WorldWideScience

Sample records for unitary highly conserved

  1. Accurate and robust unitary transformation of a high-dimensional quantum system

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, B E; Riofrío, C A; Deutsch, I H; Jessen, P S

    2014-01-01

    Quantum control in large dimensional Hilbert spaces is essential for realizing the power of quantum information processing. For closed quantum systems the relevant input/output maps are unitary transformations, and the fundamental challenge becomes how to implement these with high fidelity in the presence of experimental imperfections and decoherence. For two-level systems (qubits) most aspects of unitary control are well understood, but for systems with Hilbert space dimension d>2 (qudits), many questions remain regarding the optimal design of control Hamiltonians and the feasibility of robust implementation. Here we show that arbitrary, randomly chosen unitary transformations can be efficiently designed and implemented in a large dimensional Hilbert space (d=16) associated with the electronic ground state of atomic 133Cs, achieving fidelities above 0.98 as measured by randomized benchmarking. Generalizing the concepts of inhomogeneous control and dynamical decoupling to d>2 systems, we further demonstrate t...

  2. Unitary Superfluidity Of Polarized Fermionic Gases In Highly Elongated Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksmaty, L.; Lu, H.; Bolech, C.; Pu, H.

    2010-03-01

    Recent groundbreaking experiments on resonantly interacting fermionic superfluids encountered qualitative and quantitative discrepancies which seem to be a function of the confining geometry. Despite long familiarity with BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) superfluids in a wide range of physical systems such as nuclear matter, QCD, Astrophysics and Condensed Matter, these observations have defied theoretical explanation. Mindful of quantum rigidity and motivated by this impasse, we study the solution space for 3-dimensional fully self-consistent mean field formulation. Relying on numerical algorithms specifically developed for this purpose, we study realistic systems with up to 10^5 atoms. We find that for a large enough sample in a cigar-shaped trap, there are typically three types of solutions which are almost degenerate and have the ff. properties: (i) There is a solution very similar to the local density approximation (LDA) which is consistently the lowest in energy. (ii) However one of the other two solutions, connected by a smooth transition, and which are more consistent with experiment at high aspect ratio, supports a state very similar to the long sought FFLO (Fulde Ferrel Larkin Ovchinnikov) state. We submit that these solutions are relevant false vacua because, given high energy barriers and near degeneracy of the obtained solutions, the actual states observed in an experiment could be a strong function of the experimental procedure. Darpa OLE grant, ARO Grant no. W911NF-07-1-0464, Welch foundation (C-1669, C-1681) and NSF.

  3. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedula, L. Sangeetha; Brannigan, Grace; Economou, Nicoleta J.; Xi, Jin; Hall, Michael A.; Liu, Renyu; Rossi, Matthew J.; Dailey, William P.; Grasty, Kimberly C.; Klein, Michael L.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Loll, Patrick J.; (Drexel-MED); (UPENN)

    2009-10-21

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  4. A Unitary Anesthetic Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L Vedula; G Brannigan; N Economou; J Xi; M Hall; R Liu; M Rossi; W Dailey; K Grasty; et. al.

    2011-12-31

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  5. A Unitary Anesthetic-Binding Site at High Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedula, L.; Brannigan, G; Economou, N; Xi, J; Hall, M; Liu, R; Rossi, M; Dailey, W; Grasty, K; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Propofol is the most widely used injectable general anesthetic. Its targets include ligand-gated ion channels such as the GABAA receptor, but such receptor-channel complexes remain challenging to study at atomic resolution. Until structural biology methods advance to the point of being able to deal with systems such as the GABA{sub A} receptor, it will be necessary to use more tractable surrogates to probe the molecular details of anesthetic recognition. We have previously shown that recognition of inhalational general anesthetics by the model protein apoferritin closely mirrors recognition by more complex and clinically relevant protein targets; here we show that apoferritin also binds propofol and related GABAergic anesthetics, and that the same binding site mediates recognition of both inhalational and injectable anesthetics. Apoferritin binding affinities for a series of propofol analogs were found to be strongly correlated with the ability to potentiate GABA responses at GABA{sub A} receptors, validating this model system for injectable anesthetics. High resolution x-ray crystal structures reveal that, despite the presence of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors, anesthetic recognition is mediated largely by van der Waals forces and the hydrophobic effect. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the ligands undergo considerable fluctuations about their equilibrium positions. Finally, apoferritin displays both structural and dynamic responses to anesthetic binding, which may mimic changes elicited by anesthetics in physiologic targets like ion channels.

  6. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joseph N; Brewer, Samuel M; Guise, Nicholas D

    2012-02-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two-magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  7. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Joseph N; Guise, Nicholas D; 10.1063/1.3685246

    2012-01-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two- magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  8. High-Threshold Low-Overhead Fault-Tolerant Classical Computation and the Replacement of Measurements with Unitary Quantum Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Benjamin; Jacobs, Kurt

    2017-07-01

    von Neumann's classic "multiplexing" method is unique in achieving high-threshold fault-tolerant classical computation (FTCC), but has several significant barriers to implementation: (i) the extremely complex circuits required by randomized connections, (ii) the difficulty of calculating its performance in practical regimes of both code size and logical error rate, and (iii) the (perceived) need for large code sizes. Here we present numerical results indicating that the third assertion is false, and introduce a novel scheme that eliminates the two remaining problems while retaining a threshold very close to von Neumann's ideal of 1 /6 . We present a simple, highly ordered wiring structure that vastly reduces the circuit complexity, demonstrates that randomization is unnecessary, and provides a feasible method to calculate the performance. This in turn allows us to show that the scheme requires only moderate code sizes, vastly outperforms concatenation schemes, and under a standard error model a unitary implementation realizes universal FTCC with an accuracy threshold of p <5.5 %, in which p is the error probability for 3-qubit gates. FTCC is a key component in realizing measurement-free protocols for quantum information processing. In view of this, we use our scheme to show that all-unitary quantum circuits can reproduce any measurement-based feedback process in which the asymptotic error probabilities for the measurement and feedback are (32 /63 )p ≈0.51 p and 1.51 p , respectively.

  9. 77 FR 74167 - Information Collection Request: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Farm Service Agency Information Collection Request: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland... associated with Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation certification requirements. This.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Highly Erodible Land Conservation and Wetland Conservation Certification....

  10. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  11. Unitary appreciative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, W R

    2001-06-01

    Unitary appreciative inquiry is described as an orientation, process, and approach for illuminating the wholeness, uniqueness, and essence that are the pattern of human life. It was designed to bring the concepts, assumptions, and perspectives of the science of unitary human beings into reality as a mode of inquiry. Unitary appreciative inquiry provides a way of giving fullest attention to important facets of human life that often are not fully accounted for in current methods that have a heavier emphasis on diagnostic representations. The participatory, synoptic, and transformative qualities of the unitary appreciative process are explicated. The critical dimensions of nursing knowledge development expressed in dialectics of the general and the particular, action and theory, stories and numbers, sense and soul, aesthetics and empirics, and interpretation and emancipation are considered in the context of the unitary appreciative stance. Issues of legitimacy of knowledge and credibility of research are posed and examined in the context of four quality standards that are deemed important to evaluate the worthiness of unitary appreciative inquiry for the advancement of nursing science and practice.

  12. Unitary Approximations in Fault Detection Filter Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Krokavec

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the fault detection filter design requirements that relax the existing conditions reported in the previous literature by adapting the unitary system principle in approximation of fault detection filter transfer function matrix for continuous-time linear MIMO systems. Conditions for the existence of a unitary construction are presented under which the fault detection filter with a unitary transfer function can be designed to provide high residual signals sensitivity with respect to faults. Otherwise, reflecting the emplacement of singular values in unitary construction principle, an associated structure of linear matrix inequalities with built-in constraints is outlined to design the fault detection filter only with a Hurwitz transfer function. All proposed design conditions are verified by the numerical illustrative examples.

  13. Does high harmonic generation conserve angular momentum?

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Avner; Diskin, Tzvi; Sidorenko, Pavel; Cohen, Oren

    2013-01-01

    High harmonic generation (HHG) is a unique and useful process in which infrared or visible radiation is frequency up converted into the extreme ultraviolet and x ray spectral regions. As a parametric process, high harmonic generation should conserve the radiation energy, momentum and angular momentum. Indeed, conservation of energy and momentum have been demonstrated. Angular momentum of optical beams can be divided into two components: orbital and spin (polarization). Orbital angular momentum is assumed to be conserved and recently observed deviations were attributed to propagation effects. On the other hand, conservation of spin angular momentum has thus far never been studied, neither experimentally nor theoretically. Here, we present the first study on the role of spin angular momentum in extreme nonlinear optics by experimentally generating high harmonics of bi chromatic elliptically polarized pump beams that interact with isotropic media. While observing that the selection rules qualitatively correspond...

  14. Energy Transfer Using Unitary Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny O'Kelly de Galway

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the unitary time evolution of a simple quantum Hamiltonian describing two harmonic oscillators coupled via a three-level system. The latter acts as an engine transferring energy from one oscillator to the other and is driven in a cyclic manner by time-dependent external fields. The S-matrix (scattering matrix of the cycle is obtained in analytic form. The total number of quanta contained in the system is a conserved quantity. As a consequence, the spectrum of the S-matrix is purely discrete, and the evolution of the system is quasi-periodic. The explicit knowledge of the S-matrix makes it possible to do accurate numerical evaluations of the time-dependent wave function. They confirm the quasi-periodic behavior. In particular, the energy flows back and forth between the two oscillators in a quasi-periodic manner.

  15. Entanglement quantification by local unitaries

    CERN Document Server

    Monras, A; Giampaolo, S M; Gualdi, G; Davies, G B; Illuminati, F

    2011-01-01

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitaries play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as "shield entanglement". They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert- Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary. To the action of each different local unitary there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitaries with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these shield entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary f...

  16. Quantum Mutual Information Along Unitary Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Jevtic, Sania; Rudolph, Terry

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by thermodynamic considerations, we analyse the variation of the quantum mutual information on a unitary orbit of a bipartite system state, with and without global constraints such as energy conservation. We solve the full optimisation problem for the smallest system of two qubits, and explore thoroughly the effect of unitary operations on the space of reduced-state spectra. We then provide applications of these ideas to physical processes within closed quantum systems, such as a generalized collision model approach to thermal equilibrium and a global Maxwell demon playing tricks on local observers. For higher dimensions, the maximization of correlations is relatively straightforward, however the minimisation of correlations displays non-trivial structures. We characterise a set of separable states in which the minimally correlated state resides, and find a collection of classically correlated states admitting a particular "Young tableau" form. Furthermore, a partial order exists on this set with re...

  17. Forest conservation delivers highly variable coral reef conservation outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carissa J; Jupiter, Stacy D; Selig, Elizabeth R; Watts, Matthew E; Halpern, Benjamin S; Kamal, Muhammad; Roelfsema, Chris; Possingham, Hugh P

    2012-06-01

    Coral reefs are threatened by human activities on both the land (e.g., deforestation) and the sea (e.g., overfishing). Most conservation planning for coral reefs focuses on removing threats in the sea, neglecting management actions on the land. A more integrated approach to coral reef conservation, inclusive of land-sea connections, requires an understanding of how and where terrestrial conservation actions influence reefs. We address this by developing a land-sea planning approach to inform fine-scale spatial management decisions and test it in Fiji. Our aim is to determine where the protection of forest can deliver the greatest return on investment for coral reef ecosystems. To assess the benefits of conservation to coral reefs, we estimate their relative condition as influenced by watershed-based pollution and fishing. We calculate the cost-effectiveness of protecting forest and find that investments deliver rapidly diminishing returns for improvements to relative reef condition. For example, protecting 2% of forest in one area is almost 500 times more beneficial than protecting 2% in another area, making prioritization essential. For the scenarios evaluated, relative coral reef condition could be improved by 8-58% if all remnant forest in Fiji were protected rather than deforested. Finally, we determine the priority of each coral reef for implementing a marine protected area when all remnant forest is protected for conservation. The general results will support decisions made by the Fiji Protected Area Committee as they establish a national protected area network that aims to protect 20% of the land and 30% of the inshore waters by 2020. Although challenges remain, we can inform conservation decisions around the globe by tackling the complex issues relevant to integrated land-sea planning.

  18. Entanglement Continuous Unitary Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, S; Orus, R

    2016-01-01

    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called "entanglement-CUT" or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators, and we present proof-of-principle results for the spin-1/2 1d quantum Ising model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermo...

  19. Entanglement continuous unitary transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Serkan; Schmidt, Kai Phillip; Orús, Román

    2017-01-01

    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called “entanglement-CUT” or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators. We also present proof-of-principle results for the spin-(1/2) 1d quantum Ising model and the 3-state quantum Potts model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermodynamic limit.

  20. Unitary Transformation in Quantum Teleportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-Chuan

    2006-01-01

    In the well-known treatment of quantum teleportation, the receiver should convert the state of his EPR particle into the replica of the unknown quantum state by one of four possible unitary transformations. However, the importance of these unitary transformations must be emphasized. We will show in this paper that the receiver cannot transform the state of his particle into an exact replica of the unknown state which the sender wants to transfer if he has not a proper implementation of these unitary transformations. In the procedure of converting state, the inevitable coupling between EPR particle and environment which is needed by the implementation of unitary transformations will reduce the accuracy of the replica.

  1. All maximally entangling unitary operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Scott M. [Department of Physics, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15282 (United States); Department of Physics, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We characterize all maximally entangling bipartite unitary operators, acting on systems A and B of arbitrary finite dimensions d{sub A}{<=}d{sub B}, when ancillary systems are available to both parties. Several useful and interesting consequences of this characterization are discussed, including an understanding of why the entangling and disentangling capacities of a given (maximally entangling) unitary can differ and a proof that these capacities must be equal when d{sub A}=d{sub B}.

  2. 76 FR 82075 - Highly Erodible Land and Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Secretary 7 CFR Part 12 RIN 0560-AH97 Highly Erodible Land and Wetland Conservation AGENCY: Office of the... (HELC) or wetland conservation (WC) provisions to retain eligibility for USDA program benefits if... persons who failed to apply a conservation system on highly erodible land, or who converted wetlands...

  3. Charge conservation effects for high order fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Begun, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    The exact charge conservation significantly impacts multiplicity fluctuations. The result depends strongly on the part of the system charge carried by the particles of interest. Along with the expected suppression of fluctuations for large systems, charge conservation may lead to negative skewness or kurtosis for small systems.

  4. The Chlamydophila felis plasmid is highly conserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Ross; Day, Sarinder; Di Rocco, Camillo; Helps, Chris

    2010-11-20

    The presence of a plasmid in the Chlamydiaceae is both species and strain specific. Knowledge of the prevalence of the plasmid in different Chlamydia species is important for future studies aiming to investigate the role of the plasmid in chlamydial biology and disease. Although strains of Chlamydophila felis with or without the plasmid have been identified, only a small number of laboratory-adapted strains have been analysed and the prevalence of the plasmid in field isolates has not been determined. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the plasmid in C. felis-positive conjunctival and oropharyngeal clinical samples submitted for routine diagnosis of C. felis by real-time (Q)PCR. DNA extracts from four laboratory-adapted strains were also analysed. QPCR assays targeting regions of C. felis plasmid genes pCF01, pCF02 and pCF03 were developed for the detection of plasmid DNA. QPCR analysis of DNA extracts from C. felis-positive clinical samples found evidence of plasmid DNA in 591 of 595 samples representing 561 of 564 (99.5%) clinical cases. Plasmid DNA was also detected by QPCR in laboratory-adapted strains 1497V, K2487 and K2490, but not strain 905. We conclude that the plasmid is highly conserved in C. felis, and plasmid-deficient strains represent a rare but important population for future studies of chlamydial plasmid function.

  5. Unitary pattern: a review of theoretical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musker, Kathleen M

    2012-07-01

    It is the purpose of this article to illuminate the phenomenon of unitary pattern through a review of theoretical literature. Unitary pattern is a phenomenon of significance to the discipline of nursing because it is manifested in and informs all person-environment health experiences. Unitary pattern was illuminated by: addressing the barriers to understanding the phenomenon, presenting a definition of unitary pattern, and exploring Eastern and Western theoretical literature which address unitary pattern in a way that is congruent with the definition presented. This illumination of unitary pattern will expand nursing knowledge and contribute to the discipline of nursing.

  6. Readings in Wildlife and Fish Conservation, High School Conservation Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensminger, Jack

    This publication is a tentative edition of readings on Wildlife and Fish Conservation in Louisiana, and as such it forms part of one of the four units of study designed for an experimental high school course, the "High School Conservation Curriculum Project." The other three units are concerned with Forest Conervation, Soil and Water…

  7. Despair: a unitary appreciative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, W Richard

    2004-01-01

    A unitary appreciative case study method was used to explicate unitary understandings of despair embedded in the unique personal life contexts of the participants. Fourteen women engaged in dialogical, appreciative interviews that led to the creation of profiles of the life pattern or course associated with despair for each woman. Three exemplar cases are detailed including the profiles that incorporate story, metaphor, music, and imagery. The voices of the women provide morphogenic knowledge of the contexts, nature, consequences, and contributions of despair as well as practical guidance for healthcare providers.

  8. Teleportation of M-Qubit Unitary Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亦庄; 顾永建; 郭光灿

    2002-01-01

    We discuss teleportation of unitary operations on a two-qubit in detail, then generalize the bidirectional state teleportation scheme from one-qubit to M-qubit unitary operations. The resources required for the optimal implementation of teleportation of an M-qubit unitary operation using a bidirectional state teleportation scheme are given.

  9. Unitary equivalence of quantum walks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Sandeep K., E-mail: sandeep.goyal@ucalgary.ca [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban (South Africa); Konrad, Thomas [School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, 4000 Durban (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP), KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa); Diósi, Lajos [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary)

    2015-01-23

    Highlights: • We have found unitary equivalent classes in coined quantum walks. • A single parameter family of coin operators is sufficient to realize all simple one-dimensional quantum walks. • Electric quantum walks are unitarily equivalent to time dependent quantum walks. - Abstract: A simple coined quantum walk in one dimension can be characterized by a SU(2) operator with three parameters which represents the coin toss. However, different such coin toss operators lead to equivalent dynamics of the quantum walker. In this manuscript we present the unitary equivalence classes of quantum walks and show that all the nonequivalent quantum walks can be distinguished by a single parameter. Moreover, we argue that the electric quantum walks are equivalent to quantum walks with time dependent coin toss operator.

  10. Cross-talk in phase encoded volume holographic memories employing unitary matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Berger, G.; Dietz, M.; Denz, C.

    2006-12-01

    The cross-talk noise in phase encoded holographic memories employing unitary matrices is theoretically investigated. After reviewing some earlier work in this area, we derive a relationship for the noise-to-signal ratio for phase-code multiplexing with unitary matrices. The noise-to-signal ratio rises in a zigzag way on increasing the storage capacity. Cross-talk is mainly caused by high-frequency phase codes. Unitary matrices of even orders have only one bad code, while unitary matrices of odd orders have four bad codes. The signal-to-noise ratios of all other codes can in each case be drastically improved by omission of these bad codes. We summarize the optimal orders of Hadamard and unitary matrices for recording a given number of holograms. The unitary matrices can enable us to adjust the available spatial light modulators to achieve the maximum possible storage capacity in both circumstances with and without bad codes.

  11. Violation of unitarity by Hawking radiation does not violate energy-momentum conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolic, H

    2015-01-01

    An argument by Banks, Susskind and Peskin (BSP), according to which violation of unitarity would violate either locality or energy-momentum conservation, is widely believed to be a strong argument against non-unitarity of Hawking radiation. We find that the whole BSP argument rests on the crucial assumption that the Hamiltonian is not highly degenerate, and point out that this assumption is wrong. Using Lindblad equation, we show that high degeneracy of the Hamiltonian allows local non-unitary evolution without violating energy-momentum conservation. Moreover, since energy-momentum is the source of gravity, we argue that energy-momentum is necessarily conserved for a large class of non-unitary systems with gravity. Finally, we explicitly calculate the Lindblad operators for non-unitary Hawking radiation and show that they conserve energy-momentum.

  12. Violation of unitarity by Hawking radiation does not violate energy-momentum conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Bošković Institute, P.O.B. 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2015-04-02

    An argument by Banks, Susskind and Peskin (BSP), according to which violation of unitarity would violate either locality or energy-momentum conservation, is widely believed to be a strong argument against non-unitarity of Hawking radiation. We find that the whole BSP argument rests on the crucial assumption that the Hamiltonian is not highly degenerate, and point out that this assumption is not satisfied for systems with many degrees of freedom. Using Lindblad equation, we show that high degeneracy of the Hamiltonian allows local non-unitary evolution without violating energy-momentum conservation. Moreover, since energy-momentum is the source of gravity, we argue that energy-momentum is necessarily conserved for a large class of non-unitary systems with gravity. Finally, we explicitly calculate the Lindblad operators for non-unitary Hawking radiation and show that they conserve energy-momentum.

  13. High order and conservative method for patched grid interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Maugars, B.; Michel, B.; Cinnella, P.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; A high-order and conservative method is developed for the numerical treatment of interface conditions in patched grids, based on the use of a ctitious grid methodology. The proposed approach is compared with a non-conservative interpolation of the state variables from the neighbouring domain for selected internal fow problems.

  14. Truncations of random unitary matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Zyczkowski, K; Zyczkowski, Karol; Sommers, Hans-Juergen

    1999-01-01

    We analyze properties of non-hermitian matrices of size M constructed as square submatrices of unitary (orthogonal) random matrices of size N>M, distributed according to the Haar measure. In this way we define ensembles of random matrices and study the statistical properties of the spectrum located inside the unit circle. In the limit of large matrices, this ensemble is characterized by the ratio M/N. For the truncated CUE we derive analytically the joint density of eigenvalues from which easily all correlation functions are obtained. For N-M fixed and N--> infinity the universal resonance-width distribution with N-M open channels is recovered.

  15. Direct dialling of Haar random unitary matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas J.; Chakhmakhchyan, Levon; O’Brien, Jeremy L.; Laing, Anthony

    2017-03-01

    Random unitary matrices find a number of applications in quantum information science, and are central to the recently defined boson sampling algorithm for photons in linear optics. We describe an operationally simple method to directly implement Haar random unitary matrices in optical circuits, with no requirement for prior or explicit matrix calculations. Our physically motivated and compact representation directly maps independent probability density functions for parameters in Haar random unitary matrices, to optical circuit components. We go on to extend the results to the case of random unitaries for qubits.

  16. Singular Value Decomposition for Unitary Symmetric Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOUHongxing; WANGDianjun; DAIQionghai; LIYanda

    2003-01-01

    A special architecture called unitary sym-metric matrix which embodies orthogonal, Givens, House-holder, permutation, and row (or column) symmetric ma-trices as its special cases, is proposed, and a precise corre-spondence of singular values and singular vectors between the unitary symmetric matrix and its mother matrix is de-rived. As an illustration of potential, it is shown that, for a class of unitary symmetric matrices, the singular value decomposition (SVD) using the mother matrix rather than the unitary symmetric matrix per se can save dramatically the CPU time and memory without loss of any numerical precision.

  17. Unitary Root Music and Unitary Music with Real-Valued Rank Revealing Triangular Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2010-1213 UNITARY ROOT MUSIC AND UNITARY MUSIC WITH REAL-VALUED RANK REVEALING TRIANGULAR FACTORIZATION (Postprint) Nizar...DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2010 Journal Article Postprint 08 September 2006 – 31 August 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNITARY ROOT MUSIC AND...UNITARY MUSIC WITH REAL-VALUED RANK REVEALING TRIANGULAR FACTORIZATION (Postprint) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8650-05-D-1912-0007 5c

  18. Furrow Dike Water Conservation Practices in the Texas High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Wistrand, Glen L.

    1984-01-01

    Furrow diking can prevent irrigation and rainfall runoff, conserve energy use, prevent soil loss, amd allow producers to reclaim land otherwise unusable, depending on soil, climate, and crops grown in a given area. Initial investment to use this technique may be recovered within the first season. This study analyzes the effects of diking on water and soil conservation, crop yields, costs, and energy use in farming, using examples of farms in the Texas High Plains area.

  19. Furrow Dike Water Conservation Practices in the Texas High Plains

    OpenAIRE

    Wistrand, Glen L.

    1984-01-01

    Furrow diking can prevent irrigation and rainfall runoff, conserve energy use, prevent soil loss, amd allow producers to reclaim land otherwise unusable, depending on soil, climate, and crops grown in a given area. Initial investment to use this technique may be recovered within the first season. This study analyzes the effects of diking on water and soil conservation, crop yields, costs, and energy use in farming, using examples of farms in the Texas High Plains area.

  20. Unitary symmetry, combinatorics, and special functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louck, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    From 1967 to 1994, Larry Biedenham and I collaborated on 35 papers on various aspects of the general unitary group, especially its unitary irreducible representations and Wigner-Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. In our studies to unveil comprehensible structures in this subject, we discovered several nice results in special functions and combinatorics. The more important of these will be presented and their present status reviewed.

  1. Spectral stability of unitary network models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Joachim; Bourget, Olivier; Joye, Alain

    2015-08-01

    We review various unitary network models used in quantum computing, spectral analysis or condensed matter physics and establish relationships between them. We show that symmetric one-dimensional quantum walks are universal, as are CMV matrices. We prove spectral stability and propagation properties for general asymptotically uniform models by means of unitary Mourre theory.

  2. Complex positive maps and quaternionic unitary evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asorey, M [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Scolarici, G [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Lecce and INFN, Sezione di Lecce, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2006-08-04

    The complex projection of any n-dimensional quaternionic unitary dynamics defines a one-parameter positive semigroup dynamics. We show that the converse is also true, i.e. that any one-parameter positive semigroup dynamics of complex density matrices with maximal rank can be obtained as the complex projection of suitable quaternionic unitary dynamics.

  3. Composed ensembles of random unitary ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Pozniak, M; Kus, M; Pozniak, Marcin; Zyczkowski, Karol; Kus, Marek

    1997-01-01

    Composed ensembles of random unitary matrices are defined via products of matrices, each pertaining to a given canonical circular ensemble of Dyson. We investigate statistical properties of spectra of some composed ensembles and demonstrate their physical relevance. We discuss also the methods of generating random matrices distributed according to invariant Haar measure on the orthogonal and unitary group.

  4. Tensor Products of Random Unitary Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Tkocz, Tomasz; Kus, Marek; Zeitouni, Ofer; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2012-01-01

    Tensor products of M random unitary matrices of size N from the circular unitary ensemble are investigated. We show that the spectral statistics of the tensor product of random matrices becomes Poissonian if M=2, N become large or M become large and N=2.

  5. Unitary Quantum Relativity - (Work in Progress)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, David Ritz

    2016-12-01

    A quantum universe is expressed as a finite unitary relativistic quantum computer network. Its addresses are subject to quantum superposition as well as its memory. It has no exact mathematical model. It Its Hilbert space of input processes is also a Clifford algebra with a modular architecture of many ranks. A fundamental fermion is a quantum computer element whose quantum address belongs to the rank below. The least significant figures of its address define its spin and flavor. The most significant figures of it adress define its orbital variables. Gauging arises from the same quantification as space-time. This blurs star images only slightly, but perhaps measurably. General relativity is an approximation that splits nature into an emptiness with a high symmetry that is broken by a filling of lower symmetry. Action principles result from self-organization pf the vacuum.

  6. Unitary Quantum Relativity. (Work in Progress)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, David Ritz

    2017-01-01

    A quantum universe is expressed as a finite unitary relativistic quantum computer network. Its addresses are subject to quantum superposition as well as its memory. It has no exact mathematical model. It Its Hilbert space of input processes is also a Clifford algebra with a modular architecture of many ranks. A fundamental fermion is a quantum computer element whose quantum address belongs to the rank below. The least significant figures of its address define its spin and flavor. The most significant figures of it adress define its orbital variables. Gauging arises from the same quantification as space-time. This blurs star images only slightly, but perhaps measurably. General relativity is an approximation that splits nature into an emptiness with a high symmetry that is broken by a filling of lower symmetry. Action principles result from self-organization pf the vacuum.

  7. Conservation agriculture in high tunnels: soil health and profit enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013, through the USDA’s Evans-Allen capacity grant, the high tunnel became an on-farm research laboratory for conservation agriculture. Dr. Manuel R. Reyes, Professor and his research team from the North Carolina Agriculture and Technology State University (NCATSU), Greensboro, North Carolina (1...

  8. Extremal spacings of random unitary matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Smaczynski, Marek; Kus, Marek; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2012-01-01

    Extremal spacings between unimodular eigenvalues of random unitary matrices of size N pertaining to circular ensembles are investigated. Probability distributions for the minimal spacing for various ensembles are derived for N=4. We show that for large matrices the average minimal spacing s_min of a random unitary matrix behaves as N^(-1/(1+B)) for B equal to 0,1 and 2 for circular Poisson, orthogonal and unitary ensembles, respectively. For these ensembles also asymptotic probability distributions P(s_min) are obtained and the statistics of the largest spacing s_max are investigated.

  9. Intercept Capacity: Unknown Unitary Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Moran

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of intercepting communications signals between Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO communication systems. To correctly detect a transmitted message it is necessary to know the gain matrix that represents the channel between the transmitter and the receiver. However, even if the receiver has knowledge of the message symbol set, it may not be possible to estimate the channel matrix. Blind Source Separation (BSS techniques, such as Independent Component Analysis (ICA can go some way to extracting independent signals from individual transmission antennae but these may have been preprocessed in a manner unknown to the receiver. In this paper we consider the situation where a communications interception system has prior knowledge of the message symbol set, the channel matrix between the transmission system and the interception system and is able to resolve the transmissionss from independent antennae. The question then becomes: what is the mutual information available to the interceptor when an unknown unitary transformation matrix is employed by the transmitter.

  10. Generation of monoclonal antibodies against highly conserved antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Therapeutic antibody development is one of the fastest growing areas of the pharmaceutical industry. Generating high-quality monoclonal antibodies against a given therapeutic target is very crucial for the success of the drug development. However, due to immune tolerance, some proteins that are highly conserved between mice and humans are not very immunogenic in mice, making it difficult to generate antibodies using a conventional approach. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, the impaired immune tolerance of NZB/W mice was exploited to generate monoclonal antibodies against highly conserved or self-antigens. Using two highly conserved human antigens (MIF and HMGB1 and one mouse self-antigen (TNF-alpha as examples, we demonstrate here that multiple clones of high affinity, highly specific antibodies with desired biological activities can be generated, using the NZB/W mouse as the immunization host and a T cell-specific tag fused to a recombinant antigen to stimulate the immune system. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We developed an efficient and universal method for generating surrogate or therapeutic antibodies against "difficult antigens" to facilitate the development of therapeutic antibodies.

  11. Quantum unitary dynamics in cosmological spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Jerónimo, E-mail: jacq@ciencias.unam.mx [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mena Marugán, Guillermo A., E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velhinho, José M., E-mail: jvelhi@ubi.pt [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade da Beira Interior, R. Marquês D’Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilhã (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    We address the question of unitary implementation of the dynamics for scalar fields in cosmological scenarios. Together with invariance under spatial isometries, the requirement of a unitary evolution singles out a rescaling of the scalar field and a unitary equivalence class of Fock representations for the associated canonical commutation relations. Moreover, this criterion provides as well a privileged quantization for the unscaled field, even though the associated dynamics is not unitarily implementable in that case. We discuss the relation between the initial data that determine the Fock representations in the rescaled and unscaled descriptions, and clarify that the S-matrix is well defined in both cases. In our discussion, we also comment on a recently proposed generalized notion of unitary implementation of the dynamics, making clear the difference with the standard unitarity criterion and showing that the two approaches are not equivalent.

  12. Asymptotic Evolution of Random Unitary Operations

    CERN Document Server

    Novotny, J; Jex, I

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the asymptotic dynamics of quantum systems resulting from large numbers of iterations of random unitary operations. Although, in general, these quantum operations cannot be diagonalized it is shown that their resulting asymptotic dynamics is described by a diagonalizable superoperator. We prove that this asymptotic dynamics takes place in a typically low dimensional attractor space which is independent of the probability distribution of the unitary operations applied. This vector space is spanned by all eigenvectors of the unitary operations involved which are associated with eigenvalues of unit modulus. Implications for possible asymptotic dynamics of iterated random unitary operations are presented and exemplified in an example involving random controlled-not operations acting on two qubits.

  13. Non-unitary probabilistic quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Robert M.; Williams, Colin P.

    2004-01-01

    We present a method for designing quantum circuits that perform non-unitary quantum computations on n-qubit states probabilistically, and give analytic expressions for the success probability and fidelity.

  14. Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monras, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Illuminati, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM, Unita di Salerno, and INFN, Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Adesso, G.; Davies, G. B. [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as ''mirror entanglement.'' They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the ''stellar mirror entanglement'' associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.

  15. Right-unitary transformation theory and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Zhong

    1996-01-01

    We develop a new transformation theory in quantum physics, where the transformation operators, defined in the infinite dimensional Hilbert space, have right-unitary inverses only. Through several theorems, we discuss the properties of state space of such operators. As one application of the right-unitary transformation (RUT), we show that using the RUT method, we can solve exactly various interactions of many-level atoms with quantized radiation fields, where the energy of atoms can be two le...

  16. Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monras, A.; Adesso, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Davies, G. B.; Illuminati, F.

    2011-07-01

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as “mirror entanglement.” They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the “stellar mirror entanglement” associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.76.042301 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.

  17. Pore dimensions and the role of occupancy in unitary conductance of Shaker K channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Romina V.; Navarro-Quezada, Nieves; González-Nilo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    K channels mediate the selective passage of K+ across the plasma membrane by means of intimate interactions with ions at the pore selectivity filter located near the external face. Despite high conservation of the selectivity filter, the K+ transport properties of different K channels vary widely, with the unitary conductance spanning a range of over two orders of magnitude. Mutation of Pro475, a residue located at the cytoplasmic entrance of the pore of the small-intermediate conductance K channel Shaker (Pro475Asp (P475D) or Pro475Gln (P475Q)), increases Shaker’s reported ∼20-pS conductance by approximately six- and approximately threefold, respectively, without any detectable effect on its selectivity. These findings suggest that the structural determinants underlying the diversity of K channel conductance are distinct from the selectivity filter, making P475D and P475Q excellent probes to identify key determinants of the K channel unitary conductance. By measuring diffusion-limited unitary outward currents after unilateral addition of 2 M sucrose to the internal solution to increase its viscosity, we estimated a pore internal radius of capture of ∼0.82 Å for all three Shaker variants (wild type, P475D, and P475Q). This estimate is consistent with the internal entrance of the Kv1.2/2.1 structure if the effective radius of hydrated K+ is set to ∼4 Å. Unilateral exposure to sucrose allowed us to estimate the internal and external access resistances together with that of the inner pore. We determined that Shaker resistance resides mainly in the inner cavity, whereas only ∼8% resides in the selectivity filter. To reduce the inner resistance, we introduced additional aspartate residues into the internal vestibule to favor ion occupancy. No aspartate addition raised the maximum unitary conductance, measured at saturating [K+], beyond that of P475D, suggesting an ∼200-pS conductance ceiling for Shaker. This value is approximately one third of the maximum

  18. Evolutionary growth process of highly conserved sequences in vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Minaka; Noda, Akiko Ogura; Sakate, Ryuichi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2012-08-01

    Genome sequence comparison between evolutionarily distant species revealed ultraconserved elements (UCEs) among mammals under strong purifying selection. Most of them were also conserved among vertebrates. Because they tend to be located in the flanking regions of developmental genes, they would have fundamental roles in creating vertebrate body plans. However, the evolutionary origin and selection mechanism of these UCEs remain unclear. Here we report that UCEs arose in primitive vertebrates, and gradually grew in vertebrate evolution. We searched for UCEs in two teleost fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Oryzias latipes, and found 554 UCEs with 100% identity over 100 bps. Comparison of teleost and mammalian UCEs revealed 43 pairs of common, jawed-vertebrate UCEs (jUCE) with high sequence identities, ranging from 83.1% to 99.2%. Ten of them retain lower similarities to the Petromyzon marinus genome, and the substitution rates of four non-exonic jUCEs were reduced after the teleost-mammal divergence, suggesting that robust conservation had been acquired in the jawed vertebrate lineage. Our results indicate that prototypical UCEs originated before the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates and have been frozen as perfect conserved sequences in the jawed vertebrate lineage. In addition, our comparative sequence analyses of UCEs and neighboring regions resulted in a discovery of lineage-specific conserved sequences. They were added progressively to prototypical UCEs, suggesting step-wise acquisition of novel regulatory roles. Our results indicate that conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) consist of blocks with distinct evolutionary history, each having been frozen since different evolutionary era along the vertebrate lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. All unitary cubic curvature gravities in D dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Guellue, Ibrahim; Tekin, Bayram, E-mail: sisman@metu.edu.tr, E-mail: e075555@metu.edu.tr, E-mail: btekin@metu.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-10-07

    We construct all the unitary cubic curvature gravity theories built on the contractions of the Riemann tensor in D-dimensional (anti)-de Sitter spacetimes. Our construction is based on finding the equivalent quadratic action for the general cubic curvature theory and imposing ghost and tachyon freedom, which greatly simplifies the highly complicated problem of finding the propagator of cubic curvature theories in constant curvature backgrounds. To carry out the procedure we have also classified all the unitary quadratic models. We use our general results to study the recently found cubic curvature theories using different techniques and the string generated cubic curvature gravity model. We also study the scattering in critical gravity and give its cubic curvature extensions.

  20. Uncertainty relations for general unitary operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Shrobona; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2016-10-01

    We derive several uncertainty relations for two arbitrary unitary operators acting on physical states of a Hilbert space. We show that our bounds are tighter in various cases than the ones existing in the current literature. Using the uncertainty relation for the unitary operators, we obtain the tight state-independent lower bound for the uncertainty of two Pauli observables and anticommuting observables in higher dimensions. With regard to the minimum-uncertainty states, we derive the minimum-uncertainty state equation by the analytic method and relate this to the ground-state problem of the Harper Hamiltonian. Furthermore, the higher-dimensional limit of the uncertainty relations and minimum-uncertainty states are explored. From an operational point of view, we show that the uncertainty in the unitary operator is directly related to the visibility of quantum interference in an interferometer where one arm of the interferometer is affected by a unitary operator. This shows a principle of preparation uncertainty, i.e., for any quantum system, the amount of visibility for two general noncommuting unitary operators is nontrivially upper bounded.

  1. ABCE1 is a highly conserved RNA silencing suppressor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kairi Kärblane

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette sub-family E member 1 (ABCE1 is a highly conserved protein among eukaryotes and archaea. Recent studies have identified ABCE1 as a ribosome-recycling factor important for translation termination in mammalian cells, yeast and also archaea. Here we report another conserved function of ABCE1. We have previously described AtRLI2, the homolog of ABCE1 in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as an endogenous suppressor of RNA silencing. In this study we show that this function is conserved: human ABCE1 is able to suppress RNA silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana plants, in mammalian HEK293 cells and in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Using co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, we found a number of potential ABCE1-interacting proteins that might support its function as an endogenous suppressor of RNA interference. The interactor candidates are associated with epigenetic regulation, transcription, RNA processing and mRNA surveillance. In addition, one of the identified proteins is translin, which together with its binding partner TRAX supports RNA interference.

  2. Unitary fermions on the lattice I: in a harmonic trap

    CERN Document Server

    Endres, Michael G; Lee, Jong-Wan; Nicholson, Amy N

    2011-01-01

    We present a new lattice Monte Carlo approach developed for studying large numbers of strongly interacting nonrelativistic fermions, and apply it to a dilute gas of unitary fermions confined to a harmonic trap. Our lattice action is highly improved, with sources of discretization and finite volume errors systematically removed; we are able to demonstrate the expected volume scaling of energy levels of two and three untrapped fermions, and to reproduce the high precision calculations published previously for the ground state energies for N = 3 unitary fermions in a box (to within our 0.3% uncertainty), and for N = 3, . . ., 6 unitary fermions in a harmonic trap (to within our ~ 1% uncertainty). We use this action to determine the ground state energies of up to 70 unpolarized fermions trapped in a harmonic potential on a lattice as large as 64^3 x 72; our approach avoids the use of importance sampling or calculation of a fermion determinant and employs a novel statistical method for estimating observables, allo...

  3. Black holes, quantum information, and unitary evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    The unitary crisis for black holes indicates an apparent need to modify local quantum field theory. This paper explores the idea that quantum mechanics and in particular unitarity are fundamental principles, but at the price of familiar locality. Thus, one should seek to parameterize unitary evolution, extending the field theory description of black holes, such that their quantum information is transferred to the external state. This discussion is set in a broader framework of unitary evolution acting on Hilbert spaces comprising subsystems. Here, various constraints can be placed on the dynamics, based on quantum information-theoretic and other general physical considerations, and one can seek to describe dynamics with "minimal" departure from field theory. While usual spacetime locality may not be a precise concept in quantum gravity, approximate locality seems an important ingredient in physics. In such a Hilbert space approach an apparently "coarser" form of localization can be described in terms of tenso...

  4. Color Energy Of A Unitary Cayley Graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiga Chandrashekar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Let G be a vertex colored graph. The minimum number χ(G of colors needed for coloring of a graph G is called the chromatic number. Recently, Adiga et al. [1] have introduced the concept of color energy of a graph Ec(G and computed the color energy of few families of graphs with χ(G colors. In this paper we derive explicit formulas for the color energies of the unitary Cayley graph Xn, the complement of the colored unitary Cayley graph (Xnc and some gcd-graphs.

  5. A highly conserved pericentromeric domain in human and gorilla chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, M; Gosálvez, J; Gosálvez, A; Nieddu, M; López-Fernández, C; Mezzanotte, R

    2009-01-01

    Significant similarity between human and gorilla genomes has been found in all chromosome arms, but not in centromeres, using whole-comparative genomic hybridization (W-CGH). In human chromosomes, centromeric regions, generally containing highly repetitive DNAs, are characterized by the presence of specific human DNA sequences and an absence of homology with gorilla DNA sequences. The only exception is the pericentromeric area of human chromosome 9, which, in addition to a large block of human DNA, also contains a region of homology with gorilla DNA sequences; the localization of these sequences coincides with that of human satellite III. Since highly repetitive DNAs are known for their high mutation frequency, we hypothesized that the chromosome 9 pericentromeric DNA conserved in human chromosomes and deriving from the gorilla genome may thus play some important functional role.

  6. Antibody Recognition of a Highly Conserved Influenza Virus Epitope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekiert, Damian C.; Bhabha, Gira; Elsliger, Marc-André; Friesen, Robert H.E.; Jongeneelen, Mandy; Throsby, Mark; Goudsmit, Jaap; Wilson, Ian A.; Scripps; Crucell

    2009-05-21

    Influenza virus presents an important and persistent threat to public health worldwide, and current vaccines provide immunity to viral isolates similar to the vaccine strain. High-affinity antibodies against a conserved epitope could provide immunity to the diverse influenza subtypes and protection against future pandemic viruses. Cocrystal structures were determined at 2.2 and 2.7 angstrom resolutions for broadly neutralizing human antibody CR6261 Fab in complexes with the major surface antigen (hemagglutinin, HA) from viruses responsible for the 1918 H1N1 influenza pandemic and a recent lethal case of H5N1 avian influenza. In contrast to other structurally characterized influenza antibodies, CR6261 recognizes a highly conserved helical region in the membrane-proximal stem of HA1 and HA2. The antibody neutralizes the virus by blocking conformational rearrangements associated with membrane fusion. The CR6261 epitope identified here should accelerate the design and implementation of improved vaccines that can elicit CR6261-like antibodies, as well as antibody-based therapies for the treatment of influenza.

  7. Taking High Conservation Value from Forests to Freshwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Robin; Morgan, Siân K.; Morgan, Alexis J.

    2015-07-01

    The high conservation value (HCV) concept, originally developed by the Forest Stewardship Council, has been widely incorporated outside the forestry sector into companies' supply chain assessments and responsible purchasing policies, financial institutions' investment policies, and numerous voluntary commodity standards. Many, if not most, of these newer applications relate to production practices that are likely to affect freshwater systems directly or indirectly, yet there is little guidance as to whether or how HCV can be applied to water bodies. We focus this paper on commodity standards and begin by exploring how prominent standards currently address both HCVs and freshwaters. We then highlight freshwater features of high conservation importance and examine how well those features are captured by the existing HCV framework. We propose a new set of freshwater `elements' for each of the six values and suggest an approach for identifying HCV Areas that takes out-of-fence line impacts into account, thereby spatially extending the scope of existing methods to define HCVs. We argue that virtually any non-marine HCV assessment, regardless of the production sector, should be expanded to include freshwater values, and we suggest how to put those recommendations into practice.

  8. Boundary Relations, Unitary Colligations, and Functional Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrndt, Jussi; Hassi, Seppo; de Snoo, Henk

    2009-01-01

    Recently a new notion, the so-called boundary relation, has been introduced involving an analytic object, the so-called Weyl family. Weyl families and boundary relations establish a link between the class of Nevanlinna families and unitary relations acting from one Krein in space, a basic (state) sp

  9. Developmental Dyspraxia: Is It a Unitary Function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, A. Jean; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A group of 182 children (ages four through nine) with known or suspected sensory integrative dysfunction were assessed using tests and clinical observations to examine developmental dyspraxia. The study did not justify the existence of either a unitary function or different types of developmental dyspraxia. (Author/CH)

  10. Dirac cohomology of unitary representations of equal rank exceptional groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the unitary representations of equal rank exceptional groups of type E with a regular lambda-lowest K-type and classify those unitary representations with the nonzero Dirac cohomology.

  11. Dynamic Epigenetic Control of Highly Conserved Noncoding Elements

    KAUST Repository

    Seridi, Loqmane

    2014-10-07

    Background Many noncoding genomic loci have remained constant over long evolutionary periods, suggesting that they are exposed to strong selective pressures. The molecular functions of these elements have been partially elucidated, but the fundamental reason for their extreme conservation is still unknown. Results To gain new insights into the extreme selection of highly conserved noncoding elements (HCNEs), we used a systematic analysis of multi-omic data to study the epigenetic regulation of such elements during the development of Drosophila melanogaster. At the sequence level, HCNEs are GC-rich and have a characteristic oligomeric composition. They have higher levels of stable nucleosome occupancy than their flanking regions, and lower levels of mononucleosomes and H3.3, suggesting that these regions reside in compact chromatin. Furthermore, these regions showed remarkable modulations in histone modification and the expression levels of adjacent genes during development. Although HCNEs are primarily initiated late in replication, about 10% were related to early replication origins. Finally, HCNEs showed strong enrichment within lamina-associated domains. Conclusion HCNEs have distinct and protective sequence properties, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. These observations indicate that such elements are likely to have essential cellular functions, and offer insights into their epigenetic properties.

  12. 7 CFR 760.821 - Compliance with highly erodible land and wetland conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Disaster Program § 760.821 Compliance with highly erodible land and wetland conservation. (a) The highly erodible land and wetland conservation provisions of part 12 of this title apply to the receipt of disaster... participants must be in compliance with the highly erodible land and wetland conservation compliance...

  13. Differences in evolutionary pressure acting within highly conserved ortholog groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind L

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In highly conserved widely distributed ortholog groups, the main evolutionary force is assumed to be purifying selection that enforces sequence conservation, with most divergence occurring by accumulation of neutral substitutions. Using a set of ortholog groups from prokaryotes, with a single representative in each studied organism, we asked the question if this evolutionary pressure is acting similarly on different subgroups of orthologs defined as major lineages (e.g. Proteobacteria or Firmicutes. Results Using correlations in entropy measures as a proxy for evolutionary pressure, we observed two distinct behaviors within our ortholog collection. The first subset of ortholog groups, called here informational, consisted mostly of proteins associated with information processing (i.e. translation, transcription, DNA replication and the second, the non-informational ortholog groups, mostly comprised of proteins involved in metabolic pathways. The evolutionary pressure acting on non-informational proteins is more uniform relative to their informational counterparts. The non-informational proteins show higher level of correlation between entropy profiles and more uniformity across subgroups. Conclusion The low correlation of entropy profiles in the informational ortholog groups suggest that the evolutionary pressure acting on the informational ortholog groups is not uniform across different clades considered this study. This might suggest "fine-tuning" of informational proteins in each lineage leading to lineage-specific differences in selection. This, in turn, could make these proteins less exchangeable between lineages. In contrast, the uniformity of the selective pressure acting on the non-informational groups might allow the exchange of the genetic material via lateral gene transfer.

  14. Pseudo-random unitary operators for quantum information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Joseph; Weinstein, Yaakov S; Saraceno, Marcos; Lloyd, Seth; Cory, David G

    2003-12-19

    In close analogy to the fundamental role of random numbers in classical information theory, random operators are a basic component of quantum information theory. Unfortunately, the implementation of random unitary operators on a quantum processor is exponentially hard. Here we introduce a method for generating pseudo-random unitary operators that can reproduce those statistical properties of random unitary operators most relevant to quantum information tasks. This method requires exponentially fewer resources, and hence enables the practical application of random unitary operators in quantum communication and information processing protocols. Using a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor, we were able to realize pseudorandom unitary operators that reproduce the expected random distribution of matrix elements.

  15. Identical Wells, Symmetry Breaking, and the Near-Unitary Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harshman, N. L.

    2017-03-01

    Energy level splitting from the unitary limit of contact interactions to the near unitary limit for a few identical atoms in an effectively one-dimensional well can be understood as an example of symmetry breaking. At the unitary limit in addition to particle permutation symmetry there is a larger symmetry corresponding to exchanging the N! possible orderings of N particles. In the near unitary limit, this larger symmetry is broken, and different shapes of traps break the symmetry to different degrees. This brief note exploits these symmetries to present a useful, geometric analogy with graph theory and build an algebraic framework for calculating energy splitting in the near unitary limit.

  16. Transition from Poisson to circular unitary ensemble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vinayak; Akhilesh Pandey

    2009-09-01

    Transitions to universality classes of random matrix ensembles have been useful in the study of weakly-broken symmetries in quantum chaotic systems. Transitions involving Poisson as the initial ensemble have been particularly interesting. The exact two-point correlation function was derived by one of the present authors for the Poisson to circular unitary ensemble (CUE) transition with uniform initial density. This is given in terms of a rescaled symmetry breaking parameter Λ. The same result was obtained for Poisson to Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) transition by Kunz and Shapiro, using the contour-integral method of Brezin and Hikami. We show that their method is applicable to Poisson to CUE transition with arbitrary initial density. Their method is also applicable to the more general ℓ CUE to CUE transition where CUE refers to the superposition of ℓ independent CUE spectra in arbitrary ratio.

  17. Complete Pick Positivity and Unitary Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Angshuman

    2009-01-01

    The characteristic function for a contraction is a classical complete unitary invariant devised by Sz.-Nagy and Foias. Just as a contraction is related to the Szego kernel $k_S(z,w) = (1 - z\\ow)^{-1}$ for $|z|, |w| < 1$, by means of $(1/k_S)(T,T^*) \\ge 0$, we consider an arbitrary open connected domain $\\Omega$ in $\\BC^n$, a complete Nevanilinna-Pick kernel $k$ on $\\Omega$ and a tuple $T = (T_1, ..., T_n)$ of commuting bounded operators on a complex separable Hilbert space $\\clh$ such that $(1/k)(T,T^*) \\ge 0$. For a complete Pick kernel the $1/k$ functional calculus makes sense in a beautiful way. It turns out that the model theory works very well and a characteristic function can be associated with $T$. Moreover, the characteristic function then is a complete unitary invariant for a suitable class of tuples $T$.

  18. On unitary reconstruction of linear optical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Tillmann, Max; Walther, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Linear optical elements are pivotal instruments in the manipulation of classical and quantum states of light. The vast progress in integrated quantum photonic technology enables the implementation of large numbers of such elements on chip while providing interferometric stability. As a trade-off these structures face the intrinsic challenge of characterizing their optical transformation as individual optical elements are not directly accessible. Thus the unitary transformation needs to be reconstructed from a dataset generated with having access to the input and output ports of the device only. Here we present a novel approach to unitary reconstruction that significantly improves upon existing approaches. We compare its performance to several approaches via numerical simulations for networks up to 14 modes. We show that an adapted version of our approach allows to recover all mode-dependent losses and to obtain highest reconstruction fidelities under such conditions.

