flight performance of the QSRA is presented together with the results or the joint Navy/NASA flight program. During the joint program, the QSRA operated aboard the USS Kitty Hawk for 4 days, during which numerous unarrested landings and free deck takeoffs were accomplished. These operations demonstrated that a large aircraft incorporating upper-surface-blowing, propulsive-life technology can be operated in the aircraft-carrier environment without any unusual problems.

  14. NASA-Langley Research Center's Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Mark W.; Bailey, Roger M.; Jessup, Artie D.

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the hardware implementation design and architecture of Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC)'s Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System (ACAMS), which was developed at NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) for use in its Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES) Laboratory. This activity is part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention (SAAP) project to develop safety-enabling technologies for aircraft and airborne systems. The fundamental intent of these technologies is to allow timely intervention or remediation to improve unsafe conditions before they become life threatening.

  15. Aircraft noise effects on sleep: Mechanisms, mitigation and research needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Basner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ample number of laboratory and field studies which provide sufficient evidence that aircraft noise disturbs sleep and, depending on traffic volume and noise levels, may impair behavior and well-being during the day. Although clinical sleep disorders have been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, only little is known about the long-term effects of aircraft noise disturbed sleep on health. National and international laws and guidelines try to limit aircraft noise exposure facilitating active and passive noise control to prevent relevant sleep disturbances and its consequences. Adopting the harmonized indicator of the European Union Directive 2002/49/EC, the WHO Night Noise Guideline for Europe (NNG defines four Lnight , outside ranges associated with different risk levels of sleep disturbance and other health effects ( 55 dBA. Although traffic patterns differing in number and noise levels of events that lead to varying degrees of sleep disturbance may result in the same Lnight , simulations of nights with up to 200 aircraft noise events per night nicely corroborate expert opinion guidelines formulated in WHO′s NNG. In the future, large scale field studies on the effects of nocturnal (aircraft noise on sleep are needed. They should involve representative samples of the population including vulnerable groups like children and chronically ill subjects. Optimally, these studies are prospective in nature and examine the long-term consequences of noise-induced sleep disturbances. Furthermore, epidemiological case-control studies on the association of nocturnal (aircraft noise exposure and cardiovascular disease are needed. Despite the existing gaps in knowledge on long-term health effects, sufficient data are available for defining limit values, guidelines and protection concepts, which should be updated with the availability of new data.

  16. Overview of NASA Electrified Aircraft Propulsion Research for Large Subsonic Transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Bowman, Cheryl; Jankovsky, Amy; Dyson, Rodger; Felder, James

    2017-01-01

    NASA is investing in Electrified Aircraft Propulsion (EAP) research as part of the portfolio to improve the fuel efficiency, emissions, and noise levels in commercial transport aircraft. Turboelectric, partially turboelectric, and hybrid electric propulsion systems are the primary EAP configurations being evaluated for regional jet and larger aircraft. The goal is to show that one or more viable EAP concepts exist for narrow body aircraft and mature tall-pole technologies related to those concepts. A summary of the aircraft system studies, technology development, and facility development is provided. The leading concept for mid-term (2035) introduction of EAP for a single aisle aircraft is a tube and wing, partially turbo electric configuration (STARC-ABL), however other viable configurations exist. Investments are being made to raise the TRL level of light weight, high efficiency motors, generators, and electrical power distribution systems as well as to define the optimal turbine and boundary layer ingestion systems for a mid-term tube and wing configuration. An electric aircraft power system test facility (NEAT) is under construction at NASA Glenn and an electric aircraft control system test facility (HEIST) is under construction at NASA Armstrong. The correct building blocks are in place to have a viable, large plane EAP configuration tested by 2025 leading to entry into service in 2035 if the community chooses to pursue that goal.

  17. Research of low boom and low drag supersonic aircraft design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xiaoqiang; Li Zhanke; Song Bifeng

    2014-01-01

    Sonic boom reduction will be an issue of utmost importance in future supersonic trans-port, due to strong regulations on acoustic nuisance. The paper describes a new multi-objective optimization method for supersonic aircraft design. The method is developed by coupling Seebass-George-Darden (SGD) inverse design method and multi-objective genetic algorithm. Based on the method, different codes are developed. Using a computational architecture, a concep-tual supersonic aircraft design environment (CSADE) is constructed. The architecture of CSADE includes inner optimization level and out optimization level. The low boom configuration is gener-ated in inner optimization level by matching the target equivalent area distribution and actual equivalent area distribution. And low boom/low drag configuration is generated in outer optimiza-tion level by using NSGA-II multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimize the control parameters of SGD method and aircraft shape. Two objective functions, low sonic boom and low wave drag, are considered in CSADE. Physically reasonable Pareto solutions are obtained from the present optimization. Some supersonic aircraft configurations are selected from Pareto front and the optimization results indicate that the swept forward wing configuration has benefits in both sonic boom reduction and wave drag reduction. The results are validated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis.

  18. Research of low boom and low drag supersonic aircraft design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiaoqiang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sonic boom reduction will be an issue of utmost importance in future supersonic transport, due to strong regulations on acoustic nuisance. The paper describes a new multi-objective optimization method for supersonic aircraft design. The method is developed by coupling Seebass–George–Darden (SGD inverse design method and multi-objective genetic algorithm. Based on the method, different codes are developed. Using a computational architecture, a conceptual supersonic aircraft design environment (CSADE is constructed. The architecture of CSADE includes inner optimization level and out optimization level. The low boom configuration is generated in inner optimization level by matching the target equivalent area distribution and actual equivalent area distribution. And low boom/low drag configuration is generated in outer optimization level by using NSGA-II multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimize the control parameters of SGD method and aircraft shape. Two objective functions, low sonic boom and low wave drag, are considered in CSADE. Physically reasonable Pareto solutions are obtained from the present optimization. Some supersonic aircraft configurations are selected from Pareto front and the optimization results indicate that the swept forward wing configuration has benefits in both sonic boom reduction and wave drag reduction. The results are validated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis.

  19. Design of Prototype-Technology Evaluator and Research Aircraft (PTERA) Configuration for Loss of Control Flight Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Area-I team has developed and fabricated the unmanned Prototype-Technology Evaluation and Research Aircraft or PTERA ("ptera" being Greek for wing, or...

  20. Resilient Propulsion Control Research for the NASA Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    Gas turbine engines are designed to provide sufficient safety margins to guarantee robust operation with an exceptionally long life. However, engine performance requirements may be drastically altered during abnormal flight conditions or emergency maneuvers. In some situations, the conservative design of the engine control system may not be in the best interest of overall aircraft safety; it may be advantageous to "sacrifice" the engine to "save" the aircraft. Motivated by this opportunity, the NASA Aviation Safety Program is conducting resilient propulsion research aimed at developing adaptive engine control methodologies to operate the engine beyond the normal domain for emergency operations to maximize the possibility of safely landing the damaged aircraft. Previous research studies and field incident reports show that the propulsion system can be an effective tool to help control and eventually land a damaged aircraft. Building upon the flight-proven Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) experience, this area of research will focus on how engine control systems can improve aircraft safe-landing probabilities under adverse conditions. This paper describes the proposed research topics in Engine System Requirements, Engine Modeling and Simulation, Engine Enhancement Research, Operational Risk Analysis and Modeling, and Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controller Designs that support the overall goal.

  1. Conceptual design and RCS performance research of shipborne early warning aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuizhi Yue; Yong Gao; Guanxiong Li; Dazhao Yu

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the survivability of the aircraft, conceptual design and radar cross section (RCS) performance research are done. The CATIA software is used to design the 3D digital model of the shipborne early warning aircraft, and some measures are taken to reduce the RCS characteristics of the early warning aircraft at the same time. Based on the physical optics method and the equivalent electromagnetic flow method, the aircraft’s RCS characteristics and strength distribution charac-teristics are simulated numerical y, and compared with the foreign advanced shipborne early warning aircraft. The simulation results show that under the X radar band, when the incident wave pitching angle is 0◦, compared with the foreign advanced shipborne early warning aircraft, the forward RCS average value of the concep-tual shipborne early warning aircraft is reduced to 24.49%, the lateral RCS average value is reduced to 5.04%, and the backward RCS average value is reduced to 39.26%. The research results of this paper are expected to provide theoretical basis and technical support for the conceptual design and the stealth design of the shipborne early warning aircraft.

  2. Do aircraft-based atmospheric observations indicate that anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States are larger than reported?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, E. A.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.; Hirsch, A.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Michalak, A. M.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Methane emissions over the United States are dominated by anthropogenic sources related to three major categories: fossil fuels (e.g. natural gas mining and distribution), landfills, and ruminants. Atmospheric signatures of these sources are evident in aircraft profiles, regularly showing enhancements of 50-100 ppb in the planetary boundary layer. Through a lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM), we directly link atmospheric methane measurements from NOAA’s aircraft program in 2004 with prior source fields, focusing on EDGAR32FT2000 and EDGARv4.0 for anthropogenic emissions. The LPDM employed is the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (STILT), driven by meteorological output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Forward model runs indicate EDGAR32FT2000 is more consistent (despite larger point to point noise) with atmospheric data, particularly when assessing the shapes of vertical profiles, than EDGARv4.0. Simple scalar optimizations and inverse analyses suggest that emissions in the new EDGARv4.0 inventory, an inventory consistent with reported US EPA values, are too small.

  3. Closing Symposium of the DFG Research Unit FOR 1066

    CERN Document Server

    Niehuis, Reinhard; Kroll, Norbert; Behrends, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The book reports on advanced solutions to the problem of simulating wing and nacelle stall, as presented and discussed by internationally recognized researchers at the Closing Symposium of the DFG Research Unit FOR 1066. Reliable simulations of flow separation on airfoils, wings and powered engine nacelles at high Reynolds numbers represent great challenges in defining suitable mathematical models, computing numerically accurate solutions and providing comprehensive experimental data for the validation of numerical simulations. Additional problems arise from the need to consider airframe-engine interactions and inhomogeneous onset flow conditions, as real aircraft operate in atmospheric environments with often-large distortions. The findings of fundamental and applied research into these and other related issues are reported in detail in this book, which targets all readers, academics and professionals alike, interested in the development of advanced computational fluid dynamics modeling for the simulation of...

  4. Application of variable structure system theory to aircraft flight control. [AV-8A and the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calise, A. J.; Kadushin, I.; Kramer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of variable structure system (VSS) theory to design aircraft flight control systems is summarized. Two aircraft types are currently being investigated: the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), and AV-8A Harrier. The AWJSRA design considers automatic control of longitudinal dynamics during the landing phase. The main task for the AWJSRA is to design an automatic landing system that captures and tracks a localizer beam. The control task for the AV-8A is to track velocity commands in a hovering flight configuration. Much effort was devoted to developing computer programs that are needed to carry out VSS design in a multivariable frame work, and in becoming familiar with the dynamics and control problems associated with the aircraft types under investigation. Numerous VSS design schemes were explored, particularly for the AWJSRA. The approaches that appear best suited for these aircraft types are presented. Examples are given of the numerical results currently being generated.

  5. Integrated Research/Education University Aircraft Design Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    long- range supersonic aircraft without tail surfaces. No tail surfaces or reduced size tail surfaces may lead to less drag, less weight, lower...Nelson, C.P., and Livne, E., "Low-Speed Stability and Control of a Reduced Scale Long- Range Supersonic Configuration with Reduced- Size or No Vertical Tail...location and size The front right access panel is over the power board. The two symmetric access panels give access to the battery and the pneumatics

  6. Velocity-Aided Attitude Estimation for Helicopter Aircraft Using Microelectromechanical System Inertial-Measurement Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Cheol Lee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm for velocity-aided attitude estimation for helicopter aircraft using a microelectromechanical system inertial-measurement unit. In general, high- performance gyroscopes are used for estimating the attitude of a helicopter, but this type of sensor is very expensive. When designing a cost-effective attitude system, attitude can be estimated by fusing a low cost accelerometer and a gyro, but the disadvantage of this method is its relatively low accuracy. The accelerometer output includes a component that occurs primarily as the aircraft turns, as well as the gravitational acceleration. When estimating attitude, the accelerometer measurement terms other than gravitational ones can be considered as disturbances. Therefore, errors increase in accordance with the flight dynamics. The proposed algorithm is designed for using velocity as an aid for high accuracy at low cost. It effectively eliminates the disturbances of accelerometer measurements using the airspeed. The algorithm was verified using helicopter experimental data. The algorithm performance was confirmed through a comparison with an attitude estimate obtained from an attitude heading reference system based on a high accuracy optic gyro, which was employed as core attitude equipment in the helicopter.

  7. Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, John F.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

  8. A neural based intelligent flight control system for the NASA F-15 flight research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urnes, James M.; Hoy, Stephen E.; Ladage, Robert N.; Stewart, James

    1993-01-01

    A flight control concept that can identify aircraft stability properties and continually optimize the aircraft flying qualities has been developed by McDonnell Aircraft Company under a contract with the NASA-Dryden Flight Research Facility. This flight concept, termed the Intelligent Flight Control System, utilizes Neural Network technology to identify the host aircraft stability and control properties during flight, and use this information to design on-line the control system feedback gains to provide continuous optimum flight response. This self-repairing capability can provide high performance flight maneuvering response throughout large flight envelopes, such as needed for the National Aerospace Plane. Moreover, achieving this response early in the vehicle's development schedule will save cost.

  9. Aircraft Fatigue - with Particular Emphasis on Australian Operations and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    300, Australia. SUMMARY The crash of a Dornier Merkur aircraft in Germany in 1927 was the first recorded instance of an in-flight structural fatigue...mounted on the wing to reproduce slipstream induced vibrations. However, it was the tragic crash with the loss of six lives of a Dornier Merkur high...IN 1914 FIG. 3(a) LUFTHANSA DORNIER " MERKUR " it- Sctrt FIG.3(b)DORNER "ERKU" WNG/SRUT TTACMENT(R" / ’w FIG. 4 U)~l I’ WlC. IG ’iLSi RIG, FIG. 5

  10. Military aircraft and missile technology at the Langley Research Center: A selected bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, D. V.

    1980-01-01

    A compilation of reference material is presented on the Langley Research Center's efforts in developing advanced military aircraft and missile technology over the past twenty years. Reference material includes research made in aerodynamics, performance, stability, control, stall-spin, propulsion integration, flutter, materials, and structures.

  11. Toxic Hazards Research Unit - 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    pentanoic acid TOCP - Triorthocresyl phosphate 6 SECTION 2 INTRODUCTION Research activities and support efforts of the THRU are conducted as a continuing...TM-2-P OH) and 2,3,4-trimethyl-1- pentanoic acid (TMPA) The base peaks of these three metabolites were mlz 70 (M-60), m/z 59 [M-C 4 H7 01 +, and m/z 74...TMP for 4 h at 37’C. (A: 2,3,4-trimethyl.2- pentanol; B: 2,?,4-trimethyl-1-pentanol; C: 2,3,4-trimethyl-l- pentanoic acid) 135 (a0 70 CH CH3 CM -2.5

  12. Essentials of aircraft armaments

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushik, Mrinal

    2017-01-01

    This book aims to provide a complete exposure about armaments from their design to launch from the combat aircraft. The book details modern ammunition and their tactical roles in warfare. The proposed book discusses aerodynamics, propulsion, structural as well as navigation, control, and guidance of aircraft armament. It also introduces the various types of ammunition developed by different countries and their changing trends. The book imparts knowledge in the field of design, and development of aircraft armaments to aerospace engineers and covers the role of the United Nations in peacekeeping and disarmament. The book will be very useful to researchers, students, and professionals working in design and manufacturing of aircraft armaments. The book will also serve air force and naval aspirants, and those interested in working on defence research and developments organizations. .

  13. QSRA Joint Navy/NASA sea trials. [Quiet Short Haul Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, S.; Cochrane, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), used to conduct a broad program of terminal area and low speed propulsive-lift flight research, is discussed. Flight performance of the QSRA is presented together with the results of the joint Navy/NASA flight program. It is found that both free-deck takeoffs and unarrested landings can be conducted with winds across the deck of zero to 35 knots on an aircraft carrier the size of the USS Kitty Hawk with all engines operating. QSRA characteristics and aerodynamic data are included.

  14. Satellite communications provisions on NASA Ames instrumented aircraft platforms for Earth science research/applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shameson, L.; Brass, J. A.; Hanratty, J. J.; Roberts, A. C.; Wegener, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    Earth science activities at NASA Ames are research in atmospheric and ecosystem science, development of remote sensing and in situ sampling instruments, and their integration into scientific research platform aircraft. The use of satellite communications can greatly extend the capability of these agency research platform aircraft. Current projects and plans involve satellite links on the Perseus UAV and the ER-2 via TDRSS and a proposed experiment on the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. Provisions for data links on the Perseus research platform, via TDRSS S-band multiple access service, have been developed and are being tested. Test flights at Dryden are planned to demonstrate successful end-to-end data transfer. A Unisys Corp. airborne satcom STARLink system is being integrated into an Ames ER-2 aircraft. This equipment will support multiple data rates up to 43 Mb/s each via the TDRS S Ku-band single access service. The first flight mission for this high-rate link is planned for August 1995. Ames and JPL have proposed an ACTS experiment to use real-time satellite communications to improve wildfire research campaigns. Researchers and fire management teams making use of instrumented aircraft platforms at a prescribed burn site will be able to communicate with experts at Ames, the U.S. Forest Service, and emergency response agencies.

  15. Rotary Balance Wind Tunnel Testing for the FASER Flight Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Casey; Owens, D. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Flight dynamics research was conducted to collect and analyze rotary balance wind tunnel test data in order to improve the aerodynamic simulation and modeling of a low-cost small unmanned aircraft called FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research). The impetus for using FASER was to provide risk and cost reduction for flight testing of more expensive aircraft and assist in the improvement of wind tunnel and flight test techniques, and control laws. The FASER research aircraft has the benefit of allowing wind tunnel and flight tests to be conducted on the same model, improving correlation between wind tunnel, flight, and simulation data. Prior wind tunnel tests include a static force and moment test, including power effects, and a roll and yaw damping forced oscillation test. Rotary balance testing allows for the calculation of aircraft rotary derivatives and the prediction of steady-state spins. The rotary balance wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST). Rotary balance testing includes runs for a set of given angular rotation rates at a range of angles of attack and sideslip angles in order to fully characterize the aircraft rotary dynamics. Tests were performed at angles of attack from 0 to 50 degrees, sideslip angles of -5 to 10 degrees, and non-dimensional spin rates from -0.5 to 0.5. The effects of pro-spin elevator and rudder deflection and pro- and anti-spin elevator, rudder, and aileron deflection were examined. The data are presented to illustrate the functional dependence of the forces and moments on angle of attack, sideslip angle, and angular rate for the rotary contributions to the forces and moments. Further investigation is necessary to fully characterize the control effectors. The data were also used with a steady state spin prediction tool that did not predict an equilibrium spin mode.

  16. Research at the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Peggy Tomasula is Research Leader of the Dairy and Functional Foods Research Unit (DFFRU), ARS, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA, a group that includes 11 Research Scientists, 4 of whom are Lead Scientists (LS), 13 support scientists, and 3 Retired Collaborators. The mission of the DFFRU is to solve critical ...

  17. Calibration and Quality Assurance of Flux Observations from a Small Research Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, O.S.; Dobosy, R.J.; Dumas, E.J.; Beniamino, G.; Elbers, J.A.; Hutjes, R.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Small environmental research aircraft (ERA) are becoming more common for detailed studies of air–surface interactions. The Sky Arrow 650 ERA, used by multiple groups, is designed to minimize the complexity of high-precision airborne turbulent wind measurement. Its relative wind probe, of a nine-port

  18. Application of a cost/performance measurement system on a research aircraft project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The fundamentals of the cost/performance management system used in the procurement of two tilt rotor aircraft for a joint NASA/Army research project are discussed. The contractor's reporting system and the GPO's analyses are examined. The use of this type of reporting system is assessed. Recommendations concerning the use of like systems on future projects are included.

  19. Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuexia; Fang, Lei; Wyon, David P.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evalu-ate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices using Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjec-tive human assessments ...... observed after the first 3¼ hours of exposure. After 6 hours of expo-sure, a positive effect of using either PCO units on symptoms of dizziness and claustrophobia were observed....

  20. Research on flight stability performance of rotor aircraft based on visual servo control method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanan; Chen, Jing

    2016-11-01

    control method based on visual servo feedback is proposed, which is used to improve the attitude of a quad-rotor aircraft and to enhance its flight stability. Ground target images are obtained by a visual platform fixed on aircraft. Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorism is used to extract image feature information. According to the image characteristic analysis, fast motion estimation is completed and used as an input signal of PID flight control system to realize real-time status adjustment in flight process. Imaging tests and simulation results show that the method proposed acts good performance in terms of flight stability compensation and attitude adjustment. The response speed and control precision meets the requirements of actual use, which is able to reduce or even eliminate the influence of environmental disturbance. So the method proposed has certain research value to solve the problem of aircraft's anti-disturbance.

  1. Aircrew-aircraft integration: A summary of US Army research programs and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, D. L.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    A review of selected programs which illustrate the research efforts of the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory in the area of aircrew-aircraft integration is presented. Plans for research programs to support the development of future military rotorcraft are also described. The crew of a combat helicopter must, in general, perform two major functions during the conduct of a particular mission: flightpath control and mission management. Accordingly, the research programs described are being conducted in the same two major categories: (1) flightpath control, which encompasses the areas of handling qualities, stability and control, and displays for the pilot's control of the rotorcraft's flightpath, and (2) mission management, which includes human factors and cockpit integration research topics related to performance of navigation, communication, and aircraft systems management tasks.

  2. Aircrew-aircraft integration - A summary of U.S. Army research programs and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, D. L.; Aiken, E. W.

    1984-01-01

    A review of selected programs which illustrate the research efforts of the U.S. Army Aeromechanics Laboratory in the area of aircrew-aircraft integration is presented. Plans for research programs to support the development of future military rotorcraft are also described. The crew of a combat helicopter must, in general, perform two major functions during the conduct of a particular mission: flightpath control and mission management. Accordingly, the research programs described are being conducted in the same two major categories: (1) flightpath control, which encompasses the areas of handling qualities, stability and control, and displays for the pilot's control of the rotorcraft's flightpath, and (2) mission management, which includes human factors and cockpit integration research topics related to performance of navigation, communication, and aircraft systems management tasks.

  3. Aircraft Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nødskov, Kim; Kværnø, Ole

    There are many indications that China is actively researching the design of an aircraft carrier. It is unknown whether China will initiate the actual acquisition of a carrier, but the indications that are available of their research into aircraft carriers and carrier-capable aircraft, as well...... as their purchases of aircraft carrier systems, makes it more than likely that the country is preparing such an acquisition. China has territorial disputes in the South China Sea over the Spratly Islands and is also worried about the security of its sea lines of communications, by which China transports the majority...... of its foreign trade, as well as its oil imports, upon which the country is totally dependent. China therefore has good reasons for acquiring an aircraft carrier to enable it to protect its national interests. An aircraft carrier would also be a prominent symbol of China’s future status as a great power...

  4. Review of recent research of interior noise of propeller aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mixson, J. S.; Powell, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Publications on the topics of propeller source noise, airborne noise transmission, and passenger comfort response to noise and vibration are reviewed. Of the 187 publications referenced, 140 have appeared since 1978. Examples of research accomplishments are presented to illustrate the state of the art. Emphasis is on comparisons of theoretical and measured results, but the description of the theories is left to the references. This review shows that substantial progress has been made in understanding the characteristics of propeller noise, airborne noise, and passenger response, and in the development of prediction methods. Application of the technology to cabin noise control and possible future research directions are discussed.

  5. Unmanned aircraft systems in wildlife research: Current and future applications of a transformative technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Katherine S.; Gilbert, Sophie L.; Brown, Casey L.; Hatfield, Michael; Hanson, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) – also called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones – are an emerging tool that may provide a safer, more cost-effective, and quieter alternative to traditional research methods. We review examples where UAS have been used to document wildlife abundance, behavior, and habitat, and illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of this technology with two case studies. We summarize research on behavioral responses of wildlife to UAS, and discuss the need to understand how recreational and commercial applications of this technology could disturb certain species. Currently, the widespread implementation of UAS by scientists is limited by flight range, regulatory frameworks, and a lack of validation. UAS are most effective when used to examine smaller areas close to their launch sites, whereas manned aircraft are recommended for surveying greater distances. The growing demand for UAS in research and industry is driving rapid regulatory and technological progress, which in turn will make them more accessible and effective as analytical tools.

  6. Production-teaching-research of a Commercial Aircraft Corporation in the Chinese Industry Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin; WANG Shuang-yuan; WEI Lin-wan

    2012-01-01

    For the future development of a commercial aircraft corporation, this paper focused on the research and technological innovation model in an industrial chain and explored how to promote the sustainable development of technological innovation on the basis of the Chinese aviation industry. It puts forward several ways to reinforce cooperation, such as strengthening policies and regulations, government's support for research cooperations, accelerating construction of the production-teaching-research oriented public technology platform and service system, and firming the industry awareness of universities and research institutes, and so on.

  7. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  8. Concept to Reality: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to US Civil Aircraft of the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    This document is intended to be a companion to NASA SP-2000-4519, 'Partners in Freedom: Contributions of the Langley Research Center to U.S. Military Aircraft of the 1990s'. Material included in the combined set of volumes provides informative and significant examples of the impact of Langley's research on U.S. civil and military aircraft of the 1990s. This volume, 'Concept to Reality: Contributions of the NASA Langley Research Center to U.S. Civil Aircraft of the 1990s', highlights significant Langley contributions to safety, cruise performance, takeoff and landing capabilities, structural integrity, crashworthiness, flight deck technologies, pilot-vehicle interfaces, flight characteristics, stall and spin behavior, computational design methods, and other challenging technical areas for civil aviation. The contents of this volume include descriptions of some of the more important applications of Langley research to current civil fixed-wing aircraft (rotary-wing aircraft are not included), including commercial airliners, business aircraft, and small personal-owner aircraft. In addition to discussions of specific aircraft applications, the document also covers contributions of Langley research to the operation of civil aircraft, which includes operating problems. This document is organized according to disciplinary technologies, for example, aerodynamics, structures, materials, and flight systems. Within each discussion, examples are cited where industry applied Langley technologies to specific aircraft that were in operational service during the 1990s and the early years of the new millennium. This document is intended to serve as a key reference for national policy makers, internal NASA policy makers, Congressional committees, the media, and the general public. Therefore, it has been written for a broad general audience and does not presume any significant technical expertise. An extensive bibliography is provided for technical specialists and others who desire a

  9. Polar Research with Unmanned Aircraft and Tethered Balloons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, M [Sandia National Laboratories; Petty, R [U.S. Department of Energy; Desilets, D [Sandia National Laboratories; Verlinde, J; Ellingson, R [Florida State University

    2014-01-24

    The Arctic is experiencing rapid climate change, with nearly double the rate of surface warming observed elsewhere on the planet. While various positive feedback mechanisms have been suggested, the reasons for Arctic amplification are not well understood, nor are the impacts to the global carbon cycle well quantified. Additionally, there are uncertainties associated with the complex interactions between Earth’s surface and the atmosphere. Elucidating the causes and consequences of Arctic warming is one of the many goals of the Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) program, and is part of the larger CESD initiative to develop a robust predictive understanding of Earth’s climate system.

  10. Flight assessment of a large supersonic drone aircraft for research use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstrom, C. V.; Peele, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    An assessment is made of the capabilities of the BQM-34E supersonic drone aircraft as a test bed research vehicle. This assessment is made based on a flight conducted for the purpose of obtaining flight test measurements of wing loads at various maneuver flight conditions. Flight plan preparation, flight simulation, and conduct of the flight test are discussed along with a presentation of the test data obtained and an evaluation of how closely the flight test followed the test plan.

  11. Predesign study for a modern 4-bladed rotor for the NASA rotor systems research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, H. E.; Burkam, J. E.; Heminway, R. C.; Keys, C. N.; Smith, K. E.; Smith, J. H.; Staley, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Trade-off study results and the rationale for the final selection of an existing modern four-bladed rotor system that can be adapted for installation on the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) are reported. The results of the detailed integration studies, parameter change studies, and instrumentation studies and the recommended plan for development and qualification of the rotor system is also given. Its parameter variants, integration on the RSRA, and support of ground and flight test programs are also discussed.

  12. Research Pilot Milt Thompson in M2-F2 Aircraft Attached to B-52 Mothership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    NASA research pilot Milt Thompson sits in the M2-F2 'heavyweight' lifting body research vehicle before a 1966 test flight. The M2-F2 and the other lifting-body designs were all attached to a wing pylon on NASA's B-52 mothership and carried aloft. The vehicles were then drop-launched and, at the end of their flights, glided back to wheeled landings on the dry lake or runway at Edwards AFB. The lifting body designs influenced the design of the Space Shuttle and were also reincarnated in the design of the X-38 in the 1990s. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft

  13. Gust factor based on research aircraft measurements: A new methodology applied to the Arctic marine boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suomi, Irene; Lüpkes, Christof; Hartmann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    There is as yet no standard methodology for measuring wind gusts from a moving platform. To address this, we have developed a method to derive gusts from research aircraft data. First we evaluated four different approaches, including Taylor's hypothesis of frozen turbulence, to derive the gust...... in unstable conditions (R2=0.52). The mean errors for all methods were low, from -0.02 to 0.05, indicating that wind gust factors can indeed be measured from research aircraft. Moreover, we showed that aircraft can provide gust measurements within the whole boundary layer, if horizontal legs are flown...

  14. Advanced AFCS developments on the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. [Automatic Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, G. B.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design criteria and control and handling qualities of the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), developed in the framework of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft, are evaluated, differentiating between the stability and control criteria. A technically aggressive SCAS control law was implemented, demonstrating that significant benefits accrue when stability criteria are separated from design criteria; the design analyses for application of the control law are presented, and the limit bandwidth for stabilization in hovering flight is shown to be defined by rotor or control lag functions. Flight tests of the aircraft resulted in a rating of 3 on the Cooper-Harper scale; a possibility of achieving a rating of 2 is expected if the system is applied to the yaw and heave control modes.

  15. Advanced AFCS developments on the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. [Automatic Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, G. B.; Gerdes, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    The design criteria and control and handling qualities of the Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS), developed in the framework of the XV-15 tilt-rotor research aircraft, are evaluated, differentiating between the stability and control criteria. A technically aggressive SCAS control law was implemented, demonstrating that significant benefits accrue when stability criteria are separated from design criteria; the design analyses for application of the control law are presented, and the limit bandwidth for stabilization in hovering flight is shown to be defined by rotor or control lag functions. Flight tests of the aircraft resulted in a rating of 3 on the Cooper-Harper scale; a possibility of achieving a rating of 2 is expected if the system is applied to the yaw and heave control modes.

  16. A real-time, dual processor simulation of the rotor system research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, D. B.; Alderete, T. S.

    1977-01-01

    A real-time, man-in-the loop, simulation of the rotor system research aircraft (RSRA) was conducted. The unique feature of this simulation was that two digital computers were used in parallel to solve the equations of the RSRA mathematical model. The design, development, and implementation of the simulation are documented. Program validation was discussed, and examples of data recordings are given. This simulation provided an important research tool for the RSRA project in terms of safe and cost-effective design analysis. In addition, valuable knowledge concerning parallel processing and a powerful simulation hardware and software system was gained.

  17. Comparison of Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Aircraft, and Radiosonde Measurements From the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements from a profiling microwave radiometer are compared to measurements from a research aircraft and radiosondes. Data compared is temperature, water vapor, and liquid water profiles. Data was gathered at the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) at Mirabel Airport outside Montreal, Canada during December 1999 and January 2000. All radiometer measurements were found to lose accuracy when the radome was wet. When the radome was not wetted, the radiometer was seen to indicate an inverted distribution of liquid water within a cloud. When the radiometer measurements were made at 15 deg. instead of the standard zenith, the measurements were less accurate.

  18. Amphibious Aircraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A brief self composed research article on Amphibious Aircrafts discussing their use, origin and modern day applications along with their advantages and disadvantages...

  19. RTO Meeting Proceedings 16, Aircraft Weapon System Compatibility and Integration held in Chester, United Kingdom, 28-30 September, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Instituto Superior Tecnico The BOEING Company Torre-6o Pais P.O. Box 3999 1096 Lisboa Codex Mail Stop 85-93 Portugal Seattle, WA 98124-2499 United States...all the 2-3 weightings. However for these situations criteria specified by the user. That point data manual matching can be equally problematic. is then...between the The Aircraft/Stores Interface Manual was used to exhaust nozzles was also distorted and projected to the position the pylons and the tank

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Remote Sensing and Scientific Research: Classification and Considerations of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Watts

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS have evolved rapidly over the past decade driven primarily by military uses, and have begun finding application among civilian users for earth sensing reconnaissance and scientific data collection purposes. Among UAS, promising characteristics are long flight duration, improved mission safety, flight repeatability due to improving autopilots, and reduced operational costs when compared to manned aircraft. The potential advantages of an unmanned platform, however, depend on many factors, such as aircraft, sensor types, mission objectives, and the current UAS regulatory requirements for operations of the particular platform. The regulations concerning UAS operation are still in the early development stages and currently present significant barriers to entry for scientific users. In this article we describe a variety of platforms, as well as sensor capabilities, and identify advantages of each as relevant to the demands of users in the scientific research sector. We also briefly discuss the current state of regulations affecting UAS operations, with the purpose of informing the scientific community about this developing technology whose potential for revolutionizing natural science observations is similar to those transformations that GIS and GPS brought to the community two decades ago.

  1. Potential uses of small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in weed research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Nielsen, Jon; Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose

    2013-01-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) with cameras have not been adopted in weed research, but offer low-cost sensing with high flexibility in terms of spatial resolution. A small rotary-wing UAS was tested as part of a search for an inexpensive, user-friendly and reliable aircraft for practical...... with ground truth data. UAS imagery also gave excellent results in logarithmic sprayer experiments in oilseed rape, where we captured 37 m long plots in each image from an altitude of 35 m. Furthermore, perennial weeds could be mapped from UAS images. These first experiences with a small rotary-wing UAS show...

  2. Variable pitch fan system for NASA/Navy research and technology aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, W. P.; Black, D. M.; Yates, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design of a shaft driven, variable-pitch lift fan and lift-cruise fan was conducted for a V/STOL Research and Technology Aircraft. The lift fan and lift-cruise fan employed a common rotor of 157.5 cm diameter, 1.18 pressure ratio variable-pitch fan designed to operate at a rotor-tip speed of 284 mps. Fan performance maps were prepared and detailed aerodynamic characteristics were established. Cost/weight/risk trade studies were conducted for the blade and fan case. Structural sizing was conducted for major components and weights determined for both the lift and lift-cruise fans.

  3. A survey of heating and turbulent boundary layer characteristics of several hypersonic research aircraft configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawing, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Four of the configurations investigated during a proposed NASA-Langley hypersonic research aircraft program were selected for phase-change-paint heat-transfer testing and forebody boundary layer pitot surveys. In anticipation of future hypersonic aircraft, both published and unpublished data and results are reviewed and presented with the purpose of providing a synoptic heat-transfer data base from the research effort. Engineering heat-transfer predictions are compared with experimental data on both a global and a local basis. The global predictions are shown to be sufficient for purposes of configuration development, and even the local predictions can be adequate when interpreted in light of the proper flow field. In that regard, cross flow in the forebody boundary layers was examined for significant heating and aerodynamic effect on the scramjet engines. A design philosophy which evolved from the research airplane effort is used to design a forebody shape that produces thin, uniform, forebody boundary layers on a hypersonic airbreathing missile. Finally, heating/boundary layer phenomena which are not predictable with state-of-the-art knowledge and techniques are shown and discussed.

  4. An experimental and analytical method for approximate determination of the tilt rotor research aircraft rotor/wing download

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordon, D. E.; Patterson, W.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft download phenomenon was analyzed. This phenomenon is a direct result of the two rotor wakes impinging on the wing upper surface when the aircraft is in the hover configuration. For this study the analysis proceeded along tow lines. First was a method whereby results from actual hover tests of the XV-15 aircraft were combined with drag coefficient results from wind tunnel tests of a wing that was representative of the aircraft wing. Second, an analytical method was used that modeled that airflow caused gy the two rotors. Formulas were developed in such a way that acomputer program could be used to calculate the axial velocities were then used in conjunction with the aforementioned wind tunnel drag coefficinet results to produce download values. An attempt was made to validate the analytical results by modeling a model rotor system for which direct download values were determinrd..

  5. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research. Phase II - Volume I; Truss Braced Wing Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.; Allen, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, Georgia Tech, Virginia Tech, NextGen Aeronautics, and Microcraft. A multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) environment defined the geometry that was further refined for the updated SUGAR High TBW configuration. Airfoil shapes were tested in the NASA TCT facility, and an aeroelastic model was tested in the NASA TDT facility. Flutter suppression was successfully demonstrated using control laws derived from test system ID data and analysis models. Aeroelastic impacts for the TBW design are manageable and smaller than assumed in Phase I. Flutter analysis of TBW designs need to include pre-load and large displacement non-linear effects to obtain a reasonable match to test data. With the updated performance and sizing, fuel burn and energy use is reduced by 54% compared to the SUGAR Free current technology Baseline (Goal 60%). Use of the unducted fan version of the engine reduces fuel burn and energy by 56% compared to the Baseline. Technology development roadmaps were updated, and an airport compatibility analysis established feasibility of a folding wing aircraft at existing airports.

  6. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  7. The Future Of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in Support of the Marine Expeditionary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    two vertical-takeoff aircraft. 9 Weight (lbs) Range (nm) Speed ( max knts) Ceiling (ft) Endurance (hrs) Pay- load (lbs) Systems...has a BriteStar FLIR, which can provide ISR and has stations or “ planks ” that can fit varying weapons systems or payloads that support the other four...designate and shoot targets, all with a respecTable 10-hour endurance. The AH-6X is also designed with a “ plank ” system that can support the addition

  8. Dynamically Scaled Modular Aircraft for Flight-Based Aviation Safety Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Area-I, Incorporated personnel have led the design, fabrication, and flight testing of twelve unmanned aircraft and one manned aircraft. Partnered with NASA and...

  9. A compact, fast ozone UV photometer and sampling inlet for research aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Gao

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of atmospheric ozone (O3 are performed routinely from many research aircraft platforms. The most common technique depends on the strong absorption of ultraviolet (UV light by ozone. As atmospheric science advances to the widespread use of unmanned aircraft systems (UASs, there is an increasing requirement for minimizing instrument space, weight, and power while maintaining instrument accuracy, precision and time response. The design and use of a new, dual-beam, polarized, UV photometer instrument for in situ O3 measurements is described. The instrument has a fast sampling rate (2 Hz, high accuracy (3%, and precision (1.1 × 1010 O3 molecules cm−3. The size (36 l, weight (18 kg, and power (50–200 W make the instrument suitable for many UAS and other airborne platforms. Inlet and exhaust configurations are also described for ambient sampling in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (1000–50 mb that optimize the sample flow rate to increase time response while minimizing loss of precision due to induced turbulence in the sample cell. In-flight and laboratory intercomparisons with existing O3 instruments show that measurement accuracy is maintained in flight.

  10. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE HANGAR

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    GEAMBASU Gabriel George

    2017-01-01

    .... The first part of research describes the aircraft maintenance process that has to be done after an updated maintenance manual according with aircraft type, followed by a short introduction about maintenance hangar...

  11. Application of modern control design methodology to oblique wing research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, James H.

    1991-01-01

    A Linear Quadratic Regulator synthesis technique was used to design an explicit model following control system for the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The forward path model (Maneuver Command Generator) was designed to incorporate the desired flying qualities and response decoupling. The LQR synthesis was based on the use of generalized controls, and it was structured to provide a proportional/integral error regulator with feedforward compensation. An unexpected consequence of this design approach was the ability to decouple the control synthesis into separate longitudinal and lateral directional designs. Longitudinal and lateral directional control laws were generated for each of the nine design flight conditions, and gain scheduling requirements were addressed. A fully coupled 6 degree of freedom open loop model of the OWRA along with the longitudinal and lateral directional control laws was used to assess the closed loop performance of the design. Evaluations were performed for each of the nine design flight conditions.

  12. Multi-Domain Modeling and Simulation of an Aircraft System for Advanced Vehicle-Level Reasoning Research and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    : F. Khan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a simulation based health monitoring system test-bed for aircraft systems. The purpose of the test-bed is to provide a technology neutral basis for implementing and evaluation of reasoning systems on vehicle level and software architecture in support of the safety and maintenance process. This simulation test-bed will provide the sub-system level results and data which can be fed to the VLRS to generate vehicle level reasoning to achieve broader level diagnoses. This paper describes real-time system architecture and concept of operations for the aircraft major sub-systems. The four main components in the real-time test-bed are the aircraft sub-systems (e.g. battery, fuel, engine, generator, heating and lighting system simulation model, fault insertion unit, health monitoring data processing and user interface. In this paper, we adopted a component based modelling paradigm for the implementation of the virtual aircraft systems. All of the fault injections are currently implemented via software. The fault insertion unit allows for the repeatable injection of faults into the system. The simulation test-bed has been tested with many different faults which were undetected on system level to process and detect on the vehicle level reasoning. This article also shows how one system fault can affect the overall health of the vehicle.

