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Sample records for unitary chemical munitions

  1. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  2. Chemical Munitions Dumped at Sea near the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M.; Bissonnette, M. C.; Briggs, C. W.; Shjegstad, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Sea disposal was once internationally accepted as an appropriate method for disposal of excess, obsolete, and unserviceable conventional and chemical munitions. The past decade has seen an increase in the number and complexity of studies to assess the effects of historical munitions disposal in the oceans. The Hawai`i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) is a comprehensive deep-water (300-600 meter) investigation designed to determine the potential impact of sea-disposed munitions on the ocean environment, and vice versa, at a disposal site south of Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii. Historical records indicated that as many as 16,000 mustard-filled bombs were disposed in this area following World War II. A secondary objective of HUMMA is to determine best practices and technologies for mapping and sampling sea-disposed munitions. The overarching result from five HUMMA field programs conducted over a decade is that the greatest risk from munitions derives from direct contact; there is little evidence that leakage from munitions into the surrounding environment has a direct pathway to affect human health and the impact on the surrounding environment in Hawaii is detectable only at trace levels. This finding should be modulated based on the quantity of physical samples, which were collected around detected at control sites. Both findings support a hypothesis that the impacts of sea-disposed munitions change over time. This presentation will describe the technical approach and results of the 2014 HUMMA field program using Jason 2.

  3. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  4. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  5. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Umatilla Depot Activity, Hermiston, Oregon. Final Phase 1 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.O.; Miller, R.L.; Patton, T.G.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Tolbert, V.R.; Feldman, D.L.; Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Morrissey, J.; Rickert, L.W.; Staub, W.P.; West, D.C.

    1993-02-01

    The Umatilla Depot Activity (UMDA) near Hermiston, Oregon, is one of eight US Army installations in the continental United States where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored, and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at UMDA consists of 11.6%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts), using a method based on five measures of risk for potential human health and ecosystem/environmental effects; the effectiveness and adequacy of emergency preparedness capabilities also played a key role in the FPEIS selection methodology. In some instances, the FPEIS included generic data and assumptions that were developed to allow a consistent comparison of potential impacts among programmatic alternatives and did not include detailed conditions at each of the eight installations. The purpose of this Phase 1 report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at UMDA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those included in the FPEIS. Specifically, this Phase 1 report is intended to either confirm or reject the validity of on-site disposal for the UMDA stockpile. Using the same computation methods as in the FPEIS, new population data were used to compute potential fatalities from hypothetical disposal accidents. Results indicate that onsite disposal is clearly preferable to either continued storage at UMDA or transportation of the UMDA stockpile to another depot for disposal.

  6. Chemical Warfare Materiel in Sediment at a Deep-Water Discarded Military Munitions Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C. W.; Bissonnette, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Shjegstad, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the release and transformation of chemical agent (CA) at underwater discarded military munitions (DMM) sites is essential to determine the potential risk to human health and impact on the ocean environment; yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth at which most U.S. CA munitions were disposed. Maritime construction workers installing cables or pipelines at a CA DMM site, as well as fishermen and scientific researchers deploying bottom-contact gear, represent possible exposure pathways to human receptors. The Hawai`i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) sought to characterize a historic munitions sea-disposal site at depths between 400-650 m. During the 2014 HUMMA Sampling Survey, the Jason 2 remotely operated vehicle was used to collect sediments within two meters of suspected World War II chemical munitions, confirmed to be 100-lb M47 series bombs containing sulfur mustard. When environmental media was brought to the surface, samples were screened for distilled sulfur mustard (HD) and related agent breakdown products (ABP) (collectively referred to as chemical warfare materiel [CWM]). Detectable concentrations of HD and/or its ABP 1,4-dithiane were found in sediments collected at all CA DMM sites; HD was also detected at two control sites. The location and extent of munitions casing deterioration strongly influenced the distribution and level of CWM in sediment. The interior of the casing contained levels of CWM orders of magnitudes higher than that observed in the surrounding sediment at one meter distance, indicating the majority of the CWM is hydrolyzed as it is released from the munitions casing and a fraction of the fill materiel persists in the environment for decades following disposal. Although the potential for future site users to become exposed to CWA in recovered sediments and debris exists, the level of risk is significantly mitigated by the depth and location of the sea-disposal site.

  7. Acute toxicity of sea-dumped chemical munitions: Luminating the environmental toxicity of legacy compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammed Abdullah Christensen, Ilias; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the disarmament of Germany after the Second World War, 65,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped in the Baltic Sea. Approximately 13,000 tons containing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) of which 11,000 tons were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. This paper addresses...

  8. Innovative permeable cover system to reduce risks at a chemical munitions burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powels, C.C.; Bon, I.; Okusu, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    An innovative permeable sand cover with various integrated systems has been designed to contain and treat the Old O-Field chemical munitions landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The 18,200 m 2 (4.5 acre) landfill was used from the mid 1930s to the mid 1950s for the disposal of chemical, incendiary, and explosive munitions from domestic and foreign origins, together with contaminated wastes associated with the development and production of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The site is suspected to be contaminated with white phosphorous (WP) (which when dry, spontaneously burns when exposed to air), shock sensitive picric acid fuses and has the potential to contain large quantities of CWA-filled munitions. Historically, one to three explosions or fires occurred per ten-year period at the landfill. Such events have the potential to cause a CWA release to the environment, which could potentially affect densely populated areas. Recovery and decontamination projects conducted at the site in the late 1940s and early 1950s used large amounts of decontamination chemicals (containing solvents) and fuels which further contaminated the area. The groundwater downgradient of the landfill is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, metals, explosives and CWA degradation compounds and is currently being contained by a groundwater extraction and treatment system. This report describes a remedial action program for the site

  9. Distribution of chemical warfare agent, energetics, and metals in sediments at a deep-water discarded military munitions site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Christian; Shjegstad, Sonia M.; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Edwards, Margo H.

    2016-06-01

    There is a strong need to understand the behavior of chemical warfare agent (CWA) at underwater discarded military munitions (DMM) sites to determine the potential threat to human health or the environment, yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth at which most U.S. chemical munitions were disposed. As part of the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA), sediments adjacent to chemical and conventional DMM at depths of 400-650 m were sampled using human occupied vehicles (HOVs) in order to quantify the distribution of CWA, energetics, and select metals. Sites in the same general area, with no munitions within 50 m in any direction were sampled as a control. Sulfur mustard (HD) and its degradation product 1,4-dithiane were detected at each CWA DMM site, as well as a single sample with the HD degradation product 1,4-thioxane. An energetic compound was detected in sediment to a limited extent at one CWA DMM site. Metals common in munitions casings (i.e., Fe, Cu, and Pb) showed similar trends at the regional and site-wide scales, likely reflecting changes in marine sediment deposition and composition. This study shows HD and its degradation products can persist in the deep-marine environment for decades following munitions disposal.

  10. Bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, and metals in deep-sea shrimp from discarded military munitions sites off Pearl Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koide, Shelby; Silva, Jeff A. K.; Dupra, Vilma; Edwards, Margo

    2016-06-01

    The bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals at former military deep-water disposal sites is poorly understood. This paper presents the results of human-food-item biota sampling to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of chemical warfare agents, energetic materials, arsenic, and additional munitions-related metals in deep-sea shrimp tissue samples collected during the Hawai'i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project to date. The HUMMA investigation area is located within a former munitions sea-disposal site located south of Pearl Harbor on the island of O'ahu, Hawai'i, designated site Hawaii-05 (HI-05) by the United States Department of Defense. Indigenous deep-sea shrimp (Heterocarpus ensifer) were caught adjacent to discarded military munitions (DMM) and at control sites where munitions were absent. Tissue analysis results showed that chemical warfare agents and their degradation products were not present within the edible portions of these samples at detectable concentrations, and energetic materials and their degradation products were detected in only a few samples at concentrations below the laboratory reporting limits. Likewise, arsenic, copper, and lead concentrations were below the United States Food and Drug Administration's permitted concentrations of metals in marine biota tissue (if defined), and their presence within these samples could not be attributed to the presence of DMM within the study area based on a comparative analysis of munitions-adjacent and control samples collected. Based on this current dataset, it can be concluded that DMM existing within the HUMMA study area is not contributing to the bioaccumulation of munitions-related chemicals for the biota species investigated to date.

  11. Analysis of Biota to Evaluate the Risks Associated with Chemical Warfare Materiel Present in Sea-Disposed Military Munitions to Human Health and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C. W.; Bissonnette, M. C.; Edwards, M.; Shjegstad, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    Thousands of 100-lb M47A series bombs containing sulfur mustard were disposed in the ocean following World War II yet few studies have been conducted at sites in excess of 250 m, the depth where most discarded military munitions (DMM) were disposed. The Hawai`i Undersea Military Munitions Assessment (HUMMA) project was conducted to evaluate the risk from chemical warfare materiel (CWM) in DMM to human health, measuring ecological differences between the disposal area and nearby but otherwise similar areas, and evaluating the most efficient platforms for surveying DMM sea-disposal sites located at depths between 400-650 m. During the 2014 HUMMA Sampling Survey, the Jason 2 remotely operated vehicle was used to collect data. Shrimp were collected and analyzed to assess the potential for bioaccumulation of CWM, energetics and metals from munitions. No CWM was detected in H. ensifer tissue samples, indicating bioaccumulation is not occurring. Low levels of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 4-amino-2,6-­dinitrotoluene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, nitrobenzene, arsenic, copper, and lead were detected and the concentrations were not significantly different at DMM and control sites. No visible deformities, eroded fins, lesions, or tumors were observed on the shrimp living in the vicinity of M47A bombs. Given these results and under current and potential future uses of the HUMMA study area, health risks to likely receptors are within EPA acceptable levels. Photographic data and benthic infauna analysis were used to study benthic organisms that lived on or near munitions. There was no statistically distinguishable difference between organism distributions in dense and sparse munitions fields. Conventional munitions were found to have the greatest number of benthic infauna individuals, with control sites generally having the least number of individuals. This is consistent with the benthic macro-fauna analysis, which shows that munitions provide habitat.

  12. Estimation of the potential leakage of the chemical munitions based on two hydrodynamical models implemented for the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakacki, Jaromir; Golenko, Mariya

    2014-05-01

    Two hydrodynamical models (Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and Parallel Ocean Program (POP)) have been implemented for the Baltic Sea area that consists of locations of the dumped chemical munitions during II War World. The models have been configured based on similar data source - bathymetry, initial conditions and external forces were implemented based on identical data. The horizontal resolutions of the models are also very similar. Several simulations with different initial conditions have been done. Comparison and analysis of the bottom currents from both models have been performed. Based on it estimating of the dangerous area and critical time have been done. Also lagrangian particle tracking and passive tracer were implemented and based on these results probability of the appearing dangerous doses and its time evolution have been presented. This work has been performed in the frame of the MODUM project financially supported by NATO.

  13. Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions (Joseph F. Bunnett and Marian Mikotajczyk, Eds.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Benjamin

    1999-10-01

    What do Knute Rockne, Notre Dame's famed football coach, and Lewisite, a chemical warfare agent dubbed "the dew of death", have in common? Both owe their discovery to Father Julius Arthur Nieuwland.1 Rockne's legacy lives on in the Fighting Irish and their tradition of excellence on the gridiron. Lewisite, together with other arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents, provide a legacy that lives on, too, but with less cheerful consequences. The book Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems of Old Arsenical and 'Mustard' Munitions makes clear the challenges faced in dealing with those consequences. This book documents the proceedings of a workshop devoted to arsenical- and mustard-type chemical warfare agents and their associated munitions. The workshop, held in Poland in 1996, included nine lectures, eight posters, and three discussion groups; and the contents of all these are presented. Major support for the workshop came from the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO as part of on ongoing series of meetings, cooperative research projects, and related efforts dealing with problems leftover from the Cold War and, in the case of the arsenicals and mustards, from conflicts dating to World War I. These problems can be seen in contemporary accounts, including a January 1999 news report that the U.S. Department of Defense intends to survey Washington, DC, areas near both American University and the Catholic University of America (CUA), site of the original synthesis of Lewisite, for chemical warfare agents and other materials disposed at the end of World War I.2 The first nine chapters of the book present the workshop's lectures. Of these, readers interested in chemical weapon destruction might find especially useful the first chapter, in which Ron Mansley of the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons presents a scholarly overview covering historical aspects of the arsenicals and mustards; their production and use; prospective destruction

  14. Benthic communities in chemical munitions dumping site areas within the Baltic deeps with special focus on nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Grzelak, Katarzyna; Bełdowski, Jacek

    2016-06-01

    Assessment of biological effects of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) dumped in the Baltic Sea has been one of the tasks of the Chemical Munitions Search & Assessment (CHEMSEA) project. Three sites have been selected for investigation: Bornholm Deep, Gotland Deep and Gdansk Deep. Fauna collected from these locations were compared with the reference area located between the studied regions at similar depths below 70 m. In total, four scientific cruises occurred in different seasons between 2011 and 2013. The total lack of any representatives of macrozoobenthos in all of the investigated dumping sites was noted. As a practical matter, the Baltic deeps were inhabited by nematodes as the only meiofauna representatives. Therefore, nematodes were used as a key group to explore the faunal communities inhabiting chemical dumping sites in the Baltic deeps. In total, 42 nematode genera belonging to 18 families were identified, and the dominant genus was Sabatieria (Comesomatidae), which constituted 37.6% of the overall nematode community. There were significant differences in nematode community structure (abundance and taxa composition) between the dumping areas and the reference site (Kruskal-Wallis H=30.96, pnematode assemblages could mirror the environmental conditions.

  15. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pueblo Depot Activity, Colorado. Final, Phase 1: Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, J.W.; Blasing, T.J.; Ensminger, J.T.; Johnson, R.O.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Shor, J.T.; Staub, W.P.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1995-04-01

    Under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the US Army proposes to dispose of lethal chemical agents and munitions stored at eight existing Army installations in the continental United States. In 1988, the US Army issued the final programmatic environmental impact statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP. The FPEIS and the subsequent Record of Decision (ROD) identified an on-site disposal process as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. That is, the FPEIS determined the environmentally preferred alternative to be on-site disposal in high-temperature incinerators, while the ROD selected this alternative for implementation as the preferred method for destruction of the stockpile. In this Phase I report, the overall CSDP decision regarding disposal of the PUDA Stockpile is subjected to further analyses, and its validity at PUDA is reviewed with newer, more detailed data than those providing the basis for the conclusions in the FPEIS. The findings of this Phase I report will be factored into the scope of a site-specific environmental impact statement to be prepared for the destruction of the PUDA stockpile. The focus of this Phase I report is on those data identified as having the potential to alter the Army`s previous decision regarding disposal of the PUDA stockpile; however, several other factors beyond the scope of this Phase I report must also be acknowledged to have the potential to change or modify the Army`s decisions regarding PUDA.