  19. Unitary and room air-conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-09-01

    The scope of this technology evaluation on room and unitary air conditioners covers the initial investment and performance characteristics needed for estimating the operating cost of air conditioners installed in an ICES community. Cooling capacities of commercially available room air conditioners range from 4000 Btu/h to 36,000 Btu/h; unitary air conditioners cover a range from 6000 Btu/h to 135,000 Btu/h. The information presented is in a form useful to both the computer programmer in the construction of a computer simulation of the packaged air-conditioner's performance and to the design engineer, interested in selecting a suitably sized and designed packaged air conditioner.

  20. Scalable Noise Estimation with Random Unitary Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Emerson, J; Zyczkowski, K; Emerson, Joseph; Alicki, Robert; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2005-01-01

    We describe a scalable stochastic method for the experimental measurement of generalized fidelities characterizing the accuracy of the implementation of a coherent quantum transformation. The method is based on the motion reversal of random unitary operators. In the simplest case our method enables direct estimation of the average gate fidelity. The more general fidelities are characterized by a universal exponential rate of fidelity loss. In all cases the measurable fidelity decrease is directly related to the strength of the noise affecting the implementation -- quantified by the trace of the superoperator describing the non--unitary dynamics. While the scalability of our stochastic protocol makes it most relevant in large Hilbert spaces (when quantum process tomography is infeasible), our method should be immediately useful for evaluating the degree of control that is achievable in any prototype quantum processing device. By varying over different experimental arrangements and error-correction strategies a...

  1. Scalable noise estimation with random unitary operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, Joseph [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Alicki, Robert [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, University of Gdansk, Wita Stwosza 57, PL 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Zyczkowski, Karol [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2005-10-01

    We describe a scalable stochastic method for the experimental measurement of generalized fidelities characterizing the accuracy of the implementation of a coherent quantum transformation. The method is based on the motion reversal of random unitary operators. In the simplest case our method enables direct estimation of the average gate fidelity. The more general fidelities are characterized by a universal exponential rate of fidelity loss. In all cases the measurable fidelity decrease is directly related to the strength of the noise affecting the implementation, quantified by the trace of the superoperator describing the non-unitary dynamics. While the scalability of our stochastic protocol makes it most relevant in large Hilbert spaces (when quantum process tomography is infeasible), our method should be immediately useful for evaluating the degree of control that is achievable in any prototype quantum processing device. By varying over different experimental arrangements and error-correction strategies, additional information about the noise can be determined.

  2. Generalized Unitaries and the Picard Group

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Michael Skeide

    2006-11-01

    After discussing some basic facts about generalized module maps, we use the representation theory of the algebra $\\mathscr{B}^a(E)$ of adjointable operators on a Hilbert $\\mathcal{B}$-module to show that the quotient of the group of generalized unitaries on and its normal subgroup of unitaries on is a subgroup of the group of automorphisms of the range ideal $\\mathcal{B}_E$ of in $\\mathcal{B}$. We determine the kernel of the canonical mapping into the Picard group of $\\mathcal{B}_E$ in terms of the group of quasi inner automorphisms of $\\mathcal{B}_E$. As a by-product we identify the group of bistrict automorphisms of the algebra of adjointable operators on modulo inner automorphisms as a subgroup of the (opposite of the) Picard group.

  3. Recurrence for discrete time unitary evolutions

    CERN Document Server

    Grünbaum, F A; Werner, A H; Werner, R F

    2012-01-01

    We consider quantum dynamical systems specified by a unitary operator U and an initial state vector \\phi. In each step the unitary is followed by a projective measurement checking whether the system has returned to the initial state. We call the system recurrent if this eventually happens with probability one. We show that recurrence is equivalent to the absence of an absolutely continuous part from the spectral measure of U with respect to \\phi. We also show that in the recurrent case the expected first return time is an integer or infinite, for which we give a topological interpretation. A key role in our theory is played by the first arrival amplitudes, which turn out to be the (complex conjugated) Taylor coefficients of the Schur function of the spectral measure. On the one hand, this provides a direct dynamical interpretation of these coefficients; on the other hand it links our definition of first return times to a large body of mathematical literature.

  4. UV radiation sensors with unitary and binary superficial barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorogan, Valerian; Vieru, Tatiana; Kosyak, V.; Damaskin, I.; Chirita, F.

    1998-07-01

    UV radiation sensors with unitary and binary superficial barrier, made on the basis of GaP - SnO2 and GaAs - AlGaAs - SnO2 heterostructures, are presented in the paper. Technological and constructive factors, which permit to realize a high conversion efficiency and to exclude the influence of visible spectrum upon the photoanswer, are analyzed. It was established that the presence of an isotypical superficial potential barrier permits to suppress the photoanswer component formed by absorption of visible and infrared radiation in semiconductor structure bulk.

  5. Multiscale differential phase contrast analysis with a unitary detector

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2015-12-30

    A new approach to generate differential phase contrast (DPC) images for the visualization and quantification of local magnetic fields in a wide range of modern nano materials is reported. In contrast to conventional DPC methods our technique utilizes the idea of a unitary detector under bright field conditions, making it immediately usable by a majority of modern transmission electron microscopes. The approach is put on test to characterize the local magnetization of cylindrical nanowires and their 3D ordered arrays, revealing high sensitivity of our method in a combination with nanometer-scale spatial resolution.

  6. Integral Compressor/Generator/Fan Unitary Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Dreiman, Nelik

    2016-01-01

    INTEGRAL COMPRESSOR / GENERATOR / FAN UNITARY STRUCTURE.*) Dr. Nelik Dreiman Consultant, P.O.Box 144, Tipton, MI E-mail: An extremely compact, therefore space saving single compressor/generator/cooling fan structure of short axial length and light weight has been developed to provide generation of electrical power with simultaneous operation of the compressor when power is unavailable or function as a regular AC compressor powered by a power line. The generators and ai...

  7. Unitary representations and harmonic analysis an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Sugiura, M

    1990-01-01

    The principal aim of this book is to give an introduction to harmonic analysis and the theory of unitary representations of Lie groups. The second edition has been brought up to date with a number of textual changes in each of the five chapters, a new appendix on Fatou''s theorem has been added in connection with the limits of discrete series, and the bibliography has been tripled in length.

  8. Optimal control theory for unitary transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Palao, Jose P.

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of a quantum system driven by an external field is well described by a unitary transformation generated by a time dependent Hamiltonian. The inverse problem of finding the field that generates a specific unitary transformation is the subject of study. The unitary transformation which can represent an algorithm in a quantum computation is imposed on a subset of quantum states embedded in a larger Hilbert space. Optimal control theory (OCT) is used to solve the inversion problem irrespective of the initial input state. A unified formalism, based on the Krotov method is developed leading to a new scheme. The schemes are compared for the inversion of a two-qubit Fourier transform using as registers the vibrational levels of the $X^1\\Sigma^+_g$ electronic state of Na$_2$. Raman-like transitions through the $A^1\\Sigma^+_u$ electronic state induce the transitions. Light fields are found that are able to implement the Fourier transform within a picosecond time scale. Such fields can be obtained by pulse-...

  9. An ancilla-based quantum simulation framework for non-unitary matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskin, Ammar; Kais, Sabre

    2017-01-01

    The success probability in an ancilla-based circuit generally decreases exponentially in the number of qubits consisted in the ancilla. Although the probability can be amplified through the amplitude amplification process, the input dependence of the amplitude amplification makes difficult to sequentially combine two or more ancilla-based circuits. A new version of the amplitude amplification known as the oblivious amplitude amplification runs independently of the input to the system register. This allows us to sequentially combine two or more ancilla-based circuits. However, this type of the amplification only works when the considered system is unitary or non-unitary but somehow close to a unitary. In this paper, we present a general framework to simulate non-unitary processes on ancilla-based quantum circuits in which the success probability is maximized by using the oblivious amplitude amplification. In particular, we show how to extend a non-unitary matrix to an almost unitary matrix. We then employ the extended matrix by using an ancilla-based circuit design along with the oblivious amplitude amplification. Measuring the distance of the produced matrix to the closest unitary matrix, a lower bound for the fidelity of the final state obtained from the oblivious amplitude amplification process is presented. Numerical simulations for random matrices of different sizes show that independent of the system size, the final amplified probabilities are generally around 0.75 and the fidelity of the final state is mostly high and around 0.95. Furthermore, we discuss the complexity analysis and show that combining two such ancilla-based circuits, a matrix product can be implemented. This may lead us to efficiently implement matrix functions represented as infinite matrix products on quantum computers.

  10. High-Order Space-Time Methods for Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, H. T.

    2013-01-01

    Current high-order methods such as discontinuous Galerkin and/or flux reconstruction can provide effective discretization for the spatial derivatives. Together with a time discretization, such methods result in either too small a time step size in the case of an explicit scheme or a very large system in the case of an implicit one. To tackle these problems, two new high-order space-time schemes for conservation laws are introduced: the first is explicit and the second, implicit. The explicit method here, also called the moment scheme, achieves a Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) condition of 1 for the case of one-spatial dimension regardless of the degree of the polynomial approximation. (For standard explicit methods, if the spatial approximation is of degree p, then the time step sizes are typically proportional to 1/p(exp 2)). Fourier analyses for the one and two-dimensional cases are carried out. The property of super accuracy (or super convergence) is discussed. The implicit method is a simplified but optimal version of the discontinuous Galerkin scheme applied to time. It reduces to a collocation implicit Runge-Kutta (RK) method for ordinary differential equations (ODE) called Radau IIA. The explicit and implicit schemes are closely related since they employ the same intermediate time levels, and the former can serve as a key building block in an iterative procedure for the latter. A limiting technique for the piecewise linear scheme is also discussed. The technique can suppress oscillations near a discontinuity while preserving accuracy near extrema. Preliminary numerical results are shown

  11. Stable unitary integrators for the numerical implementation of continuous unitary transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, Samuel; Refael, Gil

    2017-09-01

    The technique of continuous unitary transformations has recently been used to provide physical insight into a diverse array of quantum mechanical systems. However, the question of how to best numerically implement the flow equations has received little attention. The most immediately apparent approach, using standard Runge-Kutta numerical integration algorithms, suffers from both severe inefficiency due to stiffness and the loss of unitarity. After reviewing the formalism of continuous unitary transformations and Wegner's original choice for the infinitesimal generator of the flow, we present a number of approaches to resolving these issues including a choice of generator which induces what we call the "uniform tangent decay flow" and three numerical integrators specifically designed to perform continuous unitary transformations efficiently while preserving the unitarity of flow. We conclude by applying one of the flow algorithms to a simple calculation that visually demonstrates the many-body localization transition.

  12. Conservation laws of high-order nonlinear PDEs and the variational conservation laws in the class with mixed derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narain, R; Kara, A H, E-mail: Abdul.Kara@wits.ac.z [School of Mathematics, University of the Witwatersrand, Wits 2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2010-02-26

    The construction of conserved vectors using Noether's theorem via a knowledge of a Lagrangian (or via the recently developed concept of partial Lagrangians) is well known. The formulas to determine these for higher order flows are somewhat cumbersome but peculiar and become more so as the order increases. We carry out these for a class of high-order partial differential equations from mathematical physics and then consider some specific ones with mixed derivatives. In the latter set of examples, our main focus is that the resultant conserved flows display some previously unknown interesting 'divergence properties' owing to the presence of the mixed derivatives. Overall, we consider a large class of equations of interest and construct some new conservation laws.

  13. DOA estimation for monostatic MIMO radar based on unitary root-MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xianpeng; Li, Xin; Song, Hongru

    2013-11-01

    Direction of arrival (DOA) estimation is an important issue for monostatic MIMO radar. A DOA estimation method for monostatic MIMO radar based on unitary root-MUSIC is presented in this article. In the presented method, a reduced-dimension matrix is first utilised to transform the high dimension of received signal data into low dimension one. Then, a low-dimension real-value covariance matrix is obtained by forward-backward (FB) averaging and unitary transformation. The DOA of targets can be achieved by unitary root-MUSIC. Due to the FB averaging of received signal data and the eigendecomposition of the real-valued matrix covariance, the proposed method owns better angle estimation performance and lower computational complexity. The simulation results of the proposed method are presented and the performances are investigated and discussed.

  14. On unitary representability of topological groups

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Pastor, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    We prove that the additive group $(E^\\ast,\\tau_k(E))$ of an $\\mathscr{L}_\\infty$-Banach space $E$, with the topology $\\tau_k(E)$ of uniform convergence on compact subsets of $E$, is topologically isomorphic to a subgroup of the unitary group of some Hilbert space (is \\emph{unitarily representable}). This is the same as proving that the topological group $(E^\\ast,\\tau_k(E))$ is uniformly homeomorphic to a subset of $\\ell_2^\\kappa$ for some $\\kappa$. As an immediate consequence, preduals of com...

  15. Quantum remote control Teleportation of unitary operations

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, S F; Chefles, A; Plenio, M B

    2001-01-01

    We consider the implementation of an unknown arbitrary unitary operation U upon a distant quantum system. This teleportation of U can be viewed as a quantum remote control. We investigate the protocols which achieve this using local operations, classical communication and shared entanglement (LOCCSE). Lower bounds on the necessary entanglement and classical communication are determined using causality and the linearity of quantum mechanics. We examine in particular detail the resources required if the remote control is to be implemented as a classical black box. Under these circumstances, we prove that the required resources are, necessarily, those needed for implementation by bidirectional state teleportation.

  16. Unitary Gas Constraints on Nuclear Symmetry Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Kolomeitsev, Evgeni E; Ohnishi, Akira; Tews, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    We show the existence of a lower bound on the volume symmetry energy parameter $S_0$ from unitary gas considerations. We further demonstrate that values of $S_0$ above this minimum imply upper and lower bounds on the symmetry energy parameter $L$ describing its lowest-order density dependence. The bounds are found to be consistent with both recent calculations of the energies of pure neutron matter and constraints from nuclear experiments. These results are significant because many equations of state in active use for simulations of nuclear structure, heavy ion collisions, supernovae, neutron star mergers, and neutron star structure violate these constraints.

  17. Shear Viscosity of a Unitary Fermi Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Wlazłowski, Gabriel; Magierski, Piotr; Drut, Joaquín E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first ab initio determination of the shear viscosity eta of the Unitary Fermi Gas, based on finite temperature quantum Monte Carlo calculations and the Kubo linear-response formalism. We determine the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity to entropy density ratio eta/s. The minimum of eta/s appears to be located above the critical temperature for the superfluid-to-normal phase transition with the most probable value being eta/s approx 0.2 hbar/kB, which almost saturates...

  18. Universal dynamics in a Unitary Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klauss, Catherine; Xie, Xin; D'Incao, Jose; Jin, Deborah; Cornell, Eric

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a unitary Bose gas with an 85 Rb BEC, specifically to determine whether the dynamics scale universally with density. We find that the initial density affects both the (i) projection of the strongly interacting many-body wave-function onto the Feshbach dimer state when the system is rapidly ramped to a weakly interacting value of the scattering length a and (ii) the overall decay rate to deeper bound states. We will present data on both measurements across two orders of magnitude in density, and will discuss how the data illustrate the competing roles of universality and Efimov physics.

  19. Unitary Quantum Lattice Algorithms for Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-23

    collision operator, based on the 3D relativistic Dirac particle dynamics theory of Yepez, ĈD = cosθ x( ) −i sinθ x( ) −i sinθ x( ) cosθ x... based algorithm it will result in a finite difference representation of the GP Eq. (24) provided the parameters are so chosen to yield diffusion-like...Fluid Dynamics, ed. H. W. Oh, ( InTech Publishers, Croatia, 2012) [20] “Unitary qubit lattice simulations of complex vortex structures

  20. Unitary water-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-10-01

    Performance and cost functions for nine unitary water-to-air heat pumps ranging in nominal size from /sup 1///sub 2/ to 26 tons are presented in mathematical form for easy use in heat pump computer simulations. COPs at nominal water source temperature of 60/sup 0/F range from 2.5 to 3.4 during the heating cycle; during the cooling cycle EERs range from 8.33 to 9.09 with 85/sup 0/F entering water source temperatures. The COP and EER values do not include water source pumping power or any energy requirements associated with a central heat source and heat rejection equipment.

  1. Quantum mechanics with non-unitary symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Bistrovic, B

    2000-01-01

    This article shows how to properly extend symmetries of non-relativistic quantum mechanics to include non-unitary representations of Lorentz group for all spins. It follows from this that (almost) all existing relativistic single particle Lagrangians and equations are incorrect. This is shown in particular for Dirac's equation and Proca equations. It is shown that properly constructed relativistic extensions have no negative energies, zitterbewegung effects and have proper symmetric energy-momentum tensor and angular momentum density tensor. The downside is that states with negative norm are inevitable in all representations.

  2. Unitary appreciative inquiry: evolution and refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, W Richard; Repede, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Unitary appreciative inquiry (UAI), developed over the past 20 years, provides an orientation and process for uncovering human wholeness and discovering life patterning in individuals and groups. Refinements and a description of studies using UAI are presented. Assumptions and conceptual underpinnings of the method distinguishing its contributions from other methods are reported. Data generation strategies that capture human wholeness and elucidate life patterning are proposed. Data synopsis as an alternative to analysis is clarified and explicated. Standards that suggest enhancing the legitimacy of knowledge and credibility of research are specified. Potential expansions of UAI offer possibilities for extending epistemologies, aesthetic integration, and theory development.

  3. Asymptotic expansions for the Gaussian unitary ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Thorbjørnsen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Let g : R ¿ C be a C8-function with all derivatives bounded and let trn denote the normalized trace on the n × n matrices. In Ref. 3 Ercolani and McLaughlin established asymptotic expansions of the mean value ¿{trn(g(Xn))} for a rather general class of random matrices Xn, including the Gaussian...... Unitary Ensemble (GUE). Using an analytical approach, we provide in the present paper an alternative proof of this asymptotic expansion in the GUE case. Specifically we derive for a random matrix Xn that where k is an arbitrary positive integer. Considered as mappings of g, we determine the coefficients...

  4. Endoscopic classification of representations of quasi-split unitary groups

    CERN Document Server

    Mok, Chung Pang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the author establishes the endoscopic classification of tempered representations of quasi-split unitary groups over local fields, and the endoscopic classification of the discrete automorphic spectrum of quasi-split unitary groups over global number fields. The method is analogous to the work of Arthur on orthogonal and symplectic groups, based on the theory of endoscopy and the comparison of trace formulas on unitary groups and general linear groups.

  5. Right-unitary transformation theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Z

    1996-01-01

    We develop a new transformation theory in quantum physics, where the transformation operators, defined in the infinite dimensional Hilbert space, have right-unitary inverses only. Through several theorems, we discuss the properties of state space of such operators. As one application of the right-unitary transformation (RUT), we show that using the RUT method, we can solve exactly various interactions of many-level atoms with quantized radiation fields, where the energy of atoms can be two levels, three levels in Lambda, V and equiv configurations, and up to higher (>3) levels. These interactions have wide applications in atomic physics, quantum optics and quantum electronics. In this paper, we focus on two typical systems: one is a two-level generalized Jaynes-Cummings model, where the cavity field varies with the external source; the other one is the interaction of three-level atom with quantized radiation fields, where the atoms have Lambda-configuration energy levels, and the radiation fields are one-mode...

  6. Electromagnetic PIC simulation with highly enhanced energy conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Yazdanpanah, J

    2011-01-01

    We have obtained an electromagnetic PIC (EM-PIC) algorithm based on time-space-extended particle in cell model. In this model particles are shaped objects extended over time and space around Lagrangian markers. Sources carried by these particles are weighted completely into centers and faces of time-space cells of simulation-domain. Weighting is obtained by implication of conservation of charge of shaped particles. By solving Maxwell's equations over source free zones of simulation grid we reduce solution of these equations to finding field values at nods of this grid. Major source of error in this model (and albeit other PIC models) is identified to be mismatching of particle marker location and location of its assigned sources in time and space. Relation of leapfrog scheme for integration of equations of motion with this discrepancy is investigated by evaluation of violation of energy conservation. We come in conclusion that instead of leapfrog we should integrate equations of motion simultaneously. Though ...

  7. Perfect state transfer in unitary Cayley graphs over local rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotsanan Meemark

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, using eigenvalues and eigenvectors of unitary Cayley graphs over finite local rings and elementary linear algebra, we characterize which local rings allowing PST occurring in its unitary Cayley graph. Moreover, we have some developments when $R$ is a product of local rings.

  8. Hydrodynamics of a unitary Bose gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jay; Fletcher, Richard; Lopes, Raphael; Navon, Nir; Smith, Rob; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2016-05-01

    In general, normal-phase Bose gases are well described by modelling them as ideal gases. In particular, hydrodynamic flow is usually not observed in the expansion dynamics of normal gases, and is more readily observable in Bose-condensed gases. However, by preparing strongly-interacting clouds, we observe hydrodynamic behaviour in normal-phase Bose gases, including the `maximally' hydrodynamic unitary regime. We avoid the atom losses that often hamper experimental access of this regime by using radio-frequency injection, which switches on interactions much faster than trap or loss timescales. At low phase-space densities, we find excellent agreement with a collisional model based on the Boltzmann equation. At higher phase-space densities our results show a deviation from this model in the vicinity of an Efimov resonance, which cannot be accounted for by measured losses.

  9. Unitary air-to-air heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-07-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available unitary heat pumps ranging from nominal capacities of 1/sup 1///sub 2/ to 45 tons. The nominal COP of the heat pump models, selected as representative, vary from 2.4 to 2.9. Seasonal COPs for heat pump installations and single-family dwellings are reported to vary from 2.5 to 1.1, depending on climate. For cooling performance, the nominal EER's vary from 6.5 to 8.7. Representative part-load performance curves along with cost estimating and reliability data are provided to aid: (1) the systems design engineer to select suitably sized heat pumps based on life-cycle cost analyses, and (2) the computer programmer to develop a simulation code for heat pumps operating in an Integrated Community Energy System.

  10. Biphoton transmission through non-unitary objects

    CERN Document Server

    Reichert, Matthew; Sun, Xiaohang; Fleischer, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    Losses should be accounted for in a complete description of quantum imaging systems, and yet they are often treated as undesirable and largely neglected. In conventional quantum imaging, images are built up by coincidence detection of spatially entangled photon pairs (biphotons) transmitted through an object. However, as real objects are non-unitary (absorptive), part of the transmitted state contains only a single photon, which is overlooked in traditional coincidence measurements. The single photon part has a drastically different spatial distribution than the two-photon part. It contains information both about the object, and, remarkably, the spatial entanglement properties of the incident biphotons. We image the one- and two-photon parts of the transmitted state using an electron multiplying CCD array both as a traditional camera and as a massively parallel coincidence counting apparatus, and demonstrate agreement with theoretical predictions. This work may prove useful for photon number imaging and lead ...

  11. Assessment of selected conservation measures for high-temperature process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusik, C L; Parameswaran, K; Nadkarni, R; O& #x27; Neill, J K; Malhotra, S; Hyde, R; Kinneberg, D; Fox, L; Rossetti, M

    1981-01-01

    Energy conservation projects involving high-temperature processes in various stages of development are assessed to quantify their energy conservation potential; to determine their present status of development; to identify their research and development needs and estimate the associated costs; and to determine the most effective role for the Federal government in developing these technologies. The program analyzed 25 energy conserving processes in the iron and steel, aluminium, copper, magnesium, cement, and glassmaking industries. A preliminary list of other potential energy conservation projects in these industries is also presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  12. Assessment of selected conservation measures for high-temperature process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusik, C L; Parameswaran, K; Nadkarni, R; O& #x27; Neill, J K; Malhotra, S; Hyde, R; Kinneberg, D; Fox, L; Rossetti, M

    1981-01-01

    Energy conservation projects involving high-temperature processes in various stages of development are assessed to quantify their energy conservation potential; to determine their present status of development; to identify their research and development needs and estimate the associated costs; and to determine the most effective role for the Federal government in developing these technologies. The program analyzed 25 energy conserving processes in the iron and steel, aluminium, copper, magnesium, cement, and glassmaking industries. A preliminary list of other potential energy conservation projects in these industries is also presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  13. Quantum Entanglement Growth under Random Unitary Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Adam; Ruhman, Jonathan; Vijay, Sagar; Haah, Jeongwan

    2017-07-01

    Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example, after a quantum quench, is a key problem in nonequilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time-dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the "entanglement tsunami" in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like (time )1/3 and are spatially correlated over a distance ∝(time )2/3. We derive KPZ universal behavior in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to (i) a stochastic model of a growing surface, (ii) a "minimal cut" picture, reminiscent of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula in holography, and (iii) a hydrodynamic problem involving the dynamical spreading of operators. We demonstrate KPZ universality in 1D numerically using simulations of random unitary circuits. Importantly, the leading-order time dependence of the entropy is deterministic even in the presence of noise, allowing us to propose a simple coarse grained minimal cut picture for the entanglement growth of generic Hamiltonians, even without noise, in arbitrary dimensionality. We clarify the meaning of the "velocity" of entanglement growth in the 1D entanglement tsunami. We show that in higher dimensions, noisy entanglement evolution maps to the well-studied problem of pinning of a membrane or domain wall by disorder.

  14. Quantum Entanglement Growth under Random Unitary Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Nahum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example, after a quantum quench, is a key problem in nonequilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time-dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the “entanglement tsunami” in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like (time^{1/3} and are spatially correlated over a distance ∝(time^{2/3}. We derive KPZ universal behavior in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to (i a stochastic model of a growing surface, (ii a “minimal cut” picture, reminiscent of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula in holography, and (iii a hydrodynamic problem involving the dynamical spreading of operators. We demonstrate KPZ universality in 1D numerically using simulations of random unitary circuits. Importantly, the leading-order time dependence of the entropy is deterministic even in the presence of noise, allowing us to propose a simple coarse grained minimal cut picture for the entanglement growth of generic Hamiltonians, even without noise, in arbitrary dimensionality. We clarify the meaning of the “velocity” of entanglement growth in the 1D entanglement tsunami. We show that in higher dimensions, noisy entanglement evolution maps to the well-studied problem of pinning of a membrane or domain wall by disorder.

  15. 7 CFR 1430.225 - Violations of highly erodible land and wetland conservation provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... wetland conservation provisions. The provisions of part 12 of this title apply to this part. ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violations of highly erodible land and wetland conservation provisions. 1430.225 Section 1430.225 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...

  16. 7 CFR 1412.68 - Compliance with highly erodible land and wetland conservation provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and wetland conservation provisions. The provisions of part 12 of this title apply to this part. ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance with highly erodible land and wetland conservation provisions. 1412.68 Section 1412.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...

  17. Telomeric expression sites are highly conserved in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Hertz-Fowler

    Full Text Available Subtelomeric regions are often under-represented in genome sequences of eukaryotes. One of the best known examples of the use of telomere proximity for adaptive purposes are the bloodstream expression sites (BESs of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei. To enhance our understanding of BES structure and function in host adaptation and immune evasion, the BES repertoire from the Lister 427 strain of T. brucei were independently tagged and sequenced. BESs are polymorphic in size and structure but reveal a surprisingly conserved architecture in the context of extensive recombination. Very small BESs do exist and many functioning BESs do not contain the full complement of expression site associated genes (ESAGs. The consequences of duplicated or missing ESAGs, including ESAG9, a newly named ESAG12, and additional variant surface glycoprotein genes (VSGs were evaluated by functional assays after BESs were tagged with a drug-resistance gene. Phylogenetic analysis of constituent ESAG families suggests that BESs are sequence mosaics and that extensive recombination has shaped the evolution of the BES repertoire. This work opens important perspectives in understanding the molecular mechanisms of antigenic variation, a widely used strategy for immune evasion in pathogens, and telomere biology.

  18. Sequential scheme for locally discriminating bipartite unitary operations without inverses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lvzhou

    2017-08-01

    Local distinguishability of bipartite unitary operations has recently received much attention. A nontrivial and interesting question concerning this subject is whether there is a sequential scheme for locally discriminating between two bipartite unitary operations, because a sequential scheme usually represents the most economic strategy for discrimination. An affirmative answer to this question was given in the literature, however with two limitations: (i) the unitary operations to be discriminated were limited to act on d ⊗d , i.e., a two-qudit system, and (ii) the inverses of the unitary operations were assumed to be accessible, although this assumption may be unrealizable in experiment. In this paper, we improve the result by removing the two limitations. Specifically, we show that any two bipartite unitary operations acting on dA⊗dB can be locally discriminated by a sequential scheme, without using the inverses of the unitary operations. Therefore, this paper enhances the applicability and feasibility of the sequential scheme for locally discriminating unitary operations.

  19. Texas High Plains Initiative for Strategic and Innovative Irrigation Management and Conservation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinheimer, Justin; Johnson, Phillip; Mitchell, Donna; Johnson, Jeff; Kellison, Rick

    2013-01-01

    The strategic management of irrigation applications to improve water‐use efficiency and meet economic objectives has been identified as a key factor in the conservation of water resources in the Texas High Plains region...

  20. Quantum Entanglement Growth Under Random Unitary Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nahum, Adam; Vijay, Sagar; Haah, Jeongwan

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example after a quantum quench, is a key problem in non-equilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time--dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the `entanglement tsunami' in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar--Parisi--Zhang (KPZ) equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like $(\\text{time})^{1/3}$ and are spatially correlated over a distance $\\propto (\\text{time})^{2/3}$. We derive KPZ universal behaviour in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to: (i) a stochastic model of a growing surface; (ii) a `minimal cut' picture, reminisce...

  1. A unitary test of the Ratios Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Goes, John; Miller, Steven J; Montague, David; Ninsuwan, Kesinee; Peckner, Ryan; Pham, Thuy

    2009-01-01

    The Ratios Conjecture of Conrey, Farmer and Zirnbauer predicts the answers to numerous questions in number theory, ranging from n-level densities and correlations to mollifiers to moments and vanishing at the central point. The conjecture gives a recipe to generate these answers, which are believed to be correct up to square-root cancelation. These predictions have been verified, for suitably restricted test functions, for the 1-level density of orthogonal and symplectic families of L-functions. In this paper we verify the conjecture's predictions for the unitary family of all Dirichlet $L$-functions with prime conductor; we show square-root agreement between prediction and number theory if the support of the Fourier transform of the test function is in (-1,1), and for support up to (-2,2) we show agreement up to a power savings in the family's cardinality. The interesting feature in this family (which has not surfaced in previous investigations) is determining what is and what is not a diagonal term in the R...

  2. Quantum metrology with unitary parametrization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Jing, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2015-02-24

    Quantum Fisher information is a central quantity in quantum metrology. We discuss an alternative representation of quantum Fisher information for unitary parametrization processes. In this representation, all information of parametrization transformation, i.e., the entire dynamical information, is totally involved in a Hermitian operator H. Utilizing this representation, quantum Fisher information is only determined by H and the initial state. Furthermore, H can be expressed in an expanded form. The highlights of this form is that it can bring great convenience during the calculation for the Hamiltonians owning recursive commutations with their partial derivative. We apply this representation in a collective spin system and show the specific expression of H. For a simple case, a spin-half system, the quantum Fisher information is given and the optimal states to access maximum quantum Fisher information are found. Moreover, for an exponential form initial state, an analytical expression of quantum Fisher information by H operator is provided. The multiparameter quantum metrology is also considered and discussed utilizing this representation.

  3. Unitary Evolution and Cosmological Fine-Tuning

    CERN Document Server

    Carroll, Sean M

    2010-01-01

    Inflationary cosmology attempts to provide a natural explanation for the flatness and homogeneity of the observable universe. In the context of reversible (unitary) evolution, this goal is difficult to satisfy, as Liouville's theorem implies that no dynamical process can evolve a large number of initial states into a small number of final states. We use the invariant measure on solutions to Einstein's equation to quantify the problems of cosmological fine-tuning. The most natural interpretation of the measure is the flatness problem does not exist; almost all Robertson-Walker cosmologies are spatially flat. The homogeneity of the early universe, however, does represent a substantial fine-tuning; the horizon problem is real. When perturbations are taken into account, inflation only occurs in a negligibly small fraction of cosmological histories, less than $10^{-6.6\\times 10^7}$. We argue that while inflation does not affect the number of initial conditions that evolve into a late universe like our own, it neve...

  4. Homologous high-throughput expression and purification of highly conserved E coli proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchmann Rainer

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic factors and a dysregulated immune response towards commensal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD. Animal models demonstrated that the normal intestinal flora is crucial for the development of intestinal inflammation. However, due to the complexity of the intestinal flora, it has been difficult to design experiments for detection of proinflammatory bacterial antigen(s involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Several studies indicated a potential association of E. coli with IBD. In addition, T cell clones of IBD patients were shown to cross react towards antigens from different enteric bacterial species and thus likely responded to conserved bacterial antigens. We therefore chose highly conserved E. coli proteins as candidate antigens for abnormal T cell responses in IBD and used high-throughput techniques for cloning, expression and purification under native conditions of a set of 271 conserved E. coli proteins for downstream immunologic studies. Results As a standardized procedure, genes were PCR amplified and cloned into the expression vector pQTEV2 in order to express proteins N-terminally fused to a seven-histidine-tag. Initial small-scale expression and purification under native conditions by metal chelate affinity chromatography indicated that the vast majority of target proteins were purified in high yields. Targets that revealed low yields after purification probably due to weak solubility were shuttled into Gateway (Invitrogen destination vectors in order to enhance solubility by N-terminal fusion of maltose binding protein (MBP, N-utilizing substance A (NusA, or glutathione S-transferase (GST to the target protein. In addition, recombinant proteins were treated with polymyxin B coated magnetic beads in order to remove lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Thus, 73% of the targeted proteins could be expressed and purified in large-scale to give soluble proteins in the range of 500

  5. Decomposition of Unitary Matrices for Finding Quantum Circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Daskin, Anmer

    2010-01-01

    Constructing appropriate unitary matrix operators for new quantum algorithms and finding the minimum cost gate sequences for the implementation of these unitary operators is of fundamental importance in the field of quantum information and quantum computation. Here, we use the group leaders optimization algorithm, which is an effective and simple global optimization algorithm, to decompose a given unitary matrix into a proper-minimum cost quantum gate sequence. Using this procedure, we present new circuit designs for the simulation of the Toffoli gate, the amplification step of the Grover search algorithm, the quantum Fourier transform, the sender part of the quantum teleportation and the Hamiltonian for the Hydrogen molecule. In addition, we give two algorithmic methods for the construction of unitary matrices with respect to the different types of the quantum control gates. Our results indicate that the procedure is effective, general, and easy to implement.

  6. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Unitary Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides current information on low-Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant alternatives used in unitary air-conditioning equipment, relevant to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

  7. Modeling Sampling in Tensor Products of Unitary Invariant Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G. García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of unitary invariant subspaces of a Hilbert space H is nowadays a recognized fact in the treatment of sampling problems. Indeed, shift-invariant subspaces of L2(R and also periodic extensions of finite signals are remarkable examples where this occurs. As a consequence, the availability of an abstract unitary sampling theory becomes a useful tool to handle these problems. In this paper we derive a sampling theory for tensor products of unitary invariant subspaces. This allows merging the cases of finitely/infinitely generated unitary invariant subspaces formerly studied in the mathematical literature; it also allows introducing the several variables case. As the involved samples are identified as frame coefficients in suitable tensor product spaces, the relevant mathematical technique is that of frame theory, involving both finite/infinite dimensional cases.

  8. Virial theorem and universality in a unitary fermi gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Kinast, J; Turlapov, A

    2005-09-16

    Unitary Fermi gases, where the scattering length is large compared to the interparticle spacing, can have universal properties, which are independent of the details of the interparticle interactions when the range of the scattering potential is negligible. We prepare an optically trapped, unitary Fermi gas of 6Li, tuned just above the center of a broad Feshbach resonance. In agreement with the universal hypothesis, we observe that this strongly interacting many-body system obeys the virial theorem for an ideal gas over a wide range of temperatures. Based on this result, we suggest a simple volume thermometry method for unitary gases. We also show that the observed breathing mode frequency, which is close to the unitary hydrodynamic value over a wide range of temperature, is consistent with a universal hydrodynamic gas with nearly isentropic dynamics.

  9. Exact and Approximate Unitary 2-Designs: Constructions and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dankert, C; Emerson, J; Livine, E; Dankert, Christoph; Cleve, Richard; Emerson, Joseph; Livine, Etera

    2006-01-01

    We consider an extension of the concept of spherical t-designs to the unitary group in order to develop a unified framework for analyzing the resource requirements of randomized quantum algorithms. We show that certain protocols based on twirling require a unitary 2-design. We describe an efficient construction for an exact unitary 2-design based on the Clifford group, and then develop a method for generating an epsilon-approximate unitary 2-design that requires only O(n log(1/epsilon)) gates, where n is the number of qubits and epsilon is an appropriate measure of precision. These results lead to a protocol with exponential resource savings over existing experimental methods for estimating the characteristic fidelities of physical quantum processes.

  10. The Theory of Unitary Development of Chengdu and Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuangQing

    2005-01-01

    Chengdu and Chongqing are two megalopolises with the synthesized economic strength and the strongest urban competitiveness in the entire western region, which have very important positions in the development of western China. Through horizontal contrast of social economic developing level of the two cities, the two cities' economic foundation of unitary development is analyzed from complementary and integrative relationship. Then the policies and measures of economic unitary development of two cities is put forward.

  11. Free Energies and Fluctuations for the Unitary Brownian Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    We show that the Laplace transforms of traces of words in independent unitary Brownian motions converge towards an analytic function on a non trivial disc. These results allow one to study the asymptotic behavior of Wilson loops under the unitary Yang-Mills measure on the plane with a potential. The limiting objects obtained are shown to be characterized by equations analogue to Schwinger-Dyson's ones, named here after Makeenko and Migdal.

  12. High sequence conservation among cucumber mosaic virus isolates from lily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y K; Derks, A F; Langeveld, S; Goldbach, R; Prins, M

    2001-08-01

    For classification of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolates from ornamental crops of different geographical areas, these were characterized by comparing the nucleotide sequences of RNAs 4 and the encoded coat proteins. Within the ornamental-infecting CMV viruses both subgroups were represented. CMV isolates of Alstroemeria and crocus were classified as subgroup II isolates, whereas 8 other isolates, from lily, gladiolus, amaranthus, larkspur, and lisianthus, were identified as subgroup I members. In general, nucleotide sequence comparisons correlated well with geographic distribution, with one notable exception: the analyzed nucleotide sequences of 5 lily isolates showed remarkably high homology despite different origins.

  13. Implementation of bipartite or remote unitary gates with repeater nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Li; Nemoto, Kae

    2016-08-01

    We propose some protocols to implement various classes of bipartite unitary operations on two remote parties with the help of repeater nodes in-between. We also present a protocol to implement a single-qubit unitary with parameters determined by a remote party with the help of up to three repeater nodes. It is assumed that the neighboring nodes are connected by noisy photonic channels, and the local gates can be performed quite accurately, while the decoherence of memories is significant. A unitary is often a part of a larger computation or communication task in a quantum network, and to reduce the amount of decoherence in other systems of the network, we focus on the goal of saving the total time for implementing a unitary including the time for entanglement preparation. We review some previously studied protocols that implement bipartite unitaries using local operations and classical communication and prior shared entanglement, and apply them to the situation with repeater nodes without prior entanglement. We find that the protocols using piecewise entanglement between neighboring nodes often require less total time compared to preparing entanglement between the two end nodes first and then performing the previously known protocols. For a generic bipartite unitary, as the number of repeater nodes increases, the total time could approach the time cost for direct signal transfer from one end node to the other. We also prove some lower bounds of the total time when there are a small number of repeater nodes. The application to position-based cryptography is discussed.

  14. High-order Lagrangian cell-centered conservative scheme on unstructured meshes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛全文

    2014-01-01

    A high-order Lagrangian cell-centered conservative gas dynamics scheme is presented on unstructured meshes. A high-order piecewise pressure of the cell is intro-duced. With the high-order piecewise pressure of the cell, the high-order spatial discretiza-tion fluxes are constructed. The time discretization of the spatial fluxes is performed by means of the Taylor expansions of the spatial discretization fluxes. The vertex velocities are evaluated in a consistent manner due to an original solver located at the nodes by means of momentum conservation. Many numerical tests are presented to demonstrate the robustness and the accuracy of the scheme.

  15. Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Schneider

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined.

  16. Achieving conservation when opportunity costs are high: optimizing reserve design in Alberta's oil sands region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Richard R; Hauer, Grant; Farr, Dan; Adamowicz, W L; Boutin, Stan

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that conservation gains can be achieved when the spatial distributions of biological benefits and economic costs are incorporated in the conservation planning process. Using Alberta, Canada, as a case study we apply these techniques in the context of coarse-filter reserve design. Because targets for ecosystem representation and other coarse-filter design elements are difficult to define objectively we use a trade-off analysis to systematically explore the relationship between conservation targets and economic opportunity costs. We use the Marxan conservation planning software to generate reserve designs at each level of conservation target to ensure that our quantification of conservation and economic outcomes represents the optimal allocation of resources in each case. Opportunity cost is most affected by the ecological representation target and this relationship is nonlinear. Although petroleum resources are present throughout most of Alberta, and include highly valuable oil sands deposits, our analysis indicates that over 30% of public lands could be protected while maintaining access to more than 97% of the value of the region's resources. Our case study demonstrates that optimal resource allocation can be usefully employed to support strategic decision making in the context of land-use planning, even when conservation targets are not well defined.

  17. High-resolution satellite imagery is an important yet underutilized resource in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah A; Kennedy, Christina M; Torres, Julio; Colman, Karen; Pérez-Estigarribia, Pastor E; de la Sancha, Noé U

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances and increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery offer the potential for more accurate land cover classifications and pattern analyses, which could greatly improve the detection and quantification of land cover change for conservation. Such remotely-sensed products, however, are often expensive and difficult to acquire, which prohibits or reduces their use. We tested whether imagery of high spatial resolution (≤5 m) differs from lower-resolution imagery (≥30 m) in performance and extent of use for conservation applications. To assess performance, we classified land cover in a heterogeneous region of Interior Atlantic Forest in Paraguay, which has undergone recent and dramatic human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation. We used 4 m multispectral IKONOS and 30 m multispectral Landsat imagery and determined the extent to which resolution influenced the delineation of land cover classes and patch-level metrics. Higher-resolution imagery more accurately delineated cover classes, identified smaller patches, retained patch shape, and detected narrower, linear patches. To assess extent of use, we surveyed three conservation journals (Biological Conservation, Biotropica, Conservation Biology) and found limited application of high-resolution imagery in research, with only 26.8% of land cover studies analyzing satellite imagery, and of these studies only 10.4% used imagery ≤5 m resolution. Our results suggest that high-resolution imagery is warranted yet under-utilized in conservation research, but is needed to adequately monitor and evaluate forest loss and conversion, and to delineate potentially important stepping-stone fragments that may serve as corridors in a human-modified landscape. Greater access to low-cost, multiband, high-resolution satellite imagery would therefore greatly facilitate conservation management and decision-making.

  18. High-Resolution Satellite Imagery Is an Important yet Underutilized Resource in Conservation Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah A.; Kennedy, Christina M.; Torres, Julio; Colman, Karen; Pérez-Estigarribia, Pastor E.; de la Sancha, Noé U.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances and increasing availability of high-resolution satellite imagery offer the potential for more accurate land cover classifications and pattern analyses, which could greatly improve the detection and quantification of land cover change for conservation. Such remotely-sensed products, however, are often expensive and difficult to acquire, which prohibits or reduces their use. We tested whether imagery of high spatial resolution (≤5 m) differs from lower-resolution imagery (≥30 m) in performance and extent of use for conservation applications. To assess performance, we classified land cover in a heterogeneous region of Interior Atlantic Forest in Paraguay, which has undergone recent and dramatic human-induced habitat loss and fragmentation. We used 4 m multispectral IKONOS and 30 m multispectral Landsat imagery and determined the extent to which resolution influenced the delineation of land cover classes and patch-level metrics. Higher-resolution imagery more accurately delineated cover classes, identified smaller patches, retained patch shape, and detected narrower, linear patches. To assess extent of use, we surveyed three conservation journals (Biological Conservation, Biotropica, Conservation Biology) and found limited application of high-resolution imagery in research, with only 26.8% of land cover studies analyzing satellite imagery, and of these studies only 10.4% used imagery ≤5 m resolution. Our results suggest that high-resolution imagery is warranted yet under-utilized in conservation research, but is needed to adequately monitor and evaluate forest loss and conversion, and to delineate potentially important stepping-stone fragments that may serve as corridors in a human-modified landscape. Greater access to low-cost, multiband, high-resolution satellite imagery would therefore greatly facilitate conservation management and decision-making. PMID:24466287

  19. Identification of immunogenic HLA-B7 "Achilles' heel" epitopes within highly conserved regions of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Groot, Anne S; Rivera, Daniel S; McMurry, Julie A;

    2008-01-01

    previously described as restricted by B7. The HLA-B7 restricted epitopes discovered using this in silico screening approach are highly conserved across strains and clades of HIV as well as conserved in the HIV genome over the 20 years since HIV-1 isolates were first sequenced. This study demonstrates......Genetic polymorphisms in class I human leukocyte antigen molecules (HLA) have been shown to determine susceptibility to HIV infection as well as the rate of progression to AIDS. In particular, the HLA-B7 supertype has been shown to be associated with high viral loads and rapid progression...... to disease. Using a multiplatform in silico/in vitro approach, we have prospectively identified 45 highly conserved, putative HLA-B7 restricted HIV CTL epitopes and evaluated them in HLA binding and ELISpot assays. All 45 epitopes (100%) bound to HLA-B7 in cell-based HLA binding assays: 28 (62%) bound...

  20. High-throughput sequencing, characterization and detection of new and conserved cucumber miRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Martínez

    Full Text Available Micro RNAS (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small non coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In plants, a great number of conserved and specific miRNAs, mainly arising from model species, have been identified to date. However less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in vegetal species with agricultural and/or horticultural importance. Here we report a combined approach of bioinformatics prediction, high-throughput sequencing data and molecular methods to analyze miRNAs populations in cucumber (Cucumis sativus plants. A set of 19 conserved and 6 known but non-conserved miRNA families were found in our cucumber small RNA dataset. We also identified 7 (3 with their miRNA* strand not previously described miRNAs, candidates to be cucumber-specific. To validate their description these new C. sativus miRNAs were detected by northern blot hybridization. Additionally, potential targets for most conserved and new miRNAs were identified in cucumber genome.In summary, in this study we have identified, by first time, conserved, known non-conserved and new miRNAs arising from an agronomically important species such as C. sativus. The detection of this complex population of regulatory small RNAs suggests that similarly to that observe in other plant species, cucumber miRNAs may possibly play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes.

  1. High-Order Entropy Stable Finite Difference Schemes for Nonlinear Conservation Laws: Finite Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Travis C.; Carpenter, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Developing stable and robust high-order finite difference schemes requires mathematical formalism and appropriate methods of analysis. In this work, nonlinear entropy stability is used to derive provably stable high-order finite difference methods with formal boundary closures for conservation laws. Particular emphasis is placed on the entropy stability of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. A newly derived entropy stable weighted essentially non-oscillatory finite difference method is used to simulate problems with shocks and a conservative, entropy stable, narrow-stencil finite difference approach is used to approximate viscous terms.

  2. Efficient unitary designs with nearly time-independent Hamiltonian dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nakata, Yoshifumi; Koashi, Masato; Winter, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We provide new constructions of unitary $t$-designs for general $t$ on one qudit and $N$ qubits, and propose a design Hamiltonian, a random Hamiltonian of which dynamics always forms a unitary design after a threshold time, as a basic framework to investigate randomising time evolution in quantum many-body systems. The new constructions are based on recently proposed schemes of repeating random unitaires diagonal in mutually unbiased bases. We first show that, if a pair of the bases satisfies a certain condition, the process on one qudit approximately forms a unitary $t$-design after $O(t)$ repetitions. We then construct quantum circuits on $N$ qubits that achieve unitary $t$-designs for $t = o(N^{1/2})$ using $O(t N^2)$ gates, improving the previous result using $O(t^{10}N^2)$ gates in terms of $t$. Based on these results, we present a design Hamiltonian with periodically changing two-local spin-glass-type interactions, leading to fast and relatively natural realisations of unitary designs in complex many-bo...

  3. Bloch-Messiah reduction of Gaussian unitaries by Takagi factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco

    2016-12-01

    The Bloch-Messiah (BM) reduction allows the decomposition of an arbitrarily complicated Gaussian unitary into a very simple scheme in which linear optical components are separated from nonlinear ones. The nonlinear part is due to the squeezing possibly present in the Gaussian unitary. The reduction is usually obtained by exploiting the singular value decomposition (SVD) of the matrices appearing in the Bogoliubov transformation of the given Gaussian unitary. This paper discusses a different approach, where the BM reduction is obtained in a straightforward way. It is based on the Takagi factorization of the (complex and symmetric) squeeze matrix and has the advantage of avoiding several matrix operations of the previous approach (polar decomposition, eigendecomposition, SVD, and Takagi factorization). The theory is illustrated with an application example in which the previous and present approaches are compared.

  4. Defect of a Kronecker product of unitary matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Tadej, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    The defect d(U) of an NxN unitary matrix U with no zero entries is the dimension (called the generalized defect D(U)) of the real space of directions, moving into which from U we do not disturb the moduli |U_ij| as well as the Gram matrix U'*U in the first order, diminished by 2N-1. Calculation of d(U) involves calculating the dimension of the space in R^(N^2) spanned by a certain set of vectors associated with U. We split this space into a direct sum, assuming that U is a Kronecker product of unitary matrices, thus making it easier to perform calculations numerically. Basing on this, we give a lower bound on D(U) (equivalently d(U)), supposing it is achieved for most unitaries with a fixed Kronecker product structure. Also supermultiplicativity of D(U) with respect to Kronecker subproducts of U is shown.

  5. Compressor-fan unitary structure for air conditioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreiman, N.

    2015-08-01

    An extremely compact, therefore space saving unitary structure of short axial length is produced by radial integration of a revolving piston rotary compressor and an impeller of a centrifugal fan. The unitary structure employs single motor to run as the compressor so the airflow fan and eliminates duality of motors, related power supply and control elements. Novel revolving piston rotary compressor which provides possibility for such integration comprises the following: a suction gas delivery system which provides cooling of the motor and supplies refrigerant into the suction chamber under higher pressure (supercharged); a modified discharge system and lubricating oil supply system. Axial passages formed in the stationary crankshaft are used to supply discharge gas to a condenser, to return vaporized cooling agent from the evaporator to the suction cavity of the compressor, to pass a lubricant and to accommodate wiring supplying power to the unitary structure driver -external rotor electric motor.

  6. Amending entanglement-breaking channels via intermediate unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Á.; De Pasquale, A.; Mari, A.; Orieux, A.; Duranti, S.; Massaro, M.; Di Carli, A.; Roccia, E.; Ferraz, J.; Sciarrino, F.; Mataloni, P.; Giovannetti, V.

    2017-08-01

    We report a bulk optics experiment demonstrating the possibility of restoring the entanglement distribution through noisy quantum channels by inserting a suitable unitary operation (filter) in the middle of the transmission process. We focus on two relevant classes of single-qubit channels consisting in repeated applications of rotated phase-damping or rotated amplitude-damping maps, both modeling the combined Hamiltonian and dissipative dynamics of the polarization state of single photons. Our results show that interposing a unitary filter between two noisy channels can significantly improve entanglement transmission. This proof-of-principle demonstration could be generalized to many other physical scenarios where entanglement-breaking communication lines may be amended by unitary filters.

  7. Non-unitary fusion categories and their doubles via endomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, David E

    2015-01-01

    We realise non-unitary fusion categories using subfactor-like methods, and compute their quantum doubles and modular data. For concreteness we focus on generalising the Haagerup-Izumi family of Q-systems. For example, we construct endomorphism realisations of the (non-unitary) Yang-Lee model, and non-unitary analogues of one of the even subsystems of the Haagerup subfactor and of the Grossman-Snyder system. We supplement Izumi's equations for identifying the half-braidings, which were incomplete even in his Q-system setting. We conjecture a remarkably simple form for the modular S and T matrices of the doubles of these fusion categories. We would expect all of these doubles to be realised as the category of modules of a rational VOA and conformal net of factors. We expect our approach will also suffice to realise the non-semisimple tensor categories arising in logarithmic conformal field theories.

  8. Time reversal and exchange symmetries of unitary gate capacities

    CERN Document Server

    Harrow, A W; Harrow, Aram W.; Shor, Peter W.

