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Sample records for unitary symmetry analyticity

  1. Unitary symmetry, combinatorics, and special functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louck, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    From 1967 to 1994, Larry Biedenham and I collaborated on 35 papers on various aspects of the general unitary group, especially its unitary irreducible representations and Wigner-Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. In our studies to unveil comprehensible structures in this subject, we discovered several nice results in special functions and combinatorics. The more important of these will be presented and their present status reviewed.

  2. Gauging the graded conformal group with unitary internal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, S.; Townsend, P.K.; Kaku, M.; Nieuwenhuizen Van, P.

    1977-06-01

    Gauge theories for extended SU(N) conformal supergravity are constructed which are invariant under local scale, chiral, proper conformal, supersymmetry and internal SU(N) transformations. The relation between intrinsic parity and symmetry properties of their generators of the internal vector mesons is established. These theories contain no cosmological constants, but technical problems inherent to higher derivative actions are pointed out

  3. Universal Superspace Unitary Operator and Nilpotent (Anti-)Dual-BRST Symmetries: Superfield Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R. P.; Srinivas, N.; Bhanja, T.

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the key concepts of the augmented version of superfield approach to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism to derive the superspace (SUSP) dual unitary operator and its Hermitian conjugate and demonstrate their utility in the derivation of the nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)dual-BRST symmetry transformations for a set of interesting models of the Abelian 1-form gauge theories. These models are the one (0+1)-dimensional (1D) rigid rotor and modified versions of the two (1+1)-dimensional (2D) Proca as well as anomalous gauge theories and 2D model of a self-dual bosonic field theory. We show the universality of the SUSP dual unitary operator and its Hermitian conjugate in the cases of all the Abelian models under consideration. These SUSP dual unitary operators, besides maintaining the explicit group structure, provide the alternatives to the dual horizontality condition (DHC) and dual gauge invariant restrictions (DGIRs) of the superfield formalism. The derivations of the dual unitary operators and corresponding (anti-)dual-BRST symmetries are completely novel results in our present investigation.

  4. Spectral properties of embedded Gaussian unitary ensemble of random matrices with Wigner's SU(4) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, Manan; Kota, V.K.B.

    2010-01-01

    For m fermions in Ω number of single particle orbitals, each fourfold degenerate, we introduce and analyze in detail embedded Gaussian unitary ensemble of random matrices generated by random two-body interactions that are SU(4) scalar [EGUE(2)-SU(4)]. Here the SU(4) algebra corresponds to the Wigner's supermultiplet SU(4) symmetry in nuclei. Embedding algebra for the EGUE(2)-SU(4) ensemble is U(4Ω) contains U(Ω) x SU(4). Exploiting the Wigner-Racah algebra of the embedding algebra, analytical expression for the ensemble average of the product of any two m particle Hamiltonian matrix elements is derived. Using this, formulas for a special class of U(Ω) irreducible representations (irreps) {4 r , p}, p = 0, 1, 2, 3 are derived for the ensemble averaged spectral variances and also for the covariances in energy centroids and spectral variances. On the other hand, simplifying the tabulations of Hecht for SU(Ω) Racah coefficients, numerical calculations are carried out for general U(Ω) irreps. Spectral variances clearly show, by applying Jacquod and Stone prescription, that the EGUE(2)-SU(4) ensemble generates ground state structure just as the quadratic Casimir invariant (C 2 ) of SU(4). This is further corroborated by the calculation of the expectation values of C 2 [SU(4)] and the four periodicity in the ground state energies. Secondly, it is found that the covariances in energy centroids and spectral variances increase in magnitude considerably as we go from EGUE(2) for spinless fermions to EGUE(2) for fermions with spin to EGUE(2)-SU(4) implying that the differences in ensemble and spectral averages grow with increasing symmetry. Also for EGUE(2)-SU(4) there are, unlike for GUE, non-zero cross-correlations in energy centroids and spectral variances defined over spaces with different particle numbers and/or U(Ω) [equivalently SU(4)] irreps. In the dilute limit defined by Ω → ∞, r >> 1 and r/Ω → 0, for the {4 r , p} irreps, we have derived analytical

  5. Analytical and unitary approach in mesons electromagnetic form factor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liptaj, A.

    2010-07-01

    In the dissertation thesis we address several topics related to the domain of particle physics. All of them represent interesting open problems that can be connected to the elastic or transition electromagnetic form factors of mesons, the form factors being the main objects of our interest. Our ambition is to contribute to the solution of these problems and use for that purpose known analytic properties of the form factors and the unitarity condition. These two tools are very powerful in the low energy domain (such as bound states of partons), where the perturbative QCD looses its validity. This is the motivation for construction of the unitary and analytic (U and A) models of studied form factors, that enable us to get the majority of our results. We use the U and A model to evaluate the contribution of the processes e"+e"- → Pγ, P = π"0, η, η to the muon magnetic anomaly a_μ in the lowest order of the hadronic vacuum polarization. For the contribution a_μ"h"a"d","L"O (π"+π"-) we demonstrate, that the use of the model leads to a dramatic error reduction with respect to the results of other authors. We also get a shift in the central value in the 'correct' direction, that brings the theoretical value closer to the experimental one. This results encourages us to use the model also for the evaluation of a_μ"h"a"d","L"O (P_γ). These contributions are smaller, however the precision of the experiment makes their evaluation necessary. We further use the U and A model of the transition form factors of π"0, η and η"' mesons to predict the partial decay widths of these particles Γ_π_"0_→_γ_γ and Γ_η_→_γ_γ and Γ_η_"'_→_γ_γ. In this way we make an independent cross check of the PDG table values. We find an agreement in the case of Γ_η_→_γ_γ and Γ_η_"'_→_γ_γ, even a smaller uncertainty for Γ_η_"'_→_γ_γ. In the case of Γ_π_"0_→_γ_γ we find a disagreement that points to an interesting problem. We wonder whether it could be

  6. Unitary W-algebras and three-dimensional higher spin gravities with spin one symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshar, Hamid; Creutzig, Thomas; Grumiller, Daniel; Hikida, Yasuaki; Rønne, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether there are unitary families of W-algebras with spin one fields in the natural example of the Feigin-Semikhatov W_n"("2")-algebra. This algebra is conjecturally a quantum Hamiltonian reduction corresponding to a non-principal nilpotent element. We conjecture that this algebra admits a unitary real form for even n. Our main result is that this conjecture is consistent with the known part of the operator product algebra, and especially it is true for n=2 and n=4. Moreover, we find certain ranges of allowed levels where a positive definite inner product is possible. We also find a unitary conformal field theory for every even n at the special level k+n=(n+1)/(n−1). At these points, the W_n"("2")-algebra is nothing but a compactified free boson. This family of W-algebras admits an ’t Hooft limit. Further, in the case of n=4, we reproduce the algebra from the higher spin gravity point of view. In general, gravity computations allow us to reproduce some leading coefficients of the operator product.

  7. Some new aspects of the unitary and analytic VMD model for electromagnetic structure of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubnickova, A.Z.; Dubnicka, S.

    1991-01-01

    Recent J/φ→π + π - data analyzed along with all existing pion form factor data by means of the unitary and analytic vector dominance model manifest a strong evidence of the third excited state of the ρ(770) meson with resonance parameters m ρ ''' =2169±46 MeV and Γ ρ ''' =319±136 MeV. A simultaneous analysis of all reliable proton and neutron form factor data in the space-like region along with data on the total cross section of electron-positron annihilation into a proton-antiproton pair by the same model predicts an unexpected inequality σ tot (e e- +→nn-bar)>>σ tot (e + e - →pp-bar) just above the nucleon-antinucleon threshold and also surprisingly large one-photon electromagnetic corrections to the strong J/φ→pp-bar and J/φ→nn-bar decay amplitudes. 21 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  8. Symmetry orbits and their data-analytic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos A.G. Viana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of data indexed by finite symmetry orbits is reviewed within the data-analytic framework of symmetry studies. Data decompositions are discussed in terms of canonical projections and Plancherel’s formulas, and interpreted in terms of orbit invariants.

  9. Analytic progress on exact lattice chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikukawa, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical issues of exact chiral symmetry on the lattice are discussed and related recent works are reviewed. For chiral theories, the construction with exact gauge invariance is reconsidered from the point of view of domain wall fermion. The issue in the construction of electroweak theory is also discussed. For vector-like theories, we discuss unitarity (positivity), Hamiltonian approach, and several generalizations of the Ginsparg-Wilson relation (algebraic and odd-dimensional)

  10. Analytical Formulae linking Quark Confinement and Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Takahiro M.; Redlich, Krzysztof; Sasaki, Chihiro; Suganuma, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    Dirac spectrum representations of the Polyakov loop fluctuations are derived on the temporally odd-number lattice, where the temporal length is odd with the periodic boundary condition. We investigate the Polyakov loop fluctuations based on these analytical relations. It is semi-analytically and numerically found that the low-lying Dirac eigenmodes have little contribution to the Polyakov loop fluctuations, which are sensitive probe for the quark deconfinement. Our results suggest no direct one-to-one corresponding between quark confinement and chiral symmetry breaking in QCD

  11. An analytical study of the improved nonlinear tolerance of DFT-spread OFDM and its unitary-spread OFDM generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulkind, Gal; Nazarathy, Moshe

    2012-11-05

    DFT-spread (DFT-S) coherent optical OFDM was numerically and experimentally shown to provide improved nonlinear tolerance over an optically amplified dispersion uncompensated fiber link, relative to both conventional coherent OFDM and single-carrier transmission. Here we provide an analytic model rigorously accounting for this numerical result and precisely predicting the optimal bandwidth per DFT-S sub-band (or equivalently the optimal number of sub-bands per optical channel) required in order to maximize the link non-linear tolerance (NLT). The NLT advantage of DFT-S OFDM is traced to the particular statistical dependency introduced among the OFDM sub-carriers by means of the DFT spreading operation. We further extend DFT-S to a unitary-spread generalized modulation format which includes as special cases the DFT-S scheme as well as a new format which we refer to as wavelet-spread (WAV-S) OFDM, replacing the spreading DFTs by Hadamard matrices which have elements +/-1 hence are multiplier-free. The extra complexity incurred in the spreading operation is almost negligible, however the performance improvement with WAV-S relative to plain OFDM is more modest than that achieved by DFT-S, which remains the preferred format for nonlinear tolerance improvement, outperforming both plain OFDM and single-carrier schemes.

  12. Coherent states of the real symplectic group in a complex analytic parametrization. I. Unitary-operator coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesne, C.

    1986-01-01

    In the present series of papers, the coherent states of Sp(2d,R), corresponding to the positive discrete series irreducible representations 1 +n/2> encountered in physical applications, are analyzed in detail with special emphasis on those of Sp(4,R) and Sp(6,R). The present paper discusses the unitary-operator coherent states, as defined by Klauder, Perelomov, and Gilmore. These states are parametrized by the points of the coset space Sp(2d,R)/H, where H is the stability group of the Sp(2d,R) irreducible representation lowest weight state, chosen as the reference state, and depends upon the relative values of lambda 1 ,...,lambda/sub d/, subject to the conditions lambda 1 > or =lambda 2 > or = x x x > or =lambda/sub d/> or =0. A parametrization of Sp(2d,R)/H corresponding to a factorization of the latter into a product of coset spaces Sp(2d,R)/U(d) and U(d)/H is chosen. The overlap of two coherent states is calculated, the action of the Sp(2d,R) generators on the coherent states is determined, and the explicit form of the unity resolution relation satisfied by the coherent states in the representation space of the irreducible representation is obtained. The Hilbert space of analytic functions arising from the coherent state representation is studied in detail. Finally, some applications of the formalism developed in the present paper are outlined

  13. The Adler-Weisberger and Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rules as probes of constraints from analyticity and chiral symmetry in dynamical models for pion-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondratyuk, S.; Kubodera, K.; Myhrer, F.; Scholten, O.

    2004-01-01

    The Adler-Weisberger and Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme sum rules are calculated within a relativistic, unitary and crossing symmetric dynamical model for pion-nucleon scattering using two different methods: (1) by evaluating the scattering amplitude at the corresponding low-energy kinematics and (2) by evaluating the sum-rule integrals with the calculated total cross section. The discrepancy between the results of the two methods provides a measure of the breaking of analyticity and chiral symmetry in the model. The contribution of the Δ resonance, including its dressing with meson loops, is discussed in some detail and found to be small

  14. General scalar-tensor cosmology: analytical solutions via noether symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaeli, Erfan; Motaharfar, Meysam; Sepangi, Hamid Reza [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    We analyze the cosmology of a general scalar-tensor theory which encompasses generalized Brans-Dicke theory, Gauss-Bonnet gravity, non-minimal derivative gravity, generalized Galilean gravity and also the general k-essence type models. Instead of taking into account phenomenological considerations we adopt a Noether symmetry approach, as a physical criterion, to single out the form of undetermined functions in the action. These specified functions symmetrize equations of motion in the simplest possible form which result in exact solutions. Demanding de Sitter, power-law and bouncing universe solutions in the absence and presence of matter density leads to exploring new as well as well-investigated models. We show that there are models for which the dynamics of the system allows a transition from a decelerating phase (matter dominated era) to an accelerating phase (dark energy epoch) and could also lead to general Brans-Dicke with string correction without a self-interaction potential. Furthermore, we classify the models based on a phantom or quintessence dark energy point of view. Finally, we obtain the condition for stability of a de Sitter solution for which the solution is an attractor of the system. (orig.)

  15. Analytical Modeling and Simulation of Four-Switch Hybrid Power Filter Working with Sixfold Switching Symmetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlustý, J.; Škramlík, Jiří; Švec, J.; Valouch, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 292178 (2012), s. 1-17 ISSN 1024-123X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : analytical modeling * four-switch hybrid power filter * sixfold switching symmetry Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.383, year: 2012 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2012/292178/

  16. Non-unitary probabilistic quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Robert M.; Williams, Colin P.

    2004-01-01

    We present a method for designing quantum circuits that perform non-unitary quantum computations on n-qubit states probabilistically, and give analytic expressions for the success probability and fidelity.

  17. Unitary field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    A problem of construction of the unitary field theory is discussed. The preconditions of the theory are briefly described. The main attention is paid to the geometrical interpretation of physical fields. The meaning of the conceptions of diversity and exfoliation is elucidated. Two unitary field theories are described: the Weyl conformic geometry and Calitzy five-dimensioned theory. It is proposed to consider supersymmetrical theories as a new approach to the problem of a unitary field theory. It is noted that the supergravitational theories are really unitary theories, since the fields figuring there do not assume invariant expansion

  18. Applications of unitary symmetry and combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Louck, James D

    2011-01-01

    This monograph is a synthesis of the theory of the pairwise coupling of the angular momenta of arbitrarily many independent systems to the total angular momentum in which the universal role of doubly stochastic matrices and their quantum-mechanical probabilistic interpretation is a major theme. A uniform viewpoint is presented based on the structure of binary trees. This includes a systematic method for the evaluation of all 3n-j coefficients and their relationship to cubic graphs. A number of topical subjects that emerge naturally are also developed, such as the algebra of permutation matrice

  19. Leptonic unitary triangles and boomerangs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueck, Alexander; Rodejohann, Werner; Petcov, Serguey T.

    2010-01-01

    We review the idea of leptonic unitary triangles and extend the concept of the recently proposed unitary boomerangs to the lepton sector. Using a convenient parametrization of the lepton mixing, we provide approximate expressions for the side lengths and the angles of the six different triangles and give examples of leptonic unitary boomerangs. Possible applications of the leptonic unitary boomerangs are also briefly discussed.

  20. Unitary evolution between pure and mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznik, B.

    1996-01-01

    We propose an extended quantum mechanical formalism that is based on a wave operator d, which is related to the ordinary density matrix via ρ=dd degree . This formalism allows a (generalized) unitary evolution between pure and mixed states. It also preserves much of the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. The new formalism is illustrated for the case of a two-level system. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Unitary unified field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1976-01-01

    This is an informal exposition of some recent developments. Starting with an examination of the universality of electromagnetic and weak interactions, the attempts at their unification are outlined. The theory of unitary renormalizable self-coupled vector mesons with dynamical sources is formulated for a general group. With masses introduced as variable parameters it is shown that the theory so defined is indeed unitary. Diagrammatic rules are developed in terms of a chosen set of fictitious particles. A number of special examples are outlined including a theory with strongly interacting vector and axial vector mesons and weak mesons. Applications to weak interactions of strange particles is briefly outlined. (Auth.)

  2. On random unitary channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, Koenraad M R; Scheel, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a completely positive trace-preserving (CPT) map to be decomposable into a convex combination of unitary maps. Additionally, we set out to define a proper distance measure between a given CPT map and the set of random unitary maps, and methods for calculating it. In this way one could determine whether non-classical error mechanisms such as spontaneous decay or photon loss dominate over classical uncertainties, for example, in a phase parameter. The present paper is a step towards achieving this goal

  3. Nonlocal Symmetries, Consistent Riccati Expansion, and Analytical Solutions of the Variant Boussinesq System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lian-Li; Tian, Shou-Fu; Zhang, Tian-Tian; Zhou, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Under investigation in this paper is the variant Boussinesq system, which describes the propagation of surface long wave towards two directions in a certain deep trough. With the help of the truncated Painlevé expansion, we construct its nonlocal symmetry, Bäcklund transformation, and Schwarzian form, respectively. The nonlocal symmetries can be localised to provide the corresponding nonlocal group, and finite symmetry transformations and similarity reductions are computed. Furthermore, we verify that the variant Boussinesq system is solvable via the consistent Riccati expansion (CRE). By considering the consistent tan-function expansion (CTE), which is a special form of CRE, the interaction solutions between soliton and cnoidal periodic wave are explicitly studied.

  4. Analytical relations between nuclear symmetry energy and single-nucleon potentials in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chang; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Ko, Che Ming

    2011-01-01

    Using the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem, we derive general expressions for the quadratic and quartic symmetry energies in terms of the isoscalar and isovector parts of single-nucleon potentials in isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. These expressions are useful for gaining deeper insights into the microscopic origins of the uncertainties in our knowledge on nuclear symmetry energies especially at supra-saturation densities. As examples, the formalism is applied to two model single-nucleon potentials that are widely used in transport model simulations of heavy-ion reactions.

  5. A unitary correlation operator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmeier, H.; Neff, T.; Roth, R.; Schnack, J.

    1997-09-01

    The short range repulsion between nucleons is treated by a unitary correlation operator which shifts the nucleons away from each other whenever their uncorrelated positions are within the repulsive core. By formulating the correlation as a transformation of the relative distance between particle pairs, general analytic expressions for the correlated wave functions and correlated operators are given. The decomposition of correlated operators into irreducible n-body operators is discussed. The one- and two-body-irreducible parts are worked out explicitly and the contribution of three-body correlations is estimated to check convergence. Ground state energies of nuclei up to mass number A=48 are calculated with a spin-isospin-dependent potential and single Slater determinants as uncorrelated states. They show that the deduced energy-and mass-number-independent correlated two-body Hamiltonian reproduces all ''exact'' many-body calculations surprisingly well. (orig.)

  6. A possible generalization of the concept of symmetry in analytical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigore, D.R.

    1987-09-01

    A theorem of Lee Hwa Chung suggests a possible generalization of the symmetry concept in classical mechanics. It is shown that the theory of Konstant-Souriau-Kirillov can be adapted to this more general case. The theory is illustrated with a number of exaples.(author)

  7. Approximately analytical solutions of the Manning-Rosen potential with the spin-orbit coupling term and spin symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Gaofeng; Dong Shihai

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter the approximately analytical bound state solutions of the Dirac equation with the Manning-Rosen potential for arbitrary spin-orbit coupling quantum number k are carried out by taking a properly approximate expansion for the spin-orbit coupling term. In the case of exact spin symmetry, the associated two-component spinor wave functions of the Dirac equation for arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number k are presented and the corresponding bound state energy equation is derived. We study briefly two special cases; the general s-wave problem and the equal scalar and vector Manning-Rosen potential

  8. Operator Spreading in Random Unitary Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Adam; Vijay, Sagar; Haah, Jeongwan

    2018-04-01

    Random quantum circuits yield minimally structured models for chaotic quantum dynamics, which are able to capture, for example, universal properties of entanglement growth. We provide exact results and coarse-grained models for the spreading of operators by quantum circuits made of Haar-random unitaries. We study both 1 +1 D and higher dimensions and argue that the coarse-grained pictures carry over to operator spreading in generic many-body systems. In 1 +1 D , we demonstrate that the out-of-time-order correlator (OTOC) satisfies a biased diffusion equation, which gives exact results for the spatial profile of the OTOC and determines the butterfly speed vB. We find that in 1 +1 D , the "front" of the OTOC broadens diffusively, with a width scaling in time as t1 /2. We address fluctuations in the OTOC between different realizations of the random circuit, arguing that they are negligible in comparison to the broadening of the front within a realization. Turning to higher dimensions, we show that the averaged OTOC can be understood exactly via a remarkable correspondence with a purely classical droplet growth problem. This implies that the width of the front of the averaged OTOC scales as t1 /3 in 2 +1 D and as t0.240 in 3 +1 D (exponents of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class). We support our analytic argument with simulations in 2 +1 D . We point out that, in two or higher spatial dimensions, the shape of the spreading operator at late times is affected by underlying lattice symmetries and, in general, is not spherical. However, when full spatial rotational symmetry is present in 2 +1 D , our mapping implies an exact asymptotic form for the OTOC, in terms of the Tracy-Widom distribution. For an alternative perspective on the OTOC in 1 +1 D , we map it to the partition function of an Ising-like statistical mechanics model. As a result of special structure arising from unitarity, this partition function reduces to a random walk calculation which can be

  9. Microscopic description and excitation of unitary analog states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisslinger, L S [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA); Van Giai, N [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1977-12-05

    A microscopic investigation in a self-consistent particle-hole model reveals approximate unitary analog states in spite of large symmetry breaking. The K-nucleus elastic scattering and (K/sup -/, ..pi../sup -/) excitation of these states are studied, showing strong surface effects.

  10. Unitary Quantum Relativity. (Work in Progress)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, David Ritz

    2017-01-01

    A quantum universe is expressed as a finite unitary relativistic quantum computer network. Its addresses are subject to quantum superposition as well as its memory. It has no exact mathematical model. It Its Hilbert space of input processes is also a Clifford algebra with a modular architecture of many ranks. A fundamental fermion is a quantum computer element whose quantum address belongs to the rank below. The least significant figures of its address define its spin and flavor. The most significant figures of it adress define its orbital variables. Gauging arises from the same quantification as space-time. This blurs star images only slightly, but perhaps measurably. General relativity is an approximation that splits nature into an emptiness with a high symmetry that is broken by a filling of lower symmetry. Action principles result from self-organization pf the vacuum.

  11. Evenly distributed unitaries: On the structure of unitary designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.; Audenaert, K.; Eisert, J.

    2007-01-01

    We clarify the mathematical structure underlying unitary t-designs. These are sets of unitary matrices, evenly distributed in the sense that the average of any tth order polynomial over the design equals the average over the entire unitary group. We present a simple necessary and sufficient criterion for deciding if a set of matrices constitutes a design. Lower bounds for the number of elements of 2-designs are derived. We show how to turn mutually unbiased bases into approximate 2-designs whose cardinality is optimal in leading order. Designs of higher order are discussed and an example of a unitary 5-design is presented. We comment on the relation between unitary and spherical designs and outline methods for finding designs numerically or by searching character tables of finite groups. Further, we sketch connections to problems in linear optics and questions regarding typical entanglement

  12. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  13. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  14. Crossover driven by time-reversal symmetry breaking in quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, N.; Hashimoto, A.; Simons, B.D.; Altshuler, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    Parametric correlations of the energy spectra of quantum chaotic systems are presented in the presence of time-reversal symmetry-breaking perturbations. The spectra disperse as a function of two external perturbations, one of which preserves time-reversal symmetry, while the other violates it. Exact analytical expressions for the parametric two-point autocorrelation function of the density of states are derived in the crossover region by means of the supermatrix method. For the orthogonal-unitary crossover, the velocity distribution is determined and shown to deviate from Gaussian. (orig.)

  15. Unitary Transformation in Quantum Teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengchuan

    2006-01-01

    In the well-known treatment of quantum teleportation, the receiver should convert the state of his EPR particle into the replica of the unknown quantum state by one of four possible unitary transformations. However, the importance of these unitary transformations must be emphasized. We will show in this paper that the receiver cannot transform the state of his particle into an exact replica of the unknown state which the sender wants to transfer if he has not a proper implementation of these unitary transformations. In the procedure of converting state, the inevitable coupling between EPR particle and environment which is needed by the implementation of unitary transformations will reduce the accuracy of the replica.

  16. Unitary group representations in Fock spaces with generalized exchange properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liguori, A.

    1994-09-01

    The notion of second R-quantization is investigated, - a suitable deformation of the standard second quantization which properly takes into account the non-trivial exchange properties characterizing generalized statistics. The R-quantization of a class of unitary one-particle representations relevant for the description of symmetries is also performed. The Euclidean covariance of anyons is analyzed in this context. (author). 11 refs

  17. Effective hamiltonian within the microscopic unitary nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, V.I.; Blokhin, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    Within the microscopic version of the unitary collective model with the horizontal mixing the effective Hamiltonian for 18 O and 18 Ne nuclei is constructed. The algebraic structure of the Hamiltonian is compared to the familiar phenomenological ones with the SU(3)-mixing terms which describe the coupled rotational and vibrational spectra. The Hamiltonian, including central nuclear and Coulomb interaction, is diagonalized on the basis of three SU(3) irreducible representations with two orbital symmetries. 32 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  18. The exact solutions and approximate analytic solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on symmetry method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Litao; Bilige, Sudao; Jie, Yingmo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we successfully obtained the exact solutions and the approximate analytic solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on the Lie symmetry, the extended tanh method and the homotopy perturbation method. In first part, we obtained the symmetries of the (2 + 1)-dimensional KP equation based on the Wu-differential characteristic set algorithm and reduced it. In the second part, we constructed the abundant exact travelling wave solutions by using the extended tanh method. These solutions are expressed by the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and the rational functions respectively. It should be noted that when the parameters are taken as special values, some solitary wave solutions are derived from the hyperbolic function solutions. Finally, we apply the homotopy perturbation method to obtain the approximate analytic solutions based on four kinds of initial conditions.

  19. Entanglement-continuous unitary transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Serkan; Orus, Roman [Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In this talk we present a new algorithm for quantum many-body systems using continuous unitary transformations (CUT) and tensor networks (TNs). With TNs we are able to approximate the solution to the flow equations that lie at the heart of continuous unitary transformations. We call this method Entanglement-Continuous Unitary Transformations (eCUT). It allows us to compute expectation values of local observables as well as tensor network representations of ground states and low-energy excited states. An implementation of the method is shown for 1d systems using matrix product operators. We show preliminary results for the 1d transverse-field Ising model to demonstrate the feasibility of the method.

  20. Symmetry and electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Cobas, L.E.; Font Hernandez, R.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical treatment of electrostatic and magnetostatic field symmetry, as a function of charge and current distribution symmetry, is proposed. The Newmann Principle, related to the cause-effect symmetry relation, is presented and applied to the characterization of simple configurations. (Author) 5 refs

  1. Piaget's Egocentrism: A Unitary Construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Avis J.; Cunningham, William L.

    In order to determine whether egocentrism can be conceptualized as a unitary construct, 100 children (51 four-year-olds, 37 five-year-olds, and 12 six-year-olds) were administered a visual/spatial perspective task, a cognitive/communicative task, and an affective task. All tasks were designed to measure different facets of egocentrism. The 50…

  2. Teleportation of M-Qubit Unitary Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亦庄; 顾永建; 郭光灿

    2002-01-01

    We discuss teleportation of unitary operations on a two-qubit in detail, then generalize the bidirectional state teleportation scheme from one-qubit to M-qubit unitary operations. The resources required for the optimal implementation of teleportation of an M-qubit unitary operation using a bidirectional state teleportation scheme are given.

  3. Unitary Evolution as a Uniqueness Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, J.; Mena Marugán, G. A.; Olmedo, J.; Velhinho, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the process of quantizing field theories is plagued with ambiguities. First, there is ambiguity in the choice of basic variables describing the system. Second, once a choice of field variables has been made, there is ambiguity concerning the selection of a quantum representation of the corresponding canonical commutation relations. The natural strategy to remove these ambiguities is to demand positivity of energy and to invoke symmetries, namely by requiring that classical symmetries become unitarily implemented in the quantum realm. The success of this strategy depends, however, on the existence of a sufficiently large group of symmetries, usually including time-translation invariance. These criteria are therefore generally insufficient in non-stationary situations, as is typical for free fields in curved spacetimes. Recently, the criterion of unitary implementation of the dynamics has been proposed in order to select a unique quantization in the context of manifestly non-stationary systems. Specifically, the unitarity criterion, together with the requirement of invariance under spatial symmetries, has been successfully employed to remove the ambiguities in the quantization of linearly polarized Gowdy models as well as in the quantization of a scalar field with time varying mass, propagating in a static background whose spatial topology is either of a d-sphere (with d = 1, 2, 3) or a three torus. Following Ref. 3, we will see here that the symmetry and unitarity criteria allows for a complete removal of the ambiguities in the quantization of scalar fields propagating in static spacetimes with compact spatial sections, obeying field equations with an explicitly time-dependent mass, of the form ddot φ - Δ φ + s(t)φ = 0 . These results apply in particular to free fields in spacetimes which, like e.g. in the closed FRW models, are conformal to a static spacetime, by means of an exclusively time-dependent conformal factor. In fact, in such

  4. Unitary Housing Regimes in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Bo; Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Path dependence is strong in housing institutions and policy. In both Denmark and Sweden, today’s universal and ‘unitary’ (Kemeny) housing regimes can be traced back to institutions that were introduced fifty years back in history or more. Recently, universal and unitary housing systems...... in Scandinavia, and elsewhere, are under challenge from strong political and economic forces. These challenges can be summarized as economic cutbacks, privatization and Europeanization. Although both the Danish and the Swedish housing system are universal and unitary in character, they differ considerably...... in institutional detail. Both systems have corporatist features, however in Denmark public housing is based on local tenant democracy and control, and in Sweden on companies owned and controlled by the municipalities, combined with a centralized system of rent negotiations. In the paper the present challenges...

  5. Symmetry boost of the fidelity of Shor factoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Y. S.; Blümel, R.

    2018-05-01

    In Shor's algorithm quantum subroutines occur with the structure F U F-1 , where F is a unitary transform and U is performing a quantum computation. Examples are quantum adders and subunits of quantum modulo adders. In this paper we show, both analytically and numerically, that if, in analogy to spin echoes, F and F-1 can be implemented symmetrically when executing Shor's algorithm on actual, imperfect quantum hardware, such that F and F-1 have the same hardware errors, a symmetry boost in the fidelity of the combined F U F-1 quantum operation results when compared to the case in which the errors in F and F-1 are independently random. Running the complete gate-by-gate implemented Shor algorithm, we show that the symmetry-induced fidelity boost can be as large as a factor 4. While most of our analytical and numerical results concern the case of over- and under-rotation of controlled rotation gates, in the numerically accessible case of Shor's algorithm with a small number of qubits, we show explicitly that the symmetry boost is robust with respect to more general types of errors. While, expectedly, additional error types reduce the symmetry boost, we show explicitly, by implementing general off-diagonal SU (N ) errors (N =2 ,4 ,8 ), that the boost factor scales like a Lorentzian in δ /σ , where σ and δ are the error strengths of the diagonal over- and underrotation errors and the off-diagonal SU (N ) errors, respectively. The Lorentzian shape also shows that, while the boost factor may become small with increasing δ , it declines slowly (essentially like a power law) and is never completely erased. We also investigate the effect of diagonal nonunitary errors, which, in analogy to unitary errors, reduce but never erase the symmetry boost. Going beyond the case of small quantum processors, we present analytical scaling results that show that the symmetry boost persists in the practically interesting case of a large number of qubits. We illustrate this result

  6. Unitary 4-point correlators from classical geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombini, Alessandro; Galliani, Andrea; Giusto, Stefano [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia ' ' Galileo Galilei' ' , Padua (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Moscato, Emanuele; Russo, Rodolfo [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Research in String Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom)

    2018-01-15

    We compute correlators of two heavy and two light operators in the strong coupling and large c limit of the D1D5 CFT which is dual to weakly coupled AdS{sub 3} gravity. The light operators have dimension two and are scalar descendants of the chiral primaries considered in arXiv:1705.09250, while the heavy operators belong to an ensemble of Ramond-Ramond ground states. We derive a general expression for these correlators when the heavy states in the ensemble are close to the maximally spinning ground state. For a particular family of heavy states we also provide a result valid for any value of the spin. In all cases we find that the correlators depend non-trivially on the CFT moduli and are not determined by the symmetries of the theory; however, they have the properties expected for correlators among pure states in a unitary theory, in particular they do not decay at large Lorentzian times. (orig.)

  7. Arithmetic crystal classes of magnetic symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelova, M.N.; Boyle, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    The symmetries and properties of a broad class of magnetic crystals are described by magnetic space groups which contain both (unitary) spatial symmetry operations and their combinations with the (anti-unitary operation of) time inversion, 0. The spatial symmetry operations form a halving, non-magnetic, space group H of the magnetic group M such that M=H+aH. As an abstract group the magnetic group M is isomorphic to a non-magnetic group G. The anti-unitary operator a is simply the time inversion 0 when M is a grey group but a product of time inversion with some spatial operation belonging to the coset G-H when M is a black-and-white group. (Author)

  8. Unitary Root Music and Unitary Music with Real-Valued Rank Revealing Triangular Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2010-1213 UNITARY ROOT MUSIC AND UNITARY MUSIC WITH REAL-VALUED RANK REVEALING TRIANGULAR FACTORIZATION (Postprint) Nizar...DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2010 Journal Article Postprint 08 September 2006 – 31 August 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNITARY ROOT MUSIC AND...UNITARY MUSIC WITH REAL-VALUED RANK REVEALING TRIANGULAR FACTORIZATION (Postprint) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8650-05-D-1912-0007 5c

  9. On Investigating GMRES Convergence using Unitary Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Meurant, G.; Sadok, H.; Strakoš, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 450, 1 June (2014), s. 83-107 ISSN 0024-3795 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100301201; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1202 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : GMRES convergence * unitary matrices * unitary spectra * normal matrices * Krylov residual subspace * Schur parameters Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  10. Application of the graphical unitary group approach to the energy second derivative for CI wave functions via the coupled perturbed CI equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, D.J.

    1983-10-01

    Analytic derivatives of the potential energy for Self-Consistent-Field (SCF) wave functions have been developed in recent years and found to be useful tools. The first derivative for configuration interaction (CI) wave functions is also available. This work details the extension of analytic methods to energy second derivatives for CI wave functions. The principal extension required for second derivatives is evaluation of the first order change in the CI wave function with respect to a nuclear perturbation. The shape driven graphical unitary group approach (SDGUGA) direct CI program was adapted to evaluate this term via the coupled-perturbed CI equations. Several iterative schemes are compared for use in solving these equations. The pilot program makes no use of molecular symmetry but the timing results show that utilization of molecular symmetry is desirable. The principles for defining and solving a set of symmetry adapted equations are discussed. Evaluation of the second derivative also requires the solution of the second order coupled-perturbed Hartree-Fock equations to obtain the correction to the molecular orbitals due to the nuclear perturbation. This process takes a consistently higher percentage of the computation time than for the first order equations alone and a strategy for its reduction is discussed

  11. Symmetry and symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.; Lambert, D.; Brack, A.; Lachieze-Rey, M.; Emery, E.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; Sacquin, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.)

  12. Translational Symmetry and Microscopic Constraints on Symmetry-Enriched Topological Phases: A View from the Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem and its higher-dimensional generalizations by Oshikawa and Hastings require that translationally invariant 2D spin systems with a half-integer spin per unit cell must either have a continuum of low energy excitations, spontaneously break some symmetries, or exhibit topological order with anyonic excitations. We establish a connection between these constraints and a remarkably similar set of constraints at the surface of a 3D interacting topological insulator. This, combined with recent work on symmetry-enriched topological phases with on-site unitary symmetries, enables us to develop a framework for understanding the structure of symmetry-enriched topological phases with both translational and on-site unitary symmetries, including the effective theory of symmetry defects. This framework places stringent constraints on the possible types of symmetry fractionalization that can occur in 2D systems whose unit cell contains fractional spin, fractional charge, or a projective representation of the symmetry group. As a concrete application, we determine when a topological phase must possess a “spinon” excitation, even in cases when spin rotational invariance is broken down to a discrete subgroup by the crystal structure. We also describe the phenomena of “anyonic spin-orbit coupling,” which may arise from the interplay of translational and on-site symmetries. These include the possibility of on-site symmetry defect branch lines carrying topological charge per unit length and lattice dislocations inducing degeneracies protected by on-site symmetry.

  13. Crossover between the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble, the Gaussian unitary ensemble, and Poissonian statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiner, Frank; Laturner, Jeanine; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter

    2017-11-01

    Until now only for specific crossovers between Poissonian statistics (P), the statistics of a Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE), or the statistics of a Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) have analytical formulas for the level spacing distribution function been derived within random matrix theory. We investigate arbitrary crossovers in the triangle between all three statistics. To this aim we propose an according formula for the level spacing distribution function depending on two parameters. Comparing the behavior of our formula for the special cases of P→GUE, P→GOE, and GOE→GUE with the results from random matrix theory, we prove that these crossovers are described reasonably. Recent investigations by F. Schweiner et al. [Phys. Rev. E 95, 062205 (2017)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.95.062205] have shown that the Hamiltonian of magnetoexcitons in cubic semiconductors can exhibit all three statistics in dependence on the system parameters. Evaluating the numerical results for magnetoexcitons in dependence on the excitation energy and on a parameter connected with the cubic valence band structure and comparing the results with the formula proposed allows us to distinguish between regular and chaotic behavior as well as between existent or broken antiunitary symmetries. Increasing one of the two parameters, transitions between different crossovers, e.g., from the P→GOE to the P→GUE crossover, are observed and discussed.

  14. New unitary affine-Virasoro constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.; Kiritsis, E.; Obers, N.A.; Poratti, M.; Yamron, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-systematic investigation of the Virasoro master equation. The space of all affine-Virasoro constructions is organized by K-conjugation into affine-Virasoro nests, and an estimate of the dimension of the space shows that most solutions await discovery. With consistent ansatze for the master equation, large classes of new unitary nests are constructed, including quadratic deformation nests with continuous conformal weights, and unitary irrational central charge nests, which may dominate unitary rational central charge on compact g

  15. Approximate symmetries of Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Christopher T.; Flammia, Steven T.

    2017-08-01

    We explore the relationship between approximate symmetries of a gapped Hamiltonian and the structure of its ground space. We start by considering approximate symmetry operators, defined as unitary operators whose commutators with the Hamiltonian have norms that are sufficiently small. We show that when approximate symmetry operators can be restricted to the ground space while approximately preserving certain mutual commutation relations. We generalize the Stone-von Neumann theorem to matrices that approximately satisfy the canonical (Heisenberg-Weyl-type) commutation relations and use this to show that approximate symmetry operators can certify the degeneracy of the ground space even though they only approximately form a group. Importantly, the notions of "approximate" and "small" are all independent of the dimension of the ambient Hilbert space and depend only on the degeneracy in the ground space. Our analysis additionally holds for any gapped band of sufficiently small width in the excited spectrum of the Hamiltonian, and we discuss applications of these ideas to topological quantum phases of matter and topological quantum error correcting codes. Finally, in our analysis, we also provide an exponential improvement upon bounds concerning the existence of shared approximate eigenvectors of approximately commuting operators under an added normality constraint, which may be of independent interest.

  16. The unitary space of particle internal states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perjes, Z.

    1978-09-01

    A relativistic theory of particle internal properties has been developed. Suppressing space-time information, internal wave functions and -observables are constructed in a 3-complex-dimensional space. The quantum numbers of a spinning point particle in this unitary space correspond with those of a low-mass hadron. Unitary space physics is linked with space-time notions via the Penrose theory of twistors, where new flavors may be represented by many-twistor systems. It is shown here that a four-twistor particle fits into the unitary space picture as a system of two points with equal masses and oppositely pointing unitary spins. Quantum states fall into the ISU(3) irreducible representations discovered by Sparling and the author. Full details of the computation involving SU(3) recoupling techniques are given. (author)

  17. Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems ... Physics Department, Nara Women University, Nara, Japan. 5 ... RCNP, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan ...... We acknowledge partial financial support from the DGICYT under contract ...