  16. Combined Biological and Chemical Mechanisms for Degradation of Insensitive Munitions in the Presence of Alternate Explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-21

    substrate for respiration or fermentation , a process called endogenous respiration and endogenous fermentation respectively. In most treatments with...commercial product, process , or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement...showed that DNAN can be readily reduced by chemical and biological processes at pH 7 within 24 hours, and at pH 8 and 9 in

  17. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Anniston Army Depot, Anniston, Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, D.B. Jr.; Zimmerman, G.P.; Hillsman, E.L.; Miller, R.L.; Schoepfle, G.M.; Johnson, R.O.; Tolbert, V.R.; Kroodsma, R.L.; Rickert, L.W.; Rogers, G.O.; Staub, W.P.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this Phase I report is to examined the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at Anniston Army Depot (ANAD) in light of more detailed and more recent data than those included in the Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (EPEIS). Two principal issues are addressed: (1) whether or not the new data would result in identification of on-site disposal at ANAD as the environmentally preferred alternative (using the same selection method and data analysis tools as in the FPEIS), and (2) whether or not the new data indicate the presence of significant environmental resources that could be affected by on-site disposal at ANAD. In addition, a status report is presented on the maturity of the disposal technology (and now it could affect on-site disposal at ANAD). Inclusion of these more recent data into the FPEIS decision method resulted in confirmation of on-site disposal for ANAD. No unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD have been identified. A review of the technology status identified four principal technology developments that have occurred since publication of the FPEIS and should be of value in the implementation of on-site disposal at ANAD: the disposal of nonlethal agent at Pine Bluff Arsenal, located near Pine Bluff, Arkansas; construction and testing of facilities for disposal of stored lethal agent at Johnston Atoll, located about 1300 km (800 miles) southwest of Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean; lethal agent disposal tests at the chemical agent pilot plant operations at Tooele Army Depot, located near Salt Lake City, Utah; and equipment advances. 18 references, 13 figs., 10 tabs.

  18. 2008 Munitions Executive Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-21

    Improvement Initiative • Problem : • Ballistic performance • Parts Obsolescence • Producibility Issues • Solution: • Flight telemetry • Results...Reduced Manufacturing Costs, Increased reliability, Better understanding, Reduced complexity, Reduced touch labor, Reduced material costs • SATISFIED...Rocket Motor Demil R&D Technology •Munitions parts make-up: Munitions Items Disposition Action System ( MIDAS ) Training Directorate •Ammunition

  19. Unitary field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    A problem of construction of the unitary field theory is discussed. The preconditions of the theory are briefly described. The main attention is paid to the geometrical interpretation of physical fields. The meaning of the conceptions of diversity and exfoliation is elucidated. Two unitary field theories are described: the Weyl conformic geometry and Calitzy five-dimensioned theory. It is proposed to consider supersymmetrical theories as a new approach to the problem of a unitary field theory. It is noted that the supergravitational theories are really unitary theories, since the fields figuring there do not assume invariant expansion

  20. Military Munitions Waste Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the Military Munitions Waste Working Group in its effort to achieve the goals directed under the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT Committee) for environmental restoration and waste management. The Military Munitions Waste Working Group identified the following seven areas of concern associated with the ordnance (energetics) waste stream: unexploded ordnance; stockpiled; disposed -- at known locations, i.e., disposal pits; discharged -- impact areas, unknown disposal sites; contaminated media; chemical sureties/weapons; biological weapons; munitions production; depleted uranium; and rocket motor and fuel disposal (open burn/open detonation). Because of time constraints, the Military Munitions Waste Working Group has focused on unexploded ordnance and contaminated media with the understanding that remaining waste streams will be considered as time permits. Contents of this report are as follows: executive summary; introduction; Military Munitions Waste Working Group charter; description of priority waste stream problems; shortcomings of existing approaches, processes and technologies; innovative approaches, processes and technologies, work force planning, training, and education issues relative to technology development and cleanup; criteria used to identify and screen potential demonstration projects; list of potential candidate demonstration projects for the DOIT committee decision/recommendation and appendices

  1. Military Munitions Waste Working Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-30

    This report presents the findings of the Military Munitions Waste Working Group in its effort to achieve the goals directed under the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT Committee) for environmental restoration and waste management. The Military Munitions Waste Working Group identified the following seven areas of concern associated with the ordnance (energetics) waste stream: unexploded ordnance; stockpiled; disposed -- at known locations, i.e., disposal pits; discharged -- impact areas, unknown disposal sites; contaminated media; chemical sureties/weapons; biological weapons; munitions production; depleted uranium; and rocket motor and fuel disposal (open burn/open detonation). Because of time constraints, the Military Munitions Waste Working Group has focused on unexploded ordnance and contaminated media with the understanding that remaining waste streams will be considered as time permits. Contents of this report are as follows: executive summary; introduction; Military Munitions Waste Working Group charter; description of priority waste stream problems; shortcomings of existing approaches, processes and technologies; innovative approaches, processes and technologies, work force planning, training, and education issues relative to technology development and cleanup; criteria used to identify and screen potential demonstration projects; list of potential candidate demonstration projects for the DOIT committee decision/recommendation and appendices.

  2. Insensitive Munitions Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Insensitive Munitions Testing at RTC is conducted (IAW MILSTD-2105) at Test Area 4. Our engineers and technicians obtain data for hazards classification and safety...

  3. Optimization of Munitions Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    zones of land around each facility place a significant economic cost on the storage of munitions (Schreyer, 1970: 1). Munitions storage is a subject...ADDTOT, BTOTAL 353 REAL MPH,MW ,MPD, MPU ,4,MPNEW,MCD 354 IF (SW2.NE.0) GO TO 1 355 SW2 - 1 356 WRITE (6,2) 357 GO TO 3 358 1 IF (REC.EQ.0) GO TO 4 359 IF

  4. Leptonic unitary triangles and boomerangs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueck, Alexander; Rodejohann, Werner; Petcov, Serguey T.

    2010-01-01

    We review the idea of leptonic unitary triangles and extend the concept of the recently proposed unitary boomerangs to the lepton sector. Using a convenient parametrization of the lepton mixing, we provide approximate expressions for the side lengths and the angles of the six different triangles and give examples of leptonic unitary boomerangs. Possible applications of the leptonic unitary boomerangs are also briefly discussed.

  5. Implementation of the NEMO model for estimating the spread of leakage from chemical munitions in the Baltic Sea - the first approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    After the Second World War, during the Potsdam Conference a decision about demilitarization of Germany was made, and as a consequence, ammunition including chemical warfare agents (CWA) was dumped into the basins of the Baltic Sea. This type of weapon was stored in metal barrels that were under strong influence of electrochemical oxidation, also known as corrosion. Several tens years later, scientists were wondering what consequences for marine ecosystem could a leakage from this weapon bring. Although over 70 years passed since the Second World War, the influence of potential leakage of the CWA has not been properly estimated. Thus, the main goal of this work is to estimate dangerous area caused by potential leakage using the NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) ocean model. The NEMO ocean model is developed by the European Consortium including research institutes from France, England and Italy. The first step of this work is to implement the model for the area of the Baltic Sea. It requires generation of horizontal and vertical grid, bathymetry, atmospheric forces and lateral boundary conditions. Implemented model will have to be checked - it means it will have to pass a validation process. The Baltic Sea is one of the best measured sea in the World - as a consequence a lot of data are freely available for researchers. After validation and tuning up the model, implementation of passive tracer is planned. Passive tracer is the prognostic variable that could represent concentration of potential leakage and does not have influence on the density of the model. Based on distribution of the passive tracer, dangerous areas in the locations of dumpsites will be assessed. The research work was funded by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) under the Interreg Baltic Sea Region Programme 2014-2020, project #R013 DAIMON (Decision Aid for Marine Munitions).

  6. Unitary unified field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1976-01-01

    This is an informal exposition of some recent developments. Starting with an examination of the universality of electromagnetic and weak interactions, the attempts at their unification are outlined. The theory of unitary renormalizable self-coupled vector mesons with dynamical sources is formulated for a general group. With masses introduced as variable parameters it is shown that the theory so defined is indeed unitary. Diagrammatic rules are developed in terms of a chosen set of fictitious particles. A number of special examples are outlined including a theory with strongly interacting vector and axial vector mesons and weak mesons. Applications to weak interactions of strange particles is briefly outlined. (Auth.)

  7. On random unitary channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, Koenraad M R; Scheel, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a completely positive trace-preserving (CPT) map to be decomposable into a convex combination of unitary maps. Additionally, we set out to define a proper distance measure between a given CPT map and the set of random unitary maps, and methods for calculating it. In this way one could determine whether non-classical error mechanisms such as spontaneous decay or photon loss dominate over classical uncertainties, for example, in a phase parameter. The present paper is a step towards achieving this goal

  8. Munitions Classification Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-04

    members of the community to make their own additions to any, or all, of the classification libraries . The next phase entailed data collection over less......Include area code) 04/04/2016 Final Report August 2014 - August 2015 MUNITIONS CLASSIFICATION LIBRARY Mr. Craig Murray, Parsons Dr. Thomas H. Bell, Leidos

  9. Missile/Munition Integration Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A large complex contained within approximately 600 acres with security fencing, controlled access gates, and a munitions convoy access road. The complex is capable...

  10. Toxicity of binary chemical munition destruction products: methylphosphonic acid, methylphosphinic acid, 2-diisopropylaminoethanol, DF neutralent, and QL neutralent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Rebecca E; Hafez, Ahmed M; Kremsky, Jonathan N; Bizzigotti, George O

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the toxicity and environmental impact of neutralents produced from the hydrolysis of binary chemical agent precursor chemicals DF (methylphosphonic difluoride) and QL (2-[bis(1-methylethyl)amino]ethyl ethyl methylphosphonite). Following a literature review of the neutralent mixtures and constituents, basic toxicity tests were conducted to fill data gaps, including acute oral and dermal median lethal dose assays, the Ames mutagenicity test, and ecotoxicity tests. For methylphosphonic acid (MPA), a major constituent of DF neutralent, the acute oral LD(50) in the Sprague-Dawley rat was measured at 1888 mg/kg, and the Ames test using typical tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli was negative. The 48-h LC(50) values for pH-adjusted DF neutralent with Daphnia magna and Cyprinodon variegatus were > 2500 mg/L and 1593 mg/L, respectively. The acute oral LD(50) values in the rat for QL neutralent constituents methylphosphinic acid (MP) and 2-diisopropylaminoethanol (KB) were both determined to be 940 mg/kg, and the Ames test was negative for both. Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)-compliant ecotoxicity tests for MP and KB gave 48-h D. magna EC(50) values of 6.8 mg/L and 83 mg/L, respectively. GLP-compliant 96-h C. variegatus assays on MP and KB gave LC(50) values of 73 and 252 mg/L, respectively, and NOEC values of 22 and 108 mg/L. QL neutralent LD(50) values for acute oral and dermal toxicity tests were both > 5000 mg/kg, and the 48-h LD(50) values for D. magna and C. variegatus were 249 and 2500 mg/L, respectively. Using these data, the overall toxicity of the neutralents was assessed.

  11. Sea-dumped CW munitions - the European component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.; Stock, T.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this contribution is to outline the European magnitude of sea-dumped CW munitions. Hereby the paper attempts to provide an overview on historical dumping activities, both for conventional and chemical munitions. The potential dangers which might result from these dumping activities are discussed in brief. Among others the differences in deep sea dumping and dumping in shallow waters are evaluated. Further, the presentation will outline and discuss the different technology steps: (a) identification, (b) recovery, (c) transportation and (d) destruction (on- or off-shore), necessary for possible cleaning of dumping sites. Thereafter an evaluation of the different technologies available/applied is performed, in particular on the destruction part. Hereby the already practised experience is displayed. Based upon existing treaty regimes an actual judgment of possible application of treaty provisions for demanding cleaning up operations is discussed. The question if treaty obligations can be used to force cleaning operations is debated. A possible match of the technology package available with the scope/magnitude of the munitions dumping problem is discussed. Hereby the gaps between the size of the problem and the most suitable technologies for recovery and destruction are illustrated. The resulting answers should be regarded as possible technical guidelines for future development activities as well existing limitations to solve the problems. The papers will result in some general guidelines for future prospect on the issues of dumped munitions, in particular chemical munitions under the European context.(author)

  12. Evenly distributed unitaries: On the structure of unitary designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.; Audenaert, K.; Eisert, J.

    2007-01-01

    We clarify the mathematical structure underlying unitary t-designs. These are sets of unitary matrices, evenly distributed in the sense that the average of any tth order polynomial over the design equals the average over the entire unitary group. We present a simple necessary and sufficient criterion for deciding if a set of matrices constitutes a design. Lower bounds for the number of elements of 2-designs are derived. We show how to turn mutually unbiased bases into approximate 2-designs whose cardinality is optimal in leading order. Designs of higher order are discussed and an example of a unitary 5-design is presented. We comment on the relation between unitary and spherical designs and outline methods for finding designs numerically or by searching character tables of finite groups. Further, we sketch connections to problems in linear optics and questions regarding typical entanglement

  13. REMOTE SENSING IN DETECTING BURIED MUNITIONS FROM WORLD WAR I

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among othe...

  14. Unitary Transformation in Quantum Teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhengchuan

    2006-01-01

    In the well-known treatment of quantum teleportation, the receiver should convert the state of his EPR particle into the replica of the unknown quantum state by one of four possible unitary transformations. However, the importance of these unitary transformations must be emphasized. We will show in this paper that the receiver cannot transform the state of his particle into an exact replica of the unknown state which the sender wants to transfer if he has not a proper implementation of these unitary transformations. In the procedure of converting state, the inevitable coupling between EPR particle and environment which is needed by the implementation of unitary transformations will reduce the accuracy of the replica.

  15. Spread, Behavior, and Ecosystem Consequences of Conventional Munitions Compounds in Coastal Marine Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron J. Beck

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal marine environments are contaminated globally with a vast quantity of unexploded ordnance and munitions from intentional disposal. These munitions contain organic explosive compounds as well as a variety of metals, and represent point sources of chemical pollution to marine waters. Most underwater munitions originate from World Wars at the beginning of the twentieth century, and metal munitions housings have been impacted by extensive corrosion over the course of the following decades. As a result, the risk of munitions-related contaminant release to the water column is increasing. The behavior of munitions compounds is well-characterized in terrestrial systems and groundwater, but is only poorly understood in marine systems. Organic explosive compounds, primarily nitroaromatics and nitramines, can be degraded or transformed by a variety of biotic and abiotic mechanisms. These reaction products exhibit a range in biogeochemical characteristics such as sorption by particles and sediments, and variable environmental behavior as a result. The reaction products often exhibit increased toxicity to biological receptors and geochemical controls like sorption can limit this exposure. Environmental samples typically show low concentrations of munitions compounds in water and sediments (on the order of ng/L and μg/kg, respectively, and ecological risk appears generally low. Nonetheless, recent work demonstrates the possibility of sub-lethal genetic and metabolic effects. This review evaluates the state of knowledge on the occurrence, fate, and effect of munition-related chemical contaminants in the marine environment. There remain a number of knowledge gaps that limit our understanding of munitions-related contaminant spread and effect, and the need for additional work is made all the more urgent by increasing risk of release to the environment.