    2005-01-01

    Unitary gates are an interesting resource for quantum communication in part because they are always invertible and are intrinsically bidirectional. This paper explores these two symmetries: time-reversal and exchange of Alice and Bob. We will present examples of unitary gates that exhibit dramatic separations between forward and backward capacities (even when the back communication is assisted by free entanglement) and between entanglement-assisted and unassisted capacities, among many others. Along the way, we will give a general time-reversal rule for relating the capacities of a unitary gate and its inverse that will explain why previous attempts at finding asymmetric capacities failed. Finally, we will see how the ability to erase quantum information and destroy entanglement can be a valuable resource for quantum communication.

  9. EVALUATION OF WATER CONSERVATION POLICY ALTERNATIVES FOR THE SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS OF TEXAS

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Phillip N.; Segarra, Eduardo; Willis, David B.

    2004-01-01

    Three alternative groundwater conservation policies were examined for their impact on the regional economy of the Southern High Plains of Texas using nonlinear optimization models and an input-output model. Restriction of drawdown of the aquifer was found to be more effective than proposed water use fees.

  10. EVALUATION OF WATER CONSERVATION POLICY ALTERNATIVES FOR THE SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS OF TEXAS

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jeffrey W.; Johnson, Phillip N.; Segarra, Eduardo; Willis, David B.

    2004-01-01

    Three alternative groundwater conservation policies were examined for their impact on the regional economy of the Southern High Plains of Texas using nonlinear optimization models and an input-output model. Restriction of drawdown of the aquifer was found to be more effective than proposed water use fees.

  11. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; A. Schäfer; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  12. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  13. Classification of delocalization power of global unitary operations in terms of LOCC one-piece relocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Soeda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We study how two pieces of localized quantum information can be delocalized across a composite Hilbert space when a global unitary operation is applied. We classify the delocalization power of global unitary operations on quantum information by investigating the possibility of relocalizing one piece of the quantum information without using any global quantum resource. We show that one-piece relocalization is possible if and only if the global unitary operation is local unitary equivalent of a controlled-unitary operation. The delocalization power turns out to reveal different aspect of the non-local properties of global unitary operations characterized by their entangling power.

  14. Potential Energy Surfaces Using Algebraic Methods Based on Unitary Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Lemus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews the recent advances to estimate the potential energy surfaces through algebraic methods based on the unitary groups used to describe the molecular vibrational degrees of freedom. The basic idea is to introduce the unitary group approach in the context of the traditional approach, where the Hamiltonian is expanded in terms of coordinates and momenta. In the presentation of this paper, several representative molecular systems that permit to illustrate both the different algebraic approaches as well as the usual problems encountered in the vibrational description in terms of internal coordinates are presented. Methods based on coherent states are also discussed.

  15. A construction of fully diverse unitary space-time codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Fei; TONG HongXi

    2009-01-01

    Fully diverse unitary space-time codes are useful in multiantenna communications,especially in multiantenna differential modulation.Recently,two constructions of parametric fully diverse unitary space-time codes for three antennas system have been introduced.We propose a new construction method based on the constructions.In the present paper,fully diverse codes for systems of odd prime number antennas are obtained from this construction.Space-time codes from present construction are found to have better error performance than many best known ones.

  16. Non-unitary probabilistic quantum computing circuit and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin P. (Inventor); Gingrich, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A quantum circuit performing quantum computation in a quantum computer. A chosen transformation of an initial n-qubit state is probabilistically obtained. The circuit comprises a unitary quantum operator obtained from a non-unitary quantum operator, operating on an n-qubit state and an ancilla state. When operation on the ancilla state provides a success condition, computation is stopped. When operation on the ancilla state provides a failure condition, computation is performed again on the ancilla state and the n-qubit state obtained in the previous computation, until a success condition is obtained.

  17. A construction of fully diverse unitary space-time codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Fully diverse unitary space-time codes are useful in multiantenna communications, especially in multiantenna differential modulation. Recently, two constructions of parametric fully diverse unitary space-time codes for three antennas system have been introduced. We propose a new construction method based on the constructions. In the present paper, fully diverse codes for systems of odd prime number antennas are obtained from this construction. Space-time codes from present construction are found to have better error performance than many best known ones.

  18. Pattern, participation, praxis, and power in unitary appreciative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, W Richard

    2004-01-01

    This article is an explication and clarification of unitary appreciative inquiry based on several recent projects. Four central dimensions of the inquiry process are presented: pattern, participation, praxis, and power. Examples of inquiry projects demonstrate and illuminate the possibilities of unitary appreciative inquiry. The relationship of these central dimensions to experiential, presentational, propositional, and practical knowledge outcomes is articulated. A matrix framework integrating pattern, participation, praxis, and power demonstrates the potential for generating knowledge relevant to the lives of participants and creating an inquiry process worthy of human aspiration.

  19. Tables of the principal unitary representations of Fedorov groups

    CERN Document Server

    Faddeyev, D K

    1961-01-01

    Tables of the Principal Unitary Representations of Fedorov Groups contains tables of all the principal representations of Fedorov groups from which all irreducible unitary representations can be obtained with the help of some standard operations. The work originated at a seminar on mathematical crystallography held in 1952-1953 at the Faculty of Mathematics and Mechanics of the Leningrad State University. The book is divided into two parts. The first part discusses the relation between the theory of representations and the generalized Fedorov groups in Shubnikov's sense. It shows that all un

  20. Acute cholecystitis in high-risk patients: percutaneous cholecystostomy vs conservative treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatzidakis, Adam A.; Prassopoulos, Panos; Petinarakis, Ioannis; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas C. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete, Crete (Greece); Sanidas, Elias; Tsiftsis, Dimitrios [Department of Surgical Oncology, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete (Greece); Chrysos, Emmanuel; Chalkiadakis, Georgios [Department of General Surgery, University Hospital of Heraklion, Medical School of Crete (Greece)

    2002-07-01

    Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) vs conservative treatment (CO) in high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. The study was randomized and comprised 123 high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. All patients fulfilled the ultrasonographic criteria of acute inflammation and had an APACHE II score {>=}12. Percutaneous cholecystostomy guided by US or CT was successful in 60 of 63 patients (95.2%) who comprised the PC group. Sixty patients were conservatively treated (CO group). One patient died after unsuccessful PC (1.6%). Resolution of symptoms occurred in 54 of 63 patients (86%). Eleven patients (17.5%) died either of ongoing sepsis (n=6) or severe underlying disease (n=5) within 30 days. Seven patients (11%) were operated on because of persisting symptoms (n=3), catheter dislodgment (n=3), or unsuccessful PC (n=1). Cholecystolithotripsy was performed in 5 patients (8%). Elective surgery was performed in 9 cases (14%). No further treatment was needed in 32 patients (51%). In the CO group, 52 patients (87%) fully recovered and 8 patients (13%) died of ongoing sepsis within 30 days. All successfully treated patients showed clinical improvement during the first 3 days of treatment. Percutaneous cholecystostomy in high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis did not decrease mortality in relation to conservative treatment. Percutaneous cholecystostomy might be suggested to patients not presenting clinical improvement following 3 days of conservative treatment, to critically ill intensive care unit patients, or to candidates for percutaneous cholecystolithotripsy. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of conservative management of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimura, Nelson Shozo; Uchimura, Taqueco Teruya; Martins, João Paulo de Oliveira Branco; Assakawa, Fernando; Uchimura, Liza Yurie Teruya

    2012-06-01

    To assess the association between conservative management of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and recurrence rates and age groups. Cross-sectional, retrospective, analytical observational study of 509 women (aged 15 to 76) with abnormal Pap smears attending a public reference center in the city of Maringá, southern Brazil, from 1996 to 2006. Data was collected from medical records, and the variables definitive diagnosis, type of treatment provided, occurrence of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions and recurrence were studied. Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used in the statistical analyses. There were 168 cases of cervical high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions, of these, 31 were treated with cold-knife conization, 104 loop electrosurgical excision procedure, 9 hysterectomy and 24 conservative treatment (i.e., clinical and cytological follow-up or cervical electrocoagulation). A total of 8 (33.3%) women receiving conservative and 10 (6.9%) receiving non-conservative management had recurrent disease and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.0009), PR = 4.8 (95%CI 2.11;10.93). Three (30.0%) women among those undergoing clinical and cytological follow-up and five 5 (35.7%) among those submitted to cervical electrocoagulation had recurrent disease within three years, but the difference was not significant (p=0.5611). Recurrent rates in those younger and older than 30 were 13.8% (7 women) and 12.2% (11 women) (p = 0.9955). Age is not a predictor of disease recurrence. Conservative treatment is only recommended in exceptional situations due to its high recurrence rates. Careful cytological and colposcopic follow-up is required for three years when most recurrences occur.

  2. Predictors of nephrectomy in high grade blunt renal trauma patients treated primarily with conservative intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narla Hari; Devraj, Rahul; Chandriah, G Ram; Sagar, S Vidya; Reddy, Ch Ram; Murthy, Pisapati Venkata Lakshmi Narsimha

    2014-04-01

    There is no consensus on the optimal management of high grade renal trauma. Delayed surgery increases the likelihood of secondary hemorrhage and persistent urinary extravasation, whereas immediate surgery results in high renal loss. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the predictors of nephrectomy and outcome of high Grade (III-V) renal injury, treated primarily with conservative intent. The records of 55 patients who were admitted to our institute with varying degrees of blunt renal trauma from January 2005 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Grade III-V renal injury was defined as high grade blunt renal trauma and was present in 44 patients. The factors analyzed to predict emergency intervention were demographic profile, grade of injury, degree of hemodynamic instability, requirement of blood transfusion, need for intervention, mode of intervention, and duration of intensive care unit stay. Rest of the 40 patients with high grade injury (grade 3 and 4)did not require emergency intervention and underwent a trail of conservative management. 7 of the 40 patients with high grade renal injury (grade 3 and 4), who were managed conservatively experienced complications requiring procedural intervention and three required a delayed nephrectomy. Presence of grade V injuries with hemodynamic instability and requirement of more than 10 packed cell units for resuscitation were predictors of nephrectomy. Predictors of complications were urinary extravasation and hemodynamic instability at presentation. Majority of the high grade renal injuries can be successfully managed conservatively. Grade V injuries and the need for more packed cell transfusions during resuscitation predict the need for emergency intervention.

  3. Predictors of nephrectomy in high grade blunt renal trauma patients treated primarily with conservative intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narla Hari Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is no consensus on the optimal management of high grade renal trauma. Delayed surgery increases the likelihood of secondary hemorrhage and persistent urinary extravasation, whereas immediate surgery results in high renal loss. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the predictors of nephrectomy and outcome of high Grade (III-V renal injury, treated primarily with conservative intent. Materials and Methods: The records of 55 patients who were admitted to our institute with varying degrees of blunt renal trauma from January 2005 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Grade III-V renal injury was defined as high grade blunt renal trauma and was present in 44 patients. The factors analyzed to predict emergency intervention were demographic profile, grade of injury, degree of hemodynamic instability, requirement of blood transfusion, need for intervention, mode of intervention, and duration of intensive care unit stay. Results: Rest of the 40 patients with high grade injury (grade 3 and 4 did not require emergency intervention and underwent a trail of conservative management. 7 of the 40 patients with high grade renal injury (grade 3 and 4, who were managed conservatively experienced complications requiring procedural intervention and three required a delayed nephrectomy. Presence of grade V injuries with hemodynamic instability and requirement of more than 10 packed cell units for resuscitation were predictors of nephrectomy. Predictors of complications were urinary extravasation and hemodynamic instability at presentation. Conclusion: Majority of the high grade renal injuries can be successfully managed conservatively. Grade V injuries and the need for more packed cell transfusions during resuscitation predict the need for emergency intervention.

  4. Interpreting beta-diversity components over time to conserve metacommunities in highly dynamic ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhí, Albert; Datry, Thibault; Sabo, John L

    2017-02-11

    The concept of metacommunity (i.e., a set of local communities linked by dispersal) has gained great popularity among community ecologists. However, metacommunity research mostly addresses questions on spatial patterns of biodiversity at the regional scale, whereas conservation planning requires quantifying temporal variation in those metacommunities and the contributions that individual (local) sites make to regional dynamics. We propose that recent advances in diversity-partitioning methods may allow for a better understanding of metacommunity dynamics and the identification of keystone sites. We used time series of the 2 components of beta diversity (richness and replacement) and the contributions of local sites to these components to examine which sites controlled source-sink dynamics in a highly dynamic model system (an intermittent river). The relative importance of the richness and replacement components of beta diversity fluctuated over time, and sample aggregation led to underestimation of beta diversity by up to 35%. Our literature review revealed that research on intermittent rivers would benefit greatly from examination of beta-diversity components over time. Adequately appraising spatiotemporal variability in community composition and identifying sites that are pivotal for maintaining biodiversity at the landscape scale are key needs for conservation prioritization and planning. Thus, our framework may be used to guide conservation actions in highly dynamic ecosystems when time-series data describing biodiversity across sites connected by dispersal are available. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Genes involved in complex adaptive processes tend to have highly conserved upstream regions in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohane Isaac

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genome sequencing suggest a remarkable conservation in gene content of mammalian organisms. The similarity in gene repertoire present in different organisms has increased interest in studying regulatory mechanisms of gene expression aimed at elucidating the differences in phenotypes. In particular, a proximal promoter region contains a large number of regulatory elements that control the expression of its downstream gene. Although many studies have focused on identification of these elements, a broader picture on the complexity of transcriptional regulation of different biological processes has not been addressed in mammals. The regulatory complexity may strongly correlate with gene function, as different evolutionary forces must act on the regulatory systems under different biological conditions. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing the conservation of promoters upstream of genes classified in different functional categories. Results By conducting a rank correlation analysis between functional annotation and upstream sequence alignment scores obtained by human-mouse and human-dog comparison, we found a significantly greater conservation of the upstream sequence of genes involved in development, cell communication, neural functions and signaling processes than those involved in more basic processes shared with unicellular organisms such as metabolism and ribosomal function. This observation persists after controlling for G+C content. Considering conservation as a functional signature, we hypothesize a higher density of cis-regulatory elements upstream of genes participating in complex and adaptive processes. Conclusion We identified a class of functions that are associated with either high or low promoter conservation in mammals. We detected a significant tendency that points to complex and adaptive processes were associated with higher promoter conservation, despite the fact that they have emerged

  6. Two-Element Generation of Unitary Groups Over Finite Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    like to praise my Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ , for allowing me this opportunity to work on a Ph.D in mathematics, and for His sustaining grace...Ishibashi’s original result. The paper’s main theorem will show that all unitary groups over finite fields of odd characteristic are generated by only two

  7. Universal Loss Dynamics in a Unitary Bose Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eismann, Ulrich; Khaykovich, Lev; Laurent, Sébastien; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Rem, Benno S.; Grier, Andrew T.; Delehaye, Marion; Chevy, Frédéric; Salomon, Christophe; Ha, Li-Chung; Chin, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    The low-temperature unitary Bose gas is a fundamental paradigm in few-body and many-body physics, attracting wide theoretical and experimental interest. Here, we present experiments performed with unitary 133Cs and 7Li atoms in two different setups, which enable quantitative comparison of the three-body recombination rate in the low-temperature domain. We develop a theoretical model that describes the dynamic competition between two-body evaporation and three-body recombination in a harmonically trapped unitary atomic gas above the condensation temperature. We identify a universal "magic" trap depth where, within some parameter range, evaporative cooling is balanced by recombination heating and the gas temperature stays constant. Our model is developed for the usual three-dimensional evaporation regime as well as the two-dimensional evaporation case, and it fully supports our experimental findings. Combined 133Cs and 7Li experimental data allow investigations of loss dynamics over 2 orders of magnitude in temperature and 4 orders of magnitude in three-body loss rate. We confirm the 1 /T2 temperature universality law. In particular, we measure, for the first time, the Efimov inelasticity parameter η*=0.098 (7 ) for the 47.8-G d -wave Feshbach resonance in 133Cs. Our result supports the universal loss dynamics of trapped unitary Bose gases up to a single parameter η*.

  8. Experimental Realization of Perfect Discrimination for Two Unitary Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-Jun; HONG Zhi

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate perfect discrimination between two unitary operations by using the sequential scheme proposed by Duan et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 (2007) 100503] Also, we show how to understand the scheme and to calculate the parameters for two-dimensional operations in the picture of the Bloch sphere.

  9. Unitary operator bases and q-deformed algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galleti, D.; Lunardi, J.T.; Pimentel, B.M. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, C.L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1995-11-01

    Starting from the Schwinger unitary operator bases formalism constructed out of a finite dimensional state space, the well-know q-deformed communication relation is shown to emergence in a natural way, when the deformation parameter is a root of unity. (author). 14 refs.

  10. Unitary operator bases and Q-deformed algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetti, D.; Pimentel, B.M. [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Lima, C.L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fisica Nuclear e Teorica e Fenomenologia de Particulas Elementares; Lunardi, J.T. [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica e Estatistica

    1998-03-01

    Starting from the Schwinger unitary operator bases formalism constructed out of a finite dimensional state space, the well-know q-deformed commutation relation is shown to emerge in a natural way, when the deformation parameter is a root of unity. (author)

  11. The Wilson loop in the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2016-01-01

    Using the supersymmetric formalism we compute exactly at finite $N$ the expectation of the Wilson loop in the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble and derive an exact formula for the spectral density at finite $N$. We obtain the same result by a second method relying on enumerative combinatorics and show that it leads to a novel proof of the Harer-Zagier series formula.

  12. An algebraic study of unitary one dimensional quantum cellular automata

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, P

    2005-01-01

    We provide algebraic characterizations of unitary one dimensional quantum cellular automata. We do so both by algebraizing existing decision procedures, and by adding constraints into the model which do not change the quantum cellular automata's computational power. The configurations we consider have finite but unbounded size.

  13. CONSTRUCTION OF AUTHENTICATION CODES WITH ARBITRATION FROM UNITARY GEOMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiRuihu; OuoLuobin

    1999-01-01

    A family of authentication codes with arbitration is constructed from unitary geome-try,the parameters and the probabilities of deceptions of the codes are also computed. In a spe-cial case a perfect authentication code with arbitration is ohtalned.

  14. Establishing the Unitary Classroom: Organizational Change and School Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Elizabeth M.; True, Joan H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the organizational changes introduced in two elementary schools to create unitary (desegregated) classrooms. The different models adopted by the two schools--departmentalization and team teaching--are considered as expressions of their patterns of interaction, behavior, and values. (Part of a theme issue on educational…

  15. Linear programming bounds for unitary space time codes

    CERN Document Server

    Creignou, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The linear programming method is applied to the space $\\U_n(\\C)$ of unitary matrices in order to obtain bounds for codes relative to the diversity sum and the diversity product. Theoretical and numerical results improving previously known bounds are derived.

  16. Assessment of the effects of farming and conservation programs on pesticide deposition in high plains wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belden, Jason B; Hanson, Brittany Rae; McMurry, Scott T; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A

    2012-03-20

    We examined pesticide contamination in sediments from depressional playa wetlands embedded in the three dominant land-use types in the western High Plains and Rainwater Basin of the United States including cropland, perennial grassland enrolled in conservation programs (e.g., Conservation Reserve Program [CRP]), and native grassland or reference condition. Two hundred and sixty four playas, selected from the three land-use types, were sampled from Nebraska and Colorado in the north to Texas and New Mexico in the south. Sediments were examined for most of the commonly used agricultural pesticides. Atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, and trifluralin were the most commonly detected pesticides in the northern High Plains and Rainwater Basin. Atrazine, metolachlor, trifluralin, and pendimethalin were the most commonly detected pesticides in the southern High Plains. The top 5-10% of playas contained herbicide concentrations that are high enough to pose a hazard for plants. However, insecticides and fungicides were rarely detected. Pesticide occurrence and concentrations were higher in wetlands surrounded by cropland as compared to native grassland and CRP perennial grasses. The CRP, which is the largest conservation program in the U.S., was protective and had lower pesticide concentrations compared to cropland.

  17. The myofibrillar protein, projectin, is highly conserved across insect evolution except for its PEVK domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayme-Southgate, Agnes J; Southgate, Richard J; Philipp, Richard A; Sotka, Erik E; Kramp, Catherine

    2008-12-01

    All striated muscles respond to stretch by a delayed increase in tension. This physiological response, known as stretch activation, is, however, predominantly found in vertebrate cardiac muscle and insect asynchronous flight muscles. Stretch activation relies on an elastic third filament system composed of giant proteins known as titin in vertebrates or kettin and projectin in insects. The projectin insect protein functions jointly as a "scaffold and ruler" system during myofibril assembly and as an elastic protein during stretch activation. An evolutionary analysis of the projectin molecule could potentially provide insight into how distinct protein regions may have evolved in response to different evolutionary constraints. We mined candidate genes in representative insect species from Hemiptera to Diptera, from published and novel genome sequence data, and carried out a detailed molecular and phylogenetic analysis. The general domain organization of projectin is highly conserved, as are the protein sequences of its two repeated regions-the immunoglobulin type C and fibronectin type III domains. The conservation in structure and sequence is consistent with the proposed function of projectin as a scaffold and ruler. In contrast, the amino acid sequences of the elastic PEVK domains are noticeably divergent, although their length and overall unusual amino acid makeup are conserved. These patterns suggest that the PEVK region working as an unstructured domain can still maintain its dynamic, and even its three-dimensional, properties, without the need for strict amino acid conservation. Phylogenetic analysis of the projectin proteins also supports a reclassification of the Hymenoptera in relation to Diptera and Coleoptera.

  18. Energy conservation and high-frequency damping in numerical time integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Momentum and energy conserving time integration procedures are receiving increased interest due to the central role of conservation properties in relation to the problems under investigation. However, most problems in structural dynamics are based on models that are first discretized in space, en...... this often leads to a fairly large number of high-frequency modes, that are not represented well – and occasionally directly erroneously – by the model. It is desirable to cure this problem by devising algorithms that include the possibility of introducing algorithmic energy dissipation of the high......-frequency modes. The problem is well known from classic collocation based algorithms – notably various forms of the Newmark algorithm – where the equation of motion is supplemented by approximate relations between displacement, velocity and acceleration. Here adjustment of the algorithmic parameters can be used...

  19. Energy conservation and high-frequency damping in numerical time integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2008-01-01

    Momentum and energy conserving time integration procedures are receiving increased interest due to the central role of conservation properties in relation to the problems under investigation. However, most problems in structural dynamics are based on models that are first discretized in space, en...... this often leads to a fairly large number of high-frequency modes, that are not represented well – and occasionally directly erroneously – by the model. It is desirable to cure this problem by devising algorithms that include the possibility of introducing algorithmic energy dissipation of the high......-frequency modes. The problem is well known from classic collocation based algorithms – notably various forms of the Newmark algorithm – where the equation of motion is supplemented by approximate relations between displacement, velocity and acceleration. Here adjustment of the algorithmic parameters can be used...

  20. Energy conservation and high-frequency damping in numerical time-integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2007-01-01

    Momentum and energy conserving time integration procedures are receiving increased interest due to the central role of conservation properties in relation to the problems under investigation. However, most problems in structural dynamics are based on models that are first discretized in space, en...... this often leads to a fairly large number of high-frequency modes, that are not represented well - and occasionally directly erroneously - by the model. It is desirable to cure this problem by devising algorithms that include the possibility of introducing algorithmic energy dissipation of the high......-frequency modes. The problem is well known from classic collocation based algorithms - notably various forms of the Newmark algorithm where the equation of motion is supplemented by approximate relations between displacement, velocity and acceleration. Here adjustment of the algorithmic parameters can be used...

  1. Targeted carbon conservation at national scales with high-resolution monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Martin, Roberta E; Tupayachi, Raul; Anderson, Christopher B; Mascaro, Joseph; Sinca, Felipe; Chadwick, K Dana; Higgins, Mark; Farfan, William; Llactayo, William; Silman, Miles R

    2014-11-25

    Terrestrial carbon conservation can provide critical environmental, social, and climate benefits. Yet, the geographically complex mosaic of threats to, and opportunities for, conserving carbon in landscapes remain largely unresolved at national scales. Using a new high-resolution carbon mapping approach applied to Perú, a megadiverse country undergoing rapid land use change, we found that at least 0.8 Pg of aboveground carbon stocks are at imminent risk of emission from land use activities. Map-based information on the natural controls over carbon density, as well as current ecosystem threats and protections, revealed three biogeographically explicit strategies that fully offset forthcoming land-use emissions. High-resolution carbon mapping affords targeted interventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in rapidly developing tropical nations.

  2. Entropy Viscosity Method for High-Order Approximations of Conservation Laws

    KAUST Repository

    Guermond, J. L.

    2010-09-17

    A stabilization technique for conservation laws is presented. It introduces in the governing equations a nonlinear dissipation function of the residual of the associated entropy equation and bounded from above by a first order viscous term. Different two-dimensional test cases are simulated - a 2D Burgers problem, the "KPP rotating wave" and the Euler system - using high order methods: spectral elements or Fourier expansions. Details on the tuning of the parameters controlling the entropy viscosity are given. © 2011 Springer.

  3. Current non-conservation effects in ultra-high energy neutrino interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, R

    2010-01-01

    The overall hardness scale of the ultra-high energy neutrino-nucleon interactions is usually estimated as $Q^2\\sim m_W^2$. The effect of non-conservation of weak currents pushes this scale up to the top quark mass squared and changes dynamics of the scattering process. The Double Leading Log Approximation provides simple and numerically accurate formula for the top-bottom contribution to the total cross section $\\sigma^{\

  4. Conservative high-order-accurate finite-difference methods for curvilinear grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man M.; Chakrvarthy, Sukumar

    1993-01-01

    Two fourth-order-accurate finite-difference methods for numerically solving hyperbolic systems of conservation equations on smooth curvilinear grids are presented. The first method uses the differential form of the conservation equations; the second method uses the integral form of the conservation equations. Modifications to these schemes, which are required near boundaries to maintain overall high-order accuracy, are discussed. An analysis that demonstrates the stability of the modified schemes is also provided. Modifications to one of the schemes to make it total variation diminishing (TVD) are also discussed. Results that demonstrate the high-order accuracy of both schemes are included in the paper. In particular, a Ringleb-flow computation demonstrates the high-order accuracy and the stability of the boundary and near-boundary procedures. A second computation of supersonic flow over a cylinder demonstrates the shock-capturing capability of the TVD methodology. An important contribution of this paper is the dear demonstration that higher order accuracy leads to increased computational efficiency.

  5. Highly conserved non-coding sequences are associated with vertebrate development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Woolfe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to protein coding sequence, the human genome contains a significant amount of regulatory DNA, the identification of which is proving somewhat recalcitrant to both in silico and functional methods. An approach that has been used with some success is comparative sequence analysis, whereby equivalent genomic regions from different organisms are compared in order to identify both similarities and differences. In general, similarities in sequence between highly divergent organisms imply functional constraint. We have used a whole-genome comparison between humans and the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes, to identify nearly 1,400 highly conserved non-coding sequences. Given the evolutionary divergence between these species, it is likely that these sequences are found in, and furthermore are essential to, all vertebrates. Most, and possibly all, of these sequences are located in and around genes that act as developmental regulators. Some of these sequences are over 90% identical across more than 500 bases, being more highly conserved than coding sequence between these two species. Despite this, we cannot find any similar sequences in invertebrate genomes. In order to begin to functionally test this set of sequences, we have used a rapid in vivo assay system using zebrafish embryos that allows tissue-specific enhancer activity to be identified. Functional data is presented for highly conserved non-coding sequences associated with four unrelated developmental regulators (SOX21, PAX6, HLXB9, and SHH, in order to demonstrate the suitability of this screen to a wide range of genes and expression patterns. Of 25 sequence elements tested around these four genes, 23 show significant enhancer activity in one or more tissues. We have identified a set of non-coding sequences that are highly conserved throughout vertebrates. They are found in clusters across the human genome, principally around genes that are implicated in the regulation of development

  6. Large Representation Recurrences in Large N Random Unitary Matrix Models

    CERN Document Server

    Karczmarek, Joanna L

    2011-01-01

    In a random unitary matrix model at large N, we study the properties of the expectation value of the character of the unitary matrix in the rank k symmetric tensor representation. We address the problem of whether the standard semiclassical technique for solving the model in the large N limit can be applied when the representation is very large, with k of order N. We find that the eigenvalues do indeed localize on an extremum of the effective potential; however, for finite but sufficiently large k/N, it is not possible to replace the discrete eigenvalue density with a continuous one. Nonetheless, the expectation value of the character has a well-defined large N limit, and when the discreteness of the eigenvalues is properly accounted for, it shows an intriguing approximate periodicity as a function of k/N.

  7. Efimov-driven phase transitions of the unitary Bose gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatecki, Swann; Krauth, Werner

    2014-03-20

    Initially predicted in nuclear physics, Efimov trimers are bound configurations of three quantum particles that fall apart when any one of them is removed. They open a window into a rich quantum world that has become the focus of intense experimental and theoretical research, as the region of 'unitary' interactions, where Efimov trimers form, is now accessible in cold-atom experiments. Here we use a path-integral Monte Carlo algorithm backed up by theoretical arguments to show that unitary bosons undergo a first-order phase transition from a normal gas to a superfluid Efimov liquid, bound by the same effects as Efimov trimers. A triple point separates these two phases and another superfluid phase, the conventional Bose-Einstein condensate, whose coexistence line with the Efimov liquid ends in a critical point. We discuss the prospects of observing the proposed phase transitions in cold-atom systems.

  8. Universal unitary gate for single-photon spinorbit ququart states

    CERN Document Server

    Slussarenko, Sergei; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Santamato, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    The recently demonstrated possibility of entangling opposite values of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of a photon with its spin enables the realization of nontrivial one-photon spinorbit ququart states, i.e., four-dimensional photon states for quantum information purposes. Hitherto, however, an optical device able to perform arbitrary unitary transformations on such spinorbit photon states has not been proposed yet. In this work we show how to realize such a ``universal unitary gate'' device, based only on existing optical technology, and describe its operation. Besides the quantum information field, the proposed device may find applications wherever an efficient and convenient manipulation of the combined OAM and spin of light is required.

  9. On an average over the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzadri, F

    2009-01-01

    We study the asymptotic limit for large matrix dimension N of the partition function of the unitary ensemble with weight exp(-z^2/2x^2 + t/x - x^2/2). We compute the leading order term of the partition function and of the coefficients of its Taylor expansion. Our results are valid in the range N^(-1/2) < z < N^(1/4). Such partition function contains all the information on a new statistics of the eigenvalues of matrices in the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE) that was introduced by Berry and Shukla (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor., Vol. 41 (2008), 385202, arXiv:0807.3474). It can also be interpreted as the moment generating function of a singular linear statistics.

  10. Random unitary evolution model of quantum Darwinism with pure decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanesković, Nenad

    2015-10-01

    We study the behavior of Quantum Darwinism [W.H. Zurek, Nat. Phys. 5, 181 (2009)] within the iterative, random unitary operations qubit-model of pure decoherence [J. Novotný, G. Alber, I. Jex, New J. Phys. 13, 053052 (2011)]. We conclude that Quantum Darwinism, which describes the quantum mechanical evolution of an open system S from the point of view of its environment E, is not a generic phenomenon, but depends on the specific form of input states and on the type of S- E-interactions. Furthermore, we show that within the random unitary model the concept of Quantum Darwinism enables one to explicitly construct and specify artificial input states of environment E that allow to store information about an open system S of interest with maximal efficiency.

  11. Unitary Noise and the Mermin-GHZ Game

    CERN Document Server

    Fialík, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Communication complexity is an area of classical computer science which studies how much communication is necessary to solve various distributed computational problems. Quantum information processing can be used to reduce the amount of communication required to carry out some distributed problems. We speak of pseudo-telepathy when it is able to completely eliminate the need for communication. Since it is generally very hard to perfectly implement a quantum winning strategy for a pseudo-telepathy game, quantum players are almost certain to make errors even though they use a winning strategy. After introducing a model for pseudo-telepathy games, we investigate the impact of erroneously performed unitary transformations on the quantum winning strategy for the Mermin-GHZ game. The question of how strong the unitary noise can be so that quantum players would still be better than classical ones is also dealt with.

  12. Unitary Noise and the Mermin-GHZ Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ivan Fialík

    2011-01-01

    Communication complexity is an area of classical computer science which studies how much communication is necessary to solve various distributed computational problems. Quantum information processing can be used to reduce the amount of communication required to carry out some distributed problems. We speak of pseudo-telepathy when it is able to completely eliminate the need for communication. Since it is generally very hard to perfectly implement a quantum winning strategy for a pseudo-telepathy game, quantum players are almost certain to make errors even though they use a winning strategy. After introducing a model for pseudo-telepathy games, we investigate the impact of erroneously performed unitary transformations on the quantum winning strategy for the Mermin-GHZ game. The question of how strong the unitary noise can be so that quantum players would still be better than classical ones is also dealt with.

  13. Unitary Noise and the Mermin-GHZ Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Fialík

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication complexity is an area of classical computer science which studies how much communication is necessary to solve various distributed computational problems. Quantum information processing can be used to reduce the amount of communication required to carry out some distributed problems. We speak of pseudo-telepathy when it is able to completely eliminate the need for communication. Since it is generally very hard to perfectly implement a quantum winning strategy for a pseudo-telepathy game, quantum players are almost certain to make errors even though they use a winning strategy. After introducing a model for pseudo-telepathy games, we investigate the impact of erroneously performed unitary transformations on the quantum winning strategy for the Mermin-GHZ game. The question of how strong the unitary noise can be so that quantum players would still be better than classical ones is also dealt with.

  14. Derandomizing Quantum Circuits with Measurement-Based Unitary Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Peter S.; Markham, Damian

    2016-05-01

    Entangled multipartite states are resources for universal quantum computation, but they can also give rise to ensembles of unitary transformations, a topic usually studied in the context of random quantum circuits. Using several graph state techniques, we show that these resources can "derandomize" circuit results by sampling the same kinds of ensembles quantum mechanically, analogously to a quantum random number generator. Furthermore, we find simple examples that give rise to new ensembles whose statistical moments exactly match those of the uniformly random distribution over all unitaries up to order t , while foregoing adaptive feedforward entirely. Such ensembles—known as t designs—often cannot be distinguished from the "truly" random ensemble, and so they find use in many applications that require this implied notion of pseudorandomness.

  15. The Shear Viscosity in an Anisotropic Unitary Fermi Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, Rickmoy; Trivedi, Sandip P

    2016-01-01

    We consider a system consisting of a strongly interacting, ultracold unitary Fermi gas under harmonic confinement. Our analysis suggests the possibility of experimentally studying, in this system, an anisotropic shear viscosity tensor driven by the anisotropy in the trapping potential. In particular, we suggest that this experimental setup could mimic some features of anisotropic geometries that have recently been studied for strongly coupled field theories which have a gravitational dual. Results using the AdS/CFT correspondence in these theories show that in systems with a background linear potential, certain viscosity components can be made much smaller than the entropy density, parametrically violating the KSS bound. This intuition, along with results from a Boltzmann analysis that we perform, suggests that a violation of the KSS bound can perhaps occur in the unitary Fermi gas system when it is subjected to a suitable anisotropic trapping potential. We give a concrete proposal for an experimental setup w...

  16. Secure Quantum Key Distribution Network with Bell States and Local Unitary Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-Yan; ZHOU Hong-Yu; WANG Yan; DENG Fu-Guo

    2005-01-01

    @@ We propose a theoretical scheme for secure quantum key distribution network following the ideas in quantum dense coding. In this scheme, the server of the network provides the service for preparing and measuring the Bell states,and the users encode the states with local unitary operations. For preventing the server from eavesdropping, we design a decoy when the particle is transmitted between the users. The scheme has high capacity as one particle carries two bits of information and its efficiency for qubits approaches 100%. Moreover, it is unnecessary for the users to store the quantum states, which makes this scheme more convenient in applications than others.

  17. Water Wisdom: 23 Stand-Alone Activities on Water Supply and Water Conservation for High School Students. 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    This water conservation education program for high schools consists of both stand-alone activities and teacher support materials. Lessons are divided into six broad categories: (1) The Water Cycle; (2) Water and Society; (3) Keeping Water Pure; (4) Visualizing Volumes; (5) The Economics of Water Use; and (6) Domestic Water Conservation. The…

  18. Species Richness and Community Structure on a High Latitude Reef: Implications for Conservation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Houston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wealth of research on the Great Barrier Reef, few detailed biodiversity assessments of its inshore coral communities have been conducted. Effective conservation and management of marine ecosystems begins with fine-scale biophysical assessments focused on diversity and the architectural species that build the structural framework of the reef. In this study, we investigate key coral diversity and environmental attributes of an inshore reef system surrounding the Keppel Bay Islands near Rockhampton in Central Queensland, Australia, and assess their implications for conservation and management. The Keppels has much higher coral diversity than previously found. The average species richness for the 19 study sites was ~40 with representatives from 68% of the ~244 species previously described for the southern Great Barrier Reef. Using scleractinian coral species richness, taxonomic distinctiveness and coral cover as the main criteria, we found that five out of 19 sites had particularly high conservation value. A further site was also considered to be of relatively high value. Corals at this site were taxonomically distinct from the others (representatives of two families were found here but not at other sites and a wide range of functionally diverse taxa were present. This site was associated with more stressful conditions such as high temperatures and turbidity. Highly diverse coral communities or biodiversity ‘hotspots’ and taxonomically distinct reefs may act as insurance policies for climatic disturbance, much like Noah’s Arks for reefs. While improving water quality and limiting anthropogenic impacts are clearly important management initiatives to improve the long-term outlook for inshore reefs, identifying, mapping and protecting these coastal ‘refugia’ may be the key for ensuring their regeneration against catastrophic climatic disturbance in the meantime.

  19. National-scale analysis for the identification of High Conservation Value Forests (HCVFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maesano M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, forests cover about one third of the national territory. In recent years, sustainability has been applied to forest management through the introduction of the Sustainable Forest Management (SFM concept. Since the Rio Conference, several initiatives at international and governmental level aimed to realize the SFM concept by the establishment of a set of principles with general validity. One of the most successful initiatives is the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC, which has developed a system of voluntary certification specific for the forestry sector, as well as 10 principles and 56 criteria for good forest management. The concept of High Conservation Value Forest concept (HCVFs was defined in 1999 by FSC under Principle 9, and its application requires the identification of six categories of High Conservation Values (HCV. The aim of this study was to define the parameters for the HCVFs Italian forests, A first national mapping for the first level of High Conservation Value was developed focusing on protected areas, threatened and endangered species and the ecosystemic temporal use. Protected areas may constitute the basis of the SFM. This work is the result of data processing and distribution analysis through the intersection of vectorial data of national forests areas in ArcMap, on the basis of available information. Protected forest areas represent 34% of the national forest area. The different categories of protected areas contribute differently to protection, in particular the larger amount of preserved forests (22.96% falls within Sites of Community Importance (SCI. The analysis of highly protected forest types revealed major differences likely linked to site ecological conditions, which are extremely variable over the country. The HCVF concept is applied in the forest certification field and can be used in sustainable forest management, planning and land use, and policy commitments.

  20. ROTATION CONSTELLATION FOR DIFFERENTIAL UNITARY SPACE-TIME MODULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Jun; Cao Haiyan; Wei Gang

    2006-01-01

    A new constellation which is the multiplication of the rotation matrix and the diagonal matrix according to the number of transmitters is proposed to increase the diversity product, the key property to the performance of the differential unitary space-time modulation. Analyses and the simulation results show that the proposed constellation performs better and 2dB or more coding gain can be achieved over the traditional cyclic constellation.

  1. Unitary-matrix models as exactly solvable string theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periwal, Vipul; Shevitz, Danny

    1990-01-01

    Exact differential equations are presently found for the scaling functions of models of unitary matrices which are solved in a double-scaling limit, using orthogonal polynomials on a circle. For the case of the simplest, k = 1 model, the Painleve II equation with constant 0 is obtained; possible nonperturbative phase transitions exist for these models. Equations are presented for k = 2 and 3, and discussed with a view to asymptotic behavior.

  2. Unitary transformation method for solving generalized Jaynes-Cummings models

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudha Singh

    2006-03-01

    Two fully quantized generalized Jaynes-Cummings models for the interaction of a two-level atom with radiation field are treated, one involving intensity dependent coupling and the other involving multiphoton interaction between the field and the atom. The unitary transformation method presented here not only solves the time dependent problem but also allows a determination of the eigensolutions of the interacting Hamiltonian at the same time.

  3. Unitary representations of the fundamental group of orbifolds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDRANIL BISWAS; AMIT HOGADI

    2016-10-01

    Let $X$ be a smooth complex projective variety of dimension $n$ and $\\mathcal{L}$ an ample line bundle on it. There is a well known bijective correspondence between the isomorphism classes of polystable vector bundles $E$ on $X$ with $c_{1}(E) = 0 = c_{2}(E) \\cdot c_{1} \\mathcal (L)^{n−2}$ and the equivalence classes of unitary representations of $\\pi_{1}(X)$. We show that this bijective correspondence extends to smooth orbifolds.

  4. Unitary approach to the quantum forced harmonic oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an alternative approach to studying the evolution of a quantum harmonic oscillator subject to an arbitrary time dependent force. With the purpose of finding the evolution operator, certain unitary transformations are applied successively to Schr\\"odinger's equation reducing it to its simplest form. Therefore, instead of solving the original Schr\\"odinger's partial differential equation in time and space the problem is replaced by a system of ordinary differential eq...

  5. Unitary Application of the Quantum Error Correction Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游波; 许可; 吴小华

    2012-01-01

    For applying the perfect code to transmit quantum information over a noise channel, the standard protocol contains four steps: the encoding, the noise channel, the error-correction operation, and the decoding. In present work, we show that this protocol can be simplified. The error-correction operation is not necessary if the decoding is realized by the so-called complete unitary transformation. We also offer a quantum circuit, which can correct the arbitrary single-qubit errors.

  6. Unitary-matrix models as exactly solvable string theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periwal, Vipul; Shevitz, Danny

    1990-01-01

    Exact differential equations are presently found for the scaling functions of models of unitary matrices which are solved in a double-scaling limit, using orthogonal polynomials on a circle. For the case of the simplest, k = 1 model, the Painleve II equation with constant 0 is obtained; possible nonperturbative phase transitions exist for these models. Equations are presented for k = 2 and 3, and discussed with a view to asymptotic behavior.

  7. Two Combinations of Unitary Operators and Frame Representations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祚; 朱红鲜; 张慧; 杜鸿科

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the norm closure of all linear combinations of two unitary operators is equal to the norm closure of all invertible operators in B(H). We apply the results to frame representations and give some simple and alternative proofs of the propositions in “P. G. Casazza, Every frame is a sum of three (but not two) orthonormal bases-and other frame representations, J. Fourier Anal. Appl., 4(6)(1998), 727-732.”

  8. Fisheries conservation on the high seas: linking conservation physiology and fisheries ecology for the management of large pelagic fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodysky, Andrij Z; Cooke, Steven J; Graves, John E; Brill, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Populations of tunas, billfishes and pelagic sharks are fished at or over capacity in many regions of the world. They are captured by directed commercial and recreational fisheries (the latter of which often promote catch and release) or as incidental catch or bycatch in commercial fisheries. Population assessments of pelagic fishes typically incorporate catch-per-unit-effort time-series data from commercial and recreational fisheries; however, there have been notable changes in target species, areas fished and depth-specific gear deployments over the years that may have affected catchability. Some regional fisheries management organizations take into account the effects of time- and area-specific changes in the behaviours of fish and fishers, as well as fishing gear, to standardize catch-per-unit-effort indices and refine population estimates. However, estimates of changes in stock size over time may be very sensitive to underlying assumptions of the effects of oceanographic conditions and prey distribution on the horizontal and vertical movement patterns and distribution of pelagic fishes. Effective management and successful conservation of pelagic fishes requires a mechanistic understanding of their physiological and behavioural responses to environmental variability, potential for interaction with commercial and recreational fishing gear, and the capture process. The interdisciplinary field of conservation physiology can provide insights into pelagic fish demography and ecology (including environmental relationships and interspecific interactions) by uniting the complementary expertise and skills of fish physiologists and fisheries scientists. The iterative testing by one discipline of hypotheses generated by the other can span the fundamental-applied science continuum, leading to the development of robust insights supporting informed management. The resulting species-specific understanding of physiological abilities and tolerances can help to improve stock

  9. Entanglement entropy of non-unitary integrable quantum field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bianchini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the simplest massive 1+1 dimensional integrable quantum field theory which can be described as a perturbation of a non-unitary minimal conformal field theory: the Lee–Yang model. We are particularly interested in the features of the bi-partite entanglement entropy for this model and on building blocks thereof, namely twist field form factors. Non-unitarity selects out a new type of twist field as the operator whose two-point function (appropriately normalized yields the entanglement entropy. We compute this two-point function both from a form factor expansion and by means of perturbed conformal field theory. We find good agreement with CFT predictions put forward in a recent work involving the present authors. In particular, our results are consistent with a scaling of the entanglement entropy given by ceff3log⁡ℓ where ceff is the effective central charge of the theory (a positive number related to the central charge and ℓ is the size of the region. Furthermore the form factor expansion of twist fields allows us to explore the large region limit of the entanglement entropy and find the next-to-leading order correction to saturation. We find that this correction is very different from its counterpart in unitary models. Whereas in the latter case, it had a form depending only on few parameters of the model (the particle spectrum, it appears to be much more model-dependent for non-unitary models.

  10. A highly conserved repeated chromosomal sequence in the radioresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans SARK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, E; Gutman, P D; Yao, H L; Minton, K W

    1991-03-01

    A DNA fragment containing a portion of a DNA damage-inducible gene from Deinococcus radiodurans SARK hybridized to numerous fragments of SARK genomic DNA because of a highly conserved repetitive chromosomal element. The element is of variable length, ranging from 150 to 192 bp, depending on the absence or presence of one or two 21-bp sequences located internally. A putative translational start site of the damage-inducible gene is within the reiterated element. The element contains dyad symmetries that suggest modes of transcriptional and/or translational control.

  11. Decode-and-Forward Based Differential Modulation for Cooperative Communication System with Unitary and Non-Unitary Constellations

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatnagar, Manav R

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we derive a maximum likelihood (ML) decoder of the differential data in a decode-and-forward (DF) based cooperative communication system utilizing uncoded transmissions. This decoder is applicable to complex-valued unitary and non-unitary constellations suitable for differential modulation. The ML decoder helps in improving the diversity of the DF based differential cooperative system using an erroneous relaying node. We also derive a piecewise linear (PL) decoder of the differential data transmitted in the DF based cooperative system. The proposed PL decoder significantly reduces the decoding complexity as compared to the proposed ML decoder without any significant degradation in the receiver performance. Existing ML and PL decoders of the differentially modulated uncoded data in the DF based cooperative communication system are only applicable to binary modulated signals like binary phase shift keying (BPSK) and binary frequency shift keying (BFSK), whereas, the proposed decoders are applicab...

  12. Skinks (Reptilia: Scincidae) have highly conserved karyotypes as revealed by chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannotti, M; Caputo, V; O'Brien, P C M; Lovell, F L; Trifonov, V; Cerioni, P Nisi; Olmo, E; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Rens, W

    2009-01-01

    Skinks represent the most diversified squamate reptiles with a great variation in body size and form, and are found worldwide in a variety of habitats. Their remarkable diversification has been accompanied by only a few chromosome rearrangements, resulting in highly-conservative chromosomal complements of these lizards. In this study cross-species chromosome painting using Scincus scincus (2n = 32) as the source genome, was used to detect the chromosomal rearrangements and homologies between the following skinks: Chalcides chalcides (2n = 28), C. ocellatus (2n = 28), Eumeces schneideri (2n = 32), Lepidothyris fernandi (2n = 30), Mabuya quinquetaeniata (2n = 32). The results of this study confirmed a high degree of chromosome conservation between these species. The main rearrangements in the studied skinks involve chromosomes 3, 5, 6 and 7 of S. scincus. These subtelocentric chromosomes are homologous to the p and q arms of metacentric pair 3 and 4 in C. chalcides, C. ocellatus, L. fernandi, and M. quinquetaeniata, while they are entirely conserved in E. schneideri. Other rearrangements involve S. scincus 11 in L. fernandi and M. quinquetaeniata, supporting the monophyly of Lygosominae, and one of the chromosomes S. scincus 12-16, in M. quinquetaeniata. In conclusion, our data support the monophyly of Scincidae and confirm that Scincus-Eumeces plus Chalcides do not form a monophyletic clade, suggesting that the Scincus-Eumeces clade is basal to other members of this family. This study represents the first time the whole genome of any reptile species has been used for cross-species chromosome painting to assess chromosomal evolution in this group of vertebrates.

  13. Entropy stable high order discontinuous Galerkin methods with suitable quadrature rules for hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianheng; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2017-09-01

    It is well known that semi-discrete high order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods satisfy cell entropy inequalities for the square entropy for both scalar conservation laws (Jiang and Shu (1994) [39]) and symmetric hyperbolic systems (Hou and Liu (2007) [36]), in any space dimension and for any triangulations. However, this property holds only for the square entropy and the integrations in the DG methods must be exact. It is significantly more difficult to design DG methods to satisfy entropy inequalities for a non-square convex entropy, and/or when the integration is approximated by a numerical quadrature. In this paper, we develop a unified framework for designing high order DG methods which will satisfy entropy inequalities for any given single convex entropy, through suitable numerical quadrature which is specific to this given entropy. Our framework applies from one-dimensional scalar cases all the way to multi-dimensional systems of conservation laws. For the one-dimensional case, our numerical quadrature is based on the methodology established in Carpenter et al. (2014) [5] and Gassner (2013) [19]. The main ingredients are summation-by-parts (SBP) operators derived from Legendre Gauss-Lobatto quadrature, the entropy conservative flux within elements, and the entropy stable flux at element interfaces. We then generalize the scheme to two-dimensional triangular meshes by constructing SBP operators on triangles based on a special quadrature rule. A local discontinuous Galerkin (LDG) type treatment is also incorporated to achieve the generalization to convection-diffusion equations. Extensive numerical experiments are performed to validate the accuracy and shock capturing efficacy of these entropy stable DG methods.

  14. Low-Intensity Agricultural Landscapes in Transylvania Support High Butterfly Diversity: Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Jacqueline; Dorresteijn, Ine; Hanspach, Jan; Fust, Pascal; Rakosy, László; Fischer, Joern

    2014-01-01

    European farmland biodiversity is declining due to land use changes towards agricultural intensification or abandonment. Some Eastern European farming systems have sustained traditional forms of use, resulting in high levels of biodiversity. However, global markets and international policies now imply rapid and major changes to these systems. To effectively protect farmland biodiversity, understanding landscape features which underpin species diversity is crucial. Focusing on butterflies, we addressed this question for a cultural-historic landscape in Southern Transylvania, Romania. Following a natural experiment, we randomly selected 120 survey sites in farmland, 60 each in grassland and arable land. We surveyed butterfly species richness and abundance by walking transects with four repeats in summer 2012. We analysed species composition using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. We modelled species richness, richness of functional groups, and abundance of selected species in response to topography, woody vegetation cover and heterogeneity at three spatial scales, using generalised linear mixed effects models. Species composition widely overlapped in grassland and arable land. Composition changed along gradients of heterogeneity at local and context scales, and of woody vegetation cover at context and landscape scales. The effect of local heterogeneity on species richness was positive in arable land, but negative in grassland. Plant species richness, and structural and topographic conditions at multiple scales explained species richness, richness of functional groups and species abundances. Our study revealed high conservation value of both grassland and arable land in low-intensity Eastern European farmland. Besides grassland, also heterogeneous arable land provides important habitat for butterflies. While butterfly diversity in arable land benefits from heterogeneity by small-scale structures, grasslands should be protected from fragmentation to provide

  15. Joint Unitary Triangularization for MIMO Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Khina, Anatoly; Erez, Uri

    2010-01-01

    This work considers communication networks where individual links can be described as MIMO channels. Unlike orthogonal modulation methods (such as the singular-value decomposition), we allow interference between sub-channels, which can be removed by the receivers via successive cancellation. The degrees of freedom earned by this relaxation are used for obtaining a basis which is simultaneously good for more than one link. Specifically, we derive necessary and sufficient conditions for shaping the ratio vector of sub-channel gains of two broadcast-channel receivers. We then apply this to two scenarios: First, in digital multicasting we present a practical capacity-achieving scheme which only uses scalar codes and linear processing. Then, we consider the joint source-channel problem of transmitting a Gaussian source over a two-user MIMO channel, where we show the existence of non-trivial cases, where the optimal distortion pair (which for high signal-to-noise ratios equals the point-to-point distortions of the ...