  18. Quantum unitary dynamics in cosmological spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Velhinho, José M.

    2015-01-01

    We address the question of unitary implementation of the dynamics for scalar fields in cosmological scenarios. Together with invariance under spatial isometries, the requirement of a unitary evolution singles out a rescaling of the scalar field and a unitary equivalence class of Fock representations for the associated canonical commutation relations. Moreover, this criterion provides as well a privileged quantization for the unscaled field, even though the associated dynamics is not unitarily implementable in that case. We discuss the relation between the initial data that determine the Fock representations in the rescaled and unscaled descriptions, and clarify that the S-matrix is well defined in both cases. In our discussion, we also comment on a recently proposed generalized notion of unitary implementation of the dynamics, making clear the difference with the standard unitarity criterion and showing that the two approaches are not equivalent.

  19. Quantum unitary dynamics in cosmological spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Jerónimo, E-mail: jacq@ciencias.unam.mx [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mena Marugán, Guillermo A., E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velhinho, José M., E-mail: jvelhi@ubi.pt [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade da Beira Interior, R. Marquês D’Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilhã (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    We address the question of unitary implementation of the dynamics for scalar fields in cosmological scenarios. Together with invariance under spatial isometries, the requirement of a unitary evolution singles out a rescaling of the scalar field and a unitary equivalence class of Fock representations for the associated canonical commutation relations. Moreover, this criterion provides as well a privileged quantization for the unscaled field, even though the associated dynamics is not unitarily implementable in that case. We discuss the relation between the initial data that determine the Fock representations in the rescaled and unscaled descriptions, and clarify that the S-matrix is well defined in both cases. In our discussion, we also comment on a recently proposed generalized notion of unitary implementation of the dynamics, making clear the difference with the standard unitarity criterion and showing that the two approaches are not equivalent.

  20. Probabilistic implementation of Hadamard and unitary gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wei; Yang Ming; Cao Zhuoliang

    2004-01-01

    We show that the Hadamard and unitary gates could be implemented by a unitary evolution together with a measurement for any unknown state chosen from a set A={ vertical bar Ψi>, vertical bar Ψ-bar i>} (i=1,2) if and only if vertical bar Ψ1>, vertical bar Ψ2>, vertical bar Ψ-bar 1>, vertical bar Ψ-bar 2> are linearly independent. We also derive the best transformation efficiencies

  1. Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monras, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Illuminati, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM, Unita di Salerno, and INFN, Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Adesso, G.; Davies, G. B. [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as ''mirror entanglement.'' They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the ''stellar mirror entanglement'' associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.

  2. Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monras, A.; Adesso, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Davies, G. B.; Illuminati, F.

    2011-07-01

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as “mirror entanglement.” They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the “stellar mirror entanglement” associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.76.042301 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.

  3. Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monras, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Illuminati, F.; Adesso, G.; Davies, G. B.

    2011-01-01

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as ''mirror entanglement.'' They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the ''stellar mirror entanglement'' associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.

  4. Unitary representations of basic classical Lie superalgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, M.D.; Zhang, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    We have obtained all the finite-dimensional unitary irreps of gl(mvertical stroken) and C(n), which also exhaust such irreps of all the basic classical Lie superalgebras. The lowest weights of such irreps are worked out explicitly. It is also shown that the contravariant and covariant tensor irreps of gl(mvertical stroken) are unitary irreps of type (1) and type (2) respectively, explaining the applicability of the Young diagram method to these two types of tensor irreps. (orig.)

  5. Unitary transformations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.

    1986-01-01

    The main emphasis of this book is on the practical application of unitary transformations to problems in solid state physics. This is a method used in the field of nonadiabatic electron-phonon phenomena where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is no longer applicable. The book is intended as a tool for those who want to apply unitary transformations quickly and on a more elementary level and also for those who want to use this method for more involved problems. The book is divided into 6 chapters. The first three chapters are concerned with presenting quick applications of unitary transformations and chapter 4 presents a more systematic procedure. The last two chapters contain the major known examples of the utilization of unitary transformations in solid state physics, including such highlights as the Froehlich and the Fulton-Gouterman transformations. The book is supplemented by extended tables of unitary transformations, whose properties and peculiarities are also listed. This tabulated material is unique and will be of great practical use to those applying the method of unitary transformations in their work. (Auth.)

  6. Optimal quantum learning of a unitary transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Facchini, Stefano; Perinotti, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of learning an unknown unitary transformation from a finite number of examples. The problem consists in finding the learning machine that optimally emulates the examples, thus reproducing the unknown unitary with maximum fidelity. Learning a unitary is equivalent to storing it in the state of a quantum memory (the memory of the learning machine) and subsequently retrieving it. We prove that, whenever the unknown unitary is drawn from a group, the optimal strategy consists in a parallel call of the available uses followed by a 'measure-and-rotate' retrieving. Differing from the case of quantum cloning, where the incoherent 'measure-and-prepare' strategies are typically suboptimal, in the case of learning the 'measure-and-rotate' strategy is optimal even when the learning machine is asked to reproduce a single copy of the unknown unitary. We finally address the problem of the optimal inversion of an unknown unitary evolution, showing also in this case the optimality of the 'measure-and-rotate' strategies and applying our result to the optimal approximate realignment of reference frames for quantum communication.

  7. Random unitary operations and quantum Darwinism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaneskovic, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    We study the behavior of Quantum Darwinism (Zurek, Nature Physics 5, 181-188 (2009)) within the iterative, random unitary operations qubit-model of pure decoherence (Novotn'y et al, New Jour. Phys. 13, 053052 (2011)). We conclude that Quantum Darwinism, which describes the quantum mechanical evolution of an open system from the point of view of its environment, is not a generic phenomenon, but depends on the specific form of initial states and on the type of system-environment interactions. Furthermore, we show that within the random unitary model the concept of Quantum Darwinism enables one to explicitly construct and specify artificial initial states of environment that allow to store information about an open system of interest and its pointer-basis with maximal efficiency. Furthermore, we investigate the behavior of Quantum Darwinism after introducing dissipation into the iterative random unitary qubit model with pure decoherence in accord with V. Scarani et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097905 (2002)) and reconstruct the corresponding dissipative attractor space. We conclude that in Zurek's qubit model Quantum Darwinism depends on the order in which pure decoherence and dissipation act upon an initial state of the entire system. We show explicitly that introducing dissipation into the random unitary evolution model in general suppresses Quantum Darwinism (regardless of the order in which decoherence and dissipation are applied) for all positive non-zero values of the dissipation strength parameter, even for those initial state configurations which, in Zurek's qubit model and in the random unitary model with pure decoherence, would lead to Quantum Darwinism. Finally, we discuss what happens with Quantum Darwinism after introducing into the iterative random unitary qubit model with pure decoherence (asymmetric) dissipation and dephasing, again in accord with V. Scarani et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097905 (2002)), and reconstruct the corresponding

  8. An Informal Overview of the Unitary Group Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnad, V.; Escher, J.; Kruse, M.; Baker, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Unitary Groups Approach (UGA) is an elegant and conceptually unified approach to quantum structure calculations. It has been widely used in molecular structure calculations, and holds the promise of a single computational approach to structure calculations in a variety of different fields. We explore the possibility of extending the UGA to computations in atomic and nuclear structure as a simpler alternative to traditional Racah algebra-based approaches. We provide a simple introduction to the basic UGA and consider some of the issues in using the UGA with spin-dependent, multi-body Hamiltonians requiring multi-shell bases adapted to additional symmetries. While the UGA is perfectly capable of dealing with such problems, it is seen that the complexity rises dramatically, and the UGA is not at this time, a simpler alternative to Racah algebra-based approaches.

  9. Symmetry gauge theory for paraparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kursawe, U.

    1986-01-01

    In the present thesis it was shown that for identical particles the wave function of which has a more complicated symmetry than it is the case at the known kinds of particles, the bosons and fermions, a gauge theory can be formulated, the so-called 'symmetry gauge theory'. This theory has its origin alone in the symmetry of the particle wave functions and becomes first relevant when more than two particles are considered. It was shown that for particles with mixed-symmetrical wave functions, so-called 'paraparticles', the quantum mechanical state is no more described by one Hilbert-space element but by a many-dimensional subspace of this Hilbert space. The gauge freedom consists then just in the freedom of the choice of the basis in this subspace, the corresponding gauge group is the group of the unitary basis transformation in this subspace. (orig./HSI) [de

  10. Unitary eikonal formalism for multiproduction of isovector mesons at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Redei, L B

    1973-01-01

    Unitary eikonal models for multiproduction of isovector mesons are discussed in general terms. A closed analytic expression is derived for the partial production cross sections and for the meson multiplicity moments. A simple class of models is discussed in more detail. (11 refs).

  11. Multiple multicontrol unitary operations: Implementation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing

    2018-04-01

    The efficient implementation of computational tasks is critical to quantum computations. In quantum circuits, multicontrol unitary operations are important components. Here, we present an extremely efficient and direct approach to multiple multicontrol unitary operations without decomposition to CNOT and single-photon gates. With the proposed approach, the necessary two-photon operations could be reduced from O( n 3) with the traditional decomposition approach to O( n), which will greatly relax the requirements and make large-scale quantum computation feasible. Moreover, we propose the potential application to the ( n- k)-uniform hypergraph state.

  12. Some general constraints on identical band symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.W.; Strayer, M.R.; Wu, C.; Feng, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    We argue on general grounds that nearly identical bands observed for superdeformation and less frequently for normal deformation must be explicable in terms of a symmetry having a microscopic basis. We assume that the unknown symmetry is associated with a Lie algebra generated by terms bilinear in fermion creation and annihilation operators. Observed features of these bands and the general properties of Lie groups are then used to place constraints on acceptable algebras. Additional constraints are placed by assuming that the collective spectrum is associated with a dynamical symmetry, and examining the subgroup structure required by phenomenology. We observe that requisite symmetry cannot be unitary, and that the simplest known group structures consistent with these minimal criteria are associated with the Ginocchio algebras employed in the fermion dynamical symmetry model. However, our arguments are general in nature, and we propose that they imply model-independent constraints on any candidate explanation for identical bands

  13. Multiqubit Clifford groups are unitary 3-designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2017-12-01

    Unitary t -designs are a ubiquitous tool in many research areas, including randomized benchmarking, quantum process tomography, and scrambling. Despite the intensive efforts of many researchers, little is known about unitary t -designs with t ≥3 in the literature. We show that the multiqubit Clifford group in any even prime-power dimension is not only a unitary 2-design, but also a 3-design. Moreover, it is a minimal 3-design except for dimension 4. As an immediate consequence, any orbit of pure states of the multiqubit Clifford group forms a complex projective 3-design; in particular, the set of stabilizer states forms a 3-design. In addition, our study is helpful in studying higher moments of the Clifford group, which are useful in many research areas ranging from quantum information science to signal processing. Furthermore, we reveal a surprising connection between unitary 3-designs and the physics of discrete phase spaces and thereby offer a simple explanation of why no discrete Wigner function is covariant with respect to the multiqubit Clifford group, which is of intrinsic interest in studying quantum computation.

  14. Remarks on unitary representations of Poincare group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, A.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the elementary review of methods and notions using in the theory of unitary representations of Poincare group is included. The Poincare group is a basic group for relativistic quantum mechanics. Our aim is to introduce the reader into some problems of quantum physics, which are difficult approachable for beginners. (author)

  15. Generalized unitaries and the Picard group

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    some explicit calculations of that type.) So the range of this .... when we restrict our attention to generalized unitaries and full modules, that is, to modules. E for which BE = B. For every ..... without dividing out equivalence classes. But there is no ...

  16. Unitary information ether and its possible applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horodecki, R.

    1991-01-01

    The idea of information ether as the unitary information field is developed. It rests on the assumption that the notion of information is a fundamental category in the description of reality and that it can be defined independently from the notion of probability itself. It is shown that the information ether provides a deterministic background for the nonlinear wave hypothesis and quantum cybernetics. (orig.)

  17. Dynamical symmetries for fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction is given to the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM). The analytical symmetry limits of the model are then applied to the calculation of physical quantities such as ground-state masses and B(E 2 ) values in heavy nuclei. These comparisons with data provide strong support for a new principle of collective motion, the Dynamical Pauli Effect, and suggest that dynamical symmetries which properly account for the pauli principle are much more persistent in nuclear structure than the corresponding boson symmetries. Finally, we present an assessment of criticisms which have been voiced concerning the FDSM, and a discussion of new phenomena and ''exotic spectroscopy'' which may be suggested by the model. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  18. Optimal control landscape for the generation of unitary transformations with constrained dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Michael; Wu, Rebing; Rabitz, Herschel; Lidar, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The reliable and precise generation of quantum unitary transformations is essential for the realization of a number of fundamental objectives, such as quantum control and quantum information processing. Prior work has explored the optimal control problem of generating such unitary transformations as a surface-optimization problem over the quantum control landscape, defined as a metric for realizing a desired unitary transformation as a function of the control variables. It was found that under the assumption of nondissipative and controllable dynamics, the landscape topology is trap free, which implies that any reasonable optimization heuristic should be able to identify globally optimal solutions. The present work is a control landscape analysis, which incorporates specific constraints in the Hamiltonian that correspond to certain dynamical symmetries in the underlying physical system. It is found that the presence of such symmetries does not destroy the trap-free topology. These findings expand the class of quantum dynamical systems on which control problems are intrinsically amenable to a solution by optimal control.

  19. Characterizing multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation via internal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballar, Roland Cristopher F.; Ocampo, Leonard R.; Galapon, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Internal symmetries can be used to classify multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation (TE-CCR). The dynamical behavior of solutions to the TE-CCR possessing particular internal symmetries involving time reversal differ significantly from solutions to the TE-CCR without those particular symmetries, implying a connection between the internal symmetries of a quantum system, its internal unitary dynamics, and the TE-CCR.

  20. Optimal unitary dilation for bosonic Gaussian channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Filippo; Eisert, Jens; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Holevo, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    A general quantum channel can be represented in terms of a unitary interaction between the information-carrying system and a noisy environment. In this paper the minimal number of quantum Gaussian environmental modes required to provide a unitary dilation of a multimode bosonic Gaussian channel is analyzed for both pure and mixed environments. We compute this quantity in the case of pure environment corresponding to the Stinespring representation and give an improved estimate in the case of mixed environment. The computations rely, on one hand, on the properties of the generalized Choi-Jamiolkowski state and, on the other hand, on an explicit construction of the minimal dilation for arbitrary bosonic Gaussian channel. These results introduce a new quantity reflecting ''noisiness'' of bosonic Gaussian channels and can be applied to address some issues concerning transmission of information in continuous variables systems.

  1. Black hole thermodynamics based on unitary evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yu-Lei; Chen, Yi-Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we try to construct black hole thermodynamics based on the fact that the formation and evaporation of a black hole can be described by quantum unitary evolutions. First, we show that the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy S BH may not be a Boltzmann or thermal entropy. To confirm this statement, we show that the original black hole's ‘first law’ may not simply be treated as the first law of thermodynamics formally, due to some missing metric perturbations caused by matter. Then, by including those (quantum) metric perturbations, we show that the black hole formation and evaporation can be described effectively in a unitary manner, through a quantum channel between the exterior and interior of the event horizon. In this way, the paradoxes of information loss and firewall can be resolved effectively. Finally, we show that black hole thermodynamics can be constructed in an ordinary way, by constructing statistical mechanics. (paper)

  2. Biased Monte Carlo algorithms on unitary groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.; Gausterer, H.; Sanielevici, S.

    1989-01-01

    We introduce a general updating scheme for the simulation of physical systems defined on unitary groups, which eliminates the systematic errors due to inexact exponentiation of algebra elements. The essence is to work directly with group elements for the stochastic noise. Particular cases of the scheme include the algorithm of Metropolis et al., overrelaxation algorithms, and globally corrected Langevin and hybrid algorithms. The latter are studied numerically for the case of SU(3) theory

  3. Antiunitary symmetry operators in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carinena, J.F.; Santander, M.

    1981-01-01

    A criterion to decide that some symmetries of a quantum system must be realized as antiunitary operators is given. It is based on some mathematical theorems about the second cohomology group of the symmetry group when expressed in terms of those of a normal subgroup and the corresponding factor group. It is also shown that this criterion implies that the only possibility for the unitary subgroup in the Galilean case is that generated by the space reflection and the connected component containing the identity; otherwise only massless systems would arise. (author)

  4. Approximate analytical solution of the Dirac equation for pseudospin symmetry with modified Po schl-Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential using asymptotic iteration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratiwi, B N; Suparmi, A; Cari, C; Yunianto, M; Husein, A S

    2016-01-01

    We apllied asymptotic iteration method (AIM) to obtain the analytical solution of the Dirac equation in case exact pseudospin symmetry in the presence of modified Pcischl- Teller potential and trigonometric Scarf II non-central potential. The Dirac equation was solved by variables separation into one dimensional Dirac equation, the radial part and angular part equation. The radial and angular part equation can be reduced into hypergeometric type equation by variable substitution and wavefunction substitution and then transform it into AIM type equation to obtain relativistic energy eigenvalue and wavefunctions. Relativistic energy was calculated numerically by Matlab software. And then relativistic energy spectrum and wavefunctions were visualized by Matlab software. The results show that the increase in the radial quantum number n_r causes decrease in the relativistic energy spectrum. The negative value of energy is taken due to the pseudospin symmetry limit. Several quantum wavefunctions were presented in terms of the hypergeometric functions. (paper)

  5. Symmetry and electromagnetism. Simetria y electromagnetismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Cobas, L.E.; Font Hernandez, R.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical treatment of electrostatic and magnetostatic field symmetry, as a function of charge and current distribution symmetry, is proposed. The Newmann Principle, related to the cause-effect symmetry relation, is presented and applied to the characterization of simple configurations. (Author) 5 refs.

  6. Remarks on the formal symmetries of the asymptotic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragiadakos, C.

    1976-01-01

    Based on the formal validity of the Lagrangian expression of the S-matrix, the internal unitary symmetries and the Dirac electromagnetic interactions are derived as the unique ones among the renormalizable interactions. The same arguments are not compatible with gauge theories while in some special cases they are in contradiction with some physical results [fr

  7. Symmetry witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniello, Paolo; Chruściński, Dariusz

    2017-07-01

    A symmetry witness is a suitable subset of the space of selfadjoint trace class operators that allows one to determine whether a linear map is a symmetry transformation, in the sense of Wigner. More precisely, such a set is invariant with respect to an injective densely defined linear operator in the Banach space of selfadjoint trace class operators (if and) only if this operator is a symmetry transformation. According to a linear version of Wigner’s theorem, the set of pure states—the rank-one projections—is a symmetry witness. We show that an analogous result holds for the set of projections with a fixed rank (with some mild constraint on this rank, in the finite-dimensional case). It turns out that this result provides a complete classification of the sets of projections with a fixed rank that are symmetry witnesses. These particular symmetry witnesses are projectable; i.e. reasoning in terms of quantum states, the sets of ‘uniform’ density operators of corresponding fixed rank are symmetry witnesses too.

  8. Entanglement Capacity of Two-Qubit Unitary Operator with the Help of Auxiliary System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Baolin; Di Yaomin

    2007-01-01

    The entanglement capacity of general two-qubit unitary operators is studied when auxiliary systems are allowed, and the analytical results based on linear entropy when input states are disentangled are given. From the results the condition for perfect entangler, α 1 = α 2 = π/4, is obtained. Contrary to the case without auxiliary system, the parameter α 3 may play active role to the entanglement capacity when auxiliary systems are allowed.

  9. Mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, Claire

    1999-01-01

    This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the ...

  10. Quantum reading of unitary optical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of quantum reading of optical memories, namely the retrieving of classical information stored in the optical properties of a media with minimum energy. We present optimal strategies for ambiguous and unambiguous quantum reading of unitary optical memories, namely when one's task is to minimize the probability of errors in the retrieved information and when perfect retrieving of information is achieved probabilistically, respectively. A comparison of the optimal strategy with coherent probes and homodyne detection shows that the former saves orders of magnitude of energy when achieving the same performances. Experimental proposals for quantum reading which are feasible with present quantum optical technology are reported

  11. Construction of Non-Perturbative, Unitary Particle-Antiparticle Amplitudes for Finite Particle Number Scattering Formalisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindesay, James V

    2002-01-01

    Starting from a unitary, Lorentz invariant two-particle scattering amplitude, we show how to use an identification and replacement process to construct a unique, unitary particle-antiparticle amplitude. This process differs from conventional on-shell Mandelstam s,t,u crossing in that the input and constructed amplitudes can be off-diagonal and off-energy shell. Further, amplitudes are constructed using the invariant parameters which are appropriate to use as driving terms in the multi-particle, multichannel nonperturbative, cluster decomposable, relativistic scattering equations of the Faddeev-type integral equations recently presented by Alfred, Kwizera, Lindesay and Noyes. It is therefore anticipated that when so employed, the resulting multi-channel solutions will also be unitary. The process preserves the usual particle-antiparticle symmetries. To illustrate this process, we construct a J=0 scattering length model chosen for simplicity. We also exhibit a class of physical models which contain a finite quantum mass parameter and are Lorentz invariant. These are constructed to reduce in the appropriate limits, and with the proper choice of value and sign of the interaction parameter, to the asymptotic solution of the nonrelativistic Coulomb problem, including the forward scattering singularity , the essential singularity in the phase, and the Bohr bound-state spectrum

  12. Unitary Transformations in 3 D Vector Representation of Qutrit States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-12

    ARL-TR-8330 ● MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Unitary Transformations in 3- D Vector Representation of Qutrit States by...return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8330 ● MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Unitary Transformations in 3- D Vector...2018 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED June–December 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Unitary Transformations in 3- D Vector

  13. Meditations on the unitary rhythm of dying-grieving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinski, Violet M

    2012-07-01

    When someone faces loss of a loved one, that person simultaneously grieves and dies a little, just as the one dying also grieves. The author's personal conceptualization of dying and grieving as a unitary rhythm is explored based primarily on her interpretation of Rogers' science of unitary human beings, along with selected examples from related nursing literature and from the emerging focus on continuing bonds in other disciplines. Examples from contemporary songwriters that depict such a unitary conceptualization are given along with personal examples. The author concludes with her description of the unitary rhythm of dying-grieving.

  14. Moduli spaces of unitary conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, K.

    2000-08-01

    We investigate various features of moduli spaces of unitary conformal field theories. A geometric characterization of rational toroidal conformal field theories in arbitrary dimensions is presented and discussed in relation to singular tori and those with complex multiplication. We study the moduli space M 2 of unitary two-dimensional conformal field theories with central charge c = 2. All the 26 non-exceptional non-isolated irreducible components of M 2 are constructed that may be obtained by an orbifold procedure from toroidal theories. The parameter spaces and partition functions are calculated explicitly. All multicritical points and lines are determined, such that all but three of these 26 components are directly or indirectly connected to the space of toroidal theories in M 2 . Relating our results to those by Dixon, Ginsparg, Harvey on the classification of c = 3/2 superconformal field theories, we give geometric interpretations to all non-isolated orbifolds discussed by them and correct their statements on multicritical points within the moduli space of c = 3/2 superconformal field theories. In the main part of this work, we investigate the moduli space M of N = (4, 4) superconformal field theories with central charge c = 6. After a slight emendation of its global description we give generic partition functions for models contained in M. We explicitly determine the locations of various known models in the component of M associated to K3 surfaces

  15. Random unitary maps for quantum state reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel, Seth T.; Riofrio, Carlos A.; Deutsch, Ivan H.; Flammia, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    We study the possibility of performing quantum state reconstruction from a measurement record that is obtained as a sequence of expectation values of a Hermitian operator evolving under repeated application of a single random unitary map, U 0 . We show that while this single-parameter orbit in operator space is not informationally complete, it can be used to yield surprisingly high-fidelity reconstruction. For a d-dimensional Hilbert space with the initial observable in su(d), the measurement record lacks information about a matrix subspace of dimension ≥d-2 out of the total dimension d 2 -1. We determine the conditions on U 0 such that the bound is saturated, and show they are achieved by almost all pseudorandom unitary matrices. When we further impose the constraint that the physical density matrix must be positive, we obtain even higher fidelity than that predicted from the missing subspace. With prior knowledge that the state is pure, the reconstruction will be perfect (in the limit of vanishing noise) and for arbitrary mixed states, the fidelity is over 0.96, even for small d, and reaching F>0.99 for d>9. We also study the implementation of this protocol based on the relationship between random matrices and quantum chaos. We show that the Floquet operator of the quantum kicked top provides a means of generating the required type of measurement record, with implications on the relationship between quantum chaos and information gain.

  16. Symmetry breaking by bifundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    We derive all possible symmetry breaking patterns for all possible Higgs fields that can occur in intersecting brane models: bifundamentals and rank-2 tensors. This is a field-theoretic problem that was already partially solved in 1973 by Ling-Fong Li [1]. In that paper the solution was given for rank-2 tensors of orthogonal and unitary group, and U (N )×U (M ) and O (N )×O (M ) bifundamentals. We extend this first of all to symplectic groups. When formulated correctly, this turns out to be straightforward generalization of the previous results from real and complex numbers to quaternions. The extension to mixed bifundamentals is more challenging and interesting. The scalar potential has up to six real parameters. Its minima or saddle points are described by block-diagonal matrices built out of K blocks of size p ×q . Here p =q =1 for the solutions of Ling-Fong Li, and the number of possibilities for p ×q is equal to the number of real parameters in the potential, minus 1. The maximum block size is p ×q =2 ×4 . Different blocks cannot be combined, and the true minimum occurs for one choice of basic block, and for either K =1 or K maximal, depending on the parameter values.

  17. Spontaneous Broken Local Conformal Symmetry and Dark Energy Candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lu-Xin

    2013-01-01

    The local conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken down to the Local Lorentz invariance symmetry through the approach of nonlinear realization. The resulting effective Lagrangian, in the unitary gauge, describes a cosmological vector field non-minimally coupling to the gravitational field. As a result of the Higgs mechanism, the vector field absorbs the dilaton and becomes massive, but with an independent energy scale. The Proca type vector field can be modelled as dark energy candidate. The possibility that it further triggers Lorentz symmetry violation is also pointed out

  18. Genuine multipartite entanglement of symmetric Gaussian states: Strong monogamy, unitary localization, scaling behavior, and molecular sharing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the structural aspects of genuine multipartite entanglement in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. Generalizing the results of Adesso and Illuminati [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150501 (2007)], we analyze whether the entanglement shared by blocks of modes distributes according to a strong monogamy law. This property, once established, allows us to quantify the genuine N -partite entanglement not encoded into 2,…,K,…,(N-1) -partite quantum correlations. Strong monogamy is numerically verified, and the explicit expression of the measure of residual genuine multipartite entanglement is analytically derived, by a recursive formula, for a subclass of Gaussian states. These are fully symmetric (permutation-invariant) states that are multipartitioned into blocks, each consisting of an arbitrarily assigned number of modes. We compute the genuine multipartite entanglement shared by the blocks of modes and investigate its scaling properties with the number and size of the blocks, the total number of modes, the global mixedness of the state, and the squeezed resources needed for state engineering. To achieve the exact computation of the block entanglement, we introduce and prove a general result of symplectic analysis: Correlations among K blocks in N -mode multisymmetric and multipartite Gaussian states, which are locally invariant under permutation of modes within each block, can be transformed by a local (with respect to the partition) unitary operation into correlations shared by K single modes, one per block, in effective nonsymmetric states where N-K modes are completely uncorrelated. Due to this theorem, the above results, such as the derivation of the explicit expression for the residual multipartite entanglement, its nonnegativity, and its scaling properties, extend to the subclass of non-symmetric Gaussian states that are obtained by the unitary localization of the multipartite entanglement of symmetric states. These findings provide strong

  19. Quantum mechanics and hidden superconformal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonezzi, R.; Corradini, O.; Latini, E.; Waldron, A.

    2017-12-01

    Solvability of the ubiquitous quantum harmonic oscillator relies on a spectrum generating osp (1 |2 ) superconformal symmetry. We study the problem of constructing all quantum mechanical models with a hidden osp (1 |2 ) symmetry on a given space of states. This problem stems from interacting higher spin models coupled to gravity. In one dimension, we show that the solution to this problem is the Vasiliev-Plyushchay family of quantum mechanical models with hidden superconformal symmetry obtained by viewing the harmonic oscillator as a one dimensional Dirac system, so that Grassmann parity equals wave function parity. These models—both oscillator and particlelike—realize all possible unitary irreducible representations of osp (1 |2 ).

  20. Equivalence of quantum states under local unitary transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Shaoming; Jing Naihuan

    2005-01-01

    In terms of the analysis of fixed point subgroup and tensor decomposability of certain matrices, we study the equivalence of quantum bipartite mixed states under local unitary transformations. For non-degenerate case an operational criterion for the equivalence of two such mixed bipartite states under local unitary transformations is presented

  1. Perfect state transfer in unitary Cayley graphs over local rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotsanan Meemark

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, using eigenvalues and eigenvectors of unitary Cayley graphs over finite local rings and elementary linear algebra, we characterize which local rings allowing PST occurring in its unitary Cayley graph. Moreover, we have some developments when $R$ is a product of local rings.

  2. Anomalous Symmetry Fractionalization and Surface Topological Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In addition to possessing fractional statistics, anyon excitations of a 2D topologically ordered state can realize symmetry in distinct ways, leading to a variety of symmetry-enriched topological (SET phases. While the symmetry fractionalization must be consistent with the fusion and braiding rules of the anyons, not all ostensibly consistent symmetry fractionalizations can be realized in 2D systems. Instead, certain “anomalous” SETs can only occur on the surface of a 3D symmetry-protected topological (SPT phase. In this paper, we describe a procedure for determining whether a SET of a discrete, on-site, unitary symmetry group G is anomalous or not. The basic idea is to gauge the symmetry and expose the anomaly as an obstruction to a consistent topological theory combining both the original anyons and the gauge fluxes. Utilizing a result of Etingof, Nikshych, and Ostrik, we point out that a class of obstructions is captured by the fourth cohomology group H^{4}(G,U(1, which also precisely labels the set of 3D SPT phases, with symmetry group G. An explicit procedure for calculating the cohomology data from a SET is given, with the corresponding physical intuition explained. We thus establish a general bulk-boundary correspondence between the anomalous SET and the 3D bulk SPT whose surface termination realizes it. We illustrate this idea using the chiral spin liquid [U(1_{2}] topological order with a reduced symmetry Z_{2}×Z_{2}⊂SO(3, which can act on the semion quasiparticle in an anomalous way. We construct exactly solved 3D SPT models realizing the anomalous surface terminations and demonstrate that they are nontrivial by computing three-loop braiding statistics. Possible extensions to antiunitary symmetries are also discussed.

  3. Quantum Entanglement Growth under Random Unitary Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Adam; Ruhman, Jonathan; Vijay, Sagar; Haah, Jeongwan

    2017-07-01

    Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example, after a quantum quench, is a key problem in nonequilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time-dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the "entanglement tsunami" in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like (time )1/3 and are spatially correlated over a distance ∝(time )2/3. We derive KPZ universal behavior in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to (i) a stochastic model of a growing surface, (ii) a "minimal cut" picture, reminiscent of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula in holography, and (iii) a hydrodynamic problem involving the dynamical spreading of operators. We demonstrate KPZ universality in 1D numerically using simulations of random unitary circuits. Importantly, the leading-order time dependence of the entropy is deterministic even in the presence of noise, allowing us to propose a simple coarse grained minimal cut picture for the entanglement growth of generic Hamiltonians, even without noise, in arbitrary dimensionality. We clarify the meaning of the "velocity" of entanglement growth in the 1D entanglement tsunami. We show that in higher dimensions, noisy entanglement evolution maps to the well-studied problem of pinning of a membrane or domain wall by disorder.

  4. Quantum Entanglement Growth under Random Unitary Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Nahum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example, after a quantum quench, is a key problem in nonequilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time-dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the “entanglement tsunami” in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like (time^{1/3} and are spatially correlated over a distance ∝(time^{2/3}. We derive KPZ universal behavior in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to (i a stochastic model of a growing surface, (ii a “minimal cut” picture, reminiscent of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula in holography, and (iii a hydrodynamic problem involving the dynamical spreading of operators. We demonstrate KPZ universality in 1D numerically using simulations of random unitary circuits. Importantly, the leading-order time dependence of the entropy is deterministic even in the presence of noise, allowing us to propose a simple coarse grained minimal cut picture for the entanglement growth of generic Hamiltonians, even without noise, in arbitrary dimensionality. We clarify the meaning of the “velocity” of entanglement growth in the 1D entanglement tsunami. We show that in higher dimensions, noisy entanglement evolution maps to the well-studied problem of pinning of a membrane or domain wall by disorder.

  5. Symmetry, Symmetry Breaking and Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Sen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The ground state of a system with symmetry can be described by a group G. This symmetry group G can be discrete or continuous. Thus for a crystal G is a finite group while for the vacuum state of a grand unified theory G is a continuous Lie group. The ground state symmetry described by G can change spontaneously from G to one of its subgroups H as the external parameters of the system are modified. Such a macroscopic change of the ground state symmetry of a system from G to H correspond to a “phase transition”. Such phase transitions have been extensively studied within a framework due to Landau. A vast range of systems can be described using Landau’s approach, however there are also systems where the framework does not work. Recently there has been growing interest in looking at such non-Landau type of phase transitions. For instance there are several “quantum phase transitions” that are not of the Landau type. In this short review we first describe a refined version of Landau’s approach in which topological ideas are used together with group theory. The combined use of group theory and topological arguments allows us to determine selection rule which forbid transitions from G to certain of its subgroups. We end by making a few brief remarks about non-Landau type of phase transition.

  6. Universe symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The sky uniformity can be noticed in studying the repartition of objects far enough. The sky isotropy description uses space rotations. The group theory elements will allow to give a meaning at the same time precise and general to the word a ''symmetry''. Universe models are reviewed, which must have both of the following qualities: - conformity with the physic known laws; - rigorous symmetry following one of the permitted groups. Each of the models foresees that universe evolution obeys an evolution equation. Expansion and big-bang theory are recalled. Is universe an open or closed space. Universe is also electrically neutral. That leads to a work hypothesis: the existing matter is not given data of universe but it appeared by evolution from nothing. Problem of matter and antimatter is then raised up together with its place in universe [fr

  7. Operator entanglement of two-qubit joint unitary operations revisited: Schmidt number approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Hui-Zhi; Li, Chao; Yang, Qing; Yang, Ming, E-mail: mingyang@ahu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Information Acquisition and Manipulation, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University Hefei (China); Cao, Zhuo-Liang [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Hefei Normal University (China)

    2012-08-15

    The operator entanglement of two-qubit joint unitary operations is revisited. The Schmidt number, an important attribute of a two-qubit unitary operation, may have connection with the entanglement measure of the unitary operator. We find that the entanglement measure of a two-qubit unitary operators is classified by the Schmidt number of the unitary operators. We also discuss the exact relation between the operator entanglement and the parameters of the unitary operator. (author)

  8. Surveying the quantum group symmetries of integrable open spin chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomechie, Rafael I.; Retore, Ana L.

    2018-05-01

    Using anisotropic R-matrices associated with affine Lie algebras g ˆ (specifically, A2n(2), A2n-1 (2) , Bn(1), Cn(1), Dn(1)) and suitable corresponding K-matrices, we construct families of integrable open quantum spin chains of finite length, whose transfer matrices are invariant under the quantum group corresponding to removing one node from the Dynkin diagram of g ˆ . We show that these transfer matrices also have a duality symmetry (for the cases Cn(1) and Dn(1)) and additional Z2 symmetries that map complex representations to their conjugates (for the cases A2n-1 (2) , Bn(1) and Dn(1)). A key simplification is achieved by working in a certain "unitary" gauge, in which only the unbroken symmetry generators appear. The proofs of these symmetries rely on some new properties of the R-matrices. We use these symmetries to explain the degeneracies of the transfer matrices.

  9. About the unitary discretizations of Heisenberg equations of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.

    1986-01-01

    In a recent paper Bender et al. (1985) have used a unitary discretization of Heisenberg equations for a one-dimensional quantum system in order to obtain information about the spectrum of the underlying continuum theory. The method consists in comparing the matrix elements between adjacent Fock states of the operators and at two steps. At the same time a very simple variational approach must be made. The purpose of this paper is to show that with unitary schemes, accurate either to order τ or τ 2 , we obtain the same spectrum results in the framework of the above method. On the other hand the same eigenvalues are obtained with a non-unitary scheme (Section II). In Section III we discuss the construction of the Hamiltonian associated to the unitary discretizations. (orig.)

  10. Constructing a unitary title regime for the European Patent System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2011-01-01

    The European Patent System without any unitary title allows Member States to retain institutional arrangements within their borders and to prevent any moves to delegate responsibility outside the national sphere. This intergovernmental patent regime suffers from fragmentation due to national

  11. Elegant Coercion and Iran: Beyond the Unitary Actor Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moss, J. C

    2005-01-01

    .... At its core, then, coercion is about state decision-making. Most theories of coercion describe states as if they were unitary actors whose decision-making results from purely rational cost-benefit calculations...

  12. Theory of the unitary representations of compact groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, A.; Burzynska, M.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction contains some basic notions used in group theory, Lie group, Lie algebras and unitary representations. Then we are dealing with compact groups. For these groups we show the problem of reduction of unitary representation of Wigner's projection operators, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and Wigner-Eckart theorem. We show (this is a new approach) the representations reduction formalism by using superoperators in Hilbert-Schmidt space. (author)

  13. Quantum entanglement: the unitary 8-vertex braid matrix with imaginary rapidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Chakraborti, Anirban; Jedidi, Aymen

    2010-01-01

    We study quantum entanglements induced on product states by the action of 8-vertex braid matrices, rendered unitary with purely imaginary spectral parameters (rapidity). The unitarity is displayed via the 'canonical factorization' of the coefficients of the projectors spanning the basis. This adds one more new facet to the famous and fascinating features of the 8-vertex model. The double periodicity and the analytic properties of the elliptic functions involved lead to a rich structure of the 3-tangle quantifying the entanglement. We thus explore the complex relationship between topological and quantum entanglement. (fast track communication)

  14. Generalized spacetimes defined by cubic forms and the minimal unitary realizations of their quasiconformal groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenaydin, Murat; Pavlyk, Oleksandr

    2005-01-01

    We study the symmetries of generalized spacetimes and corresponding phase spaces defined by Jordan algebras of degree three. The generic Jordan family of formally real Jordan algebras of degree three describe extensions of the minkowskian spacetimes by an extra 'dilatonic' coordinate, whose rotation, Lorentz and conformal groups are SO(d-1), SO(d-1,1) x SO(1,1) and SO(d,2) x SO(2,1), respectively. The generalized spacetimes described by simple Jordan algebras of degree three correspond to extensions of minkowskian spacetimes in the critical dimensions (d = 3,4,6,10) by a dilatonic and extra commuting spinorial coordinates, respectively. Their rotation, Lorentz and conformal groups are those that occur in the first three rows of the Magic Square. The Freudenthal triple systems defined over these Jordan algebras describe conformally covariant phase spaces. Following hep-th/0008063, we give a unified geometric realization of the quasiconformal groups that act on their conformal phase spaces extended by an extra 'cocycle' coordinate. For the generic Jordan family the quasiconformal groups are SO(d+2,4), whose minimal unitary realizations are given. The minimal unitary representations of the quasiconformal groups F 4(4) , E 6(2) , E 7(-5) and E 8(-24) of the simple Jordan family were given in our earlier work

  15. Unitary Supermultiplets of $OSp(8^{*}|4)$ and the $AdS_{7}/CFT_{6}$ Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Günaydin, M; Gunaydin, Murat; Takemae, Seiji

    2000-01-01

    We study the unitary supermultiplets of the N=4 d=7 anti-de Sitter (AdS_7) superalgebra OSp(8^*|4), with the even subalgebra SO(6,2) X USp(4), which is the symmetry superalgebra of M-theory on AdS_7 X S^4. We give a complete classification of the positive energy doubleton and massless supermultiplets of OSp(8^*|4) . The ultra-short doubleton supermultiplets do not have a Poincaré limit in AdS_7 and correspond to superconformal field theories on the boundary of AdS_7 which can be identified with d=6 Minkowski space. We show that the six dimensional Poincare mass operator vanishes identically for the doubleton representations. By going from the compact U(4) basis of SO^*(8)=SO(6,2) to the noncompact basis SU^*(4)XD (d=6 Lorentz group times dilatations) one can associate the positive (conformal) energy representations of SO^*(8) with conformal fields transforming covariantly under the Lorentz group in d=6. The oscillator method used for the construction of the unitary supermultiplets of OSp(8^*|4) can be given ...