  16. Entanglement-continuous unitary transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Serkan; Orus, Roman [Institute of Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In this talk we present a new algorithm for quantum many-body systems using continuous unitary transformations (CUT) and tensor networks (TNs). With TNs we are able to approximate the solution to the flow equations that lie at the heart of continuous unitary transformations. We call this method Entanglement-Continuous Unitary Transformations (eCUT). It allows us to compute expectation values of local observables as well as tensor network representations of ground states and low-energy excited states. An implementation of the method is shown for 1d systems using matrix product operators. We show preliminary results for the 1d transverse-field Ising model to demonstrate the feasibility of the method.

  17. Piaget's Egocentrism: A Unitary Construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthven, Avis J.; Cunningham, William L.

    In order to determine whether egocentrism can be conceptualized as a unitary construct, 100 children (51 four-year-olds, 37 five-year-olds, and 12 six-year-olds) were administered a visual/spatial perspective task, a cognitive/communicative task, and an affective task. All tasks were designed to measure different facets of egocentrism. The 50…

  18. Teleportation of M-Qubit Unitary Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亦庄; 顾永建; 郭光灿

    2002-01-01

    We discuss teleportation of unitary operations on a two-qubit in detail, then generalize the bidirectional state teleportation scheme from one-qubit to M-qubit unitary operations. The resources required for the optimal implementation of teleportation of an M-qubit unitary operation using a bidirectional state teleportation scheme are given.

  19. Joule-Thomson Coefficient for Strongly Interacting Unitary Fermi Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Kai; Chen Jisheng; Li Chao

    2010-01-01

    The Joule-Thomson effect reflects the interaction among constituent particles of macroscopic system. For classical ideal gas, the corresponding Joule-Thomson coefficient is vanishing while it is non-zero for ideal quantum gas due to the quantum degeneracy. In recent years, much attention is paid to the unitary Fermi gas with infinite two-body scattering length. According to universal analysis, the thermodynamical law of unitary Fermi gas is similar to that of non-interacting ideal gas, which can be explored by the virial theorem P = 2E/3V. Based on previous works, we further study the unitary Fermi gas properties. The effective chemical potential is introduced to characterize the nonlinear levels crossing effects in a strongly interacting medium. The changing behavior of the rescaled Joule-Thomson coefficient according to temperature manifests a quite different behavior from that for ideal Fermi gas. (general)

  20. Unitary Housing Regimes in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Bo; Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Path dependence is strong in housing institutions and policy. In both Denmark and Sweden, today’s universal and ‘unitary’ (Kemeny) housing regimes can be traced back to institutions that were introduced fifty years back in history or more. Recently, universal and unitary housing systems...... in Scandinavia, and elsewhere, are under challenge from strong political and economic forces. These challenges can be summarized as economic cutbacks, privatization and Europeanization. Although both the Danish and the Swedish housing system are universal and unitary in character, they differ considerably...... in institutional detail. Both systems have corporatist features, however in Denmark public housing is based on local tenant democracy and control, and in Sweden on companies owned and controlled by the municipalities, combined with a centralized system of rent negotiations. In the paper the present challenges...

  1. Unitary Root Music and Unitary Music with Real-Valued Rank Revealing Triangular Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2010-1213 UNITARY ROOT MUSIC AND UNITARY MUSIC WITH REAL-VALUED RANK REVEALING TRIANGULAR FACTORIZATION (Postprint) Nizar...DATES COVERED (From - To) June 2010 Journal Article Postprint 08 September 2006 – 31 August 2009 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNITARY ROOT MUSIC AND...UNITARY MUSIC WITH REAL-VALUED RANK REVEALING TRIANGULAR FACTORIZATION (Postprint) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8650-05-D-1912-0007 5c

  2. On Investigating GMRES Convergence using Unitary Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Meurant, G.; Sadok, H.; Strakoš, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 450, 1 June (2014), s. 83-107 ISSN 0024-3795 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100301201; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1202 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : GMRES convergence * unitary matrices * unitary spectra * normal matrices * Krylov residual subspace * Schur parameters Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  3. Unitary symmetry, combinatorics, and special functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louck, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    From 1967 to 1994, Larry Biedenham and I collaborated on 35 papers on various aspects of the general unitary group, especially its unitary irreducible representations and Wigner-Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. In our studies to unveil comprehensible structures in this subject, we discovered several nice results in special functions and combinatorics. The more important of these will be presented and their present status reviewed.

  4. A unitary correlation operator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmeier, H.; Neff, T.; Roth, R.; Schnack, J.

    1997-09-01

    The short range repulsion between nucleons is treated by a unitary correlation operator which shifts the nucleons away from each other whenever their uncorrelated positions are within the repulsive core. By formulating the correlation as a transformation of the relative distance between particle pairs, general analytic expressions for the correlated wave functions and correlated operators are given. The decomposition of correlated operators into irreducible n-body operators is discussed. The one- and two-body-irreducible parts are worked out explicitly and the contribution of three-body correlations is estimated to check convergence. Ground state energies of nuclei up to mass number A=48 are calculated with a spin-isospin-dependent potential and single Slater determinants as uncorrelated states. They show that the deduced energy-and mass-number-independent correlated two-body Hamiltonian reproduces all ''exact'' many-body calculations surprisingly well. (orig.)

  5. The Environmental Challenge of Military Munitions and Federal Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the Department of Defense (DoD) must address the contamination legacy left by military munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) and other hazardous munitions materials from military live-fire training or testing.

  6. New unitary affine-Virasoro constructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.B.; Kiritsis, E.; Obers, N.A.; Poratti, M.; Yamron, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a quasi-systematic investigation of the Virasoro master equation. The space of all affine-Virasoro constructions is organized by K-conjugation into affine-Virasoro nests, and an estimate of the dimension of the space shows that most solutions await discovery. With consistent ansatze for the master equation, large classes of new unitary nests are constructed, including quadratic deformation nests with continuous conformal weights, and unitary irrational central charge nests, which may dominate unitary rational central charge on compact g

  7. 19 CFR 145.53 - Firearms and munitions of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Firearms and munitions of war. 145.53 Section 145.53 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF... munitions of war. Importations of firearms, munitions of war, and related articles are subject to the import...

  8. Defense Industrial Base (DIB): Munitions Realignment for 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    munitions DIB by companies like Coca Cola , Quaker Oats, and Eastman Kodak. As industrial mobilization quickly increased, the requirements decreased...industry and the munitions DIB. This report documented the volatility associated with the production of munitions and financial risks to which

  9. The unitary space of particle internal states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perjes, Z.

    1978-09-01

    A relativistic theory of particle internal properties has been developed. Suppressing space-time information, internal wave functions and -observables are constructed in a 3-complex-dimensional space. The quantum numbers of a spinning point particle in this unitary space correspond with those of a low-mass hadron. Unitary space physics is linked with space-time notions via the Penrose theory of twistors, where new flavors may be represented by many-twistor systems. It is shown here that a four-twistor particle fits into the unitary space picture as a system of two points with equal masses and oppositely pointing unitary spins. Quantum states fall into the ISU(3) irreducible representations discovered by Sparling and the author. Full details of the computation involving SU(3) recoupling techniques are given. (author)

  10. Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems ... Physics Department, Nara Women University, Nara, Japan. 5 ... RCNP, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan ...... We acknowledge partial financial support from the DGICYT under contract ...

  11. Non-unitary probabilistic quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingrich, Robert M.; Williams, Colin P.

    2004-01-01

    We present a method for designing quantum circuits that perform non-unitary quantum computations on n-qubit states probabilistically, and give analytic expressions for the success probability and fidelity.

  12. Quantum unitary dynamics in cosmological spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Velhinho, José M.

    2015-01-01

    We address the question of unitary implementation of the dynamics for scalar fields in cosmological scenarios. Together with invariance under spatial isometries, the requirement of a unitary evolution singles out a rescaling of the scalar field and a unitary equivalence class of Fock representations for the associated canonical commutation relations. Moreover, this criterion provides as well a privileged quantization for the unscaled field, even though the associated dynamics is not unitarily implementable in that case. We discuss the relation between the initial data that determine the Fock representations in the rescaled and unscaled descriptions, and clarify that the S-matrix is well defined in both cases. In our discussion, we also comment on a recently proposed generalized notion of unitary implementation of the dynamics, making clear the difference with the standard unitarity criterion and showing that the two approaches are not equivalent.

  13. Quantum unitary dynamics in cosmological spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez, Jerónimo, E-mail: jacq@ciencias.unam.mx [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mena Marugán, Guillermo A., E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Velhinho, José M., E-mail: jvelhi@ubi.pt [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade da Beira Interior, R. Marquês D’Ávila e Bolama, 6201-001 Covilhã (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    We address the question of unitary implementation of the dynamics for scalar fields in cosmological scenarios. Together with invariance under spatial isometries, the requirement of a unitary evolution singles out a rescaling of the scalar field and a unitary equivalence class of Fock representations for the associated canonical commutation relations. Moreover, this criterion provides as well a privileged quantization for the unscaled field, even though the associated dynamics is not unitarily implementable in that case. We discuss the relation between the initial data that determine the Fock representations in the rescaled and unscaled descriptions, and clarify that the S-matrix is well defined in both cases. In our discussion, we also comment on a recently proposed generalized notion of unitary implementation of the dynamics, making clear the difference with the standard unitarity criterion and showing that the two approaches are not equivalent.

  14. A two-stage extraction procedure for insensitive munition (IM) explosive compounds in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Deborah; Gurtowski, Luke; Nestler, Catherine C; Johnson, Jared; Larson, Steven

    2016-12-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is developing a new category of insensitive munitions (IMs) that are more resistant to detonation or promulgation from external stimuli than traditional munition formulations. The new explosive constituent compounds are 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), nitroguanidine (NQ), and nitrotriazolone (NTO). The production and use of IM formulations may result in interaction of IM component compounds with soil. The chemical properties of these IM compounds present unique challenges for extraction from environmental matrices such as soil. A two-stage extraction procedure was developed and tested using several soil types amended with known concentrations of IM compounds. This procedure incorporates both an acidified phase and an organic phase to account for the chemical properties of the IM compounds. The method detection limits (MDLs) for all IM compounds in all soil types were regulatory risk-based Regional Screening Level (RSL) criteria for soil proposed by the U.S. Army Public Health Center. At defined environmentally relevant concentrations, the average recovery of each IM compound in each soil type was consistent and greater than 85%. The two-stage extraction method decreased the influence of soil composition on IM compound recovery. UV analysis of NTO established an isosbestic point based on varied pH at a detection wavelength of 341 nm. The two-stage soil extraction method is equally effective for traditional munition compounds, a potentially important point when examining soils exposed to both traditional and insensitive munitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Probabilistic implementation of Hadamard and unitary gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Wei; Yang Ming; Cao Zhuoliang

    2004-01-01

    We show that the Hadamard and unitary gates could be implemented by a unitary evolution together with a measurement for any unknown state chosen from a set A={ vertical bar Ψi>, vertical bar Ψ-bar i>} (i=1,2) if and only if vertical bar Ψ1>, vertical bar Ψ2>, vertical bar Ψ-bar 1>, vertical bar Ψ-bar 2> are linearly independent. We also derive the best transformation efficiencies

  16. Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monras, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Illuminati, F. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM, Unita di Salerno, and INFN, Sezione di Napoli-Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); Adesso, G.; Davies, G. B. [School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as ''mirror entanglement.'' They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the ''stellar mirror entanglement'' associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.

  17. Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monras, A.; Adesso, G.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Davies, G. B.; Illuminati, F.

    2011-07-01

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as “mirror entanglement.” They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the “stellar mirror entanglement” associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.76.042301 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.

  18. Entanglement quantification by local unitary operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monras, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Gualdi, G.; Illuminati, F.; Adesso, G.; Davies, G. B.

    2011-01-01

    Invariance under local unitary operations is a fundamental property that must be obeyed by every proper measure of quantum entanglement. However, this is not the only aspect of entanglement theory where local unitary operations play a relevant role. In the present work we show that the application of suitable local unitary operations defines a family of bipartite entanglement monotones, collectively referred to as ''mirror entanglement.'' They are constructed by first considering the (squared) Hilbert-Schmidt distance of the state from the set of states obtained by applying to it a given local unitary operator. To the action of each different local unitary operator there corresponds a different distance. We then minimize these distances over the sets of local unitary operations with different spectra, obtaining an entire family of different entanglement monotones. We show that these mirror-entanglement monotones are organized in a hierarchical structure, and we establish the conditions that need to be imposed on the spectrum of a local unitary operator for the associated mirror entanglement to be faithful, i.e., to vanish in and only in separable pure states. We analyze in detail the properties of one particularly relevant member of the family, the ''stellar mirror entanglement'' associated with the traceless local unitary operations with nondegenerate spectra and equispaced eigenvalues in the complex plane. This particular measure generalizes the original analysis of S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati [Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)], valid for qubits and qutrits. We prove that the stellar entanglement is a faithful bipartite entanglement monotone in any dimension and that it is bounded from below by a function proportional to the linear entropy and from above by the linear entropy itself, coinciding with it in two- and three-dimensional spaces.

  19. Unitary representations of basic classical Lie superalgebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, M.D.; Zhang, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    We have obtained all the finite-dimensional unitary irreps of gl(mvertical stroken) and C(n), which also exhaust such irreps of all the basic classical Lie superalgebras. The lowest weights of such irreps are worked out explicitly. It is also shown that the contravariant and covariant tensor irreps of gl(mvertical stroken) are unitary irreps of type (1) and type (2) respectively, explaining the applicability of the Young diagram method to these two types of tensor irreps. (orig.)

  20. Unitary transformations in solid state physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, M.

    1986-01-01

    The main emphasis of this book is on the practical application of unitary transformations to problems in solid state physics. This is a method used in the field of nonadiabatic electron-phonon phenomena where the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is no longer applicable. The book is intended as a tool for those who want to apply unitary transformations quickly and on a more elementary level and also for those who want to use this method for more involved problems. The book is divided into 6 chapters. The first three chapters are concerned with presenting quick applications of unitary transformations and chapter 4 presents a more systematic procedure. The last two chapters contain the major known examples of the utilization of unitary transformations in solid state physics, including such highlights as the Froehlich and the Fulton-Gouterman transformations. The book is supplemented by extended tables of unitary transformations, whose properties and peculiarities are also listed. This tabulated material is unique and will be of great practical use to those applying the method of unitary transformations in their work. (Auth.)