  16. Dissecting the transcriptional regulatory properties of human chromosome 16 highly conserved non-coding regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Royo

    Full Text Available Non-coding DNA conservation across species has been often used as a predictor for transcriptional enhancer activity. However, only a few systematic analyses of the function of these highly conserved non-coding regions (HCNRs have been performed. Here we use zebrafish transgenic assays to perform a systematic study of 113 HCNRs from human chromosome 16. By comparing transient and stable transgenesis, we show that the first method is highly inefficient, leading to 40% of false positives and 20% of false negatives. When analyzed in stable transgenic lines, a great majority of HCNRs were active in the central nervous system, although some of them drove expression in other organs such as the eye and the excretory system. Finally, by testing a fraction of the HCNRs lacking enhancer activity for in vivo insulator activity, we find that 20% of them may contain enhancer-blocking function. Altogether our data indicate that HCNRs may contain different types of cis-regulatory activity, including enhancer, insulators as well as other not yet discovered functions.

  17. Human cytomegalovirus UL145 gene is highly conserved among clinical strains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zhengrong Sun; Ying Lu; Qiang Ruan; Yaohua Ji; Rong He; Ying Qi; Yanping Ma; Yujing Huang

    2007-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a ubiquitous human pathogen, is the leading cause of birth defects in newborns. A region (referred to as UL/b′) present in the Toledo strain of HCMV and low-passage clinical isolates) contains 22 additional genes, which are absent in the highly passaged laboratory strain AD169. One of these genes, UL145 open reading frame (ORF), is located between the highly variable genes UL144 and UL146. To assess the structure of the UL145 gene, the UL145 ORF was amplified by PCR and sequenced from 16 low-passage clinical isolates and 15 non-passage strains from suspected congenitally infected infants. Nine UL145 sequences previously published in the GenBank were used for sequence comparison. The identities of the gene and the similarities of its putative protein among all strains were 95.9–100% and 96.6–100%, respectively. The post-translational modification motifs of the UL145 putative protein in clinical strains were conserved, comprising the protein kinase C phosphorylation motif (PKC) and casein kinase II phosphorylation site (CK-II). We conclude that the structure of the UL145 gene and its putative protein are relatively conserved among clinical strains, irrespective of whether the strains come from patients with different manifestations, from different areas of the world, or were passaged or not in human embryonic lung fibroblast (HELF) cells.

  18. Identification, expression, and characterization of the highly conserved D-xylose isomerase in animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Ding; Yigang Teng; Qiuyu Yin; Wei Chen; Fukun Zhao

    2009-01-01

    D-xylose is a necessary sugar for animals. The xylanase from a mollusk, Ampullaria crossean, was previously reported by our laboratory. This xylanase can degrade the xylan into D-xylose. But there is still a gap in our knowledge on its metabolic pathway. The question is how does the xylose enter the pentose pathway? With the help of genomic databases and bioinformatic tools, we found that some animals, such as bacteria, have a highly conserved D-xylose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.5). The xylose isomerase from a sea squirt, Ciona intestinali, was heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to confirm its function. The recombinant enzyme had good thermal stability in the presence of Mg2+. At the optimum temperature and optimum pH environment, its specific activity on D-xylose was 0.331μmol/mg/min. This enzyme exists broadly in many animals, but it disappeared in the genome of Amphibia-like Xenopus laevis. Its sequence was highly conserved. The xylose isomerases from animals are very interesting proteins for the study of evolution.

  19. Effects of the Conservation Reserve Program on Hydrologic Processes in the Southern High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker, E. M.; Smidt, S. J.; Kendall, A. D.; Basso, B.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    The Southern High Plains Aquifer is a rapidly depleting resource that supports agriculture in parts of New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle. The development of the aquifer has changed the landscape and the water cycle of the region. This study illustrates the evolving patterns of land use and the effects of cultivation, from irrigated to dryland farming to the countermanding influence of the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). Previous research indicates that greater recharge rates occur under cultivated land in the Southern High Plains than under unbroken soil: the transition to cultivation causes increased recharge, under both dryland and irrigated management, though most recharge still occurs through playa lakes. The Conservation Reserve Program takes land out of crop production, replacing the land cover with something more like the natural ecosystem. This may decrease recharge below fields, and reduce runoff that feeds playa lakes; or, CRP may help stabilize playa lakes, increasing recharge. Changes to the water cycle are investigated at the field scale using the System Approach to Land Use Sustainability (SALUS) crop model, and at the regional scale with the Landscape Hydrology Model (LHM), and compared with historical data and water table elevations.

  20. Developing High Quality Decision-Making Discussions about Biological Conservation in a Normal Classroom Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    The conservation of biodiversity is an important socio-scientific issue that is often regarded as a precondition to sustainable development. The foundation for citizens' understanding of conservation issues can be laid down in formal school education. This research focuses on decision-making discussions about biological conservation issues among…

  1. Zero-tolerance biosecurity protects high-conservation-value island nature reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John K; McKirdy, Simon J; van der Merwe, Johann; Green, Roy; Burbidge, Andrew A; Pickles, Greg; Hardie, Darryl C; Morris, Keith; Kendrick, Peter G; Thomas, Melissa L; Horton, Kristin L; O'Connor, Simon M; Downs, Justin; Stoklosa, Richard; Lagdon, Russell; Marks, Barbara; Nairn, Malcolm; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2017-04-10

    Barrow Island, north-west coast of Australia, is one of the world's significant conservation areas, harboring marsupials that have become extinct or threatened on mainland Australia as well as a rich diversity of plants and animals, some endemic. Access to construct a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant, Australia's largest infrastructure development, on the island was conditional on no non-indigenous species (NIS) becoming established. We developed a comprehensive biosecurity system to protect the island's biodiversity. From 2009 to 2015 more than 0.5 million passengers and 12.2 million tonnes of freight were transported to the island under the biosecurity system, requiring 1.5 million hrs of inspections. No establishments of NIS were detected. We made four observations that will assist development of biosecurity systems. Firstly, the frequency of detections of organisms corresponded best to a mixture log-normal distribution including the high number of zero inspections and extreme values involving rare incursions. Secondly, comprehensive knowledge of the island's biota allowed estimation of false positive detections (62% native species). Thirdly, detections at the border did not predict incursions on the island. Fourthly, the workforce detected more than half post-border incursions (59%). Similar approaches can and should be implemented for all areas of significant conservation value.

  2. A highly conserved program of neuronal microexons is misregulated in autistic brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Manuel; Weatheritt, Robert J; Ellis, Jonathan D; Parikshak, Neelroop N; Gonatopoulos-Pournatzis, Thomas; Babor, Mariana; Quesnel-Vallières, Mathieu; Tapial, Javier; Raj, Bushra; O'Hanlon, Dave; Barrios-Rodiles, Miriam; Sternberg, Michael J E; Cordes, Sabine P; Roth, Frederick P; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Geschwind, Daniel H; Blencowe, Benjamin J

    2014-12-18

    Alternative splicing (AS) generates vast transcriptomic and proteomic complexity. However, which of the myriad of detected AS events provide important biological functions is not well understood. Here, we define the largest program of functionally coordinated, neural-regulated AS described to date in mammals. Relative to all other types of AS within this program, 3-15 nucleotide "microexons" display the most striking evolutionary conservation and switch-like regulation. These microexons modulate the function of interaction domains of proteins involved in neurogenesis. Most neural microexons are regulated by the neuronal-specific splicing factor nSR100/SRRM4, through its binding to adjacent intronic enhancer motifs. Neural microexons are frequently misregulated in the brains of individuals with autism spectrum disorder, and this misregulation is associated with reduced levels of nSR100. The results thus reveal a highly conserved program of dynamic microexon regulation associated with the remodeling of protein-interaction networks during neurogenesis, the misregulation of which is linked to autism.

  3. Molecular mediators for raft-dependent endocytosis of syndecan-1, a highly conserved, multifunctional receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Keyang; Williams, Kevin Jon

    2013-05-17

    Endocytosis via rafts has attracted considerable recent interest, but the molecular mediators remain incompletely characterized. Here, we focused on the syndecan-1 heparan sulfate proteoglycan, a highly conserved, multifunctional receptor that we previously showed to undergo raft-dependent endocytosis upon clustering. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of three to five consecutive cytoplasmic residues at a time revealed that a conserved juxtamembrane motif, MKKK, was the only region required for efficient endocytosis after clustering. Endocytosis of clustered syndecan-1 occurs in two phases, each requiring a kinase and a corresponding cytoskeletal partner. In the initial phase, ligands trigger rapid MKKK-dependent activation of ERK and the localization of syndecan-1 into rafts. Activation of ERK drives the dissociation of syndecan-1 from α-tubulin, a molecule that may act as an anchor for syndecan-1 at the plasma membrane in the basal state. In the second phase, Src family kinases phosphorylate tyrosyl residues within the transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions of syndecan-1, a process that also requires MKKK. Tyrosine phosphorylation of syndecan-1 triggers the robust recruitment of cortactin, which we found to be an essential mediator of efficient actin-dependent endocytosis. These findings represent the first detailed characterization of the molecular events that drive endocytosis of a raft-dependent receptor and identify a novel endocytic motif, MKKK. Moreover, the results provide new tools to study syndecan function and regulation during uptake of its biologically and medically important ligands, such as HIV-1, atherogenic postprandial remnant lipoproteins, and molecules implicated in Alzheimer disease.

  4. Human Cytomegalovirus UL138 Open Reading Frame Is Highly Conserved in Clinical Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Qi; Rong He; Yan-ping Ma; Zheng-rong Sun; Yao-hua Ji; Qiang Ruan

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the variability of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) UL138 open reading flame (ORF) in clinical strains.Methods HCMV UL138 ORF was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR amplification products were sequenced directly, and the data were analyzed in 19 clinical strains.Results UL138 ORF in all 30 clinical strains was amplified successfully. Compared with that of Toledo strain, the nucleotide and amino acid sequence identities of UL138 ORF in all strains were 97.41% to 99.41% and 98.24% to 99.42%, respectively. All of the nucleotide mutations were substitutions. The spatial structure and post-translational modification sites of UL138 encoded proteins were conserved. The result of phylogenetic tree showed that HCMV UL138 sequence variations were not definitely related with different clinical symptoms.Conclusion HCMV UL138 ORF in clinical strains is high conservation, which might be helpful for UL138 encoded protein to play a role in latent infection of HCMV.

  5. High regional genetic differentiation of an endangered relict plant Craigia yunnanensis and implications for its conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Of the genus Craigia, widespread in the Tertiary, only two relict species survived to modern times. One species is now possibly extinct and the other one, Craigia yunnanensis, is severely endangered. Extensive surveys have located six C. yunnanensis populations in Yunnan province, southwest China. Using fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, the genetic diversity and population structure of these populations were examined. It was found that genetic diversity of C. yunnanensis was moderate at the species level, but low at regional and population levels. Analysis of population structure showed significant genetic differentiation between Wenshan and Dehong regions, apparently representing two geographically isolated for long time refuges. There are also clear indications of isolation between populations, which, together with anthropogenically caused decline of population size, will lead to general loss of the species genetic variation with subsequent loss of adaptive potential. To conserve the genetic integrity of C. yunnanensis, we recommend that ex-situ conservation should include representative samples from every population of the two differentiated regions (e.g. Wenshan and Dehong. The crosses between individuals originated from different regions should be avoided because of a high risk of outbreeding depression. As all the extant populations of C. yunnanensis are in unprotected areas with strong anthropogenic impact, there is no alternative to reintroduction of C. yunnanensis into suitable protected locations.

  6. Global unitary fixing and matrix-valued correlations in matrix models

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, S L; Horwitz, Lawrence P.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the partition function for a matrix model with a global unitary invariant energy function. We show that the averages over the partition function of global unitary invariant trace polynomials of the matrix variables are the same when calculated with any choice of a global unitary fixing, while averages of such polynomials without a trace define matrix-valued correlation functions, that depend on the choice of unitary fixing. The unitary fixing is formulated within the standard Faddeev-Popov framework, in which the squared Vandermonde determinant emerges as a factor of the complete Faddeev-Popov determinant. We give the ghost representation for the FP determinant, and the corresponding BRST invariance of the unitary-fixed partition function. The formalism is relevant for deriving Ward identities obeyed by matrix-valued correlation functions.

  7. An assessment of high carbon stock and high conservation value approaches to sustainable oil palm cultivation in Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kemen G.; Lee, Michelle E.; Clark, Connie; Forester, Brenna R.; Urban, Dean L.; White, Lee; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Poulsen, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Industrial-scale oil palm cultivation is rapidly expanding in Gabon, where it has the potential to drive economic growth, but also threatens forest, biodiversity and carbon resources. The Gabonese government is promoting an ambitious agricultural expansion strategy, while simultaneously committing to minimize negative environmental impacts of oil palm agriculture. This study estimates the extent and location of suitable land for oil palm cultivation in Gabon, based on an analysis of recent trends in plantation permitting. We use the resulting suitability map to evaluate two proposed approaches to minimizing negative environmental impacts: a High Carbon Stock (HCS) approach, which emphasizes forest protection and climate change mitigation, and a High Conservation Value (HCV) approach, which focuses on safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystems. We quantify the forest area, carbon stock, and biodiversity resources protected under each approach, using newly developed maps of priority species distributions and forest biomass for Gabon. We find 2.7–3.9 Mha of suitable or moderately suitable land that avoid HCS areas, 4.4 million hectares (Mha) that avoid HCV areas, and 1.2–1.7 Mha that avoid both. This suggests that Gabon’s oil palm production target could likely be met without compromising important ecosystem services, if appropriate safeguards are put in place. Our analysis improves understanding of suitability for oil palm in Gabon, determines how conservation strategies align with national targets for oil palm production, and informs national land use planning.

  8. Use of ancient sedimentary DNA as a novel conservation tool for high-altitude tropical biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessenkool, Sanne; McGlynn, Gayle; Epp, Laura S; Taylor, David; Pimentel, Manuel; Gizaw, Abel; Nemomissa, Sileshi; Brochmann, Christian; Popp, Magnus

    2014-04-01

    Conservation of biodiversity may in the future increasingly depend upon the availability of scientific information to set suitable restoration targets. In traditional paleoecology, sediment-based pollen provides a means to define preanthropogenic impact conditions, but problems in establishing the exact provenance and ecologically meaningful levels of taxonomic resolution of the evidence are limiting. We explored the extent to which the use of sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA) may complement pollen data in reconstructing past alpine environments in the tropics. We constructed a record of afro-alpine plants retrieved from DNA preserved in sediment cores from 2 volcanic crater sites in the Albertine Rift, eastern Africa. The record extended well beyond the onset of substantial anthropogenic effects on tropical mountains. To ensure high-quality taxonomic inference from the sedaDNA sequences, we built an extensive DNA reference library covering the majority of the afro-alpine flora, by sequencing DNA from taxonomically verified specimens. Comparisons with pollen records from the same sediment cores showed that plant diversity recovered with sedaDNA improved vegetation reconstructions based on pollen records by revealing both additional taxa and providing increased taxonomic resolution. Furthermore, combining the 2 measures assisted in distinguishing vegetation change at different geographic scales; sedaDNA almost exclusively reflects local vegetation, whereas pollen can potentially originate from a wide area that in highlands in particular can span several ecozones. Our results suggest that sedaDNA may provide information on restoration targets and the nature and magnitude of human-induced environmental changes, including in high conservation priority, biodiversity hotspots, where understanding of preanthropogenic impact (or reference) conditions is highly limited.

  9. Abstract structure of unitary oracles for quantum algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Zeng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that a pair of complementary dagger-Frobenius algebras, equipped with a self-conjugate comonoid homomorphism onto one of the algebras, produce a nontrivial unitary morphism on the product of the algebras. This gives an abstract understanding of the structure of an oracle in a quantum computation, and we apply this understanding to develop a new algorithm for the deterministic identification of group homomorphisms into abelian groups. We also discuss an application to the categorical theory of signal-flow networks.

  10. Unitary evolution for a quantum Kantowski-Sachs cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sridip

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that like Bianchi I, V and IX models, a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model also allows a unitary evolution on quantization. It has also been shown that this unitarity is not at the expense of the anisotropy. Non-unitarity, if there is any, cannot escape notice in this as the evolution is studied against a properly oriented time parameter fixed by the evolution of the fluid. Furthermore, we have constructed a wave-packet by superposing different energy eigenstates, thereby establishing unitarity in a non-trivial way, which is a stronger result than an energy eigenstate trivially giving time independent probability density. For $\\alpha\

  11. Introduction to orthogonal, symplectic and unitary representations of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Riehm, Carl R

    2011-01-01

    Orthogonal, symplectic and unitary representations of finite groups lie at the crossroads of two more traditional subjects of mathematics-linear representations of finite groups, and the theory of quadratic, skew symmetric and Hermitian forms-and thus inherit some of the characteristics of both. This book is written as an introduction to the subject and not as an encyclopaedic reference text. The principal goal is an exposition of the known results on the equivalence theory, and related matters such as the Witt and Witt-Grothendieck groups, over the "classical" fields-algebraically closed, rea

  12. Deformations of polyhedra and polygons by the unitary group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livine, Etera R.

    2013-12-01

    We introduce the set of framed (convex) polyhedra with N faces as the symplectic quotient {{C}}^{2N}//SU(2). A framed polyhedron is then parametrized by N spinors living in {{C}}2 satisfying suitable closure constraints and defines a usual convex polyhedron plus extra U(1) phases attached to each face. We show that there is a natural action of the unitary group U(N) on this phase space, which changes the shape of faces and allows to map any (framed) polyhedron onto any other with the same total (boundary) area. This identifies the space of framed polyhedra to the Grassmannian space U(N)/ (SU(2)×U(N-2)). We show how to write averages of geometrical observables (polynomials in the faces' area and the angles between them) over the ensemble of polyhedra (distributed uniformly with respect to the Haar measure on U(N)) as polynomial integrals over the unitary group and we provide a few methods to compute these integrals systematically. We also use the Itzykson-Zuber formula from matrix models as the generating function for these averages and correlations. In the quantum case, a canonical quantization of the framed polyhedron phase space leads to the Hilbert space of SU(2) intertwiners (or, in other words, SU(2)-invariant states in tensor products of irreducible representations). The total boundary area as well as the individual face areas are quantized as half-integers (spins), and the Hilbert spaces for fixed total area form irreducible representations of U(N). We define semi-classical coherent intertwiner states peaked on classical framed polyhedra and transforming consistently under U(N) transformations. And we show how the U(N) character formula for unitary transformations is to be considered as an extension of the Itzykson-Zuber to the quantum level and generates the traces of all polynomial observables over the Hilbert space of intertwiners. We finally apply the same formalism to two dimensions and show that classical (convex) polygons can be described in a

  13. Non-unitary neutrino propagation from neutrino decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Berryman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutrino propagation in space–time is not constrained to be unitary if very light states – lighter than the active neutrinos – exist into which neutrinos may decay. If this is the case, neutrino flavor-change is governed by a handful of extra mixing and “oscillation” parameters, including new sources of CP-invariance violation. We compute the transition probabilities in the two- and three-flavor scenarios and discuss the different phenomenological consequences of the new physics. These are qualitatively different from other sources of unitarity violation discussed in the literature.

  14. Non-unitary neutrino propagation from neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jeffreyberryman2012@u.northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gouvêa, André de; Hernández, Daniel [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Oliveira, Roberto L.N. [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP 13083-970, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-06

    Neutrino propagation in space-time is not constrained to be unitary if very light states – lighter than the active neutrinos – exist into which neutrinos may decay. If this is the case, neutrino flavor-change is governed by a handful of extra mixing and “oscillation” parameters, including new sources of CP-invariance violation. We compute the transition probabilities in the two- and three-flavor scenarios and discuss the different phenomenological consequences of the new physics. These are qualitatively different from other sources of unitarity violation discussed in the literature.

  15. Computing a logarithm of a unitary matrix with general spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, Terry A

    2012-01-01

    In theory, a unitary matrix U has a skew-hermitian logarithm H. In a computing environment one expects only to know U^*U \\approx I and might wish to compute H with e^H \\approx U and H^*= -H. This is relatively easy to accomplish using the Schur decomposition. Reasonable error bounds are derived. In cases where the norm of U^*U-I is somewhat large we discuss the utility of pre-processing with Newton's method of approximating the polar decomposition. In the case of U being J-skew-symmetric, one can insist that H be J-skew-symmetric and skew-Hermitian.

  16. Thermoelectric-induced unitary Cooper pair splitting efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Zhan; Fang, Tie-Feng [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies and Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Lin [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen 518005 (China); Luo, Hong-Gang [Center for Interdisciplinary Studies and Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-11-23

    Thermoelectric effect is exploited to optimize the Cooper pair splitting efficiency in a Y-shaped junction, which consists of two normal leads coupled to an s-wave superconductor via double noninteracting quantum dots. Here, utilizing temperature difference rather than bias voltage between the two normal leads, and tuning the two dot levels such that the transmittance of elastic cotunneling process is particle-hole symmetric, we find current flowing through the normal leads are totally contributed from the splitting of Cooper pairs emitted from the superconductor. Such a unitary splitting efficiency is significantly better than the efficiencies obtained in experiments so far.

  17. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S.; Murao, Mio

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

  18. Unitary cycles on Shimura curves and the Shimura lift II

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaran, Siddarth

    2013-01-01

    We consider two families of arithmetic divisors defined on integral models of Shimura curves. The first was studied by Kudla, Rapoport and Yang, who proved that if one assembles these divisors in a formal generating series, one obtains the q-expansion of a modular form of weight 3/2. The present work concerns the Shimura lift of this modular form: we identify the Shimura lift with a generating series comprised of unitary divisors, which arose in recent work of Kudla and Rapoport regarding cyc...

  19. Luria: a unitary view of human brain and mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecacci, Luciano

    2005-12-01

    Special questions the eminent Russian psychologist and neuropsychologist Aleksandr R. Luria (1902-1977) dealt with in his research regarded the relationship between animal and human brain, child and adult mind, normal and pathological, theory and rehabilitation, clinical and experimental investigation. These issues were integrated in a unitary theory of cerebral and psychological processes, under the influence of both different perspectives active in the first half of the Nineteenth century (psychoanalysis and historical-cultural school, first of all) and the growing contribution of neuropsychological research on brain-injured patients.

  20. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

  1. Graphical description of unitary transformations on hypergraph states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachechiladze, Mariami; Tsimakuridze, Nikoloz; Gühne, Otfried

    2017-05-01

    Hypergraph states form a family of multiparticle quantum states that generalizes cluster states and graph states. We study the action and graphical representation of nonlocal unitary transformations between hypergraph states. This leads to a generalization of local complementation and graphical rules for various gates, such as the CNOT gate and the Toffoli gate. As an application, we show that already for five qubits local Pauli operations are not sufficient to check local equivalence of hypergraph states. Furthermore, we use our rules to construct entanglement witnesses for three-uniform hypergraph states.

  2. Simulating Entangling Unitary Operator Using Non-maximally Entangled States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-Xian; WANG Cheng-Zhi; NIE Liu-Ying; LI Jiang-Fan

    2009-01-01

    We use non-maximally entangled states (NMESs) to simulate an entangling unitary operator (EUO) w/th a certain probability. Given entanglement resources, the probability of the success we achieve is a decreasing function of the parameters of the EUO. Given an EUO, for certain entanglement resources the result is optimal, i.e., the probability obtains a maximal value, and for optimal result higher parameters of the EUO match more amount of entanglement resources. The probability of the success we achieve is higher than the known results under some condition.

  3. The science of unitary human beings and interpretive human science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, F

    1993-01-01

    Natural science and human science are identified as the bases of most nursing theories and research programs. Natural science has been disclaimed by Martha Rogers as the philosophy of science that undergirds her work. The question remains, is the science of unitary human beings an interpretive human science? The author explores the works of Rogers through a dialectic with two human scientists' works. Wilhelm Dilthey's works represent the founding or traditional view, and Jurgen Habermas' works represent a contemporary, reconstructionist view. The ways Rogerian thought contributes to human studies but is distinct from traditional and reconstructionist human sciences are illuminated.

  4. Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of scalar fields in a Bianchi I cosmology with unitary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Navascués, Beatriz Elizaga; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.

    2016-11-01

    The Fock quantization of free scalar fields is subject to an infinite ambiguity when it comes to choosing a set of annihilation and creation operators, a choice that is equivalent to the determination of a vacuum state. In highly symmetric situations, this ambiguity can be removed by asking vacuum invariance under the symmetries of the system. Similarly, in stationary backgrounds, one can demand time-translation invariance plus positivity of the energy. However, in more general situations, additional criteria are needed. For the case of free (test) fields minimally coupled to a homogeneous and isotropic cosmology, it has been proven that the ambiguity is resolved by introducing the criterion of unitary implementability of the quantum dynamics, as an endomorphism in Fock space. This condition determines a specific separation of the time dependence of the field, so that this splits into a very precise background dependence and a genuine quantum evolution. Furthermore, together with the condition of vacuum invariance under the spatial Killing symmetries, unitarity of the dynamics selects a unique Fock representation for the canonical commutation relations, up to unitary equivalence. In this work, we generalize these results to anisotropic spacetimes with shear, which are therefore not conformally symmetric, by considering the case of a free scalar field in a Bianchi I cosmology.

  5. Geometry of mixed states and degeneracy structure of geometric phases for multi-level quantum systems. A unitary group approach

    CERN Document Server

    Ercolessi, E; Morandi, G; Mukunda, N

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the geometric aspects of unitary evolution of general states for a multilevel quantum system by exploiting the structure of coadjoint orbits in the unitary group Lie algebra. Using the same method in the case of SU(3) we study the effect of degeneracies on geometric phases for three-level systems. This is shown to lead to a highly nontrivial generalization of the result for two-level systems in which degeneracy results in a "monopole" structure in parameter space. The rich structures that arise are related to the geometry of adjoint orbits in SU(3). The limiting case of a two-level degeneracy in a three-level system is shown to lead to the known monopole structure.

  6. The universal sound velocity formula for the strongly interacting unitary Fermi gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ke; Chen Ji-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Due to the scale invariance, the thermodynamic laws of strongly interacting limit unitary Fermi gas can be similar to those of non-interacting ideal gas. For example, the virial theorem between pressure and energy density of the ideal gas P = 2E/ZV is still satisfied by the unitary Fermi gas. This paper analyses the sound velocity of unitary Fermi gases with the quasi-linear approximation. For comparison, the sound velocities for the ideal Boltzmann, Bose and Fermi gas are also given. Quite interestingly, the sound velocity formula for the ideal non-interacting gas is found to be satisfied by the unitary Fermi gas in different temperature regions.

  7. High Resolution Euler Solvers Based on the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung

    1996-01-01

    The I-D, quasi I-D and 2-D Euler solvers based on the method of space-time conservation element and solution element are used to simulate various flow phenomena including shock waves, Mach stem, contact surface, expansion waves, and their intersections and reflections. Seven test problems are solved to demonstrate the capability of this method for handling unsteady compressible flows in various configurations. Numerical results so obtained are compared with exact solutions and/or numerical solutions obtained by schemes based on other established computational techniques. Comparisons show that the present Euler solvers can generate highly accurate numerical solutions to complex flow problems in a straightforward manner without using any ad hoc techniques in the scheme.

  8. Mapping the transcription repressive domain in the highly conserved human gene hnulp1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    HNULP1,a new member of the basic helixloop-helix transcription factors,contains a DUF654 domain in its C-terminus and is highly conserved from Drosophilae,yeast,zebrafish to mouse.The function of this motif,however,is currently unknown.In this research,we fused five deletion fragments of the DUF654 domain to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain and then co-transfected with plasmids L8G5-Luc and VP-16.The analysis of the GAL4 luciferase reporter gene indicated that fragments from 228 to 407 amino acids in the DUF654 domain had a strong transcription repression activity.Therefore,this study lays a solid foundation for research on the mechanism of hnulp1 transcriptional regulation and the function of the DUF654 domain.

  9. High-order conservative reconstruction schemes for finite volume methods in cylindrical and spherical coordinates

    CERN Document Server

    Mignone, A

    2014-01-01

    High-order reconstruction schemes for the solution of hyperbolic conservation laws in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are revised in the finite volume approach. The formulation employs a piecewise polynomial approximation to the zone-average values to reconstruct left and right interface states from within a computational zone to arbitrary order of accuracy by inverting a Vandermonde-like linear system of equations with spatially varying coefficients. The approach is general and can be used on uniform and non-uniform meshes although explicit expressions are derived for polynomials from second to fifth degree in cylindrical and spherical geometries with uniform grid spacing. It is shown that, in regions of large curvature, the resulting expressions differ considerably from their Cartesian counterparts and that the lack of such corrections can severely degrade the accuracy of the solution close to the coordinate origin. Limiting techniques and monotonicity constraints are revised for conventional reconstruct...

  10. Highly Conserved Elements and Chromosome Structure Evolution in Mitochondrial Genomes in Ciliates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman A. Gershgorin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent phylogenetic analyses are incorporating ultraconserved elements (UCEs and highly conserved elements (HCEs. Models of evolution of the genome structure and HCEs initially faced considerable algorithmic challenges, which gave rise to (often unnatural constraints on these models, even for conceptually simple tasks such as the calculation of distance between two structures or the identification of UCEs. In our recent works, these constraints have been addressed with fast and efficient solutions with no constraints on the underlying models. These approaches have led us to an unexpected result: for some organelles and taxa, the genome structure and HCE set, despite themselves containing relatively little information, still adequately resolve the evolution of species. We also used the HCE identification to search for promoters and regulatory elements that characterize the functional evolution of the genome.

  11. Particle-number conserving analysis of the high-spin structure of $^{159}$Ho

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhen-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The high-spin rotational bands in odd-$Z$ nuclei $^{159}$Ho ($Z=67$) are investigated using the cranked shell model with the pairing correlations treated by a particle-number conserving method, in which the blocking effects are taken into account exactly. The experimental moments of inertia and alignments and their variations with the rotational frequency $\\hbar\\omega$ are reproduced very well by the calculations. The splitting between the signature partners of the yrast band $7/2^-[523]$ is discussed and the splitting of the excited band $7/2^+[404]$ above $\\hbar\\omega \\sim 0.30$~MeV is predicted due to the level crossing with $1/2^+[411]$. The calculated $B(E2)$ transition probabilities are also suggested for future experiments.

  12. Data on electrical energy conservation using high efficiency motors for the confidence bounds using statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mujtaba; Memon, Abdul Jabbar; Hussain, Manzoor

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we describe details of the data used in the research paper "Confidence bounds for energy conservation in electric motors: An economical solution using statistical techniques" [1]. The data presented in this paper is intended to show benefits of high efficiency electric motors over the standard efficiency motors of similar rating in the industrial sector of Pakistan. We explain how the data was collected and then processed by means of formulas to show cost effectiveness of energy efficient motors in terms of three important parameters: annual energy saving, cost saving and payback periods. This data can be further used to construct confidence bounds for the parameters using statistical techniques as described in [1].

  13. Highly conserved type 1 pili promote enterotoxigenic E. coli pathogen-host interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaullah Sheikh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC, defined by their elaboration of heat-labile (LT and/or heat-stable (ST enterotoxins, are a common cause of diarrheal illness in developing countries. Efficient delivery of these toxins requires ETEC to engage target host enterocytes. This engagement is accomplished using a variety of pathovar-specific and conserved E. coli adhesin molecules as well as plasmid encoded colonization factors. Some of these adhesins undergo significant transcriptional modulation as ETEC encounter intestinal epithelia, perhaps suggesting that they cooperatively facilitate interaction with the host. Among genes significantly upregulated on cell contact are those encoding type 1 pili. We therefore investigated the role played by these pili in facilitating ETEC adhesion, and toxin delivery to model intestinal epithelia. We demonstrate that type 1 pili, encoded in the E. coli core genome, play an essential role in ETEC virulence, acting in concert with plasmid-encoded pathovar specific colonization factor (CF fimbriae to promote optimal bacterial adhesion to cultured intestinal epithelium (CIE and to epithelial monolayers differentiated from human small intestinal stem cells. Type 1 pili are tipped with the FimH adhesin which recognizes mannose with stereochemical specificity. Thus, enhanced production of highly mannosylated proteins on intestinal epithelia promoted FimH-mediated ETEC adhesion, while conversely, interruption of FimH lectin-epithelial interactions with soluble mannose, anti-FimH antibodies or mutagenesis of fimH effectively blocked ETEC adhesion. Moreover, fimH mutants were significantly impaired in delivery of both heat-stable and heat-labile toxins to the target epithelial cells in vitro, and these mutants were substantially less virulent in rabbit ileal loop assays, a classical model of ETEC pathogenesis. Collectively, our data suggest that these highly conserved pili play an essential role in virulence of these

  14. Butterflies of the high altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eDespland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 500 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats as well as in high and low altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, between natural and impacted sites, as well as between two sampling years with different precipitation regimes. The results confirm high altitudinal turnover and show greatest similarity between wetland and slope faunas at similar altitudes. Results also underscore vulnerability to weather fluctuations, particularly in the more arid low-altitude sites, where abundances were much lower in the low precipitation sampling season and several species were not observed at all. Finally, we show that some species have shifted to the neoriparian vegetation of the agricultural landscape, whereas others were only observed in less impacted habitats dominated by native plants. These results suggest that acclimation to novel habitats depends on larval host plant use. The traditional agricultural environment can provide habitat for many, but not all, native butterfly species, but an estimation of the value of these habitats requires better understanding of butterfly life-history strategies and relationships with host plants.

  15. Butterflies of the high-altitude Atacama Desert: habitat use and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despland, Emma

    2014-01-01

    The butterfly fauna of the high-altitude desert of Northern Chile, though depauperate, shows high endemism, is poorly known and is of considerable conservation concern. This study surveys butterflies along the Andean slope between 2400 and 5000 m asl (prepuna, puna and Andean steppe habitats) as well as in high and low-altitude wetlands and in the neoriparian vegetation of agricultural sites. We also include historical sightings from museum records. We compare abundances between altitudes, between natural and impacted sites, as well as between two sampling years with different precipitation regimes. The results confirm high altitudinal turnover and show greatest similarity between wetland and slope faunas at similar altitudes. Results also underscore vulnerability to weather fluctuations, particularly in the more arid low-altitude sites, where abundances were much lower in the low precipitation sampling season and several species were not observed at all. Finally, we show that some species have shifted to the neoriparian vegetation of the agricultural landscape, whereas others were only observed in less impacted habitats dominated by native plants. These results suggest that acclimation to novel habitats depends on larval host plant use. The traditional agricultural environment can provide habitat for many, but not all, native butterfly species, but an estimation of the value of these habitats requires better understanding of butterfly life history strategies and relationships with host plants. PMID:25309583

  16. Kitaev honeycomb tensor networks: exact unitary circuits and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Schmoll, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    The Kitaev honeycomb model is a paradigm of exactly-solvable models, showing non-trivial physical properties such as topological quantum order, abelian and non-abelian anyons, and chirality. Its solution is one of the most beautiful examples of the interplay of different mathematical techniques in condensed matter physics. In this paper, we show how to derive a tensor network (TN) description of the eigenstates of this spin-1/2 model in the thermodynamic limit, and in particular for its ground state. In our setting, eigenstates are naturally encoded by an exact 3d TN structure made of fermionic unitary operators, corresponding to the unitary quantum circuit building up the many-body quantum state. In our derivation we review how the different "solution ingredients" of the Kitaev honeycomb model can be accounted for in the TN language, namely: Jordan-Wigner transformation, braidings of Majorana modes, fermionic Fourier transformation, and Bogoliubov transformation. The TN built in this way allows for a clear u...

  17. Shortcut to adiabaticity for an anisotropic unitary Fermi gas

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Shujin; Yu, Qianli; Wu, Haibin

    2016-01-01

    Coherent control of complex quantum systems is a fundamental requirement in quantum information processing and engineering. Recently developed notion of shortcut to adiabaticity (STA) has spawned intriguing prospects. So far, the most experimental investigations of STA are implemented in the ideal thermal gas or the weakly interacting ultracold Bose gases. Here we report the first demonstration of a many-body STA in a 3D anisotropically trapped unitary Fermi gas. A new dynamical scaling law is demonstrated on such a strongly interacting quantum gas. By simply engineering the frequency aspect ratio of a harmonic trap, the dynamics of the gas can be manipulated and the many-body state can be transferred adiabatically from one stationary state to another one in short time scale without the excitation. The universal scaling both for non-interacting and unitary Fermi gas is also verified. This could be very important for future many-body quantum engineering and the exploration of the fundamental law of the thermod...

  18. On the construction of unitary quantum group differential calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatov, Pavel

    2016-10-01

    We develop a construction of the unitary type anti-involution for the quantized differential calculus over {{GL}}q(n) in the case | q| =1. To this end, we consider a joint associative algebra of quantized functions, differential forms and Lie derivatives over {{GL}}q(n)/{{SL}}q(n), which is bicovariant with respect to {{GL}}q(n)/{{SL}}q(n) coactions. We define a specific non-central spectral extension of this algebra by the spectral variables of three matrices of the algebra generators. In the spectrally expended algebra, we construct a three-parametric family of its inner automorphisms. These automorphisms are used for the construction of the unitary anti-involution for the (spectrally extended) calculus over {{GL}}q(n). This work has been funded by the Russian Academic Excellence Project ‘5-100’. The results of section 5 (propositions 5.2, 5.3 and theorem 5.5) have been obtained under support of the RSF grant No.16-11-10160.

  19. Event-specific versus unitary causal accounts of optimism bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, F J; Job, R F

    1999-10-01

    Optimism bias is often assumed to have a unitary cause regardless of the event, however, factors causing it may actually be event-specific. In Experiment 1 (N = 23), subjects rated the importance of various causes for individual events. The results identified consistent differences in perceptions of causal factors across events. Experiment 2 (N = 190) employed the possible causal factors absent/exempt error and degree of motivation to investigate an event-specific theory of optimism bias in a manipulation design. Participants were encouraged to view one causal factor (absent/exempt or motivation) as either important or unimportant to future risk when they estimated their risk of absent/exempt-related, motivation-related and unrelated events (as determined in Experiment 1). A hanging control group received no manipulation. The event-specific theory's prediction that these manipulations would affect particular events and not others were not supported. However, discouraging the absent/exempt error reduced optimism bias across events, generally. Hence, a unitary and not an event-specific theory of optimism bias was supported. Furthermore, for the first time, the possible role of and confounding of cognitive manipulations of optimism bias by mood were evaluated, and not supported.

  20. Universal Structure and Universal PDE for Unitary Ensembles

    CERN Document Server

    Rumanov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    An attempt is made to describe random matrix ensembles with unitary invariance of measure (UE) in a unified way, using a combination of Tracy-Widom (TW) and Adler-Shiota-Van Moerbeke (ASvM) approaches to derivation of partial differential equations (PDE) for spectral gap probabilities. First, general 3-term recurrence relations for UE restricted to subsets of real line, or, in other words, for functions in the resolvent kernel, are obtained. Using them, simple universal relations between all TW dependent variables and one-dimensional Toda lattice $\\tau$-functions are found. A universal system of PDE for UE is derived from previous relations, which leads also to a {\\it single independent PDE} for spectral gap probability of various UE. Thus, orthogonal function bases and Toda lattice are seen at the core of correspondence of different approaches. Moreover, Toda-AKNS system provides a common structure of PDE for unitary ensembles. Interestingly, this structure can be seen in two very different forms: one arises...

  1. Boson-Faddeev in the Unitary Limit and Efimov States

    CERN Document Server

    K"\\ohler, H S

    2010-01-01

    A numerical study of the Faddeev equation for bosons is made with two-body interactions at or close to the Unitary limit. Separable interactions are obtained from phase-shifts defined by scattering length and effective range. In EFT-language this would correspond to NLO. Both ground and Efimov state energies are calculated. For effective ranges $r_0 > 0$ and rank-1 potentials the total energy $E_T$ is found to converge with momentum cut-off $\\Lambda$ for $\\Lambda > \\sim 10/r_0$ . In the Unitary limit ($1/a=r_0= 0$) the energy does however diverge. It is shown (analytically) that in this case $E_T=E_u\\Lambda^2$. Calculations give $E_u=-0.108$ for the ground state and $E_u=-1.\\times10^{-4}$ for the single Efimov state found. The cut-off divergence is remedied by modifying the off-shell t-matrix by replacing the rank-1 by a rank-2 phase-shift equivalent potential. This is somewhat similar to the counterterm method suggested by Bedaque et al. This investigation is exploratory and does not refer to any specific ph...

  2. The importance of incorporating functional habitats into conservation planning for highly mobile species in dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Matthew H; Terauds, Aleks; Tulloch, Ayesha; Bell, Phil; Stojanovic, Dejan; Heinsohn, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of mobile species in dynamic systems can vary greatly over time and space. Estimating their population size and geographic range can be problematic and affect the accuracy of conservation assessments. Scarce data on mobile species and the resources they need can also limit the type of analytical approaches available to derive such estimates. We quantified change in availability and use of key ecological resources required for breeding for a critically endangered nomadic habitat specialist, the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor). We compared estimates of occupied habitat derived from dynamic presence-background (i.e., presence-only data) climatic models with estimates derived from dynamic occupancy models that included a direct measure of food availability. We then compared estimates that incorporate fine-resolution spatial data on the availability of key ecological resources (i.e., functional habitats) with more common approaches that focus on broader climatic suitability or vegetation cover (due to the absence of fine-resolution data). The occupancy models produced significantly (P < 0.001) smaller (up to an order of magnitude) and more spatially discrete estimates of the total occupied area than climate-based models. The spatial location and extent of the total area occupied with the occupancy models was highly variable between years (131 and 1498 km(2) ). Estimates accounting for the area of functional habitats were significantly smaller (2-58% [SD 16]) than estimates based only on the total area occupied. An increase or decrease in the area of one functional habitat (foraging or nesting) did not necessarily correspond to an increase or decrease in the other. Thus, an increase in the extent of occupied area may not equate to improved habitat quality or function. We argue these patterns are typical for mobile resource specialists but often go unnoticed because of limited data over relevant spatial and temporal scales and lack of spatial data on the

  3. High order symplectic conservative perturbation method for time-varying Hamiltonian system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Hui Fu; Ke-Lang Lu; Lin-Hua Lan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a high order symplectic conservative perturbation method for linear time-varying Hamiltonian system.Firstly,the dynamic equation of Hamiltonian system is gradually changed into a high order perturbation equation,which is solved approximately by resolving the Hamiltonian coefficient matrix into a "major component" and a "high order small quantity" and using perturbation transformation technique,then the solution to the original equation of Hamiltonian system is determined through a series of inverse transform.Because the transfer matrix determined by the method in this paper is the product of a series of exponential matrixes,the transfer matrix is a symplectic matrix; furthermore,the exponential matrices can be calculated accurately by the precise time integration method,so the method presented in this paper has fine accuracy,efficiency and stability.The examples show that the proposed method can also give good results even though a large time step is selected,and with the increase of the perturbation order,the perturbation solutions tend to exact solutions rapidly.

  4. The complex multidomain organization of SCO-spondin protein is highly conserved in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiniel, Olivier; Meiniel, Annie

    2007-02-01

    The multidomain organization of SCO-spondin protein is a special feature of the chordate phylum. This protein is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) from the time a dorsal neural tube appears in the course of phylogenetical evolution. With the advance of the systematic whole genomes sequencing, we were able to determine the SCO-spondin amino acid sequence in four mammalian species using the Wise2 software. From the ClustalW alignment of bovine (Bos taurus), human (Homo sapiens), murine (Mus musculus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) proteins, a consensus sequence for mammalian SCO-spondin was determined and further validated with the dog (Canis familiaris) SCO-spondin sequence. The analysis of this consensus sequence is consistent with a very high degree of conservation in the amino acids composition and multidomain organization of SCO-spondin in mammals. In addition, the identification of conserved domains, namely, Emilin (EMI), von Willebrand factor D (vWD), low-density lipoprotein receptor type A (LDLrA) domains, SCO repeats (SCOR), thrombospondin type 1 repeats (TSR), a coagulation factor 5/8 type C (FA5-8C) or discoidin motif and a C-terminal cystine knot (CTCK) domain, provides a greater insight into the putative function of this multidomain protein. SCO-spondin belongs to the TSR superfamily given the presence of a great number of TSR (26). A finer classification of the TSR motifs in groups 1, 2 and 3 is proposed on the basis of different cysteine patterns. Interestingly, group 2 TSR are present in a number of CNS developmental proteins including R-spondins, F-spondins and Mindins.

  5. Determining the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes of PFI data in central region Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Kamaruddin, Saadi Bin; Md Ghani, Nor Azura; Mohamed Ramli, Norazan

    2013-04-01

    The concept of Private Financial Initiative (PFI) has been implemented by many developed countries as an innovative way for the governments to improve future public service delivery and infrastructure procurement. However, the idea is just about to germinate in Malaysia and its success is still vague. The major phase that needs to be given main attention in this agenda is value for money whereby optimum efficiency and effectiveness of each expense is attained. Therefore, at the early stage of this study, estimating unitary charges or materials price indexes in each region in Malaysia was the key objective. This particular study aims to discover the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes in construction industry by different regions in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia (Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan, and Melaka). The unitary charges indexes data used were from year 2002 to 2011 monthly data of different states in the central region Peninsular Malaysia, comprising price indexes of aggregate, sand, steel reinforcement, ready mix concrete, bricks and partition, roof material, floor and wall finishes, ceiling, plumbing materials, sanitary fittings, paint, glass, steel and metal sections, timber and plywood. At the end of the study, it was found that Backpropagation Neural Network with linear transfer function produced the most accurate and reliable results for estimating unitary charges price indexes in every states in central region Peninsular Malaysia based on the Root Mean Squared Errors, where the values for both estimation and evaluation sets were approximately zero and highly significant at p value for money of PFI as well as towards Malaysian economical growth.

  6. The highly conserved MraZ protein is a transcriptional regulator in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eraso, Jesus M.; Markillie, Lye Meng; Mitchell, Hugh D.; Taylor, Ronald C.; Orr, Galya; Margolin, William

    2014-05-05

    The mraZ and mraW genes are highly conserved in bacteria, both in sequence and location at the head of the division and cell wall (dcw) gene cluster. Although MraZ has structural similarity to the AbrB transition state regulator and the MazE antitoxin, and MraW is known to methylate ribosomal RNA, mraZ and mraW null mutants have no detectable growth phenotype in any species tested to date, hampering progress in understanding their physiological role. Here we show that overproduction of Escherichia coli MraZ perturbs cell division and the cell envelope, is more lethal at high levels or in minimal growth medium, and that MraW antagonizes these effects. MraZGFP localizes to the nucleoid, suggesting that it binds DNA. Indeed, purified MraZ directly binds a region upstream from its own promoter containing three direct repeats to regulate its own expression and that of downstream cell division and cell wall genes. MraZ-LacZ fusions are repressed by excess MraZ but not when DNA binding by MraZ is inhibited. RNAseq analysis indicates that MraZ is a global transcriptional regulator with numerous targets in addition to dcw genes. One of these targets, mioC, is directly bound by MraZ in a region with three direct repeats.

  7. Swertia chirayta, a Threatened High-Value Medicinal Herb: Microhabitats and Conservation Challenges in Sikkim Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Kumar Pradhan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the impact of threats, identifying favorable growing conditions, and predicting future population scenarios are vital for the conservation and management of threatened species. This study investigated the availability, microhabitat characteristics, threat status, and community associations of Swertia chirayta, a highly threatened Himalayan medicinal herb, in 22 populations in Sikkim, India, using the vertical belt transect method. Of the 14 microhabitats identified, open grassy slope emerged as the most favorable and wet grassy slope as the least favorable for S. chirayta. The species was dominant in 8 of the 10 major plant communities identified. Among 9 major types of disturbance identified, human movement and collection of non-timber forest products appeared as the biggest threats to S. chirayta. Disturbances significantly affected the availability of the species. S. chirayta, though under high anthropogenic threat, maintains high microhabitat pliability, which is vital for its conservation and management, provided immediate conservation measures are taken.

  8. 7 CFR 12.23 - Conservation plans and conservation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plans and conservation systems. 12.23 Section 12.23 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture HIGHLY ERODIBLE LAND AND WETLAND CONSERVATION Highly Erodible Land Conservation § 12.23 Conservation plans and conservation systems. (a) Use...

  9. Compactifications of the Heterotic string with unitary bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, T.

    2006-05-23

    In this thesis we investigate a large new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric string vacua defined as compactifications of the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} and the SO(32) heterotic string on smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds with unitary gauge bundles and heterotic five-branes. The first part of the thesis discusses the implementation of this idea into the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} heterotic string. After specifying a large class of group theoretic embeddings featuring unitary bundles, we analyse the effective four-dimensional N=1 supergravity upon compactification. From the gauge invariant Kaehler potential for the moduli fields we derive a modification of the Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms arising at one-loop in string perturbation theory. From this we conjecture a one-loop deformation of the Hermitian Yang-Mills equation and introduce the idea of {lambda}-stability as the perturbatively correct stability concept generalising the notion of Mumford stability valid at tree-level. We then proceed to a definition of SO(32) heterotic vacua with unitary gauge bundles in the presence of heterotic five-branes and find agreement of the resulting spectrum with the S-dual framework of Type I/Type IIB orientifolds. A similar analysis of the effective four-dimensional supergravity is performed. Further evidence for the proposed one-loop correction to the stability condition is found by identifying the heterotic corrections as the S-dual of the perturbative part of {pi}-stability as the correct stability concept in Type IIB theory. After reviewing the construction of holomorphic stable vector bundles on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds via spectral covers, we provide semi-realistic examples for SO(32) heterotic vacua with Pati-Salam and MSSM-like gauge sectors. We finally discuss the construction of realistic vacua with flipped SU(5) GUT and MSSM gauge group within the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} framework, based on the embedding of line bundles into both E{sub 8} factors. Some of the appealing

  10. The Schur algorithm for generalized Schur functions III : J-unitary matrix polynomials on the circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, Daniel; Azizov, Tomas; Dijksma, Aad; Langer, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    The main result is that for J = ((1)(0) (0)(-1)) every J-unitary 2 x 2-matrix polynomial on the unit circle is an essentially unique product of elementary J-unitary 2 x 2-matrix polynomials which are either of degree 1 or 2k. This is shown by means of the generalized Schur transformation introduced

  11. 47 CFR 65.101 - Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initiation of unitary rate of return...) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Procedures § 65.101 Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings. (a) Whenever...

  12. Closely connected unitary realizations of the solutions to the basic interpolation problem for generalized Schur functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanjala, G; Kaashoek, MA; Seatzu, S; VanDerMee, C

    2005-01-01

    A generalized Schur function which is holomorphic at z = 0 can be written as the characteristic function of a closely connected unitary colligation with a Pontryagin state space. We describe the closely connected unitary colligation of a solution s(z) of the basic interpolation problem for generaliz

  13. Molecular Quantum Computing by an Optimal Control Algorithm for Unitary Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2002-01-01

    Quantum computation is based on implementing selected unitary transformations which represent algorithms. A generalized optimal control theory is used to find the driving field that generates a prespecified unitary transformation. The approach is illustrated in the implementation of one and two qubits gates in model molecular systems.