  16. Three-body unitary transformations, three-body forces, and trinucleon bound state properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haftel, M.I.

    1976-01-01

    A three-body unitary transformation method for the study of three-body forces is presented. Starting with a three-body Hamiltonian with two-body forces, unitary transformations are introduced to generate Hamiltonians that have both two- and three-body forces. For cases of physical interest, the two-body forces of the altered Hamiltonians are phase equivalent (for two-body scattering) to the original and the three-body force vanishes when any interparticle distance is large. Specific examples are presented. Applications for studying the possible role of three-body forces in accounting for trinucleon bound state properties are examined. Calculations of the 3 He and 3 H charge form factors and Coulomb energy difference with hyperspherical radial transformations and with conventional N-N potentials are performed. The form factor calculations demonstrate how the proposed method can help obtain improved agreement with experiment by the introduction of appropriate three-body forces. Calculations of the Coulomb energy difference confirm previous estimates concerning charge symmetry breaking in the N-N interaction

  17. Is space-time symmetry a suitable generalization of parity-time symmetry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We discuss space-time symmetric Hamiltonian operators of the form H=H 0 +igH ′ , where H 0 is Hermitian and g real. H 0 is invariant under the unitary operations of a point group G while H ′ is invariant under transformation by elements of a subgroup G ′ of G. If G exhibits irreducible representations of dimension greater than unity, then it is possible that H has complex eigenvalues for sufficiently small nonzero values of g. In the particular case that H is parity-time symmetric then it appears to exhibit real eigenvalues for all 0symmetry and perturbation theory enable one to predict whether H may exhibit real or complex eigenvalues for g>0. We illustrate the main theoretical results and conclusions of this paper by means of two- and three-dimensional Hamiltonians exhibiting a variety of different point-group symmetries. - Highlights: • Space-time symmetry is a generalization of PT symmetry. • The eigenvalues of a space-time Hamiltonian are either real or appear as pairs of complex conjugate numbers. • In some cases all the eigenvalues are real for some values of a potential-strength parameter g. • At some value of g space-time symmetry is broken and complex eigenvalues appear. • Some multidimensional oscillators exhibit broken space-time symmetry for all values of g

  18. Structure of N = 2 superconformally invariant unitary ''minimal'' theories: Operator algebra and correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiritsis, E.B.

    1987-01-01

    N = 2 superconformal-invariant theories are studied and their general structure is analyzed. The geometry of N = 2 complex superspace is developed as a tool to study the correlation functions of the theories above. The Ward identities of the global N = 2 superconformal symmetry are solved, to restrict the form of correlation functions. Advantage is taken of the existence of the degenerate operators to derive the ''fusion'' rules for the unitary minimal systems with c<1. In particular, the closure of the operator algebra for such systems is shown. The c = (1/3 minimal system is analyzed and its two-, three-, and four-point functions as well as its operator algebra are calculated explicitly

  19. Gap probabilities for edge intervals in finite Gaussian and Jacobi unitary matrix ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, N.S.; Forrester, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The probabilities for gaps in the eigenvalue spectrum of the finite dimension N x N random matrix Hermite and Jacobi unitary ensembles on some single and disconnected double intervals are found. These are cases where a reflection symmetry exists and the probability factors into two other related probabilities, defined on single intervals. Our investigation uses the system of partial differential equations arising from the Fredholm determinant expression for the gap probability and the differential-recurrence equations satisfied by Hermite and Jacobi orthogonal polynomials. In our study we find second and third order nonlinear ordinary differential equations defining the probabilities in the general N case, specific explicit solutions for N = 1 and N = 2, asymptotic expansions, scaling at the edge of the Hermite spectrum as N →∞ and the Jacobi to Hermite limit both of which make correspondence to other cases reported here or known previously. (authors)

  20. Steering particles by breaking symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bet, Bram; Samin, Sela; Georgiev, Rumen; Burak Eral, Huseyin; van Roij, René

    2018-06-01

    We derive general equations of motions for highly-confined particles that perform quasi-two-dimensional motion in Hele-Shaw channels, which we solve analytically, aiming to derive design principles for self-steering particles. Based on symmetry properties of a particle, its equations of motion can be simplified, where we retrieve an earlier-known equation of motion for the orientation of dimer particles consisting of disks (Uspal et al 2013 Nat. Commun. 4), but now in full generality. Subsequently, these solutions are compared with particle trajectories that are obtained numerically. For mirror-symmetric particles, excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical solutions is found. For particles lacking mirror symmetry, the analytic solutions provide means to classify the motion based on particle geometry, while we find that taking the side-wall interactions into account is important to accurately describe the trajectories.

  1. Symmetry Groups for the Decomposition of Reversible Computers, Quantum Computers, and Computers in between

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis De Vos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Whereas quantum computing circuits follow the symmetries of the unitary Lie group, classical reversible computation circuits follow the symmetries of a finite group, i.e., the symmetric group. We confront the decomposition of an arbitrary classical reversible circuit with w bits and the decomposition of an arbitrary quantum circuit with w qubits. Both decompositions use the control gate as building block, i.e., a circuit transforming only one (qubit, the transformation being controlled by the other w−1 (qubits. We explain why the former circuit can be decomposed into 2w − 1 control gates, whereas the latter circuit needs 2w − 1 control gates. We investigate whether computer circuits, not based on the full unitary group but instead on a subgroup of the unitary group, may be decomposable either into 2w − 1 or into 2w − 1 control gates.

  2. Symmetry-protected coherent relaxation of open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Caspel, Moos; Gritsev, Vladimir

    2018-05-01

    We compute the effect of Markovian bulk dephasing noise on the staggered magnetization of the spin-1/2 XXZ Heisenberg chain, as the system evolves after a Néel quench. For sufficiently weak system-bath coupling, the unitary dynamics are found to be preserved up to a single exponential damping factor. This is a consequence of the interplay between PT symmetry and weak symmetries, which strengthens previous predictions for PT -symmetric Liouvillian dynamics. Requirements are a nondegenerate PT -symmetric generator of time evolution L ̂, a weak parity symmetry, and an observable that is antisymmetric under this parity transformation. The spectrum of L ̂ then splits up into symmetry sectors, yielding the same decay rate for all modes that contribute to the observable's time evolution. This phenomenon may be realized in trapped ion experiments and has possible implications for the control of decoherence in out-of-equilibrium many-body systems.

  3. Some symmetries in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1981-09-01

    Internal and space-time symmetries are discussed in this group of lectures. The first of the lectures deals with an internal symmetry, or rather two related symmetries called charge independence and charge symmetry. The next two discuss space-time symmetries which also hold approximately, but are broken only by the weak forces; that is, these symmetries hold for both the hadronic and electromagnetic forces

  4. Robust Learning Control Design for Quantum Unitary Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengzhi; Qi, Bo; Chen, Chunlin; Dong, Daoyi

    2017-12-01

    Robust control design for quantum unitary transformations has been recognized as a fundamental and challenging task in the development of quantum information processing due to unavoidable decoherence or operational errors in the experimental implementation of quantum operations. In this paper, we extend the systematic methodology of sampling-based learning control (SLC) approach with a gradient flow algorithm for the design of robust quantum unitary transformations. The SLC approach first uses a "training" process to find an optimal control strategy robust against certain ranges of uncertainties. Then a number of randomly selected samples are tested and the performance is evaluated according to their average fidelity. The approach is applied to three typical examples of robust quantum transformation problems including robust quantum transformations in a three-level quantum system, in a superconducting quantum circuit, and in a spin chain system. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the SLC approach and show its potential applications in various implementation of quantum unitary transformations.

  5. Joule-Thomson Coefficient for Strongly Interacting Unitary Fermi Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Kai; Chen Jisheng; Li Chao

    2010-01-01

    The Joule-Thomson effect reflects the interaction among constituent particles of macroscopic system. For classical ideal gas, the corresponding Joule-Thomson coefficient is vanishing while it is non-zero for ideal quantum gas due to the quantum degeneracy. In recent years, much attention is paid to the unitary Fermi gas with infinite two-body scattering length. According to universal analysis, the thermodynamical law of unitary Fermi gas is similar to that of non-interacting ideal gas, which can be explored by the virial theorem P = 2E/3V. Based on previous works, we further study the unitary Fermi gas properties. The effective chemical potential is introduced to characterize the nonlinear levels crossing effects in a strongly interacting medium. The changing behavior of the rescaled Joule-Thomson coefficient according to temperature manifests a quite different behavior from that for ideal Fermi gas. (general)

  6. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed

  7. Consciousness, intentionality, and community: Unitary perspectives and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P; Larkin, Dorothy M

    2009-01-01

    Consciousness and intentionality often have been related and studied together. These concepts also are readily viewed and understood for practice, research, and education in a unitary paradigm. How these ideas relate to community is less known. Considering the expansion of our capacity for communication through the World Wide Web and other technologic advances and appreciating recent research on the nonlocal character of intentionality and consciousness, it is more apparent how concepts of community can be seen in the same unitary context. The authors address these issues and review relevant nursing research.

  8. Non-unitary probabilistic quantum computing circuit and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin P. (Inventor); Gingrich, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A quantum circuit performing quantum computation in a quantum computer. A chosen transformation of an initial n-qubit state is probabilistically obtained. The circuit comprises a unitary quantum operator obtained from a non-unitary quantum operator, operating on an n-qubit state and an ancilla state. When operation on the ancilla state provides a success condition, computation is stopped. When operation on the ancilla state provides a failure condition, computation is performed again on the ancilla state and the n-qubit state obtained in the previous computation, until a success condition is obtained.

  9. Cogeneration Power Plants: a Proposed Methodology for Unitary Production Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metalli, E.

    2009-01-01

    A new methodology to evaluate unitary energetic production costs in the cogeneration power plants is proposed. This methodology exploits the energy conversion factors fixed by Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas. So it allows to settle such unitary costs univocally for a given plant, without assigning them a priori subjective values when there are two or more energy productions at the same time. Moreover the proposed methodology always ensures positive values for these costs, complying with the total generation cost balance equation. [it

  10. Classification of delocalization power of global unitary operations in terms of LOCC one-piece relocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Soeda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We study how two pieces of localized quantum information can be delocalized across a composite Hilbert space when a global unitary operation is applied. We classify the delocalization power of global unitary operations on quantum information by investigating the possibility of relocalizing one piece of the quantum information without using any global quantum resource. We show that one-piece relocalization is possible if and only if the global unitary operation is local unitary equivalent of a controlled-unitary operation. The delocalization power turns out to reveal different aspect of the non-local properties of global unitary operations characterized by their entangling power.

  11. Symmetries and groups in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this book consists of a didactic introduction to the group-theoretical considerations and methods, which have led to an ever deeper understanding of the interactions of the elementary particles. The first three chapters deal primarily with the foundations of the representation theory of primarily finite groups, whereby many results are also transferable to compact Lie groups. In the third chapter we discuss the concept of Lie groups and their connection with Lie algebras. In the remaining chapter it is mainly about the application of group theory in physics. Chapter 4 deals with the groups SO(3) and SU(2), which occur in connection with the description of the angular momentum in quantum mechanics. We discuss the Wigner-Eckar theorem together with some applications. In chapter 5 we are employed to the composition properties of strongly interacting systems, so called hadrons, and discuss extensively the transformation properties of quarks with relation to the special unitary groups. The Noether theorem is generally treated in connection to the conservation laws belonging to the Galilei group and the Poincare group. We confine us in chapter 6 to internal symmetries, but explain for that extensively the application to quantum field theory. Especially an outlook on the effect of symmetries in form of so called Ward identities is granted. In chapter 7 we turn towards the gauge principle and discuss first the construction of quantum electrodynamics. In the following we generalize the gauge principle to non-Abelian groups (Yang-Mills theories) and formulate the quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Especially we take a view of ''random'' global symmetries of QCD, especially the chiral symmetry. In chapter 8 we illuminate the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking both for global and for local symmetries. In the final chapter we work out the group-theoretical structure of the Standard Model. Finally by means of the group SU(5) we take a view to

  12. Symmetries and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclei are very useful for testing symmetries, and for studies of symmetry breaking. This thesis is illustrated for two improper space-time transformations, parity and time-reversal and for one internal symmetry: charge symmetry and independence. Recent progress and present interest is reviewed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Charged tensor matter fields and Lorentz symmetry violation via spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colatto, L.P.; Penna, A.L.A.; Santos, W.C.

    2003-10-01

    We consider a model with a charged vector field along with a Cremmer-Scherk-Kalb-Ramond (CSKR) matter field coupled to a U(1) gauge potential. We obtain a natural Lorentz symmetry violation due to the local U(1) spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism triggered by the imaginary part of the vector matter. The choice of the unitary gauge leads to the decoupling of the gauge-Kr sector from the Higgs-Kr sector. The excitation spectrum is carefully analyzed and the physical modes are identified. We propose an identification of the neutral massive spin-1 Higgs-like field with the massive Z' boson of the so-called mirror matter models. (author)

  14. Interpolation between Airy and Poisson statistics for unitary chiral non-Hermitian random matrix ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, G.; Bender, M.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a family of chiral non-Hermitian Gaussian random matrices in the unitarily invariant symmetry class. The eigenvalue distribution in this model is expressed in terms of Laguerre polynomials in the complex plane. These are orthogonal with respect to a non-Gaussian weight including a modified Bessel function of the second kind, and we give an elementary proof for this. In the large n limit, the eigenvalue statistics at the spectral edge close to the real axis are described by the same family of kernels interpolating between Airy and Poisson that was recently found by one of the authors for the elliptic Ginibre ensemble. We conclude that this scaling limit is universal, appearing for two different non-Hermitian random matrix ensembles with unitary symmetry. As a second result we give an equivalent form for the interpolating Airy kernel in terms of a single real integral, similar to representations for the asymptotic kernel in the bulk and at the hard edge of the spectrum. This makes its structure as a one-parameter deformation of the Airy kernel more transparent.

  15. Analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, Nivaldo A

    2018-01-01

    Analytical mechanics is the foundation of many areas of theoretical physics including quantum theory and statistical mechanics, and has wide-ranging applications in engineering and celestial mechanics. This introduction to the basic principles and methods of analytical mechanics covers Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics, rigid bodies, small oscillations, canonical transformations and Hamilton–Jacobi theory. This fully up-to-date textbook includes detailed mathematical appendices and addresses a number of advanced topics, some of them of a geometric or topological character. These include Bertrand's theorem, proof that action is least, spontaneous symmetry breakdown, constrained Hamiltonian systems, non-integrability criteria, KAM theory, classical field theory, Lyapunov functions, geometric phases and Poisson manifolds. Providing worked examples, end-of-chapter problems, and discussion of ongoing research in the field, it is suitable for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students studying analyt...

  16. Projective unitary-antiunitary representations of the Shubnikov space groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broek, P.M. van den.

    1979-01-01

    Some mathematical aspects of the symmetry of a physical system in quantum mechanics are examined with special emphasis on the symmetry groups of charged particles in crystalline solids, the Shuknikov space groups. (Auth.)

  17. Symmetries of cosmological Cauchy horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncrief, V.; Isenberg, J.

    1983-01-01

    We consider analytic vacuum and electrovacuum spacetimes which contain a compact null hypersurface ruled by closed null generators. We prove that each such spacetime has a non-trivial Killing symmetry. We distinguish two classes of null surfaces, degenerate and non-degenerate ones, characterized by the zero or non-zero value of a constant analogous to the ''surface gravity'' of stationary black holes. We show that the non-degenerate null surfaces are always Cauchy heizons across which the Killing fields change from spacelike (in the globally hyperbolic regions) to timelike (in the acausal, analytic extensions). For the special case of a null surface diffeomorphic to T 3 we characterize the degenerate vacuum solutions completely. These consists of an infinite dimensional family of ''plane wave'' spacetimes which are entirely foliated by compact null surfaces. Previous work by one of us has shown that, when one dimensional Killing symmetries are allowed, then infinite dimensional families of non-degenerate, vacuum solutions exist. We recall these results for the case of Cauchy horizons diffeomorphic to T 3 and prove the generality of the previously constructed non-degenerate solutions. We briefly discuss the possibility of removing the assumptions of closed generators and analyticity and proving an appropriate generalization of our main results. Such a generalization would provide strong support for the cosmic censorship conjecture by showing that causality violating, cosmological solutions of Einstein's equations are essentially an artefact of symmetry. (orig.)

  18. DU and UD-invariants of unitary groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, M.C.K.

    1977-01-01

    Four distint ways of obtaining the eigenvalues of unitary groups, in any irreducible representation, are presented. The invariants are defined according to two different contraction conventions. Their eigenvalue can be given in terms of two classes of special partial hooks associated with the young diagram characterizing the irreducible representation considered

  19. A remark on the unitary part of contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Considering operators on a complex infinite dimensional Hilbert space H and denoting by T * a construction with C .O completely non-unitary part, it is proved that A T is projection which commutes with T and H (u) T = A T H. 3 refs

  20. Establishing the Unitary Classroom: Organizational Change and School Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Elizabeth M.; True, Joan H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the organizational changes introduced in two elementary schools to create unitary (desegregated) classrooms. The different models adopted by the two schools--departmentalization and team teaching--are considered as expressions of their patterns of interaction, behavior, and values. (Part of a theme issue on educational…

  1. Theory of symmetry and of exact solution properties for fast rotating nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydon, B.

    1995-01-01

    We propose a study of rotating multi-fermionic systems. The method we developed is based on unitary group theory. The formalism of Gel'fand-Tsetlin is is simplified to binary calculations. With the help of operator of Casimir and physical interpretations using dichotomic symmetries (signature, parity), we show rotating Hamiltonians obey to a new quantum symmetry called P. The study of short range two-body interaction breaking weakly this symmetry, is made by using single j-shell. Nuclear interactions coupling two j-shell are introduced. This study allows us to compare ours results to experimental data for three isotopes of Zirconium. (author)

  2. Minimal unitary representation of D(2,1;λ) and its SU(2) deformations and d=1, N=4 superconformal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, Karan; Gunaydin, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Quantization of the geometric quasiconformal realizations of noncompact groups and supergroups leads directly to their minimal unitary representations (minreps). Using quasiconformal methods massless unitary supermultiplets of superconformal groups SU(2,2|N) and OSp(8 ⁎ |2n) in four and six dimensions were constructed as minreps and their U(1) and SU(2) deformations, respectively. In this paper we extend these results to SU(2) deformations of the minrep of N=4 superconformal algebra D(2,1;λ) in one dimension. We find that SU(2) deformations can be achieved using n pair of bosons and m pairs of fermions simultaneously. The generators of deformed minimal representations of D(2,1;λ) commute with the generators of a dual superalgebra OSp(2n ⁎ |2m) realized in terms of these bosons and fermions. We show that there exists a precise mapping between symmetry generators of N=4 superconformal models in harmonic superspace studied recently and minimal unitary supermultiplets of D(2,1;λ) deformed by a pair of bosons. This can be understood as a particular case of a general mapping between the spectra of quantum mechanical quaternionic Kähler sigma models with eight super symmetries and minreps of their isometry groups that descends from the precise mapping established between the 4d, N=2 sigma models coupled to supergravity and minreps of their isometry groups.

  3. The symmetry of man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolenko, Alexander E; Perepada, Elena A

    2007-01-01

    The paper contains a description of basic regularities in the manifestation of symmetry of human structural organization and its ontogenetic and phylogenetic development. A concept of macrobiocrystalloid with inherent complex symmetry is proposed for the description of the human organism in its integrity. The symmetry can be characterized as two-plane radial (quadrilateral), where the planar symmetry is predominant while the layout of organs of radial symmetry is subordinated to it. Out of the two planes of symmetry (sagittal and horizontal), the sagittal plane is predominant. The symmetry of the chromosome, of the embrio at the early stages of cell cleavage as well as of some organs and systems in their phylogenetic development is described. An hypothesis is postulated that the two-plane symmetry is formed by two mechanisms: a) the impact of morphogenetic fields of the whole crystalloid organism during embriogenesis and, b) genetic mechanisms of the development of chromosomes having two-plane symmetry.

  4. The analytic structure of conformal blocks and the generalized Wilson-Fisher fixed points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gliozzi, Ferdinando [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino andIstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - sezione di Torino,Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Guerrieri, Andrea L. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University,Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma Tor Vergata,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Petkou, Anastasios C. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Wen, Congkao [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics,Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2017-04-11

    We describe in detail the method used in our previous work https://arxiv.org/abs/1611.10344 to study the Wilson-Fisher critical points nearby generalized free CFTs, exploiting the analytic structure of conformal blocks as functions of the conformal dimension of the exchanged operator. Our method is equivalent to the mechanism of conformal multiplet recombination set up by null states. We compute, to the first non-trivial order in the ϵ-expansion, the anomalous dimensions and the OPE coefficients of infinite classes of scalar local operators using just CFT data. We study single-scalar and O(N)-invariant theories, as well as theories with multiple deformations. When available we agree with older results, but we also produce a wealth of new ones. Unitarity and crossing symmetry are not used in our approach and we are able to apply our method to non-unitary theories as well. Some implications of our results for the study of the non-unitary theories containing partially conserved higher-spin currents are briefly mentioned.

  5. Unitary or Non-Unitary Nature of Working Memory? Evidence from Its Relation to General Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cai-Ping; Braeken, Johan; Ferrer, Emilio; Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the controversy surrounding working memory: whether it is a unitary system providing general purpose resources or a more differentiated system with domain-specific sub-components. A total of 348 participants completed a set of 6 working memory tasks that systematically varied in storage target contents and type of information…

  6. A mapping from the unitary to doubly stochastic matrices and symbols on a finite set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegov, Alexander V.

    2008-11-01

    We prove that the mapping from the unitary to doubly stochastic matrices that maps a unitary matrix (ukl) to the doubly stochastic matrix (|ukl|2) is a submersion at a generic unitary matrix. The proof uses the framework of operator symbols on a finite set.

  7. Symmetries of the quantum damped harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J; López-Ruiz, F F; Aldaya, V; Cossío, F

    2012-01-01

    For the non-conservative Caldirola–Kanai system, describing a quantum damped harmonic oscillator, a couple of constant-of-motion operators generating the Heisenberg–Weyl algebra can be found. The inclusion of the standard time evolution generator (which is not a symmetry) as a symmetry in this algebra, in a unitary manner, requires a non-trivial extension of this basic algebra and hence of the physical system itself. Surprisingly, this extension leads directly to the so-called Bateman dual system, which now includes a new particle acting as an energy reservoir. In addition, the Caldirola–Kanai dissipative system can be retrieved by imposing constraints. The algebra of symmetries of the dual system is presented, as well as a quantization that implies, in particular, a first-order Schrödinger equation. As opposed to other approaches, where it is claimed that the spectrum of the Bateman Hamiltonian is complex and discrete, we obtain that it is real and continuous, with infinite degeneracy in all regimes. (paper)

  8. The representation theory of the symmetry group of lattice fermions as a basis for kinematics in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joos, H.; Schaefer, M.

    1987-01-01

    The symmetry group of staggered lattice fermions is discussed as a discrete subgroup of the symmetry group of the Dirac-Kaehler equation. For the representation theory of this group, G. Mackey's generalization of E.P. Wigner's procedure for the construction of unitary representations of groups with normal subgroups is used. A complete classification of these irreducible representations by ''momentum stars'', ''flavour orbits'' and ''reduced spins'' is given. (orig.)

  9. Origin of family symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilles, Hans Peter

    2012-04-01

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  10. Origin of family symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  11. Analytic Expression of Geometric Discord in Arbitrary Mixture of any Two Bi-qubit Product Pure States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Chuan-Mei; Xing Hang; Zhang Zhan-Jun; Liu Yi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Quantum correlations in a family of states comprising any mixture of a pair of arbitrary bi-qubit product pure states are studied by employing geometric discord [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 190502] as the quantifier. First, the inherent symmetry in the family of states about local unitary transformations is revealed. Then, the analytic expression of geometric discords in the states is worked out. Some concrete discussions and analyses on the captured geometric discords are made so that their distinct features are exposed. It is found that, the more averagely the two bi-qubit product states are mixed, the bigger geometric discord the mixed state owns. Moreover, the monotonic relationships of geometric discord with different parameters are revealed. (paper)

  12. Symmetry, asymmetry and dissymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.; Zollner, G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the concept of symmetry and defect of symmetry in radiological imaging and recall the definition of asymmetry (congenital or constitutional) and dissymmetry (acquired). They then describe a rule designed for the cognitive method of automatic evaluation of shape recognition data and propose the use of reversal symmetry [fr

  13. Weak C* Hopf Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Rehren, K. -H.

    1996-01-01

    Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.

  14. Gauge symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of how gauge symmetries of the weak interactions get broken is discussed. Some reasons why such a heirarchy of gauge symmetry breaking is needed, the reason gauge heirarchies do not seem to arise in theories of a given and related type, and the implications of theories with dynamical symmetry breaking, which can exhibit a gauge hierarchy

  15. Random unitary evolution model of quantum Darwinism with pure decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanesković, Nenad

    2015-10-01

    We study the behavior of Quantum Darwinism [W.H. Zurek, Nat. Phys. 5, 181 (2009)] within the iterative, random unitary operations qubit-model of pure decoherence [J. Novotný, G. Alber, I. Jex, New J. Phys. 13, 053052 (2011)]. We conclude that Quantum Darwinism, which describes the quantum mechanical evolution of an open system S from the point of view of its environment E, is not a generic phenomenon, but depends on the specific form of input states and on the type of S-E-interactions. Furthermore, we show that within the random unitary model the concept of Quantum Darwinism enables one to explicitly construct and specify artificial input states of environment E that allow to store information about an open system S of interest with maximal efficiency.

  16. On relevant boundary perturbations of unitary minimal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, A.; Roggenkamp, D.; Schomerus, V.

    2000-01-01

    We consider unitary Virasoro minimal models on the disk with Cardy boundary conditions and discuss deformations by certain relevant boundary operators, analogous to tachyon condensation in string theory. Concentrating on the least relevant boundary field, we can perform a perturbative analysis of renormalization group fixed points. We find that the systems always flow towards stable fixed points which admit no further (non-trivial) relevant perturbations. The new conformal boundary conditions are in general given by superpositions of 'pure' Cardy boundary conditions

  17. Prenominal and postnominal reduced relative clauses: arguments against unitary analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Sleeman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available These last years, several analyses have been proposed in which prenominal and postnominal reduced relatives are merged in the same position. Kayne (1994 claims that both types of reduced relative clauses are the complement of the determiner. More recently, Cinque (2005 has proposed that both types are merged in the functional projections of the noun, at the left edge of the modifier system. In this paper, I argue against a unitary analysis of prenominal and postnominal participial reduced relatives.

  18. Unitary Application of the Quantum Error Correction Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Bo; Xu Ke; Wu Xiaohua

    2012-01-01

    For applying the perfect code to transmit quantum information over a noise channel, the standard protocol contains four steps: the encoding, the noise channel, the error-correction operation, and the decoding. In present work, we show that this protocol can be simplified. The error-correction operation is not necessary if the decoding is realized by the so-called complete unitary transformation. We also offer a quantum circuit, which can correct the arbitrary single-qubit errors.

  19. Unitary-matrix models as exactly solvable string theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periwal, Vipul; Shevitz, Danny

    1990-01-01

    Exact differential equations are presently found for the scaling functions of models of unitary matrices which are solved in a double-scaling limit, using orthogonal polynomials on a circle. For the case of the simplest, k = 1 model, the Painleve II equation with constant 0 is obtained; possible nonperturbative phase transitions exist for these models. Equations are presented for k = 2 and 3, and discussed with a view to asymptotic behavior.

  20. Complex projection of unitary dynamics of quaternionic pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asorey, M.; Scolarici, G.; Solombrino, L.

    2007-01-01

    Quaternionic quantum mechanics has been revealed to be a very useful framework to describe quantum phenomena. In the case of two qubit compound systems we show that the complex projection of quaternionic pure states and quaternionic unitary maps permits the description of interesting phenomena such as decoherence and optimal entanglement generation. The approach, however, presents severe limitations for the case of multipartite or higher dimensional bipartite quantum systems as we point out

  1. Information-disturbance tradeoff in estimating a unitary transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Chiribella, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of the information-disturbance tradeoff associated to the estimation of a quantum transformation and show how the extraction of information about a black box causes a perturbation of the corresponding input-output evolution. In the case of a black box performing a unitary transformation, randomly distributed according to the invariant measure, we give a complete solution of the problem, deriving the optimal tradeoff curve and presenting an explicit construction of the optimal quantum network.

  2. Primary fields in a unitary representation of Virasoro algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, R.; Yamanaka, I.

    1985-08-01

    A unitary representation of Virasoro algebras with the central charge c = 1 - 6/(N + 1)(N + 2) is constructed explicitly in terms of a colored (two color) coset space (the complex projective space CP sup(N-1)) quark model. By utilizing the explicit forms of the Virasoro generators Lsub(m), we derive a general method of constructing the primary fields (fields with well-defined conformal transformation properties) of the above Virasoro algebras. (author)

  3. Efficient learning algorithm for quantum perceptron unitary weights

    OpenAIRE

    Seow, Kok-Leong; Behrman, Elizabeth; Steck, James

    2015-01-01

    For the past two decades, researchers have attempted to create a Quantum Neural Network (QNN) by combining the merits of quantum computing and neural computing. In order to exploit the advantages of the two prolific fields, the QNN must meet the non-trivial task of integrating the unitary dynamics of quantum computing and the dissipative dynamics of neural computing. At the core of quantum computing and neural computing lies the qubit and perceptron, respectively. We see that past implementat...

  4. Symmetry and geometry of the N-body problem. Application to the nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, H.T.P.

    2002-10-01

    One of the main goals of classical and quantum physics is to solve the many-body problem. In nuclear theory, several methods have been developed and provide accurate results. In this thesis, we remind how symmetry can be used to obtain analytical solutions of the quantum many-body problem. We emphasize that unitary Lie algebras play a crucial role in quantum mechanics and propose and implement a method to build irreducible representations of this algebra from its highest-weight state. Calculations of bosonic and fermionic spectra are performed with realistic and with random interactions. Studies with rotational invariant two-body random interactions have unveiled high degree of order (a marked statistical preference is found for ground states with angular momentum equal to zero). In the second chapter of this thesis, it is argued that the spectral properties of this kind of interaction depend on the choice of the valence space. In particular, we propose a geometrical method to predict the properties of the ground state in certain cases. We also present numerical results when the geometrical approach can not be applied. In the third chapter, we study the link between quantum chaos and nuclear spectra calculated with realistic interactions. (author)

  5. Entanglement entropy of non-unitary integrable quantum field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bianchini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the simplest massive 1+1 dimensional integrable quantum field theory which can be described as a perturbation of a non-unitary minimal conformal field theory: the Lee–Yang model. We are particularly interested in the features of the bi-partite entanglement entropy for this model and on building blocks thereof, namely twist field form factors. Non-unitarity selects out a new type of twist field as the operator whose two-point function (appropriately normalized yields the entanglement entropy. We compute this two-point function both from a form factor expansion and by means of perturbed conformal field theory. We find good agreement with CFT predictions put forward in a recent work involving the present authors. In particular, our results are consistent with a scaling of the entanglement entropy given by ceff3log⁡ℓ where ceff is the effective central charge of the theory (a positive number related to the central charge and ℓ is the size of the region. Furthermore the form factor expansion of twist fields allows us to explore the large region limit of the entanglement entropy and find the next-to-leading order correction to saturation. We find that this correction is very different from its counterpart in unitary models. Whereas in the latter case, it had a form depending only on few parameters of the model (the particle spectrum, it appears to be much more model-dependent for non-unitary models.

  6. Higher dimensional unitary braid matrices: Construction, associated structures and entanglements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdesselam, B.; Chakrabarti, A.; Dobrev, V.K.; Mihov, S.G.

    2007-03-01

    We construct (2n) 2 x (2n) 2 unitary braid matrices R-circumflex for n ≥ 2 generalizing the class known for n = 1. A set of (2n) x (2n) matrices (I, J,K,L) are defined. R-circumflex is expressed in terms of their tensor products (such as K x J), leading to a canonical formulation for all n. Complex projectors P ± provide a basis for our real, unitary R-circumflex. Baxterization is obtained. Diagonalizations and block- diagonalizations are presented. The loss of braid property when R-circumflex (n > 1) is block-diagonalized in terms of R-circumflex (n = 1) is pointed out and explained. For odd dimension (2n + 1) 2 x (2n + 1) 2 , a previously constructed braid matrix is complexified to obtain unitarity. R-circumflexLL- and R-circumflexTT- algebras, chain Hamiltonians, potentials for factorizable S-matrices, complex non-commutative spaces are all studied briefly in the context of our unitary braid matrices. Turaev construction of link invariants is formulated for our case. We conclude with comments concerning entanglements. (author)

  7. Symmetry in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibert, M H

    1986-03-14

    Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.

  8. Symmetries of Chimera States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeth, Felix P.; Haugland, Sindre W.; Krischer, Katharina

    2018-05-01

    Symmetry broken states arise naturally in oscillatory networks. In this Letter, we investigate chaotic attractors in an ensemble of four mean-coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with two oscillators being synchronized. We report that these states with partially broken symmetry, so-called chimera states, have different setwise symmetries in the incoherent oscillators, and in particular, some are and some are not invariant under a permutation symmetry on average. This allows for a classification of different chimera states in small networks. We conclude our report with a discussion of related states in spatially extended systems, which seem to inherit the symmetry properties of their counterparts in small networks.

  9. Parastatistics and gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorkov, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    A possible formulation of gauge symmetries in the Green parafield theory is analysed and the SO(3) gauge symmetry is shown to be on a distinct status. The Greenberg paraquark hypothesis turns out to be not equivalent to the hypothesis of quark colour SU(3)sub(c) symmetry. Specific features of the gauge SO(3) symmetry are discussed, and a possible scheme where it is an exact subgroup of the broken SU(3)sub(c) symmetry is proposed. The direct formulation of the gauge principle for the parafield represented by quaternions is also discussed

  10. Generalized global symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q=0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a subgroup). They can also have ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. Our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.

  11. Quantum group and quantum symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Zhe.

    1994-05-01

    This is a self-contained review on the theory of quantum group and its applications to modern physics. A brief introduction is given to the Yang-Baxter equation in integrable quantum field theory and lattice statistical physics. The quantum group is primarily introduced as a systematic method for solving the Yang-Baxter equation. Quantum group theory is presented within the framework of quantum double through quantizing Lie bi-algebra. Both the highest weight and the cyclic representations are investigated for the quantum group and emphasis is laid on the new features of representations for q being a root of unity. Quantum symmetries are explored in selected topics of modern physics. For a Hamiltonian system the quantum symmetry is an enlarged symmetry that maintains invariance of equations of motion and allows a deformation of the Hamiltonian and symplectic form. The configuration space of the integrable lattice model is analyzed in terms of the representation theory of quantum group. By means of constructing the Young operators of quantum group, the Schroedinger equation of the model is transformed to be a set of coupled linear equations that can be solved by the standard method. Quantum symmetry of the minimal model and the WZNW model in conformal field theory is a hidden symmetry expressed in terms of screened vertex operators, and has a deep interplay with the Virasoro algebra. In quantum group approach a complete description for vibrating and rotating diatomic molecules is given. The exact selection rules and wave functions are obtained. The Taylor expansion of the analytic formulas of the approach reproduces the famous Dunham expansion. (author). 133 refs, 20 figs

  12. Symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation

  13. Symmetries in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainzer, K.

    1988-01-01

    Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs

  14. Symmetries in nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainzer, K

    1988-05-01

    Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs.

  15. Symmetries in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, A.

    2003-01-01

    (1) There are symmetries in nature, and the concept of symmetry has been used in art and architecture. The symmetry is evaluated high in the European culture. In China, the symmetry is broken in the paintings but it is valued in the architecture. In Japan, however, the symmetry has been broken everywhere. The serious and interesting question is why these differences happens? (2) In this lecture, I reviewed from the very beginning the importance of the rotational symmetry in quantum mechanics. I am sorry to be too fundamental for specialists of nuclear physics. But for people who do not use these theories, I think that you could understand the mathematical aspects of quantum mechanics and the relation between the angular momentum and the rotational symmetry. (3) To the specialists of nuclear physics, I talked about my idea as follows: dynamical treatment of collective motions in nuclei by IBM, especially the meaning of the degeneracy observed in the rotation bands top of γ vibration and β vibration, and the origin of pseudo-spin symmetry. Namely, if there is a symmetry, a degeneracy occurs. Conversely, if there is a degeneracy, there must be a symmetry. I discussed some details of the observed evidence and this correspondence is my strong belief in physics. (author)

  16. Crossing symmetry in Alpha space

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    The conformal bootstrap program aims to catalog all conformal field theories (second-order phase transitions) in D dimensions. Despite its ambitious scope much progress has been made over the past decade, e.g. in computing critical exponents for the 3D O(N) models to high precision. At this stage, analytic methods to explore the CFT landscape are not as well developed. In this talk I will describe a new mathematical framework for the bootstrap known as "alpha space", which reduces crossing symmetry to a set of integral equations. Based on arXiv:1702.08471 (with Balt van Rees) and arXiv:1703.08159.

  17. PRINCIPLES OF HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGY AS A BASIC PRECONDITION FOR SOLUTION OF TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE OF UNITARY SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURAL, FOREST AND WATER MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K KUDRNA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the presented work, the laws of hydrogeomorfhology have been defi ned on the principle of symmetry and invariance, which are to be respected at solution of territorial structure of Unitary System of Agricultural, Forest and Water Management (USAFWM. The principle of the solution is a dominant position of the geomorphologic formation Gh of a given sea-level altitude in the analyzed part of territory, which determines control and regulation of all components of water balance. The newly formed territory unit, delimited around the geomorphologic formation by water streams, was called a hydrogeomorphologic region of the third order (HGR-3.

  18. From physical symmetries to emergent gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Di Filippo, Francesco; Garay, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Gauge symmetries indicate redundancies in the description of the relevant degrees of freedom of a given field theory and restrict the nature of observable quantities. One of the problems faced by emergent theories of relativistic fields is to understand how gauge symmetries can show up in systems that contain no trace of these symmetries at a more fundamental level. In this paper we start a systematic study aimed to establish a satisfactory mathematical and physical picture of this issue, dealing first with abelian field theories. We discuss how the trivialization, due to the decoupling and lack of excitation of some degrees of freedom, of the Noether currents associated with physical symmetries leads to emergent gauge symmetries in specific situations. An example of a relativistic field theory of a vector field is worked out in detail in order to make explicit how this mechanism works and to clarify the physics behind it. The interplay of these ideas with well-known results of importance to the emergent gravity program, such as the Weinberg-Witten theorem, are discussed.

  19. The Symmetry of Multiferroics

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, A. Brooks

    2006-01-01

    This paper represents a detailed instruction manual for constructing the Landau expansion for magnetoelectric coupling in incommensurate ferroelectric magnets. The first step is to describe the magnetic ordering in terms of symmetry adapted coordinates which serve as complex valued magnetic order parameters whose transformation properties are displayed. In so doing we use the previously proposed technique to exploit inversion symmetry, since this symmetry had been universally overlooked. Havi...

  20. Approximate and renormgroup symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimov, Nail H. [Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics Science; Kovalev, Vladimir F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mathematical Modeling

    2009-07-01

    ''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)

  1. Approximate and renormgroup symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimov, Nail H.; Kovalev, Vladimir F.