  1. Optimal quantum learning of a unitary transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; Chiribella, Giulio; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Facchini, Stefano; Perinotti, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of learning an unknown unitary transformation from a finite number of examples. The problem consists in finding the learning machine that optimally emulates the examples, thus reproducing the unknown unitary with maximum fidelity. Learning a unitary is equivalent to storing it in the state of a quantum memory (the memory of the learning machine) and subsequently retrieving it. We prove that, whenever the unknown unitary is drawn from a group, the optimal strategy consists in a parallel call of the available uses followed by a 'measure-and-rotate' retrieving. Differing from the case of quantum cloning, where the incoherent 'measure-and-prepare' strategies are typically suboptimal, in the case of learning the 'measure-and-rotate' strategy is optimal even when the learning machine is asked to reproduce a single copy of the unknown unitary. We finally address the problem of the optimal inversion of an unknown unitary evolution, showing also in this case the optimality of the 'measure-and-rotate' strategies and applying our result to the optimal approximate realignment of reference frames for quantum communication.

  2. Hawaii Munitions Monitoring Station and Natural Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M.; Trimble, A. Z.; Rognstad, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hundreds of thousands of tons of conventional munitions were fired into the ocean at military ranges or deliberately disposed at sea during the twentieth century. Potential contaminants from munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) affect virtually every coast in the United States, including Alaska, the Hawaiian Islands, Guam, American Samoa and other U.S. territories as well as inland waterways. It is necessary to develop methods to assess the concentrations of munitions constituents present at a site to address concerns about the presence of environmentally relevant concentrations and their potential impacts. Having a well-characterized site to test instruments and methods is important for continued development and refinement of technology. Most sites are too big to characterize comprehensively in three dimensions over time periods lasting days or longer. We are working to develop a monitoring station and natural laboratory near Oahu, Hawaii to create a cost-effective demonstration and validation natural laboratory where emerging technologies can be evaluated and compared. Ordnance Reef (OR) is an ideal location to establish a munitions monitoring station for historical, logistical and environmental reasons. OR is an area of shallow fringing reef measuring approximately 4.2 km by 2.2 km along the Waianae coast of Oahu that was used as a disposal area for military munitions following World War II. OR has been the subject of multiple investigations including an inventory of munitions conducted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2002 and a screening-level risk investigation conducted by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the University of Hawaii in 2006. As a result, there are multiple datasets collected over the past fifteen years that can be leveraged to serve as a baseline for the natural laboratory. These extant datasets are being supplemented with data from integrated unmanned systems deployed at OR to characterize and visualize the

  3. Random unitary operations and quantum Darwinism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaneskovic, Nenad

    2016-01-01

    We study the behavior of Quantum Darwinism (Zurek, Nature Physics 5, 181-188 (2009)) within the iterative, random unitary operations qubit-model of pure decoherence (Novotn'y et al, New Jour. Phys. 13, 053052 (2011)). We conclude that Quantum Darwinism, which describes the quantum mechanical evolution of an open system from the point of view of its environment, is not a generic phenomenon, but depends on the specific form of initial states and on the type of system-environment interactions. Furthermore, we show that within the random unitary model the concept of Quantum Darwinism enables one to explicitly construct and specify artificial initial states of environment that allow to store information about an open system of interest and its pointer-basis with maximal efficiency. Furthermore, we investigate the behavior of Quantum Darwinism after introducing dissipation into the iterative random unitary qubit model with pure decoherence in accord with V. Scarani et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097905 (2002)) and reconstruct the corresponding dissipative attractor space. We conclude that in Zurek's qubit model Quantum Darwinism depends on the order in which pure decoherence and dissipation act upon an initial state of the entire system. We show explicitly that introducing dissipation into the random unitary evolution model in general suppresses Quantum Darwinism (regardless of the order in which decoherence and dissipation are applied) for all positive non-zero values of the dissipation strength parameter, even for those initial state configurations which, in Zurek's qubit model and in the random unitary model with pure decoherence, would lead to Quantum Darwinism. Finally, we discuss what happens with Quantum Darwinism after introducing into the iterative random unitary qubit model with pure decoherence (asymmetric) dissipation and dephasing, again in accord with V. Scarani et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 097905 (2002)), and reconstruct the corresponding

  4. Safety and vulnerability simulation of munitions; Modelisation du comportement de munitions en securite et vulnerabilite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desailly, D.; Briquet, B.; Brunet, P.; Guegant, Y.; Houdusse, D.; Prost, M. [Groupe SNPE Propulsion/ Centre de Recherches du Boucher, 91 - Vert le Petit (France)

    2002-09-01

    Vulnerability of new weapon systems to accidental and hostile environments is a major concern for military operations and many research programs have been so investigated of SNPE Propulsion. Before they were accepted as being safe and suitable for introduction into military inventories systems underwent a wide range of expensive type qualification trials. There was a need therefore, to develop a greater understanding of the reaction mechanisms that affect the behaviour of confined energetic materials when subjected to external stimuli and computer models to control the resulting hazard. As part of this program SNPE Propulsion has developed a method for modelling Cook-off response in order to master the design of insensitive munitions (IM). The behavior of energetic materials when they are submitted to a thermal threat is complex and follows two different time scales: thermochemical processes, counted in minutes even hours whereas pyrotechnic reaction may require a few microseconds. It was shown that the reaction level is ruled by the competition between pressure generated from the cook-off reaction and stress release resulting from break-up confinement. After self-ignition phenomenon and under some confinement and thermal conditions burning can accelerate to deflagration and lead to a deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) event. The method requires'modular tools describing each physical phenomenon. Works have been first focused on the development of experimental facilities to characterise thermal chemical properties and reactivity of thermally damaged energetic material. Consequently the first part of the model describing self-heating and pyrolysis processes has been implemented in an implicit solver. Simulations have shown quite accurate predictions (ignition temperature, time to event) and proved the effectiveness of this approach. Recent developments are.thus concentrated on the numerical modelling of the reaction violence level prediction hence a

  5. Multiple multicontrol unitary operations: Implementation and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing

    2018-04-01

    The efficient implementation of computational tasks is critical to quantum computations. In quantum circuits, multicontrol unitary operations are important components. Here, we present an extremely efficient and direct approach to multiple multicontrol unitary operations without decomposition to CNOT and single-photon gates. With the proposed approach, the necessary two-photon operations could be reduced from O( n 3) with the traditional decomposition approach to O( n), which will greatly relax the requirements and make large-scale quantum computation feasible. Moreover, we propose the potential application to the ( n- k)-uniform hypergraph state.

  6. Depleted uranium munitions - where are we now?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spratt, Brian G.

    2002-01-01

    There are very different views on the health hazards of DU munitions. Most of the concerns of veterans and their advisors focus on the radiological effects of DU and consequently these are the focus of this editorial. Effects on the kidney and environmental consequences are, however, considered in the second of the Royal Society reports and the main conclusions of both of the reports are outlined in the summary document published in this issue of the journal. The main radiological concerns focus on the irradiation of lung tissues from inhaled DU particles and irradiation resulting from the translocation of inhaled particles to the thoracic lymph nodes.The overwhelming scientific view, presented in the two Royal Society reports and in other independent reviews, is that the main risks of exposure to DU aerosols are an increase in lung cancer and (from chemical toxicity) damage to the kidney, although these are likely to be evident only following substantial intakes. The equivalent doses to the thoracic lymph nodes following inhalation of DU particles are about ten times greater than those to the lung, but the former tissue is considered to be relatively insensitive to radiation-induced cancers. So far, large-scale epidemiological studies of UK and US Gulf War veterans have shown no increase in mortality from cancer, or kidney disease, but these studies need to be continued to see if any significant excess mortality from these causes appears. As mentioned previously, more sensitive epidemiological studies should be possible if groups of soldiers who have known exposures to DU can be identified. Adverse reproductive effects have been observed in rodents exposed to uranium although most of these effects are evident after relatively large daily intakes of uranium. The possibility of effects on reproductive health (from DU or other toxic exposures) is being studied in both UK and US Gulf War veterans. Results from the UK epidemiological study are not yet available but

  7. Multiqubit Clifford groups are unitary 3-designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huangjun

    2017-12-01

    Unitary t -designs are a ubiquitous tool in many research areas, including randomized benchmarking, quantum process tomography, and scrambling. Despite the intensive efforts of many researchers, little is known about unitary t -designs with t ≥3 in the literature. We show that the multiqubit Clifford group in any even prime-power dimension is not only a unitary 2-design, but also a 3-design. Moreover, it is a minimal 3-design except for dimension 4. As an immediate consequence, any orbit of pure states of the multiqubit Clifford group forms a complex projective 3-design; in particular, the set of stabilizer states forms a 3-design. In addition, our study is helpful in studying higher moments of the Clifford group, which are useful in many research areas ranging from quantum information science to signal processing. Furthermore, we reveal a surprising connection between unitary 3-designs and the physics of discrete phase spaces and thereby offer a simple explanation of why no discrete Wigner function is covariant with respect to the multiqubit Clifford group, which is of intrinsic interest in studying quantum computation.

  8. Remarks on unitary representations of Poincare group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, A.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the elementary review of methods and notions using in the theory of unitary representations of Poincare group is included. The Poincare group is a basic group for relativistic quantum mechanics. Our aim is to introduce the reader into some problems of quantum physics, which are difficult approachable for beginners. (author)

  9. Generalized unitaries and the Picard group

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    some explicit calculations of that type.) So the range of this .... when we restrict our attention to generalized unitaries and full modules, that is, to modules. E for which BE = B. For every ..... without dividing out equivalence classes. But there is no ...

  10. Unitary information ether and its possible applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horodecki, R.

    1991-01-01

    The idea of information ether as the unitary information field is developed. It rests on the assumption that the notion of information is a fundamental category in the description of reality and that it can be defined independently from the notion of probability itself. It is shown that the information ether provides a deterministic background for the nonlinear wave hypothesis and quantum cybernetics. (orig.)

  11. Remote Machining and Evaluation of Explosively Filled Munitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility is used for remote machining of explosively loaded ammunition. Munition sizes from small arms through 8-inch artillery can be accommodated. Sectioning,...

  12. High-power VCSELs for smart munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon; MacDougal, Michael; Cole, Garrett; Snyder, Donald

    2006-08-01

    The next generation of low-cost smart munitions will be capable of autonomously detecting and identifying targets aided partly by the ability to image targets with compact and robust scanning rangefinder and LADAR capabilities. These imaging systems will utilize arrays of high performance, low-cost semiconductor diode lasers capable of achieving high peak powers in pulses ranging from 5 to 25 nanoseconds in duration. Aerius Photonics is developing high-power Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs) to meet the needs of these smart munitions applications. The authors will report the results of Aerius' development program in which peak pulsed powers exceeding 60 Watts were demonstrated from single VCSEL emitters. These compact packaged emitters achieved pulse energies in excess of 1.5 micro-joules with multi kilo-hertz pulse repetition frequencies. The progress of the ongoing effort toward extending this performance to arrays of VCSEL emitters and toward further improving laser slope efficiency will be reported.

  13. The finite-temperature thermodynamics of a trapped unitary Fermi gas within fractional exclusion statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Fang; Chen Jisheng

    2010-01-01

    We utilize the fractional exclusion statistics of the Haldane and Wu hypothesis to study the thermodynamics of a unitary Fermi gas trapped in a harmonic oscillator potential at ultra-low finite temperature. The entropy per particle as a function of the energy per particle and energy per particle versus rescaled temperature are numerically compared with the experimental data. The study shows that, except the chemical potential behaviour, there exists a reasonable consistency between the experimental measurement and theoretical attempt for the entropy and energy per particle. In the fractional exclusion statistics formalism, the behaviour of the isochore heat capacity for a trapped unitary Fermi gas is also analysed.

  14. Optimal unitary dilation for bosonic Gaussian channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Filippo; Eisert, Jens; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Holevo, Alexander S.

    2011-01-01

    A general quantum channel can be represented in terms of a unitary interaction between the information-carrying system and a noisy environment. In this paper the minimal number of quantum Gaussian environmental modes required to provide a unitary dilation of a multimode bosonic Gaussian channel is analyzed for both pure and mixed environments. We compute this quantity in the case of pure environment corresponding to the Stinespring representation and give an improved estimate in the case of mixed environment. The computations rely, on one hand, on the properties of the generalized Choi-Jamiolkowski state and, on the other hand, on an explicit construction of the minimal dilation for arbitrary bosonic Gaussian channel. These results introduce a new quantity reflecting ''noisiness'' of bosonic Gaussian channels and can be applied to address some issues concerning transmission of information in continuous variables systems.

  15. Black hole thermodynamics based on unitary evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Yu-Lei; Chen, Yi-Xin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we try to construct black hole thermodynamics based on the fact that the formation and evaporation of a black hole can be described by quantum unitary evolutions. First, we show that the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy S BH may not be a Boltzmann or thermal entropy. To confirm this statement, we show that the original black hole's ‘first law’ may not simply be treated as the first law of thermodynamics formally, due to some missing metric perturbations caused by matter. Then, by including those (quantum) metric perturbations, we show that the black hole formation and evaporation can be described effectively in a unitary manner, through a quantum channel between the exterior and interior of the event horizon. In this way, the paradoxes of information loss and firewall can be resolved effectively. Finally, we show that black hole thermodynamics can be constructed in an ordinary way, by constructing statistical mechanics. (paper)

  16. Unitary evolution between pure and mixed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznik, B.

    1996-01-01

    We propose an extended quantum mechanical formalism that is based on a wave operator d, which is related to the ordinary density matrix via ρ=dd degree . This formalism allows a (generalized) unitary evolution between pure and mixed states. It also preserves much of the connection between symmetries and conservation laws. The new formalism is illustrated for the case of a two-level system. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. Biased Monte Carlo algorithms on unitary groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.; Gausterer, H.; Sanielevici, S.

    1989-01-01

    We introduce a general updating scheme for the simulation of physical systems defined on unitary groups, which eliminates the systematic errors due to inexact exponentiation of algebra elements. The essence is to work directly with group elements for the stochastic noise. Particular cases of the scheme include the algorithm of Metropolis et al., overrelaxation algorithms, and globally corrected Langevin and hybrid algorithms. The latter are studied numerically for the case of SU(3) theory

  18. FUDS Military Munitions Response Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    supporting decision rules - Phytoremediation of Arsenic -Advanced EMI and Multi-component Sensors (4 types) -Advanced Anomaly Classifications (4 types...Culebra, PR  Frankford Arsenal , PA  Orlando Range and Chemical Yard, FL  Pinecastle Jeep Range, FL  Spring Valley, DC  Waikoloa Maneuver

  19. Health and environmental problems of using antiarmour munitions containing depleted uranium core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matousek, J.