  14. Streamlining and core genome conservation among highly divergent members of the SAR11 clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, Jana; Thrash, J Cameron; Huggett, Megan J; Landry, Zachary C; Carini, Paul; Giovannoni, Stephen J; Rappé, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    SAR11 is an ancient and diverse clade of heterotrophic bacteria that are abundant throughout the world's oceans, where they play a major role in the ocean carbon cycle. Correlations between the phylogenetic branching order and spatiotemporal patterns in cell distributions from planktonic ocean environments indicate that SAR11 has evolved into perhaps a dozen or more specialized ecotypes that span evolutionary distances equivalent to a bacterial order. We isolated and sequenced genomes from diverse SAR11 cultures that represent three major lineages and encompass the full breadth of the clade. The new data expand observations about genome evolution and gene content that previously had been restricted to the SAR11 Ia subclade, providing a much broader perspective on the clade's origins, evolution, and ecology. We found small genomes throughout the clade and a very high proportion of core genome genes (48 to 56%), indicating that small genome size is probably an ancestral characteristic. In their level of core genome conservation, the members of SAR11 are outliers, the most conserved free-living bacteria known. Shared features of the clade include low GC content, high gene synteny, a large hypervariable region bounded by rRNA genes, and low numbers of paralogs. Variation among the genomes included genes for phosphorus metabolism, glycolysis, and C1 metabolism, suggesting that adaptive specialization in nutrient resource utilization is important to niche partitioning and ecotype divergence within the clade. These data provide support for the conclusion that streamlining selection for efficient cell replication in the planktonic habitat has occurred throughout the evolution and diversification of this clade. IMPORTANCE The SAR11 clade is the most abundant group of marine microorganisms worldwide, making them key players in the global carbon cycle. Growing knowledge about their biochemistry and metabolism is leading to a more mechanistic understanding of organic carbon

  15. A2 gene of Old World cutaneous Leishmania is a single highly conserved functional gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derouin Francis

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmaniases are among the most proteiform parasitic infections in humans ranging from unapparent to cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral diseases. The various clinical issues depend on complex and still poorly understood mechanisms where both host and parasite factors are interacting. Among the candidate factors of parasite virulence are the A2 genes, a family of multiple genes that are developmentally expressed in species of the Leishmania donovani group responsible for visceral diseases (VL. By contrast, in L. major determining cutaneous infections (CL we showed that A2 genes are present in a truncated form only. Furthermore, the A2 genomic sequences of L. major were considered subsequently to represent non-expressed pseudogenes 1. Consequently, it was suggested that the structural and functional properties of A2 genes could play a role in the differential tropism of CL and VL leishmanias. On this basis, it was of importance to determine whether the observed structural/functional particularities of the L. major A2 genes were shared by other CL Leishmania, therefore representing a proper characteristic of CL A2 genes as opposed to those of VL isolates. Methods In the present study we amplified by PCR and sequenced the A2 genes from genomic DNA and from clonal libraries of the four Old World CL species comparatively to a clonal population of L. infantum VL parasites. Using RT-PCR we also amplified and sequenced A2 mRNA transcripts from L. major. Results A unique A2 sequence was identified in Old World cutaneous Leishmania by sequencing. The shared sequence was highly conserved among the various CL strains and species analysed, showing a single polymorphism C/G at position 58. The CL A2 gene was found to be functionally transcribed at both parasite stages. Conclusion The present study shows that cutaneous strains of leishmania share a conserved functional A2 gene. As opposed to the multiple A2 genes described in VL isolates

  16. Unitary equilibrations: probability distribution of the Loschmidt echo

    CERN Document Server

    Venuti, Lorenzo Campos

    2009-01-01

    Closed quantum systems evolve unitarily and therefore cannot converge in a strong sense to an equilibrium state starting out from a generic pure state. Nevertheless for large system size one observes temporal typicality. Namely, for the overwhelming majority of the time instants, the statistics of observables is practically indistinguishable from an effective equilibrium one. In this paper we consider the Loschmidt echo (LE) to study this sort of unitary equilibration after a quench. We draw several conclusions on general grounds and on the basis of an exactly-solvable example of a quasi-free system. In particular we focus on the whole probability distribution of observing a given value of the LE after waiting a long time. Depending on the interplay between the initial state and the quench Hamiltonian, we find different regimes reflecting different equilibration dynamics. When the perturbation is small and the system is away from criticality the probability distribution is Gaussian. However close to criticali...

  17. Husserlian phenomenology and nursing in a unitary-transformative paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Elisabeth

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss Husserlian phenomenology as philosophy and methodology, and its relevance for nursing research. The main content in Husserl's phenomenological world view is described and compared to the unitary-transformative paradigm as mentioned by Newman et al....... The phenomenological methodology according to Spiegelberg is described, and exemplified through the author's ongoing study. Different critiques of phenomenology and phenomenological reports are mentioned, and the phenomenological description is illustrated as the metaphor «using a handful of colors». The metaphor...... is used to give phenomenological researchers and readers an expanding reality picturing, including memories and hopes and not only a reality of the five senses. It is concluded that phenomenology as a world view and methodology can contribute to nursing research and strengthen the identity of nursing...

  18. Momentum Distribution in the Unitary Bose Gas from First Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparin, Tommaso; Krauth, Werner

    2016-11-01

    We consider a realistic bosonic N -particle model with unitary interactions relevant for Efimov physics. Using quantum Monte Carlo methods, we find that the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation is decreased with respect to the ideal Bose gas. We also determine the full momentum distribution of the gas, including its universal asymptotic behavior, and compare this crucial observable to recent experimental data. Similar to the experiments with different atomic species, differentiated solely by a three-body length scale, our model only depends on a single parameter. We establish a weak influence of this parameter on physical observables. In current experiments, the thermodynamic instability of our model from the atomic gas towards an Efimov liquid could be masked by the dynamical instability due to three-body losses.

  19. The Reid93 Potential Triton in the Unitary Pole Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, I. R.; Gibson, B. F.

    2013-12-01

    The Reid93 potential provides a representation of the nucleon-nucleon ( NN) scattering data that rivals that of a partial wave analysis. We present here a unitary pole approximation (UPA) for this contemporary NN potential that provides a rank one separable potential for which the wave function of the deuteron (3S1-3D1) and singlet anti-bound (1S0) state are exactly those of the original potential. Our motivation is to use this UPA potential to investigate the sensitivity of the electric dipole moment for the deuteron and 3H and 3He to the ground state nuclear wave function. We compare the Reid93 results with those for the original Reid (Reid68) potential to illustrate the accuracy of the bound state properties.

  20. Unitary theory of pion photoproduction in the chiral bag model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, M.; Afnan, I.R.

    1987-07-01

    We present a multichannel unitary theory of single pion photoproduction from a baryon B. Here, B is the nucleon or ..delta..(1232), with possible extension to include the Roper resonance and strange baryons. We treat the baryon as a three-quark state within the framework of the gauge and chiral Lagrangian, derived from the Lagrangian for the chiral bag model. By first exposing two-body, and then three-body unitarity, taking into consideration the ..pi pi..B and ..gamma pi..B intermediate states, we derive a set of equations for the amplitudes both on and off the energy shell. The Born term in the expansion of the amplitude has the new feature that the vertices in the pole diagram are undressed, while those in the crossed, contact, and pion pole diagrams are dressed.

  1. Unitary theory of pion photoproduction in the chiral bag model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, M.; Afnan, I. R.

    1987-07-01

    We present a multichannel unitary theory of single pion photoproduction from a baryon B. Here, B is the nucleon or Δ(1232), with possible extension to include the Roper resonance and strange baryons. We treat the baryon as a three-quark state within the framework of the gauge and chiral Lagrangian, derived from the Lagrangian for the chiral bag model. By first exposing two-body, and then three-body unitarity, taking into consideration the ππB and γπB intermediate states, we derive a set of equations for the amplitudes both on and off the energy shell. The Born term in the expansion of the amplitude has the new feature that the vertices in the pole diagram are undressed, while those in the crossed, contact, and pion pole diagrams are dressed.

  2. An Informal Overview of the Unitary Group Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnad, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kruse, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Baker, R. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-06-13

    The Unitary Groups Approach (UGA) is an elegant and conceptually unified approach to quantum structure calculations. It has been widely used in molecular structure calculations, and holds the promise of a single computational approach to structure calculations in a variety of different fields. We explore the possibility of extending the UGA to computations in atomic and nuclear structure as a simpler alternative to traditional Racah algebra-based approaches. We provide a simple introduction to the basic UGA and consider some of the issues in using the UGA with spin-dependent, multi-body Hamiltonians requiring multi-shell bases adapted to additional symmetries. While the UGA is perfectly capable of dealing with such problems, it is seen that the complexity rises dramatically, and the UGA is not at this time, a simpler alternative to Racah algebra-based approaches.

  3. C T for non-unitary CFTs in higher dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Hugh; Stergiou, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The coefficient C T of the conformal energy-momentum tensor two-point function is determined for the non-unitary scalar CFTs with four- and six-derivative kinetic terms. The results match those expected from large- N calculations for the CFTs arising from the O( N) non-linear sigma and Gross-Neveu models in specific even dimensions. C T is also calculated for the CFT arising from ( n - 1)-form gauge fields with derivatives in 2 n + 2 dimensions. Results for ( n - 1)-form theory extended to general dimensions as a non-gauge-invariant CFT are also obtained; the resulting C T differs from that for the gauge-invariant theory. The construction of conformal primaries by subtracting descendants of lower-dimension primaries is also discussed. For free theories this also leads to an alternative construction of the energy-momentum tensor, which can be quite involved for higher-derivative theories.

  4. The unitary conformal field theory behind 2D Asymptotic Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Nink, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Being interested in the compatibility of Asymptotic Safety with Hilbert space positivity (unitarity), we consider a local truncation of the functional RG flow which describes quantum gravity in $d>2$ dimensions and construct its limit of exactly two dimensions. We find that in this limit the flow displays a nontrivial fixed point whose effective average action is a non-local functional of the metric. Its pure gravity sector is shown to correspond to a unitary conformal field theory with positive central charge $c=25$. Representing the fixed point CFT by a Liouville theory in the conformal gauge, we investigate its general properties and their implications for the Asymptotic Safety program. In particular, we discuss its field parametrization dependence and argue that there might exist more than one universality class of metric gravity theories in two dimensions. Furthermore, studying the gravitational dressing in 2D asymptotically safe gravity coupled to conformal matter we uncover a mechanism which leads to a...

  5. Qubit Transport Model for Unitary Black Hole Evaporation without Firewalls

    CERN Document Server

    Osuga, Kento

    2016-01-01

    We give an explicit toy qubit transport model for transferring information from the gravitational field of a black hole to the Hawking radiation by a continuous unitary transformation of the outgoing radiation and the black hole gravitational field. The model has no firewalls or other drama at the event horizon and fits the set of six physical constraints that Giddings has proposed for models of black hole evaporation. It does utilize nonlocal qubits for the gravitational field but assumes that the radiation interacts locally with these nonlocal qubits, so in some sense the nonlocality is confined to the gravitational sector. Although the qubit model is too crude to be quantitively correct for the detailed spectrum of Hawking radiation, it fits qualitatively with what is expected.

  6. Description and calibration of the Langley unitary plan wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. M., Jr.; Corlett, W. A.; Monta, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    The two test sections of the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel were calibrated over the operating Mach number range from 1.47 to 4.63. The results of the calibration are presented along with a a description of the facility and its operational capability. The calibrations include Mach number and flow angularity distributions in both test sections at selected Mach numbers and tunnel stagnation pressures. Calibration data are also presented on turbulence, test-section boundary layer characteristics, moisture effects, blockage, and stagnation-temperature distributions. The facility is described in detail including dimensions and capacities where appropriate, and example of special test capabilities are presented. The operating parameters are fully defined and the power consumption characteristics are discussed.

  7. Quantized superfluid vortex rings in the unitary Fermi gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgac, Aurel; Forbes, Michael McNeil; Kelley, Michelle M; Roche, Kenneth J; Wlazłowski, Gabriel

    2014-01-17

    In a recent article, Yefsah et al. [Nature (London) 499, 426 (2013)] report the observation of an unusual excitation in an elongated harmonically trapped unitary Fermi gas. After phase imprinting a domain wall, they observe oscillations almost an order of magnitude slower than predicted by any theory of domain walls which they interpret as a "heavy soliton" of inertial mass some 200 times larger than the free fermion mass or 50 times larger than expected for a domain wall. We present compelling evidence that this "soliton" is instead a quantized vortex ring, by showing that the main aspects of the experiment can be naturally explained within the framework of time-dependent superfluid density functional theories.

  8. Kitaev honeycomb tensor networks: Exact unitary circuits and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoll, Philipp; Orús, Román

    2017-01-01

    The Kitaev honeycomb model is a paradigm of exactly solvable models, showing nontrivial physical properties such as topological quantum order, Abelian and non-Abelian anyons, and chirality. Its solution is one of the most beautiful examples of the interplay of different mathematical techniques in condensed matter physics. In this paper, we show how to derive a tensor network (TN) description of the eigenstates of this spin-1/2 model in the thermodynamic limit, and in particular for its ground state. In our setting, eigenstates are naturally encoded by an exact 3d TN structure made of fermionic unitary operators, corresponding to the unitary quantum circuit building up the many-body quantum state. In our derivation we review how the different "solution ingredients" of the Kitaev honeycomb model can be accounted for in the TN language, namely, Jordan-Wigner transformation, braidings of Majorana modes, fermionic Fourier transformation, and Bogoliubov transformation. The TN built in this way allows for a clear understanding of several properties of the model. In particular, we show how the fidelity diagram is straightforward both at zero temperature and at finite temperature in the vortex-free sector. We also show how the properties of two-point correlation functions follow easily. Finally, we also discuss the pros and cons of contracting of our 3d TN down to a 2d projected entangled pair state (PEPS) with finite bond dimension. The results in this paper can be extended to generalizations of the Kitaev model, e.g., to other lattices, spins, and dimensions.

  9. Highly conserved D-loop-like nuclear mitochondrial sequences (Numts) in tiger (Panthera tigris)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wenping Zhang; Zhihe Zhang; Fujun Shen; Rong Hou; Xiaoping Lv; Bisong Yue

    2006-08-01

    Using oligonucleotide primers designed to match hypervariable segments I (HVS-1) of Panthera tigris mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), we amplified two different PCR products (500 bp and 287 bp) in the tiger (Panthera tigris), but got only one PCR product (287 bp) in the leopard (Panthera pardus). Sequence analyses indicated that the sequence of 287 bp was a D-loop-like nuclear mitochondrial sequence (Numts), indicating a nuclear transfer that occurred approximately 4.8–17 million years ago in the tiger and 4.6–16 million years ago in the leopard. Although the mtDNA D-loop sequence has a rapid rate of evolution, the 287-bp Numts are highly conserved; they are nearly identical in tiger subspecies and only 1.742% different between tiger and leopard. Thus, such sequences represent molecular ‘fossils’ that can shed light on evolution of the mitochondrial genome and may be the most appropriate outgroup for phylogenetic analysis. This is also proved by comparing the phylogenetic trees reconstructed using the D-loop sequence of snow leopard and the 287-bp Numts as outgroup.

  10. High Throughput Sequencing of T Cell Antigen Receptors Reveals a Conserved TCR Repertoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xianliang; Lu, Chong; Chen, Sisi; Xie, Qian; Cui, Guangying; Chen, Jianing; Chen, Zhi; Wu, Zhongwen; Ding, Yulong; Ye, Ping; Dai, Yong; Diao, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire is a mirror of the human immune system that reflects processes caused by infections, cancer, autoimmunity, and aging. Next-generation sequencing has become a powerful tool for deep TCR profiling. Herein, we used this technology to study the repertoire features of TCR beta chain in the blood of healthy individuals. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 10 healthy donors. T cells were isolated with anti-human CD3 magnetic beads according to the manufacturer's protocol. We then combined multiplex-PCR, Illumina sequencing, and IMGT/High V-QUEST to analyze the characteristics and polymorphisms of the TCR. Most of the individual T cell clones were present at very low frequencies, suggesting that they had not undergone clonal expansion. The usage frequencies of the TCR beta variable, beta joining, and beta diversity gene segments were similar among T cells from different individuals. Notably, the usage frequency of individual nucleotides and amino acids within complementarity-determining region (CDR3) intervals was remarkably consistent between individuals. Moreover, our data show that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity was biased toward the insertion of G (31.92%) and C (27.14%) over A (21.82%) and T (19.12%) nucleotides. Some conserved features could be observed in the composition of CDR3, which may inform future studies of human TCR gene recombination. PMID:26962778

  11. The human HNRPD locus maps to 4q21 and encodes a highly conserved protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, L A; Li, M J; DePace, A; Bray-Ward, P; Maizels, N

    1998-05-01

    The hnRNP D protein interacts with nucleic acids both in vivo and in vitro. Like many other proteins that interact with RNA, it contains RBD (or "RRM") domains and arg-gly-gly (RGG) motifs. We have examined the organization and localization of the human and murine genes that encode the hnRNP D protein. Comparison of the predicted sequences of the hnRNP D proteins in human and mouse shows that they are 96.9% identical (98.9% similar). This very high level of conservation suggests a critical function for hnRNP D. Sequence analysis of the human HNRPD gene shows that the protein is encoded by eight exons and that two additional exons specify sequences in the 3' UTR. Use of two of the coding exons is determined by alternative splicing of the HNRPD mRNA. The human HNRPD gene maps to 4q21. The mouse Hnrpd gene maps to the F region of chromosome 3, which is syntenic with the human 4q21 region.

  12. Homoeologous chromosomes of Xenopus laevis are highly conserved after whole-genome duplication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Y; Nishida, C; Takagi, C; Ueno, N; Matsuda, Y

    2013-11-01

    It has been suggested that whole-genome duplication (WGD) occurred twice during the evolutionary process of vertebrates around 450 and 500 million years ago, which contributed to an increase in the genomic and phenotypic complexities of vertebrates. However, little is still known about the evolutionary process of homoeologous chromosomes after WGD because many duplicate genes have been lost. Therefore, Xenopus laevis (2n=36) and Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis (2n=20) are good animal models for studying the process of genomic and chromosomal reorganization after WGD because X. laevis is an allotetraploid species that resulted from WGD after the interspecific hybridization of diploid species closely related to X. tropicalis. We constructed a comparative cytogenetic map of X. laevis using 60 complimentary DNA clones that covered the entire chromosomal regions of 10 pairs of X. tropicalis chromosomes. We consequently identified all nine homoeologous chromosome groups of X. laevis. Hybridization signals on two pairs of X. laevis homoeologous chromosomes were detected for 50 of 60 (83%) genes, and the genetic linkage is highly conserved between X. tropicalis and X. laevis chromosomes except for one fusion and one inversion and also between X. laevis homoeologous chromosomes except for two inversions. These results indicate that the loss of duplicated genes and inter- and/or intrachromosomal rearrangements occurred much less frequently in this lineage, suggesting that these events were not essential for diploidization of the allotetraploid genome in X. laevis after WGD.

  13. Specific binding of eukaryotic ORC to DNA replication origins depends on highly conserved basic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Hironori; Ohashi, Eiji; Kanamoto, Shota; Tsurimoto, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutomu

    2015-10-12

    In eukaryotes, the origin recognition complex (ORC) heterohexamer preferentially binds replication origins to trigger initiation of DNA replication. Crystallographic studies using eubacterial and archaeal ORC orthologs suggested that eukaryotic ORC may bind to origin DNA via putative winged-helix DNA-binding domains and AAA+ ATPase domains. However, the mechanisms how eukaryotic ORC recognizes origin DNA remain elusive. Here, we show in budding yeast that Lys-362 and Arg-367 residues of the largest subunit (Orc1), both outside the aforementioned domains, are crucial for specific binding of ORC to origin DNA. These basic residues, which reside in a putative disordered domain, were dispensable for interaction with ATP and non-specific DNA sequences, suggesting a specific role in recognition. Consistent with this, both residues were required for origin binding of Orc1 in vivo. A truncated Orc1 polypeptide containing these residues solely recognizes ARS sequence with low affinity and Arg-367 residue stimulates sequence specific binding mode of the polypeptide. Lys-362 and Arg-367 residues of Orc1 are highly conserved among eukaryotic ORCs, but not in eubacterial and archaeal orthologs, suggesting a eukaryote-specific mechanism underlying recognition of replication origins by ORC.

  14. A Highly Conserved Bacterial D-Serine Uptake System Links Host Metabolism and Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, James P R; Gabrielsen, Mads; Goldstone, Robert J; Grinter, Rhys; Wang, Dai; Cogdell, Richard J; Walker, Daniel; Smith, David G E; Roe, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The ability of any organism to sense and respond to challenges presented in the environment is critically important for promoting or restricting colonization of specific sites. Recent work has demonstrated that the host metabolite D-serine has the ability to markedly influence the outcome of infection by repressing the type III secretion system of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in a concentration-dependent manner. However, exactly how EHEC monitors environmental D-serine is not understood. In this work, we have identified two highly conserved members of the E. coli core genome, encoding an inner membrane transporter and a transcriptional regulator, which collectively help to "sense" levels of D-serine by regulating its uptake from the environment and in turn influencing global gene expression. Both proteins are required for full expression of the type III secretion system and diversely regulated prophage-encoded effector proteins demonstrating an important infection-relevant adaptation of the core genome. We propose that this system acts as a key safety net, sampling the environment for this metabolite, thereby promoting colonization of EHEC to favorable sites within the host.

  15. A Highly Conserved Bacterial D-Serine Uptake System Links Host Metabolism and Virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P R Connolly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of any organism to sense and respond to challenges presented in the environment is critically important for promoting or restricting colonization of specific sites. Recent work has demonstrated that the host metabolite D-serine has the ability to markedly influence the outcome of infection by repressing the type III secretion system of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC in a concentration-dependent manner. However, exactly how EHEC monitors environmental D-serine is not understood. In this work, we have identified two highly conserved members of the E. coli core genome, encoding an inner membrane transporter and a transcriptional regulator, which collectively help to "sense" levels of D-serine by regulating its uptake from the environment and in turn influencing global gene expression. Both proteins are required for full expression of the type III secretion system and diversely regulated prophage-encoded effector proteins demonstrating an important infection-relevant adaptation of the core genome. We propose that this system acts as a key safety net, sampling the environment for this metabolite, thereby promoting colonization of EHEC to favorable sites within the host.

  16. A highly conserved metalloprotease effector enhances virulence in the maize anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Martín, José M; Pacheco-Arjona, José Ramón; Bello-Rico, Víctor; Vargas, Walter A; Monod, Michel; Díaz-Mínguez, José M; Thon, Michael R; Sukno, Serenella A

    2016-09-01

    Colletotrichum graminicola causes maize anthracnose, an agronomically important disease with a worldwide distribution. We have identified a fungalysin metalloprotease (Cgfl) with a role in virulence. Transcriptional profiling experiments and live cell imaging show that Cgfl is specifically expressed during the biotrophic stage of infection. To determine whether Cgfl has a role in virulence, we obtained null mutants lacking Cgfl and performed pathogenicity and live microscopy assays. The appressorium morphology of the null mutants is normal, but they exhibit delayed development during the infection process on maize leaves and roots, showing that Cgfl has a role in virulence. In vitro chitinase activity assays of leaves infected with wild-type and null mutant strains show that, in the absence of Cgfl, maize leaves exhibit increased chitinase activity. Phylogenetic analyses show that Cgfl is highly conserved in fungi. Similarity searches, phylogenetic analysis and transcriptional profiling show that C. graminicola encodes two LysM domain-containing homologues of Ecp6, suggesting that this fungus employs both Cgfl-mediated and LysM protein-mediated strategies to control chitin signalling. © 2015 BSPP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A dominant EV71-specific CD4+ T cell epitope is highly conserved among human enteroviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruicheng Wei

    Full Text Available CD4+ T cell-mediated immunity plays a central role in determining the immunopathogenesis of viral infections. However, the role of CD4+ T cells in EV71 infection, which causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD, has yet to be elucidated. We applied a sophisticated method to identify promiscuous CD4+ T cell epitopes contained within the sequence of the EV71 polyprotein. Fifteen epitopes were identified, and three of them are dominant ones. The most dominant epitope is highly conserved among enterovirus species, including HFMD-related coxsackieviruses, HFMD-unrelated echoviruses and polioviruses. Furthermore, the CD4+ T cells specific to the epitope indeed cross-reacted with the homolog of poliovirus 3 Sabin. Our findings imply that CD4+ T cell responses to poliovirus following vaccination, or to other enteroviruses to which individuals may be exposed in early childhood, may have a modulating effect on subsequent CD4+ T cell response to EV71 infection or vaccine.

  18. Temperature dependence of the universal contact parameter in a unitary Fermi gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnle, E D; Hoinka, S; Dyke, P; Hu, H; Hannaford, P; Vale, C J

    2011-04-29

    The contact I, introduced by Tan, has emerged as a key parameter characterizing universal properties of strongly interacting Fermi gases. For ultracold Fermi gases near a Feshbach resonance, the contact depends upon two quantities: the interaction parameter 1/(k(F)a), where k(F) is the Fermi wave vector and a is the s-wave scattering length, and the temperature T/T(F), where T(F) is the Fermi temperature. We present the first measurements of the temperature dependence of the contact in a unitary Fermi gas using Bragg spectroscopy. The contact is seen to follow the predicted decay with temperature and shows how pair-correlations at high momentum persist well above the superfluid transition temperature.

  19. Uniqueness of the Fock quantization of scalar fields in a Bianchi I cosmology with unitary dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Martín-Benito, Mercedes; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M

    2016-01-01

    The Fock quantization of free scalar fields is subject to an infinite ambiguity when it comes to choosing a set of annihilation and creation operators, choice that is equivalent to the determination of a vacuum state. In highly symmetric situations, this ambiguity can be removed by asking vacuum invariance under the symmetries of the system. Similarly, in stationary backgrounds, one can demand time-translation invariance plus positivity of the energy. However, in more general situations, additional criteria are needed. For the case of free (test) fields minimally coupled to a homogeneous and isotropic cosmology, it has been proven that the ambiguity is resolved by introducing the criterion of unitary implementability of the quantum dynamics, as an endomorphism in Fock space. This condition determines a specific separation of the time dependence of the field, so that this splits into a very precise background dependence and a genuine quantum evolution. Furthermore, together with the condition of vacuum invaria...

  20. Vapor-screen technique for flow visualization in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, O. A.; Corlett, W. A.; Wassum, D. L.; Babb, C. D.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor-screen technique for flow visualization, as developed for the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel, is described with evaluations of light sources and photographic equipment. Test parameters including dew point, pressure, and temperature were varied to determine optimum conditions for obtaining high-quality vapor-screen photographs. The investigation was conducted in the supersonic speed range for Mach numbers from 1.47 to 4.63 at model angles of attack up to 35 deg. Vapor-screen photographs illustrating various flow patterns are presented for several missile and aircraft configurations. Examples of vapor-screen results that have contributed to the understanding of complex flow fields and provided a basis for the development of theoretical codes are presented with reference to other research.

  1. Design of ecoregional monitoring in conservation areas of high-latitude ecosystems under contemporary climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, Erik A.; Woodward, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Land ownership in Alaska includes a mosaic of federally managed units. Within its agency’s context, each unit has its own management strategy, authority, and resources of conservation concern, many of which are migratory animals. Though some units are geographically isolated, many are nevertheless linked by paths of abiotic and biotic flows, such as rivers, air masses, flyways, and terrestrial and aquatic migration routes. Furthermore, individual land units exist within the context of a larger landscape pattern of shifting conditions, requiring managers to understand at larger spatial scales the status and trends in the synchrony and spatial concurrence of species and associated suitable habitats. Results of these changes will determine the ability of Alaska lands to continue to: provide habitat for local and migratory species; absorb species whose ranges are shifting northward; and experience mitigation or exacerbation of climate change through positive and negative atmospheric feedbacks. We discuss the geographic and statutory contexts that influence development of ecological monitoring; argue for the inclusion of significant amounts of broad-scale monitoring; discuss the importance of defining clear programmatic and monitoring objectives; and draw from lessons learned from existing long-term, broad-scale monitoring programs to apply to the specific contexts relevant to high-latitude protected areas such as those in Alaska. Such areas are distinguished by their: marked seasonality; relatively large magnitudes of contemporary change in climatic parameters; and relative inaccessibility due to broad spatial extent, very low (or zero) road density, and steep and glaciated areas. For ecological monitoring to effectively support management decisions in high-latitude areas such as Alaska, a monitoring program ideally would be structured to address the actual spatial and temporal scales of relevant processes, rather than the artificial boundaries of individual land

  2. Factorization of J-unitary matrix polynomials on the line and a Schur algorithm for generalized Nevanlinna functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, D.; Dijksma, A.; Langer, H.

    2004-01-01

    We prove that a 2 × 2 matrix polynomial which is J-unitary on the real line can be written as a product of normalized elementary J-unitary factors and a J-unitary constant. In the second part we give an algorithm for this factorization using an analog of the Schur transformation.

  3. Bi-directional modulation of AMPA receptor unitary conductance by synaptic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthews Paul

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of how synapses alter their efficiency of communication is central to the understanding of learning and memory. The most extensively studied forms of synaptic plasticity are long-term potentiation (LTP and its counterpart long-term depression (LTD of AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. In the CA1 region of the hippocampus, it has been shown that LTP often involves a rapid increase in the unitary conductance of AMPA receptor channels. However, LTP can also occur in the absence of any alteration in AMPA receptor unitary conductance. In the present study we have used whole-cell dendritic recording, failures analysis and non-stationary fluctuation analysis to investigate the mechanism of depotentiation of LTP. Results We find that when LTP involves an increase in unitary conductance, subsequent depotentiation invariably involves the return of unitary conductance to pre-LTP values. In contrast, when LTP does not involve a change in unitary conductance then depotentiation also occurs in the absence of any change in unitary conductance, indicating a reduction in the number of activated receptors as the most likely mechanism. Conclusions These data show that unitary conductance can be bi-directionally modified by synaptic activity. Furthermore, there are at least two distinct mechanisms to restore synaptic strength from a potentiated state, which depend upon the mechanism of the previous potentiation.

  4. Further progress on defining highly conserved immunogenic epitopes for a global HIV vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Groot, Anne S; Levitz, Lauren; Ardito, Matthew T;

    2012-01-01

    and that are conserved in sequence and across time may represent the "Achilles' heel" of HIV and would be excellent candidates for vaccine development. In this study, T-cell epitopes were selected using immunoinformatics tools, combining HLA-A3 binding predictions with relative sequence conservation in the context...... of global HIV evolution. Twenty-seven HLA-A3 epitopes were chosen from an analysis performed in 2003 on 10,803 HIV-1 sequences, and additional sequences were selected in 2009 based on an expanded set of 43,822 sequences. These epitopes were tested in vitro for HLA binding and for immunogenicity with PBMCs...... of HIV-infected donors from Providence, Rhode Island. Validation of these HLA-A3 epitopes conserved across time, clades, and geography supports the hypothesis that epitopes such as these would be candidates for inclusion in our globally relevant GAIA HIV vaccine constructs....

  5. High-frequency ultrasound for intraoperative margin assessments in breast conservation surgery: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Vern P

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to breast imaging, ultrasound offers the potential for characterizing and distinguishing between benign and malignant breast tissues due to their different microstructures and material properties. The aim of this study was to determine if high-frequency ultrasound (20-80 MHz can provide pathology sensitive measurements for the ex vivo detection of cancer in margins during breast conservation surgery. Methods Ultrasonic tests were performed on resected margins and other tissues obtained from 17 patients, resulting in 34 specimens that were classified into 15 pathology categories. Pulse-echo and through-transmission measurements were acquired from a total of 57 sites on the specimens using two single-element 50-MHz transducers. Ultrasonic attenuation and sound speed were obtained from time-domain waveforms. The waveforms were further processed with fast Fourier transforms to provide ultrasonic spectra and cepstra. The ultrasonic measurements and pathology types were analyzed for correlations. The specimens were additionally re-classified into five pathology types to determine specificity and sensitivity values. Results The density of peaks in the ultrasonic spectra, a measure of spectral structure, showed significantly higher values for carcinomas and precancerous pathologies such as atypical ductal hyperplasia than for normal tissue. The slopes of the cepstra for non-malignant pathologies displayed significantly greater values that differentiated them from the normal and malignant tissues. The attenuation coefficients were sensitive to fat necrosis, fibroadenoma, and invasive lobular carcinoma. Specificities and sensitivities for differentiating pathologies from normal tissue were 100% and 86% for lobular carcinomas, 100% and 74% for ductal carcinomas, 80% and 82% for benign pathologies, and 80% and 100% for fat necrosis and adenomas. Specificities and sensitivities were also determined for differentiating each

  6. Unitary theories in the work of Mira Fernandes (beyond general relativity and differential geometry)

    CERN Document Server

    Lemos, José P S

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of the work of Mira Fernandes on unitary theories is presented. First it is briefly mentioned the Portuguese scientific context of the 1920s. A short analysis of the extension of Riemann geometries to new generalized geometries with new affine connections, such as those of Weyl and Cartan, is given. Based on these new geometries, the unitary theories of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields, proposed by Weyl, Eddington, Einstein, and others are then explained. Finally, the book and one paper on connections and two papers on unitary theories, all written by Mira Fernandes, are analyzed and put in context.

  7. [Reactualization of the concept of unitary psychosis introduced by Joseph Guislain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Renynghe de Voxvrie, G

    1993-01-01

    This paper reminds the concept of a unitary nosological and pathogenic process that may be traced back to Joseph Guislain (1797-1860). The "phrénalgie initiale" was regarded as the initial stage of psychic illness by Guislain (Leçons orales, Ghent, 1852). That vision inspired the work of Wilhelm Griesinger (1817-1869) who further elaborated the concept of "Einheitspsychose" (Psychose unique--Unitary psychosis). That concept partially inspired Emil Kräpelin (1856-1926). Current classification systems like ICD-10 and DSM-III-R attempt to synthesize different views and the concept of unitary psychosis is actualized in the contemporary transnosography.

  8. Participatory dreaming: a conceptual exploration from a unitary appreciative inquiry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repede, Elizabeth J

    2009-10-01

    Dreaming is a universal phenomenon in human experience and one that carries multiple meanings in the narrative discourse across disciplines. Dreams can be collective, communal, and emancipatory, as well as individual. While individual dreaming has been extensively studied in the literature, the participatory nature of dreaming as a unitary phenomenon is limited. The concept of participatory dreaming within a unitary appreciative framework for healing is explored from perspectives in anthropology, psychology, and nursing. A participatory model of dreaming is proposed from a synthesis of the literature for use in future research using unitary appreciative inquiry.

  9. Participatory dreaming: a unitary appreciative inquiry into healing with women abused as children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repede, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Unitary appreciative inquiry was used to explore healing in the lives of 11 women abused as children using a model of participatory dreaming. Aesthetics, imagery, and journaling were used in a participatory design aimed at the appreciation of healing in the lives of the participants as it related to the abuse. Using Cowling's theory of unitary healing, research and practice were combined within a unitary-transformative framework. Participatory dreaming was useful in illuminating the life patterning in the lives of the women and promoted the development of new knowledge and skills that led to change and transformation, both individually and collectively.

  10. On a consistent high-order finite difference scheme with kinetic energy conservation for simulating turbulent reacting flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisjono, Philipp; Kang, Seongwon; Pitsch, Heinz

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of this study is to present an accurate and consistent numerical framework for turbulent reacting flows based on a high-order finite difference (HOFD) scheme. It was shown previously by Desjardins et al. (2008) [4] that a centered finite difference scheme discretely conserving the kinetic energy and an upwind-biased scheme for the scalar transport can be combined into a useful scheme for turbulent reacting flows. With a high-order spatial accuracy, however, an inconsistency among discretization schemes for different conservation laws is identified, which can disturb a scalar field spuriously under non-uniform density distribution. Various theoretical and numerical analyses are performed on the sources of the unphysical error. From this, the derivative of the mass-conserving velocity and the local Péclet number are identified as the primary factors affecting the error. As a solution, an HOFD stencil for the mass conservation is reformulated into a flux-based form that can be used consistently with an upwind-biased scheme for the scalar transport. The effectiveness of the proposed formulation is verified using two-dimensional laminar flows such as a scalar transport problem and a laminar premixed flame, where unphysical oscillations in the scalar fields are removed. The applicability of the proposed scheme is demonstrated in an LES of a turbulent stratified premixed flame.

  11. Using the Eastern Hellbender Salamander in a High School Genetics & Ecological Conservation Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudyk, Sarah; McMillan, Amy; Lange, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This article contains an original 5E lesson plan developed from conservation genetics research on the giant North American hellbender salamander, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis. The lesson plan provides background information on the hellbender, reviews basic genetics, and exposes students to the scientific process that is used during…

  12. Geometrid moth assemblages reflect high conservation value of naturally regenerated secondary forests in temperate China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Warren-Thomas, Eleanor; Axmacher, Jan Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The widespread destruction of mature forests in China has led to massive ecological degradation, counteracted in recent decades by substantial efforts to promote forest plantations and protect secondary forest ecosystems. The value of the resulting forests for biodiversity conservation is widely

  13. Deformations of Polyhedra and Polygons by the Unitary Group

    CERN Document Server

    Livine, Etera R

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the set of framed convex polyhedra with N faces as the symplectic quotient C^2N//SU(2). A framed polyhedron is then parametrized by N spinors living in C^2 satisfying suitable closure constraints and defines a usual convex polyhedron plus a phase for each face. We show that there is an action of the unitary group U(N) on this phase space, which changes the shape of faces and allows to map any polyhedron onto any other with the same total area. This realizes the isomorphism of the space of framed polyhedra with the Grassmannian space U(N)/SU(2)*U(N-2). We show how to write averages and correlations of geometrical observables over the ensemble of polyhedra as polynomial integrals over U(N) and we use the Itzykson-Zuber formula from matrix models as the generating function for them. In the quantum case, a canonical quantization of the framed polyhedron phase space leads to the Hilbert space of SU(2) intertwiners. The individual face areas are quantized as half-integers (spins) and the Hilbert spaces...

  14. Unitary Networks from the Exact Renormalization of Wave Functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Fliss, Jackson R; Parrikar, Onkar

    2016-01-01

    The exact renormalization group (ERG) for $O(N)$ vector models (at large $N$) on flat Euclidean space can be interpreted as the bulk dynamics corresponding to a holographically dual higher spin gauge theory on $AdS_{d+1}$. This was established in the sense that at large $N$ the generating functional of correlation functions of single trace operators is reproduced by the on-shell action of the bulk higher spin theory, which is most simply presented in a first-order (phase space) formalism. In this paper, we extend the ERG formalism to the wave functionals of arbitrary states of the $O(N)$ vector model at the free fixed point. We find that the ERG flow of the ground state and a specific class of excited states is implemented by the action of unitary operators which can be chosen to be local. Consequently, the ERG equations provide a continuum notion of a tensor network. We compare this tensor network with the entanglement renormalization networks, MERA, and its continuum version, cMERA, which have appeared rece...

  15. Renormalization of the unitary evolution equation for coined quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Stefan; Li, Shanshan; Portugal, Renato

    2017-03-01

    We consider discrete-time evolution equations in which the stochastic operator of a classical random walk is replaced by a unitary operator. Such a problem has gained much attention as a framework for coined quantum walks that are essential for attaining the Grover limit for quantum search algorithms in physically realizable, low-dimensional geometries. In particular, we analyze the exact real-space renormalization group (RG) procedure recently introduced to study the scaling of quantum walks on fractal networks. While this procedure, when implemented numerically, was able to provide some deep insights into the relation between classical and quantum walks, its analytic basis has remained obscure. Our discussion here is laying the groundwork for a rigorous implementation of the RG for this important class of transport and algorithmic problems, although some instances remain unresolved. Specifically, we find that the RG fixed-point analysis of the classical walk, which typically focuses on the dominant Jacobian eigenvalue {λ1} , with walk dimension dw\\text{RW}={{log}2}{λ1} , needs to be extended to include the subdominant eigenvalue {λ2} , such that the dimension of the quantum walk obtains dw\\text{QW}={{log}2}\\sqrt{{λ1}{λ2}} . With that extension, we obtain analytically previously conjectured results for dw\\text{QW} of Grover walks on all but one of the fractal networks that have been considered.

  16. Unitary fermions and Lüscher's formula on a crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Manuel; Zinner, Nikolaj T.

    2016-11-01

    We consider the low-energy particle-particle scattering properties in a periodic simple cubic crystal. In particular, we investigate the relation between the two-body scattering length and the energy shift experienced by the lowest-lying unbound state when this is placed in a periodic finite box. We introduce a continuum model for s-wave contact interactions that respects the symmetry of the Brillouin zone in its regularisation and renormalisation procedures, and corresponds to the naïve continuum limit of the Hubbard model. The energy shifts are found to be identical to those obtained in the usual spherically symmetric renormalisation scheme upon resolving an important subtlety regarding the cutoff procedure. We then particularize to the Hubbard model, and find that for large finite lattices the results are identical to those obtained in the continuum limit. The results reported here are valid in the weak, intermediate and unitary limits. These may be used to significantly ease the extraction of scattering information, and therefore effective interactions in condensed matter systems in realistic periodic potentials. This can achieved via exact diagonalisation or Monte Carlo methods, without the need to solve challenging, genuine multichannel collisional problems with very restricted symmetry simplifications.

  17. Conditional Mutual Information of Bipartite Unitaries and Scrambling

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Dawei; Walter, Michael

    2016-01-01

    One way to diagnose chaos in bipartite unitary channels is via the negativity of the tripartite information of the corresponding Choi state, which for certain choices of the subsystems reduces to the negative conditional mutual information (CMI). We study this quantity from a quantum information-theoretic perspective to clarify its role in diagnosing scrambling. When the CMI is zero, we find that the channel has a special normal form consisting of local channels between individual inputs and outputs. However, we find that arbitrarily low CMI does not imply arbitrary proximity to a channel of this form, although it does imply a type of approximate recoverability of one of the inputs. When the CMI is maximal, we find that the residual channel from an individual input to an individual output is completely depolarizing when the other inputs are maximally mixed. However, we again find that this result is not robust. We also extend some of these results to the multipartite case and to the case of Haar-random pure i...

  18. On the infinite fern of Galois representations of unitary type

    CERN Document Server

    Chenevier, Gaetan

    2009-01-01

    Let E be a CM number field, F its maximal totally real subfield, c the generator of Gal(E/F), p an odd prime totally split in E, and S a finite set of places of E containing the places above p. Let r : G_{E,S} --> GL_3(F_p^bar) be a modular, absolutely irreducible, Galois representation of type U(3), i.e. such that r^* = r^c, and let X(r) be the rigid analytic generic fiber of its universal G_{E,S}-deformation of type U(3). We show that each irreducible component of the Zariski-closure of the modular points in X(r) has dimension at least 6[F:Q]. We study an analogue of the infinite fern of Gouvea-Mazur in this context and deal with the Hilbert modular case as well. As important steps, we prove that any first order deformation of a generic enough crystalline representation of Gal(Q_p^bar/Q_p) (of any dimension) is a linear combination of trianguline deformations, and that unitary eigenvarieties (of any rank) are etale over the weight space at the non-critical classical points. As another application, we obtain...

  19. Holographic Fluctuations from Unitary de Sitter Invariant Field Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, Tom; Torres, T J; Wainwright, Carroll L

    2013-01-01

    We continue the study of inflationary fluctuations in Holographic Space Time models of inflation. We argue that the holographic theory of inflation provides a physical context for what is often called dS/CFT. The holographic theory is a quantum theory which, in the limit of a large number of e-foldings, gives rise to a field theory on $S^3$, which is the representation space for a unitary representation of SO(1,4). This is not a conventional CFT, and we do not know the detailed non-perturbative axioms for correlation functions. However, the two- and three-point functions are completely determined by symmetry, and coincide up to a few constants (really functions of the background FRW geometry) with those calculated in a single field slow-roll inflation model. The only significant deviation from slow roll is in the tensor fluctuations. We predict zero tensor tilt and roughly equal weight for all three conformally invariant tensor 3-point functions (unless parity is imposed as a symmetry). We discuss the relatio...

  20. Spectral Characteristics of the Unitary Critical Almost-Mathieu Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillman, Jake; Ong, Darren C.; Zhang, Zhenghe

    2016-10-01

    We discuss spectral characteristics of a one-dimensional quantum walk whose coins are distributed quasi-periodically. The unitary update rule of this quantum walk shares many spectral characteristics with the critical Almost-Mathieu Operator; however, it possesses a feature not present in the Almost-Mathieu Operator, namely singularity of the associated cocycles (this feature is, however, present in the so-called Extended Harper's Model). We show that this operator has empty absolutely continuous spectrum and that the Lyapunov exponent vanishes on the spectrum; hence, this model exhibits Cantor spectrum of zero Lebesgue measure for all irrational frequencies and arbitrary phase, which in physics is known as Hofstadter's butterfly. In fact, we will show something stronger, namely, that all spectral parameters in the spectrum are of critical type, in the language of Avila's global theory of analytic quasiperiodic cocycles. We further prove that it has empty point spectrum for each irrational frequency and away from a frequency-dependent set of phases having Lebesgue measure zero. The key ingredients in our proofs are an adaptation of Avila's Global Theory to the present setting, self-duality via the Fourier transform, and a Johnson-type theorem for singular dynamically defined CMV matrices which characterizes their spectra as the set of spectral parameters at which the associated cocycles fail to admit a dominated splitting.

  1. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  2. Neutron matter at low density and the unitary limit

    CERN Document Server

    Baldo, M

    2007-01-01

    Neutron matter at low density is studied within the hole-line expansion. Calculations are performed in the range of Fermi momentum $k_F$ between 0.4 and 0.8 fm$^{-1}$. It is found that the Equation of State is determined by the $^1S_0$ channel only, the three-body forces contribution is quite small, the effect of the single particle potential is negligible and the three hole-line contribution is below 5% of the total energy and indeed vanishing small at the lowest densities. Despite the unitary limit is actually never reached, the total energy stays very close to one half of the free gas value throughout the considered density range. A rank one separable representation of the bare NN interaction, which reproduces the physical scattering length and effective range, gives results almost indistinguishable from the full Brueckner G-matrix calculations with a realistic force. The extension of the calculations below $k_F = 0.4$ fm$^{-1}$ does not indicate any pathological behavior of the neutron Equation of State.

  3. Implementability of two-qubit unitary operations over the butterfly network and the ladder network with free classical communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akibue, Seiseki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We investigate distributed implementation of two-qubit unitary operations over two primitive networks, the butterfly network and the ladder network, as a first step to apply network coding for quantum computation. By classifying two-qubit unitary operations in terms of the Kraus-Cirac number, the number of non-zero parameters describing the global part of two-qubit unitary operations, we analyze which class of two-qubit unitary operations is implementable over these networks with free classical communication. For the butterfly network, we show that two classes of two-qubit unitary operations, which contain all Clifford, controlled-unitary and matchgate operations, are implementable over the network. For the ladder network, we show that two-qubit unitary operations are implementable over the network if and only if their Kraus-Cirac number do not exceed the number of the bridges of the ladder.

  4. Conservation hotspots for the turtles on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Wen Huang

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution of bycaught sea turtles could inform conservation strategies and priorities. This research analyses the distribution of turtles caught as longline fisheries bycatch on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean. This research collected 18,142 bycatch observations and 47.1 million hooks from large-scale Taiwanese longline vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from June 2002 to December 2013. The coverage rates were ranged from 0.48% to 17.54% by year. Seven hundred and sixty-seven turtles were caught, and the major species were leatherback (59.8%, olive ridley (27.1% and loggerhead turtles (8.7%. Most olive ridley (81.7% and loggerhead (82.1% turtles were hooked, while the leatherbacks were both hooked (44.0% and entangled (31.8%. Depending on the species, 21.4% to 57.7% were dead when brought onboard. Most of the turtles were caught in tropical areas, especially in the Gulf of Guinea (15°N-10°S, 30°W-10°E, but loggerheads were caught in the south Atlantic Ocean (25°S-35°S, 40°W-10°E and 30°S-40°S, 55°W-45°W. The bycatch rate was the highest at 0.030 per 1000 hooks for leatherbacks in the tropical area. The bycatch rates of olive ridley ranged from 0 to 0.010 per thousand hooks. The loggerhead bycatch rates were higher in the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean and ranged from 0.0128 to 0.0239 per thousand hooks. Due to the characteristics of the Taiwanese deep-set longline fleet, bycatch rates were lower than those of coastal longline fisheries, but mortality rates were higher because of the long hours of operation. Gear and bait modification should be considered to reduce sea turtle bycatch and increase survival rates while reducing the use of shallow hooks would also be helpful.

  5. Conservation Hotspots for the Turtles on the High Seas of the Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of bycaught sea turtles could inform conservation strategies and priorities. This research analyses the distribution of turtles caught as longline fisheries bycatch on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean. This research collected 18,142 bycatch observations and 47.1 million hooks from large-scale Taiwanese longline vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from June 2002 to December 2013. The coverage rates were ranged from 0.48% to 17.54% by year. Seven hundred and sixty-seven turtles were caught, and the major species were leatherback (59.8%), olive ridley (27.1%) and loggerhead turtles (8.7%). Most olive ridley (81.7%) and loggerhead (82.1%) turtles were hooked, while the leatherbacks were both hooked (44.0%) and entangled (31.8%). Depending on the species, 21.4% to 57.7% were dead when brought onboard. Most of the turtles were caught in tropical areas, especially in the Gulf of Guinea (15°N-10°S, 30°W-10°E), but loggerheads were caught in the south Atlantic Ocean (25°S-35°S, 40°W-10°E and 30°S-40°S, 55°W-45°W). The bycatch rate was the highest at 0.030 per 1000 hooks for leatherbacks in the tropical area. The bycatch rates of olive ridley ranged from 0 to 0.010 per thousand hooks. The loggerhead bycatch rates were higher in the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean and ranged from 0.0128 to 0.0239 per thousand hooks. Due to the characteristics of the Taiwanese deep-set longline fleet, bycatch rates were lower than those of coastal longline fisheries, but mortality rates were higher because of the long hours of operation. Gear and bait modification should be considered to reduce sea turtle bycatch and increase survival rates while reducing the use of shallow hooks would also be helpful. PMID:26267796

  6. Conservation hotspots for the turtles on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the distribution of bycaught sea turtles could inform conservation strategies and priorities. This research analyses the distribution of turtles caught as longline fisheries bycatch on the high seas of the Atlantic Ocean. This research collected 18,142 bycatch observations and 47.1 million hooks from large-scale Taiwanese longline vessels in the Atlantic Ocean from June 2002 to December 2013. The coverage rates were ranged from 0.48% to 17.54% by year. Seven hundred and sixty-seven turtles were caught, and the major species were leatherback (59.8%), olive ridley (27.1%) and loggerhead turtles (8.7%). Most olive ridley (81.7%) and loggerhead (82.1%) turtles were hooked, while the leatherbacks were both hooked (44.0%) and entangled (31.8%). Depending on the species, 21.4% to 57.7% were dead when brought onboard. Most of the turtles were caught in tropical areas, especially in the Gulf of Guinea (15°N-10°S, 30°W-10°E), but loggerheads were caught in the south Atlantic Ocean (25°S-35°S, 40°W-10°E and 30°S-40°S, 55°W-45°W). The bycatch rate was the highest at 0.030 per 1000 hooks for leatherbacks in the tropical area. The bycatch rates of olive ridley ranged from 0 to 0.010 per thousand hooks. The loggerhead bycatch rates were higher in the northern and southern Atlantic Ocean and ranged from 0.0128 to 0.0239 per thousand hooks. Due to the characteristics of the Taiwanese deep-set longline fleet, bycatch rates were lower than those of coastal longline fisheries, but mortality rates were higher because of the long hours of operation. Gear and bait modification should be considered to reduce sea turtle bycatch and increase survival rates while reducing the use of shallow hooks would also be helpful.

  7. Inhibitory control and visuo-spatial reversibility in Piaget's seminal number conservation task: a high-density ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Grégoire; Simon, Grégory; Vidal, Julie; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The present high-density event-related potential (ERP) study on 13 adults aimed to determine whether number conservation relies on the ability to inhibit the overlearned length-equals-number strategy and then imagine the shortening of the row that was lengthened. Participants performed the number-conservation task and, after the EEG session, the mental imagery task. In the number-conservation task, first two rows with the same number of tokens and the same length were presented on a computer screen (COV condition) and then, the tokens in one of the two rows were spread apart (INT condition). Participants were instructed to determine whether the two rows had an identical number of tokens. In the mental imagery task, two rows with different lengths but the same number of tokens were presented and participants were instructed to imagine the tokens in the longer row aligning with the tokens in the shorter row. In the number-conservation task, we found that the amplitudes of the centro-parietal N2 and fronto-central P3 were higher in the INT than in the COV conditions. In addition, the differences in response times between the two conditions were correlated with the differences in the amplitudes of the fronto-central P3. In light of previous results reported on the number-conservation task in adults, the present results suggest that inhibition might be necessary to succeed the number-conservation task in adults even when the transformation of the length of one of the row is displayed. Finally, we also reported correlations between the speed at which participants could imagine the shortening of one of the row in the mental imagery task, the speed at which participants could determine that the two rows had the same number of tokens after the tokens in one of the row were spread apart and the latency of the late positive parietal component in the number-conservation task. Therefore, performing the number-conservation task might involve mental transformation processes in

  8. Applications of very high-resolution imagery in the study and conservation of large predators in the Southern Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Michelle A; Knight, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean is one of the most rapidly changing ecosystems on the planet due to the effects of climate change and commercial fishing for ecologically important krill and fish. Because sea ice loss is expected to be accompanied by declines in krill and fish predators, decoupling the effects of climate and anthropogenic changes on these predator populations is crucial for ecosystem-based management of the Southern Ocean. We reviewed research published from 2007 to 2014 that incorporated very high-resolution satellite imagery to assess distribution, abundance, and effects of climate and other anthropogenic changes on populations of predators in polar regions. Very high-resolution imagery has been used to study 7 species of polar animals in 13 papers, many of which provide methods through which further research can be conducted. Use of very high-resolution imagery in the Southern Ocean can provide a broader understanding of climate and anthropogenic forces on populations and inform management and conservation recommendations. We recommend that conservation biologists continue to integrate high-resolution remote sensing into broad-scale biodiversity and population studies in remote areas, where it can provide much needed detail. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Unitary background gauges and hamiltonian approach to Yang-Mills theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dubin, A Yu

    1995-01-01

    A variety of unitary gauges for perturbation theory in a background field is considered in order to find those most suitable for a Hamiltonian treatment of the system. We select two convenient gauges and derive the propagators D_{\\mu\

  10. Error correcting codes for binary unitary channels on multipartite quantum systems

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, M D; Kribs, D W; Zyczkowski, K; Choi, Man-Duen; Holbrook, John A.; Kribs, David W.; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2006-01-01

    We conduct an analysis of ideal error correcting codes for randomized unitary channels determined by two unitary error operators -- what we call ``binary unitary channels'' -- on multipartite quantum systems. In a wide variety of cases we give a complete description of the code structure for such channels. Specifically, we find a practical geometric technique to determine the existence of codes of arbitrary dimension, and then derive an explicit construction of codes of a given dimension when they exist. For instance, given any binary unitary noise model on an n-qubit system, we design codes that support n-2 qubits. We accomplish this by verifying a conjecture for higher rank numerical ranges of normal operators in many cases.