    2009-01-01

    ''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)

  2. Multiscale differential phase contrast analysis with a unitary detector

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Kosel, Jü rgen; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to generate differential phase contrast (DPC) images for the visualization and quantification of local magnetic fields in a wide range of modern nano materials is reported. In contrast to conventional DPC methods our technique utilizes the idea of a unitary detector under bright field conditions, making it immediately usable by a majority of modern transmission electron microscopes. The approach is put on test to characterize the local magnetization of cylindrical nanowires and their 3D ordered arrays, revealing high sensitivity of our method in a combination with nanometer-scale spatial resolution.

  3. Configurable unitary transformations and linear logic gates using quantum memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, G T; Pinel, O; Hosseini, M; Ralph, T C; Buchler, B C; Lam, P K

    2014-08-08

    We show that a set of optical memories can act as a configurable linear optical network operating on frequency-multiplexed optical states. Our protocol is applicable to any quantum memories that employ off-resonant Raman transitions to store optical information in atomic spins. In addition to the configurability, the protocol also offers favorable scaling with an increasing number of modes where N memories can be configured to implement arbitrary N-mode unitary operations during storage and readout. We demonstrate the versatility of this protocol by showing an example where cascaded memories are used to implement a conditional cz gate.

  4. Introduction to orthogonal, symplectic and unitary representations of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Riehm, Carl R

    2011-01-01

    Orthogonal, symplectic and unitary representations of finite groups lie at the crossroads of two more traditional subjects of mathematics-linear representations of finite groups, and the theory of quadratic, skew symmetric and Hermitian forms-and thus inherit some of the characteristics of both. This book is written as an introduction to the subject and not as an encyclopaedic reference text. The principal goal is an exposition of the known results on the equivalence theory, and related matters such as the Witt and Witt-Grothendieck groups, over the "classical" fields-algebraically closed, rea

  5. Deformations of polyhedra and polygons by the unitary group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livine, Etera R. [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, CNRS-UMR 5672, 46 Allée d' Italie, Lyon 69007, France and Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline St N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    We introduce the set of framed (convex) polyhedra with N faces as the symplectic quotient C{sup 2N}//SU(2). A framed polyhedron is then parametrized by N spinors living in C{sup 2} satisfying suitable closure constraints and defines a usual convex polyhedron plus extra U(1) phases attached to each face. We show that there is a natural action of the unitary group U(N) on this phase space, which changes the shape of faces and allows to map any (framed) polyhedron onto any other with the same total (boundary) area. This identifies the space of framed polyhedra to the Grassmannian space U(N)/ (SU(2)×U(N−2)). We show how to write averages of geometrical observables (polynomials in the faces' area and the angles between them) over the ensemble of polyhedra (distributed uniformly with respect to the Haar measure on U(N)) as polynomial integrals over the unitary group and we provide a few methods to compute these integrals systematically. We also use the Itzykson-Zuber formula from matrix models as the generating function for these averages and correlations. In the quantum case, a canonical quantization of the framed polyhedron phase space leads to the Hilbert space of SU(2) intertwiners (or, in other words, SU(2)-invariant states in tensor products of irreducible representations). The total boundary area as well as the individual face areas are quantized as half-integers (spins), and the Hilbert spaces for fixed total area form irreducible representations of U(N). We define semi-classical coherent intertwiner states peaked on classical framed polyhedra and transforming consistently under U(N) transformations. And we show how the U(N) character formula for unitary transformations is to be considered as an extension of the Itzykson-Zuber to the quantum level and generates the traces of all polynomial observables over the Hilbert space of intertwiners. We finally apply the same formalism to two dimensions and show that classical (convex) polygons can be described in

  6. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

  7. A model of diffraction scattering with unitary corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etim, E.; Malecki, A.; Satta, L.

    1989-01-01

    The inability of the multiple scattering model of Glauber and similar geometrical picture models to fit data at Collider energies, to fit low energy data at large momentum transfers and to explain the absence of multiple diffraction dips in the data is noted. It is argued and shown that a unitary correction to the multiple scattering amplitude gives rise to a better model and allows to fit all available data on nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions at all energies and all momentum transfers. There are no multiple diffraction dips

  8. Non-unitary neutrino propagation from neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jeffreyberryman2012@u.northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gouvêa, André de; Hernández, Daniel [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Oliveira, Roberto L.N. [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP 13083-970, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-06

    Neutrino propagation in space-time is not constrained to be unitary if very light states – lighter than the active neutrinos – exist into which neutrinos may decay. If this is the case, neutrino flavor-change is governed by a handful of extra mixing and “oscillation” parameters, including new sources of CP-invariance violation. We compute the transition probabilities in the two- and three-flavor scenarios and discuss the different phenomenological consequences of the new physics. These are qualitatively different from other sources of unitarity violation discussed in the literature.

  9. Non-unitary neutrino propagation from neutrino decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M.; Gouvêa, André de; Hernández, Daniel; Oliveira, Roberto L.N.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino propagation in space-time is not constrained to be unitary if very light states – lighter than the active neutrinos – exist into which neutrinos may decay. If this is the case, neutrino flavor-change is governed by a handful of extra mixing and “oscillation” parameters, including new sources of CP-invariance violation. We compute the transition probabilities in the two- and three-flavor scenarios and discuss the different phenomenological consequences of the new physics. These are qualitatively different from other sources of unitarity violation discussed in the literature

  10. Experiments with Highly-Ionized Atoms in Unitary Penning Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Fogwell Hoogerheide

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly-ionized atoms with special properties have been proposed for interesting applications, including potential candidates for a new generation of optical atomic clocks at the one part in 1019 level of precision, quantum information processing and tests of fundamental theory. The proposed atomic systems are largely unexplored. Recent developments at NIST are described, including the isolation of highly-ionized atoms at low energy in unitary Penning traps and the use of these traps for the precise measurement of radiative decay lifetimes (demonstrated with a forbidden transition in Kr17+, as well as for studying electron capture processes.

  11. A Unitary-Transformative Nursing Science: From Angst to Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, W Richard

    2017-10-01

    The discord within nursing regarding the definition of nursing science has created great angst, particularly for those who view nursing science as a body of knowledge derived from theories specific to its unique concerns. The purpose of this brief article is to suggest a perspective and process grounded in appreciation of wholeness that may offer a way forward for proponents of a unitary-transformative nursing science that transcends the discord. This way forward is guided by principles of fostering dissent without contempt, generating a well-imagined future, and garnering appreciatively inspired action for change.

  12. Multiscale differential phase contrast analysis with a unitary detector

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2015-12-30

    A new approach to generate differential phase contrast (DPC) images for the visualization and quantification of local magnetic fields in a wide range of modern nano materials is reported. In contrast to conventional DPC methods our technique utilizes the idea of a unitary detector under bright field conditions, making it immediately usable by a majority of modern transmission electron microscopes. The approach is put on test to characterize the local magnetization of cylindrical nanowires and their 3D ordered arrays, revealing high sensitivity of our method in a combination with nanometer-scale spatial resolution.

  13. Global unitary fixing and matrix-valued correlations in matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Stephen L.; Horwitz, Lawrence P.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the partition function for a matrix model with a global unitary invariant energy function. We show that the averages over the partition function of global unitary invariant trace polynomials of the matrix variables are the same when calculated with any choice of a global unitary fixing, while averages of such polynomials without a trace define matrix-valued correlation functions, that depend on the choice of unitary fixing. The unitary fixing is formulated within the standard Faddeev-Popov framework, in which the squared Vandermonde determinant emerges as a factor of the complete Faddeev-Popov determinant. We give the ghost representation for the FP determinant, and the corresponding BRST invariance of the unitary-fixed partition function. The formalism is relevant for deriving Ward identities obeyed by matrix-valued correlation functions

  14. Tunable arbitrary unitary transformer based on multiple sections of multicore fibers with phase control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junhe; Wu, Jianjie; Hu, Qinsong

    2018-02-05

    In this paper, we propose a novel tunable unitary transformer, which can achieve arbitrary discrete unitary transforms. The unitary transformer is composed of multiple sections of multi-core fibers with closely aligned coupled cores. Phase shifters are inserted before and after the sections to control the phases of the waves in the cores. A simple algorithm is proposed to find the optimal phase setup for the phase shifters to realize the desired unitary transforms. The proposed device is fiber based and is particularly suitable for the mode division multiplexing systems. A tunable mode MUX/DEMUX for a three-mode fiber is designed based on the proposed structure.

  15. On the equivalence of massive qed with renormalizable and in unitary gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.

    1978-03-01

    In the framework of BPHZ renormalization procedure, we discuss the equivalence between 4-dimensional renormalizable massive quantum electrodynamics (Stueckelberg lagrangian), and massive QED in the unitary gauge

  16. The universal sound velocity formula for the strongly interacting unitary Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ke; Chen Ji-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Due to the scale invariance, the thermodynamic laws of strongly interacting limit unitary Fermi gas can be similar to those of non-interacting ideal gas. For example, the virial theorem between pressure and energy density of the ideal gas P = 2E/3V is still satisfied by the unitary Fermi gas. This paper analyses the sound velocity of unitary Fermi gases with the quasi-linear approximation. For comparison, the sound velocities for the ideal Boltzmann, Bose and Fermi gas are also given. Quite interestingly, the sound velocity formula for the ideal non-interacting gas is found to be satisfied by the unitary Fermi gas in different temperature regions. (general)

  17. Summary: Symmetries and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    I discuss a number of the themes of the Symmetries and Spin session of the 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics: parity nonconservation, CP/T nonconservation, and tests of charge symmetry and charge independence. 28 refs., 1 fig

  18. Symmetry Festival 2016

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Symmetry Festival is a science and art program series, the most important periodic event (see its history) to bring together scientists, artists, educators and practitioners interested in symmetry (its roots, what is behind, applications, etc.), or in the consequences of its absence.

  19. Quantum symmetry for pedestrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Schomerus, V.

    1992-03-01

    Symmetries more general than groups are possible in quantum therory. Quantum symmetries in the narrow sense are compatible with braid statistics. They are theoretically consistent much as supersymmetry is, and they could lead to degenerate multiplets of excitations with fractional spin in thin films. (orig.)

  20. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr. ... principle of symmetry was not held as something very fundamental ... principle of local symmetry: the laws of physics are invariant un- .... Next, we would show that different coefficients of a state ...

  1. Charged fluids with symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is possible to introduce many types of symmetries on the manifold which restrict the ... metric tensor field and generate constants of the motion along null geodesics .... In this analysis we have studied the role of symmetries for charged perfect ...

  2. Symmetry and Interculturality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    Symmetry is one of the fundamental concepts in Geometry. It is a Mathematical concept, which can be very well connected with Art and Ethnography. The aim of the article is to show how to link the geometrical concept symmetry with interculturality. For this mosaics from different countries are used.

  3. First unitary, then divided: the temporal dynamics of dividing attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Witt, Joseph B

    2018-04-24

    Whether focused visual attention can be divided has been the topic of much investigation, and there is a compelling body of evidence showing that, at least under certain conditions, attention can be divided and deployed as two independent foci. Three experiments were conducted to examine whether attention can be deployed in divided form from the outset, or whether it is first deployed as a unitary focus before being divided. To test this, we adapted the methodology of Jefferies, Enns, and Di Lollo (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 40: 465, 2014), who used a dual-stream Attentional Blink paradigm and two letter-pair targets. One aspect of the AB, Lag-1 sparing, has been shown to occur only if the second target pair appears within the focus of attention. By presenting the second target pair at various spatial locations and assessing the magnitude of Lag-1 sparing, we probed the spatial distribution of attention. By systematically manipulating the stimulus-onset-asynchrony between the targets, we also tracked changes to the spatial distribution of attention over time. The results showed that even under conditions which encourage the division of attention, the attentional focus is first deployed in unitary form before being divided. It is then maintained in divided form only briefly before settling on a single location.

  4. Nonunitary Lagrangians and Unitary Non-Lagrangian Conformal Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buican, Matthew; Laczko, Zoltan

    2018-02-01

    In various dimensions, we can sometimes compute observables of interacting conformal field theories (CFTs) that are connected to free theories via the renormalization group (RG) flow by computing protected quantities in the free theories. On the other hand, in two dimensions, it is often possible to algebraically construct observables of interacting CFTs using free fields without the need to explicitly construct an underlying RG flow. In this Letter, we begin to extend this idea to higher dimensions by showing that one can compute certain observables of an infinite set of unitary strongly interacting four-dimensional N =2 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) by performing simple calculations involving sets of nonunitary free four-dimensional hypermultiplets. These free fields are distant cousins of the Majorana fermion underlying the two-dimensional Ising model and are not obviously connected to our interacting theories via an RG flow. Rather surprisingly, this construction gives us Lagrangians for particular observables in certain subsectors of many "non-Lagrangian" SCFTs by sacrificing unitarity while preserving the full N =2 superconformal algebra. As a by-product, we find relations between characters in unitary and nonunitary affine Kac-Moody algebras. We conclude by commenting on possible generalizations of our construction.

  5. Nonunitary Lagrangians and Unitary Non-Lagrangian Conformal Field Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buican, Matthew; Laczko, Zoltan

    2018-02-23

    In various dimensions, we can sometimes compute observables of interacting conformal field theories (CFTs) that are connected to free theories via the renormalization group (RG) flow by computing protected quantities in the free theories. On the other hand, in two dimensions, it is often possible to algebraically construct observables of interacting CFTs using free fields without the need to explicitly construct an underlying RG flow. In this Letter, we begin to extend this idea to higher dimensions by showing that one can compute certain observables of an infinite set of unitary strongly interacting four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) by performing simple calculations involving sets of nonunitary free four-dimensional hypermultiplets. These free fields are distant cousins of the Majorana fermion underlying the two-dimensional Ising model and are not obviously connected to our interacting theories via an RG flow. Rather surprisingly, this construction gives us Lagrangians for particular observables in certain subsectors of many "non-Lagrangian" SCFTs by sacrificing unitarity while preserving the full N=2 superconformal algebra. As a by-product, we find relations between characters in unitary and nonunitary affine Kac-Moody algebras. We conclude by commenting on possible generalizations of our construction.

  6. Tensegrity structures form, stability, and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jing Yao

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate a deeper understanding of tensegrity structures, this book focuses on their two key design problems: self-equilibrium analysis and stability investigation. In particular, high symmetry properties of the structures are extensively utilized. Conditions for self-equilibrium as well as super-stability of tensegrity structures are presented in detail. An analytical method and an efficient numerical method are given for self-equilibrium analysis of tensegrity structures: the analytical method deals with symmetric structures and the numerical method guarantees super-stability. Utilizing group representation theory, the text further provides analytical super-stability conditions for the structures that are of dihedral as well as tetrahedral symmetry. This book not only serves as a reference for engineers and scientists but is also a useful source for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. Keeping this objective in mind, the presentation of the book is self-contained and detailed, with an abund...

  7. Symmetry and symmetry breaking in modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, M; Theophilou, A K

    2008-01-01

    In modern physics, the theory of symmetry, i.e. group theory, is a basic tool for understanding and formulating the fundamental principles of Physics, like Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and Particle Physics. In this work we focus on the relation between Mathematics, Physics and objective reality

  8. Hidden symmetry of the beam spread function resulting from the reciprocity theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolin, Lev S.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that the optical reciprocity theorem imposes certain constraints on the radiation field structure of a unidirectional point source (beam spread function (BSF)) in a turbid medium with spatially uniform optical properties. To satisfy the reciprocal relation, the BSF should have an additional symmetry property along with axial symmetry. This paper mathematically formulates the BSF symmetry condition that follows from the reciprocity theorem and discusses test results of some approximate analytical BSF models for their compliance with the symmetry requirement. A universal method for eliminating symmetry errors of approximate BSF models is proposed. - Highlights: • Symmetry properties of beam spread function (BSF) are considered. • In uniform turbid medium BSF has hidden symmetry property besides axial symmetry. • The examples of BSF models with and without the required symmetry are given. • A universal method for BSF symmetry error elimination is proposed.

  9. Symmetries of the second-difference matrix and the finite Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, A.; Wolf, K.B.

    1979-01-01

    The finite Fourier transformation is well known to diagonalize the second-difference matrix and has been thus applied extensively to describe finite crystal lattices and electric networks. In setting out to find all transformations having this property, we obtain a multiparameter class of them. While permutations and unitary scaling of the eigenvectors constitute the trivial freedom of choice common to all diagonalization processes, the second-difference matrix has a larger symmetry group among whose elements we find the dihedral manifest symmetry transformations of the lattice. The latter are nevertheless sufficient for the unique specification of eigenvectors in various symmetry-adapted bases for the constrained lattice. The free symmetry parameters are shown to lead to a complete set of conserved quantities for the physical lattice motion. (author)

  10. Compactifications of the Heterotic string with unitary bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, T.

    2006-05-23

    In this thesis we investigate a large new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric string vacua defined as compactifications of the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} and the SO(32) heterotic string on smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds with unitary gauge bundles and heterotic five-branes. The first part of the thesis discusses the implementation of this idea into the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} heterotic string. After specifying a large class of group theoretic embeddings featuring unitary bundles, we analyse the effective four-dimensional N=1 supergravity upon compactification. From the gauge invariant Kaehler potential for the moduli fields we derive a modification of the Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms arising at one-loop in string perturbation theory. From this we conjecture a one-loop deformation of the Hermitian Yang-Mills equation and introduce the idea of {lambda}-stability as the perturbatively correct stability concept generalising the notion of Mumford stability valid at tree-level. We then proceed to a definition of SO(32) heterotic vacua with unitary gauge bundles in the presence of heterotic five-branes and find agreement of the resulting spectrum with the S-dual framework of Type I/Type IIB orientifolds. A similar analysis of the effective four-dimensional supergravity is performed. Further evidence for the proposed one-loop correction to the stability condition is found by identifying the heterotic corrections as the S-dual of the perturbative part of {pi}-stability as the correct stability concept in Type IIB theory. After reviewing the construction of holomorphic stable vector bundles on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds via spectral covers, we provide semi-realistic examples for SO(32) heterotic vacua with Pati-Salam and MSSM-like gauge sectors. We finally discuss the construction of realistic vacua with flipped SU(5) GUT and MSSM gauge group within the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} framework, based on the embedding of line bundles into both E{sub 8} factors. Some of the appealing

  11. Hidden gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, L.

    1979-01-01

    This review describes the principles of hidden gauge symmetry and of its application to the fundamental interactions. The emphasis is on the structure of the theory rather than on the technical details and, in order to emphasise the structure, gauge symmetry and hidden symmetry are first treated as independent phenomena before being combined into a single (hidden gauge symmetric) theory. The main application of the theory is to the weak and electromagnetic interactions of the elementary particles, and although models are used for comparison with experiment and for illustration, emphasis is placed on those features of the application which are model-independent. (author)

  12. Physics from symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schwichtenberg, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry.   It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations.

  13. The Schur algorithm for generalized Schur functions III : J-unitary matrix polynomials on the circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, Daniel; Azizov, Tomas; Dijksma, Aad; Langer, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    The main result is that for J = ((1)(0) (0)(-1)) every J-unitary 2 x 2-matrix polynomial on the unit circle is an essentially unique product of elementary J-unitary 2 x 2-matrix polynomials which are either of degree 1 or 2k. This is shown by means of the generalized Schur transformation introduced

  14. The SNARC effect is not a unitary phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso Moro, Sara; Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Cutini, Simone

    2018-04-01

    Models of the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect-faster responses to small numbers using left effectors, and the converse for large numbers-diverge substantially in localizing the root cause of this effect along the numbers' processing chain. One class of models ascribes the cause of the SNARC effect to the inherently spatial nature of the semantic representation of numerical magnitude. A different class of models ascribes the effect's cause to the processing dynamics taking place during response selection. To disentangle these opposing views, we devised a paradigm combining magnitude comparison and stimulus-response switching in order to monitor modulations of the SNARC effect while concurrently tapping both semantic and response-related processing stages. We observed that the SNARC effect varied nonlinearly as a function of both manipulated factors, a result that can hardly be reconciled with a unitary cause of the SNARC effect.

  15. Construction of unitary matrices from observable transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, A.

    1989-01-01

    An ideal measuring apparatus defines an orthonormal basis vertical strokeu m ) in Hilbert space. Another apparatus defines another basis vertical strokeυ μ ). Both apparatuses together allow to measure the transition probabilities P mμ =vertical stroke(u m vertical strokeυ μ )vertical stroke 2 . The problem is: Given all the elements of a doubly stochastic matrix P mμ , find a unitary matrix U mμ such that P mμ =vertical strokeU mμ vertical stroke 2 . The number of unknown nontrivial phases is equal to the number of independent equations to satisfy. The problem can therefore be solved provided that the values of the P mμ satisfy some inequalities. (orig.)

  16. The Science of Unitary Human Beings in a Creative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caratao-Mojica, Rhea

    2015-10-01

    In moving into a new kind of world, nurses are encouraged to look ahead and be innovative by transcending to new ways of using nursing knowledge while embracing a new worldview. "We need to recognize that we're going to have to use our imagination more and more" (Rogers, 1994). On that note, the author in this paper explicates Rogers' science of unitary human beings in a creative way relating it to painting. In addition, the author also explores works derived from Rogers' science such as Butcher's (1993) and Cowling's (1997), which are here discussed in light of an artwork. A painting is presented with the unpredictability, creativity, and the "dance of color and light" (Butcher, 1993) is appreciated through comprehending essence, pandimensionality, and wholeness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Qubit transport model for unitary black hole evaporation without firewalls*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Kento; Page, Don N.

    2018-03-01

    We give an explicit toy qubit transport model for transferring information from the gravitational field of a black hole to the Hawking radiation by a continuous unitary transformation of the outgoing radiation and the black hole gravitational field. The model has no firewalls or other drama at the event horizon, and it avoids a counterargument that has been raised for subsystem transfer models as resolutions of the firewall paradox. Furthermore, it fits the set of six physical constraints that Giddings has proposed for models of black hole evaporation. It does utilize nonlocal qubits for the gravitational field but assumes that the radiation interacts locally with these nonlocal qubits, so in some sense the nonlocality is confined to the gravitational sector. Although the qubit model is too crude to be quantitatively correct for the detailed spectrum of Hawking radiation, it fits qualitatively with what is expected.

  18. Mesoscopic Fluctuations for the Thinned Circular Unitary Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Tomas; Duits, Maurice

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we study the asymptotic behavior of mesoscopic fluctuations for the thinned Circular Unitary Ensemble. The effect of thinning is that the eigenvalues start to decorrelate. The decorrelation is stronger on the larger scales than on the smaller scales. We investigate this behavior by studying mesoscopic linear statistics. There are two regimes depending on the scale parameter and the thinning parameter. In one regime we obtain a CLT of a classical type and in the other regime we retrieve the CLT for CUE. The two regimes are separated by a critical line. On the critical line the limiting fluctuations are no longer Gaussian, but described by infinitely divisible laws. We argue that this transition phenomenon is universal by showing that the same transition and their laws appear for fluctuations of the thinned sine process in a growing box. The proofs are based on a Riemann-Hilbert problem for integrable operators.

  19. Unitary pole approximations and expansions in few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casel, A.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.

    1982-01-01

    The unitary pole approximations or expansions of the two-body subsystem operators are well known, and particularly efficient and practical, methods to reduce the three-body problem to an effective two-body theory. In the present investigation we develop generalizations of these approximation techniques to the subsystem amplitudes of problems with higher particle numbers. They are based on the expansion of effective potentials which, in contrast to the genuine two-body interactions, are now energy dependent. Despite this feature our generalizations require only energy independent form factors, thus preserving one of the essential advantages of the genuine two-body approach. The application of these techniques to the four-body case is discussed in detail

  20. Nonclassicality by Local Gaussian Unitary Operations for Gaussian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A measure of nonclassicality N in terms of local Gaussian unitary operations for bipartite Gaussian states is introduced. N is a faithful quantum correlation measure for Gaussian states as product states have no such correlation and every non product Gaussian state contains it. For any bipartite Gaussian state ρ A B , we always have 0 ≤ N ( ρ A B < 1 , where the upper bound 1 is sharp. An explicit formula of N for ( 1 + 1 -mode Gaussian states and an estimate of N for ( n + m -mode Gaussian states are presented. A criterion of entanglement is established in terms of this correlation. The quantum correlation N is also compared with entanglement, Gaussian discord and Gaussian geometric discord.

  1. Territory in the Constitutional Standards of Unitary States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Markhgeym

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the analysis of the constitutions of seven European countries (Albania, Hungary, Greece, Spain, Malta, Poland, Sweden. The research allows to reveal general and specific approaches to consolidation of norms on territories in a state and give the characteristic of the corresponding constitutional norms. Given the authors ' comprehensive approach to the definition of the territory of the state declared constitutional norms were assessed from the perspective of the fundamental principles and constituent elements of the territory. Considering the specifics of the constitutional types of state territories authors suggest typical and variative models and determine the constitutions of unitary states, distinguished by their originality in the declared group of legal relations. The original constitutional language areas associated with the introduction at the state level, these types of areas that are not typical for other countries.

  2. Isometric and unitary phase operators: explaining the Villain transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmen, J L van; Wreszinski, Walter F

    2007-01-01

    The Villain transform plays a key role in spin-wave theory, a bosonization of elementary excitations in a system of extensively many Heisenberg spins. Intuitively, it is a representation of the spin operators in terms of an angle and its canonically conjugate angular momentum operator and, as such, has a few nasty boundary-condition twists. We construct an isometric phase representation of spin operators that conveys a precise mathematical meaning to the Villain transform and is related to both classical mechanics and the Pegg-Barnett-Bialynicki-Birula boson (photon) phase operators by means of suitable limits. In contrast to the photon case, unitary extensions are inadequate because they describe the wrong physics. We also discuss in some detail the application to spin-wave theory, pointing out some examples in which the isometric representation is indispensable

  3. Linear or linearizable first-order delay ordinary differential equations and their Lie point symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorodnitsyn, Vladimir A.; Kozlov, Roman; Meleshko, Sergey V.; Winternitz, Pavel

    2018-05-01

    A recent article was devoted to an analysis of the symmetry properties of a class of first-order delay ordinary differential systems (DODSs). Here we concentrate on linear DODSs, which have infinite-dimensional Lie point symmetry groups due to the linear superposition principle. Their symmetry algebra always contains a two-dimensional subalgebra realized by linearly connected vector fields. We identify all classes of linear first-order DODSs that have additional symmetries, not due to linearity alone, and we present representatives of each class. These additional symmetries are then used to construct exact analytical particular solutions using symmetry reduction.

  4. Generalized symmetry algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragon, N.

    1979-01-01

    The possible use of trilinear algebras as symmetry algebras for para-Fermi fields is investigated. The shortcomings of the examples are argued to be a general feature of such generalized algebras. (author)

  5. Gauge symmetry from decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.

  6. Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.

    2011-01-01

    of the CT-scans into a single atlas. Afterwards the standard deviation of anatomical symmetry for the 20 normal patients was evaluated using non-rigid registration and registered onto the atlas to create an atlas for normal anatomical symmetry deviation. The same non-rigid registration was used on the 10...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated....... The standard deviation of the anatomical symmetry, seen in figure for one patient along CT and PET, was extracted for normal patients and compared with the deviation from cancer patients giving a new way of determining cancer pathology location. Using the novel method an overlap concordance index...

  7. Statistical symmetries in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA

    1994-01-01

    Every law of physics is invariant under some group of transformations and is therefore the expression of some type of symmetry. Symmetries are classified as geometrical, dynamical or statistical. At the most fundamental level, statistical symmetries are expressed in the field theories of the elementary particles. This paper traces some of the developments from the discovery of Bose statistics, one of the two fundamental symmetries of physics. A series of generalizations of Bose statistics is described. A supersymmetric generalization accommodates fermions as well as bosons, and further generalizations, including parastatistics, modular statistics and graded statistics, accommodate particles with properties such as 'colour'. A factorization of elements of ggl(n b ,n f ) can be used to define truncated boson operators. A general construction is given for q-deformed boson operators, and explicit constructions of the same type are given for various 'deformed' algebras. A summary is given of some of the applications and potential applications. 39 refs., 2 figs

  8. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem: At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 900-916 ...

  9. Flavour from accidental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, Luca; King, Stephen F.; Romanino, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    We consider a new approach to fermion masses and mixings in which no special 'horizontal' dynamics is invoked to account for the hierarchical pattern of charged fermion masses and for the peculiar features of neutrino masses. The hierarchy follows from the vertical, family-independent structure of the model, in particular from the breaking pattern of the Pati-Salam group. The lightness of the first two fermion families can be related to two family symmetries emerging in this context as accidental symmetries

  10. Dynamical equations for a Regge theory with crossing symmetry and unitarity. II. The case of strong coupling, and elimination of ghost poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.W.; Warnock, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Equations for the construction of a crossing-symmetric unitary Regge theory of meson-meson scattering are described. In the case of strong coupling, Regge trajectories are to be generated dynamically as zeros of the D function in a nonlinear N/D system. This paper is concerned mainly with writing the inputs to the N/D system in such a way that a convergent theory with exact crossing symmetry is defined. The scheme demands elimination of ghosts, i.e., bound-state poles at energies below threshold where trajectories pass through zero. A method for ghost elimination is proposed which entails an s-wave subtraction constant, and allows the physical s wave to be different from the l-analytic amplitude evaluated at l = 0. A dynamical model is suggested in which the subtraction constant alone generates the meson-meson interaction. An alternative ghost-elimination scheme proposed by Gell-Mann, in which only l-analytic amplitudes are involved, can be discussed in a formalism including channels with spin

  11. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-06-10

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  12. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D 4 , the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D 14 . In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V ud - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  13. On representations of Higher Spin symmetry algebras for mixed-symmetry HS fields on AdS-spaces. Lagrangian formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdík, C; Reshetnyak, A

    2012-01-01

    We derive non-linear commutator HS symmetry algebra, which encode unitary irreducible representations of AdS group subject to Young tableaux Y(s 1 ,..., s k ) with κ ≥ 2 rows on d-dimensional anti-de-Sitter space. Auxiliary representations for specially deformed non-linear HS symmetry algebra in terms of generalized Verma module in order to additively convert a subsystem of second-class constraints in the HS symmetry algebra into one with first-class constraints are found explicitly for the case of HS fields for κ = 2 Young tableaux. The oscillator realization over Heisenberg algebra for obtained Verma module is constructed. The results generalize the method of auxiliary representations construction for symplectic sp(2κ) algebra used for mixed-symmetry HS fields on a flat spaces and can be extended on a case of arbitrary HS fields in AdS-space. Gauge-invariant unconstrained reducible Lagrangian formulation for free bosonic HS fields with generalized spin (s 1 , s 2 ) is derived.

  14. Bounds on the entanglement attainable from unitary transformed thermal states in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Terri M.; Brown, Kenneth R.; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2005-01-01

    The role of mixed-state entanglement in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum computation is not yet well understood. In particular, despite the success of quantum-information processing with NMR, recent work has shown that quantum states used in most of those experiments were not entangled. This is because these states, derived by unitary transforms from the thermal equilibrium state, were too close to the maximally mixed state. We are thus motivated to determine whether a given NMR state is entanglable - that is, does there exist a unitary transform that entangles the state? The boundary between entanglable and nonentanglable thermal states is a function of the spin system size N and its temperature T. We provide bounds on the location of this boundary using analytical and numerical methods; our tightest bound scales as N∼T, giving a lower bound requiring at least N∼22 000 proton spins to realize an entanglable thermal state at typical laboratory NMR magnetic fields. These bounds are tighter than known bounds on the entanglability of effective pure states

  15. Symmetry breaking in gauge glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    1988-09-01

    In order to explain why nature selects the gauge groups of the Standard Model, Brene and Nielsen have proposed a way to break gauge symmetry which does not rely on the existence of a Higgs field. The observed gauge groups will in this scheme appear as the only surviving ones when this mechanism is applied to a random selection of gauge groups. The essential assumption is a discrete space-time with random couplings. Some working assumptions were made for computational reasons of which the most important is that quantum fluctuations were neclected. This work presents an example which under the same conditions show that a much wider class of groups than predicted by Brene and Nielsen will be broken. In particular no possible Standard Model Group survives unbroken. Numerical calculations support the analytical result. (orig.)

  16. Factorization of J-unitary matrix polynomials on the line and a Schur algorithm for generalized Nevanlinna functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, D.; Dijksma, A.; Langer, H.

    2004-01-01

    We prove that a 2 × 2 matrix polynomial which is J-unitary on the real line can be written as a product of normalized elementary J-unitary factors and a J-unitary constant. In the second part we give an algorithm for this factorization using an analog of the Schur transformation.

  17. Symmetry Breaking in a random passive scalar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Zeliha; McLaughlin, Richard; Camassa, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    We consider the evolution of a decaying passive scalar in the presence of a gaussian white noise fluctuating shear flow. We focus on deterministic initial data and establish the short, intermediate, and long time symmetry properties of the evolving point wise probability measure for the random passive scalar. Analytical results are compared directly to Monte Carlo simulations. Time permitting we will compare the predictions to experimental observations.

  18. Relativistic U(3) symmetry and pseudo-U(3) symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginocchio, Joseph N.

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac Hamiltonian with relativistic scalar and vector harmonic oscillator potentials has been solved analytically in two limits. One is the spin limit for which spin is an invariant symmetry of the the Dirac Hamiltonian and the other is the pseudo-spin limit for which pseudo-spin is an invariant symmetry of the Dirac Hamiltonian. The spin limit occurs when the scalar potential is equal to the vector potential plus a constant, and the pseudospin limit occurs when the scalar potential is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign to the vector potential plus a constant. Like the non-relativistic harmonic oscillator, each of these limits has a higher symmetry. For example, for the spherically symmetric oscillator, these limits have a U(3) and pseudo-U(3) symmetry respectively. We shall discuss the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of these two limits and derive the relativistic generators for the U(3) and pseudo-U(3) symmetry. We also argue, that, if an anti-nucleon can be bound in a nucleus, the spectrum will have approximate spin and U(3) symmetry.

  19. Quantum Space-Time Deformed Symmetries Versus Broken Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, G

    2002-01-01

    Several recent studies have concerned the faith of classical symmetries in quantum space-time. In particular, it appears likely that quantum (discretized, noncommutative,...) versions of Minkowski space-time would not enjoy the classical Lorentz symmetries. I compare two interesting cases: the case in which the classical symmetries are "broken", i.e. at the quantum level some classical symmetries are lost, and the case in which the classical symmetries are "deformed", i.e. the quantum space-time has as many symmetries as its classical counterpart but the nature of these symmetries is affected by the space-time quantization procedure. While some general features, such as the emergence of deformed dispersion relations, characterize both the symmetry-breaking case and the symmetry-deformation case, the two scenarios are also characterized by sharp differences, even concerning the nature of the new effects predicted. I illustrate this point within an illustrative calculation concerning the role of space-time symm...

  20. Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 2. Symmetry of larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V

    2001-02-01

    Larvae of priapulids are characterized by radial symmetry evident from both external and internal characters of the introvert and lorica. The bilaterality appears as a result of a combination of several radial symmetries: pentaradial symmetry of the teeth, octaradial symmetry of the primary scalids, 25-radial symmetry of scalids, biradial symmetry of the neck, and biradial and decaradial symmetry of the trunk. Internal radiality is exhibited by musculature and the circumpharyngeal nerve ring. Internal bilaterality is evident from the position of the ventral nerve cord and excretory elements. Externally, the bilaterality is determined by the position of the anal tubulus and two shortened midventral rows of scalids bordering the ventral nerve cord. The lorical elements define the biradial symmetry that is missing in adult priapulids. The radial symmetry of larvae is a secondary appearance considered an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of the benthic sediment. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Rigidity and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme.  Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology.  The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...

  2. Physics from symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schwichtenberg, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations. Thanks to the input of readers from around the world, this second edition has been purged of typographical errors and also contains several revised sections with improved explanations. .

  3. Linking the Unitary Paradigm to Policy through a Synthesis of Caring Science and Integrative Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koithan, Mary S; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Watson, Jean

    2017-07-01

    The principles of integrative nursing and caring science align with the unitary paradigm in a way that can inform and shape nursing knowledge, patient care delivery across populations and settings, and new healthcare policy. The proposed policies may transform the healthcare system in a way that supports nursing praxis and honors the discipline's unitary paradigm. This call to action provides a distinct and hopeful vision of a healthcare system that is accessible, equitable, safe, patient-centered, and affordable. In these challenging times, it is the unitary paradigm and nursing wisdom that offer a clear path forward.

  4. Symmetric mixed states of n qubits: Local unitary stabilizers and entanglement classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, David W.; Walck, Scott N. [Lebanon Valley College, Annville, Pennsylvania 17003 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We classify, up to local unitary equivalence, local unitary stabilizer Lie algebras for symmetric mixed states of n qubits into six classes. These include the stabilizer types of the Werner states, the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and its generalizations, and Dicke states. For all but the zero algebra, we classify entanglement types (local unitary equivalence classes) of symmetric mixed states that have those stabilizers. We make use of the identification of symmetric density matrices with polynomials in three variables with real coefficients and apply the representation theory of SO(3) on this space of polynomials.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, L. H.

    2005-11-01

    One of the most fruitful and enduring advances in theoretical physics during the last half century has been the development of the role played by symmetries. One needs only to consider SU(3) and the classification of elementary particles, the Yang Mills enlargement of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the symmetry group SU(2), and indeed the tremendous activity surrounding the discovery of parity violation in the weak interactions in the late 1950s. This last example is one of a broken symmetry, though the symmetry in question is a discrete one. It was clear to Gell-Mann, who first clarified the role of SU(3) in particle physics, that this symmetry was not exact. If it had been, it would have been much easier to discover; for example, the proton, neutron, Σ, Λ and Ξ particles would all have had the same mass. For many years the SU(3) symmetry breaking was assigned a mathematical form, but the importance of this formulation fell away when the quark model began to be taken seriously; the reason the SU(3) symmetry was not exact was simply that the (three, in those days) quarks had different masses. At the same time, and in a different context, symmetry breaking of a different type was being investigated. This went by the name of `spontaneous symmetry breaking' and its characteristic was that the ground state of a given system was not invariant under the symmetry transformation, though the interactions (the Hamiltonian, in effect) was. A classic example is ferromagnetism. In a ferromagnet the atomic spins are aligned in one direction only—this is the ground state of the system. It is clearly not invariant under a rotation, for that would change the ground state into a (similar but) different one, with the spins aligned in a different direction; this is the phenomenon of a degenerate vacuum. The contribution of the spin interaction, s1.s2, to the Hamiltonian, however, is actually invariant under rotations. As Coleman remarked, a little man living in a ferromagnet would

  6. Symmetry, structure, and spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Rickles, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In this book Rickles considers several interpretative difficulties raised by gauge-type symmetries (those that correspond to no change in physical state). The ubiquity of such symmetries in modern physics renders them an urgent topic in philosophy of physics. Rickles focuses on spacetime physics, and in particular classical and quantum general relativity. Here the problems posed are at their most pathological, involving the apparent disappearance of spacetime! Rickles argues that both traditional ontological positions should be replaced by a structuralist account according to which relational

  7. Symmetry and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, Luis P.

    2002-01-01

    We find the group of symmetry transformations under which the Einstein equations for the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe are form invariant. They relate the energy density and the pressure of the fluid to the expansion rate. We show that inflation can be obtained from nonaccelerated scenarios by a symmetry transformation. We derive the transformation rule for the spectrum and spectral index of the curvature perturbations. Finally, the group is extended to investigate inflation in the anisotropic Bianchi type-I spacetime and the brane-world cosmology

  8. Generic features of the dynamics of complex open quantum systems: statistical approach based on averages over the unitary group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Manuel; Breuer, Heinz-Peter

    2013-04-01

    We obtain exact analytic expressions for a class of functions expressed as integrals over the Haar measure of the unitary group in d dimensions. Based on these general mathematical results, we investigate generic dynamical properties of complex open quantum systems, employing arguments from ensemble theory. We further generalize these results to arbitrary eigenvalue distributions, allowing a detailed comparison of typical regular and chaotic systems with the help of concepts from random matrix theory. To illustrate the physical relevance and the general applicability of our results we present a series of examples related to the fields of open quantum systems and nonequilibrium quantum thermodynamics. These include the effect of initial correlations, the average quantum dynamical maps, the generic dynamics of system-environment pure state entanglement and, finally, the equilibration of generic open and closed quantum systems.