  13. NARVAL North - Remote Sensing of Postfrontal Convective Clouds and Precipitation over the North Atlantic with the Research Aircraft HALO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepp, Christian; Ament, Felix; Bakan, Stephan; Crewell, Susanne; Hagen, Martin; Hirsch, Lutz; Jansen, Friedhelm; Konow, Heike; Mech, Mario; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Schäfler, Andreas; Stevens, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    The new German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft) became recently available for measurement flights in atmospheric research. It's capacity of measuring from a high altitude vertical profiles of all components of atmospheric water - like vapor, liquid and ice, in both cloud and precipitation forms, as well as the aerosol particles upon which cloud droplets form - makes it a unique research platform. The aircraft, equipped with advanced radiometers, radar and lidar technology, the HALO Microwave Package (HAMP), is an initiative by German climate and environmental research institutions and is operated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). One of the first major missions to exploit the capabilities of HALO was conducted for the NARVAL project (Next-generation Aircraft Remote-Sensing for Validation Studies) during January 2014. After studying subtropical clouds one month before in the first NARVAL phase, the interest of NARVAL North focused on the study of cold air convection and precipitation in the form of rain and snow. Based at Keflavik airport (Iceland), several flights were conducted to examine the specific small-scale precipitation structures behind the backsides of cold fronts over the North Atlantic. This should help to narrow the gap in the understanding of substantial differences between satellite observations and model calculations in such situations. First data analysis of these measurements indicate promising results. The poster will describe the HALO instrument packages as well as the collected observations during the campaign and will present preliminary scientific findings.

  14. Development of Filter-Blower Unit for use in the Advanced Nuclear Biological Chemical Protection System (ANBCPS) Helicopter/Transport-aircraft version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, R.; Reffeltrath, P.A.; Jonkman, A.; Post, T.

    2006-01-01

    As a participant in the three-nation partnership for development of the ANBCP-S for use in Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Fast Jet, the Royal Netherlands Airforce (RNLAF) picked up the challenge to design a Filter- Blower-Unit (FBU). Major Command (MajCom) of the RNLAF set priority to develop a

  15. Development of Filter-Blower Unit for use in the Advanced Nuclear Biological Chemical Protection System (ANBCPS) Helicopter/Transport-aircraft version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, R.; Reffeltrath, P.A.; Jonkman, A.; Post, T.

    2006-01-01

    As a participant in the three-nation partnership for development of the ANBCP-S for use in Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Fast Jet, the Royal Netherlands Airforce (RNLAF) picked up the challenge to design a Filter- Blower-Unit (FBU). Major Command (MajCom) of the RNLAF set priority to develop a

  16. Development of an Unmanned Aircraft System and Cyberinfrastructure for Environmental Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, J. J.; Tweedie, C. E.; Escapita, I. J.

    2009-12-01

    There is a fundamental need to improve capacities for monitoring environmental change using remote sensing technologies. Recently, researchers have begun using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to expand and improve upon remote sensing capabilities. Limitations to most non-military and relatively small-scale Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) include a need to develop more reliable communications between ground and aircraft, tools to optimize flight control, real time data processing, and visually ascertaining the quantity of data collected while in air. Here we present a prototype software system that has enhanced communication between ground and the vehicle, can synthesize near real time data acquired from sensors on board, can log operation data during flights, and can visually demonstrate the amount and quality of data for a sampling area. This software has the capacity to greatly improve the utilization of UAS in the environmental sciences. The software system is being designed for use on a paraglider UAV that has a suite of sensors suitable for characterizing the footprints of eddy covariance towers situated in the Chihuahuan Desert and in the Arctic. Sensors on board relay operational flight data (airspeed, ground speed, latitude, longitude, pitch, yaw, roll, acceleration, and video) as well as a suite of customized sensors. Additional sensors can be added to an on board laptop or a CR1000 data logger thereby allowing data from these sensors to be visualized in the prototype software. This poster will describe the development, use and customization of our UAS and multimedia will be available during AGU to illustrate the system in use. UAV on workbench in the lab UAV in flight

  17. A compact, fast UV photometer for measurement of ozone from research aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. Gao

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of atmospheric ozone (O3 are performed routinely from many research aircraft platforms. The most common technique depends on the strong absorption of ultraviolet (UV light by ozone. As atmospheric science advances to the widespread use of unmanned aircraft systems (UASs, there is an increasing requirement for minimizing instrument space, weight, and power while maintaining instrument accuracy, precision and time response. The design and use of a new, dual-beam, UV photometer instrument for in situ O3 measurements is described. A polarization optical-isolator configuration is utilized to fold the UV beam inside the absorption cells, yielding a 60-cm absorption length with a 30-cm cell. The instrument has a fast sampling rate (2 Hz at <200 hPa, 1 Hz at 200–500 hPa, and 0.5 Hz at ≥ 500 hPa, high accuracy (3% excluding operation in the 300–450 hPa range, where the accuracy may be degraded to about 5%, and excellent precision (1.1 × 1010 O3 molecules cm−3 at 2 Hz, which corresponds to 3.0 ppb at 200 K and 100 hPa, or 0.41 ppb at 273 K and 1013 hPa. The size (36 l, weight (18 kg, and power (50–200 W make the instrument suitable for many UASs and other airborne platforms. Inlet and exhaust configurations are also described for ambient sampling in the troposphere and lower stratosphere (1000–50 hPa that control the sample flow rate to maximize time response while minimizing loss of precision due to induced turbulence in the sample cell. In-flight and laboratory intercomparisons with existing O3 instruments show that measurement accuracy is maintained in flight.

  18. Disseminating Library and Information Science Research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Douglas

    1975-01-01

    A descriptive survey of the organizations and institutions which conduct and support current research in library and information science in the United States of America and of the major sources of research information. (Author)

  19. The solar-powered Helios Prototype flying wing frames two modified F-15 research aircraft in a hanga

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The solar-powered Helios Prototype flying wing frames two modified F-15 research aircraft in a hangar at NASA's Dryden flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The elongated 247-foot span lightweight aircraft, resting on its ground maneuvering dolly, stretched almost the full length of the 300-foot long hangar while on display during a visit of NASA Administrator Sean O'Keefe and other NASA officials on Jan. 31, 2002. The unique solar-electric flying wing reached an altitude of 96,863 feet during an almost 17-hour flight near Hawaii on Aug. 13, 2001, a world record for sustained horizontal flight by a non-rocket powered aircraft. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the Helios Prototype is the forerunner of a planned fleet of slow-flying, long duration, high-altitude uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAV) which can serve as 'atmospheric satellites,' performing Earth science missions or functioning as telecommunications relay platforms in the stratosphere.

  20. Users Guide for NASA Lewis Research Center DC-9 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Eric S.; Withrow, James P.; Yaniec, John S.

    1996-01-01

    The document provides guidelines and information for users of the DC-9 Reduced-Gravity Aircraft Program. It describes the facilities, requirements for test personnel, equipment design and installation, mission preparation, and in-flight procedures. Those who have used the KC-135 reduced-gravity aircraft will recognize that many of the procedures and guidelines are the same.

  1. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase II- Volume III-Truss Braced Wing Aeroelastic Test Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Allen, Timothy J.; Droney, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This Test Report summarizes the Truss Braced Wing (TBW) Aeroelastic Test (Task 3.1) work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, which includes the time period of February 2012 through June 2014. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Virginia Tech, and NextGen Aeronautics. The model was fabricated by NextGen Aeronautics and designed to meet dynamically scaled requirements from the sized full scale TBW FEM. The test of the dynamically scaled SUGAR TBW half model was broken up into open loop testing in December 2013 and closed loop testing from January 2014 to April 2014. Results showed the flutter mechanism to primarily be a coalescence of 2nd bending mode and 1st torsion mode around 10 Hz, as predicted by analysis. Results also showed significant change in flutter speed as angle of attack was varied. This nonlinear behavior can be explained by including preload and large displacement changes to the structural stiffness and mass matrices in the flutter analysis. Control laws derived from both test system ID and FEM19 state space models were successful in suppressing flutter. The control laws were robust and suppressed flutter for a variety of Mach, dynamic pressures, and angle of attacks investigated.

  2. THE ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LAZARSFELD, PAUL F.; SIEBER, SAM D.

    THE CHIEF TECHNICAL PROBLEM OF THIS STUDY WAS TO MEASURE THE NUMEROUS SOCIAL CONDITIONS WHICH MIGHT CONCEIVABLY IMPINGE ON THE PRODUCTION OF RESEARCH AND OF RESEARCHERS BY GRADUATE SCHOOLS OF EDUCATION. THE TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED INCLUDED (1) QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEYS OF EDUCATION DEANS, RESEARCH COORDINATORS, DIRECTORS OF RESEARCH UNITS, PROJECT…

  3. Challenges to United States Tactical Air Force Aircraft Maintenance Personnel: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Korean War. MS thesis, AFIT/GSM/L/88S-7. School of Systems and Logistics, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright-Patterson APB OH, September 1988 (AD...1.5-billion program, MSIP is upgrading 15 line replaceable units (LRUs) in the Hughes APG-63 radar and other key avionics systems to extend the...1980. 11. Forney, Captain James I. Logistics Of Aircrnt Mmintenance During The Korean War. MS thesis, AFIT/GSM/LS/88S-7. School of Systems and Logistics

  4. Basic Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Philip

    1979-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the development of basic research in the U.S. since World War II. Topics include the creation of the federal agencies, physics and astronomy, chemistry, earth science, life science, the environment, and social science. (BB)

  5. Using Hyperspectral Aircraft Remote Sensing to Support Ecosystems Services Research in New England Lakes and Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, D. J.; Milstead, B.; Walker, H.; Worthy, D.; Szykman, J.; Wusk, M.; Kagey, L.; Howell, C.; Snook, H.; Drueke, C.

    2010-12-01

    Northeastern lakes and ponds provide important ecosystem services to New England residents and visitors. These include the provisioning of abundant, clean water for consumption, agriculture, and industry as well as cultural services (recreation, aesthetics, and wilderness experiences) which enhance local economies and quality of life. Less understood, but equally important, are the roles that these lakes play in protecting all life through supportive services such as nutrient cycling. Nitrogen and phosphorus have a direct impact on the condition of fresh water lakes. Excesses of these nutrients can lead to eutrophication, toxic cyanobacteria blooms, decreased biodiversity, and loss of ecosystem function leading to a reduction in the availability and delivery of ecosystem services. In this study, we examined how variations in lake nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton pigment concentrations correlated with changes in the potential to provide cultural ecosystem services. Using a NASA Cessna 206 aircraft, hyperspectral data were collected during late summer 2009 from 55 lakes in New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island over a 2 day period. From the spectral data, algorithms were created which estimated concentrations of chlorophyll a, phycocyanin, and colored dissolved organic matter. The remotely sensed estimates were supplemented by in situ chlorophyll a, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and lake color data from 43 lakes sampled by field crews from the New England states. The purpose of this research is to understand how variations in lake nutrient concentrations and phytoplankton pigment concentrations correlate with changes in availability of cultural ecosystem services in the surveyed lakes. This dataset will be combined with information from the EPA National Lake Survey (2007), the EPA New England Lakes and Ponds Survey (2008) and the USGS SPARROW model to explore the association between lake condition and the provisioning of ecosystem

  6. GRAPHICAL MODELS OF THE AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Vladimirovich Daletskiy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft maintenance is realized by a rapid sequence of maintenance organizational and technical states, its re- search and analysis are carried out by statistical methods. The maintenance process concludes aircraft technical states con- nected with the objective patterns of technical qualities changes of the aircraft as a maintenance object and organizational states which determine the subjective organization and planning process of aircraft using. The objective maintenance pro- cess is realized in Maintenance and Repair System which does not include maintenance organization and planning and is a set of related elements: aircraft, Maintenance and Repair measures, executors and documentation that sets rules of their interaction for maintaining of the aircraft reliability and readiness for flight. The aircraft organizational and technical states are considered, their characteristics and heuristic estimates of connection in knots and arcs of graphs and of aircraft organi- zational states during regular maintenance and at technical state failure are given. It is shown that in real conditions of air- craft maintenance, planned aircraft technical state control and maintenance control through it, is only defined by Mainte- nance and Repair conditions at a given Maintenance and Repair type and form structures, and correspondingly by setting principles of Maintenance and Repair work types to the execution, due to maintenance, by aircraft and all its units mainte- nance and reconstruction strategies. The realization of planned Maintenance and Repair process determines the one of the constant maintenance component. The proposed graphical models allow to reveal quantitative correlations between graph knots to improve maintenance processes by statistical research methods, what reduces manning, timetable and expenses for providing safe civil aviation aircraft maintenance.

  7. Research on the water-entry attitude of a submersible aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, BaoWei; Li, YongLi; Feng, JinFu; Hu, JunHua; Qi, Duo; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The water entry of a submersible aircraft, which is transient, highly coupled, and nonlinear, is complicated. After analyzing the mechanics of this process, the change rate of every variable is considered. A dynamic model is build and employed to study vehicle attitude and overturn phenomenon during water entry. Experiments are carried out and a method to organize experiment data is proposed. The accuracy of the method is confirmed by comparing the results of simulation of dynamic model and experiment under the same condition. Based on the analysis of the experiment and simulation, the initial attack angle and angular velocity largely influence the water entry of vehicle. Simulations of water entry with different initial and angular velocities are completed, followed by an analysis, and the motion law of vehicle is obtained. To solve the problem of vehicle stability and control during water entry, an approach is proposed by which the vehicle sails with a zero attack angle after entering water by controlling the initial angular velocity. With the dynamic model and optimization research algorithm, calculation is performed, and the optimal initial angular velocity of water-entry is obtained. The outcome of simulations confirms that the effectiveness of the propose approach by which the initial water-entry angular velocity is controlled.

  8. HAMP – the microwave package on the High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft (HALO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mech

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An advanced package of microwave remote sensing instrumentation has been developed for the operation on the new German High Altitude LOng range research aircraft (HALO. The HALO Microwave Package, HAMP, consists of two nadir-looking instruments: a cloud radar at 36 GHz and a suite of passive microwave radiometers with 26 frequencies in different bands between 22.24 and 183.31 ± 12.5 GHz. We present a description of HAMP's instrumentation together with an illustration of its potential. To demonstrate this potential, synthetic measurements for the implemented passive microwave frequencies and the cloud radar based on cloud-resolving and radiative transfer model calculations were performed. These illustrate the advantage of HAMP's chosen frequency coverage, which allows for improved detection of hydrometeors both via the emission and scattering of radiation. Regression algorithms compare HAMP retrieval with standard satellite instruments from polar orbiters and show its advantages particularly for the lower atmosphere with a root-mean-square error reduced by 5 and 15% for temperature and humidity, respectively. HAMP's main advantage is the high spatial resolution of about 1 km, which is illustrated by first measurements from test flights. Together these qualities make it an exciting tool for gaining a better understanding of cloud processes, testing retrieval algorithms, defining future satellite instrument specifications, and validating platforms after they have been placed in orbit.

  9. HAMP – the microwave package on the High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft HALO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mech

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An advanced package of microwave remote sensing instrumentation has been developed for the operation on the new German High Altitude LOng range research aircraft (HALO. The HALO Microwave Package, HAMP, consists of two nadir looking instruments: a cloud radar at 36 GHz and a suite of passive microwave radiometers with 26 frequencies in different bands between 22.24 and 183.31 ± 12.5 GHz. We present a description of HAMP's instrumentation together with an illustration of its potential. To demonstrate this potential synthetic measurements for the implemented passive microwave frequencies and the cloud radar based on cloud resolving and radiative transfer model calculations were performed. These illustrate the advantage of HAMP's chosen frequency coverage, which allows for improved detection of hydrometeors both via the emission and scattering of radiation. Regression algorithms compare HAMP retrieval with standard satellite instruments from polar orbiters and show its advantages particularly for the lower atmosphere with a reduced root mean square error by 5 and 15% for temperature and humidity, respectively. HAMP's main advantage is the high spatial resolution of about 1 km which is illustrated by first measurements from test flights. Together these qualities make it an exciting tool for gaining better understanding of cloud processes, testing retrieval algorithms, defining future satellite instrument specifications, and validating platforms after they have been placed in orbit.

  10. Calibration of 3-D wind measurements on a single engine research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallaun, C.; Giez, A.; Baumann, R.

    2015-02-01

    An innovative calibration method for the wind speed measurement using a boom mounted Rosemount model 858 AJ air velocity probe is introduced. The method is demonstrated for a sensor system installed on a medium size research aircraft which is used for measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer. The method encounters a series of coordinated flight manoeuvres to directly estimate the aerodynamic influences on the probe and to calculate the measurement uncertainties. The introduction of a differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) combined with a high accuracy Inertial Reference System (IRS) has brought major advances to airborne measurement techniques. The exact determination of geometrical height allows the use of the pressure signal as an independent parameter. Furthermore, the exact height information and the stepwise calibration process lead to maximum accuracy. The results show a measurement uncertainty for the aerodynamic influence of the dynamic and static pressures of 0.1 hPa. The applied parametrisation does not require any height dependencies or time shifts. After extensive flight tests a correction for the flow angles (attack and sideslip angles) was found, which is necessary for a successful wind calculation. A new method is demonstrated to correct for the aerodynamic influence on the sideslip angle. For the 3-D wind vector (with 100 Hz resolution) a novel error propagation scheme is tested, which determines the measurement uncertainties to be 0.3 m s-1 for the horizontal and 0.2 m s-1 for the vertical wind components.

  11. Estimation of dynamic rotor loads for the rotor systems research aircraft: Methodology development and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, R. W.; Bahrami, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft uses load cells to isolate the rotor/transmission systm from the fuselage. A mathematical model relating applied rotor loads and inertial loads of the rotor/transmission system to the load cell response is required to allow the load cells to be used to estimate rotor loads from flight data. Such a model is derived analytically by applying a force and moment balance to the isolated rotor/transmission system. The model is tested by comparing its estimated values of applied rotor loads with measured values obtained from a ground based shake test. Discrepancies in the comparison are used to isolate sources of unmodeled external loads. Once the structure of the mathematical model has been validated by comparison with experimental data, the parameters must be identified. Since the parameters may vary with flight condition it is desirable to identify the parameters directly from the flight data. A Maximum Likelihood identification algorithm is derived for this purpose and tested using a computer simulation of load cell data. The identification is found to converge within 10 samples. The rapid convergence facilitates tracking of time varying parameters of the load cell model in flight.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of environmental noise: Research in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Stansfeld

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the auditory effects of noise on humans have been established, the non-auditory effects are not so well established. The emerging links between noise and cardiovascular disease (CVD have potentially important implications on public health and policy. In the United Kingdom (UK, noise from transport is a problem, where more than half of the population is exposed to more than the recommended maximum day-time noise level and just under three-quarters of the population live in areas where the recommended night-time noise level is exceeded. This review focuses on findings from studies conducted in the UK that examined environmental noise and cardiovascular disease. There were statistically no significant associations between road traffic noise and incident ischemic heart disease in the Caerphilly and Speedwell studies, but there was a suggestion of effects when modifying factors such as length of residence, room orientation, and window opening were taken into account. In a sample stratified by pre-existing disease a strongly increased odds of incident ischemic heart disease for the highest annoyance category was found compared to the lowest among men without pre-existing disease (OR = 2.45, 95%1.13 - 5.31, which was not found in men with pre-existing disease. In the Hypertension and exposure to noise near airports (HYENA study, night time aircraft noise exposure (L night was associated with an increased risk of hypertension, in fully adjusted analyses. A 10-dB increase in aircraft noise exposure was associated with an odds ratio of 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01 - 1.29. Aircraft noise was not consistently related to raised systolic blood pressure in children in the road traffic and aircraft noise exposure and children′s cognition and health (RANCH study. There is some evidence of an association among environmental noise exposure and hypertension and ischemic heart disease in the UK studies; further studies are required to explore gender differences, the

  13. Research on Civil Aircraft Fuel Saving Strategy%民机节油策略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟

    2016-01-01

    Fuel saving is a very important and long-term action for airlines. Based on aircraft performance analy-sis, this paper presents fuel saving suggestions on weight, center of gravity and APU usage and taxiing before flight, and also presents economy flight fuel saving strategy suggestions on take-off, climb, cruise, descent, ap-proach and landing phase. By the research of fuel saving measures in each detailed aspect of a flight circle, the pa-per suggests the method of well using flight planning tool to improve fuel consuming efficiency, with a case study and the comparison of different flight planning methods, and educes the conclusion that the integration IT solutions including flight planning and QAR ( Quick Access Recorder ) analysis systems from civil aircraft manufacture is a high performance-price ratio choice for airlines’ fuel saving.%节油是航空公司的长效措施,各航空公司均很重视。从飞行具体环节出发,基于性能研究民机节油策略,给出飞行前重量、重心、APU使用和滑行等措施分析和建议,并给出起飞、爬升、巡航、下降和进近着陆的经济飞行节油策略分析和建议。通过对飞行具体环节节油策略的研究,提出重视飞行计划优化和执行的思路,案例分析优化效果,对比分析现有飞行计划方法,得出飞机制造商提供包含飞行计划和QAR ( Quick Access Recorder)分析系统等的整体IT解决方案,是提升节油效果的一个性价比很高的选择的结论。

  14. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Report: 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    the work effort sponsored by the Naval Medical Research and Development Command was under the direction of CAPT David E. Uddin, MSC, USN, and...133-1 R-1061-3b a David Taylor Naval Ship Research & Development Center. b Polyalphaolefin stock of sample B85-174. A Beckman Acculab 4 was used to...ENGINEERING D.W. Brade During this first year of NSI-ES’s operation of the THRU, a major effort of facilities engineering has been the development of

  15. Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuexia; Fang, Lei; Wyon, David Peter

    2008-01-01

    The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evaluate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices that used photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjective human assessments...

  16. Assessing Regional Scale Fluxes of Mass, Momentum, and Energy with Small Environmental Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulueta, Rommel Callejo

    Natural ecosystems are rarely structurally or functionally homogeneous. This is true for the complex coastal regions of Magdalena Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, and the Barrow Peninsula on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. The coastal region of Magdalena Bay is comprised of the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert ecosystems all adjacent and within a few kilometers, while the Barrow Peninsula is a mosaic of small ponds, thaw lakes, different aged vegetated thaw-lake basins ( VDTLBs ) and interstitial tundra which have been dynamically formed by both short- and long-term processes. We used a combination of tower- and small environmental research aircraft (SERA)-based eddy covariance measurements to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of CO2, latent, and sensible heat fluxes along with MODIS NDVI, and land surface information, to scale the SERA-based CO2 fluxes up to the regional scale. In the first part of this research, the spatial variability in ecosystem fluxes from the Pacific coastal ocean, eutrophic lagoon, mangroves, and desert areas of northern Magdalena Bay were studied. SERA-derived average midday CO2 fluxes from the desert showed a slight uptake of -1.32 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1, the coastal ocean also showed uptake of -3.48 mumol CO2 m-2 s -1, and the lagoon mangroves showed the highest uptake of -8.11 mumol CO2 m-2 s-1. Additional simultaneous measurements of NDVI allowed simple linear modeling of CO2 flux as a function of NDVI for the mangroves of the Magdalena Bay region. In the second part of this research, the spatial variability of ecosystem fluxes across the 1802 km2 Barrow Peninsula region was studied. During typical 2006 summer conditions, the midday hourly CO2 flux over the region was -2.04 x 105 kgCO2 hr-1. The CO2 fluxes among the interstitial tundra, Ancient and Old VDTLBs, as well as between the Medium and Young VDTLBs were not significantly different. Combined, the interstitial tundra and Old and Ancient

  17. A Grounded Theory Study of Aircraft Maintenance Technician Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Robert

    Aircraft maintenance technician decision-making and actions have resulted in aircraft system errors causing aircraft incidents and accidents. Aircraft accident investigators and researchers examined the factors that influence aircraft maintenance technician errors and categorized the types of errors in an attempt to prevent similar occurrences. New aircraft technology introduced to improve aviation safety and efficiency incur failures that have no information contained in the aircraft maintenance manuals. According to the Federal Aviation Administration, aircraft maintenance technicians must use only approved aircraft maintenance documents to repair, modify, and service aircraft. This qualitative research used a grounded theory approach to explore the decision-making processes and actions taken by aircraft maintenance technicians when confronted with an aircraft problem not contained in the aircraft maintenance manuals. The target population for the research was Federal Aviation Administration licensed aircraft and power plant mechanics from across the United States. Nonprobability purposeful sampling was used to obtain aircraft maintenance technicians with the experience sought in the study problem. The sample population recruitment yielded 19 participants for eight focus group sessions to obtain opinions, perceptions, and experiences related to the study problem. All data collected was entered into the Atlas ti qualitative analysis software. The emergence of Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making themes regarding Aircraft Maintenance Manual content, Aircraft Maintenance Technician experience, and legal implications of not following Aircraft Maintenance Manuals surfaced. Conclusions from this study suggest Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making were influenced by experience, gaps in the Aircraft Maintenance Manuals, reliance on others, realizing the impact of decisions concerning aircraft airworthiness, management pressures, and legal concerns

  18. Real-Time Simulation Computation System. [for digital flight simulation of research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetter, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Real-Time Simulation Computation System, which will provide the flexibility necessary for operation in the research environment at the Ames Research Center is discussed. Designing the system with common subcomponents and using modular construction techniques enhances expandability and maintainability qualities. The 10-MHz series transmission scheme is the basis of the Input/Output Unit System and is the driving force providing the system flexibility. Error checking and detection performed on the transmitted data provide reliability measurements and assurances that accurate data are received at the simulators.

  19. In-flight control and communication architecture of the GLORIA imaging limb-sounder on atmospheric research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, E.; Bachner, M.; Blank, J.; Dapp, R.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Guggenmoser, T.; Gulde, T.; Hartmann, V.; Lutz, R.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Preusse, P.; Schardt, G.; Schmitt, C.; Schönfeld, A.; Tan, V.

    2015-02-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA), a Fourier transform spectrometer based limb spectral imager, operates on high-altitude research aircraft to study the transit region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. It is one of the most sophisticated systems to be flown on research aircraft in Europe, requiring constant monitoring and human intervention in addition to an automation system. To ensure proper functionality and interoperability on multiple platforms, a flexible control and communication system was laid out. The architectures of the communication system as well as the protocols used are reviewed. The integration of this architecture in the automation process as well as the scientific campaign flight application context are discussed.

  20. In-flight control and communication architecture of the GLORIA imaging limb sounder on atmospheric research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, E.; Bachner, M.; Blank, J.; Dapp, R.; Ebersoldt, A.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Guggenmoser, T.; Gulde, T.; Hartmann, V.; Lutz, R.; Maucher, G.; Neubert, T.; Oelhaf, H.; Preusse, P.; Schardt, G.; Schmitt, C.; Schönfeld, A.; Tan, V.

    2015-06-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA), a Fourier-transform-spectrometer-based limb spectral imager, operates on high-altitude research aircraft to study the transit region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. It is one of the most sophisticated systems to be flown on research aircraft in Europe, requiring constant monitoring and human intervention in addition to an automation system. To ensure proper functionality and interoperability on multiple platforms, a flexible control and communication system was laid out. The architectures of the communication system as well as the protocols used are reviewed. The integration of this architecture in the automation process as well as the scientific campaign flight application context are discussed.

  1. In-flight control and communication architecture of the GLORIA imaging limb-sounder on atmospheric research aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kretschmer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA, a Fourier transform spectrometer based limb spectral imager, operates on high-altitude research aircraft to study the transit region between the troposphere and the stratosphere. It is one of the most sophisticated systems to be flown on research aircraft in Europe, requiring constant monitoring and human intervention in addition to an automation system. To ensure proper functionality and interoperability on multiple platforms, a flexible control and communication system was laid out. The architectures of the communication system as well as the protocols used are reviewed. The integration of this architecture in the automation process as well as the scientific campaign flight application context are discussed.

  2. Effect of Cellular Phone and Radar Forensics on Search and Rescue Duration for General Aviation Aircraft Accidents in the Contiguous United States

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Ryan J

    2014-01-01

    Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELT) are generally the primary tool for locating distressed aircrews following an aircraft accident. In 2009, the International COSPAS-SARSAT organization ordered the cessation of 121.5 MHz ELT satellite monitoring to alleviate systemic false alarms and encourage pilots to upgrade ELTs to modern 406 MHz models. While most nations acquiesced to the mandate, the United States encountered severe resistance from pilot groups. As a result, 121.5 MHz ELTs are still i...

  3. ECInvestigation of NO2 Pollutions on Board of Research Aircraft (Some Results of QUANTIFY and POLARCAT Field Campaigns)

    OpenAIRE

    Sitnikov, N.; Sitnikova, V.; Ulanovskiy, A.; Lukyanov, A.; H. Schlager; Roiger, A.; Scheiber, M.; M. Lichtenstern; Stock, P.; F. Ravegnani

    2010-01-01

    The results of investigation of NO2 pollutions on board of research aircraft Falcon (DLR, Germany) are presented. The measurements have been carried out by chemiluminescent nitrogen dioxide analyzer developed in Central Aerological Observatory (Russia). The data of NO2 distribution have been obtained during QUANTIFY (West Europe, July 2007) and POLARCAT (Greenland, July 2008) field campaigns. NO2 measurements over Greenland during POLARCAT field campaign have been carried out using ACCENT sup...

  4. Marine Ecology Research Resource Units Grades 7-9. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contra Costa County Dept. of Education, Pleasant Hill, CA.

    Project Marine Ecology Research (MER) is an ecological unit designed to involve secondary students in the study of the marine biome. The teachers are also involved with MER through inservice participation and materials preparation. The unit is designed to be incorporated within the existing science curriculum. Specifically, the activities concern…

  5. Tropical cyclones-Pacific Asian Research Campaign for Improvement of Intensity estimations/forecasts (T-PARCII): A research plan of typhoon aircraft observations in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboki, Kazuhisa

    2017-04-01

    Typhoons are the most devastating weather system occurring in the western North Pacific and the South China Sea. Violent wind and heavy rainfall associated with a typhoon cause huge disaster in East Asia including Japan. In 2013, Supertyphoon Haiyan struck the Philippines caused a very high storm surge and more than 7000 people were killed. In 2015, two typhoons approached the main islands of Japan and severe flood occurred in the northern Kanto region. Typhoons are still the largest cause of natural disaster in East Asia. Moreover, many researches have projected increase of typhoon intensity with the climate change. This suggests that a typhoon risk is increasing in East Asia. However, the historical data of typhoon include large uncertainty. In particular, intensity data of the most intense typhoon category have larger error after the US aircraft reconnaissance of typhoon was terminated in 1987.The main objective of the present study is improvements of typhoon intensity estimations and of forecasts of intensity and track. We will perform aircraft observation of typhoon and the observed data are assimilated to numerical models to improve intensity estimation. Using radars and balloons, observations of thermodynamical and cloud-microphysical processes of typhoons will be also performed to improve physical processes of numerical model. In typhoon seasons (mostly in August and September), we will perform aircraft observations of typhoons. Using dropsondes from the aircraft, temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind are measured in surroundings of the typhoon inner core region. The dropsonde data are assimilated to a cloud-resolving model which has been developed in Nagoya University and named the Cloud Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). Then, more accurate estimations and forecasts of the typhoon intensity will be made as well as typhoon tracks. Furthermore, we will utilize a ground-based balloon with microscope camera, X-band precipitation radar, Ka-band cloud radar

  6. Research on Zonal Inspection Intervals of Civil Aircraft Based on Improved FAHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xiang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important things in formulating aircraft maintenance program is to determine the zonal inspection intervals. In accordance with the current situation that there has no perfect rating systems of zonal inspection under MSG-3 (Maintenance Steering Group-3 analysis system, a method to calculate the integrate level of zonal rating is to analyze the impact of aircraft zonal rating factors, establish a hierarchical index evaluation system and then utilize the improved fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP to determine the indexes’ weight. Moreover, the zonal inspection intervals can be established according to the correspondence between rates and intervals. Finally, take a typical zone of an aircraft as an example to verify the method.  

  7. Integration of structural health monitoring solutions onto commercial aircraft via the Federal Aviation Administration structural health monitoring research program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, Paul; Doyle, Jon; Roach, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) started a research program in structural health monitoring (SHM) in 2011. The program's goal was to understand the technical gaps of implementing SHM on commercial aircraft and the potential effects on FAA regulations and guidance. The program evolved into a demonstration program consisting of a team from Sandia National Labs Airworthiness Assurance NDI Center (AANC), the Boeing Corporation, Delta Air Lines, Structural Monitoring Systems (SMS), Anodyne Electronics Manufacturing Corp (AEM) and the FAA. This paper will discuss the program from the selection of the inspection problem, the SHM system (Comparative Vacuum Monitoring-CVM) that was selected as the inspection solution and the testing completed to provide sufficient data to gain the first approved use of an SHM system for routine maintenance on commercial US aircraft.

  8. Qualitative Research of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Aircraft Brackets Produced by a New Forging Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziubińska A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a selection of numerical and experimental results of a new closed-die forging method for producing AZ31 magnesium alloy aircraft brackets with one rib. The numerical modelling of the new forming process was performed by the finite element method.The distributions of stresses, strains, temperature and forces were examined. The numerical results confirmed that the forgings produced by the new forming method are correct. For this reason, the new forming process was verified experimentally. The experimental results showed good agreement with the numerical results. The produced forgings of AZ31 magnesium alloy aircraft brackets with one rib were then subjected to qualitative tests.

  9. Strategies for translational research in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderquest, Katrina; Lord, Graham M

    2010-10-13

    In the United Kingdom, many foundations and institutions and the government have made substantial investments in translational research. We examine the structures that surround this support and consider some of the results of this prodigious push toward enhancing translational research pursuits and thus improved clinical medicine.

  10. Infusing Active Learning into the Research Methods Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestone, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    The research methods unit of survey psychology classes introduces important concepts of scientific reasoning and fluency, making it an ideal course in which to deliver enhanced curricula. To increase interest and engagement, the author developed an expanded research methods and statistics module to give students the opportunity to explore…

  11. The Combined Effects of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise and Aircraft and Railway Noise on Noise Annoyance—An Analysis in the Context of the Joint Research Initiative NORAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jördis Wothge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Noise Related Annoyance Cognition and Health (NORAH research initiative is one of the most extensive studies on the physiological and psychological long-term effects of transportation noise in Europe. It includes research on the quality of life and annoyance as well as cardiovascular effects, sleep disturbance, breast cancer, blood pressure, depression and the cognitive development of children. Within the realm of the annoyance module of the study approximately 10,000 residents of the Rhine-Main district were surveyed on the combined effects of transportation noise. This included combined noise from aircraft and road traffic noise (N = 4905, or aircraft and railway noise (N = 4777. Results show that judgment of the total noise annoyance of participants was strongly determined by the sound source which was judged as more annoying (in this case aircraft noise. To a lesser extent, the average sound pressure level of the two present sources was also of relevance.

  12. The Combined Effects of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise and Aircraft and Railway Noise on Noise Annoyance—An Analysis in the Context of the Joint Research Initiative NORAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wothge, Jördis; Belke, Christin; Möhler, Ulrich; Guski, Rainer; Schreckenberg, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    The Noise Related Annoyance Cognition and Health (NORAH) research initiative is one of the most extensive studies on the physiological and psychological long-term effects of transportation noise in Europe. It includes research on the quality of life and annoyance as well as cardiovascular effects, sleep disturbance, breast cancer, blood pressure, depression and the cognitive development of children. Within the realm of the annoyance module of the study approximately 10,000 residents of the Rhine-Main district were surveyed on the combined effects of transportation noise. This included combined noise from aircraft and road traffic noise (N = 4905), or aircraft and railway noise (N = 4777). Results show that judgment of the total noise annoyance of participants was strongly determined by the sound source which was judged as more annoying (in this case aircraft noise). To a lesser extent, the average sound pressure level of the two present sources was also of relevance. PMID:28767095

  13. Experimental research on photocatalytic oxidation air purification technology applied to aircraft cabins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yuexia; Fang, Lei; Wyon, David P.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment presented in this report was performed in a simulated aircraft cabin to evalu-ate the air cleaning effects of two air purification devices using Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) technology. Objective physical, chemical and physiological measurements and subjec-tive human assessments...

  14. Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauderdale, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

  15. New Methodology for Optimal Flight Control using Differential Evolution Algorithms applied on the Cessna Citation X Business Aircraft – Part 2. Validation on Aircraft Research Flight Level D Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamina BOUGHARI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Cessna Citation X clearance criteria were evaluated for a new Flight Controller. The Flight Control Law were optimized and designed for the Cessna Citation X flight envelope by combining the Deferential Evolution algorithm, the Linear Quadratic Regulator method, and the Proportional Integral controller during a previous research presented in part 1. The optimal controllers were used to reach satisfactory aircraft’s dynamic and safe flight operations with respect to the augmentation systems’ handling qualities, and design requirements. Furthermore the number of controllers used to control the aircraft in its flight envelope was optimized using the Linear Fractional Representations features. To validate the controller over the whole aircraft flight envelope, the linear stability, eigenvalue, and handling qualities criteria in addition of the nonlinear analysis criteria were investigated during this research to assess the business aircraft for flight control clearance and certification. The optimized gains provide a very good stability margins as the eigenvalue analysis shows that the aircraft has a high stability, and a very good flying qualities of the linear aircraft models are ensured in its entire flight envelope, its robustness is demonstrated with respect to uncertainties due to its mass and center of gravity variations.

  16. The Use of a Satellite Communications System for Command and Control of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Surrogate Unmanned Aerial System Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Charles T.; Jones, Frank; Hutchinson, Brian; Joyce, Claude; Nelson, Skip; Melum, Mike

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into an Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft which has served for several years as a platform for unmanned systems research and development. The aircraft is manned with a Safety Pilot and a Research Systems Operator (RSO) that allows for flight operations almost any-where in the national airspace system (NAS) without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). The UAS Surrogate can be remotely controlled from a modular, transportable ground control station (GCS) like a true UAS. Ground control of the aircraft is accomplished by the use of data links that allow the two-way passage of the required data to control the aircraft and provide the GCS with situational awareness. The original UAS Surrogate data-link system was composed of redundant very high frequency (VHF) data radio modems with a maximum range of approximately 40 nautical miles. A new requirement was developed to extend this range beyond visual range (BVR). This new requirement led to the development of a satellite communications system that provided the means to command and control the UAS Surrogate at ranges beyond the limits of the VHF data links. The system makes use of the Globalstar low earth orbit (LEO) satellite communications system. This paper will provide details of the development, implementation, and flight testing of the satellite data communications system on the UAS Surrogate research aircraft.

  17. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) onboard the HALO research aircraft during OMO-ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safadi, Layal; Neumaier, Marco; Fischbeck, Garlich; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We report on first results of VOC measurements during the OMO-Asia campaign that took place in summer 2015 on Cyprus and on the island of Gan (Maldives) to study the free-radical chemistry at higher altitudes during the Asian summer monsoon. The deployed instrument (KMS = Karlsruhe Mass Spectrometer) is based on a commercial PTRMS from Ionicon and was strongly modified for the use onboard the research aircraft HALO (a modified Gulfstream GV-550 having a ceiling altitude of ~15.5 km). By the construction of an aluminum vacuum system, the development of largely custom-made electronics and the use of light-weight pumps, the weight was reduced to ~55 kg compared to 120-130 kg of the commercial instrument. The KMS is in addition very robust and field-compliant. Before OMO-Asia the HALO payload was tested first during a technical field campaign OMO-EU which took place in Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany) in winter 2015. During OMO-Asia the instrument was calibrated before and after each flight by diluting an external gas standard (Apel-Riemer Environmental, Inc. Denver, Colorado) containing ~1 ppm of 10 VOCs. The determined sensitivity for acetone was ~380 cps/ppb showing a variation of ±5% over a period of 8 weeks. The detection limit amounted to ~35 ppt for acetone at an integration time of 6 s. The measurements during all together 17 flights took place over a wide range of Asia, including Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Oman and Sri Lanka. Referring to the meteorological forecasts of carbon monoxide (CO), remnant of the Asia monsoon outflow was measured during some flights (e.g. over Oman). Acetone mixing ratios of up to ~1500 ppt and up to ~100 ppt of benzene were measured in the outflow of the plume. The gathered data shows a good correlation with the measurements taken with other instruments (e.g. CO measurements by Max Planck Institute for Chemistry). The poster will describe the instrument and the main features derived.