    2006-01-01

    In the 1970s, core of depleted uranium commenced to be introduced into the breakthrough antitank munitions of various calibers and types in order to considerably enhance their effectiveness due to extremely high density in comparison with steel. The health and environmental threats of using this munitions and other weaponry where depleted uranium has been utilised as counterbalance stem from the pyrophoric character of uranium, burnt due to material deformation and friction when penetrating armour targets creating thus highly respirable aerosol of uranium oxides that are deposited in alveoli after being inhaled or in other tissues after being ingested. Composition and main properties of depleted uranium are presented. Chronic effects of deposited particles of uranium oxides are due to internal irradiation of sensitive organs at proceeding radioactive decay accompanied with alpha irradiation. Long-term internal irradiation by radionuclides producing alpha-rays leads to proved risk of increased incidence of carcinoma and leukaemia not to speak on chronic chemical toxicity of uranium, independent of its isotopic composition. Environmental impact of extensive use of munitions with depleted uranium in the recent armed conflicts is assessed. (authors)

  20. Underwater Munitions Expert System: Preliminary Design Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-21

    analysis  would  usually  be  performed,   where  separation  by   sieving  results  in  the  PMF  of  sand  grain...locations  they  might  potentially   aggregate .    Furthermore,  given  knowledge  of  the  types  of   munitions...feature  that   Netica  provides  is  the  ability  to  do  sensitivity   analysis ,

  1. Quantum reading of unitary optical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dall'Arno, Michele; Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro

    2014-01-01

    We address the problem of quantum reading of optical memories, namely the retrieving of classical information stored in the optical properties of a media with minimum energy. We present optimal strategies for ambiguous and unambiguous quantum reading of unitary optical memories, namely when one's task is to minimize the probability of errors in the retrieved information and when perfect retrieving of information is achieved probabilistically, respectively. A comparison of the optimal strategy with coherent probes and homodyne detection shows that the former saves orders of magnitude of energy when achieving the same performances. Experimental proposals for quantum reading which are feasible with present quantum optical technology are reported

  2. Unitary Transformations in 3 D Vector Representation of Qutrit States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-12

    ARL-TR-8330 ● MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Unitary Transformations in 3- D Vector Representation of Qutrit States by...return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8330 ● MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Unitary Transformations in 3- D Vector...2018 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED June–December 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Unitary Transformations in 3- D Vector

  3. Meditations on the unitary rhythm of dying-grieving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinski, Violet M

    2012-07-01

    When someone faces loss of a loved one, that person simultaneously grieves and dies a little, just as the one dying also grieves. The author's personal conceptualization of dying and grieving as a unitary rhythm is explored based primarily on her interpretation of Rogers' science of unitary human beings, along with selected examples from related nursing literature and from the emerging focus on continuing bonds in other disciplines. Examples from contemporary songwriters that depict such a unitary conceptualization are given along with personal examples. The author concludes with her description of the unitary rhythm of dying-grieving.

  4. Moduli spaces of unitary conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendland, K.

    2000-08-01

    We investigate various features of moduli spaces of unitary conformal field theories. A geometric characterization of rational toroidal conformal field theories in arbitrary dimensions is presented and discussed in relation to singular tori and those with complex multiplication. We study the moduli space M 2 of unitary two-dimensional conformal field theories with central charge c = 2. All the 26 non-exceptional non-isolated irreducible components of M 2 are constructed that may be obtained by an orbifold procedure from toroidal theories. The parameter spaces and partition functions are calculated explicitly. All multicritical points and lines are determined, such that all but three of these 26 components are directly or indirectly connected to the space of toroidal theories in M 2 . Relating our results to those by Dixon, Ginsparg, Harvey on the classification of c = 3/2 superconformal field theories, we give geometric interpretations to all non-isolated orbifolds discussed by them and correct their statements on multicritical points within the moduli space of c = 3/2 superconformal field theories. In the main part of this work, we investigate the moduli space M of N = (4, 4) superconformal field theories with central charge c = 6. After a slight emendation of its global description we give generic partition functions for models contained in M. We explicitly determine the locations of various known models in the component of M associated to K3 surfaces

  5. Random unitary maps for quantum state reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkel, Seth T.; Riofrio, Carlos A.; Deutsch, Ivan H.; Flammia, Steven T.

    2010-01-01

    We study the possibility of performing quantum state reconstruction from a measurement record that is obtained as a sequence of expectation values of a Hermitian operator evolving under repeated application of a single random unitary map, U 0 . We show that while this single-parameter orbit in operator space is not informationally complete, it can be used to yield surprisingly high-fidelity reconstruction. For a d-dimensional Hilbert space with the initial observable in su(d), the measurement record lacks information about a matrix subspace of dimension ≥d-2 out of the total dimension d 2 -1. We determine the conditions on U 0 such that the bound is saturated, and show they are achieved by almost all pseudorandom unitary matrices. When we further impose the constraint that the physical density matrix must be positive, we obtain even higher fidelity than that predicted from the missing subspace. With prior knowledge that the state is pure, the reconstruction will be perfect (in the limit of vanishing noise) and for arbitrary mixed states, the fidelity is over 0.96, even for small d, and reaching F>0.99 for d>9. We also study the implementation of this protocol based on the relationship between random matrices and quantum chaos. We show that the Floquet operator of the quantum kicked top provides a means of generating the required type of measurement record, with implications on the relationship between quantum chaos and information gain.

  6. Investigation of a new passive sampler for the detection of munitions compounds in marine and freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Joseph K; Vlahos, Penny; Smith, Richard; Tobias, Craig

    2018-07-01

    Over the last century, unexploded ordnances have been disposed of in marine shelf systems because of a lack of cost-effective alternatives. Underwater unexploded ordnances have the potential to leak 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), commonly used chemical munitions, and contaminate local waters, biota, and sediments. The rate at which this contamination occurs in the environment is relatively unknown, and the cost- and time-prohibitive nature of sampling across sites makes mapping difficult. In the present study we assessed the efficacy of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) for sampling relatively soluble munitions compounds over a range of environmental conditions (i.e., changes in temperature and salinity) and optimized the composition of the passive sampling polymer. The EVA sampler was able to successfully detect ambient concentrations of lingering munitions compounds from field sites containing unexploded ordnances. The sampler affinity for the munitions in terms of an EVA-water partition coefficient was greater than the standard octanol water values for each target compound. Partitioning of compounds onto EVA over the natural ranges of salinity did not change significantly, although uptake varied consistently and predictably with temperature. Increasing the vinyl acetate to ethylene ratio of the polymer corresponded to an increase in uptake capacity, consistent with enhanced dipole-dipole interactions between the munitions and the polymer. This sampler provides a cost-effective means to map and track leakage of unexploded ordnances both spatially and temporally. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:1990-1997. © 2018 SETAC. © 2018 SETAC.

  7. Equivalence of quantum states under local unitary transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Shaoming; Jing Naihuan

    2005-01-01

    In terms of the analysis of fixed point subgroup and tensor decomposability of certain matrices, we study the equivalence of quantum bipartite mixed states under local unitary transformations. For non-degenerate case an operational criterion for the equivalence of two such mixed bipartite states under local unitary transformations is presented

  8. Perfect state transfer in unitary Cayley graphs over local rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotsanan Meemark

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, using eigenvalues and eigenvectors of unitary Cayley graphs over finite local rings and elementary linear algebra, we characterize which local rings allowing PST occurring in its unitary Cayley graph. Moreover, we have some developments when $R$ is a product of local rings.

  9. Unitary Quantum Relativity. (Work in Progress)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, David Ritz

    2017-01-01

    A quantum universe is expressed as a finite unitary relativistic quantum computer network. Its addresses are subject to quantum superposition as well as its memory. It has no exact mathematical model. It Its Hilbert space of input processes is also a Clifford algebra with a modular architecture of many ranks. A fundamental fermion is a quantum computer element whose quantum address belongs to the rank below. The least significant figures of its address define its spin and flavor. The most significant figures of it adress define its orbital variables. Gauging arises from the same quantification as space-time. This blurs star images only slightly, but perhaps measurably. General relativity is an approximation that splits nature into an emptiness with a high symmetry that is broken by a filling of lower symmetry. Action principles result from self-organization pf the vacuum.

  10. Quantum Entanglement Growth under Random Unitary Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Adam; Ruhman, Jonathan; Vijay, Sagar; Haah, Jeongwan

    2017-07-01

    Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example, after a quantum quench, is a key problem in nonequilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time-dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the "entanglement tsunami" in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like (time )1/3 and are spatially correlated over a distance ∝(time )2/3. We derive KPZ universal behavior in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to (i) a stochastic model of a growing surface, (ii) a "minimal cut" picture, reminiscent of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula in holography, and (iii) a hydrodynamic problem involving the dynamical spreading of operators. We demonstrate KPZ universality in 1D numerically using simulations of random unitary circuits. Importantly, the leading-order time dependence of the entropy is deterministic even in the presence of noise, allowing us to propose a simple coarse grained minimal cut picture for the entanglement growth of generic Hamiltonians, even without noise, in arbitrary dimensionality. We clarify the meaning of the "velocity" of entanglement growth in the 1D entanglement tsunami. We show that in higher dimensions, noisy entanglement evolution maps to the well-studied problem of pinning of a membrane or domain wall by disorder.

  11. Quantum Entanglement Growth under Random Unitary Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Nahum

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example, after a quantum quench, is a key problem in nonequilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time-dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the “entanglement tsunami” in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like (time^{1/3} and are spatially correlated over a distance ∝(time^{2/3}. We derive KPZ universal behavior in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to (i a stochastic model of a growing surface, (ii a “minimal cut” picture, reminiscent of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula in holography, and (iii a hydrodynamic problem involving the dynamical spreading of operators. We demonstrate KPZ universality in 1D numerically using simulations of random unitary circuits. Importantly, the leading-order time dependence of the entropy is deterministic even in the presence of noise, allowing us to propose a simple coarse grained minimal cut picture for the entanglement growth of generic Hamiltonians, even without noise, in arbitrary dimensionality. We clarify the meaning of the “velocity” of entanglement growth in the 1D entanglement tsunami. We show that in higher dimensions, noisy entanglement evolution maps to the well-studied problem of pinning of a membrane or domain wall by disorder.

  12. Optimal Control of Sensor Threshold for Autonomous Wide Area Search Munitions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kish, Brian A; Jacques, David R; Pachter, Meir

    2005-01-01

    The optimal employment of autonomous wide area search munitions is addressed. The scenario considered involves an airborne munition searching a battle space for stationary targets in the presence of false targets...

  13. Operator entanglement of two-qubit joint unitary operations revisited: Schmidt number approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Hui-Zhi; Li, Chao; Yang, Qing; Yang, Ming, E-mail: mingyang@ahu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Information Acquisition and Manipulation, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Material Science, Anhui University Hefei (China); Cao, Zhuo-Liang [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Hefei Normal University (China)

    2012-08-15

    The operator entanglement of two-qubit joint unitary operations is revisited. The Schmidt number, an important attribute of a two-qubit unitary operation, may have connection with the entanglement measure of the unitary operator. We find that the entanglement measure of a two-qubit unitary operators is classified by the Schmidt number of the unitary operators. We also discuss the exact relation between the operator entanglement and the parameters of the unitary operator. (author)

  14. Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) Munition Classification System enhancements. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, O.A.; Huggard, J.C.

    1997-09-18

    Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy (ARS) is a non-destructive evaluation technology developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This technology has resulted in three generations of instrumentation, funded by the Defense Special Weapons Agency (DSWA), specifically designed for field identification of chemical weapon (CW) munitions. Each generation of ARS instrumentation was developed with a specific user in mind. The ARS1OO was built for use by the U.N. Inspection Teams going into Iraq immediately after the Persian Gulf War. The ARS200 was built for use in the US-Russia Bilateral Chemical Weapons Treaty (the primary users for this system are the US Onsite Inspection Agency (OSIA) and their Russian counterparts). The ARS300 was built with the requirements of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) in mind. Each successive system is an improved version of the previous system based on learning the weaknesses of each and, coincidentally, on the fact that more time was available to do a requirements analysis and the necessary engineering development. The ARS300 is at a level of development that warrants transferring the technology to a commercial vendor. Since LANL will supply the computer software to the selected vendor, it is possible for LANL to continue to improve the decision algorithms, add features where necessary, and adjust the user interface before the final transfer occurs. This paper describes the current system, ARS system enhancements, and software enhancements. Appendices contain the Operations Manual (software Version 3.01), and two earlier reports on enhancements.

  15. NDIA 2018 IM and EM Technology Symposium: Innovative Insensitive Munition Solutions for Enhanced Warfighter Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-26

    2018 IM & EM TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM INNOVATIVE INSENSITIVE MUNITION SOLUTIONS FOR ENHANCED WARFIGHTER EFFECTIVENESS April 23 – 26, 2018 Doubletree by...IM & EM TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM On behalf of the Insensitive Munitions and Energetic Materials Committee and our MSIAC partner, I would like to...welcome you to the 2018 Insensitive Munitions and Energetic Materials Technology Symposium. This international gathering of the top chemists, system

  16. Unitary 4-point correlators from classical geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombini, Alessandro; Galliani, Andrea; Giusto, Stefano [Universita di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia ' ' Galileo Galilei' ' , Padua (Italy); I.N.F.N. Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Moscato, Emanuele; Russo, Rodolfo [Queen Mary University of London, Centre for Research in String Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom)

    2018-01-15

    We compute correlators of two heavy and two light operators in the strong coupling and large c limit of the D1D5 CFT which is dual to weakly coupled AdS{sub 3} gravity. The light operators have dimension two and are scalar descendants of the chiral primaries considered in arXiv:1705.09250, while the heavy operators belong to an ensemble of Ramond-Ramond ground states. We derive a general expression for these correlators when the heavy states in the ensemble are close to the maximally spinning ground state. For a particular family of heavy states we also provide a result valid for any value of the spin. In all cases we find that the correlators depend non-trivially on the CFT moduli and are not determined by the symmetries of the theory; however, they have the properties expected for correlators among pure states in a unitary theory, in particular they do not decay at large Lorentzian times. (orig.)

  17. About the unitary discretizations of Heisenberg equations of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, L.

    1986-01-01

    In a recent paper Bender et al. (1985) have used a unitary discretization of Heisenberg equations for a one-dimensional quantum system in order to obtain information about the spectrum of the underlying continuum theory. The method consists in comparing the matrix elements between adjacent Fock states of the operators and at two steps. At the same time a very simple variational approach must be made. The purpose of this paper is to show that with unitary schemes, accurate either to order τ or τ 2 , we obtain the same spectrum results in the framework of the above method. On the other hand the same eigenvalues are obtained with a non-unitary scheme (Section II). In Section III we discuss the construction of the Hamiltonian associated to the unitary discretizations. (orig.)

  18. Constructing a unitary title regime for the European Patent System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2011-01-01

    The European Patent System without any unitary title allows Member States to retain institutional arrangements within their borders and to prevent any moves to delegate responsibility outside the national sphere. This intergovernmental patent regime suffers from fragmentation due to national

  19. Elegant Coercion and Iran: Beyond the Unitary Actor Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moss, J. C

    2005-01-01

    .... At its core, then, coercion is about state decision-making. Most theories of coercion describe states as if they were unitary actors whose decision-making results from purely rational cost-benefit calculations...

  20. Theory of the unitary representations of compact groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, A.; Burzynska, M.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction contains some basic notions used in group theory, Lie group, Lie algebras and unitary representations. Then we are dealing with compact groups. For these groups we show the problem of reduction of unitary representation of Wigner's projection operators, Clebsch-Gordan coefficients and Wigner-Eckart theorem. We show (this is a new approach) the representations reduction formalism by using superoperators in Hilbert-Schmidt space. (author)

  1. Observations of Munitions Mobility During a Nor'easter at Wallops Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Frank, D. P.; Braithwaite, E. F., III; Hagg, R. K.; Calantoni, J.