  9. Extreme covariant quantum observables in the case of an Abelian symmetry group and a transitive value space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapasalo, Erkka Theodor; Pellonpaeae, Juha-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    We represent quantum observables as normalized positive operator valued measures and consider convex sets of observables which are covariant with respect to a unitary representation of a locally compact Abelian symmetry group G. The value space of such observables is a transitive G-space. We characterize the extreme points of covariant observables and also determine the covariant extreme points of the larger set of all quantum observables. The results are applied to position, position difference, and time observables.

  10. Theory of symmetry and of exact solution properties for fast rotating nuclei; Theorie de la symetrie et des proprietes de solutions exactes pour les noyaux en rotation rapide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydon, B

    1995-07-19

    We propose a study of rotating multi-fermionic systems. The method we developed is based on unitary group theory. The formalism of Gel`fand-Tsetlin is is simplified to binary calculations. With the help of operator of Casimir and physical interpretations using dichotomic symmetries (signature, parity), we show rotating Hamiltonians obey to a new quantum symmetry called P. The study of short range two-body interaction breaking weakly this symmetry, is made by using single j-shell. Nuclear interactions coupling two j-shell are introduced. This study allows us to compare ours results to experimental data for three isotopes of Zirconium. (author). 155 refs.

  11. A unitary model of the black hole evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Lei; Chen, Yi-Xin

    2014-12-01

    A unitary effective field model of the black hole evaporation is proposed to satisfy almost the four postulates of the black hole complementarity (BHC). In this model, we enlarge a black hole-scalar field system by adding an extra radiation detector that couples with the scalar field. After performing a partial trace over the scalar field space, we obtain an effective entanglement between the black hole and the detector (or radiation in it). As the whole system evolves, the S-matrix formula can be constructed formally step by step. Without local quantum measurements, the paradoxes of the information loss and AMPS's firewall can be resolved. However, the information can be lost due to quantum decoherence, as long as some local measurement has been performed on the detector to acquire the information of the radiation in it. But unlike Hawking's completely thermal spectrum, some residual correlations can be found in the radiations. All these considerations can be simplified in a qubit model that provides a modified quantum teleportation to transfer the information via an EPR pairs.

  12. The unitary conformal field theory behind 2D Asymptotic Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nink, Andreas; Reuter, Martin [Institute of Physics, PRISMA & MITP, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz,Staudingerweg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-02-25

    Being interested in the compatibility of Asymptotic Safety with Hilbert space positivity (unitarity), we consider a local truncation of the functional RG flow which describes quantum gravity in d>2 dimensions and construct its limit of exactly two dimensions. We find that in this limit the flow displays a nontrivial fixed point whose effective average action is a non-local functional of the metric. Its pure gravity sector is shown to correspond to a unitary conformal field theory with positive central charge c=25. Representing the fixed point CFT by a Liouville theory in the conformal gauge, we investigate its general properties and their implications for the Asymptotic Safety program. In particular, we discuss its field parametrization dependence and argue that there might exist more than one universality class of metric gravity theories in two dimensions. Furthermore, studying the gravitational dressing in 2D asymptotically safe gravity coupled to conformal matter we uncover a mechanism which leads to a complete quenching of the a priori expected Knizhnik-Polyakov-Zamolodchikov (KPZ) scaling. A possible connection of this prediction to Monte Carlo results obtained in the discrete approach to 2D quantum gravity based upon causal dynamical triangulations is mentioned. Similarities of the fixed point theory to, and differences from, non-critical string theory are also described. On the technical side, we provide a detailed analysis of an intriguing connection between the Einstein-Hilbert action in d>2 dimensions and Polyakov’s induced gravity action in two dimensions.

  13. The unitary-group formulation of quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The major part of this dissertation establishes group theoretical techniques that are applicable to the quantum-mechanical many-body atomic and molecular problems. Several matrix element evaluation methods for many-body states are developed. The generator commutation method using generator states is presented for the first time as a complete algorithm, and a computer implementation of the method is developed. A major result of this work is the development of a new method of calculation called the freeon tensor product (FTP) method. This method is much simpler and for many purposes superior to the GUGA procedure (graphical unitary group approach), widely used in configuration interaction calculations. This dissertation is also concerned with the prediction of atomic spectra. In principle spectra can be computed by the methods of ab initio quantum chemistry. In practice these computations are difficult, expensive, time consuming, and not uniformly successful. In this dissertation, the author employs a semi-empirical group theoretical analysis of discrete spectra is the exact analog of the Fourier analysis of continuous functions. In particular, he focuses on the spectra of atoms with incomplete p, d, and f shells. The formulas and techniques are derived in a fashion that apply equally well for more complex systems, as well as the isofreeon model of spherical nuclei

  14. Conditional mutual information of bipartite unitaries and scrambling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Dawei; Hayden, Patrick; Walter, Michael [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-12-28

    One way to diagnose chaos in bipartite unitary channels is via the tripartite information of the corresponding Choi state, which for certain choices of the subsystems reduces to the negative conditional mutual information (CMI). We study this quantity from a quantum information-theoretic perspective to clarify its role in diagnosing scrambling. When the CMI is zero, we find that the channel has a special normal form consisting of local channels between individual inputs and outputs. However, we find that arbitrarily low CMI does not imply arbitrary proximity to a channel of this form, although it does imply a type of approximate recoverability of one of the inputs. When the CMI is maximal, we find that the residual channel from an individual input to an individual output is completely depolarizing when the other input is maximally mixed. However, we again find that this result is not robust. We also extend some of these results to the multipartite case and to the case of Haar-random pure input states. Finally, we look at the relationship between tripartite information and its Rényi-2 version which is directly related to out-of-time-order correlation functions. In particular, we demonstrate an arbitrarily large gap between the two quantities.

  15. Correlation functions in unitary minimal Liouville gravity and Frobenius manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belavin, V. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, 127994 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Theoretical Physics, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI,Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-10

    We continue to study minimal Liouville gravity (MLG) using a dual approach based on the idea that the MLG partition function is related to the tau function of the A{sub q} integrable hierarchy via the resonance transformations, which are in turn fixed by conformal selection rules. One of the main problems in this approach is to choose the solution of the Douglas string equation that is relevant for MLG. The appropriate solution was recently found using connection with the Frobenius manifolds. We use this solution to investigate three- and four-point correlators in the unitary MLG models. We find an agreement with the results of the original approach in the region of the parameters where both methods are applicable. In addition, we find that only part of the selection rules can be satisfied using the resonance transformations. The physical meaning of the nonzero correlators, which before coupling to Liouville gravity are forbidden by the selection rules, and also the modification of the dual formulation that takes this effect into account remains to be found.

  16. Partial dynamical symmetries in quantal many-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Isacker, P.

    2001-01-01

    Partial dynamical symmetries are associated with Hamiltonians that are partially solvable. The determination of the properties of a quantal system of N interacting particles moving in an external potential requires the solution of the eigenvalue equation associated with a second-quantised Hamiltonian. In many situations of interest the Hamiltonian commutes with transformations that constitute a symmetry algebra G sym . This characteristic opens a way to find all analytically solvable Hamiltonians. The author gives a brief review of some recent developments

  17. Implementability of two-qubit unitary operations over the butterfly network and the ladder network with free classical communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akibue, Seiseki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We investigate distributed implementation of two-qubit unitary operations over two primitive networks, the butterfly network and the ladder network, as a first step to apply network coding for quantum computation. By classifying two-qubit unitary operations in terms of the Kraus-Cirac number, the number of non-zero parameters describing the global part of two-qubit unitary operations, we analyze which class of two-qubit unitary operations is implementable over these networks with free classical communication. For the butterfly network, we show that two classes of two-qubit unitary operations, which contain all Clifford, controlled-unitary and matchgate operations, are implementable over the network. For the ladder network, we show that two-qubit unitary operations are implementable over the network if and only if their Kraus-Cirac number do not exceed the number of the bridges of the ladder.

  18. Implementability of two-qubit unitary operations over the butterfly network and the ladder network with free classical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akibue, Seiseki; Murao, Mio

    2014-01-01

    We investigate distributed implementation of two-qubit unitary operations over two primitive networks, the butterfly network and the ladder network, as a first step to apply network coding for quantum computation. By classifying two-qubit unitary operations in terms of the Kraus-Cirac number, the number of non-zero parameters describing the global part of two-qubit unitary operations, we analyze which class of two-qubit unitary operations is implementable over these networks with free classical communication. For the butterfly network, we show that two classes of two-qubit unitary operations, which contain all Clifford, controlled-unitary and matchgate operations, are implementable over the network. For the ladder network, we show that two-qubit unitary operations are implementable over the network if and only if their Kraus-Cirac number do not exceed the number of the bridges of the ladder

  19. Introduction to Chiral Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-09

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.

  20. Classical mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jinzenji, Masao

    2018-01-01

    This book furnishes a brief introduction to classical mirror symmetry, a term that denotes the process of computing Gromov–Witten invariants of a Calabi–Yau threefold by using the Picard–Fuchs differential equation of period integrals of its mirror Calabi–Yau threefold. The book concentrates on the best-known example, the quintic hypersurface in 4-dimensional projective space, and its mirror manifold. First, there is a brief review of the process of discovery of mirror symmetry and the striking result proposed in the celebrated paper by Candelas and his collaborators. Next, some elementary results of complex manifolds and Chern classes needed for study of mirror symmetry are explained. Then the topological sigma models, the A-model and the B-model, are introduced. The classical mirror symmetry hypothesis is explained as the equivalence between the correlation function of the A-model of a quintic hyper-surface and that of the B-model of its mirror manifold. On the B-model side, the process of construct...

  1. Molecular symmetry and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Philip; Jensen, Per

    2006-01-01

    The first edition, by P.R. Bunker, published in 1979, remains the sole textbook that explains the use of the molecular symmetry group in understanding high resolution molecular spectra. Since 1979 there has been considerable progress in the field and a second edition is required; the original author has been joined in its writing by Per Jensen. The Material of the first edition has been reorganized and much has been added. The molecular symmetry group is now introduced early on, and the explanation of how to determine nuclear spin statistical weights has been consolidated in one chapter, after groups, symmetry groups, character tables and the Hamiltonian have been introduced. A description of the symmetry in the three-dimensional rotation group K(spatial), irreducible spherical tensor operators, and vector coupling coefficients is now included. The chapters on energy levels and selection rules contain a great deal of material that was not in the first edition (much of it was undiscovered in 1979), concerning ...

  2. Introduction to chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, V.

    1996-01-01

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented

  3. The politics of symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, D.L.

    While symmetry and impartiality have become ruling principles in S&TS, defining its core ideal of a 'value-free relativism', their philosophical anchorage has attracted much less discussion than the issue or:how far their jurisdiction can be extended or generalized. This paper seeks to argue that

  4. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P.Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also underst...

  5. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P. Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also unders...

  6. Groups and Symmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. Groups and Symmetry: A Guide to Discovering Mathematics. Geetha Venkataraman. Book Review Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 91-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Aspects of W∞ symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezgin, E.

    1991-08-01

    We review the structure of W ∞ algebras, their super and topological extensions, and their contractions down to (super) w ∞ . Emphasis is put on the field theoretic realizations of these algebras. We also review the structure of w ∞ and W ∞ gravities and comment on various applications of W ∞ symmetry. (author). 42 refs

  8. Non-Noetherian symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, Sergio A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to present some of the ways in which non-Noetherian symmetries are used in contemporary mathematical physics. These include, among others, obtaining conservation laws for dynamical systems, solving non-linear problems, getting alternative Lagrangians for systems of differential equations and constructing symplectic structures and Hamiltonians for dynamical systems starting from scratch

  9. Detection symmetry and asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Buf, J.M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were performed on the detection symmetry and asymmetry of incremental and decremental disks, as a function of both disk diameter and duration. It was found that, for a background luminance of 300cd.m-2, thresholds of dynamic (briefly presented) foveal disks are symmetrical for all

  10. From symmetries to dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, J.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of a uniform description of symmetries, their dynamic disturbing and the structure of the vacuum is discussed. The role which problems of this kind played in searching for and understanding the Standard Model of elementary particles from the 1960s till now is also highlighted. (Z.J.)

  11. Fields, symmetries, and quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosel, U.

    1989-01-01

    'Fields, symmetries, and quarks' covers elements of quantum field theory, symmetries, gauge field theories and phenomenological descriptions of hadrons, with special emphasis on topics relevant to nuclear physics. It is aimed at nuclear physicists in general and at scientists who need a working knowledge of field theory, symmetry principles of elementary particles and their interactions and the quark structure of hadrons. The book starts out with an elementary introduction into classical field theory and its quantization. As gauge field theories require a working knowledge of global symmetries in field theories this topic is then discussed in detail. The following part is concerned with the general structure of gauge field theories and contains a thorough discussion of the still less widely known features of Non-Abelian gauge field theories. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is important for the understanding of hadronic matter, is discussed in the next section together with the quark compositions of hadrons. The last two chapters give a detailed discussion of phenomenological bag-models. The MIT bag is discussed, so that all theoretical calculations can be followed step by step. Since in all other bag-models the calculational methods and steps are essentially identical, this chapter should enable the reader to actually perform such calculations unaided. A last chapter finally discusses the topological bag-models which have become quite popular over the last few years. (orig.)

  12. Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 1. Symmetry of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V

    2001-02-01

    Priapulids possess a radial symmetry that is remarkably reflected in both external morphology and internal anatomy. It results in the appearance of 25-radial (a number divisible by five) symmetry summarized as a combination of nonaradial, octaradial, and octaradial (9+8+8) symmetries of scalids. The radial symmetry is a secondary appearance considered as an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of bottom sediment. The eight anteriormost, or primary, scalids retain their particular position because of their innervation directly from the circumpharyngeal brain. As a result of a combination of the octaradial symmetry of primary scalids, pentaradial symmetry of teeth, and the 25-radial symmetry of scalids, the initial bilateral symmetry remains characterized by the single sagittal plane. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Introduction to analytical mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gamalath, KAILW

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO ANALYTICAL MECHANICS is an attempt to introduce the modern treatment of classical mechanics so that transition to many fields in physics can be made with the least difficulty. This book deal with the formulation of Newtonian mechanics, Lagrangian dynamics, conservation laws relating to symmetries, Hamiltonian dynamics Hamilton's principle, Poisson brackets, canonical transformations which are invaluable in formulating the quantum mechanics and Hamilton-Jacobi equation which provides the transition to wave mechanics.

  14. Positive-definite functions and unitary representations of locally compact groups in a Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gali, I.M.; Okb el-Bab, A.S.; Hassan, H.M.

    1977-08-01

    It is proved that the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of an integral representation of a group of unitary operators in a Hilbert space is that it is positive-definite and continuous in some topology

  15. A remark on the unitary group of a tensor product of n finite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By using the method of quantum circuits in the theory of quantum computing as outlined in Nielsen and Chuang [2] and using a key lemma of Jaikumar [1] we show that every unitary operator on the tensor product H = H 1 ⊗ H 2 ⊗ … ⊗ H n can be expressed as a composition of a finite number of unitary operators living on ...

  16. All unitary ray representations of the conformal group SU(2,2) with positive energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1975-12-01

    We find all those unitary irreducible representations of the infinitely - sheeted covering group G tilde of the conformal group SU(2,2)/Z 4 which have positive energy P 0 >= O. They are all finite component field representations and are labelled by dimension d and a finite dimensional irreducible representation (j 1 , j 2 ) of the Lorentz group SL(2C). They all decompose into a finite number of unitary irreducible representations of the Poincare subgroup with dilations. (orig.) [de

  17. Minimal unitary realizations of exceptional U-duality groups and their subgroups as quasiconformal groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunaydin, Murat; Pavlyk, Oleksandr

    2005-01-01

    We study the minimal unitary representations of noncompact exceptional groups that arise as U-duality groups in extended supergravity theories. First we give the unitary realizations of the exceptional group E 8(-24) in SU*(8) as well as SU(6,2) covariant bases. E 8(-24) has E 7 x SU(2) as its maximal compact subgroup and is the U-duality group of the exceptional supergravity theory in d=3. For the corresponding U-duality group E 8(8) of the maximal supergravity theory the minimal realization was given. The minimal unitary realizations of all the lower rank noncompact exceptional groups can be obtained by truncation of those of E 8(-24) and E 8(8) . By further truncation one can obtain the minimal unitary realizations of all the groups of the 'Magic Triangle'. We give explicitly the minimal unitary realizations of the exceptional subgroups of E 8(-24) as well as other physically interesting subgroups. These minimal unitary realizations correspond, in general, to the quantization of their geometric actions as quasi-conformal groups. (author)

  18. Unitary three-body calculation of nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, H.; Ohta, K.

    1986-07-01

    We calculate nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering phase parameters based on a unitary, relativistic, pion-exchange model. The results are highly dependent on the off-shell amplitudes of πN scattering. The isobar-dominated model for the P 33 interaction leads to too small pion production rates owing to its strong suppression of off-shell pions. We propose to expand the idea of the Δ-isobar model in such a manner as to incorporate a background (non-pole) interaction. The two-potential model, which was first applied to the P 11 partial wave by Mizutani and Koltun, is applied also to the P 33 wave. Our phenomenological model for πN interaction in the P 33 partial wave differs from the conventional model only in its off-shell extrapolation, and has two different variants for the πN → Δ vertex. The three-body approach of Kloet and Silbar is extended such that the background interactions can be included straightfowardly. We make detailed comparisons of the new model with the conventional one and find that our model adequately reproduces the 1 D 2 phase parameters as well as those of peripheral partial waves. We also find that the longitudinal total cross section difference Δσ L (pp → NNπ) comes closer to the data compared to Kloet and Silbar. We discuss about the backward pion propagation in the three-body calculation, and the Pauli-principle violating states for the background P 11 interaction. (author)

  19. Symmetries in physics and harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolk, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this book the symmetries of elementary particles are described in relation to the rules of harmonics in music. The selection rules are described in connections with harmonic intervals. Also symmetry breaking is considered in this framework. (HSI)

  20. Dynamic localization in quantum dots: Analytical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basko, D.M.; Skvortsov, M.A.; Kravtsov, V.E.

    2003-02-01

    We analyze the response of a complex quantum-mechanical system (e.g., a quantum dot) to a time-dependent perturbation φ(t). Assuming the dot to be described by random matrix theory for GOE we find the quantum correction to the energy absorption rate as a function of the dephasing time t φ . If φ(t) is a sum of d harmonics with incommensurate frequencies, the correction behaves similarly to that to the conductivity δσ d (t φ ) in the d-dimensional Anderson model of the orthogonal symmetry class. For a generic periodic perturbation the leading quantum correction is absent as in the systems of the unitary symmetry class, unless φ(-t+τ)=φ(t+τ) for some τ, which falls into the quasi-1d orthogonal universality class. (author)

  1. Unified Symmetry of Hamilton Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xuejun; Qin Maochang; Mei Fengxiang

    2005-01-01

    The definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry for a Hamilton system are presented. The sufficient condition under which the Noether symmetry is a unified symmetry for the system is given. A new conserved quantity, as well as the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, deduced from the unified symmetry, is obtained. An example is finally given to illustrate the application of the results.

  2. Quantum symmetries in particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of a quantum symmetry is introduced as a symmetry in the formulation of which quantum representations and specific quantum notions are used essentially. Three quantum symmetry principles are discussed: the principle of renormalizability (possibly super-renormalizability), the principle of local gauge symmetry, and the principle of supersymmetry. It is shown that these principles play a deterministic role in the development of quantum field theory. Historically their use has led to ever stronger restrictions on the interaction mechanism of quantum fields

  3. Symmetry and topology in evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Berczi, S.; Molnar, I.; Paal, G.

    1991-10-01

    This volume contains papers of an interdisciplinary symposium on evolution. The aim of this symposium, held in Budapest, Hungary, 28-29 May 1991, was to clear the role of symmetry and topology at different levels of the evolutionary processes. 21 papers were presented, their topics included evolution of the Universe, symmetry of elementary particles, asymmetry of the Earth, symmetry and asymmetry of biomolecules, symmetry and topology of lining objects, human asymmetry etc. (R.P.)

  4. Renormgroup symmetries in problems of nonlinear geometrical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V.F.

    1996-01-01

    Utilization and further development of the previously announced approach [1,2] enables one to construct renormgroup symmetries for a boundary value problem for the system of equations which describes propagation of a powerful radiation in a nonlinear medium in geometrical optics approximation. With the help of renormgroup symmetries new rigorous and approximate analytical solutions of nonlinear geometrical optics equations are obtained. Explicit analytical expressions are presented that characterize spatial evolution of laser beam which has an arbitrary intensity dependence at the boundary of the nonlinear medium. (author)

  5. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G A [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; van Oers, W T.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  6. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  7. Symmetry energy in nuclear surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielewicz, P.; Lee, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    Interplay between the dependence of symmetry energy on density and the variation of nucleonic densities across nuclear surface is discussed. That interplay gives rise to the mass dependence of the symmetry coefficient in an energy formula. Charge symmetry of the nuclear interactions allows to introduce isoscalar and isovector densities that are approximately independent of the magnitude of neutron-proton asymmetry. (author)

  8. Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and  the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.

  9. Group analysis and renormgroup symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V.F.; Pustovalov, V.V.; Shirkov, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    An original regular approach to constructing special type symmetries for boundary-value problems, namely renormgroup symmetries, is presented. Different methods of calculating these symmetries based on modern group analysis are described. An application of the approach to boundary value problems is demonstrated with the help of a simple mathematical model. 35 refs

  10. Dark discrete gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigate scenarios in which dark matter is stabilized by an Abelian Z N discrete gauge symmetry. Models are surveyed according to symmetries and matter content. Multicomponent dark matter arises when N is not prime and Z N contains one or more subgroups. The dark sector interacts with the visible sector through the renormalizable kinetic mixing and Higgs portal operators, and we highlight the basic phenomenology in these scenarios. In particular, multiple species of dark matter can lead to an unconventional nuclear recoil spectrum in direct detection experiments, while the presence of new light states in the dark sector can dramatically affect the decays of the Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC, thus providing a window into the gauge origin of the stability of dark matter.

  11. Symmetries and microscopic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This book is based on a course of lectures devoted to the applications of group theory to quantum physics. The purpose is to give students a precise idea of general principles involving the concept of symmetry and to present practical methods used to calculate physical properties derived from symmetries. The first chapter is an introduction to the main results of group theory, 2 chapters highlight principles and methods concerning geometrical transformations in the space of states, state degeneracy and perturbation theory. The last 4 chapters investigate the applications of these methods to atom physics, nuclear structure and elementary particles. A chapter is devoted to the atom of hydrogen and another to the isospin. Numerous exercises and problems, some with their corrections, are proposed. (A.C.)

  12. Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbe R. Kopra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes.  The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.

  13. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  14. Symmetry rules. How science and nature are founded on symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J.

    2008-07-01

    When we use science to describe and understand the world around us, we are in essence grasping nature through symmetry. In fact, modern theoretical physics suggests that symmetry is a, if not the, foundational principle of nature. Emphasizing the concepts, this book leads the reader coherently and comprehensively into the fertile field of symmetry and its applications. Among the most important applications considered are the fundamental forces of nature and the Universe. It is shown that the Universe cannot possess exact symmetry, which is a principle of fundamental significance. Curie's principle - which states that the symmetry of the effect is at least that of the cause - features prominently. An introduction to group theory, the mathematical language of symmetry, is included. This book will convince all interested readers of the importance of symmetry in science. Furthermore, it will serve as valuable background reading for all students in the physical sciences. (orig.)

  15. Symmetry rules How science and nature are founded on symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Rosen, Joe

    2008-01-01

    When we use science to describe and understand the world around us, we are in essence grasping nature through symmetry. In fact, modern theoretical physics suggests that symmetry is a, if not the, foundational principle of nature. Emphasizing the concepts, this book leads the reader coherently and comprehensively into the fertile field of symmetry and its applications. Among the most important applications considered are the fundamental forces of nature and the Universe. It is shown that the Universe cannot possess exact symmetry, which is a principle of fundamental significance. Curie's principle - which states that the symmetry of the effect is at least that of the cause - features prominently. An introduction to group theory, the mathematical language of symmetry, is included. This book will convince all interested readers of the importance of symmetry in science. Furthermore, it will serve as valuable background reading for all students in the physical sciences.

  16. A broken symmetry ontology: Quantum mechanics as a broken symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The author proposes a new broken symmetry ontology to be used to analyze the quantum domain. This ontology is motivated and grounded in a critical epistemological analysis, and an analysis of the basic role of symmetry in physics. Concurrently, he is led to consider nonheterogeneous systems, whose logical state space contains equivalence relations not associated with the causal relation. This allows him to find a generalized principle of symmetry and a generalized symmetry-conservation formalisms. In particular, he clarifies the role of Noether's theorem in field theory. He shows how a broken symmetry ontology already operates in a description of the weak interactions. Finally, by showing how a broken symmetry ontology operates in the quantum domain, he accounts for the interpretational problem and the essential incompleteness of quantum mechanics. He proposes that the broken symmetry underlying this ontological domain is broken dilation invariance

  17. Symmetry and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Corry, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to quantum mechanics for professionals, students, and others in the field of mathematics who have a minimal background in physics with an understanding of linear algebra and group theory. It covers such topics as Lie groups, algebras and their representations, and analysis (Hilbert space, distributions, the spectral Theorem, and the Stone-Von Neumann Theorem). The book emphasizes the role of symmetry and is useful to physicists as it provides a mathematical introduction to the topic.

  18. Gravitation, Symmetry and Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Jamie

    2001-04-01

    This talk will discuss "Project Petrov" Which is designed to investigate gravitational fields with symmetry. Project Petrov represents a collaboration involving physicists, mathematicians as well as graduate and undergraduate math and physics students. An overview of Project Petrov will be given, with an emphasis on students' contributions, including software to classify and generate Lie algebras, to classify isometry groups, and to compute the isometry group of a given metric.

  19. Symmetry breaking and chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunakov, V.E.; Ivanov, I.B.

    1999-01-01

    Connections between the symmetries of Hamiltonian systems in classical and quantum mechanics, on one hand, and their regularity or chaoticity, on the other hand, are considered. The quantum-chaoticity criterion that was proposed previously and which was borrowed from the theory of compound-nucleus resonances is used to analyze the quantum diamagnetic Kepler problem - that is, the motion of a spinless charged particle in a Coulomb and a uniform magnetic field

  20. Symmetry and statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    The concepts of statistical behavior and symmetry are presented from the point of view of many body spectroscopy. Remarks are made on methods for the evaluation of moments, particularly widths, for the purpose of giving a feeling for the types of mathematical structures encountered. Applications involving ground state energies, spectra, and level densities are discussed. The extent to which Hamiltonian eigenstates belong to irreducible representations is mentioned. (4 figures, 1 table) (U.S.)

  1. Symmetry in music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, O F, E-mail: o.f.herrero@hotmail.co [Conservatorio Superior de Musica ' Eduardo Martinez Torner' Corrada del Obispo s/n 33003 - Oviedo - Asturias (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  2. Lie symmetries and superintegrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nucci, M C; Post, S

    2012-01-01

    We show that a known superintegrable system in two-dimensional real Euclidean space (Post and Winternitz 2011 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 44 162001) can be transformed into a linear third-order equation: consequently we construct many autonomous integrals—polynomials up to order 18—for the same system. The reduction method and the connection between Lie symmetries and Jacobi last multiplier are used.

  3. Symmetry in music

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, O F

    2010-01-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  4. A Unitary and Renormalizable Theory of the Standard Model in Ghost-Free Light-Cone Gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2002-02-15

    Light-front (LF) quantization in light-cone (LC) gauge is used to construct a unitary and simultaneously renormalizable theory of the Standard Model. The framework derived earlier for QCD is extended to the Glashow, Weinberg, and Salam (GWS) model of electroweak interaction theory. The Lorentz condition is automatically satisfied in LF-quantized QCD in the LC gauge for the free massless gauge field. In the GWS model, with the spontaneous symmetry breaking present, we find that the 't Hooft condition accompanies the LC gauge condition corresponding to the massive vector boson. The two transverse polarization vectors for the massive vector boson may be chosen to be the same as found in QCD. The non-transverse and linearly independent third polarization vector is found to be parallel to the gauge direction. The corresponding sum over polarizations in the Standard model, indicated by K{sub {mu}{nu}}(k); has several simplifying properties similar to the polarization sum D{sub {mu}{nu}}(k) in QCD. The framework is ghost-free, and the interaction Hamiltonian of electroweak theory can be expressed in a form resembling that of covariant theory, except for few additional instantaneous interactions which can be treated systematically. The LF formulation also provides a transparent discussion of the Goldstone Boson (or Electroweak) Equivalence Theorem, as the illustrations show.

  5. Symmetry and geometry of the N-body problem. Application to the nuclear physics; Symetrie et geometrie du probleme a N-corps. Application a la physique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, H.T.P

    2002-10-01

    One of the main goals of classical and quantum physics is to solve the many-body problem. In nuclear theory, several methods have been developed and provide accurate results. In this thesis, we remind how symmetry can be used to obtain analytical solutions of the quantum many-body problem. We emphasize that unitary Lie algebras play a crucial role in quantum mechanics and propose and implement a method to build irreducible representations of this algebra from its highest-weight state. Calculations of bosonic and fermionic spectra are performed with realistic and with random interactions. Studies with rotational invariant two-body random interactions have unveiled high degree of order (a marked statistical preference is found for ground states with angular momentum equal to zero). In the second chapter of this thesis, it is argued that the spectral properties of this kind of interaction depend on the choice of the valence space. In particular, we propose a geometrical method to predict the properties of the ground state in certain cases. We also present numerical results when the geometrical approach can not be applied. In the third chapter, we study the link between quantum chaos and nuclear spectra calculated with realistic interactions. (author)

  6. Symmetry methods for option pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, A. H.; Mamba, S.

    2017-06-01

    We obtain a solution of the Black-Scholes equation with a non-smooth boundary condition using symmetry methods. The Black-Scholes equation along with its boundary condition are first transformed into the one dimensional heat equation and an initial condition respectively. We then find an appropriate general symmetry generator of the heat equation using symmetries and the fundamental solution of the heat equation. The symmetry generator is chosen such that the boundary condition is left invariant; the symmetry can be used to solve the heat equation and hence the Black-Scholes equation.

  7. Unitary quantum physics with time-space non-commutativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, A P; Govindarajan, T R; Martins, A G; Molina, C; Teotonio-Sobrinho, P

    2005-01-01

    In these lectures 4 quantum physics in noncommutative spacetime is developed. It is based on the work of Doplicher et al. which allows for time-space noncommutativity. In the context of noncommutative quantum mechanics, some important points are explored, such as the formal construction of the theory, symmetries, causality, simultaneity and observables. The dynamics generated by a noncommutative Schroedinger equation is studied. The theory is further extended to certain noncommutative versions of the cylinder, R 3 and R x S 3 . In all these models, only discrete time translations are possible. One striking consequence of quantised time translations is that even though a time independent Hamiltonian is an observable, in scattering processes, it is conserved only modulo 2π/θ, where θ is the noncommutative parameter. Scattering theory is formulated and an approach to quantumfield theory is outlined

  8. Mixed-symmetry fields in de Sitter space: a group theoretical glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, Thomas [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS,Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson, Université François Rabelais,Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Groupe de Mécanique et Gravitation, Service de Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université de Mons - UMONS,20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons, Belgique (Belgium); Bekaert, Xavier [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 7350 du CNRS,Fédération de Recherche 2964 Denis Poisson, Université François Rabelais,Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); B.W. Lee Center for Fields, Gravity and Strings, Institute for Basic Science,Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Boulanger, Nicolas [Groupe de Mécanique et Gravitation, Service de Physique Théorique et Mathématique,Université de Mons - UMONS,20 Place du Parc, 7000 Mons, Belgique (Belgium)

    2017-05-15

    We derive the characters of all unitary irreducible representations of the (d+1)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime isometry algebra so(1,d+1), and propose a dictionary between those representations and massive or (partially) massless fields on de Sitter spacetime. We propose a way of taking the flat limit of representations in (anti-) de Sitter spaces in terms of these characters, and conjecture the spectrum resulting from taking the flat limit of mixed-symmetry fields in de Sitter spacetime. We identify the equivalent of the scalar singleton for the de Sitter (dS) spacetime.

  9. Cellular gauge symmetry and the Li organization principle: General considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F; Navarro, Jorge; Kun, Wu; Lin, Bi; Marijuán, Pedro C

    2017-12-01

    Based on novel topological considerations, we postulate a gauge symmetry for living cells and proceed to interpret it from a consistent Eastern perspective: the li organization principle. In our framework, the reference system is the living cell, equipped with general symmetries and energetic constraints standing for the intertwined biochemical, metabolic and signaling pathways that allow the global homeostasis of the system. Environmental stimuli stand for forces able to locally break the symmetry of metabolic/signaling pathways, while the species-specific DNA is the gauge field that restores the global homeostasis after external perturbations. We apply the Borsuk-Ulam Theorem (BUT) to operationalize a methodology in terms of topology/gauge fields and subsequently inquire about the evolution from inorganic to organic structures and to the prokaryotic and eukaryotic modes of organization. We converge on the strategic role that second messengers have played regarding the emergence of a unitary gauge field with profound evolutionary implications. A new avenue for a deeper investigation of biological complexity looms. Philosophically, we might be reminded of the duality between two essential concepts proposed by the great Chinese synthesizer Zhu Xi (in the XIII Century). On the one side the li organization principle, equivalent to the dynamic interplay between symmetry and information; and on the other side the qi principle, equivalent to the energy participating in the process-both always interlinked with each other. In contemporary terms, it would mean the required interconnection between information and energy, and the necessity to revise essential principles of information philosophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Probing non-unitary CP violation effects in neutrino oscillation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Surender; Bhardwaj, Shankita

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we have considered minimal unitarity violation scheme to obtain the general expression for ν _{μ }→ ν _{τ } oscillation probability in vacuum and matter. For this channel, we have investigated the sensitivities of short baseline experiments to non-unitary parameters |ρ _{μ τ }| and ω _{μ τ } for normal as well as inverted hierarchical neutrino masses and θ _{23} being above or below maximality. We find that for normal hierarchy, the 3σ sensitivity of |ρ _{μ τ }| is maximum for non-unitary phase ω _{μ τ }=0 whereas it is minimum for ω _{μ τ }=± π . For inverted hierarchy, the sensitivity is minimum at ω _{μ τ }=0 and maximum for ω _{μ τ }=± π . We observe that the sensitivity to measure non-unitarity remains unaffected for unitary CP phase δ =0 or δ =π /2 . We have, also, explored wide spectrum of L/E ratio to investigate the possibilities to observe CP-violation due to unitary (δ ) and non-unitary (ω _{μ τ } ) phases. We find that the both phases can be disentangled, in principle, from each other for L/E<200 km/GeV.

  11. Using Noether symmetries to specify f(R) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2013-01-01

    A detailed study of the modified gravity, f(R) models is performed, using the fact that the Noether point symmetries of these models are geometric symmetries of the mini su-perspace of the theory. It is shown that the requirement that the field equations admit Noether point symmetries selects definite models in a self-consistent way. As an application in Cosmology we consider the Friedman -Robertson-Walker spacetime and show that the only cosmological model which is integrable via Noether point symmetries is the (R b − 2Λ) c model, which generalizes the Lambda Cosmology. Furthermore using the corresponding Noether integrals we compute the analytic form of the main cosmological functions

  12. Mirror symmetry II

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, Brian R

    1997-01-01

    Mirror symmetry has undergone dramatic progress during the last five years. Tremendous insight has been gained on a number of key issues. This volume surveys these results. Some of the contributions in this work have appeared elsewhere, while others were written specifically for this collection. The areas covered are organized into 4 sections, and each presents papers by both physicists and mathematicians. This volume collects the most important developments that have taken place in mathematical physics since 1991. It is an essential reference tool for both mathematics and physics libraries and for students of physics and mathematics.

  13. Inertial Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Christopher T.

    2018-03-19

    We review and expand upon recent work demonstrating that Weyl invariant theories can be broken "inertially," which does not depend upon a potential. This can be understood in a general way by the "current algebra" of these theories, independently of specific Lagrangians. Maintaining the exact Weyl invariance in a renormalized quantum theory can be accomplished by renormalization conditions that refer back to the VEV's of fields in the action. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential that breaks a U(1) symmetry together,with scale invariance.

  14. Leadership, power and symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael

    2016-01-01

    Research publications concerning managers who coach their own employees are barely visible despite its wide- spread use in enterprises (McCarthy & Milner, 2013; Gregory & Levy, 2011; Crabb, 2011). This article focuses on leadership, power and moments of symmetry in the coaching relationship...... regarding managers coaching their employees and it is asked; what contributes to coaching of high quality when one reflects on the power aspect as being immanent? Fourteen middle managers coached five of their employees, and all members of each party wrote down cues and experiences immediately after each...

  15. Groups and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, David W

    1995-01-01

    In most mathematics textbooks, the most exciting part of mathematics-the process of invention and discovery-is completely hidden from the reader. The aim of Groups and Symmetry is to change all that. By means of a series of carefully selected tasks, this book leads readers to discover some real mathematics. There are no formulas to memorize; no procedures to follow. The book is a guide: Its job is to start you in the right direction and to bring you back if you stray too far. Discovery is left to you. Suitable for a one-semester course at the beginning undergraduate level, there are no prerequ

  16. Geometry and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yale, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the geometry of Euclidean, affine, and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. The two major objectives of the text are to introduce the main ideas of affine and projective spaces and to develop facility in handling transformations and groups of transformations. Since there are many good texts on affine and projective planes, the author has concentrated on the n-dimensional cases.Designed to be used in advanced undergraduate mathematics or physics courses, the book focuses on ""practical geometry,"" emphasi

  17. Near-horizon symmetries of extremal black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunduri, Hari K; Lucietti, James; Reall, Harvey S

    2007-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated an attractor mechanism for extremal rotating black holes subject to the assumption of a near-horizon SO(2, 1) symmetry. We prove the existence of this symmetry for any extremal black hole with the same number of rotational symmetries as known four- and five-dimensional solutions (including black rings). The result is valid for a general two-derivative theory of gravity coupled to Abelian vectors and uncharged scalars, allowing for a non-trivial scalar potential. We prove that it remains valid in the presence of higher-derivative corrections. We show that SO(2, 1)-symmetric near-horizon solutions can be analytically continued to give SU(2)-symmetric black hole solutions. For example, the near-horizon limit of an extremal 5D Myers-Perry black hole is related by analytic continuation to a non-extremal cohomogeneity-1 Myers-Perry solution

  18. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Manuel; Lücke, Bernd; Peise, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We present an analytical model for the theoretical analysis of spin dynamics and spontaneous symmetry breaking in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). This allows for an excellent intuitive understanding of the processes and provides good quantitative agreement with the experimental results...

  19. Applications of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T χ implies that the ρ and a 1 vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the ρ mass increases with temperature, m ρ (T χ ) > m ρ (0). The author conjectures that at T χ the thermal ρ - a 1 , peak is relatively high, at about ∼1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The ω meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the ρ, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least ∼100 MeV by T χ . The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from open-quotes quenchedclose quotes heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates

  20. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  1. Symmetry in Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze a few interrelated concepts about graphs, such as their degree, entropy, or their symmetry/asymmetry levels. These concepts prove useful in the study of different types of Systems, and particularly, in the analysis of Complex Networks. A System can be defined as any set of components functioning together as a whole. A systemic point of view allows us to isolate a part of the world, and so, we can focus on those aspects that interact more closely than others. Network Science analyzes the interconnections among diverse networks from different domains: physics, engineering, biology, semantics, and so on. Current developments in the quantitative analysis of Complex Networks, based on graph theory, have been rapidly translated to studies of brain network organization. The brain's systems have complex network features—such as the small-world topology, highly connected hubs and modularity. These networks are not random. The topology of many different networks shows striking similarities, such as the scale-free structure, with the degree distribution following a Power Law. How can very different systems have the same underlying topological features? Modeling and characterizing these networks, looking for their governing laws, are the current lines of research. So, we will dedicate this Special Issue paper to show measures of symmetry in Complex Networks, and highlight their close relation with measures of information and entropy.