  18. 飞机租赁定价模型研究%Pricing Model Research on Aircraft Operating Lease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁勇; 葛翔

    2015-01-01

    飞机租赁的定价对于飞机租赁公司的盈利能力有着重要影响,而国内有关飞机租赁业务定价问题的研究尚处于起步阶段。提出了飞机租赁定价模型采用的是净现值原理,将出租人的资金成本、承租人的经营能力、飞机的折旧抵税、残值等影响定价的要素加以量化,最终得出租赁双方可以接受的价格区间,通过对组成定价的各要素进行分析,进而得出提升我国飞机租赁行业竞争力的对策建议。%The pricing method of aircraft leasing greatly affects aircraft leasing companies’ profitability . However ,domestic research remains in the primary stage of the issue .A pricing model individually de‐signed for operating lease has been proposed ,which is based on the net present value method .The model results in a price range agreed by lessee and lessor by the quantification of such factors as lessor’s capital cost ,lessee’s business capabilities ,aircraft salvage ,deduction for depreciation and etc .Through the anal‐ysis of these factors ,we put forward policy suggestions aimed at enhancing the competitiveness of China’ s aircraft leasing industry .

  19. RESEARCH OF NIGHT LIGHT EFFECTS ON COLORIMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF IMAGE PERCEIVED BY THE PILOT IN AN AIRCRAFT COCKPIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Zharinov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The influence of radiation spectra from the source of artificial night light on colorimetric characteristics of image perceived by the pilot in the aircraft cockpit has been studied. The image is displayed on the LCD screen of multifunctional color indication equipment unit. Night illumination of the cockpit is performed with the use of artificial lamps of red, green, blue and, rarely, white light. Method. Any given color to be displayed on the screen is perceived by an observer differently with presence and absence of external illumination. When external light of white color is used, perceived color depends upon color temperature of the light source; if illumination source has any arbitrary spectral characteristics, then perceivable color depends upon whole spectral content of the used source. The color, perceived by an observer, is formed as the mixture of the color displayed on the screen (image element color with the color presented by diffuse reflection of external illumination source from the surface of the screen. The brightness of both colors is added. Mathematical expressions, that define calculation rule for chromaticity coordinates of color perceived by an observer, are based on the Grassmann’s law of additive color mixing. Quantitative analysis of the effect, caused by radiation spectra from an external source of artificial light on color gamut area, corresponding to image, perceived by an observer, has been performed through simulation in MathCad 15.0. Main Results. It was shown, that the color palette of on-board indication equipment, obtained on automated working place for any preset source of external illumination of fluorescent spectrum, corresponding to white light, is not usable correctly in the aircraft night flight mode. An observer loses ability to perceive properly saturated primary colors of red and blue in the case of green-blue light source of external illumination; and the same issue occurs with

  20. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS - From dedicated field studies to routine observations of the atmosphere by instrumented passenger aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Gerbig, Christoph; Thouret, Valerie; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Iagos Team

    2013-04-01

    The global distribution of trace species is controlled by a complex interplay between natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks, atmospheric short- to long-range transport, and in future by diverse, largely not yet quantified feedback mechanisms such as enhanced evaporation of water vapour in a warming climate or possibly the release of methane from melting marine clathrates. Improving global trace gas budgets and reducing the uncertainty of climate predictions crucially requires representative data from routine long-term observations as independent constraint for the evaluation and improvement of model parameterizations. IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) is a new European Research Infrastructure which operates a unique global observing system by deploying autonomous instruments aboard a fleet of passenger aircraft. IAGOS consists of two complementary building blocks: IAGOS-CORE deploys newly developed high-tech instrumentation for regular in-situ measurements of atmospheric chemical species (O3, CO, CO2, NOx, NOy, H2O, CH4), aerosols and cloud particles. Involved airlines ensure global operation of the network. In IAGOS-CARIBIC a cargo container is operated as a flying laboratory aboard one passenger aircraft. IAGOS aims at the provision of long-term, frequent, regular, accurate, and spatially resolved in-situ observations of the atmospheric chemical composition in the UTLS and the extra tropical troposphere and on vertical profiles of greenhouse gases, reactive trace gases and aerosols throughout the troposphere. It builds on almost 20 years of scientific and technological expertise gained in the research projects MOZAIC (Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapour on Airbus In-service Aircraft) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container). The European consortium includes research centres, universities, national weather services, airline operators and aviation

  1. Modeling of the Mode S tracking system in support of aircraft safety research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, J. A.; Goka, T.

    1982-01-01

    This report collects, documents, and models data relating the expected accuracies of tracking variables to be obtained from the FAA's Mode S Secondary Surveillance Radar system. The data include measured range and azimuth to the tracked aircraft plus the encoded altitude transmitted via the Mode S data link. A brief summary is made of the Mode S system status and its potential applications for aircraft safety improvement including accident analysis. FAA flight test results are presented demonstrating Mode S range and azimuth accuracy and error characteristics and comparing Mode S to the current ATCRBS radar tracking system. Data are also presented that describe the expected accuracy and error characteristics of encoded altitude. These data are used to formulate mathematical error models of the Mode S variables and encoded altitude. A brief analytical assessment is made of the real-time tracking accuracy available from using Mode S and how it could be improved with down-linked velocity.

  2. Research of hail impact on aircraft wheel door with lattice hybrid structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengze; Jin, Feng; Zhang, Weihua; Meng, Xuanzhu

    2016-09-01

    Aimed at a long lasting issue of hail impact on aircraft structures and aviation safety due to its high speed, the resistance performance of hail impact on the wheel door of aircraft with lattice hybrid structure is investigated. The proper anti-hail structure can be designed both efficiency and precision based on this work. The dynamic responses of 8 different sandwich plates in diverse impact speed are measured. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamic (SPH) method is introduced to mimic the speciality of solid-liquid mixture trait of hailstone during the impact process. The deformation and damage degree of upper and lower panel of sandwich plate are analysed. The application range and failure mode for the relevant structure, as well as the energy absorbing ratio between lattice structure and aluminium foam are summarized. Results show that the tetrahedral sandwich plate with aluminium foam core is confirmed the best for absorbing energy. Furthermore, the high absorption characteristics of foam material enhance the capability of the impact resistance for the composition with lattice structure without increasing the structure surface density. The results of study are of worth to provide a reliable basis for reduced weight aircraft wheel door.

  3. NACA research on combustors for aircraft gas turbines I : effects of operating variables on steady-state performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Walter T; Childs, J Howard

    1950-01-01

    Some of the systematic research conducted by the NACA on aircraft gas-turbine combustors is reviewed. Trends depicting the effect of inlet-air pressure, temperature, and velocity and fuel-air ratio on performance characteristics, such as combustion efficiency, maximum temperature rise attainable, pressure loss, and combustor-outlet temperature distribution are described for a variety of turbojet combustors of the liquid-fuel type. These trends are further discussed as effects significant to the turbojet engine, such as altitude operational limits, specific fuel consumption, thrust, acceleration, and turbine life.

  4. 19 CFR 122.49a - Electronic manifest requirement for passengers onboard commercial aircraft arriving in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic manifest requirement for passengers.... CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew...

  5. Effect of Advanced Location Methods on Search and Rescue Duration for General Aviation Aircraft Accidents in the Contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ryan J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of advanced search and rescue devices and techniques on search duration for general aviation aircraft crashes. The study assessed three categories of emergency locator transmitters, including 121.5 MHz, 406 MHz, and GPS-Assisted 406 MHz devices. The impact of the COSPAS-SARSAT organization…

  6. Units of analysis in task-analytic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, T G; Kennedy, C H

    1988-01-01

    We develop and discuss four criteria for evaluating the appropriateness of units of analysis for task-analytic research and suggest potential alternatives to the units of analysis currently used. Of the six solutions discussed, the most commonly used unit of analysis in current behavior analytic work, percentage correct, meets only one of the four criteria. Five alternative units of analysis are presented and evaluated: (a) percentage of opportunities to perform meeting criterion, (b) trials to criteria, (c) cumulative competent performances, (d) percentage correct with competent performance coded, and (e) percentage correct with competent performance coded and a grid showing performance on individual steps of the task analysis. Of the solutions evaluated, only one--percentage correct with competent performance coded and a task analysis grid--met all four criteria.

  7. Conducting qualitative research within Clinical Trials Units: avoiding potential pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cindy; O'Cathain, Alicia; Hind, Danny; Adamson, Joy; Lawton, Julia; Baird, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    The value of using qualitative research within or alongside randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is becoming more widely accepted. Qualitative research may be conducted concurrently with pilot or full RCTs to understand the feasibility and acceptability of the interventions being tested, or to improve trial conduct. Clinical Trials Units (CTUs) in the United Kingdom (UK) manage large numbers of RCTs and, increasingly, manage the qualitative research or collaborate with qualitative researchers external to the CTU. CTUs are beginning to explicitly manage the process, for example, through the use of standard operating procedures for designing and implementing qualitative research with trials. We reviewed the experiences of two UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC) registered CTUs of conducting qualitative research concurrently with RCTs. Drawing on experiences gained from 15 studies, we identify the potential for the qualitative research to undermine the successful completion or scientific integrity of RCTs. We show that potential problems can arise from feedback of interim or final qualitative findings to members of the trial team or beyond, in particular reporting qualitative findings whilst the trial is on-going. The problems include: We make recommendations for improving the management of qualitative research within CTUs.

  8. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  9. LEADERSHIP IN SMALL MILITARY UNITS--SOME RESEARCH FINDINGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LANGE, CARL J.

    THE EFFECT OF A LEADER'S ACTIONS ON HIS FOLLOWERS IN SMALL MILITARY UNITS WAS THE SUBJECT OF SEVERAL RESEARCH STUDIES CONDUCTED TO EXPLORE THE NATURE OF THE LEADERSHIP PROCESS, WITH THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF DEVELOPING TRAINING THAT WOULD USE IMPROVED PRESENTATIONAL MATERIALS AND WOULD BE BASED ON LEADERSHIP DOCTRINE WITH DEMONSTRATED VALIDITY. THE…

  10. Biomass publications of the forest operations research unit: A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Renee Ayala; [Compilers

    2005-01-01

    The Forest Operations Unit of the Southern Research Station has been studying biomass-related topics since 1977. This CD aids the reader by organizing these publications in one easy-to-use CD. This CD is comprised of an executive summary, two bibliographies, individual publications (in PDF format), and a keyword listing. The types of publications included on this CD...

  11. Applied Biomechanics Research for the United States Ski Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Charles J.

    1982-01-01

    Assisted by a team of physicians and sports scientists, the United States Ski Team has developed its own sports medicine program, the purpose of which is to assist coaches and athletes in controlling and optimizing factors which influence skiing performance. A number of biomechanical research projects which have been undertaken as part of this…

  12. The Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) at the Ames Research Center manages aircraft data in collaboration with an ecosystem research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Gary; Popovici, Lidia; Skiles, Jay

    1991-01-01

    The Pilot Land Data System (PLDS) is a data and information system serving NASA-supported investigators in the land science community. The three nodes of the PLDS, one each at the Ames Research Center (ARC), the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), cooperate in providing consistent information describing the various data holding in the hardware and software (accessible via network and modem) that provide information about and access to PLDS-held data, which is available for distribution. A major new activity of the PLDS node at the Ames Research Center involves the interaction of the PLDS with an active NASA ecosystem science project, the Oregon Transect Ecosystems Research involves the management of, access to, and distribution of the large volume of widely-varying aircraft data collected by OTTER. The OTTER project, is managed by researchers at the Ames Research Center and Oregon State University. Its principal objective is to estimate major fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water of forest ecosystems using an ecosystem process model driven by remote sensing data. Ten researchers at NASA centers and universities are analyzing data for six sites along a temperature-moisture gradient across the western half of central Oregon (called the Oregon Transect). Sensors mounted on six different aircraft have acquired data over the Oregon Transect in support of the OTTER project.

  13. An inflight refill unit for replenishing research animal drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. L.; Barnes, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design process and development approach for a method of maintaining sufficient quantities of water for research animals during a Shuttle mission of long duration. An inflight refill unit (IRU) consisting of two major subsystems, a fluid pumping unit (FPU) and a collapsible water reservoir (CWR), were developed. The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar (TM) reinforced storage bladder connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system, allowing for transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two research animal holding facilities. Additional components of the IRU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 29V direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab.

  14. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; Kempen, Elise van; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 chi...

  15. Evaluation of V/STOL research aircraft design. [landing approaches, propulsion/control, piloted moving base simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, W. H.; Holzhauser, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The evaluation and evolution of direct jet lift V/STOL transport aircraft designs are discussed. The V/STOL transport design selected as an example is a lift-fan design that was evaluated as a candidate configuration for a possible future V/STOL research transport. The paper includes discussion of potential advanced V/STOL landing approach profiles as key design requirements for V/STOL aircraft, description and experimental results of an integrated propulsion/control system designed to achieve desired advanced V/STOL near-terminal operating capabilities, and results from evaluating V/STOL designs on piloted moving-base simulators. This paper discusses use of the piloted moving-base simulator as a design tool for evolving satisfactory V/STOL stabilization and propulsion/control systems. Included are problems and solutions identified during simulation of simultaneous decelerating/descent steep curved landing approaches under instrument flight conditions. Simulation results are also compared to flight results obtained with the DO-31 V/STOL research transport.

  16. Microbial fuel cells as pollutant treatment units: Research updates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-10-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) are a device that can convert chemical energy in influent substances to electricity via biological pathways. Based on the consent that MFC technology should be applied as a waste/wastewater treatment unit rather than a renewable energy source, this mini-review discussed recent R&D efforts on MFC technologies for pollutant treatments and highlighted the challenges and research and development needs. Owing to the low power density levels achievable by larger-scale MFC, the MFC should be used as a device other than energy source such as being a pollutant treatment unit.

  17. USDA-ARS Plant Science Research Unit, St. Paul Alfalfa/Forage Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Plant Science Research Unit (PSRU) located at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul receives approximately $1.5 million to fund the research of six scientists who direct their research efforts toward developing new uses and improved traits for alfalfa. Our overarching goal is to develop alfalf...

  18. University governance and academic research : case studies of research units in Dutch and English universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leisyte, Liudvika

    2007-01-01

    The central research question of our study addresses the effects of governing models on the research practices of basic research units in public universities in the fields of medieval history and biotechnology. We have used two organisational theories: resource dependence and neo-institutional

  19. Research and Application on Civil Aircraft Ground Flotation%民用飞机地面漂浮性分析研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房务官; 魏小辉; 宋晓晨; 吴卜圣

    2012-01-01

    民用飞机地面漂浮性是评估飞机-机场相容性的一个重要指标,其直接影响到飞机设计参数选择以及地面适应性的优劣.在总体概念设计阶段就必须对飞机的漂浮性能进行分析评估,从而选择恰当的飞机参数.对民用飞机在刚性道面和柔性道面上漂浮性分析方法做了简要说明,并针对国际民用航空组织所推广使用的ACN/PCN(飞机分类号/机场分类号)方法进行了详细分析研究,在此基础上,开发出了飞机地面漂浮性分析软件.通过直接输入飞机相关参数可以快速准确地计算出飞机分类号ACN值.可以有效地对飞机地面漂浮性进行评估和优化,从而解决了用手工方式评估飞机地面漂浮性时的繁琐及不准确,并降低了对从事飞机地面漂浮性计算的人员要求.%Civil aircraft ground flotation is an important evaluation indicator of aircraft- airport compatibility , which affects the aircraft design parameters selection and the pros and cons of the ground adaptability directly. In the general conceptual design stage, the analysis and evaluation of the aircraft flotation must be done to select the appropriate parameters of the aircraft. This paper briefly describes the analysis methods of civil aircraft floating in the rigid pavement and flexible pavement, and carried out a detailed analysis and research for the ACN / PCN,the aircraft and airport's class number method,that is promoted by International Civil Aviation Organization and developed a aircraft ground flotation analysis software on that base. Inputting the relevant aircraft parameters directly, it can calculate the value the class number of aircraft, ACN, quickly and accurately. The software can effectively evaluate and optimize aircraft ground flotation , thus solve the problem of the complication and inaccuracy caused by evaluating the aircraft ground flotation by hand. In addition,it also reduces the demand for the personnel engaged in it.

  20. The Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission: design, execution, and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Jacob

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The NASA Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS mission was conducted in two 3-week deployments based in Alaska (April 2008 and western Canada (June–July 2008. Its goal was to better understand the factors driving current changes in Arctic atmospheric composition and climate, including (1 influx of mid-latitude pollution, (2 boreal forest fires, (3 aerosol radiative forcing, and (4 chemical processes. The June–July deployment was preceded by one week of flights over California (ARCTAS-CARB focused on (1 improving state emission inventories for greenhouse gases and aerosols, (2 providing observations to test and improve models of ozone and aerosol pollution. ARCTAS involved three aircraft: a DC-8 with a detailed chemical payload, a P-3 with an extensive aerosol and radiometric payload, and a B-200 with aerosol remote sensing instrumentation. The aircraft data augmented satellite observations of Arctic atmospheric composition, in particular from the NASA A-Train. The spring phase (ARCTAS-A revealed pervasive Asian pollution throughout the Arctic as well as significant European pollution below 2 km. Unusually large Siberian fires in April 2008 caused high concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols and also affected ozone. Satellite observations of BrO column hotspots were found not to be related to Arctic boundary layer events but instead to tropopause depressions, suggesting the presence of elevated inorganic bromine (5–10 pptv in the lower stratosphere. Fresh fire plumes from Canada and California sampled during the summer phase (ARCTAS-B indicated low NOx emission factors from the fires, rapid conversion of NOx to PAN, no significant secondary aerosol production, and no significant ozone enhancements except when mixed with urban pollution.

  1. A study of the stable boundary layer in strong gap flows in northwest Greenland using a research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Günther; Drüe, Clemens

    2016-04-01

    Gap flows and the stable boundary layer (SBL) were studied in northwest Greenland during the aircraft-based experiment IKAPOS (Investigation of Katabatic winds and Polynyas during Summer) in June 2010. The measurements were performed using the research aircraft POLAR 5 of Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI, Bremerhaven). Besides navigational and basic meteorological instrumentation, the aircraft was equipped with radiation and surface temperature sensors, two laser altimeters, and video and digital cameras. In order to determine turbulent heat and momentum fluxes, POLAR 5 was instrumented with a turbulence measurement system collecting data on a nose boom with a sampling rate of 100 Hz. In the area of the Nares Strait a stable, but fully turbulent boundary layer with strong winds of 15 m s-1 to 20 m s-1 was found during conditions of relatively warm synoptically induced northerly winds through the Nares Strait. Strong surface inversions were present in the lowest 100 m to 200 m. As a consequence of channeling effects a well-pronounced low-level jet (LLJ) system was documented. The channeling process is consistent with gap flow theory and can be shown to occur at the topographic gap between Greenland and Canada represented by the Smith Sound. While the flow through the gap and over the surrounding mountains leads to the lowering of isotropic surfaces and the acceleration of the flow, the strong turbulence associated with the LLJ leads to the development of an internal thermal SBL past the gap. Turbulence statistics in this fully turbulent SBL can be shown to follow the local scaling behaviour.

  2. Intensive care unit research ethics and trials on unconscious patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, G R

    2015-05-01

    There are widely acknowledged ethical issues in enrolling unconscious patients in research trials, particularly in intensive care unit (ICU) settings. An analysis of those issues shows that, by and large, patients are better served in units where research is actively taking place for several reasons: i) they do not fall prey to therapeutic prejudices without clear evidential support, ii) they get a chance of accessing new and potentially beneficial treatments, iii) a climate of careful monitoring of patients and their clinical progress is necessary for good clinical research and affects the care of all patients and iv) even those not in the treatment arm of a trial of a new intervention must receive best current standard care (according to international evidence-based treatment guidelines). Given that we have discovered a number of 'best practice' regimens of care that do not optimise outcomes in ICU settings, it is of great benefit to all patients (including those participating in research) that we are constantly updating and evaluating what we do. Therefore, the practice of ICU-based clinical research on patients, many of whom cannot give prospective informed consent, ticks all the ethical boxes and ought to be encouraged in our health system. It is very important that the evaluation of protocols for ICU research should not overlook obvious (albeit probabilistic) benefits to patients and the acceptability of responsible clinicians entering patients into well-designed trials, even though the ICU setting does not and cannot conform to typical informed consent procedures and requirements.

  3. Aircraft operations management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  4. Hybrid upper surface blown flap propulsive-lift concept for the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, J. A.; Carros, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The hybrid upper surface blowing concept consists of wing-mounted turbofan engines with a major portion of the fan exhaust directed over the wing upper surface to provide high levels of propulsive lift, but with a portion of the fan airflow directed over selected portions of the airframe to provide boundary layer control. NASA-sponsored preliminary design studies identified the hybrid upper surface blowing concept as the best propulsive lift concept to be applied to the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA) that is planned as a flight facility to conduct flight research at low noise levels, high approach lift coefficients, and steep approaches. Data from NASA in-house and NASA-sponsored small and large-scale wind tunnel tests of various configurations using this concept are presented.

  5. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  6. Ethics of drug research in the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiber, Niina; Tromp, Krista; Mooij, Miriam G; van de Vathorst, Suzanne; Tibboel, Dick; de Wildt, Saskia N

    2015-02-01

    Critical illness and treatment modalities change pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of medications used in critically ill children, in addition to age-related changes in drug disposition and effect. Hence, to ensure effective and safe drug therapy, research in this population is urgently needed. However, conducting research in the vulnerable population of the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) presents with ethical challenges. This article addresses the main ethical issues specific to drug research in these critically ill children and proposes several solutions. The extraordinary environment of the PICU raises specific challenges to the design and conduct of research. The need for proxy consent of parents (or legal guardians) and the stress-inducing physical environment may threaten informed consent. The informed consent process is challenging because emergency research reduces or even eliminates the time to seek consent. Moreover, parental anxiety may impede adequate understanding and generate misconceptions. Alternative forms of consent have been developed taking into account the unpredictable reality of the acute critical care environment. As with any research in children, the burden and risk should be minimized. Recent developments in sample collection and analysis as well as pharmacokinetic analysis should be considered in the design of studies. Despite the difficulties inherent to drug research in critically ill children, methods are available to conduct ethically sound research resulting in relevant and generalizable data. This should motivate the PICU community to commit to drug research to ultimately provide the right drug at the right dose for every individual child.

  7. Research on the Cockpit Design Characteristics for Commercial Aircraft%商用飞机驾驶舱造型设计特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘岗; 刘春荣

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the history and current situation of cockpit modeling design from Commercial Air-craft Corporation of China and other nations. First of all,a wide research was taken including an investigation of 5 different aircrafts and a collection of different types of aircraft cockpit pictures. Based on these, the design logic of different aircraft manufacturers was concluded. Sixty six cockpits from 12 aircraft companies are used as the cus-tomer research and cluster analysis and 10 typical cockpits are chosen from them. After that, the cockpit design characteristics and differences from main aircraft manufacturers are analyzed. The research provides a good refer-ence for new aircraft cockpit design.%介绍了国内外商用飞机驾驶舱设计的历史及现状,在分析多类飞机驾驶舱造型设计图片资料的基础上,探讨主要飞机制造商驾驶舱造型设计的特征。依据驾驶舱造型的相似性,对国际上12家商用飞机制造商的66款机型的驾驶舱进行聚类分析和多维尺度分析,挑选出10款有代表性的驾驶舱。在提取代表性驾驶舱造型特征线后,分析主要飞机制造商的驾驶舱造型设计特点及差异,为新型飞机驾驶舱造型设计提供参考。

  8. Methods provided and applied in a research aircraft for the study of cloud physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maser, R. [Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung, J. W. Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Franke, H. [Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung, J. W. Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Preiss, M. [Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung, J. W. Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Jaeschke, W. [Zentrum fuer Umweltforschung, J. W. Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    1994-11-01

    For the observation of gaseous, liquid, and solid pollutants in and in the vicinity of clouds a small aircraft (Piper Chieftain Navajo) was equipped with microphysical and chemical instruments. It was used to study the role of clouds in distributing atmospheric pollutants and to quantify the involved scavenging and oxidation processes. New devices for the isokinetic collection of cloud water and interstitial aerosol particles were developed. Analytical instruments for measuring S(IV) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the liquid and in the gas phase were modified to allow the analysis during flight immediately after sampling the cloud water. During the field experiment CLEOPATRA 1992 (Meischner et al., 1993) the aircraft and its instrumentation proved well and enabled the simultaneous measurement of microphysical and chemical properties. In this contribution the aircraft and newly developed instrumentation are presented while first results of measurements performed aboard the Piper will be discussed by Preiss et al., 1994; Seyffer et al., 1994; Schaefer et al., 1994 and Wurzler et al., 1994. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zur Untersuchung der Rolle von Wolken bei der Verteilung und Umwandlung von Spurenstoffen in der Atmosphaere und zur Quantifizierung damit verbundener `scavenging`- und Oxidationsprozesse wurden Messungen innerhalb und in der Umgebung von Wolken durchgefuehrt. Dazu wurde ein Kleinflugzeug mit mikrophysikalischen und chemischen Messgeraeten ausgeruestet und im Rahmen des Feldexperimentes CLEOPATRA (Meischner et al., 1993) eingesetzt. Neben Neuentwicklungen zur Sammlung von Wolkenwasser und interstitiellem Aerosol wurden auch erprobte Messsysteme eingesetzt, die zuvor an die spezielle Aufgabenstellung angepasst wurden. So konnte z.B. das gesammelte Wolkenwasser direkt nach der Sammlung noch im Flugzeug durch modifizierte CFCL-Analysatoren auf ihren Gehalt an S(IV) und H{sub 2}O{sub 2} hin untersucht werden. Waehrend des Feldexperimentes konnte das Flugzeug und seine

  9. Preliminary results for an aeromagnetic survey flown over Italy using the HALO (High Altitude and LOng range) research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesur, V.; Gebler, A.; Schachtschneider, R.

    2012-12-01

    In June 2012 the GEOHALO mission was flown over Italy using the high altitude and long-range German research aircraft HALO (Gulfstream jet - G550). One goal of the mission was to demonstrate the feasibility of using geodetic and geophysical instrumentation on such fast flying aircraft. Several types of data were acquired including gravity, GNSS signals (reflectometry, spectrometry and occultation), laser altimetry and magnetic data. The magnetic data were collected through two independent acquisition chains placed inside under-wing containers. Each chain included a total intensity cesium magnetometer, a three-component fluxgate magnetometer, several temperature censors and a digitizer. Magnetic and temperature data were collected at a 10 Hz sampling rate. Seven parallel profiles, each around 1000 km long, were flown over the Apennine peninsula from north-west to south-east. The flight altitude was about 3500 m and the survey line spacing around 40 km. These long profiles were complemented by four crossing profiles, and a repeated flight line at a higher altitude (approx. 10500 m). The ground speed during the flight was generally around 125 m/s (450 km/h). The output from the first steps of the magnetic data processing will be shown. The measured magnetic data appear to be consistent with the expected signal.

  10. Toxic Hazards Research Unit Annual Technical Report: 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    Holland, New York, 1980. Boyd, M. R., L. T. Burka, T. M. Harris, and B. J. Wilson, (1973), Lung- toxic furanoterpenoids produced by sweet potatoes ( IPOMOEA ...AFAMRL-TR-84-00 1 NNTRI-84-41 AD-A147 857 TOXIC HAZARDS RESEARCH UNIT ANNUAL TECHNICAL REPORT: � J. D. MACEIWEN E. H. VERNOT UNIVERSITY OF...ER * BRUCE 0. s’rUART, PhD * Director Toxic Hazards Division * .Air Force Aerospace Medical Research La racory SECURITY CLASSI FICA TI0N OF THIS PAGE

  11. Research on aircraft/vortex-wake interactions to determine acceptable level of wake intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.; Tinling, Bruce E.

    1988-01-01

    An evaluation of the literature on large aircraft wake-vortex encounters in flight and in flight simulators has furnished an estimate of the level to which the vortex-induced rolling moments must be reduced in order to be perceived as nonhazardous at a 2-n.mi. separation distance. The criteria are based on the ratio of the vortex-induced acceleration in roll to the aileron-induced roll acceleration. A wake is acceptably alleviated if the ratio of vortex-to-aileron rolling moments is less than about 0.5. When a satisfactory alleviation scheme is identified, the alleviated vortex structure should be inserted into a simulator to ascertain whether the maximum bank angles induced are within tolerable limits.

  12. Application research of centrifugal investment cast TiAl component used for advanced aircraft engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊涛; 李世琼; 张继; 马万青; 邹敦叙; 仲增墉

    2002-01-01

    A more complex structural component with small size and very thin walls and blades used for advanced aircraft engine was fabricated well by induction skull melting and centrifugal investment casting with a proper ceramic mold. The tensile elongation and ultimate strength of the hot isostatically pressed (HIPped) Ti-46.5Al-2.5V-1Cr (mole fraction, %) casting alloy sare up to 2.5% and 645 Mpa at room temperature, and 31% and 593 Mpa a t 800 ℃. The fracture roughness at room temperature is up to 28 Mpa*m1/2 . The endurance tensile strength at 800 ℃ for 150 h, is higher than 200 Mpa. The high cycle rotary bending fatigue strengths for 1×107 cycles at room temperature and 800 ℃ a re 412 Mpa and 270 Mpa, respectively.

  13. Fiber Optic Experience with the Smart Actuation System on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Eddie

    1997-01-01

    High bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and potential weight savings have led to the development of fiber optic technology for future aerospace vehicle systems. This technology has been incorporated in a new smart actuator as the primary communication interface. The use of fiber optics simplified system integration and significantly reduced wire count. Flight test results showed that fiber optics could be used in aircraft systems and identified critical areas of development of fly-by-light technology. This paper documents the fiber optic experience gained as a result of this program, and identifies general design considerations that could be used in a variety of specific applications of fiber optic technology. Environmental sensitivities of fiber optic system components that significantly contribute to optical power variation are discussed. Although a calibration procedure successfully minimized the effect of fiber optic sensitivities, more standardized calibration methods are needed to ensure system operation and reliability in future aerospace vehicle systems.

  14. 32 CFR 855.15 - Detaining an aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Detaining an aircraft. 855.15 Section 855.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits § 855.15 Detaining an aircraft...

  15. Scientific Research Program for Power, Energy, and Thermal Technologies. Task Order 0001: Energy, Power, and Thermal Technologies and Processes Experimental Research. Subtask: Thermal Management of Electromechanical Actuation System for Aircraft Primary Flight Control Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    commercial aircraft utilize a cable and pulley scheme. In both setups, trim units, feel units, and power control units (PCUs) provide the pilot with...drives a mechanical transmission typically made up of a reduction gear box and a ball/roller screw (linear actuator) or flanged housing (rotary hinge... gear box or ball screw mechanism. Therefore it becomes the point of interest for TMS adaption. Current EMAS technology employs permanent magnet

  16. Methane and nitrous oxide measurements onboard the UK Atmospheric Research Aircraft using quantum cascade laser spectrometry (QCL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, J. B.; O'Shea, S.; Dorsey, J.; Bauguitte, S.; Cain, M.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.; Gallagher, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    A Aerodyne Research© Mini-Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) spectrometer was installed on the UK Facility of Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft and employed during summer 2012. Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations were measured within the Arctic Circle as part of the MAMM project (Methane and other greenhouse gases in the Arctic - Measurements, process studies and Modelling) as well as around the UK as part of the ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London). A range of missions were flown, including deep vertical profiles up to the stratosphere, providing concentration profiles of CH4 and N2O, as well as low altitude level runs exploring near surface diffuse emission sources such as the wetlands in Arctic Lapland and point emissions sources such as gas platforms off the UK coast. Significant pollution plumes were observed both in the Arctic and around the UK with elevated CH4 concentrations, as well as enhanced CO, O3 and aerosol levels. The NAME Lagrangian particle dispersion model will be used to investigate the origins of these CH4 plumes to identify the locations of the emissions sources. The first set of flights using QCL on the FAAM research aircraft have been successful and regular in-flight calibrations (high/low span) and target concentrations were used to determine instrument accuracy and precision. Additional data quality control checks could be made by comparison with an onboard Los Gatos Fast Greenhouse Gas Analyser (FGGA) for CO2 and CH4 and provide the basis for further instrument development and implementation for future Arctic MAMM flights during spring and summer 2013.

  17. Unmanned Aircraft System / Remotely Piloted Aircraft (UAS/RPA) Human Factors and Human Systems Integration Research Workshop Held in Dayton, Ohio on November 8-9, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    WWII, while it may take only 10 minutes today. At the same time there has been a vast reduction in the number of aircraft and aircrew needed to...with functions that are not common to their platform. Another UAS project conducted at NAWC-TSD was a heuristic -based usability analysis of Open...hours outside the box. The brief by Lt Col Tvaryanas continued by discussing current UAS shiftwork heuristics and compared the effects of rapid vs

  18. Fraud in scientific research - birth of the Concordat to uphold research integrity in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajuria, Ankur; Agha, Riaz

    2014-02-01

    Fraud in research has risen exponentially and recent high profile cases may just be the tip of the iceberg. This threatens to have a major impact on public health, with policy makers and clinicians acting on erroneous data. To address this, the new research "Concordat", a consensus statement on research misconduct, has been published. Can it hold the key to rebuilding public confidence in scientific research in the United Kingdom? This review focuses on the concept of research misconduct, highlighting prominent cases and discussing strategies in order to restore confidence in the validity of scientific research.

  19. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units - A model partnership program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-04-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) program is a unique model of cooperative partnership among the USGS, other U.S. Department of the Interior and Federal agencies, universities, State fish and wildlife agencies, and the Wildlife Management Institute. These partnerships are maintained as one of the USGS’s strongest links to Federal and State land and natural resource management agencies.Established in 1935 to meet the need for trained professionals in the growing field of wildlife management, the program currently consists of 40 Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units located on university campuses in 38 States and supports 119 research scientist positions when fully funded. The threefold mission of the CRU program is to (1) conduct scientific research for the management of fish, wildlife, and other natural resources; (2) provide technical assistance to natural resource managers in the application of scientific information to natural resource policy and management; and (3) train future natural resource professionals.

  20. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine: Warfighter Research Focusing on the Past 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolf, Kent B.; Francesconi, Ralph; Sawka, Michael N.; Cymerman, Allen; Hoyt, Reed W.; Young, Andrew J.; Zambraski, Edward J.

    2011-01-01

    The United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) celebrated its 50th anniversary on July 1, 2011. This article reviews its history, evolution, and transition of its research programs as well as its scientific and military accomplishments, emphasizing the past 25 yr. During the 1990s, USARIEM published a series of…

  1. Mental health diagnoses and counseling among pilots of remotely piloted aircraft in the United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Jean L; Webber, Bryant J

    2013-03-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), also known as drones, have been used extensively in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although RPA pilots in the U.S. Air Force (USAF) have reported high levels of stress and fatigue, rates of mental health (MH) diagnoses and counseling in this population are unknown. We calculated incidence rates of 12 specific MH outcomes among all active component USAF RPA pilots between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2011, and by various demographic and military variables. We compared these rates to those among all active component USAF manned aircraft (MA) pilots deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan during the same period. The unadjusted incidence rates of all MH outcomes among RPA pilots (n=709) and MA pilots (n=5,256) were 25.0 per 1,000 person-years and 15.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.1, 95% confidence interval=0.9-1.5; adjusted for age, number of deployments, time in service, and history of any MH outcome). Th ere was no significant difference in the rates of MH diagnoses, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders between RPA and MA pilots. Military policymakers and clinicians should recognize that RPA and MA pilots have similar MH risk profiles.

  2. Lewis icing research tunnel test of the aerodynamic effects of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyan, L. James; Zierten, Thomas A.; Hill, Eugene G.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the effect of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids on the aerodynamic characteristics of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane was conducted. The test was carried out in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Fluids tested include a Newtonian deicing fluid, three non-Newtonian anti-icing fluids commercially available during or before 1988, and eight new experimental non-Newtonian fluids developed by four fluid manufacturers. The results show that fluids remain on the wind after liftoff and cause a measurable lift loss and drag increase. These effects are dependent on the high-lift configuration and on the temperature. For a configuration with a high-lift leading-edge device, the fluid effect is largest at the maximum lift condition. The fluid aerodynamic effects are related to the magnitude of the fluid surface roughness, particularly in the first 30 percent chord. The experimental fluids show a significant reduction in aerodynamic effects.

  3. Overview of Predictive Microbiology Research in the Microbial Food Safety Research Unit at the USDA-Eastern Regional Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Microbial Food Safety Research Unit (MFSRU) maintains a commitment to high quality basic and applied research on pathogenic bacteria and virus to ensure a safe food supply. Their research addresses high priority U.S. national needs by developing technical information and technologies needed by F...

  4. A high arctic experience of uniting research and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Roslin, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    Monitoring is science keeping our thumb on the pulse of the environment to detect any changes of concern for societies. Basic science is the question-driven search for fundamental processes and mechanisms. Given the firm root of monitoring in human interests and needs, basic sciences have often been regarded as scientifically "purer"—particularly within university-based research communities. We argue that the dichotomy between "research" and "monitoring" is an artificial one, and that this artificial split clouds the definition of scientific goals and leads to suboptimal use of resources. We claim that the synergy between the two scientific approaches is well distilled by science conducted under extreme logistic constraints, when scientists are forced to take full advantage of both the data and the infrastructure available. In evidence of this view, we present our experiences from two decades of uniting research and monitoring at the remote research facility Zackenberg in High Arctic Greenland. For this site, we show how the combination of insights from monitoring with the mechanistic understanding obtained from basic research has yielded the most complete understanding of the system—to the benefit of all, and as an example to follow. We therefore urge scientists from across the continuum from monitoring to research to come together, to disregard old division lines, and to work together to expose a comprehensive picture of ecosystem change and its consequences.

  5. The United States of America and scientific research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hather, Gregory J; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Kolker, Natali; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Arzberger, Peter; Chain, Patrick; Field, Dawn; Franza, B Robert; Lin, Biaoyang; Meyer, Folker; Ozdemir, Vural; Smith, Charles V; van Belle, Gerald; Wooley, John; Kolker, Eugene

    2010-08-16

    To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US), we compared federal research funding (FRF) with the US gross domestic product (GDP) and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D) funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU) and the People's Republic of China (China) over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a) the increasing globalization of science: "What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?"; and b) the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: "How will the US continue to foster its strengths?"

  6. The United States of America and scientific research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Hather

    Full Text Available To gauge the current commitment to scientific research in the United States of America (US, we compared federal research funding (FRF with the US gross domestic product (GDP and industry research spending during the past six decades. In order to address the recent globalization of scientific research, we also focused on four key indicators of research activities: research and development (R&D funding, total science and engineering doctoral degrees, patents, and scientific publications. We compared these indicators across three major population and economic regions: the US, the European Union (EU and the People's Republic of China (China over the past decade. We discovered a number of interesting trends with direct relevance for science policy. The level of US FRF has varied between 0.2% and 0.6% of the GDP during the last six decades. Since the 1960s, the US FRF contribution has fallen from twice that of industrial research funding to roughly equal. Also, in the last two decades, the portion of the US government R&D spending devoted to research has increased. Although well below the US and the EU in overall funding, the current growth rate for R&D funding in China greatly exceeds that of both. Finally, the EU currently produces more science and engineering doctoral graduates and scientific publications than the US in absolute terms, but not per capita. This study's aim is to facilitate a serious discussion of key questions by the research community and federal policy makers. In particular, our results raise two questions with respect to: a the increasing globalization of science: "What role is the US playing now, and what role will it play in the future of international science?"; and b the ability to produce beneficial innovations for society: "How will the US continue to foster its strengths?"

  7. ALADINA - an unmanned research aircraft for observing vertical and horizontal distributions of ultrafine particles within the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altstädter, B.; Platis, A.; Wehner, B.; Scholtz, A.; Wildmann, N.; Hermann, M.; Käthner, R.; Baars, H.; Bange, J.; Lampert, A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the unmanned research aircraft Carolo P360 "ALADINA" (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting IN situ Aerosol) for investigating the horizontal and vertical distribution of ultrafine particles in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). It has a wingspan of 3.6 m, a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg and is equipped with aerosol instrumentation and meteorological sensors. A first application of the system, together with the unmanned research aircraft MASC (Multi-Purpose Airborne Carrier) of the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (EKUT), is described. As small payload for ALADINA, two condensation particle counters (CPC) and one optical particle counter (OPC) were miniaturised by re-arranging the vital parts and composing them in a space-saving way in the front compartment of the airframe. The CPCs are improved concerning the lower detection threshold and the response time to less than 1.3 s. Each system was characterised in the laboratory and calibrated with test aerosols. The CPCs are operated in this study with two different lower detection threshold diameters of 11 and 18 nm. The amount of ultrafine particles, which is an indicator for new particle formation, is derived from the difference in number concentrations of the two CPCs (ΔN). Turbulence and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer are described by measurements of fast meteorological sensors that are mounted at the aircraft nose. A first demonstration of ALADINA and a feasibility study were conducted in Melpitz near Leipzig, Germany, at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) on 2 days in October 2013. There, various ground-based instruments are installed for long-term atmospheric monitoring. The ground-based infrastructure provides valuable additional background information to embed the flights in the continuous atmospheric context and is used for validation of the airborne results. The development of the

  8. Exploring the SCOAP3 Research Contributions of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsteller, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    The Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics (SCOAP3) is a successful global partnership of libraries, funding agencies and research centers. This presentation will inform the audience about SCOAP3 and also delve into descriptive statistics of the United States' intellectual contribution to particle physics via these open access journals. Exploration of the SCOAP3 particle physics literature using a variety of metrics tools such as Web of Science™, InCites™, Scopus® and SciVal will be shared. ORA or Sci2 will be used to visualize author collaboration networks.