  11. Forcing a unitary transformation by an external field comparing two approaches based on optimal control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Palao, J P; Palao, Jose P.; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2002-01-01

    A quantum gate is realized by specific unitary transformations operating on states representing qubits. Considering a quantum system employed as an element in a quantum computing scheme, the task is therefore to enforce the pre-specified unitary transformation. This task is carried out by an external time dependent field. Optimal control theory has been suggested as a method to compute the external field which alters the evolution of the system such that it performs the desire unitary transformation. This study compares two recent implementations of optimal control theory to find the field that induces a quantum gate. The first approach is based on the equation of motion of the unitary transformation. The second approach generalizes the state to state formulation of optimal control theory. This work highlight the formal relation between the two approaches.

  12. Matrix Elements of One- and Two-Body Operators in the Unitary Group Approach (II) - Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Lian-Rong; PAN Feng

    2001-01-01

    Simple analytical expressions for one- and two-body matrix elements in the unitary group approach to the configuration interaction problems of many-electron systems are obtained based on the previous results for general Un irreps.

  13. General Formalism for Setting Up Unitary Transform Operators from Classical Transforms via IWOP Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; HU Shan

    2006-01-01

    We present a general formalism for setting up unitary transform operators from classical transforms via the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators, their normally ordered form can be obtained too.

  14. High-Quality 3d Models and Their Use in a Cultural Heritage Conservation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, G.; Bonora, V.; Conti, A.; Fiorini, L.

    2017-08-01

    Cultural heritage digitization and 3D modelling processes are mainly based on laser scanning and digital photogrammetry techniques to produce complete, detailed and photorealistic three-dimensional surveys: geometric as well as chromatic aspects, in turn testimony of materials, work techniques, state of preservation, etc., are documented using digitization processes. The paper explores the topic of 3D documentation for conservation purposes; it analyses how geomatics contributes in different steps of a restoration process and it presents an overview of different uses of 3D models for the conservation and enhancement of the cultural heritage. The paper reports on the project to digitize the earthenware frieze of the Ospedale del Ceppo in Pistoia (Italy) for 3D documentation, restoration work support, and digital and physical reconstruction and integration purposes. The intent to design an exhibition area suggests new ways to take advantage of 3D data originally acquired for documentation and scientific purposes.

  15. High Resolution Mapping of Soils and Landforms for the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher S.; Li, Shuang

    2014-01-01

    The Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP), a major component of California's renewable energy planning efforts, is intended to provide effective protection and conservation of desert ecosystems, while allowing for the sensible development of renewable energy projects. This NASA mapping report was developed to support the DRECP and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We outline in this document remote sensing image processing methods to deliver new maps of biological soils crusts, sand dune movements, desert pavements, and sub-surface water sources across the DRECP area. We focused data processing first on the largely unmapped areas most likely to be used for energy developments, such as those within Renewable Energy Study Areas (RESA) and Solar Energy Zones (SEZs). We used imagery (multispectral and radar) mainly from the years 2009-2011.

  16. Can a non-unitary effect be prominent In neutrino oscillation measurements?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Lei; WANG Wen-Yu; XIONG zhao-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Subject to neutrino experiments, the mixing matrix of ordinary neutrinos can still have small vi-olation from unitarity. We introduce a quasi-unitary matrix to interpret this violation and propose a natural scheme to parameterize it. A quasi-unitary factor △QF is defined to be measured in neutrino oscillation exper-iments and the numerical results show that the improvement in experimental precision may help us figure out the secret of neutrino mixing.

  17. Elementary proofs of two theorems involving arguments of eigenvalues of a product of two unitary matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau Hoi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We give elementary proofs of two theorems concerning bounds on the maximum argument of the eigenvalues of a product of two unitary matrices--one by Childs et al. [J. Mod. Phys. 47, 155 (2000] and the other one by Chau [Quant. Inf. Comp. 11, 721 (2011]. Our proofs have the advantages that the necessary and sufficient conditions for equalities are apparent and that they can be readily generalized to the case of infinite-dimensional unitary operators.

  18. Branching laws for small unitary representations of GL(n,C)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, Jan; Schwarz, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The unitary principal series representations of $G=GL(n,\\mathbb{C})$ induced from a character of the maximal parabolic subgroup $P=(GL(1,\\mathbb{C})\\times GL(n-1,\\mathbb{C}))\\ltimes\\mathbb{C}^{n-1}$ attain the minimal Gelfand--Kirillov dimension among all infinite-dimensional unitary representati...... representations of $G$. We find the explicit branching laws for the restriction of these representations to symmetric subgroups of $G$....

  19. Concentration of specific amino acids at the catalytic/active centers of highly-conserved "housekeeping" enzymes of central metabolism in archaea, bacteria and Eukaryota: is there a widely conserved chemical signal of prebiotic assembly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, J Dennis; Pan, Xueliang; Pearl, Dennis K

    2010-06-01

    In alignments of 1969 protein sequences the amino acid glycine and others were found concentrated at most-conserved sites within approximately 15 A of catalytic/active centers (C/AC) of highly conserved kinases, dehydrogenases or lyases of Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryota. Lysine and glutamic acid were concentrated at least-conserved sites furthest from their C/ACs. Logistic-regression analyses corroborated the "movement" of glycine towards and lysine away from their C/ACs: the odds of a glycine occupying a site were decreased by 19%, while the odds for a lysine were increased by 53%, for every 10 A moving away from the C/AC. Average conservation of MSA consensus sites was highest surrounding the C/AC and directly decreased in transition toward model's peripheries. Findings held with statistical confidence using sequences restricted to individual Domains or enzyme classes or to both. Our data describe variability in the rate of mutation and likelihoods for phylogenetic trees based on protein sequence data and endorse the extension of substitution models by incorporating data on conservation and distance to C/ACs rather than only using cumulative levels. The data support the view that in the most-conserved environment immediately surrounding the C/AC of taxonomically distant and highly conserved essential enzymes of central metabolism there are amino acids whose identity and degree of occupancy is similar to a proposed amino acid set and frequency associated with prebiotic evolution.

  20. A High-Accuracy Linear Conservative Difference Scheme for Rosenau-RLW Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the initial-boundary value problem for Rosenau-RLW equation. We propose a three-level linear finite difference scheme, which has the theoretical accuracy of Oτ2+h4. The scheme simulates two conservative properties of original problem well. The existence, uniqueness of difference solution, and a priori estimates in infinite norm are obtained. Furthermore, we analyze the convergence and stability of the scheme by energy method. At last, numerical experiments demonstrate the theoretical results.

  1. Forest edges have high conservation value for bird communities in mosaic landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraube, Julien; Archaux, Frédéric; Deconchat, Marc; van Halder, Inge; Jactel, Hervé; Barbaro, Luc

    2016-08-01

    A major conservation challenge in mosaic landscapes is to understand how trait-specific responses to habitat edges affect bird communities, including potential cascading effects on bird functions providing ecosystem services to forests, such as pest control. Here, we examined how bird species richness, abundance and community composition varied from interior forest habitats and their edges into adjacent open habitats, within a multi-regional sampling scheme. We further analyzed variations in Conservation Value Index (CVI), Community Specialization Index (CSI) and functional traits across the forest-edge-open habitat gradient. Bird species richness, total abundance and CVI were significantly higher at forest edges while CSI peaked at interior open habitats, i.e., furthest from forest edge. In addition, there were important variations in trait- and species-specific responses to forest edges among bird communities. Positive responses to forest edges were found for several forest bird species with unfavorable conservation status. These species were in general insectivores, understorey gleaners, cavity nesters and long-distance migrants, all traits that displayed higher abundance at forest edges than in forest interiors or adjacent open habitats. Furthermore, consistently with predictions, negative edge effects were recorded in some forest specialist birds and in most open-habitat birds, showing increasing densities from edges to interior habitats. We thus suggest that increasing landscape-scale habitat complexity would be beneficial to declining species living in mosaic landscapes combining small woodlands and open habitats. Edge effects between forests and adjacent open habitats may also favor bird functional guilds providing valuable ecosystem services to forests in longstanding fragmented landscapes.

  2. Crystal structure of AFV3-109, a highly conserved protein from crenarchaeal viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quevillon-Cheruel Sophie

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The extraordinary morphologies of viruses infecting hyperthermophilic archaea clearly distinguish them from bacterial and eukaryotic viruses. Moreover, their genomes code for proteins that to a large extend have no related sequences in the extent databases. However, a small pool of genes is shared by overlapping subsets of these viruses, and the most conserved gene, exemplified by the ORF109 of the Acidianus Filamentous Virus 3, AFV3, is present on genomes of members of three viral familes, the Lipothrixviridae, Rudiviridae, and "Bicaudaviridae", as well as of the unclassified Sulfolobus Turreted Icosahedral Virus, STIV. We present here the crystal structure of the protein (Mr = 13.1 kD, 109 residues encoded by the AFV3 ORF 109 in two different crystal forms at 1.5 and 1.3 Å resolution. The structure of AFV3-109 is a five stranded β-sheet with loops on one side and three helices on the other. It forms a dimer adopting the shape of a cradle that encompasses the best conserved regions of the sequence. No protein with a related fold could be identified except for the ortholog from STIV1, whose structure was deposited at the Protein Data Bank. We could clearly identify a well bound glycerol inside the cradle, contacting exclusively totally conserved residues. This interaction was confirmed in solution by fluorescence titration. Although the function of AFV3-109 cannot be deduced directly from its structure, structural homology with the STIV1 protein, and the size and charge distribution of the cavity suggested it could interact with nucleic acids. Fluorescence quenching titrations also showed that AFV3-109 interacts with dsDNA. Genomic sequence analysis revealed bacterial homologs of AFV3-109 as a part of a putative previously unidentified prophage sequences in some Firmicutes.

  3. High qualitative and quantitative conservation of alternative splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rukov, Jakob Lewin; Irimia, Manuel; Mørk, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an important contributor to proteome diversity and is regarded as an explanatory factor for the relatively low number of human genes compared with less complex animals. To assess the evolutionary conservation of AS and its developmental regulation, we have investigated...... that the quantitative regulation of isoform expression levels is an intrinsic part of most AS events. Moreover, our results indicate that AS contributes little to transcript variation in Caenorhabditis genes and that gene duplication may be the major evolutionary mechanism for the origin of novel transcripts in these 2...

  4. Calcified plaque resorptive status as determined by high-resolution ultrasound is predictive of successful conservative management of calcific tendinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Hung; Chao, Hai-Lun; Chiou, Hong-Jen

    2012-08-01

    In patients with calcific tendinosis, the morphology of calcified plaques is associated with response to conservative management. We aimed to determine changes in pain and morphology of plaques in patients with calcific tendinosis and non-arc-shaped plaques identified by high-resolution ultrasonography who received only conservative treatment. A total of 33 patients with a mean age of 63.3±10.3 years were included. Pain scores at the time of first and follow-up ultrasound were recorded, and the degree of plaque resolution was calculated. At follow-up, 90.9% (30 of 33) of patients reported improvement in pain, and 84.8% (28 of 33) patient had more than 50% elimination of plaques. Most of increased vascularity observed in color Doppler ultrasonography during 1st visit disappeared at follow-up. In patients with calcific tendinosis, non-arc-shaped plaques determined by high-resolution ultrasonography are likely to resolve and conservative management is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Calcified plaque resorptive status as determined by high-resolution ultrasound is predictive of successful conservative management of calcific tendinosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chien-Hung [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Yung Kang City, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Health Care Administration, Chung-Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chao, Hai-Lun [Department of Health Care Administration, Chung-Hwa University of Medical Technology, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hong-Jen, E-mail: hjchiou@vghtpe.gov.tw [Department of Radiology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang Ming University, School of Medicine, and National Defense Medical Center, No. 201, Sec. 2, Shih-Pai Rd., Taipei 11217, Taiwan (China)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: In patients with calcific tendinosis, the morphology of calcified plaques is associated with response to conservative management. We aimed to determine changes in pain and morphology of plaques in patients with calcific tendinosis and non-arc-shaped plaques identified by high-resolution ultrasonography who received only conservative treatment. Methods: A total of 33 patients with a mean age of 63.3 {+-} 10.3 years were included. Pain scores at the time of first and follow-up ultrasound were recorded, and the degree of plaque resolution was calculated. Results: At follow-up, 90.9% (30 of 33) of patients reported improvement in pain, and 84.8% (28 of 33) patient had more than 50% elimination of plaques. Most of increased vascularity observed in color Doppler ultrasonography during 1st visit disappeared at follow-up. Conclusions: In patients with calcific tendinosis, non-arc-shaped plaques determined by high-resolution ultrasonography are likely to resolve and conservative management is warranted.

  6. Comparative analyses of six solanaceous transcriptomes reveal a high degree of sequence conservation and species-specific transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouyang Shu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Solanaceae is a family of closely related species with diverse phenotypes that have been exploited for agronomic purposes. Previous studies involving a small number of genes suggested sequence conservation across the Solanaceae. The availability of large collections of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs for the Solanaceae now provides the opportunity to assess sequence conservation and divergence on a genomic scale. Results All available ESTs and Expressed Transcripts (ETs, 449,224 sequences for six Solanaceae species (potato, tomato, pepper, petunia, tobacco and Nicotiana benthamiana, were clustered and assembled into gene indices. Examination of gene ontologies revealed that the transcripts within the gene indices encode a similar suite of biological processes. Although the ESTs and ETs were derived from a variety of tissues, 55–81% of the sequences had significant similarity at the nucleotide level with sequences among the six species. Putative orthologs could be identified for 28–58% of the sequences. This high degree of sequence conservation was supported by expression profiling using heterologous hybridizations to potato cDNA arrays that showed similar expression patterns in mature leaves for all six solanaceous species. 16–19% of the transcripts within the six Solanaceae gene indices did not have matches among Solanaceae, Arabidopsis, rice or 21 other plant gene indices. Conclusion Results from this genome scale analysis confirmed a high level of sequence conservation at the nucleotide level of the coding sequence among Solanaceae. Additionally, the results indicated that part of the Solanaceae transcriptome is likely to be unique for each species.

  7. Analysis of Dynamic Data from Supersonic Retropropulsion Experiments in NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codoni, Joshua R.; Berry, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experimental supersonic retropropulsion tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel Test Section 2 for a range of Mach numbers from 2.4 to 4.6. A 5-inch 70-degree sphere-cone forebody model with a 10-inch cylindrical aftbody experimental model was used which is capable of multiple retrorocket configurations. These configurations include a single central nozzle on the center point of the forebody, three nozzles at the forebody half-radius, and a combination of the first two configurations with no jets being plugged. A series of measurements were achieved through various instrumentation including forebody and aftbody pressure, internal pressures and temperatures, and high speed Schlieren visualization. Specifically, several high speed pressure transducers on the forebody and in the plenum were implemented to look at unsteady flow effects. The following work focuses on analyzing frequency traits due to the unsteady flow for a range of thrust coefficients for single, tri, and quad-nozzle test cases at freestream Mach 4.6 and angle of attack ranging from -8 degrees to +20 degrees. This analysis uses Matlab s fast Fourier transform, Welch's method (modified average of a periodogram), to create a power spectral density and analyze any high speed pressure transducer frequency traits due to the unsteady flow.

  8. Dynamics and Conservation Management of a Wooded Landscape under High Herbivore Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Newton

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the use of a spatially explicit model of woodland dynamics (LANDIS-II to examine the impacts of herbivory in the New Forest National Park, UK, in relation to its management for biodiversity conservation. The model was parameterized using spatial data and the results of two field surveys and then was tested with results from a third survey. Field survey results indicated that regeneration by tree species was found to be widespread but to occur at low density, despite heavy browsing pressure. The model was found to accurately predict the abundance and richness of tree species. Over the duration of the simulations (300 yr, woodland area increased in all scenarios, with or without herbivory. While the increase in woodland area was most pronounced under a scenario of no herbivory, values increased by more than 70% even in the presence of heavy browsing pressure. Model projections provided little evidence for the conversion of woodland areas to either grassland or heathland; changes in woodland structure and composition were consistent with traditional successional theory. These results highlight the need for multiple types of intervention when managing successional landscape mosaics and demonstrate the value of landscape-scale modelling for evaluating the role of herbivory in conservation management.

  9. Proteomic Analysis of Pathogenic Fungi Reveals Highly Expressed Conserved Cell Wall Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Champer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a quantitative proteomics tally of the most commonly expressed conserved fungal proteins of the cytosol, the cell wall, and the secretome. It was our goal to identify fungi-typical proteins that do not share significant homology with human proteins. Such fungal proteins are of interest to the development of vaccines or drug targets. Protein samples were derived from 13 fungal species, cultured in rich or in minimal media; these included clinical isolates of Aspergillus, Candida, Mucor, Cryptococcus, and Coccidioides species. Proteomes were analyzed by quantitative MSE (Mass Spectrometry—Elevated Collision Energy. Several thousand proteins were identified and quantified in total across all fractions and culture conditions. The 42 most abundant proteins identified in fungal cell walls or supernatants shared no to very little homology with human proteins. In contrast, all but five of the 50 most abundant cytosolic proteins had human homologs with sequence identity averaging 59%. Proteomic comparisons of the secreted or surface localized fungal proteins highlighted conserved homologs of the Aspergillus fumigatus proteins 1,3-β-glucanosyltransferases (Bgt1, Gel1-4, Crf1, Ecm33, EglC, and others. The fact that Crf1 and Gel1 were previously shown to be promising vaccine candidates, underlines the value of the proteomics data presented here.

  10. Impacts of Tropical Forest Disturbance Upon Avifauna on a Small Island with High Endemism: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests are rapidly being lost across Southeast Asia and this is predicted to have severe implications for many of the region′s bird species. However, relationships between forest disturbance and avifaunal assemblages remain poorly understood, particularly on small island ecosystems such as those found in the biodiversity ′hotspot′ of Wallacea. This study examines how avifaunal richness varies across a disturbance gradient in a forest reserve on Buton Island, southeast Sulawesi. Particular emphasis is placed upon examining responses in endemic and red-listed species with high conservation importance. Results indicate that overall avian richness increases between primary and 30-year-old regenerating secondary forest and then decreases through disturbed secondary forest, but is highest in cleared farmland. However, high species richness in farmland does not signify high species distinctiveness; bird community composition here differs significantly from that found in forest sites, and is poor in supporting forest specialists and endemic species. Certain large-bodied endemics such as the Knobbed Hornbill (Rhyticeros cassidix appear to be sensitive to moderate disturbance, with populations occurring at greatest density within primary forest. However, overall endemic species richness, as well as that of endemic frugivores and insectivores, is similar in primary and secondary forest types. Results indicate that well-established secondary forest in particular has an important role in supporting species with high conservational importance, possessing community composition similar to that found in primary forest and supporting an equally high richness of endemic species.

  11. Identification and characterization of novel and conserved microRNAs in radish (Raphanus sativus L.) using high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Yan; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Liangju; Zhai, Lulu; Zhu, Xianwen; Gong, Yiqin; Ye, Shan; Liu, Liwang

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding, small RNAs that play significant regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and biotic and abiotic stress responses. To date, a great number of conserved and species-specific miRNAs have been identified in many important plant species such as Arabidopsis, rice and poplar. However, little is known about identification of miRNAs and their target genes in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). In the present study, a small RNA library from radish root was constructed and sequenced using the high-throughput Solexa sequencing. Through sequence alignment and secondary structure prediction, a total of 545 conserved miRNA families as well as 15 novel (with their miRNA* strand) and 64 potentially novel miRNAs were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis confirmed that both conserved and novel miRNAs were expressed in radish, and some of them were preferentially expressed in certain tissues. A total of 196 potential target genes were predicted for 42 novel radish miRNAs. Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that most of the targets were involved in plant growth, development, metabolism and stress responses. This study represents a first large-scale identification and characterization of radish miRNAs and their potential target genes. These results could lead to the further identification of radish miRNAs and enhance our understanding of radish miRNA regulatory mechanisms in diverse biological and metabolic processes.

  12. Universal antibodies against the highly conserved influenza fusion peptide cross-neutralize several subtypes of influenza A virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, Anwar M. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Van Domselaar, Gary [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Li, Changgui; Wang, Junzhi [National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing (China); She, Yi-Min; Cyr, Terry D. [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Sui, Jianhua [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); He, Runtao [National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Marasco, Wayne A. [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, 44 Binney Street, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Li, Xuguang, E-mail: Sean.Li@hc-sc.gc.ca [Centre for Vaccine Evaluation, Biologics and Genetic Therapies Directorate, HPFB, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-12-10

    Research highlights: {yields} The fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza viral hemagglutinins. {yields} Anti-fusion peptide antibodies are universal antibodies that cross-react with all influenza HA subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies cross-neutralize different influenza A subtypes. {yields} The universal antibodies inhibit the fusion process between the viruses and the target cells. -- Abstract: The fusion peptide of influenza viral hemagglutinin plays a critical role in virus entry by facilitating membrane fusion between the virus and target cells. As the fusion peptide is the only universally conserved epitope in all influenza A and B viruses, it could be an attractive target for vaccine-induced immune responses. We previously reported that antibodies targeting the first 14 amino acids of the N-terminus of the fusion peptide could bind to virtually all influenza virus strains and quantify hemagglutinins in vaccines produced in embryonated eggs. Here we demonstrate that these universal antibodies bind to the viral hemagglutinins in native conformation presented in infected mammalian cell cultures and neutralize multiple subtypes of virus by inhibiting the pH-dependant fusion of viral and cellular membranes. These results suggest that this unique, highly-conserved linear sequence in viral hemagglutinin is exposed sufficiently to be attacked by the antibodies during the course of infection and merits further investigation because of potential importance in the protection against diverse strains of influenza viruses.

  13. Fluctuations of Conserved Quantities in High Energy Nuclear Collisions at RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuations of conserved quantities in heavy-ion collisions are used to probe the phase transition and the QCD critical point for the strongly interacting hot and dense nuclear matter. The STAR experiment has carried out moment analysis of net-proton (proxy for net-baryon (B)), net-kaon (proxy for net-strangeness (S)), and net-charge (Q). These measurements are important for understanding the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram. We present the analysis techniques used in the moment analysis by the STAR experiment and discuss the moments of net-proton and net-charge distributions from the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  14. A highly conserved novel family of mammalian developmental transcription factors related to Drosophila grainyhead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilanowski, Tomasz; Tuckfield, Annabel; Cerruti, Loretta; O'Connell, Sinead; Saint, Robert; Parekh, Vishwas; Tao, Jianning; Cunningham, John M; Jane, Stephen M

    2002-06-01

    The Drosophila transcription factor Grainyhead regulates several key developmental processes. Three mammalian genes, CP2, LBP-1a and LBP-9 have been previously identified as homologues of grainyhead. We now report the cloning of two new mammalian genes (Mammalian grainyhead (MGR) and Brother-of-MGR (BOM)) and one new Drosophila gene (dCP2) that rewrite the phylogeny of this family. We demonstrate that MGR and BOM are more closely related to grh, whereas CP2, LBP-1a and LBP-9 are descendants of the dCP2 gene. MGR shares the greatest sequence homology with grh, is expressed in tissue-restricted patterns more comparable to grh and binds to and transactivates the promoter of the human Engrailed-1 gene, the mammalian homologue of the key grainyhead target gene, engrailed. This sequence and functional conservation indicates that the new mammalian members of this family play important developmental roles.

  15. Fluctuations of Conserved Quantities in High Energy Nuclear Collisions at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaofeng

    2015-04-01

    Fluctuations of conserved quantities in heavy-ion collisions are used to probe the phase transition and the QCD critical point for the strongly interacting hot and dense nuclear matter. The STAR experiment has carried out moment analysis of net-proton (proxy for net- baryon (B)), net-kaon (proxy for net-strangeness (S)), and net-charge (Q). These measurements are important for understanding the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram. We present the analysis techniques used in the moment analysis by the STAR experiment and discuss the moments of net-proton and net-charge distributions from the first phase of the Beam Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.

  16. Unitary construct of generalized cognitive ability underlying BACS performance across psychotic disorders and in their first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberger, W C; Hill, S K; Nelson, C L M; Reilly, J L; Keefe, R S E; Pearlson, G D; Keshavan, M S; Tamminga, C A; Clementz, B A; Sweeney, J A

    2016-01-01

    Despite robust evidence of neurocognitive dysfunction in psychotic patients, the degree of similarity in cognitive architecture across psychotic disorders and among their respective first-degree relatives is not well delineated. The present study examined the latent factor structure of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) neuropsychological battery. Analyses were conducted on 783 psychosis spectrum probands (schizophrenia, schizoaffective, psychotic bipolar), 887 of their first-degree relatives, and 396 non-psychiatric controls from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP) consortium. Exploratory factor analysis of BACS subtest scores indicated a single-factor solution that was similar across all groups and provided the best overall data fit in confirmatory analyses. Correlations between the standard BACS composite score and the sum of subscale scores weighted by their loadings on this unitary factor were very high in all groups (r≥.99). Thus, the BACS assesses a similar unitary cognitive construct in probands with different psychotic disorders, in their first-degree relatives, and in healthy controls, and this factor is well measured by the test's standard composite score.

  17. An adjoint method for a high-order discretization of deforming domain conservation laws for optimization of flow problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahr, M. J.; Persson, P.-O.

    2016-12-01

    The fully discrete adjoint equations and the corresponding adjoint method are derived for a globally high-order accurate discretization of conservation laws on parametrized, deforming domains. The conservation law on the deforming domain is transformed into one on a fixed reference domain by the introduction of a time-dependent mapping that encapsulates the domain deformation and parametrization, resulting in an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian form of the governing equations. A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method is used to discretize the transformed equation in space and a high-order diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta scheme is used for the temporal discretization. Quantities of interest that take the form of space-time integrals are discretized in a solver-consistent manner. The corresponding fully discrete adjoint method is used to compute exact gradients of quantities of interest along the manifold of solutions of the fully discrete conservation law. These quantities of interest and their gradients are used in the context of gradient-based PDE-constrained optimization. The adjoint method is used to solve two optimal shape and control problems governed by the isentropic, compressible Navier-Stokes equations. The first optimization problem seeks the energetically optimal trajectory of a 2D airfoil given a required initial and final spatial position. The optimization solver, driven by gradients computed via the adjoint method, reduced the total energy required to complete the specified mission nearly an order of magnitude. The second optimization problem seeks the energetically optimal flapping motion and time-morphed geometry of a 2D airfoil given an equality constraint on the x-directed impulse generated on the airfoil. The optimization solver satisfied the impulse constraint to greater than 8 digits of accuracy and reduced the required energy between a factor of 2 and 10, depending on the value of the impulse constraint, as compared to the nominal configuration.

  18. Secure two-party quantum evaluation of unitaries against specious adversaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuis, Frédéric; Salvail, Louis

    2010-01-01

    We describe how any two-party quantum computation, specified by a unitary which simultaneously acts on the registers of both parties, can be privately implemented against a quantum version of classical semi-honest adversaries that we call specious. Our construction requires two ideal functionalities to garantee privacy: a private SWAP between registers held by the two parties and a classical private AND-box equivalent to oblivious transfer. If the unitary to be evaluated is in the Clifford group then only one call to SWAP is required for privacy. On the other hand, any unitary not in the Clifford requires one call to an AND-box per R-gate in the circuit. Since SWAP is itself in the Clifford group, this functionality is universal for the private evaluation of any unitary in that group. SWAP can be built from a classical bit commitment scheme or an AND-box but an AND-box cannot be constructed from SWAP. It follows that unitaries in the Clifford group are to some extent the easy ones. We also show that SWAP cann...

  19. Average gene length is highly conserved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes and diverges only between the two kingdoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Chen, Hong; Hu, Xiaohua; Zhang, Rongmei; Zhang, Ze; Luo, Z W

    2006-06-01

    The average length of genes in a eukaryote is larger than in a prokaryote, implying that evolution of complexity is related to change of gene lengths. Here, we show that although the average lengths of genes in prokaryotes and eukaryotes are much different, the average lengths of genes are highly conserved within either of the two kingdoms. This suggests that natural selection has clearly set a strong limitation on gene elongation within the kingdom. Furthermore, the average gene size adds another distinct characteristic for the discrimination between the two kingdoms of organisms.

  20. On optimal control problem for conservation law modelling one class of highly re-entrant production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Apice, Ciro; Kogut, Peter I.

    2017-07-01

    We discuss the optimal control problem stated as the minimization in the L2-sense of the mismatch between the actual out-flux and a demand forecast for a hyperbolic conservation law that models a highly re-entrant production system. The output of the factory is described as a function of the work in progress and the position of the so-called push-pull point (PPP) where we separate the beginning of the factory employing a push policy from the end of the factory, which uses a pull policy.

  1. Matrix elements and duality for type 2 unitary representations of the Lie superalgebra gl(m|n)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werry, Jason L.; Gould, Mark D.; Isaac, Phillip S. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    The characteristic identity formalism discussed in our recent articles is further utilized to derive matrix elements of type 2 unitary irreducible gl(m|n) modules. In particular, we give matrix element formulae for all gl(m|n) generators, including the non-elementary generators, together with their phases on finite dimensional type 2 unitary irreducible representations which include the contravariant tensor representations and an additional class of essentially typical representations. Remarkably, we find that the type 2 unitary matrix element equations coincide with the type 1 unitary matrix element equations for non-vanishing matrix elements up to a phase.

  2. Anatomy of the Higgs Boson Decay into Two Photons in the Unitary Gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Dedes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review and clarify computational issues about the W -gauge boson one-loop contribution to the H → γ γ decay amplitude, in the unitary gauge and in the Standard Model. We find that highly divergent integrals depend upon the choice of shifting momenta with arbitrary vectors. One particular combination of these arbitrary vectors reduces the superficial divergency down to a logarithmic one. The remaining ambiguity is then fixed by exploiting gauge invariance and the Goldstone Boson Equivalence Theorem. Our method is strictly realised in four dimensions. The result for the amplitude agrees with the “famous” one obtained using dimensional regularisation (DR in the limit d → 4 , where d is the number of spatial dimensions in Euclidean space. At the exact equality d = 4 , a three-sphere surface term appears that renders the Ward Identities and the equivalence theorem inconsistent. We also examined a recently proposed four-dimensional regularisation scheme and found agreement with the DR outcome.

  3. Space Launch System Booster Separation Aerodynamic Testing in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Pinier, Jeremy T.; Chan, David T.; Crosby, William A.

    2016-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of a 0.009 scale model of the Space Launch System (SLS) was conducted in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel to characterize the aerodynamics of the core and solid rocket boosters (SRBs) during booster separation. High-pressure air was used to simulate plumes from the booster separation motors (BSMs) located on the nose and aft skirt of the SRBs. Force and moment data were acquired on the core and SRBs. These data were used to corroborate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations that were used in developing a booster separation database. The SRBs could be remotely positioned in the x-, y-, and z-direction relative to the core. Data were acquired continuously while the SRBs were moved in the axial direction. The primary parameters varied during the test were: core pitch angle; SRB pitch and yaw angles; SRB nose x-, y-, and z-position relative to the core; and BSM plenum pressure. The test was conducted at a free-stream Mach number of 4.25 and a unit Reynolds number of 1.5 million per foot.

  4. Recent Advancements in the Infrared Flow Visualization System for the NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbeff, Theodore J., II; Baerny, Jennifer K.

    2017-01-01

    The following details recent efforts undertaken at the NASA Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnels to design and deploy an advanced, production-level infrared (IR) flow visualization data system. Highly sensitive IR cameras, coupled with in-line image processing, have enabled the visualization of wind tunnel model surface flow features as they develop in real-time. Boundary layer transition, shock impingement, junction flow, vortex dynamics, and buffet are routinely observed in both transonic and supersonic flow regimes all without the need of dedicated ramps in test section total temperature. Successful measurements have been performed on wing-body sting mounted test articles, semi-span floor mounted aircraft models, and sting mounted launch vehicle configurations. The unique requirements of imaging in production wind tunnel testing has led to advancements in the deployment of advanced IR cameras in a harsh test environment, robust data acquisition storage and workflow, real-time image processing algorithms, and evaluation of optimal surface treatments. The addition of a multi-camera IR flow visualization data system to the Ames UPWT has demonstrated itself to be a valuable analyses tool in the study of new and old aircraft/launch vehicle aerodynamics and has provided new insight for the evaluation of computational techniques.

  5. The unitary Fermi gas at finite temperature: momentum distribution and contact

    CERN Document Server

    Drut, Joaquín E; Ten, Timour

    2011-01-01

    The Unitary Fermi Gas (UFG) is one of the most strongly interacting systems known to date, as it saturates the unitarity bound on the quantum mechanical scattering cross section. The UFG corresponds to a two-component Fermi gas in the limit of short interaction range and large scattering length, and is currently realized in ultracold-atom experiments via Feshbach resonances. While easy to define, the UFG poses a challenging quantum many-body problem, as it lacks any characteristic scale other than the density. As a consequence, accurate quantitative predictions of the thermodynamic properties of the UFG require Monte Carlo calculations. However, significant progress has also been made with purely analytical methods. Notably, in 2005 Tan derived a set of exact thermodynamic relations in which a universal quantity known as the "contact" C plays a crucial role. Recently, C has also been found to determine the prefactor of the high- frequency power-law decay of correlators as well as the right-hand-sides of shear...

  6. Structural and quantum properties of van der Waals cluster near the unitary regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekala, M. L.; Chakrabarti, B.; Haldar, S. K.; Roy, R.; Rampho, G. J.

    2017-07-01

    We study the structural and several quantum properties of three-dimensional bosonic cluster interacting through van der Waals potential at large scattering length. We use Faddeev-type decomposition of the many-body wave function which includes all possible two-body correlations. At large scattering length, we observe spatially extended states which exhibit the exponential dependence on the state number. The cluster ground state energy shows universal nature at large negative scattering length. We also find the existence of generalized Tjon lines for N-body clusters. Signature of universal behaviour of weakly bound clusters can be observed in experiments of ultracold Bose gases. We also study the spectral statistics of the system. We calculate both the short-range fluctuation and long-range correlation and observe semi-Poisson distribution which interpolates the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE) and Poisson statistics of random matrix theory. It indicates that the van der Waal cluster near the unitary becomes highly complex and correlated. However additional study of P (r) distribution (without unfolding of energy spectrum) reveals the possibility of chaos for larger cluster.

  7. Anatomy of the Higgs boson decay into two photons in the unitary gauge

    CERN Document Server

    Dedes, Athanasios

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we review and clarify computational issues about the W-gauge boson one-loop contribution to the H -> gamma gamma decay amplitude, in the unitary gauge and in the Standard Model. We find that highly divergent integrals depend upon the choice of shifting momenta with arbitrary vectors. One particular combination of these arbitrary vectors reduces the superficial divergency down to a logarithmic one. The remaining ambiguity is then fixed by exploiting gauge invariance and the Goldstone Boson Equivalence Theorem. Our method is strictly realised in four-dimensions. The result for the amplitude agrees with the "famous" one obtained using dimensional regularisation (DR) in the limit d-> 4, where d is the number of spatial dimensions in Euclidean space. At the exact equality d=4, a three-sphere surface term appears that renders the Ward Identities and the equivalence theorem inconsistent. We also examined a recently proposed four-dimensional regularisation scheme and found agreement with the DR outcome.

  8. Hearing sensitivity in context: Conservation implications for a highly vocal endangered species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. Owen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hearing sensitivity is a fundamental determinant of a species’ vulnerability to anthropogenic noise, however little is known about the hearing capacities of most conservation dependent species. When audiometric data are integrated with other aspects of species’ acoustic ecology, life history, and characteristic habitat topography and soundscape, predictions can be made regarding probable vulnerability to the negative impacts of different types of anthropogenic noise. Here we used an adaptive psychoacoustic technique to measure hearing thresholds in the endangered giant panda; a species that uses acoustic communication to coordinate reproduction. Our results suggest that giant pandas have functional hearing into the ultrasonic range, with good sensitivity between 10.0 and 16.0 kHz, and best sensitivity measured at 12.5–14.0 kHz. We estimated the lower and upper limits of functional hearing as 0.10 and 70.0 kHz respectively. While these results suggest that panda hearing is similar to that of some other terrestrial carnivores, panda hearing thresholds above 14.0 kHz were significantly lower (i.e., more sensitive than those of the polar bear, the only other bear species for which data are available. We discuss the implications of this divergence, as well as the relationship between hearing sensitivity and the spectral parameters of panda vocalizations. We suggest that these data, placed in context, can be used towards the development of a sensory-based model of noise disturbance for the species.

  9. On conservative models of "the pair-production anomaly" in blazar spectra at Very High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dzhatdoev, T A

    2015-01-01

    For some blazars, the gamma-ray absorption features due to pair-production on the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL) are fainter than expected. The present work reviews the main models that could explain this paradox, with emphasis on conservative ones, that do not include any new physics. The models that are intrinsic to the source, do allow a very hard primary spectrum, but fail to explain a regular redshift dependence of the anomaly starting energy. The model that includes a contribution from secondary photons produced by cosmic rays (CR) near the Earth seems to require a well collimated CR beam, what is hard to achieve. Finally, the model with secondary photons produced in electromagnetic (EM) cascades initiated by primary gamma-rays is considered. In principle, it allows to decrease the statistical significance of the anomaly and, while requiring quite low EGMF strength B, does not contradict to most contemporary constraints on the B value. Additionally, it is shown that the recently observed correlati...

  10. A note on local unitary equivalence of isotropic-like states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Gui; Hua, Bo-Bo; Li, Ming; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Yang, Hong

    2015-12-01

    We consider the local unitary equivalence of a class of quantum states in a bipartite case and a multipartite case. The necessary and sufficient condition is presented. As special cases, the local unitary equivalent classes of isotropic state and Werner state are provided. Then we study the local unitary similar equivalence of this class of quantum states and analyze the necessary and sufficient condition. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11401032, 61473325, 11501153, 11105226, 11275131, and 11401106), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. 15CX08011A and 24720122013), the Natural Science Foundation of Hainan Province, China (Grant Nos. 20151005 and 20151010), and the Scientific Research Foundation for the Returned Overseas Chinese Scholars, State Education Ministry.

  11. Sequence and expression pattern of pax-6 are highly conserved between zebrafish and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püschel, A W; Gruss, P; Westerfield, M

    1992-03-01

    Despite obvious differences in the patterns of early embryonic development, vertebrates share a number of developmental mechanisms and control genes, suggesting that they use similar genetic programs at some stages of development. To examine this idea, we isolated and characterized one such gene, pax-6, a member of the pax gene family, from the zebrafish Brachydanio rerio and determined the evolutionary conservation in the structure and expression of this gene by comparison to its homolog in mice. We found two alternatively spliced forms of the zebrafish pax-6 message. Sequence and expression pattern of the zebrafish pax-6 gene are remarkably similar to its murine homolog. pax-6 expression begins during early neurulation. A stripe of cells in the neuroectoderm, including the prospective diencephalon and a part of the telencephalon, expresses pax-6 as well as the hindbrain and the ventral spinal cord extending from the level of the first rhombomere to the posterior end of the CNS. During later development more limited regions of the brain including the eye, the olfactory bulb and the pituitary gland express pax-6. Cells at the midbrain-hindbrain junction express eng genes and are separated from the neighboring pax-6 regions by several cells that express neither gene, indicating a complex subdivision of this region. pax-6 expression appears during processes when cell-to-cell signalling is thought to be important, for example during induction of the eye and regionalization of the spinal cord and brain, suggesting that it may be one component mediating the response to inductive interactions.

  12. Mechanisms regulating GLUT4 transcription in skeletal muscle cells are highly conserved across vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Juez, Rubén; Diaz, Mónica; Morata, Jordi; Planas, Josep V

    2013-01-01

    The glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) plays a key role in glucose uptake in insulin target tissues. This transporter has been extensively studied in many species in terms of its function, expression and cellular traffic and complex mechanisms are involved in its regulation at many different levels. However, studies investigating the transcription of the GLUT4 gene and its regulation are scarce. In this study, we have identified the GLUT4 gene in a teleost fish, the Fugu (Takifugu rubripes), and have cloned and characterized a functional promoter of this gene for the first time in a non-mammalian vertebrate. In silico analysis of the Fugu GLUT4 promoter identified potential binding sites for transcription factors such as SP1, C/EBP, MEF2, KLF, SREBP-1c and GC-boxes, as well as a CpG island, but failed to identify a TATA box. In vitro analysis revealed three transcription start sites, with the main residing 307 bp upstream of the ATG codon. Deletion analysis determined that the core promoter was located between nucleotides -132/+94. By transfecting a variety of 5´deletion constructs into L6 muscle cells we have determined that Fugu GLUT4 promoter transcription is regulated by insulin, PG-J2, a PPARγ agonist, and electrical pulse stimulation. Furthermore, our results suggest the implication of motifs such as PPARγ/RXR and HIF-1α in the regulation of Fugu GLUT4 promoter activity by PPARγ and contractile activity, respectively. These data suggest that the characteristics and regulation of the GLUT4 promoter have been remarkably conserved during the evolution from fish to mammals, further evidencing the important role of GLUT4 in metabolic regulation in vertebrates.

  13. Conserved host response to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in human cell culture, mouse and macaque model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Jason E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding host response to influenza virus infection will facilitate development of better diagnoses and therapeutic interventions. Several different experimental models have been used as a proxy for human infection, including cell cultures derived from human cells, mice, and non-human primates. Each of these systems has been studied extensively in isolation, but little effort has been directed toward systematically characterizing the conservation of host response on a global level beyond known immune signaling cascades. Results In the present study, we employed a multivariate modeling approach to characterize and compare the transcriptional regulatory networks between these three model systems after infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of the H5N1 subtype. Using this approach we identified functions and pathways that display similar behavior and/or regulation including the well-studied impact on the interferon response and the inflammasome. Our results also suggest a primary response role for airway epithelial cells in initiating hypercytokinemia, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of H5N1 viruses. We further demonstrate that we can use a transcriptional regulatory model from the human cell culture data to make highly accurate predictions about the behavior of important components of the innate immune system in tissues from whole organisms. Conclusions This is the first demonstration of a global regulatory network modeling conserved host response between in vitro and in vivo models.

  14. Landscape genetics informs mesohabitat preference and conservation priorities for a surrogate indicator species in a highly fragmented river system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, J; Hammer, M P; Unmack, P J; Adams, M; Beheregaray, L B

    2017-04-01

    Poor dispersal species represent conservative benchmarks for biodiversity management because they provide insights into ecological processes influenced by habitat fragmentation that are less evident in more dispersive organisms. Here we used the poorly dispersive and threatened river blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus) as a surrogate indicator system for assessing the effects of fragmentation in highly modified river basins and for prioritizing basin-wide management strategies. We combined individual, population and landscape-based approaches to analyze genetic variation in samples spanning the distribution of the species in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, one of the world's most degraded freshwater systems. Our results indicate that G. marmoratus displays the hallmark of severe habitat fragmentation with notably scattered, small and demographically isolated populations with very low genetic diversity-a pattern found not only between regions and catchments but also between streams within catchments. By using hierarchically nested population sampling and assessing relationships between genetic uniqueness and genetic diversity across populations, we developed a spatial management framework that includes the selection of populations in need of genetic rescue. Landscape genetics provided an environmental criterion to identify associations between landscape features and ecological processes. Our results further our understanding of the impact that habitat quality and quantity has on habitat specialists with similarly low dispersal. They should also have practical applications for prioritizing both large- and small-scale conservation management actions for organisms inhabiting highly fragmented ecosystems.

  15. Analysis of Reduction in Area in MIMO Receivers Using SQRD Method and Unitary Transformation with Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE and Minimum Mean Square Error Estimation (MMSE Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabitha Gauni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the field of Wireless Communication, there is always a demand for reliability, improved range and speed. Many wireless networks such as OFDM, CDMA2000, WCDMA etc., provide a solution to this problem when incorporated with Multiple input- multiple output (MIMO technology. Due to the complexity in signal processing, MIMO is highly expensive in terms of area consumption. In this paper, a method of MIMO receiver design is proposed to reduce the area consumed by the processing elements involved in complex signal processing. In this paper, a solution for area reduction in the Multiple input multiple output(MIMO Maximum Likelihood Receiver(MLE using Sorted QR Decomposition and Unitary transformation method is analyzed. It provides unified approach and also reduces ISI and provides better performance at low cost. The receiver pre-processor architecture based on Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE is compared while using Iterative SQRD and Unitary transformation method for vectoring. Unitary transformations are transformations of the matrices which maintain the Hermitian nature of the matrix, and the multiplication and addition relationship between the operators. This helps to reduce the computational complexity significantly. The dynamic range of all variables is tightly bound and the algorithm is well suited for fixed point arithmetic.

  16. Reduced Dynamics from the Unitary Group to Some Flag Manifolds : Interacting Matrix Riccati Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we treat the time evolution of unitary elements in the N level system and consider the reduced dynamics from the unitary group U(N) to flag manifolds of the second type (in our terminology). Then we derive a set of differential equations of matrix Riccati types interacting with one another and present an important problem on a nonlinear superposition formula that the Riccati equation satisfies. Our result is a natural generalization of the paper {\\bf Chaturvedi et al} (arXiv : 0706.0964 [quant-ph]).

  17. Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnel, part 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    1993-01-01

    A summary of optical techniques for the Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnels are discussed. Six optical techniques were studied: Schlieren, light sheet and laser vapor screen, angle of attack, model deformation, infrared imagery, and digital image processing. The study includes surveys and reviews of wind tunnel optical techniques, some conceptual designs, and recommendations for use of optical methods in the Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnels. Particular emphasis was placed on searching for systems developed for wind tunnel use and on commercial systems which could be readily adapted for wind tunnels. This final report is to summarize the major results and recommendations.

  18. Classical 1D maps, quantum graphs and ensembles of unitary matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakonski, Prot [Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, Instytut Fizyki im. M. Smoluchowskiego, Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: pakonski@if.uj.edu.pl; Zyczkowski, Karol; Kus, Marek [Centrum Fizyki Teoretycznej PAN, Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mails: karol@cft.edu.pl; marek@cft.edu.pl

    2001-10-26

    We study a certain class of classical one-dimensional piecewise linear maps. For these systems we introduce an infinite family of Markov partitions in equal cells. The symbolic dynamics generated by these systems is described by bi-stochastic (doubly stochastic) matrices. We analyse the structure of graphs generated from the corresponding symbolic dynamics. We demonstrate that the spectra of quantized graphs corresponding to the regular classical systems have locally Poissonian statistics, while quantized graphs derived from classically chaotic systems display statistical properties characteristic of the circular unitary ensemble, even though the corresponding unitary matrices are sparse. (author)

  19. Elementary Proof for Asymptotics of Large Haar-Distributed Unitary Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Mastrodonato, Christian; Tumulka, Roderich

    2007-01-01

    We provide an elementary proof for a theorem due to Petz and R\\'effy which states that for a random $n\\times n$ unitary matrix with distribution given by the Haar measure on the unitary group U(n), the upper left (or any other) $k\\times k$ submatrix converges in distribution, after multiplying by a normalization factor $\\sqrt{n}$ and as $n\\to\\infty$, to a matrix of independent complex Gaussian random variables with mean 0 and variance 1.

  20. Unitary representations of the Poincaré group and relativistic wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Ohnuki, Yoshio

    1976-01-01

    This book is devoted to an extensive and systematic study on unitary representations of the Poincaré group. The Poincaré group plays an important role in understanding the relativistic picture of particles in quantum mechanics. Complete knowledge of every free particle states and their behaviour can be obtained once all the unitary irreducible representations of the Poincaré group are found. It is a surprising fact that a simple framework such as the Poincaré group, when unified with quantum theory, fixes our possible picture of particles severely and without exception. In this connection, the

  1. Unitary evolution for anisotropic quantum cosmologies: models with variable spatial curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Sachin

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to the general belief, there has recently been quite a few examples of unitary evolution of quantum cosmological models. The present work gives more examples, namely Bianchi type VI and type II. These examples are important as they involve varying spatial curvature unlike the most talked about homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models like Bianchi I, V and IX. We exhibit either explicit example of the unitary solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, or at least show that a self-adjoint extension is possible.

  2. Unitary evolution for anisotropic quantum cosmologies: models with variable spatial curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sachin; Banerjee, Narayan

    2016-11-01

    Contrary to the general belief, there has recently been quite a few examples of unitary evolution of quantum cosmological models. The present work gives more examples, namely Bianchi type VI and type II. These examples are important as they involve varying spatial curvature unlike the most talked about homogeneous but anisotropic cosmological models like Bianchi I, V and IX. We exhibit either an explicit example of the unitary solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, or at least show that a self-adjoint extension is possible.

  3. Proteome-wide mapping of the Drosophila acetylome demonstrates a high degree of conservation of lysine acetylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weinert, Brian T; Wagner, Sebastian A; Horn, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    were significantly more conserved than were nonacetylated lysines. Bioinformatics analysis using Gene Ontology terms suggested that the proteins with conserved acetylation control cellular processes such as protein translation, protein folding, DNA packaging, and mitochondrial metabolism. We found...

  4. High conservation of a 5' element required for RNA editing of a C target in chloroplast psbE transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Michael L; Hanson, Maureen R

    2008-09-01

    C-to-U editing modifies 30-40 distinct nucleotides within higher-plant chloroplast transcripts. Many C targets are located at the same position in homologous genes from different plants; these either could have emerged independently or could share a common origin. The 5' sequence GCCGUU, required for editing of C214 in tobacco psbE in vitro, is one of the few identified editing cis-elements. We investigated psbE sequences from many plant species to determine in what lineage(s) editing of psbE C214 emerged and whether the cis-element identified in tobacco is conserved in plants with a C214. The GCCGUU sequence is present at a high frequency in plants that carry a C214 in psbE. However, Sciadopitys verticillata (Pinophyta) edits C214 despite the presence of nucleotide differences compared to the conserved cis-element. The C214 site in psbE genes is represented in members of four branches of spermatophytes but not in gnetophytes, resulting in the parsimonious prediction that editing of psbE C214 was present in the ancestor of spermatophytes. Extracts from chloroplasts from a species that has a difference in the motif and lacks the C target are incapable of editing tobacco psbE C214 substrates, implying that the critical trans-acting protein factors were not retained without a C target. Because noncoding sequences are less constrained than coding regions, we analyzed sequences 5' to two C editing targets located within coding regions to search for possible editing-related conserved elements. Putative editing cis-elements were uncovered in the 5' UTRs near editing sites psbL C2 and ndhD C2.