  2. Web Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Web Analytics Program collects, analyzes, and provides reports on traffic, quality assurance, and customer satisfaction metrics for EPA’s website. The program uses a variety of analytics tools, including Google Analytics and CrazyEgg.

  3. In search of symmetry lost

    CERN Multimedia

    Wilczek, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Powerful symmetry principles have guided physicists in their quest for nature's fundamental laws. The successful gauge theory of electroweak interactions postulates a more extensive symmetry for its equations than are manifest in the world (8 pages) Powerful symmetry principles have guided physicists in their quest for nature's fundamental laws. The successful gauge theory of electroweak interactions postulates a more extensive symmetry for its equations than are manifest in the world. The discrepancy is ascribed to a pervasive symmetry-breaking field, which fills all space uniformly, rendering the Universe a sort of exotic superconductor. So far, the evidence for these bold ideas is indirect. But soon the theory will undergo a critical test depending on whether the quanta of this symmetry-breaking field, the so-called Higgs particles, are produced at the Large Hadron Collider (due to begin operation in 2007).

  4. Symmetry of crystals and molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This book successfully combines a thorough treatment of molecular and crystalline symmetry with a simple and informal writing style. By means of familiar examples the author helps to provide the reader with those conceptual tools necessary for the development of a clear understanding of what are often regarded as 'difficult' topics. Christopher Hammond, University of Leeds This book should tell you everything you need to know about crystal and molecular symmetry. Ladd adopts an integrated approach so that the relationships between crystal symmetry, molecular symmetry and features of chemical interest are maintained and reinforced. The theoretical aspects of bonding and symmetry are also well represented, as are symmetry-dependent physical properties and the applications of group theory. The comprehensive coverage will make this book a valuable resource for a broad range of readers.

  5. Treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method by unitary linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yusen; Chen Xiaoliang

    2009-01-01

    The theory of treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method by unitary linear regression analysis was described. Not only the reactivity, but also the effective neutron source intensity could be calculated by this method. Computer code was compiled base on the inverse kinetic method and unitary linear regression analysis. The data of zero power facility BFS-1 in Russia were processed and the results were compared. The results show that the reactivity and the effective neutron source intensity can be obtained correctly by treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method using unitary linear regression analysis and the precision of reactivity measurement is improved. The central element efficiency can be calculated by using the reactivity. The result also shows that the effect to reactivity measurement caused by external neutron source should be considered when the reactor power is low and the intensity of external neutron source is strong. (authors)

  6. Unitary relation for the time-dependent SU(1,1) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dae-Yup

    2003-01-01

    The system whose Hamiltonian is a linear combination of the generators of SU(1,1) group with time-dependent coefficients is studied. It is shown that there is a unitary relation between the system and a system whose Hamiltonian is simply proportional to the generator of the compact subgroup of SU(1,1). The unitary relation is described by the classical solutions of a time-dependent (harmonic) oscillator. Making use of the relation, the wave functions satisfying the Schroedinger equation are given, for a general unitary representation, in terms of the matrix elements of a finite group transformation (Bargmann function). The wave functions of the harmonic oscillator with an inverse-square potential is studied in detail, and it is shown that through an integral, the model provides a way of deriving the Bargmann function for the representation of positive discrete series of SU(1,1)

  7. Trieste lectures on mirror symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, K [Department of Physics and Department of Mathematics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-08-15

    These are pedagogical lectures on mirror symmetry given at the Spring School in ICTP, Trieste, March 2002. The focus is placed on worldsheet descriptions of the physics related to mirror symmetry. We start with the introduction to general aspects of (2,2) supersymmetric field theories in 1 + 1 dimensions. We next move on to the study and applications of linear sigma model. Finally, we provide a proof of mirror symmetry in a class of models. (author)

  8. Quantum symmetry in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomerus, V.

    1993-02-01

    Symmetry concepts have always been of great importance for physical problems like explicit calculations, classification or model building. More recently, new 'quantum symmetries' ((quasi) quantum groups) attracted much interest in quantum theory. It is shown that all these quantum symmetries permit a conventional formulation as symmetry in quantum mechanics. Symmetry transformations can act on the Hilbert space H of physical states such that the ground state is invariant and field operators transform covariantly. Models show that one must allow for 'truncation' in the tensor product of representations of a quantum symmetry. This means that the dimension of the tensor product of two representations of dimension σ 1 and σ 2 may be strictly smaller than σ 1 σ 2 . Consistency of the transformation law of field operators local braid relations leads us to expect, that (weak) quasi quantum groups are the most general symmetries in local quantum theory. The elements of the R-matrix which appears in these local braid relations turn out to be operators on H in general. It will be explained in detail how examples of field algebras with weak quasi quantum group symmetry can be obtained. Given a set of observable field with a finite number of superselection sectors, a quantum symmetry together with a complete set of covariant field operators which obey local braid relations are constructed. A covariant transformation law for adjoint fields is not automatic but will follow when the existence of an appropriate antipode is assumed. At the example of the chiral critical Ising model, non-uniqueness of the quantum symmetry will be demonstrated. Generalized quantum symmetries yield examples of gauge symmetries in non-commutative geometry. Quasi-quantum planes are introduced as the simplest examples of quasi-associative differential geometry. (Weak) quasi quantum groups can act on them by generalized derivations much as quantum groups do in non-commutative (differential-) geometry

  9. Neutrino masses and family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinstein, B.; Preskill, J.; Wise, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Neutrino masses in the 100 eV-1 MeV range are permitted if there is a spontaneously broken global family symmetry that allows the heavy neutrinos to decay by Goldstone boson emission with a cosmologically acceptable lifetime. The family symmetry may be either abelian or nonabelian; we present models illustrating both possibilities. If the family symmetry is nonabelian, then the decay tau -> μ + Goldstone boson or tau -> e + Goldstone may have an observable rate. (orig.)

  10. A unified approach to the minimal unitary realizations of noncompact groups and supergroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenaydin, Murat; Pavlyk, Oleksandr

    2006-01-01

    We study the minimal unitary representations of non-compact groups and supergroups obtained by quantization of their geometric realizations as quasi-conformal groups and supergroups. The quasi-conformal groups G leave generalized light-cones defined by a quartic norm invariant and have maximal rank subgroups of the form H x SL(2, R) such that G/H x SL(2, R) are para-quaternionic symmetric spaces. We give a unified formulation of the minimal unitary representations of simple non-compact groups of type A 2 , G 2 , D 4 , F 4 , E 6 , E 7 , E 8 and Sp(2n, R). The minimal unitary representations of Sp(2n, R) are simply the singleton representations and correspond to a degenerate limit of the unified construction. The minimal unitary representations of the other noncompact groups SU(m, n), SO(m, n), SO*(2n) and SL(m, R) are also given explicitly. We extend our formalism to define and construct the corresponding minimal representations of non-compact supergroups G whose even subgroups are of the form H x SL(2, R). If H is noncompact then the supergroup G does not admit any unitary representations, in general. The unified construction with H simple or Abelian leads to the minimal representations of G(3), F(4) and O Sp(n|2, R) (in the degenerate limit). The minimal unitary representations of O Sp(n|2, R) with even subgroups SO(n) x SL(2, R) are the singleton representations. We also give the minimal realization of the one parameter family of Lie superalgebras D(2, 1; σ)

  11. Symmetry Parameter Constraints from a Lower Bound on Neutron-matter Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tews, Ingo [Institute for Nuclear Theory, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1550 (United States); Lattimer, James M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Ohnishi, Akira [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kolomeitsev, Evgeni E., E-mail: itews@uw.edu, E-mail: james.lattimer@stonybrook.edu, E-mail: ohnishi@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: e.kolomeitsev@gsi.de [Faculty of Natural Sciences, Matej Bel University, Tajovskeho 40, SK-97401 Banska Bystrica (Slovakia)

    2017-10-20

    We propose the existence of a lower bound on the energy of pure neutron matter (PNM) on the basis of unitary-gas considerations. We discuss its justification from experimental studies of cold atoms as well as from theoretical studies of neutron matter. We demonstrate that this bound results in limits to the density-dependent symmetry energy, which is the difference between the energies of symmetric nuclear matter and PNM. In particular, this bound leads to a lower limit to the volume symmetry energy parameter S {sub 0}. In addition, for assumed values of S {sub 0} above this minimum, this bound implies both upper and lower limits to the symmetry energy slope parameter L , which describes the lowest-order density dependence of the symmetry energy. A lower bound on neutron-matter incompressibility is also obtained. These bounds are found to be consistent with both recent calculations of the energies of PNM and constraints from nuclear experiments. Our results are significant because several equations of state that are currently used in astrophysical simulations of supernovae and neutron star mergers, as well as in nuclear physics simulations of heavy-ion collisions, have symmetry energy parameters that violate these bounds. Furthermore, below the nuclear saturation density, the bound on neutron-matter energies leads to a lower limit to the density-dependent symmetry energy, which leads to upper limits to the nuclear surface symmetry parameter and the neutron-star crust–core boundary. We also obtain a lower limit to the neutron-skin thicknesses of neutron-rich nuclei. Above the nuclear saturation density, the bound on neutron-matter energies also leads to an upper limit to the symmetry energy, with implications for neutron-star cooling via the direct Urca process.

  12. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-08-04

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero {beta} function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as {tau} decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized.

  13. Conformal Symmetry as a Template for QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S

    2004-01-01

    Conformal symmetry is broken in physical QCD; nevertheless, one can use conformal symmetry as a template, systematically correcting for its nonzero β function as well as higher-twist effects. For example, commensurate scale relations which relate QCD observables to each other, such as the generalized Crewther relation, have no renormalization scale or scheme ambiguity and retain a convergent perturbative structure which reflects the underlying conformal symmetry of the classical theory. The ''conformal correspondence principle'' also dictates the form of the expansion basis for hadronic distribution amplitudes. The AdS/CFT correspondence connecting superstring theory to superconformal gauge theory has important implications for hadron phenomenology in the conformal limit, including an all-orders demonstration of counting rules for hard exclusive processes as well as determining essential aspects of hadronic light-front wavefunctions. Theoretical and phenomenological evidence is now accumulating that QCD couplings based on physical observables such as τ decay become constant at small virtuality; i.e., effective charges develop an infrared fixed point in contradiction to the usual assumption of singular growth in the infrared. The near-constant behavior of effective couplings also suggests that QCD can be approximated as a conformal theory even at relatively small momentum transfer. The importance of using an analytic effective charge such as the pinch scheme for unifying the electroweak and strong couplings and forces is also emphasized

  14. An introduction to Yangian symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, D.

    1992-01-01

    Some aspects of the quantum Yangians as symmetry algebras of two-dimensional quantum field theories are reviewed. They include two main issues: the first is the classical Heisenberg model, covering non-Abelian symmetries, generators of the symmetries and the semi-classical Yangians, an alternative presentation of the semi-classical Yangians, digression on Poisson-Lie groups. The second is the quantum Heisenberg chain, covering non-Abelian symmetries and the quantum Yangians, the transfer matrix and an alternative presentation of the Yangians, digression on the double Yangians. (K.A.) 15 refs

  15. Killing symmetries in neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Racz, A.

    1992-10-01

    Although inside the reactor zone there is no exact continuous spatial symmetry, in certain configurations neutron flux distribution is close to a symmetrical one. In such cases the symmetrical solution could provide a good starting point to determine the non-symmetrical power distribution. All possible symmetries are determined in the 3-dimensional Euclidean space, and the form of the transport equation is discussed in such a coordinate system which is adapted to the particular symmetry. Possible spontaneous symmetry breakings are pointed out. (author) 6 refs

  16. The conservation of orbital symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, R B

    2013-01-01

    The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope

  17. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  18. On the quantum symmetry of the chiral Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecsernyés, Peter

    1994-03-01

    We introduce the notion of rational Hopf algebras that we think are able to describe the superselection symmetries of rational quantum field theories. As an example we show that a six-dimensional rational Hopf algebra H can reproduce the fusion rules, the conformal weights, the quantum dimensions and the representation of the modular group of the chiral Ising model. H plays the role of the global symmetry algebra of the chiral Ising model in the following sense: (1) a simple field algebra F and a representation π on Hπ of it is given, which contains the c = {1}/{2} unitary representations of the Virasoro algebra as subrepresentations; (2) the embedding U: H → B( Hπ) is such that the observable algebra π( A) - is the invariant subalgebra of B( Hπ) with respect to the left adjoint action of H and U(H) is the commutant of π( A); (3) there exist H-covariant primary fields in B( Hπ), which obey generalized Cuntz algebra properties and intertwine between the inequivalent sectors of the observables.

  19. The finite-temperature thermodynamics of a trapped unitary Fermi gas within fractional exclusion statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Fang; Chen Jisheng

    2010-01-01

    We utilize the fractional exclusion statistics of the Haldane and Wu hypothesis to study the thermodynamics of a unitary Fermi gas trapped in a harmonic oscillator potential at ultra-low finite temperature. The entropy per particle as a function of the energy per particle and energy per particle versus rescaled temperature are numerically compared with the experimental data. The study shows that, except the chemical potential behaviour, there exists a reasonable consistency between the experimental measurement and theoretical attempt for the entropy and energy per particle. In the fractional exclusion statistics formalism, the behaviour of the isochore heat capacity for a trapped unitary Fermi gas is also analysed.

  20. Comparison of the unitary pole and Adhikari-Sloan expansions in the three nucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afnan, I.R.; Birrell, N.D.

    1977-01-01

    The binding energy of 3 H, percentage S-, S'- and D-state probability, and charge form factor of 3 He are calculated using the unitary pole and Adhikari-Sloan separable expansions to the Reid soft core potential. Comparison of the results for the two separable expansions show that the expansion of Adhikari and Sloan has the better convergence property, and the lowest rank expansion considered (equivalent to the unitary pole approximation) gives a good approximation to the binding energy of 3 H and the charge form factor of 3 He, even at large momentum transfer (K 2 -2 ). (Author)

  1. Solution of problem of determining spin properties of molecules in unitary formalism of quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimko, G.T.; Luzanov, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the problem of calculating one- and two-particle spin densities, which are needed in calculations of spin-orbit and spin-spin coupling. The proposed solution is oriented toward the application of computational algorithms using unitary group representations; the solution consists of explicit expressions for the matrix elements of spin density operators in terms of the means of products of spin-free generators. This has eliminated a serious problem encountered previously in determining spin characteristics of molecules within the framework of unitary formalism

  2. Polynomial approximation of non-Gaussian unitaries by counting one photon at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Francesco; Treps, Nicolas; Ferrini, Giulia

    2017-05-01

    In quantum computation with continuous-variable systems, quantum advantage can only be achieved if some non-Gaussian resource is available. Yet, non-Gaussian unitary evolutions and measurements suited for computation are challenging to realize in the laboratory. We propose and analyze two methods to apply a polynomial approximation of any unitary operator diagonal in the amplitude quadrature representation, including non-Gaussian operators, to an unknown input state. Our protocols use as a primary non-Gaussian resource a single-photon counter. We use the fidelity of the transformation with the target one on Fock and coherent states to assess the quality of the approximate gate.

  3. How many invariant polynomials are needed to decide local unitary equivalence of qubit states?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciążek, Tomasz; Oszmaniec, Michał; Sawicki, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Given L-qubit states with the fixed spectra of reduced one-qubit density matrices, we find a formula for the minimal number of invariant polynomials needed for solving local unitary (LU) equivalence problem, that is, problem of deciding if two states can be connected by local unitary operations. Interestingly, this number is not the same for every collection of the spectra. Some spectra require less polynomials to solve LU equivalence problem than others. The result is obtained using geometric methods, i.e., by calculating the dimensions of reduced spaces, stemming from the symplectic reduction procedure

  4. Quantum mechanics symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, Walter

    1989-01-01

    "Quantum Dynamics" is a major survey of quantum theory based on Walter Greiner's long-running and highly successful courses at the University of Frankfurt. The key to understanding in quantum theory is to reinforce lecture attendance and textual study by working through plenty of representative and detailed examples. Firm belief in this principle led Greiner to develop his unique course and to transform it into a remarkable and comprehensive text. The text features a large number of examples and exercises involving many of the most advanced topics in quantum theory. These examples give practical and precise demonstrations of how to use the often subtle mathematics behind quantum theory. The text is divided into five volumes: Quantum Mechanics I - An Introduction, Quantum Mechanics II - Symmetries, Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Electrodynamics, Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions. These five volumes take the reader from the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics up to the latest research in partic...

  5. Symmetries of cluster configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, P.

    1975-01-01

    A deeper understanding of clustering phenomena in nuclei must encompass at least two interrelated aspects of the subject: (A) Given a system of A nucleons with two-body interactions, what are the relevant and persistent modes of clustering involved. What is the nature of the correlated nucleon groups which form the clusters, and what is their mutual interaction. (B) Given the cluster modes and their interaction, what systematic patterns of nuclear structure and reactions emerge from it. Are there, for example, families of states which share the same ''cluster parents''. Which cluster modes are compatible or exclude each other. What quantum numbers could characterize cluster configurations. There is no doubt that we can learn a good deal from the experimentalists who have discovered many of the features relevant to aspect (B). Symmetries specific to cluster configurations which can throw some light on both aspects of clustering are discussed

  6. Holography without translational symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Vegh, David

    2013-01-01

    We propose massive gravity as a holographic framework for describing a class of strongly interacting quantum field theories with broken translational symmetry. Bulk gravitons are assumed to have a Lorentz-breaking mass term as a substitute for spatial inhomogeneities. This breaks momentum-conservation in the boundary field theory. At finite chemical potential, the gravity duals are charged black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime. The conductivity in these systems generally exhibits a Drude peak that approaches a delta function in the massless gravity limit. Furthermore, the optical conductivity shows an emergent scaling law: $|\\sigma(\\omega)| \\approx {A \\over \\omega^{\\alpha}} + B$. This result is consistent with that found earlier by Horowitz, Santos, and Tong who introduced an explicit inhomogeneous lattice into the system.

  7. On the SU(2)× SU(2) symmetry in the Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubczyk, Dorota; Jakubczyk, Paweł

    2012-08-01

    We discuss the one-dimensional Hubbard model, on finite sites spin chain, in context of the action of the direct product of two unitary groups SU(2)× SU(2). The symmetry revealed by this group is applicable in the procedure of exact diagonalization of the Hubbard Hamiltonian. This result combined with the translational symmetry, given as the basis of wavelets of the appropriate Fourier transforms, provides, besides the energy, additional conserved quantities, which are presented in the case of a half-filled, four sites spin chain. Since we are dealing with four elementary excitations, two quasiparticles called "spinons", which carry spin, and two other called "holon" and "antyholon", which carry charge, the usual spin- SU(2) algebra for spinons and the so called pseudospin-SU(2) algebra for holons and antiholons, provide four additional quantum numbers.

  8. Flat deformation theorem and symmetries in spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosa, Josep; Carot, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    The flat deformation theorem states that given a semi-Riemannian analytic metric g on a manifold, locally there always exists a two-form F, a scalar function c, and an arbitrarily prescribed scalar constraint depending on the point x of the manifold and on F and c, say Ψ(c, F, x) = 0, such that the deformed metric η = cg - εF 2 is semi-Riemannian and flat. In this paper we first show that the above result implies that every (Lorentzian analytic) metric g may be written in the extended Kerr-Schild form, namely η ab := ag ab - 2bk (a l b) where η is flat and k a , l a are two null covectors such that k a l a = -1; next we show how the symmetries of g are connected to those of η, more precisely; we show that if the original metric g admits a conformal Killing vector (including Killing vectors and homotheties), then the deformation may be carried out in a way such that the flat deformed metric η 'inherits' that symmetry.

  9. Reduction by symmetries in singular quantum-mechanical problems: General scheme and application to Aharonov-Bohm model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A. G., E-mail: smirnov@lpi.ru [I. E. Tamm Theory Department, P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    We develop a general technique for finding self-adjoint extensions of a symmetric operator that respects a given set of its symmetries. Problems of this type naturally arise when considering two- and three-dimensional Schrödinger operators with singular potentials. The approach is based on constructing a unitary transformation diagonalizing the symmetries and reducing the initial operator to the direct integral of a suitable family of partial operators. We prove that symmetry preserving self-adjoint extensions of the initial operator are in a one-to-one correspondence with measurable families of self-adjoint extensions of partial operators obtained by reduction. The general scheme is applied to the three-dimensional Aharonov-Bohm Hamiltonian describing the electron in the magnetic field of an infinitely thin solenoid. We construct all self-adjoint extensions of this Hamiltonian, invariant under translations along the solenoid and rotations around it, and explicitly find their eigenfunction expansions.

  10. Symmetry chains and adaptation coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzer, H.P.; Gruber, B.

    1985-01-01

    Given a symmetry chain of physical significance it becomes necessary to obtain states which transform properly with respect to the symmetries of the chain. In this article we describe a method which permits us to calculate symmetry-adapted quantum states with relative ease. The coefficients for the symmetry-adapted linear combinations are obtained, in numerical form, in terms of the original states of the system and can thus be represented in the form of numerical tables. In addition, one also obtains automatically the matrix elements for the operators of the symmetry groups which are involved, and thus for any physical operator which can be expressed either as an element of the algebra or of the enveloping algebra. The method is well suited for computers once the physically relevant symmetry chain, or chains, have been defined. While the method to be described is generally applicable to any physical system for which semisimple Lie algebras play a role we choose here a familiar example in order to illustrate the method and to illuminate its simplicity. We choose the nuclear shell model for the case of two nucleons with orbital angular momentum l = 1. While the states of the entire shell transform like the smallest spin representation of SO(25) we restrict our attention to its subgroup SU(6) x SU(2)/sub T/. We determine the symmetry chains which lead to total angular momentum SU(2)/sub J/ and obtain the symmetry-adapted states for these chains

  11. Collective states and crossing symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, W.D.

    1977-01-01

    Collective states are usually described in simple terms but with the use of effective interactions which are supposed to contain more or less complicated contributions. The significance of crossing symmetry is discussed in this connection. Formal problems encountered in the attempts to implement crossing symmetry are pointed out

  12. Singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.A.; Kallosh, R.E.; Rahmanov, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate under which conditions singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries which are "square roots of gravity" can exist. Their existence is non-trivial because there are no fields neutral in gravity. We tabulate several examples of singlets of global and local supersymmetry and κ-symmetry and

  13. ''Natural'' left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Pati, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    It is remarked that left-right symmetry of the starting gauge interactions is retained as a ''natural'' symmetry if it is broken in no way except possibly by mass terms in the Lagrangian. The implications of this result for the unification of coupling constants and for parity nonconservation at low and high energies are stressed

  14. Symmetry guide to ferroaxial transitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlinka, Jiří; Přívratská, J.; Ondrejkovič, Petr; Janovec, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 17 (2016), 1-6, č. článku 177602. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-04121S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : symmetry * symmetry breaking * ferroaxial Transitions * property tensors * Aizu species Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  15. Integrability and symmetries for the Helmholtz oscillator with friction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almendral, Juan A; Sanjuan, Miguel A F

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the Helmholtz oscillator, which is a simple nonlinear oscillator whose equation presents a quadratic nonlinearity and the possibility of escape. When a periodic external force is introduced, the width of the stochastic layer, which is a region around the separatrix where orbits may exhibit transient chaos, is calculated. In the absence of friction and external force, it is well known that analytical solutions exist since it is completely integrable. When only friction is included, there is no analytical solution for all parameter values. However, by means of the Lie theory for differential equations we find a relation between parameters for which the oscillator is integrable. This is related to the fact that the system possesses a symmetry group and the corresponding symmetries are computed. Finally, the analytical explicit solutions are shown and related to the basins of attraction

  16. Fifty years of symmetry operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigner, E.P.

    1978-01-01

    The author begins by discussing the application of symmetry principles in classical physics, which began 150 years ago. He then offers a few remarks on the essence of these principles and their role in the structure of physics; events, laws of nature, and invariance principles - kinematic and then dynamic - are treated. After this general discussion of the various types of symmetries, he considers the fundamental differences in their application in classical and quantum physics; the symmetry principles have greater effectiveness in quantum theory. After a few critical remarks of a general nature on the invariance principles, the author reviews the application of symmetry principles in various areas of quantum mechanics: atomic spectra, molecular physics, solid state physics, nuclear physics, and particle physics. He notes that the role of the different symmetries recognized to be approximate provide the most interesting conclusions

  17. Symmetry inheritance of scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivica Smolić

    2015-01-01

    Matter fields do not necessarily have to share the symmetries with the spacetime they live in. When this happens, we speak of the symmetry inheritance of fields. In this paper we classify the obstructions of symmetry inheritance by the scalar fields, both real and complex, and look more closely at the special cases of stationary and axially symmetric spacetimes. Since the symmetry noninheritance is present in the scalar fields of boson stars and may enable the existence of the black hole scalar hair, our results narrow the possible classes of such solutions. Finally, we define and analyse the symmetry noninheritance contributions to the Komar mass and angular momentum of the black hole scalar hair. (paper)

  18. Shape analysis with subspace symmetries

    KAUST Repository

    Berner, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    We address the problem of partial symmetry detection, i.e., the identification of building blocks a complex shape is composed of. Previous techniques identify parts that relate to each other by simple rigid mappings, similarity transforms, or, more recently, intrinsic isometries. Our approach generalizes the notion of partial symmetries to more general deformations. We introduce subspace symmetries whereby we characterize similarity by requiring the set of symmetric parts to form a low dimensional shape space. We present an algorithm to discover subspace symmetries based on detecting linearly correlated correspondences among graphs of invariant features. We evaluate our technique on various data sets. We show that for models with pronounced surface features, subspace symmetries can be found fully automatically. For complicated cases, a small amount of user input is used to resolve ambiguities. Our technique computes dense correspondences that can subsequently be used in various applications, such as model repair and denoising. © 2010 The Author(s).

  19. Hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2015-12-14

    We present and construct a new kind of orthogonal coordinate system, hyperbolic coordinate system. We present and design a new kind of local linearly polarized vector fields, which is defined as the hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields because the points with the same polarization form a series of hyperbolae. We experimentally demonstrate the generation of such a kind of hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields. In particular, we also study the modified hyperbolic-symmetry vector optical fields with the twofold and fourfold symmetric states of polarization when introducing the mirror symmetry. The tight focusing behaviors of these vector fields are also investigated. In addition, we also fabricate micro-structures on the K9 glass surfaces by several tightly focused (modified) hyperbolic-symmetry vector fields patterns, which demonstrate that the simulated tightly focused fields are in good agreement with the fabricated micro-structures.

  20. Discrete symmetries in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieren, Roland

    2010-12-02

    The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry is discovered which solves the {mu}-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z{sup R}{sub 4} is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)

  1. Spontaneous emergence of gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.

    1987-05-01

    Within the framework of the random dynamics project we have demonstrated several mechanisms for breakdown of a preexisting exact gauge symmetry. This note concerns and reviews a mechanism which works essentially in the opposite direction, leading from am accidental approximate symmetry to an exact formal gauge symmetry. It was shown that although this symmetry is a priori only strictly formal, it can under certain circumstances lead to a physical consequence: the corresponding gauge boson becomes massless. In the chaotic models typical for our random dynamics project there is, of course, a strong competition between this mechanism and mechanisms which temd to destroy the symmetry and give mass(es) to the gauge boson(s). (orig.)

  2. Discrete symmetries in the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieren, Roland

    2010-01-01

    The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z R 4 symmetry is discovered which solves the μ-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z R 4 is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z R 4 symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)

  3. Axions from chiral family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.; Pal, P.B.; Maryland Univ., College Park; Senjanovic, G.

    1985-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that family symmetry, Gsub(F), is spontaneously broken chiral global symmetry. We classify the interesting cases when family symmetry can result in an automatic Peccei-Quinn symmetry U(1)sub(PQ) and thus provide a solution to the strong CP problem. The result disfavors having two or four families. For more than four families, U(1)sub(PQ) is in general automatic. In the case of three families, a unique Higgs sector allows U(1)sub(PQ) in the simplest case of Gsub(F)=[SU(3)] 3 . Cosmological consideration also puts strong constraint on the number of families. For Gsub(F)=[SU(N)] 3 cosmology singles out the three-family (N=3) case as a unique solution if there are three light neutrinos. Possible implication of decoupling theorem as applied to family symmetry breaking is also discussed. (orig.)

  4. Weyl calculus in QED I. The unitary group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amour, L.; Lascar, R.; Nourrigat, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we consider fixed 1/2 spin particles interacting with the quantized radiation field in the context of quantum electrodynamics. We investigate the time evolution operator in studying the reduced propagator (interaction picture). We first prove that this propagator belongs to the class of infinite dimensional Weyl pseudodifferential operators recently introduced in Amour et al. [J. Funct. Anal. 269(9), 2747-2812 (2015)] on Wiener spaces. We give a semiclassical expansion of the symbol of the reduced propagator up to any order with estimates on the remainder terms. Next, taking into account analyticity properties for the Weyl symbol of the reduced propagator, we derive estimates concerning transition probabilities between coherent states.

  5. Geometric phase for N-level systems through unitary integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uskov, D. B.; Rau, A. R. P.

    2006-01-01

    Geometric phases are important in quantum physics and are now central to fault-tolerant quantum computation. For spin 1/2, the Bloch sphere S 2 , together with a U(1) phase, provides a complete SU(2) description. We generalize to N-level systems and SU(N) in terms of a 2(N-1)-dimensional base space and reduction to a (N-1)-level problem, paralleling closely the two-dimensional case. This iteratively solves the time evolution of an N-level system and gives (N-1) geometric phases explicitly. A complete analytical construction of an S 4 Bloch-like sphere for two qubits is given for the Spin(5) or SO(5) subgroup of SU(4)

  6. Matrix elements and few-body calculations within the unitary correlation operator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.; Hergert, H.; Papakonstantinou, P.

    2005-01-01

    We employ the unitary correlation operator method (UCOM) to construct correlated, low-momentum matrix elements of realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. The dominant short-range central and tensor correlations induced by the interaction are included explicitly by an unitary transformation. Using correlated momentum-space matrix elements of the Argonne V18 potential, we show that the unitary transformation eliminates the strong off-diagonal contributions caused by the short-range repulsion and the tensor interaction and leaves a correlated interaction dominated by low-momentum contributions. We use correlated harmonic oscillator matrix elements as input for no-core shell model calculations for few-nucleon systems. Compared to the bare interaction, the convergence properties are dramatically improved. The bulk of the binding energy can already be obtained in very small model spaces or even with a single Slater determinant. Residual long-range correlations, not treated explicitly by the unitary transformation, can easily be described in model spaces of moderate size allowing for fast convergence. By varying the range of the tensor correlator we are able to map out the Tjon line and can in turn constrain the optimal correlator ranges. (orig.)

  7. Matrix elements and few-body calculations within the unitary correlation operator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.; Hergert, H.; Papakonstantinou, P.; Neff, T.; Feldmeier, H.

    2005-01-01

    We employ the unitary correlation operator method (UCOM) to construct correlated, low-momentum matrix elements of realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. The dominant short-range central and tensor correlations induced by the interaction are included explicitly by an unitary transformation. Using correlated momentum-space matrix elements of the Argonne V18 potential, we show that the unitary transformation eliminates the strong off-diagonal contributions caused by the short-range repulsion and the tensor interaction and leaves a correlated interaction dominated by low-momentum contributions. We use correlated harmonic oscillator matrix elements as input for no-core shell model calculations for few-nucleon systems. Compared to the bare interaction, the convergence properties are dramatically improved. The bulk of the binding energy can already be obtained in very small model spaces or even with a single Slater determinant. Residual long-range correlations, not treated explicitly by the unitary transformation, can easily be described in model spaces of moderate size allowing for fast convergence. By varying the range of the tensor correlator we are able to map out the Tjon line and can in turn constrain the optimal correlator ranges

  8. Experimental implementation of optimal linear-optical controlled-unitary gates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lemr, K.; Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Dušek, M.; Soubusta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 15 (2015), "153602-1"-"153602-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : two-qubit gates * optimal linear-optical controlled-unitary gates * quantum computing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.645, year: 2015

  9. The flexible focus: whether spatial attention is unitary or divided depends on observer goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Enns, James T; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    The distribution of visual attention has been the topic of much investigation, and various theories have posited that attention is allocated either as a single unitary focus or as multiple independent foci. In the present experiment, we demonstrate that attention can be flexibly deployed as either a unitary or a divided focus in the same experimental task, depending on the observer's goals. To assess the distribution of attention, we used a dual-stream Attentional Blink (AB) paradigm and 2 target pairs. One component of the AB, Lag-1 sparing, occurs only if the second target pair appears within the focus of attention. By varying whether the first-target-pair could be expected in a predictable location (always in-stream) or not (unpredictably in-stream or between-streams), observers were encouraged to deploy a divided or a unitary focus, respectively. When the second-target-pair appeared between the streams, Lag-1 sparing occurred for the Unpredictable group (consistent with a unitary focus) but not for the Predictable group (consistent with a divided focus). Thus, diametrically different outcomes occurred for physically identical displays, depending on the expectations of the observer about where spatial attention would be required.

  10. Gaussian elimination in split unitary groups with an application to public-key cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Mahalanobis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian elimination is used in special linear groups to solve the word problem. In this paper, we extend Gaussian elimination to split unitary groups. These algorithms have an application in building a public-key cryptosystem, we demonstrate that.

  11. Point transformations and renormalization in the unitary gauge. III. Renormalization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, T.N.

    1976-06-01

    An analysis of two simple gauge theory models is continued using point transformations rather than gauge transformations. The renormalization constants are examined directly in two gauges, the renormalization (Landau) and unitary gauges. The result is that the individual coupling constant renormalizations are identical when calculated in each of the above two gauges, although the wave-function and proper vertex renormalizations differ

  12. Topology of unitary groups and the prime orders of binomial coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, HaiBao; Lin, XianZu

    2017-09-01

    Let $c:SU(n)\\rightarrow PSU(n)=SU(n)/\\mathbb{Z}_{n}$ be the quotient map of the special unitary group $SU(n)$ by its center subgroup $\\mathbb{Z}_{n}$. We determine the induced homomorphism $c^{\\ast}:$ $H^{\\ast}(PSU(n))\\rightarrow H^{\\ast}(SU(n))$ on cohomologies by computing with the prime orders of binomial coefficients

  13. An Integral Representation of Standard Automorphic L Functions for Unitary Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Qin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Let F be a number field, G a quasi-split unitary group of rank n. We show that given an irreducible cuspidal automorphic representation π of G(A, its (partial L function LS(s,π,σ can be represented by a Rankin-Selberg-type integral involving cusp forms of π, Eisenstein series, and theta series.

  14. Beyond the Tipping Point: Issues of Racial Diversity in Magnet Schools Following Unitary Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Claire

    2009-01-01

    This article uses qualitative case study methodology to examine why the racial composition of magnet schools in Nashville, Tennessee, has shifted to predominantly African American in the aftermath of unitary status. The article compares the policy contexts and parents' reasons for choosing magnet schools at two points in time--under court order…

  15. J(l)-unitary factorization and the Schur algorithm for Nevanlinna functions in an indefinite setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, D.; Dijksma, A.; Langer, H.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a Schur transformation for generalized Nevanlinna functions and show that it can be used in obtaining the unique minimal factorization of a class of rational J(l)-unitary 2 x 2 matrix functions into elementary factors from the same class. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Unitary-model-operator approach to Λ17O and lambda-nucleon effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Shinichiro; Okamoto, Ryoji; Suzuki, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    The unitary-model-operator approach (UMOA) is applied to Λ 17 O. A lambda-nucleon effective interaction is derived, taking the coupling of the sigma-nucleon channel into account. The lambda single-particle energies are calculated for the Os 1/2 , Op 3/2 and Op 1/2 states employing the Nijmegen soft-core potential. (author)

  17. Remote synchronization reveals network symmetries and functional modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Valencia, Miguel; Chavez, Mario; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Latora, Vito

    2013-04-26

    We study a Kuramoto model in which the oscillators are associated with the nodes of a complex network and the interactions include a phase frustration, thus preventing full synchronization. The system organizes into a regime of remote synchronization where pairs of nodes with the same network symmetry are fully synchronized, despite their distance on the graph. We provide analytical arguments to explain this result, and we show how the frustration parameter affects the distribution of phases. An application to brain networks suggests that anatomical symmetry plays a role in neural synchronization by determining correlated functional modules across distant locations.

  18. Whirling orbits around twirling black holes from conformal symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadar, Shahar [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Porfyriadis, Achilleas P. [Department of Physics, UCSB,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2017-03-03

    Dynamics in the throat of rapidly rotating Kerr black holes is governed by an emergent near-horizon conformal symmetry. The throat contains unstable circular orbits at radii extending from the ISCO down to the light ring. We show that they are related by conformal transformations to physical plunges and osculating trajectories. These orbits have angular momentum arbitrarily higher than that of ISCO. Using the conformal symmetry we compute analytically the radiation produced by the physical orbits. We also present a simple formula for the full self-force on such trajectories in terms of the self-force on circular orbits.

  19. Spin, mass, and symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics

  20. Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The boo...

  1. Spin, mass, and symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    When the strong interactions were a mystery, spin seemed to be just a complication on top of an already puzzling set of phenomena. But now that particle physicists have understood the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, to be gauge theories, with matter built of quarks and leptons, it is recognized that the special properties of spin 1/2 and spin 1 particles have taken central role in the understanding of Nature. The lectures in this summer school will be devoted to the use of spin in unravelling detailed questions about the fundamental interactions. Thus, why not begin by posing a deeper question: Why is there spin? More precisely, why do the basic pointlike constituents of Nature carry intrinsic nonzero quanta of angular momentum? Though the authos has found no definite answer to this question, the pursuit of an answer has led through a wonderful tangle of speculations on the deep structure of Nature. Is spin constructed or is it fundamental? Is it the requirement of symmetry? In the furthest flights taken, it seems that space-time itself is too restrictive a notion, and that this must be generalized in order to gain a full appreciation of spin. In any case, there is no doubt that spin must play a central role in unlocking the mysteries of fundamental physics.

  2. Symmetries in nuclear structure

    CERN Document Server

    Allaart, K; Dieperink, A

    1983-01-01

    The 1982 summer school on nuclear physics, organized by the Nuclear Physics Division of the Netherlands' Physical Society, was the fifth in a series that started in 1963. The number of students attending has always been about one hundred, coming from about thirty countries. The theme of this year's school was symmetry in nuclear physics. This book covers the material presented by the enthusi­ astic speakers, who were invited to lecture on this subject. We think they have succeeded in presenting us with clear and thorough introductory talks at graduate or higher level. The time schedule of the school and the location allowed the participants to make many informal contacts during many social activities, ranging from billiards to surf board sailing. We hope and expect that the combination of a relaxed atmosphere during part of the time and hard work during most of the time, has furthered the interest in, and understanding of, nuclear physics. The organization of the summer school was made possible by substantia...