  9. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  10. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  11. Current projects of the Application Technology Research Unit (ATRU) USDA-ARS, Wooster/Toledo, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Application Technology Research Unit (ATRU) is the largest multidisciplinary research team in the United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, conducting studies on floricultural and nursery crops. On-farm research is a major approach to the mission of this Unit. The...

  12. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  13. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  14. Aircraft systems design methodology and dispatch reliability prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Bineid, Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft despatch reliability was the main subject of this research in the wider content of aircraft reliability. The factors effecting dispatch reliability, aircraft delay, causes of aircraft delays, and aircraft delay costs and magnitudes were examined. Delay cost elements and aircraft delay scenarios were also studied. It concluded that aircraft dispatch reliability is affected by technical and non-technical factors, and that the former are under the designer's control. It showed that ...

  15. The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, S. E.; Wiggins, H. V.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) is a nonprofit membership organization composed of universities and institutions that have a substantial commitment to research in the Arctic. ARCUS was formed in 1988 to serve as a forum for planning, facilitating, coordinating, and implementing interdisciplinary studies of the Arctic; to act as a synthesizer and disseminator of scientific information on arctic research; and to educate scientists and the general public about the needs and opportunities for research in the Arctic. ARCUS, in collaboration with the broader science community, relevant agencies and organizations, and other stakeholders, coordinates science planning and educational activities across disciplinary and organizational boundaries. Examples of ARCUS projects include: - Arctic Sea Ice Outlook - an international effort that provides monthly summer reports synthesizing community estimates of the expected sea ice minimum. - Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook - a resource for Alaska Native subsistence hunters, coastal communities, and others that provides weekly reports with information on sea ice conditions relevant to walrus in Alaska waters. - PolarTREC (Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating) - a program whereby K-12 educators and researchers work together in hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctic to advance polar science education. - ArcticInfo mailing list, Witness the Arctic newsletter, and the Arctic Calendar - communication tools for the arctic science community to keep apprised of relevant news, meetings, and announcements. - Coordination for the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) program, which aims to provide scientific understanding of arctic environmental change to help society understand and respond to a rapidly changing Arctic.

  16. Phenology research for natural resource management in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, Carolyn A F; Kellermann, Jherime L; Gerst, Katharine L; Miller-Rushing, Abraham J

    2014-05-01

    Natural resource professionals in the United States recognize that climate-induced changes in phenology can substantially affect resource management. This is reflected in national climate change response plans recently released by major resource agencies. However, managers on-the-ground are often unclear about how to use phenological information to inform their management practices. Until recently, this was at least partially due to the lack of broad-based, standardized phenology data collection across taxa and geographic regions. Such efforts are now underway, albeit in very early stages. Nonetheless, a major hurdle still exists: phenology-linked climate change research has focused more on describing broad ecological changes rather than making direct connections to local to regional management concerns. To help researchers better design relevant research for use in conservation and management decision-making processes, we describe phenology-related research topics that facilitate "actionable" science. Examples include research on evolution and phenotypic plasticity related to vulnerability, the demographic consequences of trophic mismatch, the role of invasive species, and building robust ecological forecast models. Such efforts will increase phenology literacy among on-the-ground resource managers and provide information relevant for short- and long-term decision-making, particularly as related to climate response planning and implementing climate-informed monitoring in the context of adaptive management. In sum, we argue that phenological information is a crucial component of the resource management toolbox that facilitates identification and evaluation of strategies that will reduce the vulnerability of natural systems to climate change. Management-savvy researchers can play an important role in reaching this goal.

  17. Scaled Model Technology for Flight Research of General Aviation Aircraft Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our proposed future Phase II activities are aimed at developing a scientifically based "tool box" for flight research using scaled models. These tools will be of...

  18. Status of reactor shielding research in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartine, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Shielding research in the United States continues to place emphasis on: (1) the development and refinement of shielding design calculational methods and nuclear data; and (2) the performance of confirmation experiments, both to evaluate specific design concepts and to verify specific calculational techniques and input data. The successful prediction of the radiation levels observed within the now-operating Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) has demonstrated the validity of this two-pronged approach, which has since been applied to US fast breeder reactor programs and is now being used to determine radiation levels and possible further shielding needs at operating light water reactors, especially under accident conditions. A similar approach is being applied to the back end of the fission fuel cycle to verify that radiation doses at fuel element storage and transportation facilities and within fuel reprocessing plants are kept at acceptable levels without undue economic penalties.

  19. Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 onboard the UK FAAM research aircraft using a, Los Gatos Research Inc, cavity enhanced absorption spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, S.; Bauguitte, S.; Muller, J. B.; Le Breton, M.; Gallagher, M. W.; Allen, G.; Percival, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Airborne measurements of CO2 and CH4 have been made using the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft since spring 2011.The measurement system uses a commercially available analyser, based on the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy technique, from Los Gatos Research Inc (FGGA, Model RMT-200). During the first year of operation (29 flights), 1 Hz measurements were found to be accurate to 0.07 ± 2.48ppbv for CH4 and -0.06± 0.66ppmv for CO2. In summer 2011, as part of the BORTAS project (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites), outflow from boreal forest fires was measured in Eastern Canada. A number of fresh and photochemically-aged plumes were identified using simultaneous HCN measurements, a widely used tracer for biomass burning. In the freshest plumes, strong relationships were found between CH4, CO2 and other tracers for biomass burning. From this we were able to estimate that 6.9±0.8 g of CH4 and 1551±213 g of CO2 were released into the atmosphere per kg of dry matter burnt. These emission factors are in good agreement with estimates from previous studies in boreal regions. However for aged plumes the correlations between CH4 and other biomass burning tracers were not as robust, most likely due to mixing from other CH4 emission sources, such as the wetland regions. The role of additional emission sources will be investigated using the UK Met Office NAME atmospheric dispersion model and the HYSPLIT trajectory model. Using tailored back trajectory analysis, we will present an interpretation of this new dataset in the context of air mass/fire origin, relating this to MODIS fire maps and source strength.

  20. Researcher's guide to the NASA Ames Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinacori, J. B.; Stapleford, R. L.; Jewell, W. F.; Lehman, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Performance, limitations, supporting software, and current checkout and operating procedures are presented for the flight simulator, in terms useful to the researcher who intends to use it. Suggestions to help the researcher prepare the experimental plan are also given. The FSAA's central computer, cockpit, and visual and motion systems are addressed individually but their interaction is considered as well. Data required, available options, user responsibilities, and occupancy procedures are given in a form that facilitates the initial communication required with the NASA operations' group.

  1. Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  2. 民用飞机预研项目存在问题及对策%Problems and Countermeasures in Advanced Research Projects for Civil Aircraft Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒秀丽

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, three common problems are pointed out and dissected in advanced research projects for civil aircraft technology in China and three corresponding countermeasures being successfully implemented are pro-posed. These countermeasures are:establishment and application of innovation information repository supporting the setting-up of advanced research projects to reflect correct demand traction, effective formation and operation of the Integrated Project Team for effective project implementation and enhanced Technology Readiness Assessment promo-ting the application of research achievements. Good results of the application of the above-mentioned countermeas-ures are being achieved in the setting-up and implementation of three "serialized" advanced civil aircraft cockpit technology research projects, which break through the bottleneck of the advanced researches' leading and support-ing role to civil aircraft product development and provide a reference to advanced research projects in other indus-tries as well as in different civil aircraft technical fields.%指出我国民用飞机预研项目常见的三类问题并加以剖析,相应提出三项对策付诸实践:建创新信息库助正确需求牵引,组综合项目团队( IPT)助预研高效实施,抓技术成熟度评估( TRA)促研究成果应用. 上述对策在民用飞机驾驶舱技术领域三个系列化预研项目的立项和实施中显现成效,突破制约民用飞机预研引领和支撑民用飞机产品研发的瓶颈,可供民用飞机各技术领域和其他产业的预研项目借鉴.

  3. Start Up Research Effort in Fluid Mechanics. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    1997-01-01

    In accordance with the project plan for the report period in the proposal titled above, HU and FML teams investigated two sets of concepts for reduction of noise and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles of aircraft engines and screws for mixers, fans, propellers and boats. The main achievements in the report period are: (a) Publication of the paper in the AIAA Journal, which described our concepts and some results. (b) The Award in the Civil Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) competition. This 2 year grant for Hampton University (HU) and Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI, Moscow, Russia) supports the research implementation under the current NASA FAR grant. (c) Selection for funding by NASA HQ review panel of the Partnership Awards Concept Paper. This two year grant also will support our current FAR grant. (d) Publication of a Mobius Strip concept in NASA Technical Briefs, June, 1996, and a great interest of many industrial companies in this invention. Successful experimental results with the Mobius shaped screw for mixers, which save more than 30% of the electric power by comparison with the standard screws. Creation of the scientific-popular video-film which can be used for commercial and educational purposes. (e) Organization work, joint meetings and discussions of the NASA LARC JNL Team and HU professors and administration for the solution of actual problems and effective work of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Hampton University. In this report the main designs are enumerated. It also contains for both concept sets: (1) the statement of the problem for each design, some results, publications, inventions, patents, our vision for continuation of this research, and (2) present and expected problems in the future.

  4. Operations research in intensive care unit management: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jie; Fügener, Andreas; Schoenfelder, Jan; Brunner, Jens O

    2016-08-12

    The intensive care unit (ICU) is a crucial and expensive resource largely affected by uncertainty and variability. Insufficient ICU capacity causes many negative effects not only in the ICU itself, but also in other connected departments along the patient care path. Operations research/management science (OR/MS) plays an important role in identifying ways to manage ICU capacities efficiently and in ensuring desired levels of service quality. As a consequence, numerous papers on the topic exist. The goal of this paper is to provide the first structured literature review on how OR/MS may support ICU management. We start our review by illustrating the important role the ICU plays in the hospital patient flow. Then we focus on the ICU management problem (single department management problem) and classify the literature from multiple angles, including decision horizons, problem settings, and modeling and solution techniques. Based on the classification logic, research gaps and opportunities are highlighted, e.g., combining bed capacity planning and personnel scheduling, modeling uncertainty with non-homogenous distribution functions, and exploring more efficient solution approaches.

  5. Study of heat sink thermal protection systems for hypersonic research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahl, W. A.; Edwards, C. L. W.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of using a single metallic heat sink thermal protection system (TPS) over a projected flight test program for a hypersonic research vehicle was studied using transient thermal analyses and mission performance calculations. Four materials, aluminum, titanium, Lockalloy, and beryllium, as well as several combinations, were evaluated. Influence of trajectory parameters were considered on TPS and mission performance for both the clean vehicle configuration as well as with an experimental scramjet mounted. From this study it was concluded that a metallic heat sink TPS can be effectively employed for a hypersonic research airplane flight envelope which includes dash missions in excess of Mach 8 and 60 seconds of cruise at Mach numbers greater than 6. For best heat sink TPS match over the flight envelope, Lockalloy and titanium appear to be the most promising candidates

  6. Research on Navigation System of Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle%无人机导航技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾云涛

    2013-01-01

      无人机导航系统是无人机完成给定任务的关键要素之一。本文分析了现有的导航技术优缺点;研究了高空长航时无人机、无人作战飞机和微小型无人机三种无人机执行任务的特点及作战环境,在此基础上,分别给出与之相应的导航方式。%  The navigation system of Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle (UAV) is one of the essentials to accomplish the planned missions. The advantages and disadvantages of the current navigation techniques are analyzed in this paper. The missions to execute and warfare environment are researched for high altitude long-endurance UAV, combat-based UAV and Micro-miniature UAV, and navigation modes relative the UAV are represented.

  7. A Review of Research and Development in Crashworthiness of General Aviation Aircraft: Seats, Restraints and Floor Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-01

    accident rates in general aviation. 3 q’ ) RtSUM~k Une recherche documentaire a W effectude afin de determiner l’dtat de nos connaissances sur les aspects...extensive computer analyses are necessary because the costs of full-scale aircraft tests are prohibitive. Wittlin 4 1) briefly outlined aircraft crash...subfloors. These analyses are required to defint the requirements for retrofit and new designs. The introduction of the FAA regulations [681 on dynamic

  8. 航空器推出决策的优化研究%Research on the Optimizing of Aircraft Pushback Decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨双双; 朱华庆

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft pushback decision has been an important research direction of the airport surface management and research difficulties .Currently ,aircraft pushback decision is generally based on the flight plan and given by ground controllers .The method based on the flight plan will be lack flexible and initiative .Ground controllers send pushback decision based on artificial estimated taxiway aircraft numbers and takeoff runway capacity ,this practice has caused a reduction in the utilization of runways and taxiways ,increased fuel consumption and exhaust emissions .The paper presents a scene monito-ring system based on aircraft pushback decision optimization method ;then established aircraft push-back optimization model ,then the most like state heuristic algorithm was used to solve the model .Fi-nally ,an example of the aircraft pushback decision of Wuhan Tianhe International Airport was given to verify the practice and effective of the model .The results show that the optimized aircraft decision was better than the traditional method in the utilization of runways and taxiways .%航空器推出决策一直是机场场面管理的重要研究方向和研究难点.目前,航空器推出决策一般是基于航班飞行计划和地面管制员而给出的,基于航班飞行计划是一种被动型不灵活的手段,地面管制员是根据人工估计滑行道的航空器架次和起飞跑道容量,从而发出推出许可指令,这种做法造成了跑道和滑行道利用率的降低.文中提出一种基于场面监视系统的航空器推出决策优化方法;然后建立了航空器推出决策优化模型,并使用最有可能状态(MLS)启发式算法进行求解;最后对武汉天河国际机场的航空器推出决策优化进行仿真验证,结果表明,优化的航空器推出决策与传统方法相比跑道利用率最大可提高4.8%.

  9. The Scientific Research Achievement Transformation in Civil Aircraft Devleopment%民机制造科研项目成果转化问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长法; 周竹维; 赵雄

    2013-01-01

    It is necessary for civil aircraft companies to transform the scientific achievement into production pow -er.Based on the concept description of scientific research achievement transformation , it defines the content of scientific research achievement transformation , proposes the status quo and characteristics of the scientific re-search achievement transformation in civil aircraft development , builds the model of scientific research achieve-ment transformation .This provides the technology innovation reference for the civil aircraft companies .%后发的民机制造企业只有将技术成果转化为现实生产力,才能不断提高其技术水平。首先对技术成果转化的概念进行了讨论,在此基础上界定了成果转化涉及的内容;其次对民机制造技术成果转化的现状及特点进行了介绍;然后对成果转化(或转移)进行了系统分析,在此基础上提出了成果转化的模型,为实现成果转化,最终为实现民机创新性技术进步提供一种有益的思考。

  10. Chemiluminescent methods and instruments for monitoring of the atmosphere and satellite validation on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnikov, Nikolay; Borisov, Yuriy; Akmulin, Dimitry; Chekulaev, Igor; Sitnikova, Vera; Ulanovsky, Alexey; Sokolov, Alexey

    The results of development of instruments based on heterophase chemiluminescence for measurements of space distribution of ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations on board of research aircrafts and unmanned aerial vehicles carried out in Central Aerological Observatory are presented. Some results of atmospheric investigations on board of research aircrafts M55 “Geophysica” (Russia) and “Falcon” (Germany) carried out using developed instruments in frame of international projects are demonstrated. Small and low power instruments based on chemiluminescent principle for UAV are developed. The results of measurements on board of UAV are shown. The development can be used for satellite data validation, as well as operative environmental monitoring of contaminated areas in particular, chemical plants, natural and industrial disasters territories, areas and facilities for space purposes etc.

  11. Medical researchers unite for study on cancer intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Drs. Antoine Snijders and Jian-Hua Mao, whose article is published in this issue of AMOR and discuss their views on cancer genetics, targeted therapy, and personalized medicine.Having worked together in numerous joint investigations that have yielded significant results, Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao would most definitely agree that two heads are better than one. “Researchers these days need to have the ability to collaborate across many different disciplines,” said the duo in an exclusive interview with AMOR. Dr. Snijders and Dr. Mao, both with PhDs in cancer genetics and genomics, are currently based at the Biological Systems and Engineering Division of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, California, which is a member of the national laboratory system supported by the U.S Department of Energy through its Office of Science. The Berkeley Lab is well known for producing excellent scholars, as thirteen Nobel Prize winners are affiliated with the Lab and seventy of its scientists are members of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS, one of the highest honors for a scientist in the United States. Dr. Snijders, a Dutch who has conducted his research at Berkeley Lab for the past eight years, did his Masters in Science (Medical Biology at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands – an institute with a strong focus on scientific research and is home to five Spinoza Prize (a.k.a. the “Dutch Nobel” winners. Dr. Snijders’s PhD (cum laude in cancer and molecular biology was awarded by University Utrecht in Netherlands, but his research work was carried out at the University of California San Francisco. Subsequently, he continued his postdoctoral research in molecular cytogenetics at the same institution. A prolific author of 114 publications (with 3,851 citations according to ResearchGate, Dr. Snijders – who also volunteers with California’s Contra Costa County Search and Rescue team for missing persons – has interests in

  12. 14 CFR 375.11 - Other foreign civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other foreign civil aircraft. 375.11... PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorization § 375.11 Other foreign civil aircraft. A foreign civil aircraft other than those referred to in § 375.10...

  13. 14 CFR 183.27 - Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors...: Privileges § 183.27 Designated aircraft maintenance inspectors. A designated aircraft maintenance inspector (DAMI) may approve maintenance on civil aircraft used by United States military flying clubs in foreign...

  14. Technology of research of hydroturbine unit work using seismic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Liseikin, A. V.; Gromyko, P. V.; Soloviev, V. M.

    2013-05-01

    On August, 17, 2009 one of the most significant accident in hydropower engineering was happened at Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station. Specialists of Geophysical Survey SB RAS took part in the State Committee on investigation of the accident cause at Sayano-Shushenskaya HPS. It was determined, that the cause of the accident was a break of stud-bolts on the turbine cover. Why stud-bolts did not stand a load? There were assumptions that hydraulic shock provoked the accident. But, if it is so, seismic station "Cheremushky", situated in 4 km away from the HPS, should has a record of this event. First of all, investigating the record, got at the seismic station in the moment of the accident, it was determined that strength of seismic waves, recorded at the moment of the accident, did not exceed strength of waves got at trotyl explosion of 500 g at a distance to 4 km. The version of hydraulic shock was not proved. There were distinguished low-frequency oscillations and it was determined that the hydroturbine unit (HU) had been raised up more then 10 m in height for 10 sec. Analyzing the seismic station records during the period of more than a year before the accident and records of operating modes of different HU, there was determined that oscillations radiated by second (damaged) HU were approximately 1.5 times more intense than oscillations from all other HU. After the accident at Sayano-Shushenskaya HPS hydroturbine units were started in turns: at first there were started hydroturbine units of old construction (3, 4, 5, 6), then HP of new construction (1, 7, 8, 9). We installed 10 - 15 three-component seismic stations in different points around a HU and studied field of seismic oscillations from it's work. It was determined, that HU radiates a set of monochromatic oscillations divisible by speed of rotation equal to 2.381 Hz. Change of these signals amplitude is connected with change of HU operation modes. Research of changes in oscillations spectral

  15. Research on Aircraft Noise Evaluation System%飞机噪声评价体系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈颖; 谢实海; 陈荣生

    2000-01-01

    The evaluation system of aircraft noise and environment noise should be integrated,because aircraft noise belongs to environment noise.At the same time,there should be some difference in the evaluation system of aircraft noise.For solving this contradiction,this article puts forward a new evaluation system of aircraft noise.This new system unifies the evaluation of aircraft noise and other environment noise effectively,and adds a new evaluation index single-event noise exposure level.The system not only considers the characteristics of aircraft noise,which is different from other traffic noise,but also adds aircraft noise to other traffic noise,which can reflect sound environment around airport really.This system has practical worthiness and theory significance.%飞机噪声的共性决定其评价体系应于环境噪声评价体系统一,而飞机噪声的个性决定其评价方法必须有别于一般环境噪声评价.本文通过对飞机噪声的共性与个性的分析,建立了一种新的飞机噪声评价体系,它不仅考虑到飞机噪声不同于其他交通噪声的特点,而且有效地统一了飞机噪声与城市区域环境噪声的评价体系.新体系可以将机场周围飞机噪声与其他交通噪声叠加,真实地反映机场周围声环境,具有一定的实用价值和理论指导意义.

  16. Determination of the Emissions from an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK APU were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements...

  17. Aircraft Disinsection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some countries may require aircraft coming from countries where certain insects or insect-borne diseases are present, such as malaria and Zika virus, to be treated with insecticide. Find out about regulation of pesticides for this treatment.

  18. Electronic Unit Pump Test Bench Development and Pump Properties Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo-lan; HUANG Ying; ZHANG Fu-jun; ZHAO Chang-lu

    2006-01-01

    A unit pump test bench is developed on an in-line pump test platform. The bench is composed of pump adapting assembly, fuel supply subsystem, lubricating subsystem and a control unit. A crank angle domain injection control method is given out and the control accuracy can be 0.1° crank degree. The bench can test bot h mechanical unit pump and electronic unit pump. A test model-PLD12 electronic unit pump is tested. Full pump delivery map and some influence factors test is d one. Experimental results show that the injection quantity is linear with the de livery angle. The quantity change rate is 15% when fuel temperature increases 30℃. The delivery quantity per cycle increases 30mg at 28V drive voltage. T he average delivery difference for two same type pumps is 5%. Test results show that the bench can be used for unit pump verification.

  19. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... certificated in the United States. However, the Model 912 A series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. You...

  20. Research of intelligent substation merging unit calibration equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhan; Cai, Xia; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Ning; Su, Yongchun

    2017-05-01

    This paper analyzes the structure and principle of the merging unit. Considering the effect of merging unit device performance of metering device and electrical protection, determines the inspection items and technical indicators. Combined with the merging unit related performance detection technology and related standards and rules, the paper uses system integration technology and automatic control technology to studied synchronization method in a separate network and the operation of SV for IEEE1588. Merging unit field calibration device was developed with advantages of high quality, good performance, reliable, and the device was used for field testing at some intelligent substation merge cells, its validity was proved.

  1. Follow on Research for Multi-Utility Technology Test Bed Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (FY13 Progress Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2013-01-01

    Modern aircraft employ a significant fraction of their weight in composite materials to reduce weight and improve performance. Aircraft aeroservoelastic models are typically characterized by significant levels of model parameter uncertainty due to the composite manufacturing process. Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of Multi Utility Technology Test-bed (MUTT) aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes for the structural model tuning based on the flutter analysis of MUTT aircraft. The ground vibration test-validated structural dynamic finite element model of the MUTT aircraft is created in this study. The structural dynamic finite element model of MUTT aircraft is improved using the in-house Multi-disciplinary Design, Analysis, and Optimization tool. In this study, two different weight configurations of MUTT aircraft have been improved simultaneously in a single model tuning procedure.

  2. Analysis Of Damage Arising From Exploitation Of The Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźny Piotr

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During exploitation, due to a variety of reasons, aircrafts are damaged or suffer from different failures. In the process of operation, using appropriate methods of diagnosis, failure, damage, and relative deregulation of individual elements or units can be detected. For this purpose, one can apply a number of indirect diagnostic methods with the use of recorded diagnostic signals or a direct diagnosis with the use of non-destructive methods. The proper identification of the technical condition allows to determine the causes of irregularities and take actions aimed at preventing their occurrence. The article presents the types of exploitation damage of a multi-purpose aircraft. In addition, the criteria for the division of damage and research methods of the causes of damage are presented. Furthermore, an analysis of the scope of activities to be performed during the research of causes of damage to the aircraft is made.

  3. Pilotless Aircraft Research Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-01-01

    Sperry Model 10 Velocimeter, Doppler radar at Wallops Island with trackers P.R. Mears and J. Quillen. Metallic ears pointed to the heavens, this radio tracking device kept tabs on Wallops rocket firings. Joseph Shortal has described this Doppler radar as follows: 'The Doppler radar was a genuine asset to PARD; it made possible the direct determination of velocity and allowed the measurement of drag for such simple models as the RM-2 and RM-5 types. Doppler radars were used in every launching from Wallops.' 'In cooperation with the Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground, specifications for a more powerful Doppler radar were prepared. A 150-watt radar which its manufacturer, Sperry Gyroscope Corp., called the Model 10 Velocimeter, was purchased. This radar was mounted on a SCR-547 trailer, which led Langley men to call it the TPS-547 radar for some time. This radar had a range of approximately five miles and was the first of a series of this type in use at Wallops for many years.' 'One operator directed the dishes toward the target in azimuth while the other operator controlled the elevation (The fact that two operators with independent gun sights and earphones could coordinate their efforts in this fashion surprised many 'experts'.). The Doppler radars were always located near the launcher and the operators normally served in the dual capacity of rocket technicians. After the Velocimeter was placed in operation, the TPS-5 radars were no longer used.' Photograph published in Winds of Change, a 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 74), by James Schultz. Published in Joseph A. Shortal, History of Wallops Station: Origins and Activities Through 1949, (Wallops Island, VA: National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Wallops Station, nd), Comment Edition. Photograph published in A New Dimension; Wallops Island Flight Test Range: The First Fifteen Years by Joseph Adams Shortal. A NASA publication (page 99).

  4. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate

  5. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathemat

  6. Research on Test Unit for Determining Cooling Characteristics of Quenchants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Lin-lin; ZHANG Wei-min; CHEN Nai-lu; LIU Zhan-cang; LIU Yang

    2004-01-01

    According to ASTM Designation DXXXX Standard Test Method for Determination of Cooling Characteristics of Quenchants by Cooling Curve Analysis with Agitation (Drayton Unit), a test unit was designed using which the cooling characteristics of a quenchant at different flow rates and different temperatures can be determined. We discussed the effects of flow rate and temperature on cooling characteristics of fast speed quenching oil. The results show that this unit can be well used for determining cooling characteristics of quechants at different flow rates and different temperatures. At the same time our investigation can provide a reference to the establishment of a standard for determination of cooling characteristics of quenchants with agitation.

  7. Thermochemical Process Development Unit: Researching Fuels from Biomass, Bioenergy Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-01

    The Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a unique facility dedicated to researching thermochemical processes to produce fuels from biomass.

  8. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathematical model is required. Two classical models will be discussed in this thesis, that is the Delft University of Technology (DUT) model and the Four Point Aircraft (FPA) model. Although they are well...

  9. RESEARCH OF AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MODEL OF MANEUVERABLE AIRCRAFT WITH MECHANIZED LEADING EDGE USING SOFTWARE ANSYS FLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Golovnev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The calculations of the aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft model having mechanized leading edge are conducted, and then comparing the results with experimental data. It is shown that the use of computational methods for the determination of the aerodynamic characteristics allows to deepen the results of experimental modeling in air tunnels.

  10. Does traffic-related air pollution explain associations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2012-08-15

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001-2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9-10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed.

  11. 高性能航空400Hz变压整流器%High Performance 400Hz Transformer-rectifier-unit for Aircraft Supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亮; 许爱国; 谢少军

    2012-01-01

    航空变压整流应用场合要求整流器具有输入交流电流谐波含量少、功率因数高、过载能力强以及输出外特性硬;文章对比分析了电压型多脉波整流器和电流型多脉波整流器的工作特性,并选择采用电流型多脉波整流电路来完成航空400Hz变压整流;研制了整流器样机,实验结果表明,该整流器在很宽的负载范围内输入交流电流正弦性好,且损耗低、过载能力强、输出外特性硬,可以很好地满足应用的需要。%To meet the requirement of aircraft supply, the Transformer Rectifier Unit (TRU) must have the merits of low input current harmonic, high power factor, high overload capability and excellent load characteristic. The performance characteristic analysis of current-type multi-pulse rectifier was carried compared to the voltage-type multi-pulse rectifier, which shows that current-type multi-pulse rectifier technology could fit the needs better. A TRU was built based on current-type multi-pulse rectifier. The experiment results show that it has sinusoidal input current in wide load range and high efficiency, high overload capability and excellent load characteristic.

  12. Advanced Aircraft Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar Prince

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been long debate on “advanced aircraft material” from past decades & researchers too came out with lots of new advanced material like composites and different aluminum alloys. Now days a new advancement that is in great talk is third generation Aluminum-lithium alloy. Newest Aluminum-lithium alloys are found out to have low density, higher elastic modulus, greater stiffness, greater cryogenic toughness, high resistance to fatigue cracking and improved corrosion resistance properties over the earlier used aircraft material as mentioned in Table 3 [1-5]. Comparison had been made with nowadays used composite material and is found out to be more superior then that

  13. AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE HANGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEAMBASU Gabriel George

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the maintenance process that is done on an airplane, at a certain period of time, or after a number of flight hours or cycles and describes the checks performed behind each inspection. The first part of research describes the aircraft maintenance process that has to be done after an updated maintenance manual according with aircraft type, followed by a short introduction about maintenance hangar. The second part of the paper presents a hangar design with a foldable roof and walls, which can be folded or extended, over an airplane when a maintenance process is done, or depending on weather condition.

  14. Environmental Assessment for the MQ-1 Predator and MQ-9 Reaper Unmaned Aircraft System (UAS) Second Formal Training Unit (FTU-2) Beddown

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    4, T-38, Tornado, Army Air helicopters, motorized gliders , frequent TDY support aircraft for Army Air or DoD missions, and F-22 aircraft currently...over the next 20 years. Wind turbines are known to create noise and visual impacts in the immediate area. Hypersonic Corridors Flight Corridors...Air Force and NASA propose testing hypersonic vehicles over four corridors extending up to 825nautical miles from Edwards AFB. Source: 95th Wing

  15. 飞机除冰液在冰中的渗透性能影响因素分析%Research Aircraft Deicing Fluid Permeability of Ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元; 李志强; 张帆; 彭华乔; 于新华

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the ability of aircraft deicing fluid airworthiness certification, making a research and analysis of aircraft deicing fluid influence on the permeability of ice through temperature, freezing point, osmotic pressure and the molecular weight respectively, according to《AIR 6211 Ice Penetration Test Method for Runways and Taxiways Deicing/Anti-icing Chemicals》. The results show that the depth of aircraft deicing fluid on the penetration of ice decreases as the temperature is reduced. The permeability of Newtonian-fluid is better than non Newtonian-fluid at the same temperature. The permeability of aircraft deicing fluid has no direct relation to the freezing point and associated with osmotic pressure. Moreover, the higher pressure, the better permeability of ice.%为了提高飞机除冰液适航验证能力,根据《AIR 6211 Ice Penetration Test Method for Runways and Taxiways Dei-cing/Anti-icing Chemicals》标准试验方法,研究分析了温度、冰点、渗透压和分子大小对飞机除冰液渗透性能的影响。试验结果表明:随着温度的降低,飞机除冰液对冰的渗透性逐渐减小;在相同温度下,牛顿流体型除冰液的渗透性优于非牛顿流体型除冰液;飞机除冰液的冰点和渗透性无直接关系而与渗透压相关,且渗透压越大,对冰的渗透性越好。

  16. United States/European workshop on power system related research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, L. H.; Carlsen, K. [eds.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the workshop was to strengthen U.S. and European power system related research programs by encouraging increased direct interaction between research investigators working on related problems. The agenda included brief reviews of ongoing and planned research programs; a discussion on research program planning and management; discussion of high priority problems in power system planning, operation, and control; discussion of the adequacy of existing programs addressing those areas. The final session summed the results of the two previous sessions. (MCW)

  17. Key considerations for the success of Medical Education Research and Innovation units in Canada: unit director perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varpio, Lara; Bidlake, Erin; Humphrey-Murto, Sue; Sutherland, Stephanie; Hamstra, Stanley J

    2014-08-01

    Growth in the field of medical education is evidenced by the proliferation of units dedicated to advancing Medical Education Research and Innovation (MERI). While a review of the literature discovered narrative accounts of MERI unit development, we found no systematic examinations of the dimensions of and structures that facilitate the success of these units. We conducted qualitative interviews with the directors of 12 MERI units across Canada. Data were analyzed using qualitative description (Sandelowski in Res Nurs Health 23:334-340, 2000). Final analysis drew on Bourdieu's (Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1977; Media, culture and society: a critical reader. Sage, London, 1986; Language and symbolic power. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1991) concepts of field, habitus, and capital, and more recent research investigating the field of MERI (Albert in Acad Med 79:948-954, 2004; Albert et al. in Adv Health Sci Educ 12:103-115, 2007). When asked about the metrics by which they define their success, directors cited: teaching, faculty mentoring, building collaborations, delivering conference presentations, winning grant funding, and disseminating publications. Analyzed using Bourdieu's concepts, these metrics are discussed as forms of capital that have been legitimized in the MERI field. All directors, with the exception of one, described success as being comprised of elements (capital) at both ends of the service-research spectrum (i.e., Albert's PP-PU structure). Our analysis highlights the forms of habitus (i.e., behaviors, attitudes, demeanors) directors use to negotiate, strategize and position the unit within their local context. These findings may assist institutions in developing a new-or reorganizing an existing-MERI unit. We posit that a better understanding of these complex social structures can help units become savvy participants in the MERI field. With such insight, units can improve their academic output and

  18. RESEARCH Osteosarcoma presentation stages at a tumour unit in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    regimens and surgical techniques.2,4,6,8 To benefit from these advances in treatment, the ... osteosarcoma were managed at our orthopaedic tumour unit. After complete ... (Table 1); metastasis to the lung was the most common site in 12/16.

  19. Between the Local and the Global: Organized Research Units and International Collaborations in the Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.; Oleksiyenko, Anatoly

    2011-01-01

    Organized research units--also known as centers, institutes, and laboratories--are increasingly prominent in the university. This paper examines how ORUs emerge to promote global agendas and international collaborations in an academic health center in North America. The roles these units play in helping researchers work across institutional and…

  20. Aircraft cybernetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  1. Survey on effect of surface winds on aircraft design and operation and recommendations for needed wind research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbolt, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of the effect of environmental surface winds and gusts on aircraft design and operation is presented. A listing of the very large number of problems that are encountered is given. Attention is called to the many studies that have been made on surface winds and gusts, but development in the engineering application of these results to aeronautical problems is pointed out to be still in the embryonic stage. Control of the aircraft is of paramount concern. Mathematical models and their application in simulation studies of airplane operation and control are discussed, and an attempt is made to identify their main gaps or deficiencies. Key reference material is cited. The need for better exchange between the meteorologist and the aeronautical engineer is discussed. Suggestions for improvements in the wind and gust models are made.

  2. United Kingdom health research analyses and the benefits of shared data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, James G; Sherbon, Beverley J; Viney, Ian S

    2016-06-24

    To allow research organisations to co-ordinate activity to the benefit of national and international funding strategies requires assessment of the funding landscape; this, in turn, relies on a consistent approach for comparing expenditure on research. Here, we discuss the impact and benefits of the United Kingdom's Health Research Classification System (HRCS) in national landscaping analysis of health research and the pros and cons of performing large-scale funding analyses. The first United Kingdom health research analysis (2004/2005) brought together the 11 largest public and charity funders of health research to develop the HRCS and use this categorisation to examine United Kingdom health research. The analysis was revisited in 2009/2010 and again in 2014. The most recent quinquennial analysis in 2014 compiled data from 64 United Kingdom research organisations, accounting for 91% of all public/charitable health research funding in the United Kingdom. The three analyses summarise the United Kingdom's health research expenditure in 2004/2005, 2009/2010 and 2014, and can be used to identify changes in research activity and disease focus over this 10 year period. The 2004/2005 analysis provided a baseline for future reporting and evidence for a United Kingdom Government review that recommended the co-ordination of United Kingdom health research should be strengthened to accelerate the translation of basic research into clinical and economic benefits. Through the second and third analyses, we observed strategic prioritisation of certain health research activities and disease areas, with a strong trend toward increased funding for more translational research, and increases in specific areas such as research on prevention. The use of HRCS in the United Kingdom to analyse the research landscape has provided benefit both to individual participatory funders and in coordinating initiatives at a national level. A modest amount of data for each project is sufficient for a

  3. Rapid, optical measurement of the atmospheric pressure on a fast research aircraft using open-path TDLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Buchholz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the high travel speed, the complex flow dynamics around an aircraft and the complex dependency of the fluid dynamics on numerous airborne parameters, it is quite difficult to obtain accurate pressure values at a specific instrument location of an aircraft's fuselage. Complex simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD models can in theory computationally "transfer" pressure values from one location to another. However, for long flight patterns, this process is inconvenient and cumbersome. Furthermore these CFD transfer models require a local experimental validation, which is rarely available. In this paper, we describe an integrated approach for a spectroscopic, calibration-free, in-flight pressure determination in an open-path White cell on an aircraft fuselage using ambient, atmospheric water vapour as the "sensor species". The presented measurements are realized with the HAI (Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations instrument, built for multiphase water detection via calibration-free TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The pressure determination is based on raw data used for H2O concentration measurement, but with a different post-flight evaluation method, and can therefore be conducted at deferred time intervals on any desired flight track. The spectroscopic pressure is compared in-flight with the static ambient pressure of the aircraft avionic system and a micro-mechanical pressure sensor, located next to the open-path cell, over a pressure range from 150 hPa to 800 hPa, and a water vapour concentration range of more than three orders of magnitude. The correlation between the micro-mechanical pressure sensor measurements and the spectroscopic pressure measurements show an average deviation from linearity of only 0.14% and a small offset of 9.5 hPa. For the spectroscopic pressure evaluation we derive measurement uncertainties under laboratory conditions of 3.2% and 5.1% during in flight operation on the

  4. Rapid, optical measurement of the atmospheric pressure on a fast research aircraft using open-path TDLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, B.; Afchine, A.; Ebert, V.

    2014-11-01

    Because of the high travel speed, the complex flow dynamics around an aircraft, and the complex dependency of the fluid dynamics on numerous airborne parameters, it is quite difficult to obtain accurate pressure values at a specific instrument location of an aircraft's fuselage. Complex simulations using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models can in theory computationally "transfer" pressure values from one location to another. However, for long flight patterns, this process is inconvenient and cumbersome. Furthermore, these CFD transfer models require a local experimental validation, which is rarely available. In this paper, we describe an integrated approach for a spectroscopic, calibration-free, in-flight pressure determination in an open-path White cell on an aircraft fuselage using ambient, atmospheric water vapour as the "sensor species". The presented measurements are realised with the HAI (Hygrometer for Atmospheric Investigations) instrument, built for multiphase water detection via calibration-free TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy). The pressure determination is based on raw data used for H2O concentration measurement, but with a different post-flight evaluation method, and can therefore be conducted at deferred time intervals on any desired flight track. The spectroscopic pressure is compared in-flight with the static ambient pressure of the aircraft avionic system and a micro-mechanical pressure sensor, located next to the open-path cell, over a pressure range from 150 to 800 hPa, and a water vapour concentration range of more than 3 orders of magnitude. The correlation between the micro-mechanical pressure sensor measurements and the spectroscopic pressure measurements shows an average deviation from linearity of only 0.14% and a small offset of 9.5 hPa. For the spectroscopic pressure evaluation we derive measurement uncertainties under laboratory conditions of 3.2 and 5.1% during in-flight operation on the HALO airplane. Under

  5. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 year in review postcard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Don E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-02-22

    Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 Year in Review postcardThis postcard provides details about the Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) Program—2016 Year in Review, Circular 1424. This Circular provides information relating to fish and wildlife science, students, staffing, vacancies, research funding, outreach and training, science themes, background on the CRU program, accolades, and professional services. Snapshots of Unit projects with information on how results have been or are being applied by cooperators are included. This is the essence of what we do: science that matters.Throughout the year, keep up with our research projects at www.coopunits.org.