  5. Highly conserved asparagine 82 controls the interaction of Na+ with the sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter SNAT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhou; Gameiro, Armanda; Grewer, Christof

    2008-05-01

    The neutral amino acid transporter 2 (SNAT2), which belongs to the SLC38 family of solute transporters, couples the transport of amino acid to the cotransport of one Na(+) ion into the cell. Several polar amino acids are highly conserved within the SLC38 family. Here, we mutated three of these conserved amino acids, Asn(82) in the predicted transmembrane domain 1 (TMD1), Tyr(337) in TMD7, and Arg(374) in TMD8; and we studied the functional consequences of these modifications. The mutation of N82A virtually eliminated the alanine-induced transport current, as well as amino acid uptake by SNAT2. In contrast, the mutations Y337A and R374Q did not abolish amino acid transport. The K(m) of SNAT2 for its interaction with Na(+), K(Na(+)), was dramatically reduced by the N82A mutation, whereas the more conservative mutation N82S resulted in a K(Na(+)) that was in between SNAT2(N82A) and SNAT2(WT). These results were interpreted as a reduction of Na(+) affinity caused by the Asn(82) mutations, suggesting that these mutations interfere with the interaction of SNAT2 with the sodium ion. As a consequence of this dramatic reduction in Na(+) affinity, the apparent K(m) of SNAT2(N82A) for alanine was increased 27-fold compared with that of SNAT2(WT). Our results demonstrate a direct or indirect involvement of Asn(82) in Na(+) coordination by SNAT2. Therefore, we predict that TMD1 is crucial for the function of SLC38 transporters and that of related families.

  6. Integration of carbon conservation into sustainable forest management using high resolution satellite imagery: A case study in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Andreas; Samejima, Hiromitsu; Ong, Robert C.; Titin, Jupiri; Kitayama, Kanehiro

    2012-08-01

    Conservation of tropical forests is of outstanding importance for mitigation of climate change effects and preserving biodiversity. In Borneo most of the forests are classified as permanent forest estates and are selectively logged using conventional logging techniques causing high damage to the forest ecosystems. Incorporation of sustainable forest management into climate change mitigation measures such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) can help to avert further forest degradation by synergizing sustainable timber production with the conservation of biodiversity. In order to evaluate the efficiency of such initiatives, monitoring methods for forest degradation and above-ground biomass in tropical forests are urgently needed. In this study we developed an index using Landsat satellite data to describe the crown cover condition of lowland mixed dipterocarp forests. We showed that this index combined with field data can be used to estimate above-ground biomass using a regression model in two permanent forest estates in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Tangkulap represented a conventionally logged forest estate while Deramakot has been managed in accordance with sustainable forestry principles. The results revealed that conventional logging techniques used in Tangkulap during 1991 and 2000 decreased the above-ground biomass by an annual amount of average -6.0 t C/ha (-5.2 to -7.0 t C/ha, 95% confidential interval) whereas the biomass in Deramakot increased by 6.1 t C/ha per year (5.3-7.2 t C/ha, 95% confidential interval) between 2000 and 2007 while under sustainable forest management. This indicates that sustainable forest management with reduced-impact logging helps to protect above-ground biomass. In absolute terms, a conservative amount of 10.5 t C/ha per year, as documented using the methodology developed in this study, can be attributed to the different management systems, which will be of interest when implementing REDD+ that

  7. High grade angiosarcoma fifteen years after breast conservation therapy with radiation therapy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Boyan, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Secondary breast angiosarcoma diagnosis requires frequent follow ups and a high index of suspicion. With mastectomy giving the best chance of treatment in these cases, early detection is crucial in this rare sequela.

  8. High Elevation Refugia for Bombus terricola (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Conservation and Wild Bees of the White Mountain National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Erika M.; Rehan, Sandra M.

    2017-01-01

    Many wild bee species are in global decline, yet much is still unknown about their diversity and contemporary distributions. National parks and forests offer unique areas of refuge important for the conservation of rare and declining species populations. Here we present the results of the first biodiversity survey of the bee fauna in the White Mountain National Forest (WMNF). More than a thousand specimens were collected from pan and sweep samples representing 137 species. Three species were recorded for the first time in New England and an additional seven species were documented for the first time in the state of New Hampshire. Four introduced species were also observed in the specimens collected. A checklist of the species found in the WMNF, as well as those found previously in Strafford County, NH, is included with new state records and introduced species noted as well as a map of collecting locations. Of particular interest was the relatively high abundance of Bombus terricola Kirby 1837 found in many of the higher elevation collection sites and the single specimen documented of Bombus fervidus (Fabricius 1798). Both of these bumble bee species are known to have declining populations in the northeast and are categorized as vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List. PMID:28130453

  9. Low genetic diversity and high genetic differentiation in the critically endangered Omphalogramma souliei (Primulaceae):implications for its conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan HUANG; Chang-Qin ZHANG; De-Zhu LI

    2009-01-01

    Omphalogramma souliei Franch. Is an endangered perennial herb only distributed in alpine areas of SW China. ISSR markers were applied to determine the genetic variation and genetic structure of 60 individuals of three populations of O. Souliei in NW Yunnan, China. The genetic diversity at the species level is low with P= 42.5% (percentage of polymorphic bands) and Hsp=0.1762 (total genetic diversity). However, a high level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected based on different measures (Nei's genetic diversity analysis: Gst=0.6038; AMOVA analysis: Fst=0.6797). Low level of genetic diversity within populations and significant genetic differentiation among populations might be due to the mixed mating system in which xenog-amy predominated and autogamy played an assistant role in O. Souliei. The genetic drift due to small population size and limited current gene flow also resulted in significant genetic differentiation. The assessment of genetic variation and differentiation of the endangered species provides important information for conservation on a genetic basis. Conservation strategies for this rare endemic species are proposed.

  10. Ice-binding site of snow mold fungus antifreeze protein deviates from structural regularity and high conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hidemasa; Hanada, Yuichi; Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Hoshino, Tamotsu; Garnham, Christopher P; Davies, Peter L; Tsuda, Sakae

    2012-06-12

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are found in organisms ranging from fish to bacteria, where they serve different functions to facilitate survival of their host. AFPs that protect freeze-intolerant fish and insects from internal ice growth bind to ice using a regular array of well-conserved residues/motifs. Less is known about the role of AFPs in freeze-tolerant species, which might be to beneficially alter the structure of ice in or around the host. Here we report the 0.95-Å high-resolution crystal structure of a 223-residue secreted AFP from the snow mold fungus Typhula ishikariensis. Its main structural element is an irregular β-helix with six loops of 18 or more residues that lies alongside an α-helix. β-Helices have independently evolved as AFPs on several occasions and seem ideally structured to bind to several planes of ice, including the basal plane. A novelty of the β-helical fold is the nonsequential arrangement of loops that places the N- and C termini inside the solenoid of β-helical coils. The ice-binding site (IBS), which could not be predicted from sequence or structure, was located by site-directed mutagenesis to the flattest surface of the protein. It is remarkable for its lack of regularity and its poor conservation in homologs from psychrophilic diatoms and bacteria and other fungi.

  11. Catchment-scale conservation units identified for the threatened Yarra pygmy perch (Nannoperca obscura in highly modified river systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris J Brauer

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation caused by human activities alters metapopulation dynamics and decreases biological connectivity through reduced migration and gene flow, leading to lowered levels of population genetic diversity and to local extinctions. The threatened Yarra pygmy perch, Nannoperca obscura, is a poor disperser found in small, isolated populations in wetlands and streams of southeastern Australia. Modifications to natural flow regimes in anthropogenically-impacted river systems have recently reduced the amount of habitat for this species and likely further limited its opportunity to disperse. We employed highly resolving microsatellite DNA markers to assess genetic variation, population structure and the spatial scale that dispersal takes place across the distribution of this freshwater fish and used this information to identify conservation units for management. The levels of genetic variation found for N. obscura are amongst the lowest reported for a fish species (mean heterozygosity of 0.318 and mean allelic richness of 1.92. We identified very strong population genetic structure, nil to little evidence of recent migration among demes and a minimum of 11 units for conservation management, hierarchically nested within four major genetic lineages. A combination of spatial analytical methods revealed hierarchical genetic structure corresponding with catchment boundaries and also demonstrated significant isolation by riverine distance. Our findings have implications for the national recovery plan of this species by demonstrating that N. obscura populations should be managed at a catchment level and highlighting the need to restore habitat and avoid further alteration of the natural hydrology.

  12. Identification of a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine amino acid triplet required for HIV-1 Nef function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuwissen Pieter J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nef protein of HIV facilitates virus replication and disease progression in infected patients. This role as pathogenesis factor depends on several genetically separable Nef functions that are mediated by interactions of highly conserved protein-protein interaction motifs with different host cell proteins. By studying the functionality of a series of nef alleles from clinical isolates, we identified a dysfunctional HIV group O Nef in which a highly conserved valine-glycine-phenylalanine (VGF region, which links a preceding acidic cluster with the following proline-rich motif into an amphipathic surface was deleted. In this study, we aimed to study the functional importance of this VGF region. Results The dysfunctional HIV group O8 nef allele was restored to the consensus sequence, and mutants of canonical (NL4.3, NA-7, SF2 and non-canonical (B2 and C1422 HIV-1 group M nef alleles were generated in which the amino acids of the VGF region were changed into alanines (VGF→AAA and tested for their capacity to interfere with surface receptor trafficking, signal transduction and enhancement of viral replication and infectivity. We found the VGF motif, and each individual amino acid of this motif, to be critical for downregulation of MHC-I and CXCR4. Moreover, Nef’s association with the cellular p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2, the resulting deregulation of cofilin and inhibition of host cell actin remodeling, and targeting of Lck kinase to the trans-golgi-network (TGN were affected as well. Of particular interest, VGF integrity was essential for Nef-mediated enhancement of HIV virion infectivity and HIV replication in peripheral blood lymphocytes. For targeting of Lck kinase to the TGN and viral infectivity, especially the phenylalanine of the triplet was essential. At the molecular level, the VGF motif was required for the physical interaction of the adjacent proline-rich motif with Hck. Conclusion Based on these findings, we

  13. Ancient exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon into a highly conserved mammalian neuronal enhancer of the proopiomelanocortin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Santangelo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC is expressed in the pituitary gland and the ventral hypothalamus of all jawed vertebrates, producing several bioactive peptides that function as peripheral hormones or central neuropeptides, respectively. We have recently determined that mouse and human POMC expression in the hypothalamus is conferred by the action of two 5' distal and unrelated enhancers, nPE1 and nPE2. To investigate the evolutionary origin of the neuronal enhancer nPE2, we searched available vertebrate genome databases and determined that nPE2 is a highly conserved element in placentals, marsupials, and monotremes, whereas it is absent in nonmammalian vertebrates. Following an in silico paleogenomic strategy based on genome-wide searches for paralog sequences, we discovered that opossum and wallaby nPE2 sequences are highly similar to members of the superfamily of CORE-short interspersed nucleotide element (SINE retroposons, in particular to MAR1 retroposons that are widely present in marsupial genomes. Thus, the neuronal enhancer nPE2 originated from the exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon in the lineage leading to mammals and remained under purifying selection in all mammalian orders for the last 170 million years. Expression studies performed in transgenic mice showed that two nonadjacent nPE2 subregions are essential to drive reporter gene expression into POMC hypothalamic neurons, providing the first functional example of an exapted enhancer derived from an ancient CORE-SINE retroposon. In addition, we found that this CORE-SINE family of retroposons is likely to still be active in American and Australian marsupial genomes and that several highly conserved exonic, intronic and intergenic sequences in the human genome originated from the exaptation of CORE-SINE retroposons. Together, our results provide clear evidence of the functional novelties that transposed elements contributed to their host genomes throughout evolution.

  14. Land use and conservation reserve program effects on the persistence of playa wetlands in the High Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Dale W; Smith, Loren M; Haukos, David A; Johnson, Lacrecia A; McMurry, Scott T

    2014-04-15

    Watershed cultivation and subsequent soil erosion remains the greatest threat to the service provisioning of playa wetlands in the High Plains. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) plants perennial vegetation cover on cultivated lands including playa watersheds, and therefore, the program influences sediment deposition and accumulation in playas. Our objective was to measure the effects of the CRP on sediment deposition by comparing sediment depth and present/historic size characteristics in 258 playas among three High-Plains subregions (northern, central, and southern) and the three dominant watershed types: cropland, CRP, and native grassland. Sediment depth and resultant volume loss for CRP playas were 40% and 57% lower than cropland playas, but 68% and 76% greater than playas in native grassland. Playas in CRP had remaining volumes exceeding those of cropland playas. Grassland playas had nearly three times more original playa volume and 122% greater wetland area than CRP playas. Overall, playas were larger in the south than other subregions. Sediment depth was also three times greater in the south than the north, which resulted in southern playas losing twice as much total volume as northern playas. However, the larger southern playas provide more remaining volume per playa than those in other subregions. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of proper watershed management in preserving playa wetland ecosystem service provisioning in the High Plains. Furthermore, we identify regional differences in playas that may influence management decisions and provide valuable insight to conservation practitioners trying to maximize wetland services with limited resources.

  15. High Re-Operation Rates Using Conserve Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Articulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, S L; Jakobsen, Thomas; Christoffersen, Hardy;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two...

  16. Comparison of three-dimensional optical coherence tomography and high resolution photography for art conservation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Desmond C; Stenger, Jens; Gorczynska, Iwona; Lie, Henry; Hensick, Teri; Spronk, Ron; Wolohojian, Stephan; Khandekar, Narayan; Jiang, James Y; Barry, Scott; Cable, Alex E; Huber, Robert; Fujimoto, James G

    2007-11-26

    Gold punchwork and underdrawing in Renaissance panel paintings are analyzed using both three-dimensional swept source / Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) and high resolution digital photography. 3D-OCT can generate en face images with micrometer-scale resolutions at arbitrary sectioning depths, rejecting out-of-plane light by coherence gating. Therefore 3D-OCT is well suited for analyzing artwork where a surface layer obscures details of interest. 3D-OCT also enables cross-sectional imaging and quantitative measurement of 3D features such as punch depth, which is beneficial for analyzing the tools and techniques used to create works of art. High volumetric imaging speeds are enabled by the use of a Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) laser as the 3D-OCT light source. High resolution infrared (IR) digital photography is shown to be particularly useful for the analysis of underdrawing, where the materials used for the underdrawing and paint layers have significantly different IR absrption properties. In general, 3D-OCT provides a more flexible and comprehensive analysis of artwork than high resolution photography, but also requires more complex instrumentation and data analysis.

  17. Novel differential unitary space-time modulation schemes for fast fading channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Jifeng; Jiang Haining; Song Wentao; Luo Hanwen

    2006-01-01

    Differential unitary space-time modulation (DUSTM), which obtains full transmit diversity in slowly flat-fading channels without channel state information, has generated significant interests recently. To combat frequency-selective fading, DUSTM has been applied to each subcarrier of an OFDM system and DUSTM-OFDM system was proposed. Both DUSTM and DUSTM-OFDM, however, are designed for slowly fading channels and suffer performance deterioration in fast fading channels. In this paper, two novel differential unitary space-time modulation schemes are proposed for fast fading channels. For fast flat-fading channels, a sub-matrix interleaved DUSTM (SMI-DUSTM) scheme is proposed, in which matrix-segmentation and sub-matrix based interleaving are introduced into DUSTM system. For fast frequency-selective fading channels, a differential unitary space-frequency modulation (DUSFM) scheme is proposed, in which existing unitary space-time codes are employed across transmit antennas and OFDM subcarriers simultaneously and differential modulation is performed between two adjacent OFDM blocks. Compared with DUSTM and DUSTM-OFDM schemes, SMI-DUSTM and DUSFM-OFDM are more robust to fast channel fading with low decoding complexity, which is demonstrated by performance analysis and simulation results.

  18. J(l)-unitary factorization and the Schur algorithm for Nevanlinna functions in an indefinite setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, D.; Dijksma, A.; Langer, H.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a Schur transformation for generalized Nevanlinna functions and show that it can be used in obtaining the unique minimal factorization of a class of rational J(l)-unitary 2 x 2 matrix functions into elementary factors from the same class. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Unitary representations of three dimensional Lie groups revisited: A short tutorial via harmonic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R.; Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    2017-04-01

    The representation theory of three dimensional real and complex Lie groups is reviewed from the perspective of harmonic functions defined over certain appropriate manifolds. An explicit construction of all unitary representations is given. The realisations obtained are shown to be related with each other by either natural operations as real forms or Inönü-Wigner contractions.

  20. The flexible focus: whether spatial attention is unitary or divided depends on observer goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Enns, James T; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    The distribution of visual attention has been the topic of much investigation, and various theories have posited that attention is allocated either as a single unitary focus or as multiple independent foci. In the present experiment, we demonstrate that attention can be flexibly deployed as either a unitary or a divided focus in the same experimental task, depending on the observer's goals. To assess the distribution of attention, we used a dual-stream Attentional Blink (AB) paradigm and 2 target pairs. One component of the AB, Lag-1 sparing, occurs only if the second target pair appears within the focus of attention. By varying whether the first-target-pair could be expected in a predictable location (always in-stream) or not (unpredictably in-stream or between-streams), observers were encouraged to deploy a divided or a unitary focus, respectively. When the second-target-pair appeared between the streams, Lag-1 sparing occurred for the Unpredictable group (consistent with a unitary focus) but not for the Predictable group (consistent with a divided focus). Thus, diametrically different outcomes occurred for physically identical displays, depending on the expectations of the observer about where spatial attention would be required.

  1. On Parseval Wavelet Frames with Two or Three Generators via the Unitary Extension Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2014-01-01

    The unitary extension principle (UEP) by A. Ron and Z. Shen yields a sufficient condition for the construction of Parseval wavelet frames with multiple generators. In this paper we characterize the UEP-type wavelet systems that can be extended to a Parseval wavelet frame by adding just one UEP-ty...

  2. Lorentz Spin-Foam with Non Unitary Representations by use of Holomorphic Peter-Weyl Theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Perlov, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    We use the non-unitary spinor representations of SL(2,C) and the recently proved Holomorphic Peter-Weyl theorem to define the Hilbert space based on the holomorphic spin-networks, the non-unitary spin-foam, solve the simplicity constraints and calculate the vertex amplitude. The diagonal simplicity constraint provides two solutions. The first solution: Immirzi $\\gamma = i$ with the irreducible representations $(j_1, j_2)$ projected to $(0, j)$ and the second solution: Immirzi $\\gamma = -i$ and the irreducible non-unitary representations projected to $(j, 0)$. The off-diagonal constraint selects only the first of these two solutions. The solution is interesting in two aspects: a) it turns to be a topological BF model. b) Immirzi parameter $\\gamma = i$ corresponds to Ashtekar's self-dual connection of the complexified algebra $sl(2,C)\\otimes C$. The transition amplitude is finite and very similar to BF Euclidean model. We discuss the inner product Lorentz invariance and the viability of the non-unitary represen...

  3. Gaussian elimination in split unitary groups with an application to public-key cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Mahalanobis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian elimination is used in special linear groups to solve the word problem. In this paper, we extend Gaussian elimination to split unitary groups. These algorithms have an application in building a public-key cryptosystem, we demonstrate that.

  4. Factorization and uniton numbers for harmonic maps into the unitary group U(N)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    东瑜昕; 沈一兵

    1996-01-01

    The factorization of harmonic maps from a simply-connected domain to the unitary group is studied, showing that the theory of isotropic harmonic maps is equivalent to that of 2-unitons. Furthermore, a positive answer is given to the Uhlenbeck’s conjecture on the upper bound of minimal uniton numbers.

  5. Entanglement capacity of two-qubit unitary operator for rank two mixed states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI; YaoMin

    2007-01-01

    The entanglement capacity of two-qubit unitary operator acting on rank two mixed states in concurrence is discussed. The condition of perfect entangler is the same as that acting on pure states and the entanglement capacity is the mixing parameter v1. For non-perfect entangler, the upper and lower bound of the entanglement capacity are given.……

  6. Secure Two-Party Quantum Evaluation of Unitaries against Specious Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Frédéric; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Salvail, Louis

    2010-01-01

    We describe how any two-party quantum computation, specified by a unitary which simultaneously acts on the registers of both parties, can be privately implemented against a quantum version of classical semi-honest adversaries that we call specious. Our construction requires two ideal functionalit...

  7. Entanglement capacity of two-qubit unitary operator for rank two mixed states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The entanglement capacity of two-qubit unitary operator acting on rank two mixed states in concurrence is discussed. The condition of perfect entangler is the same as that acting on pure states and the entanglement capacity is the mixing parameter v1. For non-perfect entangler, the upper and lower bound of the entanglement capacity are given.

  8. Measuring the Leptonic CP Phase in Neutrino Oscillations with Non-Unitary Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, Shao-Feng; Tortola, M; Valle, J W F

    2016-01-01

    Non-unitary neutrino mixing implies an extra CP violating phase that can fake the leptonic Dirac CP phase $\\delta_{CP}$ of the simplest three-neutrino mixing benchmark scheme. This would hinder the possibility of probing for CP violation in accelerator-type experiments. We take T2K and T2HK as examples to demonstrate the degeneracy between the "standard" (or "unitary") and "non-unitary" CP phases. We find, under the assumption of non-unitary mixing, that their CP sensitivities severely deteriorate. Fortunately, the TNT2K proposal of supplementing T2(H)K with a $\\mu$DAR source for better measurement of $\\delta_{CP}$ can partially break the CP degeneracy by probing both $\\cos \\delta_{CP}$ and $\\sin \\delta_{CP}$ dependences in the wide spectrum of the $\\mu$DAR flux. We also show that the further addition of a near detector to the $\\mu$DAR setup can eliminate the degeneracy completely.

  9. Evaluating Reduction of Sediment Pollution as a Strategy for Conservation of Coral Reef in High C02 World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, J. M.; de Moel, H.; Mora, C.; Ward, P.; Watson, J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the key strategies for coral reef conservation in a high CO2 world is reduction of sediment and nutrient pollution. However, the reduction of sediment is a complicated planning issue as a result of the competing land uses from the demands to satisfy food production needs and from economic development, among others. Moreover, despite the significance of sedimentation as a threat to coral reefs, historical baseline and future estimates of sediment discharge on coral reefs remains poorly quantified. Therefore, the effectiveness of this strategy hinges upon (i) identifying the future sediment discharge on coral reefs relative to historical baseline, and (ii) on identifying spatially where sediment reduction actions are urgently needed and where they are likely to succeed. We provide this understanding by simulating sediment dynamics for historical and future time scales using models of land use and climate, for coastal watersheds adjacent coral reefs where they are found globally.

  10. Discovery of highly conserved unique peanut and tree nut peptides by LC-MS/MS for multi-allergen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey-Voyksner, Jennifer; Zweigenbaum, Jerry; Voyksner, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Proteins unique to peanuts and various tree nuts have been extracted, subjected to trypsin digestion and analysis by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, in order to find highly conserved peptides that can be used as markers to detect peanuts and tree nuts in food. The marker peptide sequences chosen were those found to be present in both native (unroasted) and thermally processed (roasted) forms of peanuts and tree nuts. Each peptide was selected by assuring its presence in food that was processed or unprocessed, its abundance for sensitivity, sequence size, and uniqueness for peanut and each specific variety of tree nut. At least two peptides were selected to represent peanut, almond, pecan, cashew, walnut, hazelnut, pine nut, Brazil nut, macadamia nut, pistachio nut, chestnut and coconut; to determine the presence of trace levels of peanut and tree nuts in food by a novel multiplexed LC-MS method.

  11. Anisotropic models are unitary: A rejuvenation of standard quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sridip

    2016-01-01

    The present work proves that the folk-lore of the pathology of non-conservation of probability in quantum anisotropic models is wrong. It is shown in full generality that all operator ordering can lead to a Hamiltonian with a self-adjoint extension as long as it is constructed to be a symmetric operator, thereby making the problem of non-unitarity in context of anisotropic homogeneous model a ghost. Moreover, it is indicated that the self-adjoint extension is not unique and this non-uniqueness is suspected not to be a feature of Anisotropic model only, in the sense that there exists operator orderings such that Hamiltonian for an isotropic homogeneous cosmological model does not have unique self-adjoint extension, albeit for isotropic model, there is a special unique extension associated with quadratic form of Hamiltonian i.e {\\it Friedrichs extension}. Details of calculations are carried out for a Bianchi III model.

  12. Innovative use of controlled availability fertilizers with high performance for intensive agriculture and environmental conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sadao SHOJI

    2005-01-01

    A variety of slow release fertilizers, controlled release (availability) fertilizers (CAFs),and stability fertilizers have been developed in response to the serious drawbacks of the conventional fertilizers since the early 1960's. Of these fertilizers, CAFs which are coated with resin are consumed in the largest quantity in the world. Selecting CAFs with higher performance, the author will discuss about: 1) Innovation of agro-technologies for various field crops including new concepts of fertilizer application, 2) high yielding of field crops, 3) enhancing quality and safety of farm products, and 4) controlling the adverse effect of intensive agriculture on the environment.

  13. A highly conserved Poc1 protein characterized in embryos of the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica: localization and functional studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Fourrage

    Full Text Available Poc1 (Protein of Centriole 1 proteins are highly conserved WD40 domain-containing centriole components, well characterized in the alga Chlamydomonas, the ciliated protazoan Tetrahymena, the insect Drosophila and in vertebrate cells including Xenopus and zebrafish embryos. Functions and localizations related to the centriole and ciliary axoneme have been demonstrated for Poc1 in a range of species. The vertebrate Poc1 protein has also been reported to show an additional association with mitochondria, including enrichment in the specialized "germ plasm" region of Xenopus oocytes. We have identified and characterized a highly conserved Poc1 protein in the cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica. Clytia Poc1 mRNA was found to be strongly expressed in eggs and early embryos, showing a punctate perinuclear localization in young oocytes. Fluorescence-tagged Poc1 proteins expressed in developing embryos showed strong localization to centrioles, including basal bodies. Anti-human Poc1 antibodies decorated mitochondria in Clytia, as reported in human cells, but failed to recognise endogenous or fluorescent-tagged Clytia Poc1. Injection of specific morpholino oligonucleotides into Clytia eggs prior to fertilization to repress Poc1 mRNA translation interfered with cell division from the blastula stage, likely corresponding to when neosynthesis normally takes over from maternally supplied protein. Cell cycle lengthening and arrest were observed, phenotypes consistent with an impaired centriolar biogenesis or function. The specificity of the defects could be demonstrated by injection of synthetic Poc1 mRNA, which restored normal development. We conclude that in Clytia embryos, Poc1 has an essentially centriolar localization and function.

  14. Pressure-Sensitive Paint and Video Model Deformation Systems at the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, G. E.; Burner, A. W.; DeLoach, R.

    1999-01-01

    Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) and video model deformation (VMD) systems have been installed in the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center to support the supersonic wind tunnel testing requirements of the High Speed Research (HSR) program. The PSP and VMD systems have been operational since early 1996 and provide the capabilities of measuring global surface static pressures and wing local twist angles and deflections (bending). These techniques have been successfully applied to several HSR wind tunnel models for wide ranges of the Mach number, Reynolds number, and angle of attack. A review of the UPWT PSP and VMD systems is provided, and representative results obtained on selected HSR models are shown. A promising technique to streamline the wind tunnel testing process, Modern Experimental Design, is also discussed in conjunction with recently-completed wing deformation measurements at UPWT.

  15. Computation and Analysis of High Rocky Slope Safety in a Water Conservancy Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated method, covering the actual monitoring analysis, practical geological model, and theoretical mathematical simulation model, is systematically proposed and successfully applied. Deformation characteristic of a unique high rocky slope was firstly analyzed from multiple angles and multiple layers by changeable elevations and distances. Arrangements of monitoring points were listed and monitoring equipment was designed to comprise a complete monitoring system. Present larger displacement was concluded for bottom larger displacement caused by water erosion and middle larger displacement formed by seepage. Temporal and spatial displacements rule study of multiple-points linkage effects with water factor proved this conclusion. To better excavate useful message and analyze the deep rule from the practical monitoring data, the slope geological model was conducted and rock mechanic parameters were researched. Finally, a unique three-dimensional finite element model was applied to approach the structure character using numerical simulations. The corresponding strength criterion was used to determine the safety coefficient by selecting a typical section. Subsequently, an integrated three-dimensional finite element model of the slope and dam was developed and more detailed deformation evolution mechanism was revealed. This study is expected to provide a powerful and systematic method to analyze very high, important, and dangerous slopes.

  16. Cross-Breeding Is Inevitable to Conserve the Highly Inbred Population of Puffin Hunter: The Norwegian Lundehund

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverdin, Marc; Helfjord, Turid; Berg, Peer

    2017-01-01

    The Norwegian Lundehund is a highly endangered native dog breed. Low fertility and high frequency predisposition to intestinal disorder imply inbreeding depression. We assessed the genetic diversity of the Lundehund population from pedigree data and evaluated the potential of optimal contribution selection and cross-breeding in the long-term management of the Lundehund population. The current Norwegian Lundehund population is highly inbred and has lost 38.8% of the genetic diversity in the base population. Effective population size estimates varied between 13 and 82 depending on the method used. Optimal contribution selection alone facilitates no improvement in the current situation in the Lundehund due to the extremely high relatedness of the whole population. Addition of (replacement with) 10 breeding candidates of foreign breed to 30 Lundehund breeders reduced the parental additive genetic relationship by 40–42% (48–53%). Immediate actions are needed to increase the genetic diversity in the current Lundehund population. The only option to secure the conservation of this rare breed is to introduce individuals from foreign breeds as breeding candidates. PMID:28107382

  17. Reversible Self-Assembly of Hydrophilic Inorganic Polyelectrolytes into Highly Conservative, Vesicle-like Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Melissa; Bhatt, Anish; Liu, Guang; Liu, Tianbo

    2007-03-01

    The hydrophilic polyoxometalate (POM) macroanions are inorganic polyelectrolytes which offer a direct connection between simple ions and organic polyelectrolytes. POM solutions are perfect model systems for studying polyelectrolyte solutions because they are identical in size, shape, mass and charges, with easily tunable charge density. Many types of POM macroanions are highly soluble but undergo reversible self-assembly to form uniform, stable, soft, single-layer vesicle-like ``blackberry'' structures containing >1000 individual POMs in dilute solutions. The driving force of the blackberry formation is likely counterion-mediated attraction (like-charge attraction). The blackberry size can be accurately controlled by solvent quality, or the charge density on macroions. Many unexpected phenomena have been observed in these novel systems. Blackberry structures may be analogous to virus shell structures formed by capsid proteins. References: Nature, 2003, 426, 59; JACS, 2002, 124, 10942; 2003, 125, 312; 2004, 126, 16690; 2005, 127, 6942; 2006, 128, 10103.

  18. A HIGH ORDER ADAPTIVE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR SOLVING NONLINEAR HYPERBOLIC CONSERVATION LAWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengfu Xu; Jinchao Xu; Chi-Wang Shu

    2011-01-01

    In this note,we apply the h-adaptive streamline diffusion finite element method with a small mesh-dependent artificial viscosity to solve nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations,with the objective of achieving high order accuracy and mesh efficiency.We compute the numerical solution to a steady state Burgers equation and the solution to a converging-diverging nozzle problem.The computational results verify that,by suitably choosing the artificial viscosity coefficient and applying the adaptive strategy based on a posterior error estimate by Johnson et al.,an order of N-3/2 accuracy can be obtained when continuous piecewise linear elements are used,where N is the number of elements.

  19. A genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any de- sired quantum computation and application to a one-bit oracle decision problem

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Jeongho; Yoo, Seokwon

    2014-01-01

    We propose a genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation. We formulate a simple genetic algorithm by introducing the "genetic parameter vector" of the unitary transformations to be found. In the genetic algorithm process, all components of the genetic parameter vectors are supposed to evolve to the solution parameters of the unitary transformations. We apply our method to find the optimal unitary transformations and to generalize the ...

  20. The highly conserved Escherichia coli transcription factor YhaJ regulates aromatic compound degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Palevsky

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aromatic compound 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT, a common impurity in 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT production, has been suggested as a tracer for the presence of TNT-based landmines due to its stability and high volatility. We have previously described an Escherichia coli bioreporter capable of detecting the presence of DNT vapors, harboring a fusion of the yqjF gene promoter, to a reporter element. However, the DNT metabolite, which is the direct inducer of yqjF, has not yet been identified, nor has the regulatory mechanism of the induction been clarified. We demonstrate here that the YhaJ protein, a member of the LysR type family, acts as a transcriptional regulator of yqjF activation, as well as of a panel of additional E. coli genes. This group of genes share a common sequence motif in their promoters, which is suggested here as a putative YhaJ-box. In addition, we have linked YhaJ to the regulation of quinol-like compound degradation in the cell, and identified yhaK as playing a role in the degradation of DNT.

  1. Two strains of Crocosphaera watsonii with highly conserved genomes are distinguished by strain-specific features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shellie Roxanne Bench

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unicellular nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria are important components of marine phytoplankton. Although non-nitrogen-fixing marine phytoplankton generally exhibit high gene sequence and genomic diversity, gene sequences of natural populations and isolated strains of Crocosphaera watsonii, one of two most abundant open ocean unicellular cyanobacteria groups, have been shown to be 98-100% identical.. The low sequence diversity in Crocosphaera is a dramatic contrast to sympatric species of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, and raises the question of how genome differences can explain observed phenotypic diversity among Crocosphaera strains. Here we show, through whole genome comparisons of two phenotypically different strains, that there are strain-specific sequences in each genome, and numerous genome rearrangements, despite exceptionally low sequence diversity in shared genomic regions. Some of the strain-specific sequences encode functions that explain observed phenotypic differences, such as exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. The pattern of strain-specific sequences distributed throughout the genomes, along with rearrangements in shared sequences is evidence of significant genetic mobility that may be attributed to the hundreds of transposase genes found in both strains. Furthermore, such genetic mobility appears to be the main mechanism of strain divergence in Crocosphaera which do not accumulate DNA microheterogeneity over the vast majority of their genomes. The strain-specific sequences found in this study provide tools for future physiological studies, as well as genetic markers to help determine the relative abundance of phenotypes in natural populations.

  2. Genomic analysis of six new Geobacillus strains reveals highly conserved carbohydrate degradation architectures and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip eBrumm

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the whole genome sequences of six new Geobacillus xylanolytic strains along with the genomic analysis of their capability to degrade carbohydrates.. The six sequenced Geobacillus strains described here have a range of GC contents from 43.9% to 52.5% and clade with named Geobacillus species throughout the entire genus. We have identified a ~200 kb unique super-cluster in all six strains, containing five to eight distinct carbohydrate degradation clusters in a single genomic region, a feature not seen in other genera. The Geobacillus strains rely on a small number of secreted enzymes located within distinct clusters for carbohydrate utilization, in contrast to most biomass-degrading organisms which contain numerous secreted enzymes located randomly throughout the genomes. All six strains are able to utilize fructose, arabinose, xylose, mannitol, gluconate, xylan, and α-1,6-glucosides. The gene clusters for utilization of these seven substrates have identical organization and the individual proteins have a high percent identity to their homologs. The strains show significant differences in their ability to utilize inositol, sucrose, lactose, α-mannosides, α-1,4-glucosides and arabinan.

  3. COLOR SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, INSTANTONS AND PARITY (NON?)-CONSERVATION AT HIGH BARYON DENSITY-VOLUME 5.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GYULASSY,M.

    1997-11-11

    This one day Riken BNL Research Center workshop was organized to follow-up on the rapidly developing theoretical work on color super-conductivity, instanton dynamics, and possible signatures of parity violation in strong interactions that was stimulated by the talk of Frank Wilczek during the Riken BNL September Symposium. The workshop was held on November 11, 1997 at the center with over 30 participants. The program consisted of four talks on theory in the morning followed by two talks in the afternoon by experimentalists and open discussion. Krishna Rajagopal (MIT) first reviewed the status of the chiral condensate calculations at high baryon density within the instanton model and the percolation transition at moderate densities restoring chiral symmetry. Mark Alford (Princeton) then discussed the nature of the novel color super-conducting diquark condensates. The main result was that the largest gap on the order of 100 MeV was found for the 0{sup +} condensate, with only a tiny gap << MeV for the other possible 1{sup +}. Thomas Schaefer (INT) gave a complete overview of the instanton effects on correlators and showed independent calculations in collaboration with Shuryak (SUNY) and Velkovsky (BNL) confirming the updated results of the Wilczek group (Princeton, MIT). Yang Pang (Columbia) addressed the general question of how breaking of discrete symmetries by any condensate with suitable quantum numbers could be searched for experimentally especially at the AGS through longitudinal A polarization measurements. Nicholas Samios (BNL) reviewed the history of measurements on {Lambda} polarization and suggested specific kinematical variables for such analysis. Brian Cole (Columbia) showed recent E910 measurements of {Lambda} production at the AGS in nuclear collisions and focused on the systematic biases that must be considered when looking for small symmetry breaking effects. Lively discussions led by Robert Jaffe (MIT) focused especially on speculations on the still

  4. Assessing the significance of conserved genomic aberrations using high resolution genomic microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Guttman

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Genomic aberrations recurrent in a particular cancer type can be important prognostic markers for tumor progression. Typically in early tumorigenesis, cells incur a breakdown of the DNA replication machinery that results in an accumulation of genomic aberrations in the form of duplications, deletions, translocations, and other genomic alterations. Microarray methods allow for finer mapping of these aberrations than has previously been possible; however, data processing and analysis methods have not taken full advantage of this higher resolution. Attention has primarily been given to analysis on the single sample level, where multiple adjacent probes are necessarily used as replicates for the local region containing their target sequences. However, regions of concordant aberration can be short enough to be detected by only one, or very few, array elements. We describe a method called Multiple Sample Analysis for assessing the significance of concordant genomic aberrations across multiple experiments that does not require a-priori definition of aberration calls for each sample. If there are multiple samples, representing a class, then by exploiting the replication across samples our method can detect concordant aberrations at much higher resolution than can be derived from current single sample approaches. Additionally, this method provides a meaningful approach to addressing population-based questions such as determining important regions for a cancer subtype of interest or determining regions of copy number variation in a population. Multiple Sample Analysis also provides single sample aberration calls in the locations of significant concordance, producing high resolution calls per sample, in concordant regions. The approach is demonstrated on a dataset representing a challenging but important resource: breast tumors that have been formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, archived, and subsequently UV-laser capture microdissected and hybridized to two

  5. Expression and genomic analysis of midasin, a novel and highly conserved AAA protein distantly related to dynein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbons I R

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The largest open reading frame in the Saccharomyces genome encodes midasin (MDN1p, YLR106p, an AAA ATPase of 560 kDa that is essential for cell viability. Orthologs of midasin have been identified in the genome projects for Drosophila, Arabidopsis, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Results Midasin is present as a single-copy gene encoding a well-conserved protein of ~600 kDa in all eukaryotes for which data are available. In humans, the gene maps to 6q15 and encodes a predicted protein of 5596 residues (632 kDa. Sequence alignments of midasin from humans, yeast, Giardia and Encephalitozoon indicate that its domain structure comprises an N-terminal domain (35 kDa, followed by an AAA domain containing six tandem AAA protomers (~30 kDa each, a linker domain (260 kDa, an acidic domain (~70 kDa containing 35–40% aspartate and glutamate, and a carboxy-terminal M-domain (30 kDa that possesses MIDAS sequence motifs and is homologous to the I-domain of integrins. Expression of hemagglutamin-tagged midasin in yeast demonstrates a polypeptide of the anticipated size that is localized principally in the nucleus. Conclusions The highly conserved structure of midasin in eukaryotes, taken in conjunction with its nuclear localization in yeast, suggests that midasin may function as a nuclear chaperone and be involved in the assembly/disassembly of macromolecular complexes in the nucleus. The AAA domain of midasin is evolutionarily related to that of dynein, but it appears to lack a microtubule-binding site.

  6. Bioinformatic analysis of CaBP/calneuron proteins reveals a family of highly conserved vertebrate Ca2+-binding proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgoyne Robert D

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ca2+-binding proteins are important for the transduction of Ca2+ signals into physiological outcomes. As in calmodulin many of the Ca2+-binding proteins bind Ca2+ through EF-hand motifs. Amongst the large number of EF-hand containing Ca2+-binding proteins are a subfamily expressed in neurons and retinal photoreceptors known as the CaBPs and the related calneuron proteins. These were suggested to be vertebrate specific but exactly which family members are expressed outside of mammalian species had not been examined. Findings We have carried out a bioinformatic analysis to determine when members of this family arose and the conserved aspects of the protein family. Sequences of human members of the family obtained from GenBank were used in Blast searches to identify corresponding proteins encoded in other species using searches of non-redundant proteins, genome sequences and mRNA sequences. Sequences were aligned and compared using ClustalW. Some families of Ca2+-binding proteins are known to show a progressive expansion in gene number as organisms increase in complexity. In contrast, the results for CaBPs and calneurons showed that a full complement of CaBPs and calneurons are present in the teleost fish Danio rerio and possibly in cartilaginous fish. These findings suggest that the entire family of genes may have arisen at the same time during vertebrate evolution. Certain members of the family (for example the short form of CaBP1 and calneuron 1 are highly conserved suggesting essential functional roles. Conclusions The findings support the designation of the calneurons as a distinct sub-family. While the gene number for CaBPs/calneurons does not increase, a distinctive evolutionary change in these proteins in vertebrates has been an increase in the number of splice variants present in mammals.

  7. Energy audit of three energy-conserving devices in a steel industry demonstration program. Task III. GTE high temperature recuperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holden, F.C.; Hoffman, A.O.; Lownie, H.W.

    1983-06-01

    The Office of Industrial Programs of the Department of Energy has undertaken a program to demonstrate to industry the benefits of installing various energy-conserving devices and equipment. This report presents results on one of those systems, a high-temperature ceramic recuperator designed and manufactured by Sylvania Chemical and Metallurgical Division, GTE Products Corporation of Towanda, Pennsylvania. The ceramic cross-flow recuperator unit recovers waste heat from the hot combustion gases and delivers preheated air to high-temperature burners of various manufacture. Of the 38 host site installations included in the program, sufficient operating data were obtained from 28 sites to evaluate the benefits in terms of energy and economic savings that can be achieved. Performance and cost data are analyzed and presented for those 28 installations, which covered a variety of applications, sizes, and industry types. Except for 5 sites where unusual operating or data-collection problems were encountered, the improvements in performance of the recuperated furnaces equalled or exceeded estimates; the average of the total fuel savings for these 23 sites was 44.0 percent, some portion of which resulted from furnace improvements other than recuperation. Payback times were calculated for both total costs and for recuperator-related costs, using a cumulative annual after-tax cash flow method which includes tax investment credits, estimates of general and fuel-price inflation, and maintenance costs.

  8. Distinct activation phenotype of a highly conserved novel HLA-B57-restricted epitope during dengue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Elizabeth; Woda, Marcia; Thomas, Stephen J; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Gibbons, Robert V; Nisalak, Ananda; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Green, Sharone; Stephens, Henry A F; Rothman, Alan L; Mathew, Anuja

    2014-01-01

    Variation in the sequence of T-cell epitopes between dengue virus (DENV) serotypes is believed to alter memory T-cell responses during second heterologous infections. We identified a highly conserved, novel, HLA-B57-restricted epitope on the DENV NS1 protein. We predicted higher frequencies of B57-NS1(26-34) -specific CD8(+) T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals undergoing secondary rather than primary DENV infection. However, high tetramer-positive T-cell frequencies during acute infection were seen in only one of nine subjects with secondary infection. B57-NS1(26-34) -specific and other DENV epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells, as well as total CD8(+) T cells, expressed an activated phenotype (CD69(+) and/or CD38(+)) during acute infection. In contrast, expression of CD71 was largely limited to DENV epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells. In vitro stimulation of cell lines indicated that CD71 expression was differentially sensitive to stimulation by homologous and heterologous variant peptides. CD71 may represent a useful marker of antigen-specific T-cell activation.

  9. HIGH RESOLUTION SCHEMES FOR CONSERVATION LAWS AND CONVECTION-DIFFUSION EQUATIONS WITH VARYING TIME AND SPACE GRIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-zhong Tang; Gerald Warnecke

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a class of high resolution local time step schemes for nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws and the closely related convection-diffusion equations, by projecting the solution increments of the underlying partial differential equations (PDE)at each local time step. The main advantages are that they are of good consistency, and it is convenient to implement them. The schemes are L∞ stable, satisfy a cell entropy inequality, and may be extended to the initial boundary value problem of general unsteady PDEs with higher-order spatial derivatives. The high resolution schemes are given by combining the reconstruction technique with a second order TVD Runge-Kutta scheme or a Lax-Wendroff type method, respectively.The schemes are used to solve a linear convection-diffusion equation, the nonlinear inviscid Burgers' equation, the one- and two-dimensional compressible Euler equations, and the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The numerical results show that the schemes are of higher-order accuracy, and efficient in saving computational cost,especially, for the case of combining the present schemes with the adaptive mesh method [15]. The correct locations of the slow moving or stronger discontinuities are also obtained,although the schemes are slightly nonconservative.

  10. Conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, W; Leifeld, L; Pfützer, R

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of diverticulitis comprises at least two options: conservative or surgical management. There is a recent trend to limit surgical treatment of acute diverticulitis and to favor conservative management. This review addresses general aspects of conservative patient care with special focus on the treatment of patients with a first attack of diverticulitis. The presentation does not include a discussion of specific drugs which is given in other sections of this issue.

  11. Bi-Temporal Analysis of High-Resolution Satellite Imagery in Support of a Forest Conservation Program in Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Lambin, E.; Audy, R.; Biryahwaho, B.; de Laat, J.; Jayachandran, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies in land use sustainability have shown the conservation value of even small forest fragments in tropical smallholder agricultural regions. Forest patches provide important ecosystem services, wildlife habitat, and support human livelihoods. Our study incorporates multiple dates of high-resolution Quickbird imagery to map forest disturbance and regrowth in a smallholder agricultural landscape in western Uganda. This work is in support of a payments for ecosystem services (PES) project which uses a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of PES for enhancing forest conservation. The research presented here details the remote sensing phase of this project. We developed an object-based methodology for detecting forest change from high-resolution imagery that calculates per class image reflectance and change statistics to determine persistent forest, non-forest, forest gain, and forest loss classes. The large study area (~ 2,400 km2) necessitated using a combination of 10 different image pairs of varying seasonality, sun angle, and viewing angle. We discuss the impact of these factors on mapping results. Reflectance data was used in conjunction with texture measures and knowledge-driven modeling to derive forest change maps. First, baseline Quickbird images were mapped into tree cover and non-tree categories based on segmented image objects and field inventory data, applied through a classification and regression tree (CART) classifier. Then a bi-temporal segmentation layer was generated and a series of object metrics from both image dates were extracted. A sample set of persistent forest objects that remained undisturbed was derived from the tree cover map and the red band (B3) change values. We calculated a variety of statistical indices for these persistent tree cover objects from the post- survey imagery to create maps of both forest cover loss and forest cover gain. These results are compared to visually assessed image objects in addition

  12. A Web-Based GIS for Reporting Water Usage in the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, M.; Deeds, N.; Winckler, M.

    2012-12-01

    The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Recent rule changes have motivated HPWD to develop a more automated system to allow owners and operators to report well locations, meter locations, meter readings, the association between meters and wells, and contiguous acres. INTERA, Inc. has developed a web-based interactive system for HPWD water users to report water usage and for the district to better manage its water resources. The HPWD web management system utilizes state-of-the-art GIS techniques, including cloud-based Amazon EC2 virtual machine, ArcGIS Server, ArcSDE and ArcGIS Viewer for Flex, to support web-based water use management. The system enables users to navigate to their area of interest using a well-established base-map and perform a variety of operations and inquiries against their spatial features. The application currently has six components: user privilege management, property management, water meter registration, area registration, meter-well association and water use report. The system is composed of two main databases: spatial database and non-spatial database. With the help of Adobe Flex application at the front end and ArcGIS Server as the middle-ware, the spatial feature geometry and attributes update will be reflected immediately in the back end. As a result, property owners, along with the HPWD staff, collaborate together to weave the fabric of the spatial database. Interactions between the spatial and non-spatial databases are established by Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services to record water-use report, user-property associations, owner-area associations, as well as meter-well associations. Mobile capabilities will be enabled in the near future for field workers to collect data and synchronize them to the spatial database. The entire solution is built on a highly scalable cloud

  13. Biodiversity Conservation in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Dale Squires

    2014-01-01

    Asian's remarkable economic growth brought many benefits but also fuelled threats to its ecosystems and biodiversity. Economic growth brings biodiversity threats but also conservation opportunities. Continued biodiversity loss is inevitable, but the types, areas and rates of biodiversity loss are not. Prioritising biodiversity conservation, tempered by what is tractable, remains a high priority. Policy and market distortions and failures significantly underprice biodiversity, undermine ecosys...

  14. Genetic diversity and genetic structure of an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified agricultural landscape: implications for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunny, Armando; Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Mendoza-Martínez, Germán David; Martínez-Gómez, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    It is necessary to determine genetic diversity of fragmented populations in highly modified landscapes to understand how populations respond to land-use change. This information will help guide future conservation and management strategies. We conducted a population genetic study on an endemic Mexican Dusky Rattlesnake (Crotalus triseriatus) in a highly modified landscape near the Toluca metropolitan area, in order to provide crucial information for the conservation of this species. There was medium levels of genetic diversity, with a few alleles and genotypes. We identified three genetically differentiated clusters, likely as a result of different habitat cover type. We also found evidence of an ancestral genetic bottleneck and medium values of effective population size. Inbreeding coefficients were low and there was a moderate gene flow. Our results can be used as a basis for future research and C. triseriatus conservation efforts, particularly considering that the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is heavily impacted by destructive land-use practices.

  15. Quantum Implementation of Unitary Coupled Cluster for Simulating Molecular Electronic Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yangchao; Zhang, Shuaining; Zhang, Jing-Ning; Yung, Man-Hong; Kim, Kihwan

    2015-01-01

    Quantum simulation represents an efficient solution to a certain classically intractable problem in various research area including quantum chemistry. The central problem of quantum chemistry is to determine the electronic structure and the ground-state energy of atoms and molecules. The exact classical calculation of the problem is demanding even for molecules with moderate size due to the "exponential catastrophe." To deal with such quantum chemistry problem, the coupled-cluster methods have been successfully developed, which are considered to be the current "gold standard" in classical computational chemistry. However, the coupled-cluster ansatz is built with non-unitary operation, which leads to drawbacks such as lacking variational bound of ground-state energy. The unitary version of the coupled-cluster methods would perfectly address the problem, whereas it is classically inefficient without proper truncation of the infinite series expansion. It has been a long-standing challenge to build an efficient c...

  16. Entanglement Entropy from Corner Transfer Matrix in Forrester Baxter non-unitary RSOS models

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Using a Corner Transfer Matrix approach, we compute the bipartite entanglement R\\'enyi entropy in the off-critical perturbations of non-unitary conformal minimal models realised by lattice spin chains Hamiltonians related to the Forrester Baxter RSOS models in regime III. This allows to show on a set of explicit examples that the R\\'enyi entropies for non-unitary theories rescale near criticality as the logarithm of the correlation length with a coefficient proportional to the effective central charge. This complements a similar result, recently established for the size rescaling at the critical point, showing the expected agreement of the two behaviours. We also compute the first subleading unusual correction to the scaling behaviour, showing that it is expressible in terms of expansions of various fractional powers of the correlation length, related to the differences $\\Delta-\\Delta_{\\min}$ between the conformal dimensions of fields in the theory and the minimal conformal dimension. Finally, a few observati...

  17. A Proposal for measuring Anisotropic Shear Viscosity in Unitary Fermi Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, Rickmoy; Trivedi, Sandip P

    2016-01-01

    We present a proposal to measure anisotropic shear viscosity in a strongly interacting, ultra-cold, unitary Fermi gas confined in a harmonic trap. We introduce anisotropy in this setup by strongly confining the gas in one of the directions with relatively weak confinement in the remaining directions. This system has a close resemblance to anisotropic strongly coupled field theories studied recently in the context of gauge-gravity duality. Computations in such theories (which have gravity duals) revealed that some of the viscosity components of the anisotropic shear viscosity tensor can be made much smaller than the entropy density, thus parametrically violating the bound proposed by Kovtun, Son and Starinets (KSS): $\\frac {\\eta} {s} \\geq \\frac{1}{4 \\pi}$. A Boltzmann analysis performed in a system of weakly interacting particles in a linear potential also shows that components of the viscosity tensor can be reduced. Motivated by these exciting results, we propose two hydrodynamic modes in the unitary Fermi ga...