  3. Quark diquark symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.M. de

    1980-01-01

    Assuming the baryons are made of quark-diquark pairs, the wave functions for the 126 allowed ground states are written. The quark creation and annihilations operators are generalized to describe the quark-diquark structure in terms of a parameter σ. Assuming that all quark-quark interactions are mediated by gluons transforming like an octet of vector mesons, the effective Hamiltonian and the baryon masses as constraint equations for the elements of the mass matrix is written. The symmetry is the SU(6) sub(quark)x SU(21) sub(diquark) broken by quark-quark interactions respectively invariant under U(6), U(2) sub(spin), U(3) and also interactions transforming like the eighth and the third components of SU(3). In the limit of no quark-diquark structure (σ = 0), the ground state masses is titted to within 1% of the experimental data, except for the Δ(1232), where the error is almost 2%. Expanding the decuplet mass equations in terms of σ and keeping terms only up to the second order, this error is reduced to 67%. (Author) [pt

  4. Symmetries of dynamically equivalent theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M.; Tyutin, I.V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-15

    A natural and very important development of constrained system theory is a detail study of the relation between the constraint structure in the Hamiltonian formulation with specific features of the theory in the Lagrangian formulation, especially the relation between the constraint structure with the symmetries of the Lagrangian action. An important preliminary step in this direction is a strict demonstration, and this is the aim of the present article, that the symmetry structures of the Hamiltonian action and of the Lagrangian action are the same. This proved, it is sufficient to consider the symmetry structure of the Hamiltonian action. The latter problem is, in some sense, simpler because the Hamiltonian action is a first-order action. At the same time, the study of the symmetry of the Hamiltonian action naturally involves Hamiltonian constraints as basic objects. One can see that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian actions are dynamically equivalent. This is why, in the present article, we consider from the very beginning a more general problem: how the symmetry structures of dynamically equivalent actions are related. First, we present some necessary notions and relations concerning infinitesimal symmetries in general, as well as a strict definition of dynamically equivalent actions. Finally, we demonstrate that there exists an isomorphism between classes of equivalent symmetries of dynamically equivalent actions. (author)

  5. Probing the two-scale-factor universality hypothesis by exact rotation symmetry-breaking mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, J.F.S.; Lima, K.A.L.; Carvalho, P.R.S. [Universidade Federal do Piaui, Departamento de Fisica, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Sena-Junior, M.I. [Universidade de Pernambuco, Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Fisica, Maceio, AL (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We probe the two-scale-factor universality hypothesis by evaluating, firstly explicitly and analytically at the one-loop order, the loop quantum corrections to the amplitude ratios for O(N)λφ{sup 4} scalar field theories with rotation symmetry breaking in three distinct and independent methods in which the rotation symmetry-breaking mechanism is treated exactly. We show that the rotation symmetry-breaking amplitude ratios turn out to be identical in the three methods and equal to their respective rotation symmetry-breaking ones, although the amplitudes themselves, in general, depend on the method employed and on the rotation symmetry-breaking parameter. At the end, we show that all these results can be generalized, through an inductive process based on a general theorem emerging from the exact calculation, to any loop level and physically interpreted based on symmetry ideas. (orig.)

  6. Dynamics of symmetry breaking during quantum real-time evolution in a minimal model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, Markus; Vojta, Matthias

    2014-10-31

    One necessary criterion for the thermalization of a nonequilibrium quantum many-particle system is ergodicity. It is, however, not sufficient in cases where the asymptotic long-time state lies in a symmetry-broken phase but the initial state of nonequilibrium time evolution is fully symmetric with respect to this symmetry. In equilibrium, one particular symmetry-broken state is chosen as a result of an infinitesimal symmetry-breaking perturbation. From a dynamical point of view the question is: Can such an infinitesimal perturbation be sufficient for the system to establish a nonvanishing order during quantum real-time evolution? We study this question analytically for a minimal model system that can be associated with symmetry breaking, the ferromagnetic Kondo model. We show that after a quantum quench from a completely symmetric state the system is able to break its symmetry dynamically and discuss how these features can be observed experimentally.

  7. Astroparticle tests of Lorentz symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Jorge [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Lorentz symmetry is a cornerstone of modern physics. As the spacetime symmetry of special relativity, Lorentz invariance is a basic component of the standard model of particle physics and general relativity, which to date constitute our most successful descriptions of nature. Deviations from exact symmetry would radically change our view of the universe and current experiments allow us to test the validity of this assumption. In this talk, I describe effects of Lorentz violation in cosmic rays and gamma rays that can be studied in current observatories.

  8. Symmetry of quantum molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenin, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the current state-of-art in describing quantum molecular dynamics based on symmetry principles alone. This qualitative approach is of particular interest as the only method currently available for a broad and topical class of problems in the internal dynamics of molecules. Besides, a molecule is a physical system whose collective internal motions are geometrically structured, and its perturbation theory description requires a symmetry analysis of this structure. The nature of the geometrical symmetry groups crucial for the closed formulation of the qualitative approach is discussed [ru

  9. Symmetry of quantum intramolecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burenin, Alexander V

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the current progress in describing quantum intramolecular dynamics using merely symmetry principles as a basis. This closed qualitative approach is of particular interest because it is the only method currently available for a broad class of topical problems in the internal dynamics of molecules. Moreover, a molecule makes a physical system whose collective internal motions are geometrically structured, so that its description by perturbation methods requires a symmetry analysis of this structure. The nature of the geometrical symmetry groups crucial for the closed formulation of the qualitative approach is discussed. In particular, the point group of a molecule is of this type. (methodological notes)

  10. Geometrical spin symmetry and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestov, I. B.

    2011-01-01

    Unification of General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Mechanics leads to General Quantum Mechanics which includes into itself spindynamics as a theory of spin phenomena. The key concepts of spindynamics are geometrical spin symmetry and the spin field (space of defining representation of spin symmetry). The essence of spin is the bipolar structure of geometrical spin symmetry induced by the gravitational potential. The bipolar structure provides a natural derivation of the equations of spindynamics. Spindynamics involves all phenomena connected with spin and provides new understanding of the strong interaction.

  11. Scale symmetry and virial theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westenholz, C. von

    1978-01-01

    Scale symmetry (or dilatation invariance) is discussed in terms of Noether's Theorem expressed in terms of a symmetry group action on phase space endowed with a symplectic structure. The conventional conceptual approach expressing invariance of some Hamiltonian under scale transformations is re-expressed in alternate form by infinitesimal automorphisms of the given symplectic structure. That is, the vector field representing scale transformations leaves the symplectic structure invariant. In this model, the conserved quantity or constant of motion related to scale symmetry is the virial. It is shown that the conventional virial theorem can be derived within this framework

  12. Strings, Branes and Symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerberg, A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent dramatic progress in the understanding of the non-perturbative structure of superstring theory shows that extended objects of various kinds, collectively referred to as p-branes, are an integral part of the theory. In this thesis, comprising an introductory text and seven appended research papers, we study various aspects of p-branes with relevance for superstring theory. The first part of the introductory text is a brief review of string theory focussing on the role of p-branes. In particular, we consider the so-called D-branes which currently are attracting a considerable amount of attention. The purpose of this part is mainly to put into context the results of paper 4, 5 and 6 concerning action functionals describing the low-energy dynamics of D-branes. The discussion of perturbative string theory given in this part of the introduction is also intended to provide some background to paper 2 which contains an application of the Reggeon-sewing approach to the construction of string vertices. The second part covers a rather different subject, namely higher-dimensional loop algebras and their cohomology, with the aim of facilitating the reading of papers 1, 3 and 7. The relation to p-branes is to be found in paper 1 where we introduce a certain higher-dimensional generalization of the loop algebra and discuss its potential applicability as a symmetry algebra for p-branes. Papers 3 and 7 are mathematically oriented out-growths of this paper addressing the issue of realizing algebras of this kind, known in physics as current algebras, in terms of pseudo differential operators (PSDOs). The main result of paper 3 is a proof of the equivalence between certain Lie-algebra cocycles on the space of second-quantizable PSDOs

  13. Effects of rotational symmetry breaking in polymer-coated nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanović, D.; Kerr-Winter, M.; Eccleston, R. C.; Hoogenboom, B. W.; Ford, I. J.

    2015-01-01

    The statistical theory of polymers tethered around the inner surface of a cylindrical channel has traditionally employed the assumption that the equilibrium density of the polymers is independent of the azimuthal coordinate. However, simulations have shown that this rotational symmetry can be broken when there are attractive interactions between the polymers. We investigate the phases that emerge in these circumstances, and we quantify the effect of the symmetry assumption on the phase behavior of the system. In the absence of this assumption, one can observe large differences in the equilibrium densities between the rotationally symmetric case and the non-rotationally symmetric case. A simple analytical model is developed that illustrates the driving thermodynamic forces responsible for this symmetry breaking. Our results have implications for the current understanding of the behavior of polymers in cylindrical nanopores.

  14. Effects of rotational symmetry breaking in polymer-coated nanopores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmanović, D.; Hoogenboom, B. W.; Ford, I. J. [London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Kerr-Winter, M.; Eccleston, R. C. [Centre for Mathematics, Physics and Engineering in the Life Sciences and Experimental Biology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-01-21

    The statistical theory of polymers tethered around the inner surface of a cylindrical channel has traditionally employed the assumption that the equilibrium density of the polymers is independent of the azimuthal coordinate. However, simulations have shown that this rotational symmetry can be broken when there are attractive interactions between the polymers. We investigate the phases that emerge in these circumstances, and we quantify the effect of the symmetry assumption on the phase behavior of the system. In the absence of this assumption, one can observe large differences in the equilibrium densities between the rotationally symmetric case and the non-rotationally symmetric case. A simple analytical model is developed that illustrates the driving thermodynamic forces responsible for this symmetry breaking. Our results have implications for the current understanding of the behavior of polymers in cylindrical nanopores.

  15. BIRS Workshop on Calabi-Yau Varieties and Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Shing-Tung; Lewis, James D; Mirror Symmetry V

    2006-01-01

    Since its discovery in the early 1990s, mirror symmetry, or more generally, string theory, has exploded onto the mathematical landscape. This topic touches upon many branches of mathematics and mathematical physics, and has revealed deep connections between subjects previously considered unrelated. The papers in this volume treat mirror symmetry from the perspectives of both mathematics and physics. The articles can be roughly grouped into four sub-categories within the topic of mirror symmetry: arithmetic aspects, geometric aspects, differential geometric and mathematical physics aspects, and geometric analytic aspects. In these works, the reader will find mathematics addressing, and in some cases solving, problems inspired and influenced by string theory. - See more at: http://bookstore.ams.org/amsip-38#sthash.imkmWYgJ.dpuf

  16. Stochastic mechanism of symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseyan, H.Z.

    1983-01-01

    A new symmetry breaking mechanism conditioned by presence of random fields in vacuum is proposed. Massive Yang-Mills fields finally arise, that may be interpreted as ''macroscopic'' manifestation of the ''microscopic'' Yang-Mills massless theory

  17. Shape analysis with subspace symmetries

    KAUST Repository

    Berner, Alexander; Wand, Michael D.; Mitra, Niloy J.; Mewes, Daniel; Seidel, Hans Peter

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of partial symmetry detection, i.e., the identification of building blocks a complex shape is composed of. Previous techniques identify parts that relate to each other by simple rigid mappings, similarity transforms, or, more

  18. Symmetries in the Lagrangean formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigore, D.R.

    1987-09-01

    We generalize the analysis of Levy-Leblond for lagrangean systems with symmetry. We prove that this analysis goes through practically unchanged and after that we analyse in detail some examples.(author)

  19. Renormgroup symmetry for solution functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.; Kovalev, V.F.

    2004-01-01

    The paper contains generalization of the renormgroup algorithm for boundary value problems of mathematical physics and related concept of the renormgroup symmetry, formulated earlier by the authors with reference to models based on differential equations. These algorithm and symmetry are formulated now for models with nonlocal (integral) equations. We discuss in detail and illustrate by examples the applications of the generalized algorithm to models with nonlocal terms which appear as linear functionals of the solution. (author)

  20. Conformal symmetry in quantum finance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Juan M; Lavana, Ulises; Miranda, Elio Martínez

    2014-01-01

    The quantum finance symmetries are studied. In order to do this, the one dimensional free non-relativistic particle and its symmetries are revisited and the particle mass is identified as the inverse of square of the volatility. Furthermore, using financial variables, a Schrödinger algebra representation is constructed. In addition, it is shown that the operators of this last representation are not hermitian and not conserved.

  1. Entanglement entropy in quantum spin chains with broken reflection symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadar, Zoltan; Zimboras, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement entropy of a block of L sites in quasifree translation-invariant spin chains concentrating on the effect of reflection-symmetry breaking. The Majorana two-point functions corresponding to the Jordan-Wigner transformed fermionic modes are determined in the most general case; from these, it follows that reflection symmetry in the ground state can only be broken if the model is quantum critical. The large L asymptotics of the entropy are calculated analytically for general gauge-invariant models, which have, until now, been done only for the reflection-symmetric sector. Analytical results are also derived for certain nongauge-invariant models (e.g., for the Ising model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction). We also study numerically finite chains of length N with a nonreflection-symmetric Hamiltonian and report that the reflection symmetry of the entropy of the first L spins is violated but the reflection-symmetric Calabrese-Cardy formula is recovered asymptotically. Furthermore, for noncritical reflection-symmetry-breaking Hamiltonians, we find an anomaly in the behavior of the saturation entropy as we approach the critical line. The paper also provides a concise but extensive review of the block-entropy asymptotics in translation-invariant quasifree spin chains with an analysis of the nearest-neighbor case and the enumeration of the yet unsolved parts of the quasifree landscape.

  2. Symmetry and Phase Transitions in Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iachello, F.

    2009-01-01

    Phase transitions in nuclei have received considerable attention in recent years, especially after the discovery that, contrary to expectations, systems at the critical point of a phase transition display a simple structure. In this talk, quantum phase transitions (QPT), i.e. phase transitions that occur as a function of a coupling constant that appears in the quantum Hamiltonian, H, describing the system, will be reviewed and experimental evidence for their occurrence in nuclei will be presented. The phase transitions discussed in the talk will be shape phase transitions. Different shapes have different symmetries, classified by the dynamic symmetries of the Interacting Boson Model, U(5), SU(3) and SO(6). Very recently, the concept of Quantum Phase Transitions has been extended to Excited State Quantum Phase Transitions (ESQPT). This extension will be discussed and some evidence for incipient ESQPT in nuclei will be presented. Systems at the critical point of a phase transition are called 'critical systems'. Approximate analytic formulas for energy spectra and other properties of 'critical nuclei', in particular for nuclei at the critical point of the second order U(5)-SO(6) transition, called E(5), and along the line of first order U(5)-SU(3) transitions, called X(5), will be presented. Experimental evidence for 'critical nuclei' will be also shown. Finally, the microscopic derivation of shape phase transitions in nuclei within the framework of density functional methods will be briefly discussed.(author)

  3. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1×M bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a , uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  4. Dynamics of Three-Body Correlations in Quenched Unitary Bose Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, V. E.; Corson, J. P.; D'Incao, J. P.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate dynamical three-body correlations in the Bose gas during the earliest stages of evolution after a quench to the unitary regime. The development of few-body correlations is theoretically observed by determining the two- and three-body contacts. We find that the growth of three-body correlations is gradual compared to two-body correlations. The three-body contact oscillates coherently, and we identify this as a signature of Efimov trimers. We show that the growth of three-body correlations depends nontrivially on parameters derived from both the density and Efimov physics. These results demonstrate the violation of scaling invariance of unitary bosonic systems via the appearance of log-periodic modulation of three-body correlations.

  5. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1xM bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a, uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes

  6. The solution space of the unitary matrix model string equation and the Sato Grassmannian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, K.N.; Bowick, M.J.; Schwarz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The space of all solutions to the string equation of the symmetric unitary one-matrix model is determined. It is shown that the string equations is equivalent to simple conditions on points V 1 and V 2 in the big cell Gr (0) of the Sato Grassmannian Gr. This is a consequence of a well-defined continuum limit in which the string equation has the simple form [P, 2 - ]=1, with P and 2 - 2x2 matrices of differential operators. These conditions on V 1 and V 2 yield a simple system of first order differential equations whose analysis determines the space of all solutions to the string equation. This geometric formulation leads directly to the Virasoro constraints L n (n≥0), where L n annihilate the two modified-KdV τ-functions whose product gives the partition function of the Unitary Matrix Model. (orig.)

  7. Non-unitary neutrino mixing and CP violation in the minimal inverse seesaw model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinsky, Michal; Ohlsson, Tommy; Xing, Zhi-zhong; Zhang He

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simplified version of the inverse seesaw model, in which only two pairs of the gauge-singlet neutrinos are introduced, to interpret the observed neutrino mass hierarchy and lepton flavor mixing at or below the TeV scale. This 'minimal' inverse seesaw scenario (MISS) is technically natural and experimentally testable. In particular, we show that the effective parameters describing the non-unitary neutrino mixing matrix are strongly correlated in the MISS, and thus, their upper bounds can be constrained by current experimental data in a more restrictive way. The Jarlskog invariants of non-unitary CP violation are calculated, and the discovery potential of such new CP-violating effects in the near detector of a neutrino factory is discussed.

  8. Symmetry-based reciprocity: evolutionary constraints on a proximate mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the evolution of reciprocal cooperation has attracted an enormous attention, the proximate mechanisms underlying the ability of animals to cooperate reciprocally are comparatively neglected. Symmetry-based reciprocity is a hypothetical proximate mechanism that has been suggested to be widespread among cognitively unsophisticated animals. Methods. We developed two agent-based models of symmetry-based reciprocity (one relying on an arbitrary tag and the other on interindividual proximity) and tested their ability both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Results. Populations formed by agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received: two common aspects of animal cooperation. However, when reproduction and selection across multiple generations were added to the models, agents adopting symmetry-based reciprocity were outcompeted by selfish agents that never cooperated. Discussion. In order to evolve, hypothetical proximate mechanisms must be able to stand competition from alternative strategies. While the results of our simulations require confirmation using analytical methods, we provisionally suggest symmetry-based reciprocity is to be abandoned as a possible proximate mechanism underlying the ability of animals to reciprocate cooperative interactions.

  9. Symmetries and groups in particle physics; Symmetrien und Gruppen in der Teilchenphysik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Stefan [Mainz Univ. (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this book consists of a didactic introduction to the group-theoretical considerations and methods, which have led to an ever deeper understanding of the interactions of the elementary particles. The first three chapters deal primarily with the foundations of the representation theory of primarily finite groups, whereby many results are also transferable to compact Lie groups. In the third chapter we discuss the concept of Lie groups and their connection with Lie algebras. In the remaining chapter it is mainly about the application of group theory in physics. Chapter 4 deals with the groups SO(3) and SU(2), which occur in connection with the description of the angular momentum in quantum mechanics. We discuss the Wigner-Eckar theorem together with some applications. In chapter 5 we are employed to the composition properties of strongly interacting systems, so called hadrons, and discuss extensively the transformation properties of quarks with relation to the special unitary groups. The Noether theorem is generally treated in connection to the conservation laws belonging to the Galilei group and the Poincare group. We confine us in chapter 6 to internal symmetries, but explain for that extensively the application to quantum field theory. Especially an outlook on the effect of symmetries in form of so called Ward identities is granted. In chapter 7 we turn towards the gauge principle and discuss first the construction of quantum electrodynamics. In the following we generalize the gauge principle to non-Abelian groups (Yang-Mills theories) and formulate the quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Especially we take a view of ''random'' global symmetries of QCD, especially the chiral symmetry. In chapter 8 we illuminate the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking both for global and for local symmetries. In the final chapter we work out the group-theoretical structure of the Standard Model. Finally by means of the group SU(5) we take a view to

  10. Symmetries and modelling functions for diffusion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A G; Spichak, S V; Vedula, Yu S; Naumovets, A G

    2009-01-01

    A constructive approach to the theory of diffusion processes is proposed, which is based on application of both symmetry analysis and the method of modelling functions. An algorithm for construction of the modelling functions is suggested. This algorithm is based on the error function expansion (ERFEX) of experimental concentration profiles. The high-accuracy analytical description of the profiles provided by ERFEX approximation allows a convenient extraction of the concentration dependence of diffusivity from experimental data and prediction of the diffusion process. Our analysis is exemplified by its employment in experimental results obtained for surface diffusion of lithium on the molybdenum (1 1 2) surface precovered with dysprosium. The ERFEX approximation can be directly extended to many other diffusion systems.

  11. Symmetry and group theory in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, M

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of group theory in the context of molecular and crystal symmetry, this book covers both point-group and space-group symmetries.Provides a comprehensive discussion of group theory in the context of molecular and crystal symmetryCovers both point-group and space-group symmetriesIncludes tutorial solutions

  12. Toward a self-consistent and unitary reaction network for big bang nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Mark W.; Brown, Lowell S.; Hale, Gerald M.; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna C.; Jungman, Gerard; Kawano, Toshihiko, E-mail: mparis@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Fuller, George M.; Grohs, Evan B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Kunieda, Satoshi [Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Unitarity, the mathematical expression of the conservation of probability in multichannel reactions, is an essential ingredient in the development of accurate nuclear reaction networks appropriate for nucleosynthesis in a variety of environments. We describe our ongoing program to develop a 'unitary reaction network' for the big-bang nucleosynthesis environment and look at an example of the need and power of unitary parametrizations of nuclear scattering and reaction data. Recent attention has been focused on the possible role of the {sup 9}B compound nuclear system in the resonant destruction of {sup 7}Li during primordial nucleosynthesis. We have studied reactions in the {sup 9}B compound system with a multichannel, two-body unitary R-matrix code (EDA) using the known elastic and reaction data, in a four-channel treatment. The data include elastic {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,{sup 3}He){sup 6}Li differential cross sections from 0.7 to 2.0 MeV, integrated reaction cross sections for energies from 0.7 to 5.0 MeV for {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,p){sup 8}Be* and from 0.4 to 5.0 MeV for the {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,γ){sup 7}Be reaction. Capture data have been added to the previous analysis with integrated cross section measurements from 0.7 to 0.825 MeV for {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,γ){sup 9}B. The resulting resonance parameters are compared with tabulated values from TUNL Nuclear Data Group analyses. Previously unidentified resonances are noted and the relevance of this analysis and a unitary reaction network for big-bang nucleosynthesis are emphasized. (author)

  13. Equivalence of the Weyl, Coulomb, unitary, and covariant gauges in the functional Schrodinger picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namgung, W.

    1991-01-01

    The well known requirement that physical theories should be gauge independent is not so apparent in the actual calculation of gauge theories, especially in the perturbative approach. In this paper the authors show that the Weyl, Coulomb, and unitary gauges of the scalar QED are manifestly equivalent in the context of the functional Schrodinger picture. Further, the three gauge conditions are shown equivalent to the covariant gauge in the way that they correspond to some specific cases of the latter

  14. Kondo lattice model: Unitary transformations, spin dynamics, strongly correlated charged modes, and vacuum instability

    OpenAIRE

    Prats, J. M.; Lopez-Aguilar, F.

    1996-01-01

    Using unitary transformations, we express the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian in terms of fermionic operators that annihilate the ground state of the interacting system and that represent the best possible approximations to the actual charged excitations. In this way, we obtain an effective Hamiltonian which, for small couplings, consists in a kinetic term for conduction electrons and holes, an RKKY-like term, and a renormalized Kondo interaction. The physical picture of the system implied by this ...

  15. High-energy properties of a class of unitary eikonal models for multiproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Redei, L B

    1974-01-01

    The high-energy properties of a simple class of unitary, crossing- symmetric eikonal models of multiproduction are discussed on the basis of the general closed expression given for the S-matrix elements in a previous publication. In particular, the high-energy behaviour of the multiplicity moments is discussed and it is shown that the KNO scaling relation emerges in a very natural fashion in this class of models. (8 refs).

  16. On the reconstruction of a unitary matrix from its moduli. Existence of continuous ambiguities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auberson, G.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that, for an n x n unitary matrix with n ≥ 4, the knowledge of the moduli of its elements is not always sufficient to determine this matrix up to 'trivial' or 'discrete' ambiguities. Using a parametrization a la Kobayashi-Maskawa in the case n=4, we exhibit various configurations of the moduli for which a continuous ambiguity appears (i.e., some non-trivial phase remains free). (orig.)

  17. Toward a self-consistent and unitary reaction network for big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, Mark W.; Brown, Lowell S.; Hale, Gerald M.; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna C.; Jungman, Gerard; Kawano, Toshihiko; Fuller, George M.; Grohs, Evan B.; Kunieda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Unitarity, the mathematical expression of the conservation of probability in multichannel reactions, is an essential ingredient in the development of accurate nuclear reaction networks appropriate for nucleosynthesis in a variety of environments. We describe our ongoing program to develop a 'unitary reaction network' for the big-bang nucleosynthesis environment and look at an example of the need and power of unitary parametrizations of nuclear scattering and reaction data. Recent attention has been focused on the possible role of the 9 B compound nuclear system in the resonant destruction of 7 Li during primordial nucleosynthesis. We have studied reactions in the 9 B compound system with a multichannel, two-body unitary R-matrix code (EDA) using the known elastic and reaction data, in a four-channel treatment. The data include elastic 6 Li( 3 He, 3 He) 6 Li differential cross sections from 0.7 to 2.0 MeV, integrated reaction cross sections for energies from 0.7 to 5.0 MeV for 6 Li( 3 He,p) 8 Be* and from 0.4 to 5.0 MeV for the 6 Li( 3 He,γ) 7 Be reaction. Capture data have been added to the previous analysis with integrated cross section measurements from 0.7 to 0.825 MeV for 6 Li( 3 He,γ) 9 B. The resulting resonance parameters are compared with tabulated values from TUNL Nuclear Data Group analyses. Previously unidentified resonances are noted and the relevance of this analysis and a unitary reaction network for big-bang nucleosynthesis are emphasized. (author)

  18. Massless scalar field in de Sitter spacetime: unitary quantum time evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Blas, Daniel Martín-de; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena; Velhinho, José M

    2013-01-01

    We prove that, under the standard conformal scaling, a free scalar field in de Sitter spacetime admits an O(4)-invariant Fock quantization such that time evolution is unitarily implemented. Since this applies in particular to the massless case, this result disproves previous claims in the literature. We discuss the relationship between this quantization with unitary dynamics and the family of O(4)-invariant Hadamard states given by Allen and Folacci, as well as with the Bunch–Davies vacuum. (paper)

  19. Structural symmetry and protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodsell, D S; Olson, A J

    2000-01-01

    The majority of soluble and membrane-bound proteins in modern cells are symmetrical oligomeric complexes with two or more subunits. The evolutionary selection of symmetrical oligomeric complexes is driven by functional, genetic, and physicochemical needs. Large proteins are selected for specific morphological functions, such as formation of rings, containers, and filaments, and for cooperative functions, such as allosteric regulation and multivalent binding. Large proteins are also more stable against denaturation and have a reduced surface area exposed to solvent when compared with many individual, smaller proteins. Large proteins are constructed as oligomers for reasons of error control in synthesis, coding efficiency, and regulation of assembly. Symmetrical oligomers are favored because of stability and finite control of assembly. Several functions limit symmetry, such as interaction with DNA or membranes, and directional motion. Symmetry is broken or modified in many forms: quasisymmetry, in which identical subunits adopt similar but different conformations; pleomorphism, in which identical subunits form different complexes; pseudosymmetry, in which different molecules form approximately symmetrical complexes; and symmetry mismatch, in which oligomers of different symmetries interact along their respective symmetry axes. Asymmetry is also observed at several levels. Nearly all complexes show local asymmetry at the level of side chain conformation. Several complexes have reciprocating mechanisms in which the complex is asymmetric, but, over time, all subunits cycle through the same set of conformations. Global asymmetry is only rarely observed. Evolution of oligomeric complexes may favor the formation of dimers over complexes with higher cyclic symmetry, through a mechanism of prepositioned pairs of interacting residues. However, examples have been found for all of the crystallographic point groups, demonstrating that functional need can drive the evolution of

  20. On the complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal superconformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Oliver

    2009-08-03

    Aiming at a complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal models (where the assumption of space-time supersymmetry has been dropped), it is shown that each candidate for a modular invariant partition function of such a theory is indeed the partition function of a minimal model. A family of models constructed via orbifoldings of either the diagonal model or of the space-time supersymmetric exceptional models demonstrates that there exists a unitary N=2 minimal model for every one of the allowed partition functions in the list obtained from Gannon's work. Kreuzer and Schellekens' conjecture that all simple current invariants can be obtained as orbifolds of the diagonal model, even when the extra assumption of higher-genus modular invariance is dropped, is confirmed in the case of the unitary N=2 minimal models by simple counting arguments. We nd a nice characterisation of the projection from the Hilbert space of a minimal model with k odd to its modular invariant subspace, and we present a new simple proof of the superconformal version of the Verlinde formula for the minimal models using simple currents. Finally we demonstrate a curious relation between the generating function of simple current invariants and the Riemann zeta function. (orig.)

  1. Unitary assessment of economical efficiency of the energy resources for electricity production in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, Gheorghe

    2004-01-01

    In our country, within the studies, on which the development strategies of power output are based on, the assessment of the economical efficiency of the use of two main energetic resources, the fuel used in cogeneration thermal power plants and the water used in hydropower plants respectively, was made in compliance with non-unitary specific norms. In contradiction with the degree of utilization of hydroelectric resources, realized all over the world in the developed countries (80-90%) resulted that in our country, where the degree of utilization is only 40%, the use of hydroelectric potential is not yet justified from technical-economical point of view. This anomaly was determined by the cause of non-unitary assessment of the economic efficiency for the cogeneration thermo-power plants and hydropower plants. This paper presents comparatively the elements, which were to the basis of the assessment of the economic efficiency for two types of electrical power plants, and one presents a proposal in the aim to perform a unitary assessment of the economical efficiency by applying efficiently the laws in force. (author)

  2. On the complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal superconformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Oliver

    2009-08-03

    Aiming at a complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal models (where the assumption of space-time supersymmetry has been dropped), it is shown that each candidate for a modular invariant partition function of such a theory is indeed the partition function of a minimal model. A family of models constructed via orbifoldings of either the diagonal model or of the space-time supersymmetric exceptional models demonstrates that there exists a unitary N=2 minimal model for every one of the allowed partition functions in the list obtained from Gannon's work. Kreuzer and Schellekens' conjecture that all simple current invariants can be obtained as orbifolds of the diagonal model, even when the extra assumption of higher-genus modular invariance is dropped, is confirmed in the case of the unitary N=2 minimal models by simple counting arguments. We nd a nice characterisation of the projection from the Hilbert space of a minimal model with k odd to its modular invariant subspace, and we present a new simple proof of the superconformal version of the Verlinde formula for the minimal models using simple currents. Finally we demonstrate a curious relation between the generating function of simple current invariants and the Riemann zeta function. (orig.)

  3. On the complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal superconformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at a complete classi cation of unitary N=2 minimal models (where the assumption of space-time supersymmetry has been dropped), it is shown that each candidate for a modular invariant partition function of such a theory is indeed the partition function of a minimal model. A family of models constructed via orbifoldings of either the diagonal model or of the space-time supersymmetric exceptional models demonstrates that there exists a unitary N=2 minimal model for every one of the allowed partition functions in the list obtained from Gannon's work. Kreuzer and Schellekens' conjecture that all simple current invariants can be obtained as orbifolds of the diagonal model, even when the extra assumption of higher-genus modular invariance is dropped, is confirmed in the case of the unitary N=2 minimal models by simple counting arguments. We nd a nice characterisation of the projection from the Hilbert space of a minimal model with k odd to its modular invariant subspace, and we present a new simple proof of the superconformal version of the Verlinde formula for the minimal models using simple currents. Finally we demonstrate a curious relation between the generating function of simple current invariants and the Riemann zeta function. (orig.)

  4. Analytic trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, William J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Analytic Trigonometry details the fundamental concepts and underlying principle of analytic geometry. The title aims to address the shortcomings in the instruction of trigonometry by considering basic theories of learning and pedagogy. The text first covers the essential elements from elementary algebra, plane geometry, and analytic geometry. Next, the selection tackles the trigonometric functions of angles in general, basic identities, and solutions of equations. The text also deals with the trigonometric functions of real numbers. The fifth chapter details the inverse trigonometric functions

  5. Matrix Elements of One- and Two-Body Operators in the Unitary Group Approach (I)-Formalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Lian-Rong; PAN Feng

    2001-01-01

    The tensor algebraic method is used to derive general one- and two-body operator matrix elements within the Un representations, which are useful in the unitary group approach to the configuration interaction problems of quantum many-body systems.

  6. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  7. Prediction of Human Eye Fixations using Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kootstra, Gert; Schomaker, Lambert R. B.

    2009-01-01

    Humans are very sensitive to symmetry in visual patterns. Reaction time experiments show that symmetry is detected and recognized very rapidly. This suggests that symmetry is a highly salient feature. Existing computational models of saliency, however, have mainly focused on contrast as a measure of saliency. In this paper, we discuss local symmetry as a measure of saliency. We propose a number of symmetry models and perform an eye-tracking study with human participants viewing photographic i...

  8. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A

    2003-01-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  9. Accurate powder patterns and new spectral shape in orthorrombic symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Tovany, L.

    1991-01-01

    The shape of the powder pattern of the center resonance line (M= 1/2 ↔ -1/2) for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in orthorhombic symmetry, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with quadrupole interaction, is determined for all values of the crystal field symmetry parameter N by means of a general analytical method developed by Beltran-Lopez and Castro-Tello. Analytical functions in terms of elliptical integrals are obtained which are good approximations to the true powder pattern except in a narrow region around the field value corresponding to E=-2n 2 /3. numerical gaussian quadrature of the powder pattern from the single-variable integral arising in the analytical method is shown to be a very efficient semianalytical method of calculation for computer work, being much smoother and requiring only a few seconds of CPU time versus the several minutes needed with the grid of the Monte Carlo methods. The semianalytical powder patterns reveal the existence of a previous unknown EPR spectral feature in orthorhombic symmetry resembling a divergence. This feature which should appear at E=-2n 2 /3 for asymmetry parameter values near N=√ of 2/3, is hidden in the experimental spectra by the broadening effect of the linewidth of the individual crystallites. Comparison of experimental and simulated spectra obtained by convoluting powder patterns with first-derivate lorentzian lineshapes of convenient width are also shown. Semianalytical spectra are much smoother than Monte Carlo simulated spectra, revealing finer spectral features. (Author)

  10. Non-unitary boson mapping and its application to nuclear collective motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Kenjiro

    2001-01-01

    First, the general theory of boson mapping for even-number many-fermion systems is surveyed. In order to overcome the confusion concerning the so-called unphysical or spurious states in the boson mapping, the correct concept of the unphysical states is precisely given in a clear-cut way. Next, a method to apply the boson mapping to a truncated many-fermion Hilbert space consisting of collective phonons is proposed, by putting special emphasis on the Dyson-type non-unitary boson mapping. On the basis of this method, it becomes possible for the first time to apply the Dyson-type boson mapping to analyses of collective motions in realistic nuclei. This method is also extended to be applicable to odd-number-fermion systems. As known well, the Dyson-type boson mapping is a non-unitary transformation and it gives a non-Hermitian boson Hamiltonian. It is not easy (but not impossible) to solve the eigenstates of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. A Hermitian treatment of this non-Hermitian eigenvalue problem is discussed and it is shown that this treatment is a very good approximation. using this Hermitian treatment, we can obtain the normal-ordered Holstein-Primakoff-type boson expansion in the multi-collective-phonon subspace. Thereby the convergence of the boson expansion can be tested. Some examples of application of the Dyson-type non-unitary boson mapping to simplified models and realistic nuclei are also shown, and we can see that it is quite useful for analysis of the collective motions in realistic nuclei. In contrast to the above-mentioned ordinary type of boson mapping, which may be called a a 'static' boson mapping, the Dyson-type non-unitary self-consistent-collective-coordinate method is discussed. The latter is, so to speak, a 'dynamical' boson mapping, which is a dynamical extension of the ordinary boson mapping to be capable to include the coupling effects from the non-collective degrees of freedom self-consistently.Thus all of the Dyson-type non-unitary boson

  11. Symmetry and Asymmetry Level Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Garrido

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Usually, Symmetry and Asymmetry are considered as two opposite sides of a coin: an object is either totally symmetric, or totally asymmetric, relative to pattern objects. Intermediate situations of partial symmetry or partial asymmetry are not considered. But this dichotomy on the classification lacks of a necessary and realistic gradation. For this reason, it is convenient to introduce "shade regions", modulating the degree of Symmetry (a fuzzy concept. Here, we will analyze the Asymmetry problem by successive attempts of description and by the introduction of the Asymmetry Level Function, as a new Normal Fuzzy Measure. Our results (both Theorems and Corollaries suppose to be some new and original contributions to such very active and interesting field of research. Previously, we proceed to the analysis of the state of art.

  12. Symmetry breaking patterns for inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Remko; Roest, Diederik; Stefanyszyn, David

    2018-06-01

    We study inflationary models where the kinetic sector of the theory has a non-linearly realised symmetry which is broken by the inflationary potential. We distinguish between kinetic symmetries which non-linearly realise an internal or space-time group, and which yield a flat or curved scalar manifold. This classification leads to well-known inflationary models such as monomial inflation and α-attractors, as well as a new model based on fixed couplings between a dilaton and many axions which non-linearly realises higher-dimensional conformal symmetries. In this model, inflation can be realised along the dilatonic direction, leading to a tensor-to-scalar ratio r ˜ 0 .01 and a spectral index n s ˜ 0 .975. We refer to the new model as ambient inflation since inflation proceeds along an isometry of an anti-de Sitter ambient space-time, which fully determines the kinetic sector.

  13. Hidden Symmetries of Stochastic Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyka Aneva

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the matrix product states approach to $n$ species diffusion processes the stationary probability distribution is expressed as a matrix product state with respect to a quadratic algebra determined by the dynamics of the process. The quadratic algebra defines a noncommutative space with a $SU_q(n$ quantum group action as its symmetry. Boundary processes amount to the appearance of parameter dependent linear terms in the algebraic relations and lead to a reduction of the $SU_q(n$ symmetry. We argue that the boundary operators of the asymmetric simple exclusion process generate a tridiagonal algebra whose irriducible representations are expressed in terms of the Askey-Wilson polynomials. The Askey-Wilson algebra arises as a symmetry of the boundary problem and allows to solve the model exactly.

  14. Flavor physics without flavor symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Patel, Ketan M.

    2018-04-01

    We quantitatively analyze a quark-lepton flavor model derived from a six-dimensional supersymmetric theory with S O (10 )×U (1 ) gauge symmetry, compactified on an orbifold with magnetic flux. Two bulk 16 -plets charged under the U (1 ) provide the three quark-lepton generations whereas two uncharged 10 -plets yield two Higgs doublets. At the orbifold fixed points mass matrices are generated with rank one or two. Moreover, the zero modes mix with heavy vectorlike split multiplets. The model possesses no flavor symmetries. Nevertheless, there exist a number of relations between Yukawa couplings, remnants of the underlying grand unified theory symmetry and the wave function profiles of the zero modes, which lead to a prediction of the light neutrino mass scale, mν 1˜10-3 eV and heavy Majorana neutrino masses in the range from 1 012 to 1 014 GeV . The model successfully includes thermal leptogenesis.

  15. Abelian Duality, Confinement, and Chiral-Symmetry Breaking in a SU(2) QCD-Like Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uensal, Mithat

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the vacuum structure of SU(2) QCD with multiple massless adjoint representation fermions formulated on a small spatial S 1 xR 3 . The absence of thermal fluctuations, and the fact that quantum fluctuations favor the vacuum with unbroken center symmetry in a weakly coupled regime, renders the interesting dynamics of these theories analytically calculable. Confinement and the generation of the mass gap in the gluonic sector are shown analytically. In this regime, theory exhibits confinement without continuous chiral-symmetry breaking. However, a flavor singlet chiral condensate (which breaks a discrete chiral symmetry) persists at arbitrarily small S 1 . Under certain reasonable assumptions, we show that the theory exhibits a zero temperature chiral phase transition in the absence of any change in spatial center symmetry realizations

  16. The Broken Symmetry of Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastner, Ruth E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify features of time asymmetry in terms of symmetry breaking. It is observed that, in general, a contingent situation or event requires the breaking of an underlying symmetry. The distinction between the universal anisotropy of temporal processes and the irreversibility of certain physical processes is clarified. It is also proposed that the Transactional Interpretation of quantum mechanics offers an effective way to explain general thermodynamic asymmetry in terms of the time asymmetry of radiation, where prior such efforts have fallen short.

  17. The Broken Symmetry of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Ruth E.

    2011-11-01

    This paper seeks to clarify features of time asymmetry in terms of symmetry breaking. It is observed that, in general, a contingent situation or event requires the breaking of an underlying symmetry. The distinction between the universal anisotropy of temporal processes and the irreversibility of certain physical processes is clarified. It is also proposed that the Transactional Interpretation of quantum mechanics offers an effective way to explain general thermodynamic asymmetry in terms of the time asymmetry of radiation, where prior such efforts have fallen short.

  18. Renormalizable models with broken symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becchi, C.; Rouet, A.; Stora, R.