  6. Mapping Investments and Published Outputs in Norovirus Research: A Systematic Analysis of Research Funded in the United States and United Kingdom During 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Fitchett, Joseph R; Lichtman, Amos B; Soyode, Damilola T; Harris, Jennifer N; Atun, Rifat

    2016-02-01

    Norovirus accounts for a considerable portion of the global disease burden. Mapping national or international investments relating to norovirus research is limited. We analyzed the focus and type of norovirus research funding awarded to institutions in the United States and United Kingdom during 1997-2013. Data were obtained from key public and philanthropic funders across both countries, and norovirus-related research was identified from study titles and abstracts. Included studies were further categorized by the type of scientific investigation, and awards related to vaccine, diagnostic, and therapeutic research were identified. Norovirus publication trends are also described using data from Scopus. In total, US and United Kingdom funding investment for norovirus research was £97.6 million across 349 awards; 326 awards (amount, £84.9 million) were received by US institutions, and 23 awards (£12.6 million) were received by United Kingdom institutions. Combined, £81.2 million of the funding (83.2%) was for preclinical research, and £16.4 million (16.8%) was for translational science. Investments increased from £1.7 million in 1997 to £11.8 million in 2013. Publication trends showed a consistent temporal increase from 48 in 1997 to 182 in 2013. Despite increases over time, trends in US and United Kingdom funding for norovirus research clearly demonstrate insufficient translational research and limited investment in diagnostics, therapeutics, or vaccine research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  8. Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Aircraft Wiring Support Equipment Integration Laboratory (AWSEIL) provides a variety of research, design engineering and prototype fabrication services...

  9. The development of turbojet aircraft in Germany, Britain, and the United States: A multi-national comparison of aeronautical engineering, 1935--1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelec, Sterling Michael

    In the 1930s aeronautical engineering needed revision. A presumptive anomaly was envisaged as piston-engine aircraft flew higher and faster. Radical alternatives to piston engines were considered in the unending quest for speed. Concurrently, but unwittingly, two turbojet engine programs were undertaken in Europe. The air-breathing three-stage turbojet engine was based on previous turbine technology; the revolutionary idea was the gas turbine as a prime mover for aircraft. In Germany, Dr. Hans von Ohain was the first to complete a flight-worthy turbojet engine for aircraft. Installed in a Heinkel designed aircraft, the Germans began the jet age on 27 August 1939. The Germans led throughout the war and were the first to produce jet aircraft for combat operations. The principal limiting factor for the German jet program was a lack of reliable engines. The continuing myths that Hitler orders, too little fuel, or too few pilots hindered the program are false. In England, Frank Whittle, without substantial support, but with dogged determination, also developed a turbojet engine. The British came second in the jet race when the Whittle engine powered the Gloster Pioneer on 15 May 1941. The Whittle-Gloster relationship continued and produced the only Allied combat jet aircraft during the war, the Meteor, which was confined to Home Defense in Britain. The American turbojet program was built directly from the Whittle engine. General Electric copied the Whittle designs and Bell Aircraft was contracted to build the first American jet plane. The Americans began the jet age on 1 October 1942 with a lackluster performance from their first jet, the Airacomet. But the Americans forged ahead, and had numerous engine and airframe programs in development by the end of the war. But, the Germans did it right and did it first. Partly because of a predisposition towards excellent engineering and physics, partly out of necessity, the Germans were able to produce combat turbojet aircraft

  10. An Overview of Research Infrastructure for Medieval Studies in the United States: Associations, Institutes, and Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zan Kocher

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This overview of research infrastructure in the United States brieflymentions some institutes, universities, associations, conferences,sources of funding, types of courses, research databases, academicjournals and book publishers. It intends to make American medievalistresources better accessible to colleagues from other countries, and toencourage those who wish to study in the United States and those whoare using the Internet to seek printed or digital materials for theirteaching or research.

  11. Control of an electro-hydrostatic actuation system for the nose landing gear of an "all electric aircraft"

    OpenAIRE

    Greissner, Carsten; Carl, Udo

    2004-01-01

    The EU research Project Power Optimised Aircraft (POA) investigates the approach to replace primary hydraulic supply by extended electric power systems towards a More or All Electric Aircraft. This contribution presents an electrically powered actuation system for nose landing gears using an EHA (electrohydrostatic actuator) approach. One motor pump unit supplies door and gear actuation as well as the steering system. Different control strategies for the individual actuators are introduced. T...

  12. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  13. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  14. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  15. Examining the Relationship Between Passenger Airline Aircraft Maintenance Outsourcing and Aircraft Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Kari L.

    The problem addressed was the concern for aircraft safety rates as they relate to the rate of maintenance outsourcing. Data gathered from 14 passenger airlines: AirTran, Alaska, America West, American, Continental, Delta, Frontier, Hawaiian, JetBlue, Midwest, Northwest, Southwest, United, and USAir covered the years 1996 through 2008. A quantitative correlational design, utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient, and the coefficient of determination were used in the present study to measure the correlation between variables. Elements of passenger airline aircraft maintenance outsourcing and aircraft accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations within domestic passenger airline operations were analyzed, examined, and evaluated. Rates of maintenance outsourcing were analyzed to determine the association with accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates. Maintenance outsourcing rates used in the evaluation were the yearly dollar expenditure of passenger airlines for aircraft maintenance outsourcing as they relate to the total airline aircraft maintenance expenditures. Aircraft accident, incident, and pilot deviation rates used in the evaluation were the yearly number of accidents, incidents, and pilot deviations per miles flown. The Pearson r-values were calculated to measure the linear relationship strength between the variables. There were no statistically significant correlation findings for accidents, r(174)=0.065, p=0.393, and incidents, r(174)=0.020, p=0.793. However, there was a statistically significant correlation for pilot deviation rates, r(174)=0.204, p=0.007 thus indicating a statistically significant correlation between maintenance outsourcing rates and pilot deviation rates. The calculated R square value of 0.042 represents the variance that can be accounted for in aircraft pilot deviation rates by examining the variance in aircraft maintenance outsourcing rates; accordingly, 95.8% of the variance is unexplained. Suggestions for future research include

  16. 民用飞机FPGA设计研究%Preliminary Research of FPGA Design in Civil Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭林

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the FPGA design in the civil aircraft,including the FPGA development life cycle,design and verification process,as well as the consideration of single-event upset preventing and the consideration of fully testable in critical system.%研究了民用飞机中FPGA的设计,主要包括FPGA设计的研制生命周期、设计与验证过程,以及在关键系统中FPGA设计的单粒子翻转效应及可测试性考虑。

  17. Using Action Research Methodology to Unite Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deemer, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The author describes an action research project given to masters-level preservice teachers in her educational psychology classes to help them connect the theories they are learning with educational problems they have observed or experienced. Students' responses on a six-item survey indicated that they valued the better understanding of how…

  18. Biosurveillance at the United States Meat Animal Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mission of the 50 scientists and 165 support staff at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC) is to develop new technologies to increase the efficiency of livestock production and improve meat safety, quality, and animal health to benefit consumers worldwide. The facilities include 35,000 ...

  19. Aircraft noise prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  20. TRACON Aircraft Arrival Planning and Optimization Through Spatial Constraint Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Christopher P.; Krzeczowski, Kenneth J.; Davis, Thomas J.; Denery, Dallas G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A new aircraft arrival planning and optimization algorithm has been incorporated into the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST) in the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) developed at NASA-Ames Research Center. FAST simulations have been conducted over three years involving full-proficiency, level five air traffic controllers from around the United States. From these simulations an algorithm, called Spatial Constraint Satisfaction, has been designed, coded, undergone testing, and soon will begin field evaluation at the Dallas-Fort Worth and Denver International airport facilities. The purpose of this new design is an attempt to show that the generation of efficient and conflict free aircraft arrival plans at the runway does not guarantee an operationally acceptable arrival plan upstream from the runway -information encompassing the entire arrival airspace must be used in order to create an acceptable aircraft arrival plan. This new design includes functions available previously but additionally includes necessary representations of controller preferences and workload, operationally required amounts of extra separation, and integrates aircraft conflict resolution. As a result, the Spatial Constraint Satisfaction algorithm produces an optimized aircraft arrival plan that is more acceptable in terms of arrival procedures and air traffic controller workload. This paper discusses the current Air Traffic Control arrival planning procedures, previous work in this field, the design of the Spatial Constraint Satisfaction algorithm, and the results of recent evaluations of the algorithm.

  1. Fraud in scientific research – birth of the Concordat to uphold research integrity in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajuria, Ankur; Agha, Riaz

    2014-01-01

    Fraud in research has risen exponentially and recent high profile cases may just be the tip of the iceberg. This threatens to have a major impact on public health, with policy makers and clinicians acting on erroneous data. To address this, the new research “Concordat”, a consensus statement on research misconduct, has been published. Can it hold the key to rebuilding public confidence in scientific research in the United Kingdom? This review focuses on the concept of research misconduct, highlighting prominent cases and discussing strategies in order to restore confidence in the validity of scientific research. PMID:24262890

  2. Cultural Mechanisms in Neighborhood Effects Research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.; Hepburn, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the current state of the U.S. literature on cultural mechanisms in neighborhood effects research. We first define what we mean by neighborhood effects and by cultural mechanisms. We then review and critique two theoretical perspectives on the cultural context of disadvantaged neighborhoods that are explicitly integrated into recent neighborhood effects literature in the U.S.: “deviant subculture” and “cultural heterogeneity.” We then draw on other related U.S. literatures from urban studies, cultural sociology, and culture and inequality to suggest some other conceptualizations that may be useful in advancing our understanding of the role of culture in neighborhood effects. We discuss the conceptual and methodological issues that will have to be grappled with in order to move this literature forward and conclude by offering concrete suggestions, both short-term and long-term, for a research agenda. PMID:26504263

  3. Recent Ocean Literacy Research in United States Public Schools: Results and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plankis, Brian J.; Marrero, Meghan E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research conducted on adults in the United States indicates low ocean literacy (Ocean Project, 2009b, 1999), but there is a dearth of peer-reviewed research on K-12 students' ocean literacy. This paper presents two research studies that examined the ocean and environmental literacy of 464 K-12 students in five states. Like the majority of…

  4. Industrial Research of Condensing Unit for Natural Gas Boiler House

    OpenAIRE

    Ziemele, J; Blumberga, D; Talcis, N; Burmistre, I

    2012-01-01

    In the course of work industrial research was carried out at the boiler plant A/S “Imanta” where a 10MW passive condensing economizer working on natural gas was installed after the 116MW water boiler. The work describes the design of the condensing economizer and wiring diagram. During the industrial experiment, the following measurements were made: the temperature of water before and after the economizer; the ambient temperature; the quantity of water passing through ...

  5. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  6. RADIUS: Research Archive on Disability in the United States. [CD-ROMs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sociometrics Corp., Los Altos, CA.

    This Research Archive on Disability in the United States (RADIUS), a database on CD-ROM, contains 19 data sets on the prevalence, incidence, correlates, and consequences of disability in the United States. The 19 data sets are: (1) 1991 National Maternal and Infant Health Follow-Up Survey; (2) National Pediatric Trauma Registry, 1988-1994; (3)…

  7. Industrial Research of Condensing Unit for Natural Gas Boiler House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Blumberga, Dagnija; Talcis, Normunds; Laicane, Ilze

    2012-12-01

    In the course of work industrial research was carried out at the boiler plant A/S "Imanta" where a 10MW passive condensing economizer working on natural gas was installed after the 116MW water boiler. The work describes the design of the condensing economizer and wiring diagram. During the industrial experiment, the following measurements were made: the temperature of water before and after the economizer; the ambient temperature; the quantity of water passing through the economizer; heat, produced by the economizer and water boilers. The work summarizes the data from 2010-2011.

  8. Stroke units: research and reality. Results from the National Sentinel Audit of Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To use data from the 2001–2 National Stroke Audit to describe the organisation of stroke units in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, and to see if key characteristics deemed effective from the research literature were present.

  9. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehst, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  10. 36 CFR 13.450 - Prohibition of aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of aircraft use... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.450 Prohibition of aircraft use. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions 43 CFR 36.11(f) the use of aircraft for access to or from lands and waters within a...

  11. A study of high-altitude manned research aircraft employing strut-braced wings of high-aspect-ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P. M.; Deyoung, J.; Lovell, W. A.; Price, J. E.; Washburn, G. F.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of increased wing aspect ratio of subsonic aircraft on configurations with and without strut bracing. Results indicate that an optimum cantilever configuration, with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 26, has a 19% improvement in cruise range when compared to a baseline concept with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 10. An optimum strut braced configuration, with a wing aspect ratio of approximately 28, has a 31% improvment in cruise range when compared to the same baseline concept. This improvement is mainly due to the estimated reduction in wing weight resulting from use of lifting struts. All configurations assume the same mission payload and fuel. The drag characteristics of the wings are enhanced with the use of laminar flow airfoils. A method for determining the extent of attainable natural laminar flow, and methods for preliminary structural design and for aerodynamic analysis of wings lifting struts are presented.

  12. Research of united model of knowledge discovery state space and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You Fucheng; Song Wei; Yang Bingru

    2005-01-01

    There are both associations and differences between structured and unstructured data mining. How to unite them together to be a united theoretical framework and to guide the research of knowledge discovery and data mining has become an urgent problem to be solved. On the base of analysis and study of existing research results, the united model of knowledge discovery state space (UMKDSS) is presented, and the structured data mining and the complex type data mining are associated together. UMKDSS can provide theoretical guidance for complex type data mining. An application example of UMKDSS is given at last.

  13. Research on oblique wing aircraft's flight dynamics model%斜置翼布局飞机的飞行动力学模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秋路; 高正红; 刘艳

    2015-01-01

    从机理上分析了斜置翼布局飞机的气动耦合及惯性耦合特性;对其六自由度动力学模型进行了建模及纵横耦合线性化;以F-8OWRA(Oblique Wing Research Aircraft)为算例,对其机翼斜置角为45°时的操纵响应特性进行了仿真计算及分析,仿真结果体现了斜置翼布局飞机纵横耦合的运动特性,说明所建立的动力学模型是可靠的.

  14. The Best Practice Unit: a model for learning, research and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilken, Jean Pierre; Slagmaat, Carla van; Gijzel, Sascha van

    2013-01-01

    The Best Practice Unit (BPU) model constitutes a unique form of practice-based research. A variant of the Community of Practice model developed by Wenger, McDermott and Snyder (2002), the BPU has the specific aim of improving professional practice by combining innovation and research. The model is u

  15. Telecommunications Research in the United States and Selected Foreign Countries: A Preliminary Survey. Volume I, Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Committee on Telecommunications.

    At the request of the National Science Foundation, the Panel on Telecommunications Research of the Committee on Telecommunications of the National Academy of Engineering has made a preliminary survey of the status and trends of telecommunications research in the United States and selected foreign countries. The status and trends were identified by…

  16. The Best Practice Unit: a model for learning, research and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr Jean Pierre Wilken; Carla van Slagmaat; Msc Sascha van Gijzel

    2013-01-01

    The Best Practice Unit (BPU) model constitutes a unique form of practice-based research. A variant of the Community of Practice model developed by Wenger, McDermott and Snyder (2002), the BPU has the specific aim of improving professional practice by combining innovation and research. The model is

  17. Aerodynamic Conifguration Research of Variable-span Wing Morphing Aircraft%伸缩机翼变体飞机气动布局初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李士途; 艾俊强; 李军府; 马泽孟

    2014-01-01

    For the performance requirements of reconnaissance and strike integrated system,this paper proposed a aerodynamic configuration scheme of variable-span wing morphing aircraft, and analyzed the design methodology and aerodynamic characteristics based on aerodynamic computation, wind-tunnel test and scaled model flight research works.Veriifed the design idea which requires high lift-to-drag ratio and long endurance on unfold state, small resistance and good lfeche performance on fold state. Generally, the result of the research works indicates that the variable-span wing concept satisifes the requirement of hunter-killer aircraft well, and has a broad application prospect.%针对侦察-打击一体化飞机的性能需求,提出了一种伸缩机翼变体飞机气动布局概念方案,采用气动力计算、风洞试验、缩比飞行模型研究等手段,对其机翼展开与收缩等不同状态的气动特性进行了分析,验证了机翼展开状态升阻比高、续航时间长和机翼收缩状态阻力小、加速冲刺性能好的设计思想。研究结果表明,伸缩机翼变体飞机能够适应侦察-打击一体化飞机的需要,具有广阔的应用前景。

  18. Optics in aircraft engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  19. FFUSION yearbook 1997. Annual report of the Finnish fusion research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-02-01

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1997. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, and Radio-frequency heating and Plasma diagnostics. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  20. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  1. China's Civil Regional Transport Aircraft Sales Model: Research on Xinzhou 60 Aircraft Market Sales Model%中国民用支线运输飞机销售模式——新舟60飞机市场销售模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡长宏

    2011-01-01

    目前对飞机市场销售模式的研究还处在探讨阶段,大量的文献都是对一些普通产品做一些市场分析,在对飞机销售市场研究方面并没有过多的分析.因此,本文主要以新舟60飞机销售体系为列,运用市场细分、产品定位和渠道管理、宣传推广等理论,制定出新舟60飞机市场销售体系模式.%At present, the research on the market sales model of aircraft is still in discussion stage. A large number of literatures only do some market analysis on common products, the research on the aircraft sales market is less. Therefore, taking Xinzhou 60 aircraft sales system as an example, this article formulates Xinzhou 60 aircraft market sales system using market segment, product positioning and channel management, promotion.

  2. 75 FR 49357 - United States Department of Agriculture Research Misconduct Regulations for Extramural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ..., social sciences, statistics, and research involving human subjects or animals regardless of the funding... Understanding (MOU) between the agency and Research Education and Economics mission area to have another USDA... official. Applied research. Systematic study to gain knowledge or understanding necessary to determine the...

  3. Aircraft Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    allowed to dry. The area is then checked for the golden brown color which is produced by the chemical conversion material. If the work area requires...Materials, pp. 258-3074 1968. 41. W. IH. Ailor, "Seven-year exposure at Point leyes , California," "Corrosion in Natural Environments, ASTM STP 558," American... Color Units 3 Turbidity Units 0.7 pH Units 7.6 Temperature OF 76 Sp. Conductivity MMhos 425 B.O.D. (5 days at 206C) 0.2 SjV i;~-- 1201 A .9 8 ~ 8 kl

  4. Design Methods and Optimization for Morphing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a summary of accomplishments made during this research effort. The major accomplishments are in three areas. The first is the use of a multiobjective optimization strategy to help identify potential morphing features that uses an existing aircraft sizing code to predict the weight, size and performance of several fixed-geometry aircraft that are Pareto-optimal based upon on two competing aircraft performance objectives. The second area has been titled morphing as an independent variable and formulates the sizing of a morphing aircraft as an optimization problem in which the amount of geometric morphing for various aircraft parameters are included as design variables. This second effort consumed most of the overall effort on the project. The third area involved a more detailed sizing study of a commercial transport aircraft that would incorporate a morphing wing to possibly enable transatlantic point-to-point passenger service.

  5. Human factors in aircraft maintenance and inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, William T.

    1992-01-01

    The events which have led to the intensive study of aircraft structural problems have contributed in no less measure to the study of human factors which influence aircraft maintenance and inspection. Initial research emphasis on aging aircraft maintenance and inspection has since broadened to include all aircraft types. Technicians must be equally adept at repairing old and new aircraft. Their skills must include the ability to repair sheet metal and composite materials; control cable and fly-by-wire systems; round dials and glass cockpits. Their work performance is heavily influenced by others such as designers, technical writers, job card authors, schedulers, and trainers. This paper describes the activities concerning aircraft and maintenance human factors.

  6. Thermodynamic Analysis and Calculation on Hydraulic Steering Units of Aircraft Hydraulic System%飞机液压系统伺服舵机热力学分析与计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 汤贵春; 曹骏飞; 是贤珠

    2015-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis method was adopted to hydraulic servo steering units in temG perature controlling for reducing aircraft hydraulic systems failure.A hydraulic servo steering units can be simplified to a servo valve and an actuator cylinder.Based on the first law of thermodynamics, the thermodynamic model of hydraulic steering units for aircraft was established.And the thermodyG namic differential equations set of the model were derived with lumped parameter method,and solved by RungeKutta method.Simulations of hydraulic servo steering thermodynamics model were carried out by employing MATLAB software.And the calculation results coincide with the experimental data. The model presented herein can be used to calculate the dynamic temperature of aircraft hydraulic sysG tems.%为减少飞机液压系统故障,从温度控制层面对飞机液压伺服舵机进行热力学分析。将液压伺服舵机的物理模型简化为伺服阀控制作动筒的形式,建立液压伺服舵机热力学模型。根据热力学第一定律,采用集中参数法建立热力学方程。基于 MATLAB 平台,采用龙格库塔法对舵机热力学模型进行编程仿真计算,得出舵机各节点温度分布曲线。将仿真结果与实验数据进行了对比,对比结果验证了飞机液压伺服舵机热力学模型的正确性,该模型可应用于飞机液压系统动态温度计算。

  7. Advancing probiotic research in humans in the United States: Challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Mary Ellen; Shane, Andi L; Merenstein, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    This is a summary from a workshop convened as part of the 13(th) annual meeting of the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics. A group of 24 stakeholders, including clinical experts, researchers, federal government officials, funding agencies, lawyers and industry experts met to review the challenges of the current regulatory approach to human research on probiotics in the USA and to discuss ways to move research forward. There was agreement that some of the current regulatory requirements imposed on probiotic research in the United States hindered research progress and increased cost without improving study subject safety. Many situations were outlined by clinical investigators demonstrating the impact of regulatory delays on research progress. Additionally, research is compromised when study designs and outcomes require manipulation so as to invoke less burdensome regulatory requirements. These responses by investigators to regulatory requirements have placed United States' researchers at a disadvantage. The public ultimately suffer when research to clarify the role of these products on health is stalled. Workshop participants concurred that regulatory oversight should balance study subject vulnerability with documented safety for the intended use for the probiotic strain, and that human research on foods and supplements should not be be regulated as drug research. Challenges and potential improvement strategies are discussed.

  8. 飞机结构单机寿命监控的几个关键问题的研究%Research on Several Key Problems of Individual Aircraft Fatigue Life Monitoring for Aircraft Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泰峰; 孙文胜; 杨晓华; 赵维义

    2011-01-01

    飞机结构的使用寿命取决于使用方法,实施单机寿命监控能够有效地体现出这种差异性.基于飞行参数监控的思想,综合考虑了计算精度和计算效率,对不同采样率和不同滤波门槛值的影响进行了分析,确定了适用的采样率和门槛值;综合分析了不同情况下外挂质量对损伤计算结果的影响,为飞机结构实施单机寿命监控提供了技术保障.%The life of aircraft structure depends on its manipulating methods, and individual aircraft fatigue life monitoring is an effective way to reflect the difference. Based on the theory of flight data monitoring, the influences of different sample rate and different threshold were analyzed in detail by considering its efficiency and precision, and the sample rate and threshold for certain aircraft were proposed. The influence of different suspension weights on calculation result of damage was discussed. The purpose was to provide theoretical basis for individual aircraft fatigue life monitoring.

  9. The United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN): Enhancing Microbial Genomics Research through Living Microbe Culture Collections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy-Mills, K.; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A. R.; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E.; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L.; McCluskey, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is "to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind." Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections.

  10. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  11. Searching for Comparative International Water Research: Urban and Rural Water Conservation Research in India and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Wescoat Jr.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparison is common in water management research: every table, map, and graph invites comparisons of different places and variables. Detailed international comparisons, however, seem infrequent in water resources research. To assess this perceived gap, this paper searched for examples of comparative research between two water sub-sectors in two countries using systematic bibliographic mapping procedures. It focused on rural and urban water conservation research in India and the United States. Search methods built upon procedures initially developed for the FAO Investment Centre and more advanced systematic review methods. The search generally confirmed that there have been few detailed comparative international studies on the subject of this review. Not surprisingly, there are a greater number of comparative studies between rural and urban water conservation within each country. The search also identified different conservation emphases in the two countries, e.g., rainwater harvesting in India compared with stormwater quality management in the United States. It identified unanticipated publications and l¬ines of comparative water conservation (e.g. comparative physiology. Some transnational research goes beyond comparison to address the diffusion of innovations, i.e. research linkages as well as comparisons, although these studies are also few. The more prevalent pattern involves parallel literatures, which indicate substantial opportunities for future comparative and transnational research. This review also identified diffusion of international knowledge paths that are not the product of formal comparative research. The final section focuses on the prospects and priorities for future international and inter-sectoral research, e.g. paired multi-objective river basin research, linkages between climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction, diffusion of water conservation innovations, and synthesis of research on urban and rural

  12. Salamander chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans) in the United States—Developing research, monitoring, and management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L.D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieka; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn

    2016-01-20

    The recently (2013) identified pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal), poses a severe threat to the distribution and abundance of salamanders within the United States and Europe. Development of a response strategy for the potential, and likely, invasion of Bsal into the United States is crucial to protect global salamander biodiversity. A formal working group, led by Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins Science Center, and Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, was held at the USGS Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis in Fort Collins, Colorado, United States from June 23 to June 25, 2015, to identify crucial Bsal research and monitoring needs that could inform conservation and management strategies for salamanders in the United States. Key findings of the workshop included the following: (1) the introduction of Bsal into the United States is highly probable, if not inevitable, thus requiring development of immediate short-term and long-term intervention strategies to prevent Bsal establishment and biodiversity decline; (2) management actions targeted towards pathogen containment may be ineffective in reducing the long-term spread of Bsal throughout the United States; and (3) early detection of Bsal through surveillance at key amphibian import locations, among high-risk wild populations, and through analysis of archived samples is necessary for developing management responses. Top research priorities during the preinvasion stage included the following: (1) deployment of qualified diagnostic methods for Bsal and establishment of standardized laboratory practices, (2) assessment of susceptibility for amphibian hosts (including anurans), and (3) development and evaluation of short- and long-term pathogen intervention and management strategies. Several outcomes were achieved during the workshop, including development

  13. Application of slender wing benefits to military aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polhamus, E. C.

    1983-01-01

    A review is provided of aerodynamic research conducted at the Langley Research Center with respect to the application of slender wing benefits in the design of high-speed military aircraft, taking into account the supersonic performance and leading-edge vortex flow associated with very highly sweptback wings. The beginning of the development of modern classical swept wing jet aircraft is related to the German Me 262 project during World War II. In the U.S., a theoretical study conducted by Jones (1945) pointed out the advantages of the sweptback wing concept. Developments with respect to variable sweep wings are discussed, taking into account early research in 1946, a joint program of the U.S. with the United Kingdom, the tactical aircraft concept, and the important part which the Langley variable-sweep research program played in the development of the F-111, F-14, and B-1. Attention is also given to hybrid wings, vortex flow theory development, and examples of flow design technology.

  14. The Cerebral Palsy Research Registry: Development and Progress Toward National Collaboration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Donna S.; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Msall, Michael E.; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Krosschell, Kristin J.; Dewald, Julius P.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is the most common neurodevelopmental motor disability in children. The condition requires medical, educational, social, and rehabilitative resources throughout the life span. Several countries have developed population-based registries that serve the purpose of prospective longitudinal collection of etiologic, demographic, and functional severity. The United States has not created a comprehensive program to develop such a registry. Barriers have been large population size, poor interinstitution collaboration, and decentralized medical and social systems. The Cerebral Palsy Research Registry was created to fill the gap between population and clinical-based cerebral palsy registries and promote research in the field. This is accomplished by connecting persons with cerebral palsy, as well as their families, to a network of regional researchers. This article describes the development of an expandable cerebral palsy research registry, its current status, and the potential it has to affect families and persons with cerebral palsy in the United States and abroad. PMID:21677201

  15. Global health equity in United Kingdom university research: a landscape of current policies and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotham, Dzintars; Meldrum, Jonathan; Nageshwaran, Vaitehi; Counts, Christopher; Kumari, Nina; Martin, Manuel; Beattie, Ben; Post, Nathan

    2016-10-10

    Universities are significant contributors to research and technologies in health; however, the health needs of the world's poor are historically neglected in research. Medical discoveries are frequently licensed exclusively to one producer, allowing a monopoly and inequitable pricing. Similarly, research is often published in ways that make it inaccessible. Universities can adopt policies and practices to overcome neglect and ensure equitable access to research and its products. For 25 United Kingdom universities, data on health research funding were extracted from the top five United Kingdom funders' databases and coded as research on neglected diseases (NDs) and/or health in low- and lower-middle-income countries (hLLMIC). Data on intellectual property licensing policies and practices and open-access policies were obtained from publicly available sources and by direct contact with universities. Proportions of research articles published as open-access were extracted from PubMed and PubMed Central. Across United Kingdom universities, the median proportion of 2011-2014 health research funds attributable to ND research was 2.6% and for hLLMIC it was 1.7%. Overall, 79% of all ND funding and 74% of hLLMIC funding were granted to the top four institutions within each category. Seven institutions had policies to ensure that technologies developed from their research are affordable globally. Mostly, universities licensed their inventions to third parties in a way that confers monopoly rights. Fifteen institutions had an institutional open-access publishing policy; three had an institutional open-access publishing fund. The proportion of health-related articles with full-text versions freely available online ranged from 58% to 100% across universities (2012-2013); 23% of articles also had a creative commons CC-BY license. There is wide variation in the amount of global health research undertaken by United Kingdom universities, with a large proportion of total research

  16. Attempting to train a digital human model to reproduce human subject reach capabilities in an ejection seat aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehner, G.F.; Hudson, J.A.; Oudenhuijzen, A.

    2006-01-01

    From 1997 through 2002, the Air Force Research Lab and TNO Defence, Security and Safety (Business Unit Human Factors) were involved in a series of tests to quantify the accuracy of five Human Modeling Systems (HMSs) in determining accommodation limits of ejection seat aircraft. The results of these

  17. Individual Characteristics and Unit Performance: A Review of Research and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    IU Individual in Characteristics and Unit Performance A Revlew of Research and Methods James P. Kahan, Noreen Webb, RIchard J. Shavelson, Ross M...Research and Methods James P. Kahan, Noreen Webb, Richard J. Shavelson, Ross M. Stolzenberg February 1985 Prepared for the Office of the Assistant Secretary...Members wore asked to name the people they would associate with in nonmilitary, garrison area, and field/tactical area recreational time. The number

  18. Understanding How the Public Perceives the Importance of University Research in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Richard W.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Most universities in the United States have little or no idea about how the public perceives the importance of research done at these institutions. Learning whether the public believes academic research is valuable, meaningful, and practical has implications for higher education, if the public believes that university research is of little worth. This project utilized naturalistic and qualitative methods to learn how alumni perceived the importance of research at a major public university with a heavy concentration in research (Texas A&M University. Long interviews using open-ended questions were conducted with 133 alumni at 33 locations in Texas. Interviews were transcribed, unitized, and coded using qualitative methods, and themes were identified. Findings provide insights into whether the public believes university research is important, how the public learns about research, whether public relations programs are effective, the importance of research and teaching, and the types of research the public wants universities to pursue. A framework is proposed to learn about how well the public understands science and to measure the effectiveness of media and education programs to raise both science awareness and understanding of science.

  19. Roles, uses, and benefits of general aviation aircraft in aerospace engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonoghue, Dennis P.; Mcknight, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Many colleges and universities throughout the United States offer outstanding programs in aerospace engineering. In addition to the fundamentals of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight dynamics, and air vehicle design, many of the best programs have in the past provided students the opportunity to design and fly airborne experiments on board various types of aircraft. Sadly, however, the number of institutions offering such 'airborne laboratories' has dwindled in recent years. As a result, opportunities for students to apply their classroom knowledge, analytical skills, and engineering judgement to the development and management of flight experiments on an actual aircraft are indeed rare. One major reason for the elimination of flight programs by some institutions, particularly the smaller colleges, is the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining an aircraft as a flying laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss simple, low-cost, relevant flight experiments that can be performed using readily available general aviation aircraft. This paper examines flight experiments that have been successfully conducted on board the NASA Lewis Research Center's T-34B aircraft, as part of the NASA/AIAA/University Flight Experiment Program for Students (NAUFEPS) and discusses how similar experiments could be inexpensively performed on other general aviation aircraft.

  20. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shape-change devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  1. Aircraft Noise Simulation for a Virtual Reality Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntzen, M.; Van Veen, T.A.; Visser, H.G.; Simons, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft noise annoyance predictions based on traditional tools lack fidelity when modelling a single aircraft flyover. For evaluating annoyance of new procedures, different aircraft types or changing atmospheric conditions, a new modelling approach is necessary. A research effort has been initiated

  2. Research on the diffusion of agricultural innovations in the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, E.M.; Ban, van den A.W.

    1963-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide a comparative analysis of two sub-traditions within rural sociology, the research on diffusion that has occurred (1) in the United States, and (2) in the Netherlands. Emphasis will be placed upon the historical development of the field in both countries

  3. Research on the diffusion of agricultural innovations in the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, E.M.; Ban, van den A.W.

    1963-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide a comparative analysis of two sub-traditions within rural sociology, the research on diffusion that has occurred (1) in the United States, and (2) in the Netherlands. Emphasis will be placed upon the historical development of the field in both countries

  4. Research on the biology of fusiform rust in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauline. Spaine

    1998-01-01

    The incidence of fusiform rust has continued to be one of the major forest disease problems in the Southeastern United States. In the past, much of the research has concentrated on field studies with provenance selection and genetic breeding of pine families to increase resistance in the host. In the last 10 years, there has been an increased interest in the actual...

  5. Fusarium mycotoxins: Current research at the USDA ARS Mycotoxin Prevention unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to the health and economic costs of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species, there is a compelling need for improved understanding of these fungi, from across diverse perspectives and disciplinary approaches. Current research at the USDA ARS Mycotoxin Prevention unit addresses Fusarium mycotoxin...

  6. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brunner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe, was performed. Comparisons were made of the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns during the four-year period 1995-1998. Whenever possible the models were run over the same four-year period and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all coinciding observation points. This approach allows for a very close comparison with observations and fully accounts for the specific meteorological conditions during the measurement flights. This is important considering the often limited availability and representativity of such trace gas measurements. A new extensive database including all major research and commercial aircraft measurements between 1995 and 1998, as well as ozone soundings, was established specifically to support this type of direct comparison. Quantitative methods were applied to judge model performance including the calculation of average concentration biases and the visualization of correlations and RMS errors in the form of so-called Taylor diagrams. We present the general concepts applied, the structure and content of the database, and an overall analysis of model skills over four distinct regions. These regions were selected to represent various atmospheric conditions and to cover large geographical domains such that sufficient observations are available for comparison. The comparison of model results with the observations revealed specific problems for each individual model. This study suggests the further improvements needed and serves as a benchmark for re-evaluations of such improvements. In general all models show deficiencies with respect to both mean concentrations and vertical gradients of important trace gases. These include ozone, CO and NOx at the tropopause. Too strong two-way mixing across the

  7. In-situ measurements of chlorine activation, nitric acid redistribution and ozone depletion in the Antarctic lower vortex aboard the German research aircraft HALO during TACTS/ESMVal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkat, Tina; Voigt, Christiane; Kaufmann, Stefan; Schlage, Romy; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Ziereis, Helmut; Hoor, Peter; Bozem, Heiko; Müller, Stefan; Zahn, Andreas; Schlager, Hans; Oelhaf, Hermann; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    In-situ measurements of stratospheric chlorine compounds are rare and exhibit the potential to gain insight into small scale mixing processes where stratospheric air masses of different origin and history interact. In addition, the relationship with chemically stable trace gases helps to identify regions that have been modified by chemical processing on polar stratospheric clouds. To this end, in-situ measurements of ClONO2, HCl, HNO3, NOy, N2O and O3 have been performed in the Antarctic Polar Vortex in September 2012 aboard the German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and Long Rang research aircraft) during the TACTS/ESMVal (Transport and Composition in the UTLS/Earth System Model Validation) mission. With take-off and landing in Capetown, HALO sampled vortex air with latitudes down to 65°S, at altitudes between 8 and 14.3 km and potential temperatures between 340 and 390 K. Before intering the vortex at 350 K potential temperature, HALO additionally sampled mid-latitude stratospheric air. The trace gas distributions at the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex show distinct signatures of processed upper stratospheric vortex air and chemically different lower stratospheric / upper tropospheric air. Diabatic descend of the vortex transports processed air into the lower stratosphere. Here small scale filaments of only a few kilometers extension form at the lower vortex boundary due to shear stress, ultimately leading to transport and irreversible mixing. Comparison of trace gas relationships with those at the beginning of the polar winter reveals substantial chlorine activation, ozone depletion de- and renitrification with high resolution. Furthermore, the measurements are compared to the chemistry climate models EMAC and supported by ECMWF analysis. Finally, we compare the Antarctic measurements with new measurements of ClONO2, HCl and HNO3 aboard HALO obtained during the Arctic mission POLSTRACC (POLar STratosphere in a Changing Climate) based in Kiruna (Sveden

  8. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  9. F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Joint Strike Fighter Aircraft (F-35) Program will develop and field an affordable, highly common family of next- generation strike aircraft for the...the O&S account, with U.S. Services’ changes in aircraft life expectancy and bed down plans overshadowing real reductions in O&S costs. Business ...aircraft subprogram and engine subprogram (Navy). (Estimating) -44.4 -46.2 Revised estimate for Small Business Innovation Research in FY 2015 (Navy

  10. 10 CFR 35.604 - Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote afterloader unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated... Stereotactic Radiosurgery Units § 35.604 Surveys of patients and human research subjects treated with a remote... shall survey the patient or the human research subject and the remote afterloader unit with a...

  11. 甚低频拖曳天线的稳态动力学研究%Research on the Steady Dynamic of VLF Trailing Antenna on an Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小洪; 侯志强; 韩维; 李冀鑫

    2012-01-01

    甚低频(Very low frequency,VLF)拖曳天线力学特征和控制是飞机对潜通信系统进一步深入论证需要解决的关键问题之一,而对其稳态动力学研究是进行甚低频拖曳天线力学特征和控制研究的基础.通过对载机盘旋时甚低频天线运动状态及其受力进行分析,应用牛顿定律建立机载甚低频拖曳天线稳态动力学模型.运用打靶法对其稳态动力学模型进行求解,分析载机速度、倾斜角和天线末端锥袋质量对天线末端锥袋量纲一半径和天线垂直度的影响.仿真结果表明在阻力系数较小时,在一定的倾斜角和载机飞行速度范围内其垂直度和天线末端量纲一半径存在多值情况,会导致拖曳天线系统的不稳定;在一定的阻力系数下,减小飞机速度,增加载机的倾斜角,能够提高甚低频拖曳天线的垂直度;单一增加天线末端锥袋质量来提高垂直度是不可行的.%The dynamic character and control of very low frequency(VLF) trailing antenna on a aircraft is one of most important problems which needs to research. The steady dynamic is the base of the dynamic character and control of the VLF trailing antenna. The mathematics model based Newton law of the trailing antenna is founded, and solved via a shooting technique. The influences of the angle of bank and the velocity of aircraft to the non-dismensionalization end radius and verticality are researched. The result shows that under the low drag, for certain ranges of the angle of bank and the velocity, the equilibrium solution is multi volume; under certain ranges of air drag, it is possible to descend the velocity of the aircraft and increase the bank angle to improve the verticality of the antenna. But it's impossible to increase the mass of the drogue only to improve the verticality of the antenna.

  12. Cobalt: A vital element in the aircraft engine industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent trends in the United States consumption of cobalt indicate that superalloys for aircraft engine manufacture require increasing amounts of this strategic element. Superalloys consume a lion's share of total U.S. cobalt usage which was about 16 million pounds in 1980. In excess of 90 percent of the cobalt used in this country was imported, principally from the African countries of Zaire and Zambia. Early studies on the roles of cobalt as an alloying element in high temperature alloys concentrated on the simple Ni-Cr and Nimonic alloy series. The role of cobalt in current complex nickel base superalloys is not well defined and indeed, the need for the high concentration of cobalt in widely used nickel base superalloys is not firmly established. The current cobalt situation is reviewed as it applies to superalloys and the opportunities for research to reduce the consumption of cobalt in the aircraft engine industry are described.

  13. A Framework for Conducting Deceased Donor Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Alexandra K; Heffernan, Kate Gallin; Rodrigue, James R

    2015-11-01

    There are a number of regulatory barriers both perceived and real that have hampered widespread clinical research in the field of donation and transplantation. This article sets forth a framework clarifying the existing legal requirements and their application to the conduct of research on deceased donors and donor organs within the United States. Recommendations are focused on resolving some of the ambiguity surrounding deceased donor authorization for research, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requirements and the role of institutional review board oversight. The successful conduct of clinical research in the field of donation and transplantation requires an understanding of these regulatory nuances as well as identification of important ethical principles to consider. Facilitation of these concepts will ultimately provide support for innovative research designed to increase the availability of organs for transplantation. Further work identifying the optimal infrastructure for overview of clinical research in the field should be given priority.