    2017-12-01

    Unexploded ordnance (or munitions) may migrate, bury, or become exposed over time, and may pose a hazard to both humans and environment. Understanding the behavior of munitions under various wave and current conditions is central to management and remediation of contaminated underwater sites. We embedded Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) into inert replicas of large caliber munitions (81 mm - 155 mm), herein referred to as `smart munitions'. Several smart munitions were deployed in the field with IMUs logging at 16 Hz continuously. Simultaneously the local hydrodynamic conditions were monitored to correlate any resulting munitions mobility. Here, we present the response of the smart munitions to wave and current conditions observed during a nor'easter off the coast of Wallops Island, Virginia USA in about 10 m water depth. During the nor'easter, peak significant wave heights of 2.8 m were observed in 10 m water depth. Over a roughly 10-hour period, an 81 mm smart munition migrated approximately 206 ft in a net onshore direction. Displacement and heading of the migrated smart munition were estimated by divers during the recovery. Integration of the trajectory of motion for the smart munition using a custom signal processing algorithm was in good agreement with the diver measurements. Discussion will focus on the relationship of the local sediment type and the potential for munitions mobility.

  2. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems and initial assessment of material interaction with plant genetic material. Validation of the metabolic fate of munitions materials (TNT, RDX) in mature crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The goals of this effort were to confirm and expand data related to the behavior and impacts of munitions residues upon human food chain components. Plant species employed included corn (Zea mays), alfalfa (Medicago sativa). spinach (Spinacea oleraceae), and carrot (Daucus carota). Plants were grown from seed to maturity (70 to 120 days) in a low-fertility soil (Burbank) amended with either {sup 14}C-TNT or {sup 14}C-RDX at which time they were harvested and analyzed for munitions uptake, partitioning, and chemical form of the munition or munition-metabolite. All four of the plant species used in this study accumulated the {sup 14}C-TNT- and RDX-derived label. The carrot, alfalfa, and corn demonstrated a higher percentage of label retained in the roots (62, 73, and 83% respectively). The spinach contained less activity in its root (36%) but also contained the highest TNT specific activity observed (>4600 jig TNT equivalents/g dry wt.). The specific uptake values of RDX for the spinach and alfalfa were comparable to those previously reported for wheat and bean (314 to 590 {mu}g RDX-equivalents/g dry wt. respectively). An exception to this may be the carrot where the specific activity was found to exceed 4200 {mu}g RDX-equivalents/g dry wt. in the shoot. The total accumulation of TNT by the plants ranged from 1.24% for the spinach to 2.34% for the carrot. The RDX plants ranging from 15% for the spinach to 37% for the carrot. There was no identifiable TNT or amino dinitrotoluene (ADNT) isomers present in the plants however, the parent RDX compound was found at significant levels in the shoot of alfalfa (> 1 80 {mu}g/g) and corn (>18 {mu}g/g).

  3. Cluster munitions: public health and international humanitarian law perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2008-02-01

    As a result of civilian deaths in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Chechnya, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq and Lebanon, cluster munitions have been recognised to pose a grave threat to civilian populations because of their limited precision and problematically high rate of initial failure to explode. Efforts are intensifying to ban cluster munitions and to mandate those who have discharged them to defuse them effectively so as to reduce the risks to civilians. This editorial reviews these efforts and identifies a need for them to be actively supported by both the legal and medical communities.

  4. Operator Spreading in Random Unitary Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahum, Adam; Vijay, Sagar; Haah, Jeongwan

    2018-04-01

    Random quantum circuits yield minimally structured models for chaotic quantum dynamics, which are able to capture, for example, universal properties of entanglement growth. We provide exact results and coarse-grained models for the spreading of operators by quantum circuits made of Haar-random unitaries. We study both 1 +1 D and higher dimensions and argue that the coarse-grained pictures carry over to operator spreading in generic many-body systems. In 1 +1 D , we demonstrate that the out-of-time-order correlator (OTOC) satisfies a biased diffusion equation, which gives exact results for the spatial profile of the OTOC and determines the butterfly speed vB. We find that in 1 +1 D , the "front" of the OTOC broadens diffusively, with a width scaling in time as t1 /2. We address fluctuations in the OTOC between different realizations of the random circuit, arguing that they are negligible in comparison to the broadening of the front within a realization. Turning to higher dimensions, we show that the averaged OTOC can be understood exactly via a remarkable correspondence with a purely classical droplet growth problem. This implies that the width of the front of the averaged OTOC scales as t1 /3 in 2 +1 D and as t0.240 in 3 +1 D (exponents of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class). We support our analytic argument with simulations in 2 +1 D . We point out that, in two or higher spatial dimensions, the shape of the spreading operator at late times is affected by underlying lattice symmetries and, in general, is not spherical. However, when full spatial rotational symmetry is present in 2 +1 D , our mapping implies an exact asymptotic form for the OTOC, in terms of the Tracy-Widom distribution. For an alternative perspective on the OTOC in 1 +1 D , we map it to the partition function of an Ising-like statistical mechanics model. As a result of special structure arising from unitarity, this partition function reduces to a random walk calculation which can be

  5. Unitary Evolution as a Uniqueness Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, J.; Mena Marugán, G. A.; Olmedo, J.; Velhinho, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that the process of quantizing field theories is plagued with ambiguities. First, there is ambiguity in the choice of basic variables describing the system. Second, once a choice of field variables has been made, there is ambiguity concerning the selection of a quantum representation of the corresponding canonical commutation relations. The natural strategy to remove these ambiguities is to demand positivity of energy and to invoke symmetries, namely by requiring that classical symmetries become unitarily implemented in the quantum realm. The success of this strategy depends, however, on the existence of a sufficiently large group of symmetries, usually including time-translation invariance. These criteria are therefore generally insufficient in non-stationary situations, as is typical for free fields in curved spacetimes. Recently, the criterion of unitary implementation of the dynamics has been proposed in order to select a unique quantization in the context of manifestly non-stationary systems. Specifically, the unitarity criterion, together with the requirement of invariance under spatial symmetries, has been successfully employed to remove the ambiguities in the quantization of linearly polarized Gowdy models as well as in the quantization of a scalar field with time varying mass, propagating in a static background whose spatial topology is either of a d-sphere (with d = 1, 2, 3) or a three torus. Following Ref. 3, we will see here that the symmetry and unitarity criteria allows for a complete removal of the ambiguities in the quantization of scalar fields propagating in static spacetimes with compact spatial sections, obeying field equations with an explicitly time-dependent mass, of the form ddot φ - Δ φ + s(t)φ = 0 . These results apply in particular to free fields in spacetimes which, like e.g. in the closed FRW models, are conformal to a static spacetime, by means of an exclusively time-dependent conformal factor. In fact, in such

  6. Using waterjet in reverse logistic operations in discarded munitions processing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hloch, S.; Tozan, H.; Yagimli, M.; Valíček, Jan; Rokosz, K.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2011), s. 267-271 ISSN 1330-3651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : abrasive waterjet * anti tank bullet * automatic line Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.347, year: 2011 http://hrcak.srce.hr/search/?q=Using+waterjet+in+reverse+logistic+operations+in+discarded+munitions+processing

  7. Underwater Munitions Expert System to Predict Mobility and Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-14

    for predicting the location and possible burial of underwater munitions is required to advise site managers as they plan...that region above the given UXO relative density, which is defined as the UXO density divided by the sand grain density, ( nominally 2650 g...0.0 + 2.5*dsed ; % nominal bed roughness if no burial % (Potentially in future version, ripple height

  8. Computational Modeling of Hydrodynamics and Scour around Underwater Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Xu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Munitions deposited in water bodies are a big threat to human health, safety, and environment. It is thus imperative to predict the motion and the resting status of the underwater munitions. A multitude of physical processes are involved, which include turbulent flows, sediment transport, granular material mechanics, 6 degree-of-freedom motion of the munition, and potential liquefaction. A clear understanding of this unique physical setting is currently lacking. Consequently, it is extremely hard to make reliable predictions. In this work, we present the computational modeling of two importance processes, i.e., hydrodynamics and scour, around munition objects. Other physical processes are also considered in our comprehensive model. However, they are not shown in this talk. To properly model the dynamics of the deforming bed and the motion of the object, an immersed boundary method is implemented in the open source CFD package OpenFOAM. Fixed bed and scour cases are simulated and compared with laboratory experiments. The future work of this project will implement the coupling between all the physical processes.

  9. Service life determination of munition during expeditionary missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, W.P.C. de; Heijden, A.E.D.M. van der

    2012-01-01

    For a more in-depth understanding of the aging processes of munitions in expeditionary operations, research is performed with respect to the influence of transport, storage and use on the safety of ammunition. Within this programme the influences of parameters like temperature, humidity, vibrations,

  10. Preliminary Problem Definition Study on Munitions-Related Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    Thorium-230, Radium-226, Lead- 210 and Polonium - 210 by Plants," Radiat. Bot., 10(3), 293-295. Ernst, W. (1968), "Ecological Studies on Plants Grown on...dechlorane in the environment and its bioconcentration and biomagnifica- tion through the food chain. In mammals, dechlorane has been shown to be tei-atogenic...08 5. Phytotoxicity .o......................208 *6. Environmental Fate ....................... 210 7. Availability of Literature for

  11. Robust Learning Control Design for Quantum Unitary Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengzhi; Qi, Bo; Chen, Chunlin; Dong, Daoyi

    2017-12-01

    Robust control design for quantum unitary transformations has been recognized as a fundamental and challenging task in the development of quantum information processing due to unavoidable decoherence or operational errors in the experimental implementation of quantum operations. In this paper, we extend the systematic methodology of sampling-based learning control (SLC) approach with a gradient flow algorithm for the design of robust quantum unitary transformations. The SLC approach first uses a "training" process to find an optimal control strategy robust against certain ranges of uncertainties. Then a number of randomly selected samples are tested and the performance is evaluated according to their average fidelity. The approach is applied to three typical examples of robust quantum transformation problems including robust quantum transformations in a three-level quantum system, in a superconducting quantum circuit, and in a spin chain system. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the SLC approach and show its potential applications in various implementation of quantum unitary transformations.

  12. Consciousness, intentionality, and community: Unitary perspectives and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P; Larkin, Dorothy M

    2009-01-01

    Consciousness and intentionality often have been related and studied together. These concepts also are readily viewed and understood for practice, research, and education in a unitary paradigm. How these ideas relate to community is less known. Considering the expansion of our capacity for communication through the World Wide Web and other technologic advances and appreciating recent research on the nonlocal character of intentionality and consciousness, it is more apparent how concepts of community can be seen in the same unitary context. The authors address these issues and review relevant nursing research.

  13. Non-unitary probabilistic quantum computing circuit and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Colin P. (Inventor); Gingrich, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A quantum circuit performing quantum computation in a quantum computer. A chosen transformation of an initial n-qubit state is probabilistically obtained. The circuit comprises a unitary quantum operator obtained from a non-unitary quantum operator, operating on an n-qubit state and an ancilla state. When operation on the ancilla state provides a success condition, computation is stopped. When operation on the ancilla state provides a failure condition, computation is performed again on the ancilla state and the n-qubit state obtained in the previous computation, until a success condition is obtained.

  14. Cogeneration Power Plants: a Proposed Methodology for Unitary Production Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metalli, E.

    2009-01-01

    A new methodology to evaluate unitary energetic production costs in the cogeneration power plants is proposed. This methodology exploits the energy conversion factors fixed by Italian Regulatory Authority for Electricity and Gas. So it allows to settle such unitary costs univocally for a given plant, without assigning them a priori subjective values when there are two or more energy productions at the same time. Moreover the proposed methodology always ensures positive values for these costs, complying with the total generation cost balance equation. [it

  15. Classification of delocalization power of global unitary operations in terms of LOCC one-piece relocalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihito Soeda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We study how two pieces of localized quantum information can be delocalized across a composite Hilbert space when a global unitary operation is applied. We classify the delocalization power of global unitary operations on quantum information by investigating the possibility of relocalizing one piece of the quantum information without using any global quantum resource. We show that one-piece relocalization is possible if and only if the global unitary operation is local unitary equivalent of a controlled-unitary operation. The delocalization power turns out to reveal different aspect of the non-local properties of global unitary operations characterized by their entangling power.

  16. Validation of Passive Sampling Devices for Monitoring of Munitions Constituents in Underwater Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    TNT TOC TSS Low Order Detonation Munitions constituents Munitions Debris Method Detection Limit Munitions and explosives of concern Mean low...Total organic carbon ( TOC ) and grain size distribution from stations A1, T10, T11, and T12 at BSS...16 syringes/stn) TNT, ADNTs, DNTs, RDX 4 locations in BSS based on positive POCIS results Sediment 5 TOC , grain size 4, co-located with sediment

  17. Munitions in the Underwater Environment: State of the Science and Knowledge Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    the Munitions Items Disposition Action System ( MIDAS ). Munitions constituents (MCs) can be identified through the known munitions type. The MIDAS and...physical damage to the casing, adjacent or touching metals, and water or substrate qualities such as temperature, pH, or Redox potential. The...environments, little is known on modeling the fate of MCs in the underwater environment. One of the anticipated problems in predicting the fate and

  18. A Wide Area Risk Assessment Framework for Underwater Military Munitions Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, K. T.; Calantoni, J.

    2017-12-01

    Our objective was to develop a prototype statistical framework supporting Wide Area Assessment and Remedial Investigation decisions relating to the risk of unexploded ordnance and other military munitions concentrated in underwater environments. Decision making involving underwater munitions is inherently complex due to the high degree of uncertainty in the environmental conditions that force munitions responses (burial, decay, migration, etc.) and associated risks to the public. The prototype framework provides a consistent approach to accurately delineating contaminated areas at underwater munitions sites through the estimation of most probable concentrations. We adapted existing deterministic models and environmental data services for use within statistical modules that allowed the estimation of munition concentration given historic site information and environmental attributes. Ultimately this risk surface can be used to evaluate costs associated with various remediation approaches (e.g. removal, monitoring, etc.). Unfortunately, evaluation of the assessment framework was limited due to the lack of enduser data services from munition site managers. Of the 450 U.S. sites identified as having potential contamination with underwater munitions, assessment of available munitions information (including historic firing or disposal records, and recent ground-truth munitions samples) indicated very limited information in the databases. Example data types include the most probable munition types, approximate firing / disposal dates and locations, and any supportive munition survey or sampling results. However the overall technical goal to integrate trained statistical belief networks with detailed geophysical knowledge of sites, of sensors and of the underwater environment was demonstrated and should allow probabilistic estimates of the most likely outcomes and tradeoffs while managing uncertainty associated with military munitions response.