    1975-10-01

    The results of the renormalized perturbation theory, in the absence of massless quanta, are summarized. The global symmetry breaking is studied and the associated currents are discussed in terms of the coupling with a classical Yang Mills field. Gauge theories are discussed; it is most likely that the natural set up should be the theory of fiber bundles and that making a choice of field coordinates makes the situation obscure. An attempt is made in view of clarifying the meaning of the Slavnov symmetry which characterizes gauge field theories [fr

  19. Symmetry analysis of cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Morales, V.

    2013-01-01

    By means of B-calculus [V. García-Morales, Phys. Lett. A 376 (2012) 2645] a universal map for deterministic cellular automata (CAs) has been derived. The latter is shown here to be invariant upon certain transformations (global complementation, reflection and shift). When constructing CA rules in terms of rules of lower range a new symmetry, “invariance under construction” is uncovered. Modular arithmetic is also reformulated within B-calculus and a new symmetry of certain totalistic CA rules, which calculate the Pascal simplices modulo an integer number p, is then also uncovered.

  20. Symmetry of intramolecular quantum dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Burenin, Alexander V

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to give a systematic description of intramolecular quantum dynamics on the basis of only the symmetry principles. In this respect, the book has no analogs in the world literature. The obtained models lead to a simple, purely algebraic, scheme of calculation and are rigorous in the sense that their correctness is limited only to the correct choice of symmetry of the internal dynamics. The book is basically intended for scientists working in the field of molecular spectroscopy, quantum and structural chemistry.

  1. Symposium Symmetries in Science XIII

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Bruno J; Yoshinaga, Naotaka; Symmetries in Science XI

    2005-01-01

    This book is a collection of reviews and essays about the recent developments in the area of Symmetries and applications of Group Theory. Contributions have been written mostly at the graduate level but some are accessible to advanced undergraduates. The book is of interest to a wide audience and covers a broad range of topics with a strong degree of thematical unity. The book is part of a Series of books on Symmetries in Science and may be compared to the published Proceedings of the Colloquia on Group Theoretical Methods in Physics. Here, however, prevails a distinguished character for presenting extended reviews on present applications to Science, not restricted to Theoretical Physics.

  2. Chiral symmetry on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1994-11-01

    The author reviews some of the difficulties associated with chiral symmetry in the context of a lattice regulator. The author discusses the structure of Wilson Fermions when the hopping parameter is in the vicinity of its critical value. Here one flavor contrasts sharply with the case of more, where a residual chiral symmetry survives anomalies. The author briefly discusses the surface mode approach, the use of mirror Fermions to cancel anomalies, and finally speculates on the problems with lattice versions of the standard model

  3. Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetry and the mechanisms of its breaking are the subject of the present review.

  4. Optical metamaterials with quasicrystalline symmetry: symmetry-induced optical isotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruk, S.S.; Decker, M.; Helgert, Ch.; Neshev, D.N.; Kivshar, Y.S.; Staude, I.; Powell, D.A.; Pertsch, Th.; Menzel, Ch.; Helgert, Ch.; Etrich, Ch.; Rockstuhl, C.; Menzel, Ch.

    2013-01-01

    Taking advantage of symmetry considerations, we have analyzed the potential of various metamaterials to affect the polarization state of light upon oblique illumination. We have shown that depending on the angle of illumination, metamaterials are able to support specific polarization states. The presented methodology that using ellipticity and circular dichroism, provides an unambiguous language for discussing the impact of the inherent symmetry of the metamaterial lattices on their far-field response. Our findings allow the quantification analysis of the impact of inter-element coupling and lattice symmetry on the optical properties of metamaterials, and to separate this contribution from the response associated with a single meta-atom. In addition, we have studied the concept of optical quasicrystalline metamaterials, revealing that the absence of translational symmetry (periodicity) of quasicrystalline metamaterials causes an isotropic optical response, while the long-range positional order preserves the resonance properties. Our findings constitute an important step towards the design of optically isotropic metamaterials and metasurfaces. (authors)

  5. The master symmetry and time dependent symmetries of the differential–difference KP equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanizadeh, Farbod

    2014-01-01

    We first obtain the master symmetry of the differential–difference KP equation. Then we show how this master symmetry, through sl(2,C)-representation of the equation, can construct generators of time dependent symmetries. (paper)

  6. Algorithm for research of mathematical physics equations symmetries. Symmetries of the free Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotel'nikov, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    An algorithm id proposed for research the symmetries of mathematical physics equation. The application of this algorithm to the Schroedinger equation permitted to establish, that in addition to the known symmetry the Schroedinger equation possesses also the relativistic symmetry

  7. Topological symmetry breaking of self-interacting fractional Klein-Gordon field theories on toroidal spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S C; Teo, L P

    2008-01-01

    Quartic self-interacting fractional Klein-Gordon scalar massive and massless field theories on toroidal spacetime are studied. The effective potential and topologically generated mass are determined using zeta-function regularization technique. Renormalization of these quantities are derived. Conditions for symmetry breaking are obtained analytically. Simulations are carried out to illustrate regions or values of compactified dimensions where symmetry-breaking mechanisms appear

  8. Unitary gauge calculation of K0/sub L/ → μ+μ- in the Weinberg SU(2)'/sub L/ x U(1) gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olenick, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    The rare weak decay K 0 /sub L/ → μ + μ - is calculated in the unitary gauge of the Weinberg SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) model of weak and electromagnetic interactions. A historical development of gauge theories is presented first; this indicates the need for extension of the hadron symmetry group to SU(4). The GIM mechanism, which extends this group by introducing the charmed quark, is incorporated into Weinberg theory. Explicit calculations of the fourth-order Feynman diagrams representing W + W - , Z 0 , γ, and Higgs scalar intermediate states are performed. Through the technique of dimensional regularization the divergent amplitudes are evaluated, and the calculation is shown to be renormalizable by counterterms generated from the original Lagrangian. The Higgs scalar contribution to the effective Lagrangian is found to be greatly suppressed compared to the W + W - and Z 0 contributions, which are used to estimate the charmed quark mass. Analysis reveals that a charmed quark mass less than or equal to 5 GeV will suppress the decay rate to the experimentally observed value. Concluding remarks are made

  9. Loop-driven graphical unitary group approach to the electron correlation problem, including configuration interaction energy gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.R.

    1979-09-01

    The Graphical Unitary Group Approach (GUGA) was cast into an extraordinarily powerful form by restructuring the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. This restructuring allows the adoption of the loop-driven formulation which illuminates vast numbers of previously unappreciated relationships between otherwise distinct Hamiltonian matrix elements. The theoretical/methodological contributions made here include the development of the loop-driven formula generation algorithm, a solution of the upper walk problem used to develop a loop breakdown algorithm, the restriction of configuration space employed to the multireference interacting space, and the restructuring of the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. Several other developments are presented and discussed. Among these developments are the use of new segment coefficients, improvements in the loop-driven algorithm, implicit generation of loops wholly within the external space adapted within the framework of the loop-driven methodology, and comparisons of the diagonalization tape method to the direct method. It is also shown how it is possible to implement the GUGA method without the time-consuming full (m 5 ) four-index transformation. A particularly promising new direction presented here involves the use of the GUGA methodology to obtain one-electron and two-electron density matrices. Once these are known, analytical gradients (first derivatives) of the CI potential energy are easily obtained. Several test calculations are examined in detail to illustrate the unique features of the method. Also included is a calculation on the asymmetric 2 1 A' state of SO 2 with 23,613 configurations to demonstrate methods for the diagonalization of very large matrices on a minicomputer. 6 figures, 6 tables

  10. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  11. Charge symmetry at the partonic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.

  12. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Li; Li, Sheng; George, Thomas F.; Sun, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry

  13. From symmetries to number theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempesta, P.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the finite-operator calculus provides a simple formalism useful for constructing symmetry-preserving discretizations of quantum-mechanical integrable models. A related algebraic approach can also be used to define a class of Appell polynomials and of L series.

  14. Superdeformations and fermion dynamical symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng-Li

    1990-01-01

    In this talk, I will present a link between nuclear collective motions and their underlying fermion dynamical symmetries. In particular, I will focus on the microscopic understanding of deformations. It is shown that the SU 3 of the one major shell fermion dynamical symmetry model (FDSM) is responsible for the physics of low and high spins in normal deformation. For the recently observed phenomena of superdeformation, the physics of the problem dictates a generalization to a supershell structure (SFDSM), which also has an SU 3 fermion dynamical symmetry. Many recently discovered feature of superdeformation are found to be inherent in such an SU 3 symmetry. In both cases the dynamical Pauli effect plays a vital role. A particularly noteworthy discovery from this model is that the superdeformed ground band is not the usual unaligned band but the D-pair aligned (DPA) band, which sharply crosses the excited bands. The existence of such DPA band is a key point to understand many properties of superdeformation. Our studies also poses new experimental challenge. This is particularly interesting since there are now plans to build new and exciting γ-ray detecting systems, like the GAMMASPHERE, which could provide answers to some of these challenges. 34 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Negative energy solutions and symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidharth, B.G.

    2011-01-01

    We revisit the negative energy solutions of the Dirac (and Klein–Gordon) equation, which become relevant at very high energies in the context of the Feshbach–Villars formulation, and study several symmetries which follow therefrom. Significant consequences are briefly examined. (author)

  16. On four dimensional mirror symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losev, A.; Nekrasov, N.; Shatashvili, S.

    2000-01-01

    A conjecture relating instanton calculus in four dimensional supersymmetric theories and the deformation theory of Lagrangian submanifolds in C 2r invariant under a (subgroup of) Sp(2r,Z) is formulated. This is a four dimensional counterpart of the mirror symmetry of topological strings (relating Gromov-Witten invariants and generalized variations of Hodge structure). (orig.)

  17. Is CP a gauge symmetry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.; Kaplan, D.B.; Nelson, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional solutions to the strong CP problem all require the existence of global symmetries. However, quantum gravity may destroy global symmetries, making it hard to understand why the electric dipole moment of the neutron (EDMN) is so small. We suggest here that CP is actually a discrete gauge symmetry, and is therefore not violated by quantum gravity. We show that four-dimensional CP can arise as a discrete gauge symmetry in theories with dimensional compactification, if the original number of Minkowski dimensions equals 8k+1, 8k+2 or 8k+3, and if there are certain restrictions on the gauge group; these conditions are met by superstrings. CP may then be broken spontaneously below 10 9 GeV, explaining the observed CP violation in the kaon system without inducing a large EDMN. We discuss the phenomenology of such models, as well as the peculiar properties of cosmic 'SP strings' which could be produced at the compactification scale. Such strings have the curious property that a particle carried around the string is turned into its CP conjugate. A single CP string renders four-dimensional space-time nonorientable. (orig.)

  18. Exploiting Symmetry on Parallel Architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiller, Lewis Benjamin

    1995-01-01

    This thesis describes techniques for the design of parallel programs that solve well-structured problems with inherent symmetry. Part I demonstrates the reduction of such problems to generalized matrix multiplication by a group-equivariant matrix. Fast techniques for this multiplication are described, including factorization, orbit decomposition, and Fourier transforms over finite groups. Our algorithms entail interaction between two symmetry groups: one arising at the software level from the problem's symmetry and the other arising at the hardware level from the processors' communication network. Part II illustrates the applicability of our symmetry -exploitation techniques by presenting a series of case studies of the design and implementation of parallel programs. First, a parallel program that solves chess endgames by factorization of an associated dihedral group-equivariant matrix is described. This code runs faster than previous serial programs, and discovered it a number of results. Second, parallel algorithms for Fourier transforms for finite groups are developed, and preliminary parallel implementations for group transforms of dihedral and of symmetric groups are described. Applications in learning, vision, pattern recognition, and statistics are proposed. Third, parallel implementations solving several computational science problems are described, including the direct n-body problem, convolutions arising from molecular biology, and some communication primitives such as broadcast and reduce. Some of our implementations ran orders of magnitude faster than previous techniques, and were used in the investigation of various physical phenomena.

  19. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  20. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  1. Symmetry breaking in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potting, R.

    1998-01-01

    A mechanism for a spontaneous breakdown of CPT symmetry appears in string theory, with possible implications for particle models. A realistic string theory might exhibit CPT violation at levels detectable in current or future experiments. A possible new mechanism for baryogenesis in the early Universe is also discussed

  2. Dark Energy and Spacetime Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Dymnikova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Petrov classification of stress-energy tensors provides a model-independent definition of a vacuum by the algebraic structure of its stress-energy tensor and implies the existence of vacua whose symmetry is reduced as compared with the maximally symmetric de Sitter vacuum associated with the Einstein cosmological term. This allows to describe a vacuum in general setting by dynamical vacuum dark fluid, presented by a variable cosmological term with the reduced symmetry which makes vacuum fluid essentially anisotropic and allows it to be evolving and clustering. The relevant solutions to the Einstein equations describe regular cosmological models with time-evolving and spatially inhomogeneous vacuum dark energy, and compact vacuum objects generically related to a dark energy: regular black holes, their remnants and self-gravitating vacuum solitons with de Sitter vacuum interiors—which can be responsible for observational effects typically related to a dark matter. The mass of objects with de Sitter interior is generically related to vacuum dark energy and to breaking of space-time symmetry. In the cosmological context spacetime symmetry provides a mechanism for relaxing cosmological constant to a needed non-zero value.

  3. Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, C.E.I.; McDougall, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation. (orig.)

  4. Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, C.E.I.; McDougall, N.A. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-22

    A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation.

  5. Lie symmetries in differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleitez, V.

    1979-01-01

    A study of ordinary and Partial Differential equations using the symmetries of Lie groups is made. Following such a study, an application to the Helmholtz, Line-Gordon, Korleweg-de Vries, Burguer, Benjamin-Bona-Mahony and wave equations is carried out [pt

  6. Chiral symmetry in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueman, T.L.

    1979-04-01

    The chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics with massless quarks is unbroken in perturbation theory. Dimensional regularization is used. The ratio of the vector and axial vector renormalization constante is shown to be independent of the renormalization mass. The general results are explicitly verified to fourth order in g, the QCD coupling constant

  7. 'Oblique corrections' and symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, C.A.

    1991-11-01

    Low Energy Parameters (Peskin-Takeuchi) are computed for two Symmetry Braking Schemes (heavy Higgs and techni-ρ). The differences between them are found comparable to the experimental uncertainties (in agreement with previous calculations for the Technicolor Models). Some constraints are obtained for the techni-ρ case. (author). 22 refs, 11 figs

  8. Experimental tests of fundamental symmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, K. P.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing experiments and projects to test our understanding of fundamental inter- actions and symmetries in nature have progressed significantly in the past few years. At high energies the long searched for Higgs boson has been found; tests of gravity for antimatter have come closer to reality;

  9. Extensions of conformal symmetry in two-dimensional quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoutens, C.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Conformal symmetry extensions in a two-dimensional quantum field theory are the main theme of the work presented in this thesis. After a brief exposition of the formalism for conformal field theory, the motivation for studying extended symmetries in conformal field theory is presented in some detail. Supersymmetric extensions of conformal symmetry are introduced. An overview of the algebraic superconformal symmetry is given. The relevance of higher-spin bosonic extensions of the Virasoro algebra in relation to the classification program for so-called rational conformal theories is explained. The construction of a large class of bosonic extended algebras, the so-called Casimir algebras, are presented. The representation theory of these algebras is discussed and a large class of new unitary models is identified. The superspace formalism for O(N)-extended superconformal quantum field theory is presented. It is shown that such theories exist for N ≤ 4. Special attention is paid to the case N = 4 and it is shown that the allowed central charges are c(n + ,n - ) = 6n + n - /(n + ,n - ), where n + and n - are positive integers. A different class of so(N)-extended superconformal algebras is analyzed. The representation theory is studied and it is established that certain free field theories provide realizations of the algebras with level S = 1. Finally the so-called BRST construction for extended conformal algebras is considered. A nilpotent BRST charge is constructed for a large class of algebras, which contains quadratically nonlinear algebras that fall outside the traditional class if finitely generated Lie (super)algebras. The results are especially relevant for the construction of string models based on extended conformal symmetry. (author). 118 refs.; 7 tabs

  10. Analytical chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-15

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  11. Analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Myeong Hu; Lee, Hu Jun; Kim, Ha Seok

    1989-02-01

    This book give explanations on analytical chemistry with ten chapters, which deal with development of analytical chemistry, the theory of error with definition and classification, sample and treatment gravimetry on general process of gravimetry in aqueous solution and non-aqueous solution, precipitation titration about precipitation reaction and types, complexometry with summary and complex compound, oxidation-reduction equilibrium on electrode potential and potentiometric titration, solvent extraction and chromatograph and experiment with basic operation for chemical experiment.

  12. Realization of a unique time evolution unitary operator in Klein Gordon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, T.S.; Bhatia, S.Kr.

    1986-01-01

    The scattering theory for the Klein Gordon equation, with time-dependent potential and in a non-static space-time, is considered. Using the Klein Gordon equation formulated in the Hilbert space L 2 (R 3 ) and the Einstein's relativistic equation in the space L 2 (R 3 ,dx) and establishing the equivalence of the vacuum states of their linearized forms in the Hilbert space L 2 (R 3 ) with the help of unique symmetric symplectic operator, the time evolution unitary operator U(t) has been fixed for the Klein Gordon eqution, incorporating either the positive or negative frequencies, in the infinite dimensional Hilbert space L 2 (R 3 ). (author)

  13. A new derivation of the highest-weight polynomial of a unitary lie algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P Chau, Huu-Tai; P Van, Isacker

    2000-01-01

    A new method is presented to derive the expression of the highest-weight polynomial used to build the basis of an irreducible representation (IR) of the unitary algebra U(2J+1). After a brief reminder of Moshinsky's method to arrive at the set of equations defining the highest-weight polynomial of U(2J+1), an alternative derivation of the polynomial from these equations is presented. The method is less general than the one proposed by Moshinsky but has the advantage that the determinantal expression of the highest-weight polynomial is arrived at in a direct way using matrix inversions. (authors)

  14. A gauge-invariant chiral unitary framework for kaon photo- and electroproduction on the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borasoy, B.; Bruns, P.C.; Nissler, R.; Meissner, U.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present a gauge-invariant approach to photoproduction of mesons on nucleons within a chiral unitary framework. The interaction kernel for meson-baryon scattering is derived from the chiral effective Lagrangian and iterated in a Bethe-Salpeter equation. Within the leading-order approximation to the interaction kernel, data on kaon photoproduction from SAPHIR, CLAS and CBELSA/TAPS are analyzed in the threshold region. The importance of gauge invariance and the precision of various approximations in the interaction kernel utilized in earlier works are discussed. (orig.)

  15. On Parseval Wavelet Frames with Two or Three Generators via the Unitary Extension Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2014-01-01

    The unitary extension principle (UEP) by A. Ron and Z. Shen yields a sufficient condition for the construction of Parseval wavelet frames with multiple generators. In this paper we characterize the UEP-type wavelet systems that can be extended to a Parseval wavelet frame by adding just one UEP......-type wavelet system. We derive a condition that is necessary for the extension of a UEP-type wavelet system to any Parseval wavelet frame with any number of generators and prove that this condition is also sufficient to ensure that an extension with just two generators is possible....

  16. Pore dimensions and the role of occupancy in unitary conductance of Shaker K channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Romina V.; Navarro-Quezada, Nieves; González-Nilo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    K channels mediate the selective passage of K+ across the plasma membrane by means of intimate interactions with ions at the pore selectivity filter located near the external face. Despite high conservation of the selectivity filter, the K+ transport properties of different K channels vary widely, with the unitary conductance spanning a range of over two orders of magnitude. Mutation of Pro475, a residue located at the cytoplasmic entrance of the pore of the small-intermediate conductance K channel Shaker (Pro475Asp (P475D) or Pro475Gln (P475Q)), increases Shaker’s reported ∼20-pS conductance by approximately six- and approximately threefold, respectively, without any detectable effect on its selectivity. These findings suggest that the structural determinants underlying the diversity of K channel conductance are distinct from the selectivity filter, making P475D and P475Q excellent probes to identify key determinants of the K channel unitary conductance. By measuring diffusion-limited unitary outward currents after unilateral addition of 2 M sucrose to the internal solution to increase its viscosity, we estimated a pore internal radius of capture of ∼0.82 Å for all three Shaker variants (wild type, P475D, and P475Q). This estimate is consistent with the internal entrance of the Kv1.2/2.1 structure if the effective radius of hydrated K+ is set to ∼4 Å. Unilateral exposure to sucrose allowed us to estimate the internal and external access resistances together with that of the inner pore. We determined that Shaker resistance resides mainly in the inner cavity, whereas only ∼8% resides in the selectivity filter. To reduce the inner resistance, we introduced additional aspartate residues into the internal vestibule to favor ion occupancy. No aspartate addition raised the maximum unitary conductance, measured at saturating [K+], beyond that of P475D, suggesting an ∼200-pS conductance ceiling for Shaker. This value is approximately one third of the maximum

  17. Scalar ΛN and ΛΛ interaction in a chiral unitary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, K.; Oset, E.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We study the central part of the ΛN and ΛΛ potential by considering the correlated and uncorrelated two-meson exchange in addition to the ω exchange contribution. The correlated two-meson exchange is evaluated within a chiral unitary approach. We find that a short-range repulsion is generated by the correlated two-meson potential, which also produces an attraction in the intermediate-distance region. The uncorrelated two-meson exchange produces a sizable attraction in all cases that is counterbalanced by the ω exchange contribution

  18. Cold dilute neutron matter on the lattice. II. Results in the unitary limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dean; Schaefer, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two articles that investigate cold dilute neutron matter on the lattice using pionless effective field theory. In the unitary limit, where the effective range is zero and scattering length is infinite, simple scaling relations relate thermodynamic functions at different temperatures. When the second virial coefficient is properly tuned, we find that the lattice results obey these scaling relations. We compute the energy per particle, pressure, spin susceptibility, dineutron correlation function, and an upper bound for the superfluid critical temperature

  19. Fortran code for generating random probability vectors, unitaries, and quantum states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eMaziero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of generating random configurations is recognized in many areas of knowledge. Fortran was born for scientific computing and has been one of the main programming languages in this area since then. And several ongoing projects targeting towards its betterment indicate that it will keep this status in the decades to come. In this article, we describe Fortran codes produced, or organized, for the generation of the following random objects: numbers, probability vectors, unitary matrices, and quantum state vectors and density matrices. Some matrix functions are also included and may be of independent interest.

  20. A genetic-algorithm-based method to find unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation and application to a one-bit oracle decision problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Jeongho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seokwon [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We propose a genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation. We formulate a simple genetic algorithm by introducing the 'genetic parameter vector' of the unitary transformations to be found. In the genetic algorithm process, all components of the genetic parameter vectors are supposed to evolve to the solution parameters of the unitary transformations. We apply our method to find the optimal unitary transformations and to generalize the corresponding quantum algorithms for a realistic problem, the one-bit oracle decision problem, or the often-called Deutsch problem. By numerical simulations, we can faithfully find the appropriate unitary transformations to solve the problem by using our method. We analyze the quantum algorithms identified by the found unitary transformations and generalize the variant models of the original Deutsch's algorithm.

  1. Recognition by symmetry derivatives and the generalized structure tensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigun, Josef; Bigun, Tomas; Nilsson, Kenneth

    2004-12-01

    We suggest a set of complex differential operators that can be used to produce and filter dense orientation (tensor) fields for feature extraction, matching, and pattern recognition. We present results on the invariance properties of these operators, that we call symmetry derivatives. These show that, in contrast to ordinary derivatives, all orders of symmetry derivatives of Gaussians yield a remarkable invariance: They are obtained by replacing the original differential polynomial with the same polynomial, but using ordinary coordinates x and y corresponding to partial derivatives. Moreover, the symmetry derivatives of Gaussians are closed under the convolution operator and they are invariant to the Fourier transform. The equivalent of the structure tensor, representing and extracting orientations of curve patterns, had previously been shown to hold in harmonic coordinates in a nearly identical manner. As a result, positions, orientations, and certainties of intricate patterns, e.g., spirals, crosses, parabolic shapes, can be modeled by use of symmetry derivatives of Gaussians with greater analytical precision as well as computational efficiency. Since Gaussians and their derivatives are utilized extensively in image processing, the revealed properties have practical consequences for local orientation based feature extraction. The usefulness of these results is demonstrated by two applications: 1) tracking cross markers in long image sequences from vehicle crash tests and 2) alignment of noisy fingerprints.

  2. Nuclear magnetic resonance in low-symmetry superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, D. C.; Powell, B. J.

    2018-01-01

    We consider the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1 /T1 in superconductors with accidental nodes, i.e., zeros of the order parameter that are not enforced by its symmetries. Such nodes in the superconducting gap are not constrained by symmetry to a particular position on the Fermi surface. We show, analytically and numerically, that a Hebel-Slichter-like peak occurs even in the absence of an isotropic component of the superconducting gap. For a gap with symmetry-required nodes the Fermi velocity at the node must point along the node. For accidental nodes this is not, in general, the case. This leads to additional terms in spectral function and hence the density of states. These terms lead to a logarithmic divergence in 1 /T1T at T →Tc- in models neglecting disorder and interactions [except for those leading to superconductivity; here T is temperature, Tc-=limδ→0(Tc-δ ) , and Tc is the critical temperature]. This contrasts with the usual Hebel-Slichter peak which arises from the coherence factors due to the isotropic component of the gap and leads to a divergence in 1 /T1T somewhat below Tc. The divergence in superconductors with accidental nodes is controlled by either disorder or additional electron-electron interactions. However, for reasonable parameters, neither of these effects removes the peak altogether. This provides a simple experimental method to distinguish between symmetry-required and accidental nodes.

  3. Symmetries within chaos: A route to effective mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franjione, J.G.; Leong, C.; Ottino, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental studies show that simple two-dimensional time-periodic flows can produce chaotic mixing. However, the mixing is not always complete; depending on the choice of the period, there can exist large dynamic structures, called islands, that stretch and compress in a time-periodic manner but remain segregated even after long times. Obviously, a flow that contains very few islands is desired. Unfortunately, in most real systems, an analytic expression for the velocity field (or the motion) does not usually exist, making theoretical prediction of the location and size of islands virtually impossible. However, using only minimal knowledge of the gross properties of the velocity field, the flow can be analyzed in terms of its symmetries. Symmetries can be detected without reference to precise mathematical equations. Large islands are located on lines of symmetry, or in pairs on opposite sides of the line. With this knowledge, it is possible to manipulate symmetries in a systematic way so as to move an island into a region of good mixing. Applying this idea repeatedly results in a recursively generated flow history that is neither periodic nor random, but is self-similar. Mixing in these flows is efficient over the entire flow domain. In addition, the idea of recursively generated flow histories might have implications for understanding the mechanisms of turbulent flow

  4. SO(8) fermion dynamical symmetry and strongly correlated quantum Hall states in monolayer graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Murphy, Matthew; Guidry, Mike

    2017-03-01

    A formalism is presented for treating strongly correlated graphene quantum Hall states in terms of an SO(8) fermion dynamical symmetry that includes pairing as well as particle-hole generators. The graphene SO(8) algebra is isomorphic to an SO(8) algebra that has found broad application in nuclear physics, albeit with physically very different generators, and exhibits a strong formal similarity to SU(4) symmetries that have been proposed to describe high-temperature superconductors. The well-known SU(4) symmetry of quantum Hall ferromagnetism for single-layer graphene is recovered as one subgroup of SO(8), but the dynamical symmetry structure associated with the full set of SO(8) subgroup chains extends quantum Hall ferromagnetism and allows analytical many-body solutions for a rich set of collective states exhibiting spontaneously broken symmetry that may be important for the low-energy physics of graphene in strong magnetic fields. The SO(8) symmetry permits a natural definition of generalized coherent states that correspond to symmetry-constrained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov solutions, or equivalently a microscopically derived Ginzburg-Landau formalism, exhibiting the interplay between competing spontaneously broken symmetries in determining the ground state.

  5. 2-D unitary ESPRIT-like direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for coherent signals with a uniform rectangular array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shiwei; Ma, Xiaochuan; Yan, Shefeng; Hao, Chengpeng

    2013-03-28

    A unitary transformation-based algorithm is proposed for two-dimensional (2-D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of coherent signals. The problem is solved by reorganizing the covariance matrix into a block Hankel one for decorrelation first and then reconstructing a new matrix to facilitate the unitary transformation. By multiplying unitary matrices, eigenvalue decomposition and singular value decomposition are both transformed into real-valued, so that the computational complexity can be reduced significantly. In addition, a fast and computationally attractive realization of the 2-D unitary transformation is given by making a Kronecker product of the 1-D matrices. Compared with the existing 2-D algorithms, our scheme is more efficient in computation and less restrictive on the array geometry. The processing of the received data matrix before unitary transformation combines the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT)-Like method and the forward-backward averaging, which can decorrelate the impinging signalsmore thoroughly. Simulation results and computational order analysis are presented to verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Efficient Nonlocal M-Control and N-Target Controlled Unitary Gate Using Non-symmetric GHZ States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Bing; Lu, Hong

    2018-03-01

    Efficient local implementation of a nonlocal M-control and N-target controlled unitary gate is considered. We first show that with the assistance of two non-symmetric qubit(1)-qutrit(N) Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, a nonlocal 2-control and N-target controlled unitary gate can be constructed from 2 local two-qubit CNOT gates, 2 N local two-qutrit conditional SWAP gates, N local qutrit-qubit controlled unitary gates, and 2 N single-qutrit gates. At each target node, the two third levels of the two GHZ target qutrits are used to expose one and only one initial computational state to the local qutrit-qubit controlled unitary gate, instead of being used to hide certain states from the conditional dynamics. This scheme can be generalized straightforwardly to implement a higher-order nonlocal M-control and N-target controlled unitary gate by using M non-symmetric qubit(1)-qutrit(N) GHZ states as quantum channels. Neither the number of the additional levels of each GHZ target particle nor that of single-qutrit gates needs to increase with M. For certain realistic physical systems, the total gate time may be reduced compared with that required in previous schemes.

  7. Symmetries, Integrals and Solutions of Ordinary Differential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Second-and third-order scalar ordinary differential equations of maximal symmetry in the traditional sense of point, respectively contact, symmetry are examined for the mappings they produce in solutions and fundamental first integrals. The properties of the `exceptional symmetries', i.e. those not considered to be generic to ...

  8. The symmetry of the Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.

    1988-01-01

    The spectrum of the Hubbard model shows permanent degeneracy of levels with different symmetry, if one considers only symmetry operators independent of the coupling constant. This suggests the existence of symmetry operators which depend on the coupling constant. We find these highly nontrivial operators and show that they explain the degeneracies in the energy spectrum. 5 refs. (Author)

  9. Prediction of human eye fixations using symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, Gert; Schomaker, Lambert

    2009-01-01

    Humans are very sensitive to symmetry in visual patterns. Reaction time experiments show that symmetry is detected and recognized very rapidly. This suggests that symmetry is a highly salient feature. Existing computational models of saliency, however, have mainly focused on contrast as a measure of

  10. Dynamical symmetry breaking in barium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, Bir Singh; Chattopadhyay, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The isotopes of Xe with mass numbers 124, 126, 128, 130 and the isotopes of barium with mass numbers 128, 130, 132, 134 were shown to correspond to the O(6) dynamical symmetry of IBM. In the investigation of the dynamical symmetry breaking in this region, the barium isotopes for departures from O(6) symmetry have been studied

  11. Analytical exact solution of the non-linear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Alisson Xavier; Rocha Filho, Tarcisio Marciano da

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In this work we present how to classify and obtain analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with a generic non-linearity in 1+1 dimensions. Our approach is based on the determination of Lie symmetry transformation mapping solutions into solutions, and non-classical symmetry transformations, mapping a given solution into itself. From these symmetries it is then possible to reduce the equation to a system of ordinary differential equations which can then be solved using standard methods. The generic non-linearity is handled by considering it as an additional unknown in the determining equations for the symmetry transformations. This results in an over-determined system of non-linear partial differential equations. Its solution can then be determined in some cases by reducing it to the so called involutive (triangular) form, and then solved. This reduction is very tedious and can only performed using a computer algebra system. Once the determining system is solved, we obtain the explicit form for the non-linearity admitting a Lie or non-classical symmetry. The analytical solutions are then derived by solving the reduced ordinary differential equations. The non-linear determining system for the non-classical symmetry transformations and Lie symmetry generators are obtaining using the computer algebra package SADE (symmetry analysis of differential equations), developed at our group. (author)

  12. Soft Terms from Broken Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Buican, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    In theories of phyiscs beyond the Standard Model (SM), visible sector fields often carry quantum numbers under additional gauge symmetries. One could then imagine a scenario in which these extra gauge symmetries play a role in transmitting supersymmetry breaking from a hidden sector to the Supersymmetric Standard Model (SSM). In this paper we present a general formalism for studying the resulting hidden sectors and calculating the corresponding gauge mediated soft parameters. We find that a large class of generic models features a leading universal contribution to the soft scalar masses that only depends on the scale of Higgsing, even if the model is strongly coupled. As a by-product of our analysis, we elucidate some IR aspects of the correlation functions in General Gauge Mediation. We also discuss possible phenomenological applications.

  13. Physics of chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1991-01-01

    This subsection of the 'Modeling QCD' Workshop has included five talks. E. Shuryak spoke on 'Recent Progress in Understanding Chiral Symmetry Breaking'; below it is split into two parts: (i) a mini-review of the field and (ii) a brief presentation of the status of the theory of interacting instantons. The next sections correspond to the following talks: (iii) K. Goeke et al., 'Chiral Restoration and Medium Corrections to Nucleon in the NJL Model'; (iv) M. Takizawa and K. Kubodera, 'Study of Meson Properties and Quark Condensates in the NJL Model with Instanton Effects'; (v) G. Klein and A. G. Williams, 'Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Dual QCD'; and (vi) R. D. Ball, 'Skyrmions and Baryons.' (orig.)

  14. Mirror symmetry and loop operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assel, Benjamin [Department of Mathematics, King’s College London,The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Gomis, Jaume [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2015-11-09

    Wilson loops in gauge theories pose a fundamental challenge for dualities. Wilson loops are labeled by a representation of the gauge group and should map under duality to loop operators labeled by the same data, yet generically, dual theories have completely different gauge groups. In this paper we resolve this conundrum for three dimensional mirror symmetry. We show that Wilson loops are exchanged under mirror symmetry with Vortex loop operators, whose microscopic definition in terms of a supersymmetric quantum mechanics coupled to the theory encode in a non-trivial way a representation of the original gauge group, despite that the gauge groups of mirror theories can be radically different. Our predictions for the mirror map, which we derive guided by branes in string theory, are confirmed by the computation of the exact expectation value of Wilson and Vortex loop operators on the three-sphere.

  15. Symmetry realization of texture zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Joshipura, A.S.; Lavoura, L.; Tanimoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    We show that it is possible to enforce texture zeros in arbitrary entries of the fermion mass matrices by means of Abelian symmetries; in this way, many popular mass-matrix textures find a symmetry justification. We propose two alternative methods which allow one to place zeros in any number of elements of the mass matrices that one wants. They are applicable simultaneously in the quark and lepton sectors. They are also applicable in grand unified theories. The number of scalar fields required by our methods may be large; still, in many interesting cases this number can be reduced considerably. The larger the desired number of texture zeros is, the simpler are the models which reproduce the texture. (orig.)

  16. Noncompact symmetries in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharana, J.; Schwarz, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    Noncompact groups, similar to those that appeared in various supergravity theories in the 1970's have been turning up in recent studies of string theory. First it was discovered that moduli spaces of toroidal compactification are given by noncompact groups modded out by their maximal compact subgroups and discrete duality groups. Then it was found that many other moduli spaces have analogous descriptions. More recently, noncompact group symmetries have turned up in effective actions used to study string cosmology and other classical configurations. This paper explores these noncompact groups in the case of toroidal compactification both from the viewpoint of low-energy effective field theory, using the method of dimensional reduction, and from the viewpoint of the string theory world-sheet. The conclusion is that all these symmetries are intimately related. In particular, we find that Chern-Simons terms in the three-form field strength H μνρ play a crucial role. (orig.)

  17. On the algebra of local unitary invariants of pure and mixed quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrana, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We study the structure of the inverse limit of the graded algebras of local unitary invariant polynomials using its Hilbert series. For k subsystems, we show that the inverse limit is a free algebra and the number of algebraically independent generators with homogenous degree 2m equals the number of conjugacy classes of index m subgroups in a free group on k - 1 generators. Similarly, we show that the inverse limit in the case of k-partite mixed state invariants is free and the number of algebraically independent generators with homogenous degree m equals the number of conjugacy classes of index m subgroups in a free group on k generators. The two statements are shown to be equivalent. To illustrate the equivalence, using the representation theory of the unitary groups, we obtain all invariants in the m = 2 graded parts and express them in a simple form both in the case of mixed and pure states. The transformation between the two forms is also derived. Analogous invariants of higher degree are also introduced.

  18. A self-consistency check for unitary propagation of Hawking quanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel; Kodwani, Darsh; Pen, Ue-Li; Yang, I.-Sheng

    2017-11-01

    The black hole information paradox presumes that quantum field theory in curved space-time can provide unitary propagation from a near-horizon mode to an asymptotic Hawking quantum. Instead of invoking conjectural quantum-gravity effects to modify such an assumption, we propose a self-consistency check. We establish an analogy to Feynman’s analysis of a double-slit experiment. Feynman showed that unitary propagation of the interfering particles, namely ignoring the entanglement with the double-slit, becomes an arbitrarily reliable assumption when the screen upon which the interference pattern is projected is infinitely far away. We argue for an analogous self-consistency check for quantum field theory in curved space-time. We apply it to the propagation of Hawking quanta and test whether ignoring the entanglement with the geometry also becomes arbitrarily reliable in the limit of a large black hole. We present curious results to suggest a negative answer, and we discuss how this loss of naive unitarity in QFT might be related to a solution of the paradox based on the soft-hair-memory effect.

  19. A unitary ESPRIT scheme of joint angle estimation for MOTS MIMO radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chao; Shi, Guangming

    2014-08-07

    The transmit array of multi-overlapped-transmit-subarray configured bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MOTS MIMO) radar is partitioned into a number of overlapped subarrays, which is different from the traditional bistatic MIMO radar. In this paper, a new unitary ESPRIT scheme for joint estimation of the direction of departure (DOD) and the direction of arrival (DOA) for MOTS MIMO radar is proposed. In our method, each overlapped-transmit-subarray (OTS) with the identical effective aperture is regarded as a transmit element and the characteristics that the phase delays between the two OTSs is utilized. First, the measurements corresponding to all the OTSs are partitioned into two groups which have a rotational invariance relationship with each other. Then, the properties of centro-Hermitian matrices and real-valued rotational invariance factors are exploited to double the measurement samples and reduce computational complexity. Finally, the close-formed solution of automatically paired DOAs and DODs of targets is derived in a new manner. The proposed scheme provides increased estimation accuracy with the combination of inherent advantages of MOTS MIMO radar with unitary ESPRIT. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed scheme.

  20. Regarding the unitary theory of agonist and antagonist action at presynaptic adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsner, S; Abdali, S A

    2001-06-01

    1. The linkage between potentiation of field stimulation-induced noradrenaline release and blockade of the presynaptic inhibitory effect of exogenous noradrenaline by a presynaptic antagonist was examined in superfused rabbit aorta preparations. 2. Rauwolscine clearly potentiated the release of noradrenaline in response to 100 pulses at 2 Hz but reduced the capacity of noradrenaline to inhibit transmitter release to a questionable extent, and then only when comparisons were made with untreated, rather then to rauwolscine-treated, controls. 3. Aortic preparations exposed for 60 min to rauwolscine followed by superfusion with antagonist-free Krebs for 60 min retained the potentiation of stimulation-induced transmitter release but no antagonism of the noradrenaline-induced inhibition could be detected at either of two noradrenaline concentrations when comparisons were made with rauwolscine treated controls. 4. Comparisons of the inhibitory effect of exogenous noradrenaline (1.8 x 10-6 M) on transmitter efflux in the presence and absence of rauwolscine pretreatment revealed that the antagonist enhanced rather than antagonized the presynaptic inhibition by noradrenaline. 5 It is concluded that the unitary hypothesis that asserts that antagonist enhancement of transmitter release and its blockade of noradrenaline induced inhibition are manifestations of a unitary event are not supportable.