  14. THE METHODOLOGICAL UNIT OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN TERMS OF CONCEPTUALISATION OF PEDAGOGICAL KNOWLEDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfia F. Zakirova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The contents and structure of the methodological unit ofscientific research on educational problems are defined. The present study is the continuation of methodological articles cycle appealed to support the work of newcomer researchers.Methods. The requirements to research justification are disclosed; logicstylistic and language features of the argument while designing the methodological unit are described from the standpoint of complete, panoramic and hermeneutic approaches.Results and scientific novelty. The characteristic of research hypotheses types and the functions realized by them is given. The scientific hypothesis is presented as the instrument of trans-level conceptualization of pedagogical knowledge. The author’s interpretation of a «through» stage-by-stage hypothesis-generating as process of a meaning-making and theoretical organization of research object is offered. Dual character of the hypothesis-generating is presented; it integrates logic-gnoseological and valuable-conceptual, rational and intuitively figurative principles. Typical mistakes in formation of the methodological research unit are analysed. The directions of a multiangle reflection implementation in the course of research activity are designated.Practical significance. The recommendations proposed in the study can by used by teachers-researchers, students, undergraduates, graduate students and doctoral candidates mastering practical methodology of scientific and pedagogical search; and also the materials are designed for research supervisors motivated to increase efficiency and tutorial activity content.

  15. Simulation and Flight Evaluation of a Parameter Estimation Input Design Method for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve emissions, noise, and performance of next generation aircraft, it is expected that future aircraft will make use of distributed, multi-objective control effectors in a closed-loop flight control system. Correlation challenges associated with parameter estimation will arise with this expected aircraft configuration. Research presented in this paper focuses on addressing the correlation problem with an appropriate input design technique and validating this technique through simulation and flight test of the X-48B aircraft. The X-48B aircraft is an 8.5 percent-scale hybrid wing body aircraft demonstrator designed by The Boeing Company (Chicago, Illinois, USA), built by Cranfield Aerospace Limited (Cranfield, Bedford, United Kingdom) and flight tested at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California, USA). Based on data from flight test maneuvers performed at Dryden Flight Research Center, aerodynamic parameter estimation was performed using linear regression and output error techniques. An input design technique that uses temporal separation for de-correlation of control surfaces is proposed, and simulation and flight test results are compared with the aerodynamic database. This paper will present a method to determine individual control surface aerodynamic derivatives.

  16. Research needs in drinking water: a basis in regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacangelo, Joseph G; Askenaizer, Daniel J; Schwab, Kellogg

    2006-01-01

    Regulations are one of the primary drivers for research on contaminants in drinking water in the United States. Since the original Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), enacted in 1974, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a series of drinking water regulations. These regulations are focused on protecting public health. When evaluating available information on whether or not to regulate a constituent in drinking water, USEPA considers available information on health effects and occurrence of the constituent. The authors provide their view of the research needed for these contaminants. For inorganics, more data are needed on perchlorate. For organics, greater treatment and health effects information is warranted for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and pharmaceuticals and personal care products. Finally, more research is needed on analytical methods for noroviruses and other emerging pathogens.

  17. Research on unit commitment with large-scale wind power connected power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ran; Zhang, Baoqun; Chi, Zhongjun; Gong, Cheng; Ma, Longfei; Yang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power generators into power grid brings severe challenges to power system economic dispatch due to its stochastic volatility. Unit commitment including wind farm is analyzed from the two parts of modeling and solving methods. The structures and characteristics can be summarized after classification has been done according to different objective function and constraints. Finally, the issues to be solved and possible directions of research and development in the future are discussed, which can adapt to the requirements of the electricity market, energy-saving power generation dispatching and smart grid, even providing reference for research and practice of researchers and workers in this field.

  18. Aircraft landing using GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  19. Overview of the status and progress in photovoltaics research in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surek, T.

    1993-10-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) is a semiconductor technology that directly converts sunlight to electricity. Research over the past 20 years has resulted in the discovery of new PV materials, devices, and fabrication approaches: continuing improvements in the efficiency and reliability of solar cells and modules: and lower PV module and system costs. Along with improvements in the technology and manufacturing have come a large number of new, cost-effective uses, including international applications in mostly off-grid, remote locations, and various grid-connected and off-grid applications in the United States. This paper reviews the rapid progress from the laboratory to the marketplace in PV technology in the United States.

  20. Geothermal energy development in the eastern United States: technical assistance report no. 5. Geothermal space heating-naval air rework facility, Norfolk, Virginia. [Aircraft hangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, F.K.; Henderson, R.W.

    1980-06-01

    The electronic integration hangar, designated LP-167, was selected for study, as it was a single-story building with a large floor area. Because of the high ceiling and the sliding doors necessary to admit aircraft, the heat loss rate, based on floor area, was about twice that of commercial buildings. It was furnished with an oil-fired hot water heating system capable of high thermal output to meet heating requirements in the coldest weather. On the basis of the known characteristics of geothermal sources for the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and wells drilled and assayed in the Norfolk area, a reasonable estimate of the parameters of a well drilled at NARF was made. This included a low temperature output from the well of only 107/sup 0/F, so that direct transfer of warm water between the wellhead heat exchanger (HX) and the hot water radiating system in the building was not practical. Four design options are explored and calculations are presented on each one.

  1. Research on the Rapid Modeling of Carrier-Based Aircraft Wing Model%舰载机机翼模型的快速建模技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁振刚; 韩铁; 张广荣; 袁志华; 段梅

    2015-01-01

    The optimum design process of the carrier-based aircraft wing structure needs to create a large number of complex simulation models,the modeling capabilities of traditional simulation software can not solve the problem of rapid modeling. So this paper proposes a rapid modeling method for models on a certain type of carrier–based aircraft wing,which is based on the CATIA used widely in aviation field . By the division of research on the model,modeling the benchmark and encapsulation of the standardization of modeling process,a rapid design template of three-dimensional model on various parts of the wing to achieve the fast automatic modeling is eatablished. The results show that the rapid modeling system of the wing skeleton can create 3D models with high quality and efficiency,and provide a strong guarantee for the wing analysis and system simulation.%舰载机机翼结构的优化设计过程中需要建立大量的复杂仿真模型,传统仿真软件不能解决其快速建模问题。基于航空领域中广泛使用的CATIA设计平台,提出了一种针对某型号舰载机机翼模型的快速建模方法。通过对模型种类划分、建模基准及建模标准化流程的封装,建立了机翼中各类组成零件三维模型的快速设计模板,实现了快速自动建模。结果表明,机翼骨架快速建模系统能够建立优质高效的三维模型,为整机的分析及系统的仿真提供了有力的保障。

  2. Systematic observations of Volcán Turrialba, Costa Rica, with small unmanned aircraft and aerostats (UAVs): the Costa Rican Airborne Research and Technology Applications (CARTA) missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, D. C.; Diaz, J. A.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.; Abtahi, A.; Alan, A., Jr.; Alegria, O.; Azofeifa, S.; Berthold, R.; Corrales, E.; Fuerstenau, S.; Gerardi, J.; Herlth, D.; Hickman, G.; Hunter, G.; Linick, J.; Madrigal, Y.; Makel, D.; Miles, T.; Realmuto, V. J.; Storms, B.; Vogel, A.; Kolyer, R.; Weber, K.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, the University of Costa Rica, NASA Centers (e.g., JPL, ARC, GSFC/WFF, GRC) & NASA contractors-partners have made regular in situ measurements of aerosols & gases at Turrialba Volcano in Costa Rica, with aerostats (e.g., tethered balloons & kites), & free-flying fixed wing UAVs (e.g., Dragon Eye, Vector Wing 100, DELTA 150), at altitudes up to 12.5Kft ASL within 5km of the summit. Onboard instruments included gas detectors (e.g., SO2, CO2), visible & thermal IR cameras, air samplers, temperature pressure & humidity sensors, particle counters, & a nephelometer. Deployments are timed to support bimonthly overflights of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) onboard the NASA Terra satellite (26 deployments to date). In situ observations of dilute plume SO2 concentrations (~1-20ppmv), plume dimensions, and associated temperature, pressure, & humidity profiles, validate detailed radiative transfer-based SO2 retrievals, as well as archive-wide ASTER band-ratio SO2 algorithms. Our recent UAV-based CO2 observations confirm high concentrations (e.g., ~3000ppmv max at summit jet), with 1000-1500ppmv flank values, and essentially global background CO2 levels (400ppmv) over distal surroundings. Transient Turrialba He detections (up to 20ppmv) were obtained with a small (~10kg) airborne mass spectrometer on a light aircraft—a UAV version (~3kg) will deploy there soon on the UCR DELTA 500. Thus, these platforms, though small (most payloads measurements of potential eruption hazards, as well as of volcano processes. Because they are economical, flexible, and effective, such platforms promise unprecedented capabilities for researchers and responders throughout Central and South America, undertaking volcanic data acquisitions uniquely suited to such small aircraft in close proximity to known hazards, or that were previously only available using full-sized manned aircraft. This work was carried out, in part, at the Jet

  3. In situ CO2 and tracer observations in the 2015/16 Arctic UTLS with the new HAGAR-V instrument on board the HALO research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, C. Michael; Wintel, Johannes; Lauther, Valentin; Gerhardt, Emil; vom Scheidt, Markus; Krause, Jens; Hoor, Peter

    2017-04-01

    During the POLSTRACC/GW-LCYCLE/SALSA (PGS) campaign the German High Altitude and LOng range research aircraft (HALO) intensively probed the bottom of the polar vortex and the adjacent mid to high latitude upper troposphere / lower stratosphere (UTLS) throughout the entire winter/spring during the extraordinarily cold Arctic winter 2015/16. A total of 18 science flights were performed from Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany, and Kiruna, Sweden, during three phases, in December 2015, early January to early February 2016, and late February to mid March 2016. During PGS, the University of Wuppertal deployed for the first time the High Altitude Gas Analyzer -V (HAGAR-V), a new 5-channel in-situ tracer instrument developed for HALO to study the chemical composition, dynamics, and transport in the UTLS. HAGAR-V combines i) a fast CO2 measurement by NDIR analyzer (every 1-3 s), ii) a 2-channel GC/ECD-system measuring long-lived tracers (during PGS: CH4, CFC-12, CFC-11 every 90s, SF6 every 30 s) and iii) a 2-channel GC/MS system targeting short-lived tracers (NMHCs and chlorinated hydrocarbons) with local lifetimes at the midlatitude tropopause ranging from several days to just under a year. The University of Mainz deployed the well-established TRIHOP instrument employing the TDL absorption technique to measure N2O, CH4, and CO every 10 s. We will give an overview of the new HAGAR-V instrument and present the measurements of CO2 and long-lived tracers, with a focus on the temporal development of vertical distributions and tracer correlations throughout the winter. In particular, an observed change of the correlation of CO2 with N2O between January and late February/March is likely caused by isentropic mixing in the high-latitude UTLS. We will also compare the tracer distributions during PGS with those observed from the M55 Geophysica aircraft during previous Arctic campaigns.

  4. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  5. 盒式机翼布局大型飞机横航向飞行品质研究%Lateral-directional flying qualities research of large aircraft with box-wing configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕新波; 刘振钦

    2011-01-01

    Compared with a large aircraft with conventional configuration, the aerodynamic characteristics of large aircraft with box-wing configuration were calculated and showed in this paper. The lateral-directional airframe flying qualities of the large aircraft with box-wing configuration were researched. The lateral-directional airframe flying qualities of the large aircraft with box-wing configuration will be deteriorated, so the effective measures which can improve flying qualities of large aircraft with box-wing configuration would be researched. The results show that the large aircraft with box-wing configuration has a larger ratio of lift to drag and special lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics. Modifying configuration parameters are limited to improve the lateral-directional flying qualities of large aircraft with box-wing configuration and the design of control laws can assure satisfied flying qualities.%经计算并和常规布局大型飞机对比分析,给出了盒式机翼布局大型飞机的气动特点;然后研究了盒式机翼布局大型飞机本体横航向飞行品质;针对盒式机翼布局本体飞机横航向飞行品质较差的问题,研究了提高盒式机翼布局飞机横航向飞行品质的有效方法.研究结果表明:盒式机翼布局大型飞机具有良好的升阻特性和特殊的横航向气动特性;修改布局参数对提高盒式机翼布局飞机横航向飞行品质是有限的,控制律的设计可以保证其具有满意的横航向飞行品质.

  6. 基于客户评价体系的停机位分配优化研究%Research on Airport Aircraft Stands Assignment Optimization Strategy Based on Client Assessing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨双双; 田勇; 万莉莉; 闫海军

    2013-01-01

    引入客户评价体系研究停机位分配的优化策略,利用层次分析方法,从客户信誉度、客户资源占有状况和客户资源运行效率的角度,以停机位保障能力和客户的满意度为目标,建立停机位分配优化模型.最后以广州白云国际机场为例,对比停机位分配优化前后的结果,从而验证引入客户评价体系的实用性和有效性.%This paper introduces a customer evaluation system on the research of aircraft stands assignment optimization strategy. From the perspective of the customer, the customer credit, customer resources possession situation and customer resources operation efficiency, using hierarchical analysis method set up aircraft stands assignment optimization model based on the goal of aircraft stands capacity and customer satisfaction. At last, an example of Guangzhou Baiyun international airport is given in order to compared to the aircraft stands assignment of the results before and after optimization, which testifies the client assessing system is the practicability and effectiveness evaluation system.

  7. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  8. Aircraft detection based on probability model of structural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Jiang, Zhiguo

    2014-11-01

    Detecting aircrafts is important in the field of remote sensing. In past decades, researchers used various approaches to detect aircrafts based on classifiers for overall aircrafts. However, with the development of high-resolution images, the internal structures of aircrafts should also be taken into consideration now. To address this issue, a novel aircrafts detection method for satellite images based on probabilistic topic model is presented. We model aircrafts as the connected structural elements rather than features. The proposed method contains two major steps: 1) Use Cascade-Adaboost classier to identify the structural elements of aircraft firstly. 2) Connect these structural elements to aircrafts, where the relationships between elements are estimated by hierarchical topic model. The model places strict spatial constraints on structural elements which can identify differences between similar features. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  9. FFUSION yearbook 1996. Annual report of the Finnish research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-05-01

    Finnish fusion programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). The FFUSION programme was fully integrated into European Fusion Programme just after Finland joined the European Union. The contract of Association Euratom and Tekes was signed in 1995 and extends to the end of 1999. Finland became a member of JET Joint Undertaking in 1996, other contracts with Euratom include NET agreement and the Staff Mobility Agreement. FFUSION programme with participating research institutes and universities forms the Fusion Research Unit of the Association Euratom-Tekes. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1996. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, Radio-frequency heating and plasma diagnostics, and Plasma-wall interactions - ion-beam studies. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), Remote handling and viewing systems, and Superconductors

  10. Development of an In-Flight Refill Unit for Replenishing Research Animal Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. I.; Barnes, R.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacelab Life Sciences 2 (SLS-2) mission became NASA's longest duration Shuttle mission, lasting fourteen days, when Columbia landed on 1 Nov. 1993. Located within the Spacelab were a total of 48 laboratory rats which were housed in two Research Animal Holding Facilities (RAHF's) developed by the Space Life Sciences Payloads Office (SLSPO) at Ames Research Center. In order to properly maintain the health and well-being of these important research animals, sufficient quantities of food and water had to be available for the duration of the mission. An inflight Refill Unit was developed by the SLSPO to replenish the animals' drinking water inflight using the Shuttle potable water system in the middeck galley as the source of additional water. The Inflight Refill Unit consists of two major subsystems, a Fluid Pumping Unit (FPU) and a Collapsible Water Reservoir (CWR). The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out and into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar(trademark) reinforced storage bladder, connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system and allows for the transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two RAHFs. Additional components of the FPU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 28 volt direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab. This paper will present the design process and development approach for the lnflight Refill Unit, define some of the key design issues which had to be addressed, and summarize the inflight operational performance

  11. An Analysis of Retaining or Replacing Air Force Command and Control Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    control aircraft perform, as well as the importance of maintaining the capability. Current command and control aircraft , as well as potential aircraft that...can replace the existing command and control aircraft , were researched to determine the cost and performance specifications. The current and...completed product identifies if the Air Force should retain or replace command and control aircraft . Additional areas for further research were listed

  12. 78 FR 12369 - United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use Research of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Public comments are sought on the entirety of the proposed United States Government Policy for... TECHNOLOGY POLICY United States Government Policy for Institutional Oversight of Life Sciences Dual Use... responsible conduct and communication of such research. The proposed Policy herein, United States...

  13. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeßberger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2–5.9 μm, but differences in particle number densities nice (162–235 cm−3 and in vertical contrail extensions (120–290 m, resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25–0.94. Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI–12/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  14. Real-time flutter analysis of an active flutter-suppression system on a remotely piloted research aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilyard, G. B.; Edwards, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    Flight-test results of the first three flights of an aeroelastic research wing are described. The flight flutter-test technique used to obtain real-time damping estimates from fast-frequency sweep data was obtained and the open-loop flutter boundary determined. Nyquist analyses of sweep maneuvers appear to provide additional valuable information about flutter suppression system operation, both in terms of phase-margin estimates and as a means of evaluating maneuver quality. An error in implementing the flutter-suppression system required in a one-half nominal gain configuration, which caused the wing to be unstable at lower Mach numbers than anticipated, and the vehicle experienced closed-loop flutter on its third flight. Real-time flutter-testing procedures were improved.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016–2017 Research Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-04-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has several strategic goals that focus its efforts on serving the American people. The USGS Ecosystems Mission Area has responsibility for the following objectives under the strategic goal of “Science to Manage and Sustain Resources for Thriving Economies and Healthy Ecosystems”:Understand, model, and predict change in natural systemsConserve and protect wildlife and fish species and their habitatsReduce or eliminate the threat of invasive species and wildlife diseaseThis report provides abstracts of the majority of ongoing research investigations of the USGS Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units program and is intended to complement the 2016 Cooperative Research Units Program Year in Review Circular 1424 (https://doi.org/10.3133/cir1424). The report is organized by the following major science themes that contribute to the objectives of the USGS:Advanced TechnologiesClimate ScienceDecision ScienceEcological FlowsEcosystem ServicesEndangered Species Conservation, Recovery, and Proactive StrategiesEnergyHuman DimensionsInvasive SpeciesLandscape EcologySpecies of Greatest Conservation NeedSpecies Population, Habitat, and Harvest ManagementWildlife Health and Disease

  16. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research Into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H., III; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2011-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development and transition services to improve operational weather support to America's space program . The AMU was founded in 1991 and operates under a triagency Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United States Air Force (USAF) and the National Weather Service (NWS) (Ernst and Merceret, 1995). It is colocated with the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and funded by the Space Shuttle Program . Its primary customers are the 45WS, the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) operated for NASA by the NWS at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX, and the NWS forecast office in Melbourne, FL (MLB). The gap between research and operations is well known. All too frequently, the process of transitioning research to operations fails for various reasons. The mission of the AMU is in essence to bridge this gap for America's space program.

  17. Product- and Process Units in the CRITT Translation Process Research Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more...... than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text...... reception, production, and translation processes. In this talk I describe some of the functions and features of the TPR-DB v1.4, and how they can be deployed in empirical human translation process research....

  18. Research on Key Technologies of Unit-Based CNC Machine Tool Assembly Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongqi Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assembly is the part that produces the maximum workload and consumed time during product design and manufacturing process. CNC machine tool is the key basic equipment in manufacturing industry and research on assembly design technologies of CNC machine tool has theoretical significance and practical value. This study established a simplified ASRG for CNC machine tool. The connection between parts, semantic information of transmission, and geometric constraint information were quantified to assembly connection strength to depict the assembling difficulty level. The transmissibility based on trust relationship was applied on the assembly connection strength. Assembly unit partition based on assembly connection strength was conducted, and interferential assembly units were identified and revised. The assembly sequence planning and optimization of parts in each assembly unit and between assembly units was conducted using genetic algorithm. With certain type of high speed CNC turning center, as an example, this paper explored into the assembly modeling, assembly unit partition, and assembly sequence planning and optimization and realized the optimized assembly sequence of headstock of CNC machine tool.

  19. Characteristics and lessons learned from practice-based research networks (PBRNs in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Melinda M Davis,1,2 Sara Keller,1 Jennifer E DeVoe,1,3 Deborah J Cohen11Department of Family Medicine, 2Oregon Rural Practice-based Research Network, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 3OCHIN Practice-based Research Network, Portland, OR, USAAbstract: Practice-based research networks (PBRNs are organizations that involve practicing clinicians in asking and answering clinically relevant research questions. This review explores the origins, characteristics, funding, and lessons learned through practice-based research in the United States. Primary care PBRNs emerged in the USA in the 1970s. Early studies explored the etiology of common problems encountered in primary care practices (eg, headache, miscarriage, demonstrating the gap between research conducted in controlled specialty settings and real-world practices. Over time, national initiatives and an evolving funding climate have shaped PBRN development, contributing to larger networks, a push for shared electronic health records, and the use of a broad range of research methodologies (eg, observational studies, pragmatic randomized controlled trials, continuous quality improvement, participatory methods. Today, there are over 160 active networks registered with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's PBRN Resource Center that engage primary care clinicians, pharmacists, dentists, and other health care professionals in research and quality-improvement initiatives. PBRNs provide an important laboratory for encouraging collaborative research partnerships between academicians and practices or communities to improve population health, conduct comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research, and study health policy reform. PBRNs continue to face critical challenges that include: (1 adapting to a changing landscape; (2 recruiting and retaining membership; (3 securing infrastructure support; (4 straddling two worlds (academia and community and managing

  20. The Automated Aircraft Rework System (AARS): A system integration approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    The Mercer Engineering Research Center (MERC), under contract to the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1989, has been actively involved in providing the Warner Robins Air Logistics Center (WR-ALC) with a robotic workcell designed to perform rework automated defastening and hole location/transfer operations on F-15 wings. This paper describes the activities required to develop and implement this workcell, known as the Automated Aircraft Rework System (AARS). AARS is scheduled to be completely installed and in operation at WR-ALC by September 1994.

  1. Study on Impedance Characteristics of Aircraft Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage decrease and power loss in distribution lines of aircraft electric power system are harmful to the normal operation of electrical equipment and may even threaten the safety of aircraft. This study investigates how the gap distance (the distance between aircraft cables and aircraft skin and voltage frequency (variable frequency power supply will be adopted for next generation aircraft will affect the impedance of aircraft cables. To be more precise, the forming mechanism of cable resistance and inductance is illustrated in detail and their changing trends with frequency and gap distance are analyzed with the help of electromagnetic theoretical analysis. An aircraft cable simulation model is built with Maxwell 2D and the simulation results are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the theoretical analysis. The changing trends of the four core parameters of interest are analyzed: resistance, inductance, reactance, and impedance. The research results can be used as reference for the applications in Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF aircraft electric power system.

  2. The calibration and characterization of a research x-ray unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.M.

    1996-06-01

    The proper characterization of an X-ray unit is necessary for the utilization of the source as a dosimetry calibration standard. Upon calibration, the X-ray unit can be used for X-ray calibrations of survey, diagnostic, and reference-class, instruments and for X-ray irradiations of personnel dosimeters. It was the goal of this research to provide the Radiation Calibration Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with a characterized research X-ray unit that could be used in reference dosimetry. The energy spectra were characterized by performing half value layer measurements and by performing a spectral analysis. Two spectral reconstruction techniques were investigated and compared. One involved using a previously determined detector response matrix and a backstripping technique. The other reconstruction technique was developed for this research using neural computing. A neural network was designed and trained to reconstruct measured X-ray spectra from data collected with a high- purity germanium spectroscopy system. Five X-ray beams were successfully characterized and found to replicate the ANSI N13.11 and the National Institute of Standards Technology X-ray beam codes. As a result, these prepared X-ray beams have been used for reference dosimetry. It has been shown that a neural network can be used as a spectral reconstruction technique, which contributes less error to the lower energy portion of the spectrum than other techniques.

  3. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  4. Analysis of Virtual Sensors for Predicting Aircraft Fuel Consumption

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous research described the use of machine learning algorithms to predict aircraft fuel consumption. This technique, known as Virtual Sensors, models fuel...

  5. Aircraft Structural Analysis, Design Optimization, and Manufacturing Tool Integration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative research is proposed in integrating fundamental aircraft design processes with an emphasis on composite structures. Efficient, lightweight composite...

  6. International Comparative Assessments: Broadening the Interpretability, Application and Relevance to the United States. Research in Review 2012-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giacomo, F. Tony; Fishbein, Bethany G.; Buckley, Vanessa W.

    2013-01-01

    Many articles and reports have reviewed, researched, and commented on international assessments from the perspective of exploring what is relevant for the United States' education systems. Researchers make claims about whether the top-performing systems have transferable practices or policies that could be applied to the United States. However,…

  7. What should autism research focus upon? Community views and priorities from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, Adam; Charman, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The rise in the measured prevalence of autism has been accompanied by much new research and research investment internationally. This study sought to establish whether the pattern of current UK autism research funding maps on to the concerns of the autism community. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with autistic adults, family members, practitioners and researchers to identify their priorities for research. We also captured the views of a large number of stakeholders via an online survey. There was a clear disparity between the United Kingdom’s pattern of funding for autism research and the priorities articulated by the majority of participants. There was general consensus that future priorities for autism research should lie in those areas that make a difference to people’s day-to-day lives. There needs to be greater involvement of the autism community both in priority setting and in research more broadly to ensure that resources reach where they are most needed and can make the most impact. PMID:24789871

  8. Using Synthetic Kerosene in Civil Jet Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    TU Delft in the Netherlands is performing research into the effects of the use of synthetic kerosene in aircraft. The research program consists of both desk research and tests. In the desk research gas turbine simulations will be combined with payload range performance calculations to show engine ef

  9. Using Synthetic Kerosene in Civil Jet Aircraft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    TU Delft in the Netherlands is performing research into the effects of the use of synthetic kerosene in aircraft. The research program consists of both desk research and tests. In the desk research gas turbine simulations will be combined with payload range performance calculations to show engine

  10. The Best Practice Unit: a model for learning, research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Wilken

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Best Practice Unit: a model for learning, research and development The Best Practice Unit (BPU model constitutes a unique form of practice-based research. A variant of the Community of Practice model developed by Wenger, McDermott and Snyder (2002, the BPU has the specific aim of improving professional practice by combining innovation and research. The model is used as a way of working by a group of professionals, researchers and other relevant individuals, who over a period of one to two years, work together towards a desired improvement. The model is characterized by interaction between individual and collective learning processes, the development of new or improved working methods, and the implementation of these methods in daily practice. Multiple knowledge resources are used, including experiential knowledge, professional knowledge and scientific knowledge. The research serves diverse purposes: articulating tacit knowledge, documenting learning and innovation processes, systematically describing the working methods that have been revealed or developed, and evaluating the efficacy of the new methods. Each BPU is supported by a facilitator, whose main task is to optimize learning processes. An analysis of ten different BPUs in different professional fields shows that this is a successful model. The article describes the methodology and results of this study. De Best Practice Unit: een model voor leren, onderzoek en ontwikkeling Het model van de Best Practice Unit (BPU is een unieke vorm van praktijkgericht onderzoek. De Best Practice Unit is een variant van de Community of Practice zoals ontwikkeld door Wenger, McDermott en Snyder (2002 met als specifiek doel om de professionele praktijk te verbeteren door innovatie en onderzoek te combineren. Het model wordt gebruikt om in een periode van 1-2 jaar met een groep professionals, onderzoekers en andere betrokkenen te werken aan een gewenste verbetering. Kenmerkend is de wisselwerking tussen

  11. Review of factors affecting aircraft wet runway performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  12. Aircraft cockpit ergonomic layout evaluation method research%飞机座舱人机布局评价方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊璇; 余隋怀; 刘国昌; 邓丽; 王文军

    2014-01-01

    针对当前座舱工效学重要性日益提升,信息量不断增加,机构愈加繁杂等特点,传统的以单个或多个部件为对象进行的人-机布局评价方法,往往造成综合评价的片面性,导致研发周期长,效率低等问题。考虑到工效学评价模糊性,提炼并建构了基于当前座舱特点的人机布局评价体系,提出基于不确定语言加权平均(U LWA)算子的多属性决策组合的研究方法,建立飞机座舱人机布局评价模型,并进行了推理和验证。%With the importance of ergonomic cockpit layout increasing, the information interaction becomes more frequently, and institutions more multifarious in the current cockpits, traditional evaluation method often results in one-sidedness comprehensive evaluation, which is mainly based on a single or a plurality of object, causing longer development cycle and lower efficiency. Considering the ambiguity of ergonomics evaluation, this paper refines and constructs an ergonomic layout evaluation system based on the characteristics of current cockpits, proposes a research method of multiple attribute decision-making combination based on Uncertain Linguistic Weighted Average(ULWA)operator, and establishes an aircraft cockpit layout evaluation model, finally been reasoning and verification.

  13. Overall Assessment of Human Research and Ethics Committees in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Mahera; Nair, Satish Chandrasekhar

    2017-04-01

    Growing demand for human health research in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) has prompted the need to develop a robust research ethics oversight. Examination of the structure, function, and practices of the human research ethics committees (HRECs), followed by evaluation of standards for measuring research output, was conducted. Results indicate that among the HRECs, 90% followed International Council for Harmonization-Good Clinical Practice guidelines, 66.6% have been in operation for more than 5 years, 95% reviewed proposals within 8 weeks, and 56% reviewed for scientific merit apart from ethics. However, systems to recognize accomplishments of researchers, funding transparency, and adverse event reporting were deployed in less than 30% of all HRECs. Research was incorporated into the vision and mission statements of many (65%) organizations. Research publications, collaborations, and recognitions were used to measure research output and report key performance indicators. In spite, resources to generate research output such as dedicated budget (20%), support staff (20%), and continuous training and mentoring program for medical residents (15%) and HREC members (25%) were somehow lacking. HREC structure and operations in the UAE are similar to other regions of the world. Systems to conduct research and report outcomes are defined in the UAE. Regulatory legislation and allocation of resources to support the clinical research enterprise will not only help to meet growing demand for clinical trials but also transform the quality of patient care in the UAE. It is anticipated that the results of this study will benefit investigators, regulators, pharmaceutical sponsors, and the policy makers in the region.

  14. Progress in human embryonic stem cell research in the United States between 2001 and 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Vakili

    Full Text Available On August 9th, 2001, the federal government of the United States announced a policy restricting federal funds available for research on human embryonic stem cell (hESCs out of concern for the "vast ethical mine fields" associated with the creation of embryos for research purposes. Until the policy was repealed on March 9th, 2009, no U.S. federal funds were available for research on hESCs extracted after August 9, 2001, and only limited federal funds were available for research on a subset of hESC lines that had previously been extracted. This paper analyzes how the 2001 U.S. federal funding restrictions influenced the quantity and geography of peer-reviewed journal publications on hESC. The primary finding is that the 2001 policy did not have a significant aggregate effect on hESC research in the U.S. After a brief lag in early 2000s, U.S. hESC research maintained pace with other areas of stem cell and genetic research. The policy had several other consequences. First, it was tied to increased hESC research funding within the U.S. at the state level, leading to concentration of related activities in a relatively small number of states. Second, it stimulated increased collaborative research between US-based scientists and those in countries with flexible policies toward hESC research (including Canada, the U.K., Israel, China, Spain, and South Korea. Third, it encouraged independent hESC research in countries without restrictions.

  15. Attitudes of patients and staff to research in a specialist palliative care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Catriona; Cornbleet, Mike

    2003-09-01

    Many randomized trials in specialist palliative care (SPC) have failed to recruit sufficient numbers of patients. A questionnaire was designed to assess the attitudes of inpatients of a SPC unit to taking part in research. Only 50% of patients were considered physically and mentally fit for interview. Forty patients and 13 nurses were asked to indicate their willingness to take part, or for their patients to take part, in research in general and then in three hypothetical trials. Reasons for their responses were analysed. The patients were generally agreeable to trial participation (66% 'quite happy' or 'very happy'). The nurses were strongly in favour of research participation for the same group of patients (92% 'quite happy' or 'very happy'). The most invasive study involving venepuncture and random drug allocation had the least favourable response (46% of patients and 54% of nurses 'quite happy' or 'very happy'). A trial of reflexology attracted 77% of patients, while 62% were happy to take part in a study involving mood assessment and interview. Factors deterring willingness to participate included the need for record keeping by the patient and concern about potential emotional strain. The nurses correctly identified some of the factors deterring patients, but often their willingness for trial participation did not match that of the patient. Although there is support for research among the small number of potential trial entrants in specialist palliative care units, their limited physical and emotional reserves make careful attention to appropriate trial design essential to the success of future studies.

  16. FFUSION yearbook 1995. Annual report of the Finnish research unit. Association EURATOM-TEKES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karttunen, S.; Paettikangas, T. [eds.] [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-03-01

    Finnish Fusion Research Programme (FFUSION) is one of the eleven national energy research programmes funded by the Technological Development Centre of Finland (TEKES). All fusion related research in Finland is included in the FFUSION programme and it made it possible to establish a dialogue with the European Fusion Programme already two years before Finland joined the European Union. The process led to the founding of the Association Euratom-TEKES in early 1995. The contract of Association was signed in Helsinki on March 13 1995, to establish the 14th Association in the EU FFusion Programme. This annual report summarises the research activities of the Finnish Research Unit in 1995. The emphasis is on research supported by the EU Commission. The programme consists of two parts: Physics and Technology. The research areas of the physics are: Fusion plasma engineering, Radio-frequency heating and plasma diagnostics, and Plasma-wall interactions - ion-beam studies of the reactor materials. The technology is focused into three areas: Fusion reactor materials (first wall components and joining techniques), and Remote handling

  17. 飞机电刹车驱动器设计与研究%Design and Research of Aircraft Electric Braking Drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢世杰; 林辉; 戴志勇

    2012-01-01

    以飞机全电刹车为研究背景,介绍了飞机电刹车系统的组成.设计了以飞机直流电为驱动电源、无刷直流电动机作动器为控制对象的飞机电刹车驱动器.借助MATLAB,对电刹车驱动器进行仿真.仿真结果和实验结果表明,刹车驱动器设计合理,性能优良.%The components of aircraft electric braking system was described. The electric braking drive was designed with the DC power of aircraft as drive power and the brushless DC motor actuator as contrd object. The electric braking drive was simulated by MATLAB. The electric performance of aircraft electric braking drive was proven by simulation results and experimental results.

  18. United States private-sector physicians and pharmaceutical contract research: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A Fisher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There have been dramatic increases over the past 20 years in the number of nonacademic, private-sector physicians who serve as principal investigators on US clinical trials sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. However, there has been little research on the implications of these investigators' role in clinical investigation. Our objective was to study private-sector clinics involved in US pharmaceutical clinical trials to understand the contract research arrangements supporting drug development, and specifically how private-sector physicians engaged in contract research describe their professional identities. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a qualitative study in 2003-2004 combining observation at 25 private-sector research organizations in the southwestern United States and 63 semi-structured interviews with physicians, research staff, and research participants at those clinics. We used grounded theory to analyze and interpret our data. The 11 private-sector physicians who participated in our study reported becoming principal investigators on industry clinical trials primarily because contract research provides an additional revenue stream. The physicians reported that they saw themselves as trial practitioners and as businesspeople rather than as scientists or researchers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that in addition to having financial motivation to participate in contract research, these US private-sector physicians have a professional identity aligned with an industry-based approach to research ethics. The generalizability of these findings and whether they have changed in the intervening years should be addressed in future studies. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  19. Conversion of the dual training aircraft (DC into single control advanced training aircraft (SC. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan ŞTEFĂNESCU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Converting the DC school jet aircraft into SC advanced training aircraft - and use them forthe combat training of military pilots from the operational units, has become a necessity due to thebudget cuts for Air Force, with direct implications on reducing the number of hours of flight assignedto operating personnel for preparing and training.The purpose of adopting such a program is to reduce the number of flight hours allocated annuallyfor preparing and training in advanced stages of instruction, for every pilot, by more intensive use ofthis type of aircraft, which has the advantage of lower flight hour costs as compared to a supersoniccombat plane.

  20. Investigation of Cross Flow Fan Propulsion for Lightweight VTOL Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    the aircraft longitudinal axis due to the total length of the unit. A total fan span of 20.6 inches is required to produce 690 lbf of thrust when...which are mounted parallel to the aircraft longitudinal axis and rest perpendicular, would be actuated as required to provide yaw control and aft

  1. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section 121.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS THE UNITED STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category...

  2. Qualitative research within trials: developing a standard operating procedure for a clinical trials unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research methods are increasingly used within clinical trials to address broader research questions than can be addressed by quantitative methods alone. These methods enable health professionals, service users, and other stakeholders to contribute their views and experiences to evaluation of healthcare treatments, interventions, or policies, and influence the design of trials. Qualitative data often contribute information that is better able to reform policy or influence design. Methods Health services researchers, including trialists, clinicians, and qualitative researchers, worked collaboratively to develop a comprehensive portfolio of standard operating procedures (SOPs) for the West Wales Organisation for Rigorous Trials in Health (WWORTH), a clinical trials unit (CTU) at Swansea University, which has recently achieved registration with the UK Clinical Research Collaboration (UKCRC). Although the UKCRC requires a total of 25 SOPs from registered CTUs, WWORTH chose to add an additional qualitative-methods SOP (QM-SOP). Results The qualitative methods SOP (QM-SOP) defines good practice in designing and implementing qualitative components of trials, while allowing flexibility of approach and method. Its basic principles are that: qualitative researchers should be contributors from the start of trials with qualitative potential; the qualitative component should have clear aims; and the main study publication should report on the qualitative component. Conclusions We recommend that CTUs consider developing a QM-SOP to enhance the conduct of quantitative trials by adding qualitative data and analysis. We judge that this improves the value of quantitative trials, and contributes to the future development of multi-method trials. PMID:23433341

  3. Uticaj mesta ugradnje inercijalnog mernog bloka i akcelerometara na grešku u određivanju pozicije aviona / Size effect of the inertial measurement unit and inside IMU accelerometers on aircraft position error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Janićijević

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available U ovom članku analiziran je uticaj mesta ugradnje inercijalnog mernog bloka (IMB u avionu i mesta ugradnje akcelerometara u IMB na tačnost određivanja pozicije pomoću bes-platformskog inercijalnog navigacijskog sistema (BINS. Pokazano je da se ovi uticaji ne mogu uvek zanemariti. Izračunata je ukupna greška u određivanju pozicije aviona ako se IMB ugrađuje van centra rotacije aviona, a akcelerometri van centra IMB. Predložena je optimalna orijentacija akcelerometara u IMB-u, kako bi se minimizirao uticaj ugradnje akcelerometara van centra IMB na tačnost određivanja pozicije aviona. Predložen je i način kompenzacije greške. / This paper analyzes the mounting offset size effect of the inertial measurement unit (IMU in aircraft and accelerometers mounting offset size effect in the IMU on the accuracy of strap down inertial navigation system (SDINS. It is also shown that these effects cannot be always neglected. The total size effect error for the IMU has been the computed. An accelerometers optimum orientation inside the IMU has been proposed to minimize size effects on the accuracy of navigation parameters. A manner to compensate these size effects has been proposed as well.

  4. Research ethics committees in the regulation of clinical research: comparison of Finland to England, Canada, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Elina

    2016-01-19

    The aim of this paper is to compare common features and variation in the work of research ethics committees (RECs) in Finland to three other countries - England, Canada, the United States of America (USA) - in the late 2000s. Several approaches and data sources were used, including semi- or unstructured interviews of experts, documents, previous reports, presentations in meetings and observations. A theoretical framework was created and data from various sources synthesized. In Finland, RECs were regulated by a medical research law, whereas in the other countries many related laws and rules guided RECs; drug trials had specific additional rules. In England and the USA, there was a REC control body. In all countries, members were voluntary and included lay-persons, and payment arrangements varied. Patient protection was the main ethics criteria, but other criteria (research advancement, availability of results, payments, detailed fulfilment of legislation) varied. In all countries, RECs had been given administrative duties. Variations by country included the mandate, practical arrangements, handling of multi-site research, explicitness of proportionate handlings, judging scientific quality, time-limits for decisions, following of projects, role in institute protection, handling conflicts of interests, handling of projects without informed consent, and quality assurance research. The division of work between REC members and secretariats varied in checking of formalities. In England, quality assurance of REC work was thorough, fairly thorough in the USA, and not performed in Finland. The work of RECs in the four countries varied notably. Various deficiencies in the system require action, for which international comparison can provide useful insights.