  19. DU and UD-invariants of unitary groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, M.C.K.

    1977-01-01

    Four distint ways of obtaining the eigenvalues of unitary groups, in any irreducible representation, are presented. The invariants are defined according to two different contraction conventions. Their eigenvalue can be given in terms of two classes of special partial hooks associated with the young diagram characterizing the irreducible representation considered

  20. A remark on the unitary part of contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Considering operators on a complex infinite dimensional Hilbert space H and denoting by T * a construction with C .O completely non-unitary part, it is proved that A T is projection which commutes with T and H (u) T = A T H. 3 refs

  1. Establishing the Unitary Classroom: Organizational Change and School Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Elizabeth M.; True, Joan H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper examines the organizational changes introduced in two elementary schools to create unitary (desegregated) classrooms. The different models adopted by the two schools--departmentalization and team teaching--are considered as expressions of their patterns of interaction, behavior, and values. (Part of a theme issue on educational…

  2. Microscopic description and excitation of unitary analog states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisslinger, L S [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA); Van Giai, N [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1977-12-05

    A microscopic investigation in a self-consistent particle-hole model reveals approximate unitary analog states in spite of large symmetry breaking. The K-nucleus elastic scattering and (K/sup -/, ..pi../sup -/) excitation of these states are studied, showing strong surface effects.

  3. Strategic Munitions Planning in Non-Conventional Asymmetric Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Conventional Asymmetric Operations RTO-MP-SAS-081 16 - 3 with a clearly structured, sized and located military force. The principles of Lanchester ...stockpiles and calculated munitions requirements. REFERENCES [1] Prague Summit Declaration, November 2002. [2] J. Fletcher, The Lanchester Legacy... Lanchester battles, Journal of the Operational Research Society, Vol. 50 No. 3, March 1999. [13] W. Freeman, A Study of Ammunition Consumption, Master of

  4. The Political Economy of the Munitions Supply Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    advantage in production, and further identified which munitions products can be procured offshore with only limited effects on operational liabilities...comparative advantage and access to global supply chains. A few options exist: fixed-price contracts may be indexed to exogenously-given input prices and... franchisees bid their true costs.47 Third, once supply is forthcoming, the franchisee has an incentive to minimize costs unless the franchiser is known

  5. Destruction of Chemical Weapons: Evaluation of the Donovan Contained Detonation Chamber (CDC) Poelkapelle, Belgium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeBisschop, Herbert

    2002-01-01

    The Royal Military Academy (RMA) of Belgium was requested by the Belgium Minister of Defense to study alternatives to destroy WWI chemical munitions in an environmentally safe manner (RMA Study F0016...

  6. Unitary or Non-Unitary Nature of Working Memory? Evidence from Its Relation to General Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Cai-Ping; Braeken, Johan; Ferrer, Emilio; Liu, Chang

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the controversy surrounding working memory: whether it is a unitary system providing general purpose resources or a more differentiated system with domain-specific sub-components. A total of 348 participants completed a set of 6 working memory tasks that systematically varied in storage target contents and type of information…

  7. Trauma-related infections due to cluster munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Youssef; El-Zaatari, Mohamad; Fares, Jawad; Bedrosian, Nora; Yared, Nadine

    2013-12-01

    Trauma-related infections remain a concerning and potentially avoidable complication of conflict-related injuries. During the Israeli conflict in South Lebanon, more than four million sub-munitions were dropped over South Lebanese soil. In this study, we will explore the different types of infection caused by sub-munitions and penetrating agents. This prospective study took place from 2006 to 2012 at the Lebanese University within the Faculty of Medical Sciences' departments. This study sample consisted of 350 injured casualties. Patients suffered from blast injuries with fragmentations targeting the head, face, torso, abdomen, pelvis and extremities. Of the 350 causalities studied, 326 (93.1%) were males, and 24 (6.9%) were females. Ages varied between 10 and 70 years, with the average age being 27 years. Of the 350 patients studied, 68 (19.4%) developed infections. Infections varied between pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Candida and fungus and sometimes led to necrosis. Vaccinations, antibiotic therapies and proper wound irrigation must be performed at appropriate emergency units. Excision and complete debridement of necrotic and contaminated tissue should also be performed. The Convention on Cluster Munitions of 2008 should be adhered to, as these weapons indiscriminately and disproportionately harm civilians, thereby violating the well-established international principles governing conflict. Copyright © 2013 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A mapping from the unitary to doubly stochastic matrices and symbols on a finite set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegov, Alexander V.

    2008-11-01

    We prove that the mapping from the unitary to doubly stochastic matrices that maps a unitary matrix (ukl) to the doubly stochastic matrix (|ukl|2) is a submersion at a generic unitary matrix. The proof uses the framework of operator symbols on a finite set.

  9. 40 CFR 266.203 - Standards applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transportation of solid waste military munitions. 266.203 Section 266.203 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the transportation of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous waste...

  10. 40 CFR 266.205 - Standards applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... solid waste military munitions. 266.205 Section 266.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS... applicable to the storage of solid waste military munitions. (a) Criteria for hazardous waste regulation of...

  11. 28 CFR 0.89 - Authority to seize arms and munitions of war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... war. 0.89 Section 0.89 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.89 Authority to seize arms and munitions of war. The Director... arms and munitions of war, and other articles, pursuant to section 1 of title VI of the act of June 15...

  12. Validation of Passive Sampling Devices for Monitoring of Munitions Constituents in Underwater Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Research and Development Program [SERDP] project #ER-2542) into the canister would provide enhancement of the quantitative estimation of the TWA...Department of Defense EOD Explosive Ordnance Disposal EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency EQL Environmental Quantitation Limit EST...Laboratory Quantitation Limit MC Munitions Constituents mL Milliliter MR Munitions Response NESDI Navy’s Environmental Security Development to

  13. Random unitary evolution model of quantum Darwinism with pure decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanesković, Nenad

    2015-10-01

    We study the behavior of Quantum Darwinism [W.H. Zurek, Nat. Phys. 5, 181 (2009)] within the iterative, random unitary operations qubit-model of pure decoherence [J. Novotný, G. Alber, I. Jex, New J. Phys. 13, 053052 (2011)]. We conclude that Quantum Darwinism, which describes the quantum mechanical evolution of an open system S from the point of view of its environment E, is not a generic phenomenon, but depends on the specific form of input states and on the type of S-E-interactions. Furthermore, we show that within the random unitary model the concept of Quantum Darwinism enables one to explicitly construct and specify artificial input states of environment E that allow to store information about an open system S of interest with maximal efficiency.

  14. On relevant boundary perturbations of unitary minimal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recknagel, A.; Roggenkamp, D.; Schomerus, V.

    2000-01-01

    We consider unitary Virasoro minimal models on the disk with Cardy boundary conditions and discuss deformations by certain relevant boundary operators, analogous to tachyon condensation in string theory. Concentrating on the least relevant boundary field, we can perform a perturbative analysis of renormalization group fixed points. We find that the systems always flow towards stable fixed points which admit no further (non-trivial) relevant perturbations. The new conformal boundary conditions are in general given by superpositions of 'pure' Cardy boundary conditions

  15. Unitary group representations in Fock spaces with generalized exchange properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liguori, A.

    1994-09-01

    The notion of second R-quantization is investigated, - a suitable deformation of the standard second quantization which properly takes into account the non-trivial exchange properties characterizing generalized statistics. The R-quantization of a class of unitary one-particle representations relevant for the description of symmetries is also performed. The Euclidean covariance of anyons is analyzed in this context. (author). 11 refs

  16. Prenominal and postnominal reduced relative clauses: arguments against unitary analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Sleeman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available These last years, several analyses have been proposed in which prenominal and postnominal reduced relatives are merged in the same position. Kayne (1994 claims that both types of reduced relative clauses are the complement of the determiner. More recently, Cinque (2005 has proposed that both types are merged in the functional projections of the noun, at the left edge of the modifier system. In this paper, I argue against a unitary analysis of prenominal and postnominal participial reduced relatives.

  17. Unitary Application of the Quantum Error Correction Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Bo; Xu Ke; Wu Xiaohua

    2012-01-01

    For applying the perfect code to transmit quantum information over a noise channel, the standard protocol contains four steps: the encoding, the noise channel, the error-correction operation, and the decoding. In present work, we show that this protocol can be simplified. The error-correction operation is not necessary if the decoding is realized by the so-called complete unitary transformation. We also offer a quantum circuit, which can correct the arbitrary single-qubit errors.

  18. Effective hamiltonian within the microscopic unitary nuclear model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avramenko, V.I.; Blokhin, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    Within the microscopic version of the unitary collective model with the horizontal mixing the effective Hamiltonian for 18 O and 18 Ne nuclei is constructed. The algebraic structure of the Hamiltonian is compared to the familiar phenomenological ones with the SU(3)-mixing terms which describe the coupled rotational and vibrational spectra. The Hamiltonian, including central nuclear and Coulomb interaction, is diagonalized on the basis of three SU(3) irreducible representations with two orbital symmetries. 32 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  19. Unitary-matrix models as exactly solvable string theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periwal, Vipul; Shevitz, Danny

    1990-01-01

    Exact differential equations are presently found for the scaling functions of models of unitary matrices which are solved in a double-scaling limit, using orthogonal polynomials on a circle. For the case of the simplest, k = 1 model, the Painleve II equation with constant 0 is obtained; possible nonperturbative phase transitions exist for these models. Equations are presented for k = 2 and 3, and discussed with a view to asymptotic behavior.

  20. Complex projection of unitary dynamics of quaternionic pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asorey, M.; Scolarici, G.; Solombrino, L.

    2007-01-01

    Quaternionic quantum mechanics has been revealed to be a very useful framework to describe quantum phenomena. In the case of two qubit compound systems we show that the complex projection of quaternionic pure states and quaternionic unitary maps permits the description of interesting phenomena such as decoherence and optimal entanglement generation. The approach, however, presents severe limitations for the case of multipartite or higher dimensional bipartite quantum systems as we point out

  1. Information-disturbance tradeoff in estimating a unitary transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisio, Alessandro; D'Ariano, Giacomo Mauro; Perinotti, Paolo; Chiribella, Giulio

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of the information-disturbance tradeoff associated to the estimation of a quantum transformation and show how the extraction of information about a black box causes a perturbation of the corresponding input-output evolution. In the case of a black box performing a unitary transformation, randomly distributed according to the invariant measure, we give a complete solution of the problem, deriving the optimal tradeoff curve and presenting an explicit construction of the optimal quantum network.

  2. Primary fields in a unitary representation of Virasoro algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, R.; Yamanaka, I.

    1985-08-01

    A unitary representation of Virasoro algebras with the central charge c = 1 - 6/(N + 1)(N + 2) is constructed explicitly in terms of a colored (two color) coset space (the complex projective space CP sup(N-1)) quark model. By utilizing the explicit forms of the Virasoro generators Lsub(m), we derive a general method of constructing the primary fields (fields with well-defined conformal transformation properties) of the above Virasoro algebras. (author)

  3. Efficient learning algorithm for quantum perceptron unitary weights

    OpenAIRE

    Seow, Kok-Leong; Behrman, Elizabeth; Steck, James

    2015-01-01

    For the past two decades, researchers have attempted to create a Quantum Neural Network (QNN) by combining the merits of quantum computing and neural computing. In order to exploit the advantages of the two prolific fields, the QNN must meet the non-trivial task of integrating the unitary dynamics of quantum computing and the dissipative dynamics of neural computing. At the core of quantum computing and neural computing lies the qubit and perceptron, respectively. We see that past implementat...

  4. Entanglement entropy of non-unitary integrable quantum field theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Bianchini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the simplest massive 1+1 dimensional integrable quantum field theory which can be described as a perturbation of a non-unitary minimal conformal field theory: the Lee–Yang model. We are particularly interested in the features of the bi-partite entanglement entropy for this model and on building blocks thereof, namely twist field form factors. Non-unitarity selects out a new type of twist field as the operator whose two-point function (appropriately normalized yields the entanglement entropy. We compute this two-point function both from a form factor expansion and by means of perturbed conformal field theory. We find good agreement with CFT predictions put forward in a recent work involving the present authors. In particular, our results are consistent with a scaling of the entanglement entropy given by ceff3log⁡ℓ where ceff is the effective central charge of the theory (a positive number related to the central charge and ℓ is the size of the region. Furthermore the form factor expansion of twist fields allows us to explore the large region limit of the entanglement entropy and find the next-to-leading order correction to saturation. We find that this correction is very different from its counterpart in unitary models. Whereas in the latter case, it had a form depending only on few parameters of the model (the particle spectrum, it appears to be much more model-dependent for non-unitary models.

  5. Higher dimensional unitary braid matrices: Construction, associated structures and entanglements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdesselam, B.; Chakrabarti, A.; Dobrev, V.K.; Mihov, S.G.

    2007-03-01

    We construct (2n) 2 x (2n) 2 unitary braid matrices R-circumflex for n ≥ 2 generalizing the class known for n = 1. A set of (2n) x (2n) matrices (I, J,K,L) are defined. R-circumflex is expressed in terms of their tensor products (such as K x J), leading to a canonical formulation for all n. Complex projectors P ± provide a basis for our real, unitary R-circumflex. Baxterization is obtained. Diagonalizations and block- diagonalizations are presented. The loss of braid property when R-circumflex (n > 1) is block-diagonalized in terms of R-circumflex (n = 1) is pointed out and explained. For odd dimension (2n + 1) 2 x (2n + 1) 2 , a previously constructed braid matrix is complexified to obtain unitarity. R-circumflexLL- and R-circumflexTT- algebras, chain Hamiltonians, potentials for factorizable S-matrices, complex non-commutative spaces are all studied briefly in the context of our unitary braid matrices. Turaev construction of link invariants is formulated for our case. We conclude with comments concerning entanglements. (author)

  6. Multiscale differential phase contrast analysis with a unitary detector

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Kosel, Jü rgen; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    A new approach to generate differential phase contrast (DPC) images for the visualization and quantification of local magnetic fields in a wide range of modern nano materials is reported. In contrast to conventional DPC methods our technique utilizes the idea of a unitary detector under bright field conditions, making it immediately usable by a majority of modern transmission electron microscopes. The approach is put on test to characterize the local magnetization of cylindrical nanowires and their 3D ordered arrays, revealing high sensitivity of our method in a combination with nanometer-scale spatial resolution.

  7. Configurable unitary transformations and linear logic gates using quantum memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, G T; Pinel, O; Hosseini, M; Ralph, T C; Buchler, B C; Lam, P K

    2014-08-08

    We show that a set of optical memories can act as a configurable linear optical network operating on frequency-multiplexed optical states. Our protocol is applicable to any quantum memories that employ off-resonant Raman transitions to store optical information in atomic spins. In addition to the configurability, the protocol also offers favorable scaling with an increasing number of modes where N memories can be configured to implement arbitrary N-mode unitary operations during storage and readout. We demonstrate the versatility of this protocol by showing an example where cascaded memories are used to implement a conditional cz gate.