  18. Exact Calculations of Vertex (-s)γb and (-s)Zb in the Unitary Gauge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present the exact calculations for the vertex -sγb and -sZb in the unitary gauge. We find that we sum up the contributions from four related Feynman diagrams; (b) for an on-shell photon, such terms do not contribute et al.; (c) for off-shell photon, these terms will be canceled when the contributions from both vertex -sγb and -sZb are taken into account simultaneously, and therefore the finite and gauge-independent function Z0 (xt) = C0 (xt) + D0 (xt) / 4,which governs the semi-leptonic decay b → sl-l+, is derived in the unitary gauge.

  19. Beamspace Unitary ESPRIT Algorithm for Angle Estimation in Bistatic MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Xiaofang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The beamspace unitary ESPRIT (B-UESPRIT algorithm for estimating the joint direction of arrival (DOA and the direction of departure (DOD in bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar is proposed. The conjugate centrosymmetrized DFT matrix is utilized to retain the rotational invariance structure in the beamspace transformation for both the receiving array and the transmitting array. Then the real-valued unitary ESPRIT algorithm is used to estimate DODs and DOAs which have been paired automatically. The proposed algorithm does not require peak searching, presents low complexity, and provides a significant better performance compared to some existing methods, such as the element-space ESPRIT (E-ESPRIT algorithm and the beamspace ESPRIT (B-ESPRIT algorithm for bistatic MIMO radar. Simulation results are conducted to show these conclusions.

  20. M-P invertible matrices and unitary groups over Fq2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴宗铎; 万哲先

    2002-01-01

    The Moor-Penrose generalized inverses (M-P inverses for short) of matrices over a finite field Fq2, which is a generalization of the Moor-Penrose generalized inverses over the complex field, are studied in the present paper. Some necessary and sufficient conditions for an m×n matrix A over Fq2 having an M-P inverse are obtained, which make clear the set of m×n matrices over Fq2 having M-P inverses and reduce the problem of constructing and enumerating the M-P invertible matrices to that of constructing and enumerating the non-isotropic subspaces with respect to the unitary group. Based on this reduction, both the construction problem and the enumeration problem are solved by borrowing the results in geometry of unitary groups over finite fields.

  1. Comparison of the unitary pole and Adhikari-Sloan expansions in the three-nucleon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afnan, I.R.; Birrell, N.D.

    1977-08-01

    The binding energy of /sup 3/H, the percentage S-, S'-, and D-state probability, and the charge form factor of /sup 3/He are calculated using the unitary pole and Adhikari-Sloan separable expansions to the Reid soft core potential. Comparison of the results for the two separable expansions show that the expansion of Adhikari and Sloan has the better convergence property, and the lowest rank expansion considered (equivalent to the unitary pole approximation) gives a good approximation to the binding energy of /sup 3/H and the charge form factor of /sup 3/He, even at large momentum transfer (K/sup 2/ < 20 fm/sup -2/).

  2. The $\\Xi^* \\bar{K}$ and $\\Omega \\eta$ interaction within a chiral unitary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Siqi; Chen, Xurong; Jia, Duojie

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the interaction of the coupled channels $\\Omega \\eta$ and $\\Xi^* \\bar{K}$ within the chiral unitary approach. The systems under consideration have total isospins $0$, strangeness $S = -3$, and spin $3/2$. We studied the $s$ wave interaction which implies that the possible resonances generated in the system can have spin-parity $J^P = 3/2^-$. The unitary amplitudes in coupled channels develop poles that can be associated with some known baryonic resonances. We find there is a dynamically generated $3/2^-$ $\\Omega$ state with mass around $1800$ MeV, which is in agreement with the predictions of the five-quark model.

  3. A Remark on the Unitary Group of a Tensor Product of Finite-Dimensional Hilbert Spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K R Parthasarathy

    2003-02-01

    Let $H_i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n$ be complex finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces of dimension $d_i, 1 ≤ i ≤ n$ respectively with $d_i ≥ 2$ for every . By using the method of quantum circuits in the theory of quantum computing as outlined in Nielsen and Chuang [2] and using a key lemma of Jaikumar [1] we show that every unitary operator on the tensor product $H = H_1 \\otimes H_2 \\otimes\\ldots \\otimes H_n$ can be expressed as a composition of a finite number of unitary operators living on pair products $H_i \\otimes H_j, 1 ≤ i, j ≤ n$. An estimate of the number of operators appearing in such a composition is obtained.

  4. Non-Perturbative, Unitary Quantum-Particle Scattering Amplitudes from Three-Particle Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindesay, James V

    2002-03-19

    We here use our non-perturbative, cluster decomposable relativistic scattering formalism to calculate photon-spinor scattering, including the related particle-antiparticle annihilation amplitude. We start from a three-body system in which the unitary pair interactions contain the kinematic possibility of single quantum exchange and the symmetry properties needed to identify and substitute antiparticles for particles. We extract from it unitary two-particle amplitude for quantum-particle scattering. We verify that we have done this correctly by showing that our calculated photon-spinor amplitude reduces in the weak coupling limit to the usual lowest order, manifestly covariant (QED) result with the correct normalization. That we are able to successfully do this directly demonstrates that renormalizability need not be a fundamental requirement for all physically viable models.

  5. Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnels. Part 3: Angle of attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    1992-01-01

    A review of optical sensors that are capable of accurate angle of attack measurements in wind tunnels was conducted. These include sensors being used or being developed at NASA Ames and Langley Research Centers, Boeing Airplane Company, McDonald Aircraft Company, Arnold Engineering Development Center, National Aerospace Laboratory of the Netherlands, National Research Council of Canada, and the Royal Aircraft Establishment of England. Some commercial sensors that may be applicable to accurate angle measurements were also reviewed. It was found that the optical sensor systems were based on interferometers, polarized light detector, linear or area photodiode cameras, position sensing photodetectors, and laser scanners. Several of the optical sensors can meet the requirements of the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Two of these, the Boeing interferometer and the Complere lateral effect photodiode sensors are being developed for the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel.

  6. Quantum implementation of the unitary coupled cluster for simulating molecular electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yangchao; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Shuaining; Zhang, Jing-Ning; Yung, Man-Hong; Kim, Kihwan

    2017-02-01

    In classical computational chemistry, the coupled-cluster ansatz is one of the most commonly used ab initio methods, which is critically limited by its nonunitary nature. The unitary modification as an ideal solution to the problem is, however, extremely inefficient in classical conventional computation. Here, we provide experimental evidence that indeed the unitary version of the coupled-cluster ansatz can be reliably performed in a physical quantum system, a trapped-ion system. We perform a simulation on the electronic structure of a molecular ion (HeH+), where the ground-state energy surface curve is probed, the energies of the excited states are studied, and bond dissociation is simulated nonperturbatively. Our simulation takes advantages from quantum computation to overcome the intrinsic limitations in classical computation, and our experimental results indicate that the method is promising for preparing molecular ground states for quantum simulations.

  7. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1×M bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a , uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  8. Annihilator varieties, highest derivatives, Whittaker functionals, and rank for unitary representations of GL(n,R)

    CERN Document Server

    Gourevitch, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study irreducible unitary representations of GL(n,R) and prove a number of results. Our first result establishes a precise connection between the annihilator of a representation and the existence of degenerate Whittaker functionals, for both smooth and K-finite vectors, thereby generalizing results of Kostant, Matumoto and others. Our second result relates the annihilator to the sequence of highest derivatives, as defined in this setting by one of the authors. Based on those results, we suggest a new notion of rank of a smooth admissible representation of GL(n,R), which for unitarizable representations refines Howe's notion of rank. Our third result computes the highest derivatives for (almost) all unitary representations in terms of the Vogan classification. We also indicate briefly the analogous results over complex and p-adic fields.

  9. Mimicking Dirac fields in curved spacetime with fermions in lattices with non-unitary tunneling amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minář, Jiří; Grémaud, Benoît

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we show that a Dirac Hamiltonian in a curved background spacetime can be interpreted, when discretized, as a tight-binding Hamiltonian with non-unitary tunneling amplitudes. We find the form of the non-unitary tunneling matrices in terms of the metric tensor. The main motivation behind this exercise is the feasibility of such Hamiltonians by means of laser-assisted tunnelings in cold atomic experiments. The mapping thus provides a physical interpretation of such Hamiltonians. We demonstrate the use of the mapping on the example of a time-dependent metric in 2+1 dimensions. Studying the spin dynamics, we find qualitative agreement with known theoretical predictions, namely particle pair creation in an expanding Universe.

  10. Operators associated with soft and hard spectral edges from unitary ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blower, Gordon

    2008-01-01

    Using Hankel operators and shift-invariant subspaces on Hilbert space, this paper develops the theory of the integrable operators associated with soft and hard edges of eigenvalue distributions of random matrices. Such Tracy-Widom operators are realized as controllability operators for linear systems, and are reproducing kernels for weighted Hardy spaces, known as Sonine spaces. Periodic solutions of Hill's equation give a new family of Tracy-Widom type operators. This paper identifies a pair of unitary groups that satisfy the von Neumann-Weyl anti-commutation relations and leave invariant the subspaces of L2 that are the ranges of projections given by the Tracy-Widom operators for the soft edge of the Gaussian unitary ensemble and hard edge of the Jacobi ensemble.

  11. Operational flow visualization techniques in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    The unitary plan wind tunnel (UPWT) uses in daily operation are shown. New ideas for improving the quality of established flow visualization methods are developed and programs on promising new flow visualization techniques are pursued. The unitary plan wind tunnel is a supersonic facility, referred to as a production facility, although the majority of tests are inhouse basic research investigations. The facility has two 4 ft. by 4 ft. test sections which span a Mach range from 1.5 to 4.6. The cost of operation is about $10 per minute. Problems are the time required for a flow visualization test setup and investigation costs and the ability to obtain consistently repeatable results. Examples of sublimation, vapor screen, oil flow, minitufts, schlieren, and shadowgraphs taken in UPWT are presented. All tests in UPWT employ one or more of the flow visualization techniques.

  12. Quantum Secret Sharing Protocol between Multiparty and Multiparty with Single Photons and Unitary Transformations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Feng-Li; GAO Ting; LI You-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ We propose a scheme of quantum secret sharing between Alice's group and Bob's group with single photons and unitary transformations. In the protocol, one member in Alice's group prepares a sequence of single photons in one of four different states, while other members directly encode their information on the sequence of single photons via unitary operations; after that, the last member sends the sequence of single photons to Bob's group.Then Bob's, except for the last one, do work similarly. Finally the last member in Bob's group measures the qubits. If the security of the quantum channel is guaranteed by some tests, then the qubit states sent by the last member of Alice's group can be used as key bits for secret sharing. It is shown that this scheme is safe.

  13. A highly Conserved Aspartic Acid Residue of the Chitosanase from Bacillus Sp. TS Is Involved in the Substrate Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhanping; Zhao, Shuangzhi; Liu, Yang; Chang, Zhengying; Ma, Yanhe; Li, Jian; Song, Jiangning

    2016-11-01

    The chitosanase from Bacillus sp. TS (CsnTS) is an enzyme belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 8. The sequence of CsnTS shares 98 % identity with the chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17. Crystallography analysis and site-direct mutagenesis of the chitosanase from Bacillus sp. K17 identified the important residues involved in the catalytic interaction and substrate binding. However, despite progress in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the chitosanase from the family GH8, the functional roles of some residues that are highly conserved throughout this family have not been fully elucidated. This study focused on one of these residues, i.e., the aspartic acid residue at position 318. We found that apart from asparagine, mutation of Asp318 resulted in significant loss of enzyme activity. In-depth investigations showed that mutation of this residue not only impaired enzymatic activity but also affected substrate binding. Taken together, our results showed that Asp318 plays an important role in CsnTS activity.

  14. The conserved lymphokine element-0 in the IL5 promoter binds to a high mobility group-1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo, J; Marsh, D G; Ghosh, B

    1996-10-01

    The conserved lymphokine elements-0 (CLE0) in the IL5 promoter is essential for the expression of IL-5. Here, we report the cloning and expression of a cDNA encoding a novel CLE0-binding protein, CLEBP-1 from a mouse Th2 clone, D10.G4.1. Interestingly, it was found that the CLEBP1 cDNA sequence was almost identical to the sequences of known high mobility group-1 (HMG1) cDNAs. When expressed as a recombinant fusion protein in Escherichia coli, CLEBP-1 was shown to bind to the IL5-CLE0 element in electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (EMSA) and southwestern blot analysis. The CLEBP-1 fusion protein cross-reacts with and-HMG-1/2 in Western blot analysis. It also binds to the CLE0 elements of IL4, GMCSF and GCSF genes. CLEBP-1 and closely related HMG-1 and HMG-2 proteins may play key roles in facilitating the expression of the lymphokine genes that contain CLE0 elements.

  15. The highly conserved human cytomegalovirus UL136 ORF generates multiple Golgi-localizing protein isoforms through differential translation initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Huanan; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kondo, Rikita; Katata, Marei; Imadome, Ken-Ichi; Miyado, Kenji; Inoue, Naoki; Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-22

    The UL133-UL138 locus in the unique long b' (ULb') region of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) genome is considered to play certain roles in viral replication, dissemination and latency in a host cell type-dependent manner. Here we characterized the proteins encoded by UL136, one of the open reading frames (ORFs) in the locus. Comparative sequence analysis of UL136 among clinical isolates and laboratory strains indicates that its predicted amino-acid sequence is highly conserved. A polyclonal antibody against UL136 proteins (pUL136s) was raised against its carboxy-terminal region and this antibody specifically recognized at least five UL136-encoded protein isoforms of 29-17 kDa both in HCMV-infected cells and in cells transfected with a construct expressing pUL136. Immunofluorescence analysis with this antibody revealed localization of pUL136 in the Golgi apparatus. Analysis of several pUL136 mutants indicated that the putative transmembrane domain of pUL136 is required for its Golgi localization. Mutational analysis of multiple AUG codons in UL136 demonstrated that translation initiation from these AUG codons contributes in the generation of pUL136 isoforms.

  16. The sequence organization of Yp/proximal Xq homologous regions of the human sex chromosomes is highly conserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, C A; Briggs, H; Chalmers, I J; Lambson, B; Walker, E; Affara, N A

    1996-03-01

    Detailed deletion analysis of patients with breakpoints in Yp has allowed the definition of two distinct intervals on the Y chromosome short arm outside the pseudoautosomal region that are homologous to Xq2l.3. Detailed YAC contigs have been developed over these regions on both the X and Y chromosomes, and the relative order of markers has been compared to assess whether rearrangements on either sex chromosome have occurred since the transposition events creating these patterns of homology. On the X chromosome, the region forms almost one contiguous block of homology, whereas on the Y chromosome, there has been one major rearrangement leading to the two separate Yp-Xq2l blocks of homology. The rearrangement breakpoint has been mapped. Within these separate X-Y homologous blocks on Yp, the order of loci homologous to X has been conserved to a high degree between the sex chromosomes. With the exception of the amelogenin gene (proximal Yp block), all the XY homologous sequences in the two Yp blocks have homolognes in Xq2l.3, with the former having its X counterpart in Xp22.2. This suggests an independent evolutionary event leading to the formation of the amelogenin X-Y homology.

  17. Assessment of some high-order finite difference schemes on the scalar conservation law with periodical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina BOGOI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supersonic/hypersonic flows with strong shocks need special treatment in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD in order to accurately capture the discontinuity location and his magnitude. To avoid numerical instabilities in the presence of discontinuities, the numerical schemes must generate low dissipation and low dispersion error. Consequently, the algorithms used to calculate the time and space-derivatives, should exhibit a low amplitude and phase error. This paper focuses on the comparison of the numerical results obtained by simulations with some high resolution numerical schemes applied on linear and non-linear one-dimensional conservation low. The analytical solutions are provided for all benchmark tests considering smooth periodical conditions. All the schemes converge to the proper weak solution for linear flux and smooth initial conditions. However, when the flux is non-linear, the discontinuities may develop from smooth initial conditions and the shock must be correctly captured. All the schemes accurately identify the shock position, with the price of the numerical oscillation in the vicinity of the sudden variation. We believe that the identification of this pure numerical behavior, without physical relevance, in 1D case is extremely useful to avoid problems related to the stability and convergence of the solution in the general 3D case.

  18. Unitary version of the single-particle dispersive optical model and single-hole excitations in medium-heavy spherical nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolomiytsev, G. V.; Igashov, S. Yu.; Urin, M. H.

    2017-07-01

    A unitary version of the single-particle dispersive optical model was proposed with the aim of applying it to describing high-energy single-hole excitations in medium-heavy mass nuclei. By considering the example of experimentally studied single-hole excitations in the 90Zr and 208Pb parent nuclei, the contribution of the fragmentation effect to the real part of the optical-model potential was estimated quantitatively in the framework of this version. The results obtained in this way were used to predict the properties of such excitations in the 132Sn parent nucleus.

  19. Highly conserved serine residue 40 in HIV-1 p6 regulates capsid processing and virus core assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solbak Sara MØ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV-1 p6 Gag protein regulates the final abscission step of nascent virions from the cell membrane by the action of two late assembly (L- domains. Although p6 is located within one of the most polymorphic regions of the HIV-1 gag gene, the 52 amino acid peptide binds at least to two cellular budding factors (Tsg101 and ALIX, is a substrate for phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, and mediates the incorporation of the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr into viral particles. As expected, known functional domains mostly overlap with several conserved residues in p6. In this study, we investigated the importance of the highly conserved serine residue at position 40, which until now has not been assigned to any known function of p6. Results Consistently with previous data, we found that mutation of Ser-40 has no effect on ALIX mediated rescue of HIV-1 L-domain mutants. However, the only feasible S40F mutation that preserves the overlapping pol open reading frame (ORF reduces virus replication in T-cell lines and in human lymphocyte tissue cultivated ex vivo. Most intriguingly, L-domain mediated virus release is not dependent on the integrity of Ser-40. However, the S40F mutation significantly reduces the specific infectivity of released virions. Further, it was observed that mutation of Ser-40 selectively interferes with the cleavage between capsid (CA and the spacer peptide SP1 in Gag, without affecting cleavage of other Gag products. This deficiency in processing of CA, in consequence, led to an irregular morphology of the virus core and the formation of an electron dense extra core structure. Moreover, the defects induced by the S40F mutation in p6 can be rescued by the A1V mutation in SP1 that generally enhances processing of the CA-SP1 cleavage site. Conclusions Overall, these data support a so far unrecognized function of p6 mediated by Ser-40 that occurs independently of the L-domain function, but selectively

  20. Eta-photoproduction in a gauge-invariant chiral unitary framework

    CERN Document Server

    Ruic, Dino; Meissner, Ulf-G

    2011-01-01

    We analyse photoproduction of eta mesons off the proton in a gauge-invariant chiral unitary framework. The interaction kernel for meson-baryon scattering is derived from the leading order chiral effective Lagrangian and iterated in a Bethe-Salpeter equation. The recent precise threshold data from the Crystal Ball at MAMI can be described rather well and the complex pole corresponding to the S11(1535) is extracted. An extension of the kernel is also discussed.

  1. Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnel. Part 5: Infrared imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    1992-01-01

    A survey of infrared thermography for aerodynamics was made. Particular attention was paid to boundary layer transition detection. IR thermography flow visualization of 2-D and 3-D separation was surveyed. Heat transfer measurements and surface temperature measurements were also covered. Comparisons of several commercial IR cameras were made. The use of a recently purchased IR camera in the Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels was studied. Optical access for these facilities and the methods to scan typical models was investigated.

  2. Phases of quantum states in completely positive non-unitary evolution

    CERN Document Server

    De Faria, J G P; Nemes, M C

    2003-01-01

    We define an operational notion of phases in interferometry for a quantum system undergoing a completely positive non-unitary evolution. This definition is based on the concepts of quantum measurement theory. The suitable generalization of the Pancharatnan connection allows us to determine the dynamical and geometrical parts of the total phase between two states linked by a completely positive map. These results reduce to the knonw expressions of total, dynamical and geometrical phases for pure and mixed states evolving unitarily.

  3. Realization of Arbitrary Inverse Unitary Transformation of Single Mode Fibre by Using Three Wave Plates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-Kai; REN Ji-Gang; PENG Cheng-Zhi; JIANG Shuo; WANG Xiang-Bin

    2007-01-01

    We report a method to realize the arbitrary inverse unitary transformation imposed by a single-mode fibre on photon's polarization by the succession of two quarter-wave plates and a half-wave plate. The process of realization by polarization state vector. The method is meaningful in quantum communication experiment such as quantum teleportation, in which an unknown arbitrary quantum state should be kept to be unchanged in the case of using a single-mode fibre for time delay.

  4. Algebraic synthesis of time-optimal unitaries in SU(2) with alternating controls

    OpenAIRE

    Aiello, Clarice D.; Allegra, Michele; Hemmerling, Boerge; Wang, Xiaoting; Cappellaro, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We present an algebraic framework to study the time-optimal synthesis of arbitrary unitaries in SU(2), when the control set is restricted to rotations around two non-parallel axes in the Bloch sphere. Our method bypasses commonly used control-theoretical techniques, and easily imposes necessary conditions on time-optimal sequences. In a straightforward fashion, we prove that time-optimal sequences are solely parametrized by three rotation angles and derive general bounds on those angles as a ...

  5. Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnel: Digital image processing, part 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    1993-01-01

    A survey of digital image processing techniques and processing systems for aerodynamic images has been conducted. These images covered many types of flows and were generated by many types of flow diagnostics. These include laser vapor screens, infrared cameras, laser holographic interferometry, Schlieren, and luminescent paints. Some general digital image processing systems, imaging networks, optical sensors, and image computing chips were briefly reviewed. Possible digital imaging network systems for the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnel were explored.

  6. REDUCED-COMPLEXITY DECODING ALGORITHMS FOR UNITARY SPACE-TIME CODES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Xin; Yi Kechu; Tian Bin; Sun Yongjun

    2007-01-01

    Two reduced-complexity decoding algorithms for unitary space-time codes based on tree-structured constellation are presented. In this letter original unitary space-time constellation is divided into several groups. Each one is treated as the leaf nodes set of a subtree. Choosing the unitary signals that represent each group as the roots of these subtrees generates a tree-structured constellation.The proposed tree search decoder decides to which sub tree the receive signal belongs by searching in the set of subtree roots. The final decision is made after a local search in the leaf nodes set of the selected sub tree. The adjacent subtree joint decoder performs joint search in the selected sub tree and its "surrounding" subtrees, which improves the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of purely tree search method. The exhaustively search in the whole constellation is avoided in our proposed decoding algorithms, a lower complexity is obtained compared to that of Maximum Likelihood (ML) decoding.Simulation results have also been provided to demonstrate the feasibility of these new methods.

  7. On the complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal superconformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Oliver

    2009-08-03

    Aiming at a complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal models (where the assumption of space-time supersymmetry has been dropped), it is shown that each candidate for a modular invariant partition function of such a theory is indeed the partition function of a minimal model. A family of models constructed via orbifoldings of either the diagonal model or of the space-time supersymmetric exceptional models demonstrates that there exists a unitary N=2 minimal model for every one of the allowed partition functions in the list obtained from Gannon's work. Kreuzer and Schellekens' conjecture that all simple current invariants can be obtained as orbifolds of the diagonal model, even when the extra assumption of higher-genus modular invariance is dropped, is confirmed in the case of the unitary N=2 minimal models by simple counting arguments. We nd a nice characterisation of the projection from the Hilbert space of a minimal model with k odd to its modular invariant subspace, and we present a new simple proof of the superconformal version of the Verlinde formula for the minimal models using simple currents. Finally we demonstrate a curious relation between the generating function of simple current invariants and the Riemann zeta function. (orig.)

  8. Construction of Non-Perturbative, Unitary Particle-Antiparticle Amplitudes for Finite Particle Number Scattering Formalisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindesay, James V

    2002-03-12

    Starting from a unitary, Lorentz invariant two-particle scattering amplitude, we show how to use an identification and replacement process to construct a unique, unitary particle-antiparticle amplitude. This process differs from conventional on-shell Mandelstam s,t,u crossing in that the input and constructed amplitudes can be off-diagonal and off-energy shell. Further, amplitudes are constructed using the invariant parameters which are appropriate to use as driving terms in the multi-particle, multichannel nonperturbative, cluster decomposable, relativistic scattering equations of the Faddeev-type integral equations recently presented by Alfred, Kwizera, Lindesay and Noyes. It is therefore anticipated that when so employed, the resulting multi-channel solutions will also be unitary. The process preserves the usual particle-antiparticle symmetries. To illustrate this process, we construct a J=0 scattering length model chosen for simplicity. We also exhibit a class of physical models which contain a finite quantum mass parameter and are Lorentz invariant. These are constructed to reduce in the appropriate limits, and with the proper choice of value and sign of the interaction parameter, to the asymptotic solution of the nonrelativistic Coulomb problem, including the forward scattering singularity , the essential singularity in the phase, and the Bohr bound-state spectrum.

  9. Conserved cis-regulatory modules in promoters of genes encoding wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravel, Catherine; Fiquet, Samuel; Boudet, Julie; Dardevet, Mireille; Vincent, Jonathan; Merlino, Marielle; Michard, Robin; Martre, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The concentration and composition of the gliadin and glutenin seed storage proteins (SSPs) in wheat flour are the most important determinants of its end-use value. In cereals, the synthesis of SSPs is predominantly regulated at the transcriptional level by a complex network involving at least five cis-elements in gene promoters. The high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) are encoded by two tightly linked genes located on the long arms of group 1 chromosomes. Here, we sequenced and annotated the HMW-GS gene promoters of 22 electrophoretic wheat alleles to identify putative cis-regulatory motifs. We focused on 24 motifs known to be involved in SSP gene regulation. Most of them were identified in at least one HMW-GS gene promoter sequence. A common regulatory framework was observed in all the HMW-GS gene promoters, as they shared conserved cis-regulatory modules (CCRMs) including all the five motifs known to regulate the transcription of SSP genes. This common regulatory framework comprises a composite box made of the GATA motifs and GCN4-like Motifs (GLMs) and was shown to be functional as the GLMs are able to bind a bZIP transcriptional factor SPA (Storage Protein Activator). In addition to this regulatory framework, each HMW-GS gene promoter had additional motifs organized differently. The promoters of most highly expressed x-type HMW-GS genes contain an additional box predicted to bind R2R3-MYB transcriptional factors. However, the differences in annotation between promoter alleles could not be related to their level of expression. In summary, we identified a common modular organization of HMW-GS gene promoters but the lack of correlation between the cis-motifs of each HMW-GS gene promoter and their level of expression suggests that other cis-elements or other mechanisms regulate HMW-GS gene expression.

  10. High conservation level of CD8(+) T cell immunogenic regions within an unusual H1N2 human influenza variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komadina, Naomi; Quiñones-Parra, Sergio M; Kedzierska, Katherine; McCaw, James M; Kelso, Anne; Leder, Karin; McVernon, Jodie

    2016-10-01

    Current seasonal influenza vaccines require regular updates due to antigenic drift causing loss of effectiveness and therefore providing little or no protection against novel influenza A subtypes. Next generation vaccines capable of eliciting CD8(+) T cell (CTL) mediated cross-protective immunity may offer a long-term alternative strategy. However, measuring pre- and existing levels of CTL cross-protection in humans is confounded by differences in infection histories across individuals. During 2000-2003, H1N2 viruses circulated persistently in the human population for the first time and we hypothesized that the viral nucleoprotein (NP) contained novel CTL epitopes that may have contributed to the survival of the viruses. This study describes the immunogenic NP peptides of H1N1, H2N2, and H3N2 influenza viruses isolated from humans over the past century, 1918-2003, by comparing this historical dataset to reference NP peptides from H1N2 that circulated in humans during 2000-2003. Observed peptides sequences ranged from highly conserved (15%) to highly variable (12%), with variation unrelated to reported immunodominance. No unique NP peptides which were exclusive to the H1N2 viruses were noted. However, the virus had inherited the NP from a recently emerged H3N2 variant containing novel peptides, which may have assisted its persistence. Any advantage due to this novelty was subsequently lost with emergence of a newer H3N2 variant in 2003. Our approach has potential to provide insight into the population context in which influenza viruses emerge, and may help to inform immunogenic peptide selection for CTL-inducing influenza vaccines. J. Med. Virol. 88:1725-1732, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. 论成渝经济统筹发展%The Theory of Unitary Development of Chengdu and Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄庆; 滕少霞

    2005-01-01

    Chengdu and Chongqing are two megalopolises with the synthesized economic strength and the strongest urban competitiveness in the entire western region, which have very important positions in the development of western China. Through horizontal contrast of social economic developing level of the two cities, the two cities' economic foundation of unitary development is analyzed from complementary and integrative relationship. Then the policies and measures of economic unitary development of two cities is put forward.

  12. High constitutive activity of a virus-encoded seven transmembrane receptor in the absence of the conserved DRY motif (Asp-Arg-Tyr) in transmembrane helix 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; Kledal, Thomas N; Schwartz, Thue W

    2005-01-01

    The highly conserved Arg in the so-called DRY motif (Asp-Arg-Tyr) at the intracellular end of transmembrane helix 3 is in general considered as an essential residue for G protein coupling in rhodopsin-like seven transmembrane (7TM) receptors. In the open reading frame 74 (ORF74) receptor encoded ...

  13. Quantum Hamiltonian daemons: Unitary analogs of combustion engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thesing, Eike P.; Gilz, Lukas; Anglin, James R.

    2017-07-01

    Hamiltonian daemons have recently been defined classically as small, closed Hamiltonian systems which can exhibit secular energy transfer from high-frequency to low-frequency degrees of freedom (steady downconversion), analogous to the steady transfer of energy in a combustion engine from the high terahertz frequencies of molecular excitations to the low kilohertz frequencies of piston motion [L. Gilz, E. P. Thesing, and J. R. Anglin, Phys. Rev. E 94, 042127 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.94.042127]. Classical daemons achieve downconversion within a small, closed system by exploiting nonlinear resonances; the adiabatic theorem permits their operation but imposes nontrivial limitations on their efficiency. Here we investigate a simple example of a quantum mechanical daemon. In the correspondence regime it obeys similar efficiency limits to its classical counterparts, but in the strongly quantum mechanical regime the daemon operates in an entirely different manner. It maintains an engine-like behavior in a distinctly quantum mechanical form: a weight is lifted at a steady average speed through a long sequence of quantum jumps in momentum, at each of which a quantum of fuel is consumed. The quantum daemon can cease downconversion at any time through nonadiabatic Landau-Zener transitions, and continuing operation of the quantum daemon is associated with steadily growing entanglement between fast and slow degrees of freedom.

  14. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits......, although the monitoring scheme has also to some extent become dominated by local 'conservation elites' who negotiate the terrain between the state and other community members. Our findings suggest that we need to move beyond simplistic assumptions of community strategies and incentives in participatory...... conservation and allow for more adaptive and politically explicit governance spaces in protected area management....

  15. High resolution three-dimensional (256 to the 3rd) spatio-temporal measurements of the conserved scalar field in turbulent shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Werner J. A.; Buch, Kenneth A.

    Results from highly resolved three-dimensional spatio-temporal measurements of the conserved scalar field zeta(x,t) in a turbulent shear flow. Each of these experiments consists of 256 to the 3rd individual point measurements of the local instantaneous conserved scalar value in the flow. The spatial and temporal resolution of these measurements reach beyond the local Kolmogorov scale and resolve the local strain-limited molecular diffusion scale in the flow. The results clearly show molecular mixing occurring in thin strained laminar diffusion layers in a turbulent flow.

  16. The maize INDETERMINATE1 flowering time regulator defines a highly conserved zinc finger protein family in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colasanti Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize INDETERMINATE1 gene, ID1, is a key regulator of the transition to flowering and the founding member of a transcription factor gene family that encodes a protein with a distinct arrangement of zinc finger motifs. The zinc fingers and surrounding sequence make up the signature ID domain (IDD, which appears to be found in all higher plant genomes. The presence of zinc finger domains and previous biochemical studies showing that ID1 binds to DNA suggests that members of this gene family are involved in transcriptional regulation. Results Comparison of IDD genes identified in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, and all IDD genes discovered in maize EST and genomic databases, suggest that ID1 is a unique member of this gene family. High levels of sequence similarity amongst all IDD genes from maize, rice and Arabidopsis suggest that they are derived from a common ancestor. Several unique features of ID1 suggest that it is a divergent member of the maize IDD family. Although no clear ID1 ortholog was identified in the Arabidopsis genome, highly similar genes that encode proteins with identity extending beyond the ID domain were isolated from rice and sorghum. Phylogenetic comparisons show that these putative orthologs, along with maize ID1, form a group separate from other IDD genes. In contrast to ID1 mRNA, which is detected exclusively in immature leaves, several maize IDD genes showed a broad range of expression in various tissues. Further, Western analysis with an antibody that cross-reacts with ID1 protein and potential orthologs from rice and sorghum shows that all three proteins are detected in immature leaves only. Conclusion Comparative genomic analysis shows that the IDD zinc finger family is highly conserved among both monocots and dicots. The leaf-specific ID1 expression pattern distinguishes it from other maize IDD genes examined. A similar leaf-specific localization pattern was observed for the putative ID1 protein

  17. High-Throughput Sequencing and Characterization of the Small RNA Transcriptome Reveal Features of Novel and Conserved MicroRNAs in Panax ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yimian; Yuan, Lichai; Lu, Shanfa

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) play vital regulatory roles in many organisms through direct cleavage of transcripts, translational repression, or chromatin modification. Identification of miRNAs has been carried out in various plant species. However, no information is available for miRNAs from Panax ginseng, an economically significant medicinal plant species. Using the next generation high-throughput sequencing technology, we obtained 13,326,328 small RNA reads from the roots, stems, leaves and flowers of P. ginseng. Analysis of these small RNAs revealed the existence of a large, diverse and highly complicated small RNA population in P. ginseng. We identified 73 conserved miRNAs, which could be grouped into 33 families, and 28 non-conserved ones belonging to 9 families. Characterization of P. ginseng miRNA precursors revealed many features, such as production of two miRNAs from distinct regions of a precursor, clusters of two precursors in a transcript, and generation of miRNAs from both sense and antisense transcripts. It suggests the complexity of miRNA production in P. gingseng. Using a computational approach, we predicted for the conserved and non-conserved miRNA families 99 and 31 target genes, respectively, of which eight were experimentally validated. Among all predicted targets, only about 20% are conserved among various plant species, whereas the others appear to be non-conserved, indicating the diversity of miRNA functions. Consistently, many miRNAs exhibited tissue-specific expression patterns. Moreover, we identified five dehydration- and ten heat-responsive miRNAs and found the existence of a crosstalk among some of the stress-responsive miRNAs. Our results provide the first clue to the elucidation of miRNA functions in P. ginseng. PMID:22962612

  18. Conservation of the S10-spc-alpha locus within otherwise highly plastic genomes provides phylogenetic insight into the genus Leptospira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria, Berta; Ahmed, Ahmed; Zuerner, Richard L; Ahmed, Niyaz; Bulach, Dieter M; Quinteiro, Javier; Hartskeerl, Rudy A

    2008-07-16

    S10-spc-alpha is a 17.5 kb cluster of 32 genes encoding ribosomal proteins. This locus has an unusual composition and organization in Leptospira interrogans. We demonstrate the highly conserved nature of this region among diverse Leptospira and show its utility as a phylogenetically informative region. Comparative analyses were performed by PCR using primer sets covering the whole locus. Correctly sized fragments were obtained by PCR from all L. interrogans strains tested for each primer set indicating that this locus is well conserved in this species. Few differences were detected in amplification profiles between different pathogenic species, indicating that the S10-spc-alpha locus is conserved among pathogenic Leptospira. In contrast, PCR analysis of this locus using DNA from saprophytic Leptospira species and species with an intermediate pathogenic capacity generated varied results. Sequence alignment of the S10-spc-alpha locus from two pathogenic species, L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii, with the corresponding locus from the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc showed that genetic organization of this locus is well conserved within Leptospira. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of four conserved regions resulted in the construction of well-defined phylogenetic trees that help resolve questions about the interrelationships of pathogenic Leptospira. Based on the results of secY sequence analysis, we found that reliable species identification of pathogenic Leptospira is possible by comparative analysis of a 245 bp region commonly used as a target for diagnostic PCR for leptospirosis. Comparative analysis of Leptospira strains revealed that strain H6 previously classified as L. inadai actually belongs to the pathogenic species L. interrogans and that L. meyeri strain ICF phylogenetically co-localized with the pathogenic clusters. These findings demonstrate that the S10-spc-alpha locus is highly conserved throughout the genus and may be more useful in comparing

  19. Wildlife Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Clive L. Spash; Aldred, Jonathan

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we consider how conservation has arisen as a key aspect of the reaction to human-initiated degradation and disappearance of ecosystems, wild lands. and wildlife. Concern over species extinction is given an historical perspective which shows the way in which pressure on wild and natural aspects of global ecology have changed in recent centuries. The role of conservation in the struggle to protect the environment is then analysed using underlying ethical arguments behind the econo...

  20. Unitary Cyclic ESPRIT based on real-valued decomposition technique%基于实值分解技术的Unitary Cyclic ESPRIT算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志刚; 汪晋宽; 薛延波

    2007-01-01

    针对多径传播环境中的信号到来方向估计问题,提出了一种基于实值分解技术的Unitary Cyclic ESPRIT算法,通过重新构造了循环自相关矩阵的数据模型,使其具有厄尔米特特性,较好地解决了多径传播环境中信号高度相关问题,通过实值分解降低了计算量,而且具有信号选择特性.仿真实验结果证明,与Cyclic ESPRIT算法相比,该算法适应多径传播环境,具有计算量小和性能好等特点.

  1. Implementing Community-Based Comprehensive Sexuality Education with High-Risk Youth in a Conservative Environment: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor-Turner, Molly; Randall, Brandy A.; Christensen, Katie; Jacobson, Amy; Loyola Meléndez, Migdalia

    2017-01-01

    Although comprehensive sexuality education programmes have the potential to improve the sexual health and well-being of young people, many socially conservative rural states in the USA have laws and policies restricting school-based comprehensive sexuality education and supporting abstinence-only education. This paper describes the process of…

  2. "Toward High School Biology": Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better…

  3. Targeting of highly conserved Dengue virus sequences with anti-Dengue virus trans-splicing group I introns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Tresa S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue viruses (DENV are one of the most important viral diseases in the world with approximately 100 million infections and 200,000 deaths each year. The current lack of an approved tetravalent vaccine and ineffective insecticide control measures warrant a search for alternatives to effectively combat DENV. The trans-splicing variant of the Tetrahymena thermophila group I intron catalytic RNA, or ribozyme, is a powerful tool for post-transcriptional RNA modification. The nature of the ribozyme and the predictability with which it can be directed makes it a powerful tool for modifying RNA in nearly any cell type without the need for genome-altering gene therapy techniques or dependence on native cofactors. Results Several anti-DENV Group I trans-splicing introns (αDENV-GrpIs were designed and tested for their ability to target DENV-2 NGC genomes in situ. We have successfully targeted two different uracil bases on the positive sense genomic strand within the highly conserved 5'-3' cyclization sequence (CS region common to all serotypes of DENV with our αDENV-GrpIs. Our ribozymes have demonstrated ability to specifically trans-splice a new RNA sequence downstream of the targeted site in vitro and in transfected insect cells as analyzed by firefly luciferase and RT-PCR assays. The effectiveness of these αDENV-GrpIs to target infecting DENV genomes is also validated in transfected or transformed Aedes mosquito cell lines upon infection with unattenuated DENV-2 NGC. Conclusions Analysis shows that our αDENV-GrpIs have the ability to effectively trans-splice the DENV genome in situ. Notably, these results show that the αDENV-GrpI 9v1, designed to be active against all forms of Dengue virus, effectively targeted the DENV-2 NGC genome in a sequence specific manner. These novel αDENV-GrpI introns provide a striking alternative to other RNA based approaches for the transgenic suppression of DENV in transformed mosquito cells and

  4. A highly conserved motif at the COOH terminus dictates endoplasmic reticulum exit and cell surface expression of NKCC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaarour, Nancy; Demaretz, Sylvie; Defontaine, Nadia; Mordasini, David; Laghmani, Kamel

    2009-08-01

    Mutations in the apically located Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter, NKCC2, lead to type I Bartter syndrome, a life-threatening kidney disorder, yet the mechanisms underlying the regulation of mutated NKCC2 proteins in renal cells have not been investigated. Here, we identified a trihydrophobic motif in the distal COOH terminus of NKCC2 that was required for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit and surface expression of the co-transporter. Indeed, microscopic confocal imaging showed that a naturally occurring mutation depriving NKCC2 of its distal COOH-terminal region results in the absence of cell surface expression. Biotinylation assays revealed that lack of cell surface expression was associated with abolition of mature complex-glycosylated NKCC2. Pulse-chase analysis demonstrated that the absence of mature protein was not caused by reduced synthesis or increased rates of degradation of mutant co-transporters. Co-immunolocalization experiments revealed that these mutants co-localized with the ER marker protein-disulfide isomerase, demonstrating that they are retained in the ER. Cell treatment with proteasome or lysosome inhibitors failed to restore the loss of complex-glycosylated NKCC2, further eliminating the possibility that mutant co-transporters were processed by the Golgi apparatus. Serial truncation of the NKCC2 COOH terminus, followed by site-directed mutagenesis, identified hydrophobic residues (1081)LLV(1083) as an ER exit signal necessary for maturation of NKCC2. Mutation of (1081)LLV(1083) to AAA within the context of the full-length protein prevented NKCC2 ER exit independently of the expression system. This trihydrophobic motif is highly conserved in the COOH-terminal tails of all members of the cation-chloride co-transporter family, and thus may function as a common motif mediating their transport from the ER to the cell surface. Taken together, these data are consistent with a model whereby naturally occurring premature terminations that interfere with

  5. A zebrafish screen for craniofacial mutants identifies wdr68 as a highly conserved gene required for endothelin-1 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amsterdam Adam

    2006-06-01

    identification of approximately 25% of the essential genes required for craniofacial development. The identification of zebrafish models for two human disease syndromes indicates that homologs to the other genes are likely to also be relevant for human craniofacial development. The initial characterization of wdr68 suggests an important role in craniofacial development for the highly conserved Wdr68-Dyrk1 protein complexes.

  6. Inhibitory control and visuo-spatial reversibility in Piaget’s seminal number conservation task: A high-density ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoire eBorst

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present high-density ERP study on 13 adults aimed to determine whether number conservation relies on the ability to inhibit the overlearned length-equals-number strategy and then imagine the shortening of the row that was lengthened. Participants performed the number-conservation task and, after the EEG session, the mental imagery task. In the number-conservation task, first two rows with the same number of tokens and the same length were presented on a computer screen (COV condition and then, the tokens in one of the two rows were spread apart (INT condition. Participants were instructed to determine whether the two rows had an identical number of tokens. In the mental imagery task, two rows with different lengths but the same number of tokens were presented and participants were instructed to imagine the tokens in the longer row aligning with the tokens in the shorter row. In the number-conservation task, we found that the amplitudes of the centro-parietal N2 and fronto-central P3 were higher in the INT than in the COV conditions. In addition, the differences in response times between the two conditions were correlated with the differences in the amplitudes of the fronto-central P3. In light of previous results reported on the number-conservation task in adults, the present results suggest that inhibition might be necessary to succeed the number-conservation task in adults even when the transformation of the length of one of the row is displayed. Finally, we also reported correlations between the speed at which participants could imagine the shortening of one of the row in the mental imagery task, the speed at which participants could determine that the two rows had the same number of tokens after the tokens in one of the row were spread apart and the latency of the late positive parietal component in the number-conservation task. Therefore, performing the number-conservation task might involve mental transformation processes in adults.

  7. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  8. A genetic-algorithm-based method to find unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation and application to a one-bit oracle decision problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Jeongho; Yoo, Seokwon

    2014-12-01

    We propose a genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation. We formulate a simple genetic algorithm by introducing the "genetic parameter vector" of the unitary transformations to be found. In the genetic algorithm process, all components of the genetic parameter vectors are supposed to evolve to the solution parameters of the unitary transformations. We apply our method to find the optimal unitary transformations and to generalize the corresponding quantum algorithms for a realistic problem, the one-bit oracle decision problem, or the often-called Deutsch problem. By numerical simulations, we can faithfully find the appropriate unitary transformations to solve the problem by using our method. We analyze the quantum algorithms identified by the found unitary transformations and generalize the variant models of the original Deutsch's algorithm.

  9. A genetic-algorithm-based method to find unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation and application to a one-bit oracle decision problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Jeongho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seokwon [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We propose a genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation. We formulate a simple genetic algorithm by introducing the 'genetic parameter vector' of the unitary transformations to be found. In the genetic algorithm process, all components of the genetic parameter vectors are supposed to evolve to the solution parameters of the unitary transformations. We apply our method to find the optimal unitary transformations and to generalize the corresponding quantum algorithms for a realistic problem, the one-bit oracle decision problem, or the often-called Deutsch problem. By numerical simulations, we can faithfully find the appropriate unitary transformations to solve the problem by using our method. We analyze the quantum algorithms identified by the found unitary transformations and generalize the variant models of the original Deutsch's algorithm.

  10. Circular Languages Generated by Complete Splicing Systems and Pure Unitary Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Bonizzoni

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Circular splicing systems are a formal model of a generative mechanism of circular words, inspired by a recombinant behaviour of circular DNA. Some unanswered questions are related to the computational power of such systems, and finding a characterization of the class of circular languages generated by circular splicing systems is still an open problem. In this paper we solve this problem for complete systems, which are special finite circular splicing systems. We show that a circular language L is generated by a complete system if and only if the set Lin(L of all words corresponding to L is a pure unitary language generated by a set closed under the conjugacy relation. The class of pure unitary languages was introduced by A. Ehrenfeucht, D. Haussler, G. Rozenberg in 1983, as a subclass of the class of context-free languages, together with a characterization of regular pure unitary languages by means of a decidable property. As a direct consequence, we characterize (regular circular languages generated by complete systems. We can also decide whether the language generated by a complete system is regular. Finally, we point out that complete systems have the same computational power as finite simple systems, an easy type of circular splicing system defined in the literature from the very beginning, when only one rule is allowed. From our results on complete systems, it follows that finite simple systems generate a class of context-free languages containing non-regular languages, showing the incorrectness of a longstanding result on simple systems.

  11. Universal range corrections to Efimov trimers for a class of paths to the unitary limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievsky, A.; Gattobigio, M.

    2015-12-01

    Using potential models, we analyze range corrections to the universal law dictated by the Efimov theory of three bosons. In the case of finite-range interactions, we have observed that at first order, it is necessary to supplement the theory with one finite-range parameter Γn3 for each specific n level [A. Kievsky and M. Gattobigio, Phys. Rev. A 87, 052719 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.052719]. The value of Γn3 depends on the way the potentials are changed to tune the scattering length toward the unitary limit. In this work, we analyze a particular path in which the length rB=a -aB , measuring the difference between the two-body scattering length a and the energy-scattering length aB, is almost constant. Analyzing systems with very different scales, such as atomic or nuclear systems, we observe that the finite-range parameter remains almost constant along the path with a numerical value of Γ03≈0.87 for the ground-state level. This observation suggests the possibility of constructing a single universal function that incorporates finite-range effects for this class of paths. The result is used to estimate the three-body parameter κ* in the case of real atomic systems brought to the unitary limit through broad Feshbach resonances. Furthermore, we show that the finite-range parameter can be put in relation to the two-body contact C2 at the unitary limit.

  12. Fortran code for generating random probability vectors, unitaries, and quantum states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eMaziero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of generating random configurations is recognized in many areas of knowledge. Fortran was born for scientific computing and has been one of the main programming languages in this area since then. And several ongoing projects targeting towards its betterment indicate that it will keep this status in the decades to come. In this article, we describe Fortran codes produced, or organized, for the generation of the following random objects: numbers, probability vectors, unitary matrices, and quantum state vectors and density matrices. Some matrix functions are also included and may be of independent interest.

  13. The unitary ability of IQ and indexes in WAIS-IV

    OpenAIRE

    A. Orsini; Pezzuti, L.; Hulbert, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lichtenberger and Kaufman (2009, p. 167) defined unitary ability as ‘an ability […] that is represented by a cohesive set of scaled scores, each reflecting slightly different or unique aspects of the ability’. Flanagan and Kaufman (2009) and Lichtenberger and Kaufman (2012) used a difference of 23 IQ points between the highest score (Max) and the lowest score (Min) obtained by a subject in the four Indexes of the WAIS-IV to define unitarity of the total IQ score. A similar method has been use...

  14. Kottwitz's nearby cycles conjecture for a class of unitary Shimura varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Rostami, Sean

    2011-01-01

    This paper proves that the nearby cycles complex on a certain family of PEL local models is central with respect to the convolution product of sheaves on the corresponding affine flag variety. As a corollary, the semisimple trace function defined using the action of Frobenius on that nearby cycles complex is, via the sheaf-function dictionary, in the center of the corresponding Iwahori-Hecke algebra. This is commonly referred to as Kottwitz's conjecture. The reductive groups associated to the PEL local models under consideration are unramified unitary similitude groups with even dimension. The proof follows the method of [Haines-Ngo 2002].

  15. Classical states and decoherence by unitary evolution in the thermodynamic limit

    CERN Document Server

    Frasca, M

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how classical states, meant as states representing a classical object, can be produced in the thermodynamic limit, retaining the unitary evolution of quantum mechanics. Besides, using a simple model of a single spin interacting with a spin-bath, it is seen how decoherence, with the off-diagonal terms in the density matrix going to zero, can be obtained when the number of the spins in the bath is taken to go formally to infinity. In this case, indeed, the system appears to flop at a frequency being formally infinity that, from a physical standpoint, can be proved equivalent to a time average.

  16. [The unitary interpretation of article 34 interjection first of the Argentinean Penal Code in forensic psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Roberto L M

    2009-01-01

    The present essay is intended to oppose to the bipartite thesis of the capacity of penal culpability ("to be able to understand the criminality of the act or to be able to direct the actions"), a unitary thesis in which it seems biopsychologically impossible to direct the behaviour towards an object that hasn't been previously understood, nor a complete divorce of action from understanding (as it results from a maximum integration of the intellective, volitive and affective spheres of a dynamic psyche).

  17. Two $\\Lambda(1405)$ states in a chiral unitary approach with a fully-calculated loop function

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Fang-Yong; Pang, Jing-Long

    2016-01-01

    The Bethe-Salpeter equation is solved in the framework of unitary coupled-channel approximation by using the pseudoscalar meson-baryon octet interaction. The loop function of the intermediate meson and baryon is deduced accurately in a fully dimensional regularization scheme, where the off-shell correction is supplemented. Two $\\Lambda(1405)$ states are generated dynamically in the strangeness $S=-1$ and isospin $I=0$ sector, and their masses, decay widths and couplings to the meson and the baryon are similar to those values obtained in the on-shell factorization. However, the scattering amplitudes at these two poles become weaker than the cases in the on-shell factorization.

  18. A phenomenological approach to the equation of state of a unitary Fermi gas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V N Murthy; M Brack; R K Bhaduri

    2014-06-01

    We propose a phenomenological approach for the equation of state of a unitary Fermi gas. The universal equation of state is parametrized in terms of Fermi–Dirac integrals. This reproduces the experimental data over the accessible range of fugacity and normalized temperature, but cannot describe the superfluid phase transition found in the MIT experiment [Ku et al, Science 335, 563 (2012)]. The most sensitive data for compressibility and specific heat at phase transition can, however, be fitted by introducing into the grand partition function a pair of complex conjugate zeros lying in the complex fugacity plane slightly off the real axis.

  19. Scalar Lambda N and Lambda Lambda interaction in a chiral unitary approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, K; Vacas, M J V

    2006-01-01

    We study the central part of Lambda N and Lambda Lambda potential by considering the correlated and uncorrelated two-meson exchange besides the omega exchange contribution. The correlated two-meson is evaluated in a chiral unitary approach. We find that a short range repulsion is generated by the correlated two-meson potential which also produces an attraction in the intermediate distance region. The uncorrelated two-meson exchange produces a sizeable attraction in all cases which is counterbalanced by omega exchange contribution.

  20. Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnels. Part 1: Schlieren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    1992-01-01

    Alignment procedures and conceptual designs for the rapid alignment of the Ames Unitary Wind Tunnel schlieren systems were devised. The schlieren systems can be aligned by translating the light source, the mirrors, and the knife edge equal distances. One design for rapid alignment consists of a manual pin locking scheme. The other is a motorized electronic position scheme. A study of two optical concepts which can be used with the schlieren system was made. These are the 'point diffraction interferometers' and the 'focus schlieren'. Effects of vibrations were studied.