  5. The accessibility of research-based knowledge for nurses in United Kingdom acute care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C; McCaughan, D; Cullum, N; Sheldon, T A; Mulhall, A; Thompson, D R

    2001-10-01

    The successful dissemination of the results of the National Health Service (NHS) research and development strategy and the development of evidence based approaches to health care rely on clinicians having access to the best available evidence; evidence fit for the purpose of reducing the uncertainties associated with clinical decisions. To reveal the accessibility of those sources of information actually used by nurses, as well as those which they say they use. Mixed method case site, using interview, observational, Q sort and documentary audit data in medical, surgical and coronary care units (CCUs) in three acute hospitals. Three perspectives on accessibility were identified: (a) the humanist--in which human sources of information were the most accessible; (b) local information for local needs--in which locally produced resources were seen as the most accessible and (c) moving towards technology--in which information technology begins to be seen as accessible. Nurses' experience in a clinical specialty is positively associated with a perception that human sources such as clinical nurse specialists, link nurses, doctors and experienced clinical colleagues are more accessible than text based sources. Clinical specialization is associated with different approaches to accessing research knowledge. Coronary care unit nurses were more likely to perceive local guidelines, protocols and on-line databases as more accessible than their counterparts in general medical and surgical wards. Only a third of text-based resources available to nurses on the wards had any explicit research base. These, and the remainder were out of date (mean age of textbooks 11 years), and authorship hard to ascertain. A strategy to increase the use of research evidence by nurses should harness the influence of clinical nurse specialists, link nurses and those engaged in practice development. These roles could act as 'conduits' through which research-based messages for practice, and information

  6. Impacts of animal science research on United States sheep production and predictions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, C J

    2008-11-01

    One hundred years ago, there were more than 48 million sheep in the United States. In 1910, they were valued at $4/head, with 43% of income coming from the sale of sheep, lambs, and meat and 57% coming from wool. Over the years, fluctuations in this ratio have challenged the breeder and researcher alike. By 2007, sheep numbers had declined to 6.2 million, with the average sheep shearing 3.4 kg of wool (representing animal science research has made little impact on sheep production in the United States. On the contrary, lamb crops in the new millennium (range = 109 to 115%) are greater than those recorded in the 1920s (85 to 89%) and dressed lamb weights increased from 18 to 32 kg from 1940 to the present. In the past century, researchers conducted thousands of investigations, with progress reported in new, existing, and crossbreed evaluations, quantitative and molecular genetics, selection, nutrition, fiber, meat, hides, milk, growth, physiology, reproduction, endocrinology, management, behavior, the environment, disease, pharmacology, toxicology, and range, pasture, and forage utilization such that a vast amount of new information was accrued. Our understanding of sheep has benefited also from research conducted on other species, and vice versa. Many factors that have contributed to the decline in the sheep industry are not influenced easily by academic research (e.g., low per capita consumption of lamb meat, predation, reluctance to adopt new technologies, cost and availability of laborers with sheep-related skills, and fewer young people pursuing careers in agriculture). The size of the US sheep industry is expected to remain stable, with possible slow growth in the foreseeable future. To remain profitable, producers will take advantage of new (or previously unused) technologies, the desire of the public for things natural, domestic niche and international fiber markets, and the ability of the sheep to control noxious weeds and thrive in suboptimal ecosystems.

  7. Aircraft Noise Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper add...

  8. Scoping Study on Research and Development Priorities for Distribution-System Phasor Measurement Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stewart, Emma M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, Travis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Buckner, Mark [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirkham, Harold [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schoenwald, David A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This report addresses the potential use of phasor measurement units (PMUs) within electricity distribution systems, and was written to assess whether or not PMUs could provide significant benefit, at the national level. We analyze examples of present and emerging distribution-system issues related to reliability, integration of distributed energy resources, and the changing electrical characteristics of load. We find that PMUs offer important and irreplaceable advantages over present approaches. However, we also find that additional research and development for standards, testing and calibration, demonstration projects, and information sharing is needed to help industry capture these benefits.

  9. United States Air Force Summer Faculty Research Program. 1985 Technical Report. Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Air Force materials with polution potential include jet fuel, deicer, different pesticides and Aqueous Fire Fighting Foam (AFFF). Spills and leakage...L AD-Ai66 178 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE SUMMER FACULTY RESEARCH PROGRAM 1/11 1985 TECHNICAL RE..(U) UNIVERSAL ENERGY SYSTEMS INC DAYTON OH R C DARRAH...EIIIIEEEIIIEEE 36 Ml ROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NtATIONdAL "URI4 OF SVAOAS - 963 -A j AIR FORCE OFFICE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEAfjCH-- ;’’UNITEP.STATES A11R.-FORG

  10. New NOAA-15 Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) Datasets for Stratospheric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Roy W.; Braswell, William D.

    1999-01-01

    The NOAA-15 spacecraft launched in May 1998 carried the first Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU). The AMSU has eleven oxygen absorption channels with weighting functions peaking from near the surface to 2 mb. Twice-daily, limb-corrected I degree gridded datasets of layer temperatures have been constructed since the AMSU went operational in early August 1998. Examples of AMSU imagery will be shown, as will preliminary analyses of daily fluctuations in tropical stratospheric temperatures and their relationship to daily variations in tropical-average rainfall measured by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I). The AMSU datasets are now available for other researchers to utilize.

  11. Accounting for Diversity in Suicide Research: Sampling and Sample Reporting Practices in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Christine B; Tezanos, Katherine M; Peros, Olivia M; Ng, Mei Yi; Ribeiro, Jessica D; Nock, Matthew K; Franklin, Joseph C

    2017-03-09

    Research on suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB) has identified many risk factors, but whether these findings generalize to diverse populations remains unclear. We review longitudinal studies on STB risk factors over the past 50 years in the United States and evaluate the methodological practices of sampling and reporting sample characteristics. We found that articles frequently reported participant age and sex, less frequently reported participant race and ethnicity, and rarely reported participant veteran status or lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender status. Sample reporting practices modestly and inconsistently improved over time. Finally, articles predominantly featured White, non-Hispanic, young adult samples.

  12. 大型民机企业人力资源能力建设评价研究*%Research on Human Resource Construction Evaluation of Large Aircraft Corporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨生斌; 孙振杰; 孔莹

    2013-01-01

    Large aircraft corporations need strong human resources to support,in view of "I am the Lord", "the Lord manufacturers and suppliers" develop-ment model in China's large aircraft corporations, the importance of corporations internal human resources con-struction is indicated. Through using the benchmarking corporations Boeing and Airbus company human resource practices, from investment, performance and output three aspects, the large aircraft corporations human resources construction evaluation index system and evaluation model are constructed so as to improve human resources con-struction standard of large aircraft corporations in China.%大型民机企业需要强有力的人力资源做支撑,针对我国大型民机企业“以我为主”、“主制造商+供应商”的发展模式,明确企业内部人力资源能力建设的重要性。通过借鉴标杆企业波音和空客的人力资源实践,从投入、表现和产出3方面入手构建了大型民机企业人力资源能力建设评价指标体系和评价模型,以期促进我国大型民机企业人力资源能力不断提升。

  13. Recruiting bereaved parents for research after infant death in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Erin R; Roche, Cathy; Christian, Becky J; Bakitas, Marie; Meneses, Karen

    2016-11-01

    Understanding parental experiences following infant death in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is a high research priority and a necessary first step to improving health services. However, recruiting bereaved parents to discuss their experiences on such an extremely sensitive topic can be challenging and research procedures must be planned carefully in order to get an adequate sample. There is little published in the literature detailing specific strategies for recruiting bereaved parents for grief research, especially strategies for contacting parents and identifying factors that might affect participation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of recruiting bereaved parents into a qualitative research study exploring parental NICU experiences and grief responses following infant death. We describe a successful recruitment plan that led to the enrollment of difficult to recruit participants such as fathers, and individuals representing minorities and those from lower socioeconomic (SES) groups. Bereaved parents of infants after an NICU hospitalization should continue to be recruited for research studies for their unique perspectives and valuable insights about the devastating experience of infant death. Participants in this study reported more benefits than harm and the results addressed a critical gap in the literature.

  14. Performance Evaluation Method for Dissimilar Aircraft Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    A rationale is presented for using the square of the wingspan rather than the wing reference area as a basis for nondimensional comparisons of the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of aircraft that differ substantially in planform and loading. Working relationships are developed and illustrated through application to several categories of aircraft covering a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.00. For each application, direct comparisons of drag polars, lift-to-drag ratios, and maneuverability are shown for both nondimensional systems. The inaccuracies that may arise in the determination of aerodynamic efficiency based on reference area are noted. Span loading is introduced independently in comparing the combined effects of loading and aerodynamic efficiency on overall performance. Performance comparisons are made for the NACA research aircraft, lifting bodies, century-series fighter aircraft, F-111A aircraft with conventional and supercritical wings, and a group of supersonic aircraft including the B-58 and XB-70 bomber aircraft. An idealized configuration is included in each category to serve as a standard for comparing overall efficiency.

  15. Examining the Role of N2O5 Hydrolysis and ClNO2 Production Over the Northeast United States: Results from WINTER 2015 Aircraft Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, J.; Jaegle, L.; Thornton, J. A.; Shah, V.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E.; Brown, S. S.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weber, R. J.; Dibb, J. E.; Day, D. A.; Holloway, J. S.; Fiddler, M. N.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Schroder, J. C.; Sullivan, A.; Veres, P. R.; Green, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The heterogeneous uptake of N2O5 on liquid aerosol particles plays a critical role in regulating tropospheric reactive nitrogen (NOx) availability, particle nitrate loadings, and halogen activity, which, in turn, have downwind effects on oxidant availability and ozone production. However, parameterizations of this process in regional and global models remain relatively untested. Measurements taken during the 2015 Wintertime Investigation of Transportation, Emissions, & Reactivity (WINTER) allow both empirical and theoretical calculations of the N2O5 reactive uptake coefficient (γ) and ClNO2 yield (Y) during 13 winter flights over the eastern US. We use observations of gas and particle composition as inputs to the offline thermodynamic equilibrium models, ISORROPIA II and AIM, to generate outputs of particulate aqueous phase concentrations of NO3-(aq), Cl-(aq), and H2O(l) . These outputs are used to theoretically calculate γ (N2O5) and Y(ClNO2), using the parameterizations described in Bertram & Thornton, 2009. The calculated values are then compared to the empirical counterparts to assess the validity of the parameterization's representation of temperature, humidity, and composition dependences. The updated parameterization is then used in the online GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to examine the role of wintertime multiphase chemistry in controlling the regional distribution and export of NOx and Cl-atom source downwind of the northeast United States.

  16. 26 CFR 31.3306(m)-1 - American vessel and aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false American vessel and aircraft. 31.3306(m)-1... vessel and aircraft. (a) The term “American vessel” means any vessel which is documented (that is....) (b) The term “American aircraft” means any aircraft registered under the laws of the United States...

  17. EVALUATION OF THE LEARNING SYSTEM BASED ON RESEARCH (SABI IN THE CICS UMA IPN BIOCHEMISTRY UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Elisa Pérez-Magaña

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning is a steward, permanent, and participatory process where: the apprentice, teacher, classmates, institution and other social factors where the student performs. As detonator of learning is research, which is made from real events that are addressed on the basis of the scientific development of the State of the art. One of the key elements in the professional training of students is the method that is used. Research-based learning system is an educational innovation (SABI, which was used in the learning of basic sciences of the Cardiovascular apparatus in generations unit 33rd, 34th, 35th, 36th and 37th generations in the years of 2008 to 2012's career in medicine and as a result was a decrease in the number of students reproachedimproving achievement. This method is an excellent alternative in the teaching-learning process and can be used both in groups with a variable number of students.

  18. Development and Evaluation of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation and Opportunities for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.

  19. Review of Research for People with ID and Mental Health Problems: A View from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Colin; Deb, Shoumitro; Chaplin, Eddie; Hardy, Steve; Mukherjee, Rittick

    2013-01-01

    This review of research into mental disorders in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) focuses on research in this field that has originated from the United Kingdom in the last 2 decades. It considers research developments into the epidemiology of mental disorders and problem behaviors, psychopharmacology, psychosocial interventions, and…

  20. Review of Research for People with ID and Mental Health Problems: A View from the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmings, Colin; Deb, Shoumitro; Chaplin, Eddie; Hardy, Steve; Mukherjee, Rittick

    2013-01-01

    This review of research into mental disorders in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) focuses on research in this field that has originated from the United Kingdom in the last 2 decades. It considers research developments into the epidemiology of mental disorders and problem behaviors, psychopharmacology, psychosocial interventions, and…

  1. 22 CFR 63.7 - Grants to United States participants to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or engage in specialized programs. 63.7... United States participants to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or... to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, demonstrate special skills, or engage in...

  2. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  3. The Effect of Reducing Cruise Altitude on the Topology and Emissions of a Commercial Transport Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, research has been conducted for alternative commercial transonic aircraft design configurations, such as the strut- braced wing and the truss-braced wing aircraft designs, in order to improve aircraft performance and reduce the impact of aircraft emissions as compared to a typical cantilever wing design. Research performed by Virginia Tech in conjunction with NASA Langley Research Center shows that these alternative configurations result in 20% or more reduction in fuel...

  4. Research on Geographical Environment Unit Division Based on the Method of Natural Breaks (Jenks)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Yang, S. T.; Li, H. W.; Zhang, B.; Lv, J. R.

    2013-11-01

    Zoning which is to divide the study area into different zones according to their geographical differences at the global, national or regional level, includes natural division, economic division, geographical zoning of departments, comprehensive zoning and so on. Zoning is of important practical significance, for example, knowing regional differences and characteristics, regional research and regional development planning, understanding the favorable and unfavorable conditions of the regional development etc. Geographical environment is arising from the geographical position linkages. Geographical environment unit division is also a type of zoning. The geographical environment indicators are deeply studied and summed up in the article, including the background, the associated and the potential. The background indicators are divided into four categories, such as the socio-economic, the political and military, the strategic resources and the ecological environment, which can be divided into more sub-indexes. While the sub-indexes can be integrated to comprehensive index system by weighted stacking method. The Jenks natural breaks classification method, also called the Jenks optimization method, is a data classification method designed to determine the best arrangement of values into different classes. This is done by seeking to minimize each class's average deviation from the class mean, while maximizing each class's deviation from the means of the other groups. In this paper, the experiment of Chinese surrounding geographical environment unit division has been done based on the natural breaks (jenks) method, the geographical environment index system and the weighted stacking method, taking South Asia as an example. The result indicates that natural breaks (jenks) method is of good adaptability and high accuracy on the geographical environment unit division. The geographical environment research was originated in the geopolitics and flourished in the geo

  5. 民用飞机研制项目风险管理研究与应用%Research and Application of Risk Management in Civil Aircraft Development Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢新来; 丁常宏; 任长伟; 于晓伟

    2015-01-01

    民用飞机研制项目具有技术含量高、难度大、复杂度高、高投入、高风险、不确定性大等特点,在项目管理中引入风险管理对项目的顺利推进具有重要意义。在研究风险管理理论和流程的基础上,提出了民用飞机研制项目的风险识别方法和量化评估方法,建立了风险管理的组织结构和运行流程,给出了风险管理平台的系统架构和技术实现,开发的系统可用于民用飞机研制项目风险管理。%There are high technical content, dififcult and highly complex, high input, high risks, uncertainties and other great features in civil aircraft development project. Bringing risk management in civil aircraft development project has important signiifcance for project development. Based on researching the theory and procedure of risk management, the methods of risk identification and quantitative assessment in civil aircraft development project was presented, organizational structure and operation process of risk management was established. An architecture framework of risk management system, together with its implementation was proposed, and the developed system was applied in risk management of civil aircraft development project.

  6. The Status of Beryllium Research for Fusion in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2003-12-01

    Use of beryllium in fusion reactors has been considered for neutron multiplication in breeding blankets and as an oxygen getter for plasma-facing surfaces. Previous beryllium research for fusion in the United States included issues of interest to fission (swelling and changes in mechanical and thermal properties) as well as interactions with plasmas and hydrogen isotopes and methods of fabrication. When the United States formally withdrew its participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) program, much of this effort was terminated. The focus in the U.S. has been mainly on toxic effects of beryllium and on industrial hygiene and health-related issues. Work continued at the INEEL and elsewhere on beryllium-containing molten salts. This activity is part of the JUPITER II Agreement. Plasma spray of ITER first wall samples at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been performed under the European Fusion Development Agreement. Effects of irradiation on beryllium structure are being studied at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Numerical and phenomenological models are being developed and applied to better understand important processes and to assist with design. Presently, studies are underway at the University of California Los Angeles to investigate thermo-mechanical characteristics of beryllium pebble beds, similar to research being carried out at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe and elsewhere. Additional work, not funded by the fusion program, has dealt with issues of disposal, and recycling.

  7. Research on the Current Telecommuting Trends in United States and European Union Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Georgiana PICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalization and due to the accelerated progress made in information and communication technology, more and more companies offer their employees the option of telecommuting. For the past twenty years, telecommuting has been on an asceding trend, an incresing number of people embracing the ability to work from home, using a computer and internet connection to communicate for their jobs. The goal of the paper is to explain the overall notion of telecommuting and to analyze the current trends in the United States and European Union markets. Another objective is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of telecommuting and the important role played by this concept within the striving purpose of corporations to achieve their strategic targets. The study is based upon specialized literature reviews regarding the emergence of telecommuting and the role it plays in organizations. A comparative analysis was conducted by the authors on two regional markets, United States and the European Union, in order to assess the trend in telecommuting and the factors that influence it. The outcome of the research shows that although the benefits of telecommuting are numerous, it does not come without challenges, both being applicable for both the employer, as well as for the employee. The research results of this study can be used by organizations when considering to offer their employees flexible work opportunities which can positively influence the long term business performance.

  8. A review of ground penetrating radar research and practice in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannopoulos, Antonios; Alani, Amir

    2014-05-01

    Ground penetrating radar has been playing an important role for many years in assisting in the non-destructive evaluation of UK's built environment as well as being employed in more general shallow depth geophysical investigations. Ground penetrating radar, in the United Kingdom, has a long history of original work both in developing original research ideas on fundamental aspects of the technique, both in hardware and in software, and in exploring innovative ideas relating to the practical implementation of ground penetrating radar in a number of interesting projects. For example, the base of one of the biggest organisations that connects ground penetrating radar practitioners is in the United Kingdom. This paper will endeavour to review the current status of ground penetrating radar research - primarily carried out in UK Universities - and present some key areas and work that is carried out at a practical level - primarily by private enterprises. Although, the main effort is to concentrate on ground penetrating radar applications relating to civil engineering problems other related areas of ground penetrating radar application will also be reviewed. The aim is to create a current picture of ground penetrating radar use with a view to inform and potentially enhance the possibility of new developments and collaborations that could lead to the advancement of ground penetrating radar as a geophysical investigative method. This work is a contribution to COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar.

  9. Advancing science diplomacy: Indonesia and the US Naval Medical Research Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank L

    2014-12-01

    Science diplomacy supposedly builds international cooperation through scientific and technical exchange. In practice, however, there are important but often overlooked instances where it might create conflict instead--as with accusations of espionage surrounding the US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 (NAMRU-2) in Indonesia. Did American science diplomacy backfire in Indonesia and, if so, why? Most literature fails to anticipate this possibility, let alone explain it, since science diplomacy is rarely subject to critical analysis. Rather than shun politics or, similarly, simply blame the demise of NAMRU-2 on the military or avian influenza, I consider both the successes and failures of this research unit in the context of Indonesia's transition to democracy and America's legacy from the Cold War. Based on this history, I propose that the effects of science diplomacy depend on strategic communication and exchange, as well as elite influence and material incentives. Therefore, by challenging the conventional wisdom about science diplomacy, NAMRU-2 can help advance the theory and practice of this potentially useful tool of statecraft.

  10. 77 FR 40529 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1220 Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... the United Soybean Board (Board) to reflect changes in production levels that have occurred since...

  11. 78 FR 1 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1220 Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule adjusts the number of members on the United Soybean Board (Board) to...

  12. Modeling Programs Increase Aircraft Design Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Flutter may sound like a benign word when associated with a flag in a breeze, a butterfly, or seaweed in an ocean current. When used in the context of aerodynamics, however, it describes a highly dangerous, potentially deadly condition. Consider the case of the Lockheed L-188 Electra Turboprop, an airliner that first took to the skies in 1957. Two years later, an Electra plummeted to the ground en route from Houston to Dallas. Within another year, a second Electra crashed. In both cases, all crew and passengers died. Lockheed engineers were at a loss as to why the planes wings were tearing off in midair. For an answer, the company turned to NASA s Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at Langley Research Center. At the time, the newly renovated wind tunnel offered engineers the capability of testing aeroelastic qualities in aircraft flying at transonic speeds near or just below the speed of sound. (Aeroelasticity is the interaction between aerodynamic forces and the structural dynamics of an aircraft or other structure.) Through round-the-clock testing in the TDT, NASA and industry researchers discovered the cause: flutter. Flutter occurs when aerodynamic forces acting on a wing cause it to vibrate. As the aircraft moves faster, certain conditions can cause that vibration to multiply and feed off itself, building to greater amplitudes until the flutter causes severe damage or even the destruction of the aircraft. Flutter can impact other structures as well. Famous film footage of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in Washington in 1940 shows the main span of the bridge collapsing after strong winds generated powerful flutter forces. In the Electra s case, faulty engine mounts allowed a type of flutter known as whirl flutter, generated by the spinning propellers, to transfer to the wings, causing them to vibrate violently enough to tear off. Thanks to the NASA testing, Lockheed was able to correct the Electra s design flaws that led to the flutter conditions and return the

  13. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  14. 航空聚氨酯涂层老化分析%Research on Aging Mechanism of Polyurethane Topcoat Applied in Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹峰; 王玉刚; 谭晓明

    2016-01-01

    With the increase of the aircraft service time, after organic coating of surface structure aging gradually, the metal of aircraft is corroded eventually. Based on the severe environmental conditions of a coastal airport, according to the organizational accelerative test load spectrum which is applicable to organic coating, the coating accelerated aging test is developed, and the coating aging principle is analyzed.%随着飞机服役时间的增长,其结构表面的有机涂层逐渐老化失效,最终导致机体金属结构的腐蚀。基于某沿海机场的严酷环境条件,依据编制的适用于有机涂层的加速试验谱,开展涂层加速老化试验,分析涂层老化规律。

  15. Research situation of multiple site damages aircraft structure%飞机结构多处损伤研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李郑琦; 胡建军; 陈跃良

    2011-01-01

    多损伤是老龄飞机最主要的损伤形式,在文中介绍了多损伤应力强度因子的计算方法和多裂纹连通准则,飞机结构多损伤裂纹扩展模型和可靠性分析研究现状.%Multiple site damages (MSD) is the major aging damage forms of aircraft. It was introduced Calculation method of damage stress intensity factor and crack connected criteria for aircraft structure were introduced in this paper, and MSD crack propagation model and situation of its reliability analysis were also presented.

  16. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 2: RNAV/MLS transition problems for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems in navigation and guidance encountered by aircraft in the initial transition period in changing from distance measuring equipment, VORTAC, and barometric instruments to the more precise microwave landing system data type navaids in the terminal area are investigated. The effects of the resulting discontinuities on the estimates of position and velocity for both optimal (Kalman type navigation schemes) and fixed gain (complementary type) navigation filters, and the effects of the errors in cross track, track angle, and altitude on the guidance equation and control commands during the critical landing phase are discussed. A method is presented to remove the discontinuities from the navigation loop and to reconstruct an RNAV path designed to land the aircraft with minimal turns and altitude changes.

  17. CID Aircraft slap-down

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  18. CID Aircraft slap-down

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  19. B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported

  20. United Nations and human cloning: a slender and fortunate defence for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R G

    2003-12-01

    Numerous biomedical scientists have contributed to the wide knowledge on the growth of preimplantation human embryos in vitro, now improving every aspect of the form of clinical care. These data were gained ethically in many countries, to open new vistas including the alleviation of infertility, preimplantation genetic diagnosis and stem cells, combined with some recent reports on human reproductive cloning. After detailed consultations with scientists, clinicians, ethicists and lawyers, many governments passed legislation permitting research under their own particular socially-defined conditions. Virtually all of them rejected reproductive cloning; a few have accepted therapeutic cloning. These legislatures saluted the many biomedical scientists striving to improve IVF and its derivatives, recognizing their immense medical potential. A motion recently placed before the United Nations then recommended a worldwide ban on all forms of human cloning. Proponents included the Vatican and many Roman Catholic countries, the USA and others. Opponents included Belgium, China, Japan, Brazil, UK, Germany and France. Mediation was achieved by Iran and other Muslim nations, and led to a motion passed by single vote for a two-year delay. This may be the first-ever proposal to ban worldwide a particular form of research. It sounds the alarm bells for further research. It raises questions about the UN being an appropriate forum for ethical decisions affecting the entire world and its future medicine. Large blocs of nations committed to particular religions and outlooks confronted each other, a situation in total contrast to the detailed and widespread consultations made by individual governments when deciding their own individual ethics. This event was clearly a narrow escape for free research as defined by each country's own jurisprudence. It also places research on human embryology and reproductive biomedicine into a more critical situation than before. Current liberalism in

  1. A Practical, Global Perspective on Using Administrative Data to Conduct Intensive Care Unit Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Allan; Gershengorn, Hayley B; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Reider, Nadia; Wilcox, M Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Various data sources can be used to conduct research on critical illness and intensive care unit (ICU) use. Most published studies derive from randomized controlled trials, large-scale clinical databases, or retrospective chart reviews. However, few investigators have access to such data sources or possess the resources to create them. Hospital administrative data, also called health claims data, constitute an important alternative data source that can be used to address a broad range of research questions, including many that would be difficult to study in interventional studies. Such data often contain information that allows identification of ICU care, specific types of critical illness, and ICU-related procedures. The strengths of using administrative databases are that many are population-based, cover broad geographic regions, and are large enough to provide high statistical power and precise effect estimates. Linking hospital data to other databases regarding chronic care facilities, home care services, or rehabilitation services, for example, can expand the scope of research questions that can be answered. However, the limitations of administrative data must be recognized. They are not collected for research purposes; thus, data elements may vary in accuracy, and key clinical variables such as ICU-specific physiologic and laboratory data are usually lacking. Specific efforts should be made to validate the data elements used, as has been done in several world regions. As with any other research question, it is imperative that the analysis plan be carefully defined in advance and that appropriate attention be paid to potential sources of bias and confounding.

  2. Reliability and optimization, application to safety of aircraft structures

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Liu

    2016-01-01

    Tremendous struggles of researchers in the field of aerodynamic design and aircraft production were made to improve wing airfoil by optimization techniques. The development of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) in computer simulation cuts the expense of aerodynamic experiment while provides convincing results to simulate complicated situation of aircraft. In our work, we chose a special and important part of aircraft, namely, the structure of wing.Reliability based optimization is one of the m...

  3. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of aircraft ground deicing model

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aircraft ground deicing plays an important role of guaranteeing the aircraft safety. In practice, most airports generally use as many deicing fluids as possible to remove the ice, which causes the waste of the deicing fluids and the pollution of the environment. Therefore, the model of aircraft ground deicing should be built to establish the foundation for the subsequent research, such as the optimization of the deicing fluid consumption. In this article, the heat balance of the deicing proce...

  4. Purpose, structure, and function of the United States National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Gregg H.; Williams, O. Dale; Korelitz, James J.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Oates, Thomas W.; Rindal, D. Brad; Benjamin, Paul L.; Foy, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Following a successful2005–2012 phase with three regional practice-based research networks (PBRNs), a single, unified national network called “The National Dental PBRN” was created in 2012 in the United States to improve oral health by conducting practice-based research and serving dental professionals through education and collegiality. Methods Central administration is based in Alabama. Regional centres are based in Alabama, Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, New York and Texas, with a Coordinating Centre in Maryland. Ideas for studies are prioritized by the Executive Committee, comprised mostly of full-time clinicians. Results To date, 2736 persons have enrolled, from all six network regions; enrollment continues to expand. They represent a broad range of practitioners, practice types, and patient populations. Practitioners are actively improving every step of the research process, from idea generation, to study development, field testing, data collection, and presentation and publication. Conclusions Practitioners from diverse settings are partnering with fellow practitioners and academics to improve clinical practice and meet the needs of clinicians and their patients. Clinical significance This “nation’s network” aims to serve as a precious national resource to improve the scientific basis for clinical decision-making and foster movement of the latest evidence into routine practice. PMID:23597500

  5. Research-based Teaching Experiment Platform Construction for the Power Supply System of Aircraft%航空电源系统研究型教学实验平台的建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏佳丹; 秦海鸿; 刘闯

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a research-based teaching experiment platform construction for the power supply sys-tem of aircraft based on the curriculum of Power Supply of Aeronautics and Astronautics. The theory and simulation analysis,hands-on activities and the innovative exploration and research can be achieved on the proposed platform, the combination of advanced researching results of aircraft power supply system and the curriculum teaching will be useful for the promotion of course teaching,and ability achievement of integrate theory and practice,hand-on activ-ities and innovation can also be realized.%本文在“航空航天器供电系统”课程教学基础上,开展了为学生提供理论、仿真分析和动手操作的航空电源系统实验平台建设,将学科关于航空电源系统的先进研究成果与课程教学工作相结合,既能够促进航空电源系统教学工作,又能够增强学生理论与实践相结合的能力,还能够激励学生开展创新性探索研究工作。

  6. United States Air Force Summer Research Program -- 1993. Volume 3. Phillips Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    of the need to understand and influence plasmas which occur naturally (e.g., auroras and the ionosphere) or man-made (e.g., around transonic aircraft...34Simultaneous Observations of ELF Waves from an Artificially Modulated Aurora Electrojet in Space and On the Ground", J. Geophys. Res., 89, 1655, 1984. James...solving hydrogeological problems," Geoexploration, vol. 14, pp. 195-206, 1976. [45] F. Bender and H. Flathe, "Groundwater conditions in the Chaco Boreal

  7. Research Regarding the Anticorosiv Protection of Atmospheric and Vacuum Distillation Unit that Process Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morosanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to high boiling temperature, organic acids are present in the warmer areas of metal equipment from atmospheric and vacuum distillation units and determine, increased corrosion processes in furnace tubes, transfer lines, metal equipment within the distillation columns etc. In order to protect the corrosion of metal equipment from atmospheric and vacuum distillation units, against acids, de authors researched solution which integrates corrosion inhibitors and selecting materials for equipment construction. For this purpose, we tested the inhibitor PET 1441, which has dialchilfosfat in his composition and inhibitor based on phosphate ester. In this case, to the metal surface forms a complex phosphorous that forms of high temperature and high fluid speed. In order to form the passive layer and to achieve a 90% protection, we initially insert a shock dose, and in order to ensure further protection there is used a dose of 20 ppm. The check of anticorrosion protection namely the inhibition efficiency is achieved by testing samples made from steel different.

  8. Software architecture for a multi-purpose real-time control unit for research purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, S.; Jung, R.; Jalba, K.; Nasui, V.

    2017-05-01

    A new, freely programmable, scalable control system for academic research purposes was developed. The intention was, to have a control unit capable of handling multiple PT1000 temperature sensors at reasonable accuracy and temperature range, as well as digital input signals and providing powerful output signals. To take full advantage of the system, control-loops are run in real time. The whole eight bit system with very limited memory runs independently of a personal computer. The two on board RS232 connectors allow to connect further units or to connect other equipment, as required in real time. This paper describes the software architecture for the third prototype that now provides stable measurements and an improvement in accuracy compared to the previous designs. As test case a thermal solar system to produce hot tap water and assist heating in a single-family house was implemented. The solar fluid pump was power-controlled and several temperatures at different points in the hydraulic system were measured and used in the control algorithms. The software architecture proved suitable to test several different control strategies and their corresponding algorithms for the thermal solar system.

  9. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  10. QUALITY INFLUENCE OF SURFACE ON AIRCRAFT TAKE-OFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers quality impact influence of surface on aircraft take-off. It considers the IL-114 takeoff with all the operating engines. The goal of this research is to conduct calculating experiment to determine quality influence of surface on alteration of IL-114 takeoff characteristics during operation. Researches were carried out using the system of mathematical modeling of a flight dynamics. The main part of the system is a unit for calculating increments of aerodynam- ic coefficients caused with changing of technical condition of the surface of the airframe (roughness, waviness, available protruding elements on the airframe surface, etc. and residual deformation of the wing, fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail, as well as the difference between the rods symmetrically operating engines. In order to compute loss of rod and an increase in engine fuel consumption due to engine operation time during operation, an integral factor of thrust loss and increase in fuel consumption coefficient were introduced. Research proved that the individual characteristics of the aircraft, due to loss of engine power and increase in drag do not affect the assigned level of flight safety. The plane has a considera- ble reserve as for unsafe takeoff speed and the full gradient of climb, that ensures safety of operation.

  11. Telecommunications Research in the United States and Selected Foreign Countries: A Preliminary Survey. Volume II, Individual Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Engineering, Washington, DC. Committee on Telecommunications.

    At the request of the National Science Foundation, the Panel on Telecommunications Research of the Committee on Telecommunications of the National Academy of Engineering has made a preliminary survey of the status and trends of telecommunications research in the United States and selected foreign countries. The status and trends were identified by…

  12. 22 CFR 63.6 - Assignment of United States Government employees to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employees to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, or demonstrate special skills. 63.6 Section 63.6... Government employees to consult, lecture, teach, engage in research, or demonstrate special skills. An employee of the United States Government who has been assigned for service abroad to consult,...

  13. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  14. SOLAR AIRCRAFT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    RAHMATI, Sadegh; GHASED, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Generally domain Aircraft uses conventional fuel. These fuel having limited life, high cost and pollutant. Also nowadays price of petrol and other fuels are going to be higher, because of scarcity of those fuels. So there is great demand of use of non-exhaustible unlimited source of energy like solar energy. Solar aircraft is one of the ways to utilize solar energy. Solar aircraft uses solar panel to collect the solar radiation for immediate use but it also store the remaining part ...

  15. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  16. FLYING UNITED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apart from selling hundreds of airplanes to China, Boeing buys locally made aircraft parts and transfers technology, in the true spirit of partnership Whenever Boeing's senior manager hear of a visit by one of China's state leaders, it's no doubt cause for celebration. Since China and the United States established diplomatic ties in 1978, every official trip by China's top statesmen has included a meeting with Boeing that

  17. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

    1998-01-01

    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  18. Research needs for strandplain/barrier island reservoirs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, E.L.; Fowler, M.L.; Salamy, S.P.; Sarathi, P.S.; Young, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    This report identifies reservoir characterization and reservoir management research needs and IOR process and related research needs for the fourth geologic class, strandplain/barrier island reservoirs. The 330 Class 4 reservoirs in the DOE Tertiary OH Recovery Information System (TORIS) database contain about 30.8 billion barrels of oil or about 9% of the total original oil-in-place (OOIP) in all United States reservoirs. The current projection of Class 4 ultimate recovery with current operations is only 38% of the OOIP, leaving 19 billion barrels as the target for future IOR projects. Using the TORIS database and its predictive and economic models, the recovery potential which could result from future application of IOR technologies to Class 4 reservoirs was estimated to be between 1.0 and 4.3 billion barrels, depending on oil price and the level of technology advancement. The analysis indicated that this potential could be realized through (1) infill drilling alone and in combination with polymer flooding and profile modification, (2) chemical flooding (surfactant), and (3) thermal processes. Most of this future potential is in Texas, Oklahoma, California, and the Rocky Mountain region. Approximately two-thirds of the potentially recoverable resource is at risk of abandonment by the year 2000, which emphasizes the urgent need for the development and demonstration of cost-effective recovery technologies.

  19. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  20. 舰载机弹射起飞动力学虚拟试验研究%Research on Dynamics during Catapult Takeoff of Carrier-based Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋成国; 许锋; 聂宏

    2013-01-01

    基于多体动力软件LMS Virtual.lab建立了某型飞机弹射起飞的刚柔耦合虚拟样机模型,使用一对点和柔性曲线约束副来模拟活塞杆和外筒的运动,分析了目标飞机的弹射起飞安全性及弹射过程中飞机的动力学响应.仿真表明:目标飞机的舰首下沉量能够满求,可以安全起飞.纵摇和垂荡的耦合会使飞机舰首下沉量增大;分离时的动态响应情况与分离载荷的大小和衰减速度有关.%A flex-rigid virtual prototype model was built in LMS Virtual, lab to simulate the catapult launch process of carrier-based aircraft. A pair of flex point curve joints were used to simulate the movements of the piston rod and the outer tube. The catapult security and dynamics response of the target aircraft were analyzed. Simulation results show that: the target aircraft meets the criteria requirements,and can take off safelysthe coupling of pitch and heave will increase subsidence;the dynamic response caused by separation is related to the size and decay rate of separate load.

  1. Enabling Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Arctic Environmental Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvold, Rune; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Mulac, Brenda

    , satellites and manned aircraft are the traditional platforms on which scientists gather data of the atmosphere, sea ice, glaciers, fauna and vegetation. However, significant data gaps still exist over much of the Arctic because there are few research stations, satellites are often hindered by cloud cover......, poor resolution, and the complicated surface of snow and ice. Measurements made from manned aircraft are also limited because of range and endurance, as well as the danger and costs presented by operating manned aircraft in harsh and remote environments like the Arctic. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS...

  2. Enabling Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Arctic Environmental Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvold, Rune; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Mulac, Brenda;

    , satellites and manned aircraft are the traditional platforms on which scientists gather data of the atmosphere, sea ice, glaciers, fauna and vegetation. However, significant data gaps still exist over much of the Arctic because there are few research stations, satellites are often hindered by cloud cover......, poor resolution, and the complicated surface of snow and ice. Measurements made from manned aircraft are also limited because of range and endurance, as well as the danger and costs presented by operating manned aircraft in harsh and remote environments like the Arctic. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS...

  3. Fault Diagnosis and Fault Handling for Autonomous Aircraft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren

    Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are used increasingly for missions where piloted aircraft are unsuitable. The unmanned aircraft has a number of advantages with respect to size, weight and manoeuvrability that makes it possible for them to solve tasks that an aircraft previously has been...... that the fault is discovered in time such that appropriate actions can be taken. That could either be the aircraft controlling computer taking the fault into account or a human operator that intervenes. Detection of faults that occur during flight is exactly the subject of this thesis. Safety towards faults...... to another type of aircraft with different parameters. Amongst the main findings of this research project is a method to handle faults on the UAV’s pitot tube, which measures the aircraft speed. A set of software redundancies based on GPS velocity information and engine thrust are used to detect abnormal...

  4. Approach Considerations in Aircraft with High-Lift Propeller Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's research into distributed electric propulsion (DEP) includes the design and development of the X-57 Maxwell aircraft. This aircraft has two distinct types of DEP: wingtip propellers and high-lift propellers. This paper focuses on the unique opportunities and challenges that the high-lift propellers--i.e., the small diameter propellers distributed upstream of the wing leading edge to augment lift at low speeds--bring to the aircraft performance in approach conditions. Recent changes to the regulations related to certifying small aircraft (14 CFR x23) and these new regulations' implications on the certification of aircraft with high-lift propellers are discussed. Recommendations about control systems for high-lift propeller systems are made, and performance estimates for the X-57 aircraft with high-lift propellers operating are presented.

  5. Research on MA700 Aircraft Work Breakdown Structure Method%MA700飞机工作分解结构方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖君

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of work breakdown structure and its application in the aviation field ,and puts forward the corresponding solutions to problems that MA 700 aircraft is likely to encounter .%介绍了项目工作分解的概念,以及航空领域的应用情况。针对M A700飞机可能遇到的问题,提出相应的解决思路。

  6. Building visual identity of scientific and research units and the role of visualization in cooperation with business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfreda Kamińska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The need for commercialization of scientific research leads to the necessity of changing the orientation of scientific-research units to marketing orientation, which is characterized by, among others, conducting research aimed at learning the clients’ needs and building better communication with the recipients. What is an important element of a unit’s marketing communication is its visual identity system, which the recipients use to build their opinion and their picture of the unit. The goal of this article is an attempt to define the key rules of designing visual identity of scientific and research institutions, as well as presenting the role of visualization in their cooperation with business. In the article the notions of image, identity, corporate identity and visual identity are subject to analysis. The article also presents the significance of visualization in the functioning of research and scientific units, elements of visual identity system and the rules of designing visual identity of scientific and research institutions. An analysis of chosen research-scientific units was carried out with regard to visualization.

  7. Research on Airport's Surrounding Residents'Subjective Annoyance to Aircraft Noise%机场周边居民对飞机噪声反应的主观烦恼度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹建坤; 田瑞丽; 李洪波; 刘孝峰; 赵仁兴

    2014-01-01

    结合国外对飞机烦恼度的研究,提出了对飞机噪声和烦恼度反应关系的调查方法。通过几个有代表性机场烦恼度调查的人数和声级范围的比较,给出了高烦恼率的计算方法,并分析了高烦恼率和声级相关分析。并给出了数字化等级量表的高烦恼率统计分析方法和文字性描述等级量表的高烦恼率统计分析方法。通过对几个机场烦恼度调查,给出了不同机场周围人群对飞机噪声反应的比较。经过国内外烦恼度调查结果的曲线比较,给出了应该选取的评价量。并通过主观烦恼度阈值的计算得到了高烦恼率统计数值,提出了我国飞机噪声评价标准的建议。%Based on the researches of abroad aircraft annoyance ,this article provides a research method which can find out the relationship between aircraft noise and annoyance .Through comparison of several represent-ative airport annoyance investigation's number of people and sound level range ,high annoyance rate calcula-tion method is found out and correlation analysis .of high annoyance and sound level is done .Digital rating scale and text description rating scale's high annoyance rate statistic analysis method is also provided . Through several airports'annoyance investigation ,the article gives a comparison of different airports sur-rounding residents'reaction to aircraft noise .The comparison of domestic and overseas annoyance investiga-tion results'curves provides the evalation standard that should be selected .The high annoyance statistic is calculated through the subjective annoyance's threshold value ,w hich offers some suggestions to evaluation criteria of aircraft noise .

  8. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems. The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  9. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  10. Solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  11. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  12. Depreciation of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  13. Education research and educational psychology in Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom – an analysis of scholarly journals

    OpenAIRE

    Knaupp, Monika; Schaufler, Sarah; Hofbauer, Susann; Keiner, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates recent transnational and trans-disciplinary knowledge trajectories on the basis of scholarly journals by focusing on the contemporary relationships, commonalities and differences between education research and educational psychology in three European countries: Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. We investigate how education research and educational psychology are composed regarding authors, research topics and methodological standards. We also are interested in anal...

  14. Involvement of consumers in studies run by the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit: Results of a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vale Claire L

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to establish levels of consumer involvement in randomised controlled trials (RCTs, meta-analyses and other studies carried out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC Clinical Trials Unit across the range of research programs, predominantly in cancer and HIV. Methods Staff responsible for studies that were included in a Unit Progress Report (MRC CTU, April 2009 were asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire survey regarding consumer involvement. This was defined as active involvement of consumers as partners in the research process and not as subjects of that research. The electronic questionnaires combined open and closed questions, intended to capture quantitative and qualitative information on whether studies had involved consumers; types of activities undertaken; recruitment and support; advantages and disadvantages of involvement and its perceived impact on aspects of the research. Results Between October 2009 and April 2010, 138 completed questionnaires (86% were returned. Studies had been conducted over a 20 year period from 1989, and around half were in cancer; 30% in HIV and 20% were in other disease areas including arthritis, tuberculosis and blood transfusion medicine. Forty-three studies (31% had some consumer involvement, most commonly as members of trial management groups (TMG [88%]. A number of positive impacts on both the research and the researcher were identified. Researchers generally felt involvement was worthwhile and some felt that consumer involvement had improved the credibility of the research. Benefits in design and quality, trial recruitment, dissemination and decision making were also perceived. Researchers felt they learned from consumer involvement, albeit that there were some barriers. Conclusions Whilst most researchers identified benefits of involving consumers, most of studies included in the survey had no involvement. Information from this survey will inform the development

  15. Small Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Small air vehicles offer challenging power, weight, and volume constraints when considering implementation of system health monitoring technologies. In order to develop a testbed for monitoring the health and integrity of control surface servos and linkages, the Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring system has been designed for small Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms to detect problematic behavior from servos and the air craft structures they control, This system will serve to verify the structural integrity of an aircraft's servos and linkages and thereby, through early detection of a problematic situation, minimize the chances of an aircraft accident. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's rotary-winged UAV has an Airborne Power management unit that is responsible for regulating, distributing, and monitoring the power supplied to the UAV's avionics. The current sensing technology utilized by the Airborne Power Management system is also the basis for the Servo Health system. The Servo Health system measures the current draw of the servos while the servos are in Motion in order to quantify the servo health. During a preflight check, deviations from a known baseline behavior can be logged and their causes found upon closer inspection of the aircraft. The erratic behavior nay include binding as a result of dirt buildup or backlash caused by looseness in the mechanical linkages. Moreover, the Servo Health system will allow elusive problems to be identified and preventative measures taken to avoid unnecessary hazardous conditions in small autonomous aircraft.

  16. Transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit: a participatory action research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Margaret; Gardner, Anne; Kecskes, Zsuzsoka; Kildea, Sue

    2017-07-01

    To facilitate staff transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. In 2012, an Australian regional neonatal intensive care unit transitioned from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. Research has reported single- and small-room neonatal intensive care unit design may negatively impact on the distances nurses walk, reducing the time they spend providing direct neonatal care. Studies have also reported nurses feel isolated and need additional support and education in such neonatal intensive care units. Staff highlighted their concerns regarding the impact of the new design on workflow and clinical practice. A participatory action research approach. A participatory action group titled the Change and Networking Group collaborated with staff over a four-year period (2009-2013) to facilitate the transition. The Change and Networking Group used a collaborative, cyclical process of planning, gathering data, taking action and reviewing the results to plan the next action. Data sources included meeting and workshop minutes, newsletters, feedback boards, subgroup reports and a staff satisfaction survey. The study findings include a description of (1) how the participatory action research cycles were used by the Change and Networking Group: providing examples of projects and strategies undertaken; and (2) evaluations of participatory action research methodology and Group by neonatal intensive care unit staff and Change and Networking members. This study has described the benefits of using participatory action research to facilitate staff transition from an open-plan to a two-cot neonatal intensive care unit design. Participatory action research methodology enabled the inclusion of staff to find solutions to design and clinical practice questions. Future research is required to assess the long-term effect of neonatal intensive care unit design on staff workload, maintaining and supporting a skilled workforce as well as

  17. A Review of Underground Coal Gasification Research and Development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, D. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    An intense and productive period of research and development on underground coal gasification (UCG) took place in the United States from the mid-1970’s through the late 1980’s. It began with the translation and review of Soviet literature and ended with the Rocky Mountain 1 field test. This demonstrated the feasibility of newly-developed technologies that form the basis of many UCG projects around the world today. This period began with little domestic understanding of UCG and ended with an accurate observation-based conceptual model and a corresponding predictive multi-physics mathematical model of the process. The many accomplishments of this period form the main content of this report. This report also covers recent U.S. activities and accomplishments during the period 2004-2015, and touches briefly on the Bureau of Mines efforts between 1948 and 1963. Most of the activities were funded by the United States Department of Energy and its predecessors. While private/commercially-funded activities are reviewed here, the emphasis is on government-funded work. It has a much greater extent of publicly available reports and papers, and they generally contain much greater technical detail. Field tests were the marquis activities around which an integrated multi-faceted program was built. These are described in detail in Section 4. Highlights from modeling efforts are briefly covered, as the program was integrated and well-rounded, with field results informing models and vice-versa. The primary goal of this report is to review what has been learned about UCG from the U.S. experience in aggregate. This includes observations, conclusions, lessons-learned, phenomena understood, and technology developed. The latter sections of this report review these things.

  18. Fire Management Plan North Tract Unit 8 Patuxent Research Refuge 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — North Tract Unit 8 (NT -8, Drop Zone) is a grassland unit composed of a mixture of dense, cool season grass dominated by Tall Fescue and a woody legume, Korean...

  19. Automatic aircraft recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  20. 77 FR 14319 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... infrastructure and research needs; and (C) Consult with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the... Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA); (4) Address both civil and public unmanned aircraft systems; (5... be flown using a data link to transmit commands to the aircraft. They may perform a variety of...

  1. Research on the Fault of Electronic Cabin Ventilation System in A320 Aircraft%基于对A320飞机电子舱通风系统的故障研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔相国

    2014-01-01

    A320 series aircraft is a type of civil aircraft with single channel and electric control produced by AIRBUS Company, and is the first aircraft which applies electronic control system and side-rod drive technology in the globe. The electronic equipment compartment of the plane contains a large number of control computers as-sociated with flight. During the whole flight, these computers generates huge amount of heat that can seriously im-pact on the safety during flight. This paper thoroughly researches on the operational theory of electronic cabin ven-tilation, and analyzes and summarizes the reasons of electronic cabin ventilation operation failure and thoughts of trouble shooting during maintenance.%A320系列飞机是AIRBUS公司研发的单通道电传操控民用客机,它是世界上第一种采用电传操纵及侧杆驾驶的民用客机。该飞机的电子设备舱存放大量与飞行相关的控制计算机,当飞机在飞行过程中各计算机会产生大量的热量,严重影响航空运行安全。本文深入研究电子舱通风的工作原理,并总结分析航线维护过程中电子舱通风系统故障产生原因与排故思路。

  2. Discussion on the dispersion & agglomeration of aircraft industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Chu

    2009-01-01

    The aircraft industry is crucial to the economy and security of a nation. In this paper, the spatial characteristics and patterns of the aircraft industry are analyzed on different spatial scales. It is found that there is a 'Matthew effect' in the global aircraft industry and the spatial evolution of the industry is consistent with the industrialization process of the whole country. It is also revealed that the spatial evolution of the country is driven by both the centripetal forces including capital, talents, technology and agglomeration economies and the centrifugal forces including the comparative advantage, cost &risk sharing, emerging markets, development policy for less-developed regions and the military imperative. These forces have both market-stabilizing and market-disrupting effects on the spatial evolution of the aircraft industry. The study suggests that lessons drawn from the experiences in the United States and France are expected to be conducive to the rise of China's aircraft industry in the future.

  3. 22 CFR 123.13 - Domestic aircraft shipments via a foreign country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic aircraft shipments via a foreign... REGULATIONS LICENSES FOR THE EXPORT OF DEFENSE ARTICLES § 123.13 Domestic aircraft shipments via a foreign... United States to another location in the United States via a foreign country. The pilot of the...

  4. Self Diagnostic Accelerometer Testing on the C-17 Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokars, Roger P.; Lekki, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The self diagnostic accelerometer (SDA) developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center was tested for the first time in an aircraft engine environment as part of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research (VIPR) program. The VIPR program includes testing multiple critical flight sensor technologies. One such sensor, the accelerometer, measures vibrations to detect faults in the engine. In order to rely upon the accelerometer, the health of the accelerometer must be ensured. The SDA is a sensor system designed to actively determine the accelerometer structural health and attachment condition, in addition to vibration measurements. The SDA uses a signal conditioning unit that sends an electrical chirp to the accelerometer and recognizes changes in the response due to changes in the accelerometer health and attachment condition. To demonstrate the SDAs flight worthiness and robustness, multiple SDAs were mounted and tested on a C-17 aircraft engine. The engine test conditions varied from engine off, to idle, to maximum power. The SDA attachment conditions were varied from fully tight to loose. The newly developed SDA health algorithm described herein uses cross correlation pattern recognition to discriminate a healthy from a faulty SDA. The VIPR test results demonstrate for the first.

  5. United States Naval Academy Polar Science Program; Undergraduate Research and Outreach in Polar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    The United States Naval Academy (USNA) Polar Science Program (PSP), has been very active completing its own field campaign out of Barrow, AK, sent students to the South Pole, participated in STEM activities and educated over 100 future Naval Officers about the Polar Regions. Each activity is uniquely different, but has the similar undertone of sharing the recent rapid changes in the Cryosphere to a wide range of audiences. There is further room for development and growth through future field campaigns and new collaborations. The Naval Academy Ice Experiment (NAICEX) 2013 was based out of the old Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) in Barrow, AK. In joint collaboration with the University of Delaware, University of Washington, and Naval Research Laboratory we successfully took multiple measurements for over a week on the fast ice just offshore. Five undergraduate students from USNA, as well as 3 graduate students from University of Delaware participated, as well as multiple professors and instructors from each institution. Data collected during the experiment will be used in capstone courses and thesis research. There was also an outreach component to the experiment, where local students from Barrow H.S. have been assigned to the USNA ice observations project for their own high school course work. Local students will be analyzing data that will contribute into the larger research effort at USNA through coordinated remote efforts and participation in future field experiments. The USNA STEM office is one of the most robust in the entire country. The USNA PSP is active within this program by developing polar specific modules that are integrated varying length outreach opportunities from a few hours to week long camps. USNA PSP also engages in educator training that is held at the Naval Academy each summer. Through this program of educating the educators, the far reaching levels of awareness are multiplied exponentially. Also, the USNA Oceanography Department has

  6. The Applied Meteorology Unit: Nineteen Years Successfully Transitioning Research into Operations for America's Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madura, John T.; Bauman, William H.; Merceret, Francis J.; Roeder, William P.; Brody, Frank C.; Hagemeyer, Bartlett C.

    2010-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology transition and technique development to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the entire American space program. The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by a contractor that provides five meteorologists with a diverse mix of advanced degrees, operational experience, and associated skills including data processing, statistics, and the development of graphical user interfaces. The AMU's primary customers are the U.S. Air Force 45th Weather Squadron at Patrick Air Force Base, the National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group at NASA Johnson Space Center, and the National Weather Service Melbourne FL Forecast Office. The AMU has transitioned research into operations for nineteen years and worked on a wide range of topics, including new forecasting techniques for lightning probability, synoptic peak winds,.convective winds, and summer severe weather; satellite tools to predict anvil cloud trajectories and evaluate camera line of sight for Space Shuttle launch; optimized radar scan strategies; evaluated and implemented local numerical models; evaluated weather sensors; and many more. The AMU has completed 113 projects with 5 more scheduled to be completed by the end of 2010. During this rich history, the AMU and its customers have learned many lessons on how to effectively transition research into operations. Some of these lessons learned include collocating with the operational customer and periodically visiting geographically separated customers, operator submitted projects, consensus tasking process, use of operator primary advocates for each project, customer AMU liaisons with experience in both operations and research, flexibility in adapting the project plan based on lessons learned during the project, and incorporating training and other transition assistance into the project plans. Operator involvement has been critical to the AMU's remarkable success and many awards

  7. Authentic science in education: Studies in course-based research at the United States Military Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Anthony M.

    This dissertation consists of two studies at the United States Military Academy. Both studies involve the use of Course-based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs). These experiences give students the ability to engage in undergraduate research at an early point in their academic career by replacing traditional laboratory activities with semester-long research projects. Both studies show an implementation of this type of instruction from the Center for Authentic Science Practice in Education (CASPiE). Study 1 shows the specific method of implementation at the military academy and explores learning-based outcomes. Primarily the outcome of critical thinking is demonstrated. Critical thinking is a construct that many curriculum developers and instructors want to foster within their students but often lack clear definitions or evaluation plans. This study gives a definition of critical thinking and an outcome of a critical thinking test. Significant gains in critical thinking are observed by students participating in the CURE as well as significant gains in three affective factors (Interest in Science/Chemistry, Authenticity, Perceived Learning). The gains in critical thinking are then further statistically linked to students’ perceptions of how authentically they saw the research in the course. If they felt that the course was demonstrating more authentic science practices, they gained significantly more in their critical thinking scores. The second study in this dissertation adds an additional transfer focus to the instructional materials that the CURE was meant to support. The treatment group in this study received instruction that was framed expansively. The expansively framed instruction showed students ways that the material was applicable outside of the course. The assessments and instructional materials of this study were transfer assessments with contrasting cases. Instances of negative or “overzealous transfer” were also reported. Findings suggest

  8. Aircraft-Assisted Pilot Suicides: Lessons to be Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorio, Alpo; Laukkala, Tanja; Navathe, Pooshan; Budowle, Bruce; Eyre, Anne; Sajantila, Antti

    2014-08-01

    Aircraft assisted suicides were studied in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Finland during 1956-2012 by means of literature search and accident case analysis. According to our study the frequency varied slightly between the studies. Overall, the new estimate of aircraft assisted suicides in the United States in a 20-yr period (1993-2012) is 0.33% (95% CI 0.21-0.49) (24/7244). In the detailed accident case analysis, it was found that in five out of the eight cases from the United States, someone knew of prior suicidal ideation before the aircraft assisted fatality. The caveats of standard medico-legal autopsy and accident investigation methods in investigation of suspected aircraft assisted suicides are discussed. It is suggested that a psychological autopsy should be performed in all such cases. Also the social context and possibilities of the prevention of aviation-related suicides were analyzed. In addition, some recent aircraft assisted suicides carried out using commercial aircraft during scheduled services and causing many casualties are discussed.

  9. Summary and abstracts: Applied Research Units and Projects 1996 UCETF Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-21

    The Urban Consortium (UC), created by PTI, is a network of jurisdictions with populations of over 250,000. The UC provides a platform for research and enterprise through its Energy, Environmental, Transportation, and Telecommunications and Information Task Forces. The UC provides a unique creative forum where elected and appointed officials and technical managers identify, test, and validate practical ways to improve the provision of public services and, where possible, generate new revenue opportunities. Public Technology, Inc., is the non-profit technology organization of the National League of Cities, the National Association of Counties, and the International City/County Management Association. PTI creates and advances technology-based products, services, and enterprises in cities and counties nationwide. Staffed by PTI, the UC addresses the critical needs of local governments through its Task Forces. The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF) program has, since its inception, acted as a laboratory to develop, test solutions and share the resulting products or management approaches with the wider audience of local governments. It has addressed the overlap between energy and environment and economic development policy issues, and, is the nation's most extensive cooperative local government program to improve energy management and decision-making through applied research and technology cooperation. Proposals to meet the specific objectives of the UCETF annual R and D program are solicited from major urban jurisdictions. Projects based on these proposals are then selected by the UCETF for direct conduct and management by staff of city and county governments. Projects selected for each year's program are organized in thematic units to assure effective management and ongoing peer-to-peer experience exchange, with results documented at the end of each program year.

  10. Operations of Suborbital Research Platforms to Obtain Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Dennis O.

    2014-01-01

    The Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) operates six highly modified aircraft in support the NASA science mission.These include two ER-2 aircraft, a DC-8, a G-III, and two Global Hawks. The NASA science missions demands that these aircraft be deployed around the globe while carrying a variety of science instruments. The ER-2 reconnaissance aircraft provides routine access to altitudes over 70,000 ft (20km) for large payloads and with an endurance of over 10hours. Recently the ER-2s have conducted convective storm research missions in the mid-western United States and supported the development of new instruments. The DC-8 is a four-engine jetliner that operates for up to 12 hours ataltitudes that range from the surface to 42,000 ft (13 km). Although its flight envelope is equivalent to conventional.

  11. Radioisotope Heater Unit-Based Stirling Power Convertor Development at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Geng, Steven M.; Penswick, Lawrence; Schmitz, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A variety of mission concepts have been studied by NASA and the U. S. Department of Energy that would utilize RPS for landers, probes, and rovers and only require milliwatts to tens of watts of power. These missions would contain science measuring instruments that could be distributed across planetary surfaces or near objects of interest in space solar flux insufficient for using solar cells. A low power Stirling convertor is being developed to provide an RPS option for future low power applications. Initial concepts convert heat available from several Radioisotope Heater Units to electrical power for spacecraft instruments and communication. Initial development activity includes defining and evaluating a variety of Stirling configurations and selecting one for detailed design, research of advanced manufacturing methods that could simplify fabrication, evaluating thermal interfaces, characterizing components and subassemblies to validate design codes, and preparing for an upcoming demonstration of proof of concept in a laboratory environment.

  12. Past and Prospective Carbon Stocks of United States Forests: Implications for Research Priorities and Mitigation Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, R.; Pan, Y.; McGuire, A. D.; Zhang, F.; Chen, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    United States forests and wood products have been a significant and persistent carbon sink of 100-200 million tons annually since 1950, currently offsetting about 12% of U.S. emissions of CO2. This carbon sink is caused by recovery of forest C stocks following timber harvest and abandonment of agricultural land over the last 150 years, and more recently the growth-enhancing effects of N deposition, increasing atmospheric CO2, and climate variability. The forest carbon sink would have been significantly larger if not for continued losses of forest to other land uses such as urban development, and increasing impacts from natural disturbances such as fire and insect outbreaks. Projections of the future U.S. C sink have raised concerns that it may disappear in a few decades because of slower growth, continued losses of forest area, and increasing demand for timber products especially bioenergy. However, continuing atmospheric and climate changes may delay this projected decline in the sink strength for another 50 years or longer. Research is urgently needed to improve projections of land-use changes and demand for timber, quantify the large-scale effects of atmospheric change and climate variability, and develop modeling approaches that can effectively integrate these multiple factors. Policy decisions to meet emissions reduction targets are partially dependent on assumptions about the magnitude of the future forest carbon sink; therefore, it is important to have convincing projections about how these various driving factors will affect forests in the future.

  13. NUMERICAL RESEARCH ON WATER GUIDE BEARING OF HYDRO-GENERATOR UNIT USING FINITE VOLUME METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    With the consideration of the geometry of tilting pad journal bearing, a new form of the Reynolds equation was derived in this article. The film thickness, the squeeze motion of the journal and the rotation motion of the pad were explicitly contained in the equation. Based on this equation, together with the equilibrium equation of pad pivot, the water guide bearing used in the Gezhouba 10 F hydro-generator unit was numerically researched. The new Reynolds equation for the lubricating film was solved using Finite Volume (FV) discretization, Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) iteration method and C++ code are included. According to the numerical solution, and the stability of the film and the influences of the film thickness, the journal squeeze effect and the pad rotation effect on film force were discussed. The results indicate that the squeeze effect can not be neglected, although the rotation effect is negligible for both low-speed and high-speed bearings, so the computing time could be greatly reduced.

  14. Status and trends of dam removal research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmore, James; Duda, Jeff; Craig, Laura; Greene, Samantha L.; Torgersen, Christian; Collins, Mathias J.; Vittum, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Aging infrastructure coupled with growing interest in river restoration has driven a dramatic increase in the practice of dam removal. With this increase, there has been a proliferation of studies that assess the physical and ecological responses of rivers to these removals. As more dams are considered for removal, scientific information from these dam-removal studies will increasingly be called upon to inform decisions about whether, and how best, to bring down dams. This raises a critical question: what is the current state of dam-removal science in the United States? To explore the status, trends, and characteristics of dam-removal research in the U.S., we searched the scientific literature and extracted basic information from studies on dam removal. Our literature review illustrates that although over 1200 dams have been removed in the U.S., fewer than 10% have been scientifically evaluated, and most of these studies were short in duration ( < 4 years) and had limited (1–2 years) or no pre-removal monitoring. The majority of studies focused on hydrologic and geomorphic responses to removal rather than biological and water-quality responses, and few studies were published on linkages between physical and ecological components. Our review illustrates the need for long-term, multidisciplinary case studies, with robust study designs, in order to anticipate the effects of dam removal and inform future decision making.

  15. Talent Development Research, Policy, and Practice in Europe and the United States: Outcomes from a Summit of International Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subotnik, Rena F.; Stoeger, Heidrun; Olszewski-Kubilius, Paula

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this article is to convey a summary of research and conversation on talent development on the part of a small group of European and American researchers who participated in the Inaugural American European Research Summit in Washington. In the final hours of the summit, participants discussed the state of research on talent development…

  16. Adherence: a review of education, research, practice, and policy in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown TA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the education, research, practice, and policy related to pharmacist interventions to improve medication adherence in community settings in the United States.Methods: Authors used MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (since 1990 to identify community and ambulatory pharmacy intervention studies which aimed to improve medication adherence. The authors also searched the primary literature using Ovid to identify studies related to the pharmacy teaching of medication adherence. The bibliographies of relevant studies were reviewed in order to identify additional literature. We searched the tables of content of three US pharmacy education journals and reviewed the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy website for materials on teaching adherence principles. Policies related to medication adherence were identified based on what was commonly known to the authors from professional experience, attendance at professional meetings, and pharmacy journals.Results: Research and Practice: 29 studies were identified: 18 randomized controlled trials; 3 prospective cohort studies; 2 retrospective cohort studies; 5 case-controlled studies; and one other study. There was considerable variability in types of interventions and use of adherence measures. Many of the interventions were completed by pharmacists with advanced clinical backgrounds and not typical of pharmacists in community settings. The positive intervention effects had either decreased or not been sustained after interventions were removed. Although not formally assessed, in general, the average community pharmacy did not routinely assess and/or intervene on medication adherence. Education: National pharmacy education groups support the need for pharmacists to learn and use adherence-related skills. Educational efforts involving adherence have focused on students’ awareness of adherence barriers and communication skills needed to engage patients in behavioral

  17. Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units Program—2016 year in review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, John F.; Thompson, John D.; Dennerline, Donald E.; Childs, Dawn E.

    2017-02-22

    SummaryThe Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Units (CRU) Program had a productive year in 2016. Despite vacancies in our scientist ranks exceeding 20 percent, our research, training, and teaching portfolio was full and we graduated 93 students and published 398 manuscripts primarily focused on addressing the real conservation challenges of our cooperators. As I’ve stated before, our mission is our legacy: meeting the actionable science needs of our cooperators, providing them technical guidance and assistance in interpreting and applying new advances in science, and developing the future workforce through graduate education and mentoring. Our scientists and the manner in which they approach our mission continue to inspire me. The most rewarding part of my job is meeting and engaging with the students they recruit—the conservation professionals of the future. I cannot help but feel uplifted after discussions with and presentations by these young men and women. Personally, I owe my place in the profession today to the mentoring I received as a CRU student, and today’s CRU scientists have raised the bar. It gives me hope for the future of conservation, and added motivation to see our vacancies filled so that we can expand our portfolio.The National Cooperators’ Coalition has been active and is strategically working to build support on our behalf. Sincere thanks to the American Fisheries Society, the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, the Boone and Crockett Club, the National Association of University Fish and Wildlife Programs, the Wildlife Management Institute, and The Wildlife Society for their efforts and those of their affiliated members.We co-sponsored a workshop at the 2016 North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference along with the American Fisheries Society, the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, the Wildlife Management Institute, and The Wildlife Society, titled “Barriers and Bridges in Reconnecting Natural Resources

  18. D-558-2 being mounted to P2B-1S launch aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-01-01

    This 1953 NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station photograph shows the Douglas D-558-2 #2 Skyrocket (NACA 144), prior to flight, being towed under the P2B-1S launch vehicle (NACA 137) for attachment. The photograph also shows the large hydraulic jacks used to elevate the P2B-1S launch vehicle. Once the D-558-2 was in position, the P2B-1S would be lowered and the attachment made. The Douglas D-558-2 'Skyrockets' were among the early transonic research airplanes like the X-1, X-4, X-5, and X-92A. Three of the single-seat, swept-wing aircraft flew from 1948 to 1956 in a joint program involving the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), with its flight research done at the NACA's Muroc Flight Test Unit in Calif., redesignated in 1949 the High-Speed Flight Research Station (HSFRS); the Navy-Marine Corps; and the Douglas Aircraft Co. The HSFRS became the High-Speed Flight Station in 1954 and is now known as the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The Skyrocket made aviation history when it became the first airplane to fly twice the speed of sound. The 2 in the aircraft's designation referred to the fact that the Skyrocket was the phase-two version of what had originally been conceived as a three-phase program, with the phase-one aircraft having straight wings. The third phase, which never came to fruition, would have involved constructing a mock-up of a combat-type aircraft embodying the results from the testing of the phase one and two aircraft. Douglas pilot John F. Martin made the first flight at Muroc Army Airfield (later renamed Edwards Air Force Base) in Calif. on February 4, 1948. The goals of the program were to investigate the characteristics of swept-wing aircraft at transonic and supersonic speeds with particular attention to pitch-up (uncommanded rotation of the nose of the airplane upwards)--a problem prevalent in high-speed service aircraft of that era, particularly at low speeds during take-off and landing and in tight turns. The three

  19. Interaction of Units and Research Methods of Control Performances of Distributed Manufacturing Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Kai-sheng; SUN Yan-ming; ZHENG Shi-xiong

    2008-01-01

    In order to analyze the function demand of the distributed manufacturing information system as well as its control demand,and eliminate information ambiguity among system units to integrate sernantics,the abstract Agent model and computational structure of each unit was presented based on flexible coupling automata.The autonomy of each unit was investigated in this foundation.The system unit was described usmg the Web Ontology Language (OWL) ontology.And the system semantics was also integrated.On these basics the communication among the system units was analyzed with an example of interaction between a machine and a warehouse.The control performances of information system units were investigated usmg Boolean matrix as a substitute for traditional process in RWtheory,which reduced the computational complexity.This work established the foundation for the demand analysis,design and development of the distributed manufacture information system.

  20. Research on Fatigue Curves for Pre-corroded Aircraft Structures%飞机结构预腐蚀疲劳曲线研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠波; 刘文珽; 贺小帆

    2004-01-01

    为评估地面停放预腐蚀对飞机结构疲劳寿命的影响,采用二元线性回归方法建立了一种新的预腐蚀疲劳曲线幂函数表达式.该曲线的指数为常量而对数截距是预腐蚀时间的线性函数.这两个特性使得曲线形式简单,参数几何、工程含义明确,并易于工程应用.通过寿命反推建立了参数修正的三参数预腐蚀疲劳曲线,该曲线已成功用于飞机结构腐蚀条件下的疲劳寿命估算.%To quantitatively evaluate the effects of corrosion during grounding on fatigue life of aircraft structures, a new power equation is proposed using two-variable linear regression method. That the slope is a constant and the logarithmic intercept is a linear function of pre-corrosion time makes this equation advantageous: it has a simple form, its parameters have unambiguous technical and geometrical meanings, and it facilitates engineering applications. Three-parameter equations after pre-corrosion are obtained from back-calculation of fatigue limits, which have been successfully used to predict safe life of aircraft structures in corrosive environment.

  1. Case Study: Test Results of a Tool and Method for In-Flight, Adaptive Control System Verification on a NASA F-15 Flight Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.; Schumann, Johann; Guenther, Kurt; Bosworth, John

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive control technologies that incorporate learning algorithms have been proposed to enable autonomous flight control and to maintain vehicle performance in the face of unknown, changing, or poorly defined operating environments [1-2]. At the present time, however, it is unknown how adaptive algorithms can be routinely verified, validated, and certified for use in safety-critical applications. Rigorous methods for adaptive software verification end validation must be developed to ensure that. the control software functions as required and is highly safe and reliable. A large gap appears to exist between the point at which control system designers feel the verification process is complete, and when FAA certification officials agree it is complete. Certification of adaptive flight control software verification is complicated by the use of learning algorithms (e.g., neural networks) and degrees of system non-determinism. Of course, analytical efforts must be made in the verification process to place guarantees on learning algorithm stability, rate of convergence, and convergence accuracy. However, to satisfy FAA certification requirements, it must be demonstrated that the adaptive flight control system is also able to fail and still allow the aircraft to be flown safely or to land, while at the same time providing a means of crew notification of the (impending) failure. It was for this purpose that the NASA Ames Confidence Tool was developed [3]. This paper presents the Confidence Tool as a means of providing in-flight software assurance monitoring of an adaptive flight control system. The paper will present the data obtained from flight testing the tool on a specially modified F-15 aircraft designed to simulate loss of flight control faces.

  2. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  3. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  5. Dynamic Model and Analysis of Asymmetric Telescopic Wing for Morphing Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Morphing aircraft has been the research hot topics of new concept aircrafts in aerospace engineering. Telescopic wing is an important morphing technology for morphing aircraft. This paper describes the dynamic equations and kinematic equations based on theorem of momentum and theorem of moment of momentum, which are available for all morphing aircrafts. Meanwhile,as simplified , dynamic equations for rectangular telescopic wing are presented. In order to avoid the complexity using aileron to ...

  6. Overview of current marine juvenile salmon research by the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helle, John H.; Eisner, L.B.; Farley, Edward V.; Martinson, Ellen C.; Martinson, Angela; Moss, Jamal H.; Murphy, James M.; Orsi, Joseph A.; Sturdevant, Mollly V.; Wertheimer, Alex C.; Wing, Bruce L.; Brodeur, R.D.; Emmett, Robert; Bucher, Cynthia; MacFarlane, Bruce; Harding, Jeff; Ammann, Arnold; Zimmerman, Christian E.

    2007-01-01

    A history of juvenile salmon research on Pacific salmon in coastal areas conducted by the United States (U.S.) was published by Brodeur et al. (2003). Presently, juvenile Pacific salmon research in the U.S. occurs in the coastal areas of all of the Pacific states: California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska (Fig. 1). Major objectives of this research are to understand how dynamics in marine ecosystems influence migration, distribution, growth, and survival of juvenile salmon during their early ocean residence. Several large-scale studies in coastal areas from California to Alaska are currently being conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with university and state scientists. Studies off California are operated by the Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Santa Cruz Laboratory in Santa Cruz, California and University of California Santa Cruz. Studies off Oregon and Washington are operated by the Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Newport Laboratory and Oregon State University in Newport, Oregon. Studies in the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea and in the seaward migration corridors in the coastal waters of southeastern Alaska are operated by the Alaska Fisheries Science Center, Auke Bay Laboratory in Juneau, Alaska, in collaboration with Alaska Department of Fish and Game, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Bering Sea Fishermen’s Association, and Yukon River Drainage Fishermen’s Association. In addition to these large studies, smaller estuarine studies on juvenile salmon occur in northwestern Alaska in Kuskokwim Bay by the U.S. Geological Survey (Anchorage) and University of Alaska Fairbanks (Juneau), and, in Norton Sound by LGL Alaska Research Associates and Norton Sound Economic Development Corporation both headquartered in Anchorage (Fig. 1). The estuarine studies on juvenile salmon in Alaska operate in shallow water and a variety of gear is used to capture salmon. A small trawl

  7. Earth Science Research in DUSEL; a Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairhurst, C.; Onstott, T. C.; Tiedje, J. M.; McPherson, B.; Pfiffner, S. M.; Wang, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    A summary of efforts to create one or more Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratories (DUSEL) in the United States is presented. A workshop in Berkeley, August 11-14, 2004, explored the technical requirements of DUSEL for research in basic and applied geological and microbiological sciences, together with elementary particle physics and integrated education and public outreach. The workshop was organized by Bernard Sadoulet, an astrophysicist and the principal investigator (PI) of a community-wide DUSEL program evolving in coordination with the National Science Foundation. The PI team has three physicists (in nuclear science, high-energy physics, and astrophysics) and three earth scientists (in geoscience, biology and engineering). Presentations, working group reports, links to previous workshop/meeting talks, and information about DUSEL candidate sites, are presented in http://neutrino.lbl.gov/DUSELS-1. The Berkeley workshop is a continuation of decades of efforts, the most recent including the 2001 Underground Science Conference's earth science and geomicrobiology workshops, the 2002 International Workshop on Neutrino and Subterranean Science, and the 2003 EarthLab Report. This perspective (from three earth science co-PIs, the lead author of EarthLab report, the lead scientist of education/outreach, and the local earth science organizer) is to inform the community on the status of this national initiative, and to invite their active support. Having a dedicated facility with decades-long, extensive three-dimensional underground access was recognized as the most important single attribute of DUSEL. Many research initiatives were identified and more are expected as the broader community becomes aware of DUSEL. Working groups were organized to evaluate hydrology and coupled processes; geochemistry; rock mechanics/seismology; applications (e.g., homeland security, environment assessment, petroleum recovery, and carbon sequestration); geomicrobiology and

  8. Perspectives on Unmanned Aircraft Classification for Civil Airworthiness Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Koppen, Daniel M.; Upchurch, Jason M.; Morris, A. Terry; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS) has been characterized as the next great step forward in the evolution of civil aviation. Although use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in military and public service operations is proliferating, civil use of UAS remains limited in the United States today. This report focuses on one particular regulatory challenge: classifying UAS to assign airworthiness standards. This paper provides observations related to how the current regulations for classifying manned aircraft could apply to UAS.

  9. Simulation Packages Expand Aircraft Design Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, NASA released a new approach to computational fluid dynamics that allows users to perform automated analysis on complex vehicle designs. In 2010, Palo Alto, California-based Desktop Aeronautics acquired a license from Ames Research Center to sell the technology. Today, the product assists organizations in the design of subsonic aircraft, space planes, spacecraft, and high speed commercial jets.

  10. A Reliability-Based Approach to Nonrepairable Spare Part Forecasting in Aircraft Maintenance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Z. Kontrec

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, spare parts inventory systems have been extensively researched, but most inventory models were not fully adequate due to the stochastic nature of inventory environment. This paper proposes an approach that supports decision making process in planning and controlling of spare parts in aircraft maintenance systems. Reliability characteristics of aircraft consumable parts were analyzed in order to substantiate this approach. Moreover, the proposed reliability model was used to evaluate characteristics of subassemblies and/or assemblies these parts belong to. Finally, an innovative approach for determining the total amount of parts required in inventory and underage costs, based on observing the total unit time as a stochastic process, is presented herein.

  11. Titanium alloys Russian aircraft and aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseyev, Valentin N

    2005-01-01

    This text offers previously elusive information on state-of-the-art Russian metallurgic technology of titanium alloys. It details their physical, mechanical, and technological properties, as well as treatments and applications in various branches of modern industry, particularly aircraft and aerospace construction. Titanium Alloys: Russian Aircraft and Aerospace Applications addresses all facets of titanium alloys in aerospace and aviation technology, including specific applications, fundamentals, composition, and properties of commercial alloys. It is useful for all students and researchers interested in the investigation and applications of titanium.

  12. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  13. Aerodynamic design trends for commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, R.; Koerner, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research on advanced-configuration commercial aircraft at DFVLR is surveyed, with a focus on aerodynamic approaches to improved performance. Topics examined include transonic wings with variable camber or shock/boundary-layer control, wings with reduced friction drag or laminarized flow, prop-fan propulsion, and unusual configurations or wing profiles. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of predicted performance are provided, and the need for extensive development efforts using powerful computer facilities, high-speed and low-speed wind tunnels, and flight tests of models (mounted on specially designed carrier aircraft) is indicated.

  14. Aircraft Transparency Optical Quality: New Methods of Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    AFAMRL.TR-1-21 X AIRCRAFT TRANSPARENCY OPTICAL QUALITY: NEW METHODS OF MEASUREMENT LOUIS V. GENCO , O.D., Lt. Colonel HARRY L. TASK, Ph.D. FEBRUARY...aircraft transparency with simple modifications of a positioning fixture ( Genco , 1979). DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS The ideal field evaluation unit for...34Windscreen Angular Deviation Measurement Device," U.S. Air Force Invention No. 13647, Patent Pending. Task, Harry L., Louis V. Genco , and Kenneth L. Smith

  15. S.C. Advanced Training Aircraft IAR 99 (A SOIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan STEFANESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of subsonic single control aircraft and especially of double–control ones, instead of supersonic combat aircraft in the military pilot training programs in the operational units, has be-come a necessity due to the economic and financial world-wide crisis which began during the 70’s-80’s, with the advent of the oil crisis, affecting many countries, which have their own Military Air Forces.

  16. The Reindustrialization of the United States: Implications for Vocational Education Research and Development. Occasional Paper No. 71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striner, Herbert E.

    Reindustrialization problems in the United States (U.S.) include unemployment, low productivity, inflation, and inadequate economic growth. To determine how to improve economic performance, a careful, rational evaluation must be made of such factors as tax policy, spirit of risk, managerial effectiveness, rates of innovation, research and…

  17. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: DEVELOPMENT OF A PHOTOTHERMAL DETOXIFICATION UNIT - ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING GROUP - UNIVERSITY OF DAYTON RESEARCH INSTITUTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The University of Dayton Research Institute has developed a novel photochemical process embodied in a device called a Photothermal Detoxification Unit (PDU) which offers an efficient means of destroying hazardous organic wastes. The PDU, which overcomes the problems of slow react...

  18. Who Is Shaping the Field? Doctoral Education, Knowledge Creation and Postsecondary Education Research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Daniel B.; Kolek, Ethan A.; Williams, Elizabeth A.; Wells, Ryan S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has found the field of higher education, particularly in the United States, is dominated by functionalist approaches, a preponderance of survey data, and the ubiquitous use of advanced quantitative methods to investigate educational phenomena. This descriptive study aims to illuminate why the field is constructed in this way.…

  19. The Context of Military Environments: An Agenda for Basic Research on Social and Organizational Factors Relevant to Small Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    currently in play ( Samuelson and Zeckhauser, 1988). A related notion is regret avoidance: since people experience greater regret for action than for...for Basic Research on Social and Organizational Factors Relevant to Small Units 56 THE CONTEXT OF MILITARY ENVIRONMENTS Samuelson , W., and R. Zeckhauser

  20. Dental Health Services Research Unit celebrates 30 years: Report of conference to mark the 30th anniversary of the Dental Health Services Research Unit (DHSRU) at Dundee, held on 1st December 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Kenneth A; Pitts, Nigel B

    2009-04-01

    Over the years, several members of the staff of the Dental Health Services Research Unit (DHSRU) at Dundee have published papers in Primary Dental Care. Furthermore, its Director, Professor Nigel Pitts, together with Drs Jan Clarkson and Gail Topping have co-edited a number of the Faculty of General Dental Practice (UK)'s standards manuals and contributed to others. It had been suggested to the Unit by several parties that, having been in funded existence for some 30 years, it would be appropriate to mark this anniversary with a conference to explore 'Dental Health Services Research: After 30 years, what was the impact, what have we learned and where are we going?' So, following a range of consultations, the conference was convened at the West Park Conference Centre in Dundee with a mixed audience representing both dental research and dental practice.