  8. Introduction to orthogonal, symplectic and unitary representations of finite groups

    CERN Document Server

    Riehm, Carl R

    2011-01-01

    Orthogonal, symplectic and unitary representations of finite groups lie at the crossroads of two more traditional subjects of mathematics-linear representations of finite groups, and the theory of quadratic, skew symmetric and Hermitian forms-and thus inherit some of the characteristics of both. This book is written as an introduction to the subject and not as an encyclopaedic reference text. The principal goal is an exposition of the known results on the equivalence theory, and related matters such as the Witt and Witt-Grothendieck groups, over the "classical" fields-algebraically closed, rea

  9. Deformations of polyhedra and polygons by the unitary group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livine, Etera R. [Laboratoire de Physique, ENS Lyon, CNRS-UMR 5672, 46 Allée d' Italie, Lyon 69007, France and Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline St N, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2013-12-15

    We introduce the set of framed (convex) polyhedra with N faces as the symplectic quotient C{sup 2N}//SU(2). A framed polyhedron is then parametrized by N spinors living in C{sup 2} satisfying suitable closure constraints and defines a usual convex polyhedron plus extra U(1) phases attached to each face. We show that there is a natural action of the unitary group U(N) on this phase space, which changes the shape of faces and allows to map any (framed) polyhedron onto any other with the same total (boundary) area. This identifies the space of framed polyhedra to the Grassmannian space U(N)/ (SU(2)×U(N−2)). We show how to write averages of geometrical observables (polynomials in the faces' area and the angles between them) over the ensemble of polyhedra (distributed uniformly with respect to the Haar measure on U(N)) as polynomial integrals over the unitary group and we provide a few methods to compute these integrals systematically. We also use the Itzykson-Zuber formula from matrix models as the generating function for these averages and correlations. In the quantum case, a canonical quantization of the framed polyhedron phase space leads to the Hilbert space of SU(2) intertwiners (or, in other words, SU(2)-invariant states in tensor products of irreducible representations). The total boundary area as well as the individual face areas are quantized as half-integers (spins), and the Hilbert spaces for fixed total area form irreducible representations of U(N). We define semi-classical coherent intertwiner states peaked on classical framed polyhedra and transforming consistently under U(N) transformations. And we show how the U(N) character formula for unitary transformations is to be considered as an extension of the Itzykson-Zuber to the quantum level and generates the traces of all polynomial observables over the Hilbert space of intertwiners. We finally apply the same formalism to two dimensions and show that classical (convex) polygons can be described in

  10. Implementing controlled-unitary operations over the butterfly network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Akihito; Kinjo, Yoshiyuki; Turner, Peter S. [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a multiparty quantum computation task over a network in a situation where the capacities of both the quantum and classical communication channels of the network are limited and a bottleneck occurs. Using a resource setting introduced by Hayashi [1], we present an efficient protocol for performing controlled-unitary operations between two input nodes and two output nodes over the butterfly network, one of the most fundamental networks exhibiting the bottleneck problem. This result opens the possibility of developing a theory of quantum network coding for multiparty quantum computation, whereas the conventional network coding only treats multiparty quantum communication.

  11. A model of diffraction scattering with unitary corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etim, E.; Malecki, A.; Satta, L.

    1989-01-01

    The inability of the multiple scattering model of Glauber and similar geometrical picture models to fit data at Collider energies, to fit low energy data at large momentum transfers and to explain the absence of multiple diffraction dips in the data is noted. It is argued and shown that a unitary correction to the multiple scattering amplitude gives rise to a better model and allows to fit all available data on nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions at all energies and all momentum transfers. There are no multiple diffraction dips

  12. Non-unitary neutrino propagation from neutrino decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jeffreyberryman2012@u.northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gouvêa, André de; Hernández, Daniel [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Oliveira, Roberto L.N. [Northwestern University, Department of Physics & Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin Universidade Estadual de Campinas, UNICAMP 13083-970, Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-06

    Neutrino propagation in space-time is not constrained to be unitary if very light states – lighter than the active neutrinos – exist into which neutrinos may decay. If this is the case, neutrino flavor-change is governed by a handful of extra mixing and “oscillation” parameters, including new sources of CP-invariance violation. We compute the transition probabilities in the two- and three-flavor scenarios and discuss the different phenomenological consequences of the new physics. These are qualitatively different from other sources of unitarity violation discussed in the literature.

  13. Non-unitary neutrino propagation from neutrino decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M.; Gouvêa, André de; Hernández, Daniel; Oliveira, Roberto L.N.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino propagation in space-time is not constrained to be unitary if very light states – lighter than the active neutrinos – exist into which neutrinos may decay. If this is the case, neutrino flavor-change is governed by a handful of extra mixing and “oscillation” parameters, including new sources of CP-invariance violation. We compute the transition probabilities in the two- and three-flavor scenarios and discuss the different phenomenological consequences of the new physics. These are qualitatively different from other sources of unitarity violation discussed in the literature

  14. Experiments with Highly-Ionized Atoms in Unitary Penning Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Fogwell Hoogerheide

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly-ionized atoms with special properties have been proposed for interesting applications, including potential candidates for a new generation of optical atomic clocks at the one part in 1019 level of precision, quantum information processing and tests of fundamental theory. The proposed atomic systems are largely unexplored. Recent developments at NIST are described, including the isolation of highly-ionized atoms at low energy in unitary Penning traps and the use of these traps for the precise measurement of radiative decay lifetimes (demonstrated with a forbidden transition in Kr17+, as well as for studying electron capture processes.

  15. A Unitary-Transformative Nursing Science: From Angst to Appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, W Richard

    2017-10-01

    The discord within nursing regarding the definition of nursing science has created great angst, particularly for those who view nursing science as a body of knowledge derived from theories specific to its unique concerns. The purpose of this brief article is to suggest a perspective and process grounded in appreciation of wholeness that may offer a way forward for proponents of a unitary-transformative nursing science that transcends the discord. This way forward is guided by principles of fostering dissent without contempt, generating a well-imagined future, and garnering appreciatively inspired action for change.

  16. Multiscale differential phase contrast analysis with a unitary detector

    KAUST Repository

    Lopatin, Sergei

    2015-12-30

    A new approach to generate differential phase contrast (DPC) images for the visualization and quantification of local magnetic fields in a wide range of modern nano materials is reported. In contrast to conventional DPC methods our technique utilizes the idea of a unitary detector under bright field conditions, making it immediately usable by a majority of modern transmission electron microscopes. The approach is put on test to characterize the local magnetization of cylindrical nanowires and their 3D ordered arrays, revealing high sensitivity of our method in a combination with nanometer-scale spatial resolution.

  17. Depleted uranium instead of lead in munitions: the lesser evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-03-01

    Uranium has many similarities to lead in its exposure mechanisms, metabolism and target organs. However, lead is more toxic, which is reflected in the threshold limit values. The main potential hazard associated with depleted uranium is inhalation of the aerosols created when a projectile hits an armoured target. A person can be exposed to lead in similar ways. Accidental dangerous exposures can result from contact with both substances. Encountering uranium fragments is of minor significance because of the low penetration depth of alpha particles emitted by uranium: they are unable to penetrate even the superficial keratin layer of human skin. An additional cancer risk attributable to the uranium exposure might be significant only in case of prolonged contact of the contaminant with susceptible tissues. Lead intoxication can be observed in the wounded, in workers manufacturing munitions etc; moreover, lead has been documented to have a negative impact on the intellectual function of children at very low blood concentrations. It is concluded on the basis of the literature overview that replacement of lead by depleted uranium in munitions would be environmentally beneficial or largely insignificant because both lead and uranium are present in the environment.

  18. Depleted uranium instead of lead in munitions: the lesser evil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    Uranium has many similarities to lead in its exposure mechanisms, metabolism and target organs. However, lead is more toxic, which is reflected in the threshold limit values. The main potential hazard associated with depleted uranium is inhalation of the aerosols created when a projectile hits an armoured target. A person can be exposed to lead in similar ways. Accidental dangerous exposures can result from contact with both substances. Encountering uranium fragments is of minor significance because of the low penetration depth of alpha particles emitted by uranium: they are unable to penetrate even the superficial keratin layer of human skin. An additional cancer risk attributable to the uranium exposure might be significant only in case of prolonged contact of the contaminant with susceptible tissues. Lead intoxication can be observed in the wounded, in workers manufacturing munitions etc; moreover, lead has been documented to have a negative impact on the intellectual function of children at very low blood concentrations. It is concluded on the basis of the literature overview that replacement of lead by depleted uranium in munitions would be environmentally beneficial or largely insignificant because both lead and uranium are present in the environment. (opinion)

  19. 20000G shock energy harvesters for gun-fired munition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemin, J.; Boisseau, S.; Olmos, L.; Gallardo, M.; Despesse, G.; Robert, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a 20000G shock energy harvester dedicated to gun-fired munitions and based on a mass-spring resonant structure coupled to a coil-magnet electromagnetic converter. The 20000G shock energy is firstly stored in the spring as elastic potential energy, released as mass-spring mechanical oscillations right after the shock and finally converted into electricity thanks to the coil-magnet transducer. The device has been modeled, sized to generate 200mJ in 150ms, manufactured and tested in a gun-fired munition. The prototype sizes 117cm 3 and weighs 370g. 210mJ have been generated in a test bench and 140mJ in real conditions; this corresponds to a mean output power of 0.93W (7.9mW/cm 3 ) and a maximum output power of 4.83W (41.3mW/cm 3 ) right after the shock. (paper)

  20. 20000G shock energy harvesters for gun-fired munition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemin, J.; Boisseau, S.; Olmos, L.; Gallardo, M.; Despesse, G.; Robert, T.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a 20000G shock energy harvester dedicated to gun-fired munitions and based on a mass-spring resonant structure coupled to a coil-magnet electromagnetic converter. The 20000G shock energy is firstly stored in the spring as elastic potential energy, released as mass-spring mechanical oscillations right after the shock and finally converted into electricity thanks to the coil-magnet transducer. The device has been modeled, sized to generate 200mJ in 150ms, manufactured and tested in a gun-fired munition. The prototype sizes 117cm3 and weighs 370g. 210mJ have been generated in a test bench and 140mJ in real conditions; this corresponds to a mean output power of 0.93W (7.9mW/cm3) and a maximum output power of 4.83W (41.3mW/cm3) right after the shock.

  1. Global unitary fixing and matrix-valued correlations in matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Stephen L.; Horwitz, Lawrence P.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the partition function for a matrix model with a global unitary invariant energy function. We show that the averages over the partition function of global unitary invariant trace polynomials of the matrix variables are the same when calculated with any choice of a global unitary fixing, while averages of such polynomials without a trace define matrix-valued correlation functions, that depend on the choice of unitary fixing. The unitary fixing is formulated within the standard Faddeev-Popov framework, in which the squared Vandermonde determinant emerges as a factor of the complete Faddeev-Popov determinant. We give the ghost representation for the FP determinant, and the corresponding BRST invariance of the unitary-fixed partition function. The formalism is relevant for deriving Ward identities obeyed by matrix-valued correlation functions

  2. Formulation development and characterization of cellulose acetate nitrate based propellants for improved insensitive munitions properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Manning

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate nitrate (CAN was used as an insensitive energetic binder to improve the insensitive munitions (IM properties of gun propellants to replace the M1 propellant used in 105 mm artillery charges. CAN contains the energetic nitro groups found in nitrocellulose (NC, but also acetyl functionalities, which lowered the polymer's sensitivity to heat and shock, and therefore improved its IM properties relative to NC. The formulation, development and small-scale characterization testing of several CAN-based propellants were done. The formulations, using insensitive energetic solid fillers and high-nitrogen modifiers in place of nitramine were completed. The small scale characterization testing, such as closed bomb testing, small scale sensitivity, thermal stability, and chemical compatibility were done. The mechanical response of the propellants under high-rate uni-axial compression at, hot, cold, and ambient temperatures were also completed. Critical diameter testing, hot fragment conductive ignition (HFCI tests were done to evaluate the propellants' responses to thermal and shock stimuli. Utilizing the propellant chemical composition, theoretical predictions of erosivity were completed. All the small scale test results were utilized to down-select the promising CAN based formulations for large scale demonstration testing such as the ballistic performance and fragment impact testing in the 105 mm M67 artillery charge configurations. The test results completed in the small and large scale testing are discussed.

  3. Bioconcentration factors and plant-water partition coefficients of munitions compounds in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torralba-Sanchez, Tifany L; Kuo, Dave T F; Allen, Herbert E; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2017-12-01

    Plants growing in the soils at military ranges and surrounding locations are exposed, and potentially able to uptake, munitions compounds (MCs). The extent to which a compound is transferred from the environment into organisms such as plants, referred to as bioconcentration, is conventionally measured through uptake experiments with field/synthetic soils. Multiple components/phases that vary among different soil types and affect the bioavailability of the MC, however, hinder the ability to separate the effects of soil characteristics from the MC chemical properties on the resulting plant bioconcentration. To circumvent the problem, this work presents a protocol to measure steady state bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for MCs in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using inert laboratory sand rather than field/synthetic soils. Three MCs: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and 2,4-dinitroanisole (2,4-DNAN), and two munition-like compounds (MLCs): 4-nitroanisole (4-NAN) and 2-methoxy-5-nitropyridine (2-M-5-NPYNE) were evaluated. Approximately constant plant biomass and exposure concentrations were achieved within a one-month period that produced steady state log BCF values: 0.62 ± 0.02, 0.70 ± 0.03, 1.30 ± 0.06, 0.52 ± 0.03, and 0.40 ± 0.05 L kg plant dwt -1 for TNT, 2,4-DNT, 2,4-DNAN, 4-NAN, and 2-M-5-NPYNE, respectively. Furthermore, results suggest that the upper-bounds of the BCFs can be estimated within an order of magnitude by measuring the partitioning of the compounds between barley biomass and water. This highlights the importance of partition equilibrium as a mechanism for the uptake of MCs and MLCs by barley from interstitial water. The results from this work provide chemically meaningful data for prediction models able to estimate the bioconcentration of these contaminants in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tunable arbitrary unitary transformer based on multiple sections of multicore fibers with phase control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junhe; Wu, Jianjie; Hu, Qinsong

    2018-02-05

    In this paper, we propose a novel tunable unitary transformer, which can achieve arbitrary discrete unitary transforms. The unitary transformer is composed of multiple sections of multi-core fibers with closely aligned coupled cores. Phase shifters are inserted before and after the sections to control the phases of the waves in the cores. A simple algorithm is proposed to find the optimal phase setup for the phase shifters to realize the desired unitary transforms. The proposed device is fiber based and is particularly suitable for the mode division multiplexing systems. A tunable mode MUX/DEMUX for a three-mode fiber is designed based on the proposed structure.

  5. On the equivalence of massive qed with renormalizable and in unitary gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.

    1978-03-01

    In the framework of BPHZ renormalization procedure, we discuss the equivalence between 4-dimensional renormalizable massive quantum electrodynamics (Stueckelberg lagrangian), and massive QED in the unitary gauge

  6. The universal sound velocity formula for the strongly interacting unitary Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ke; Chen Ji-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Due to the scale invariance, the thermodynamic laws of strongly interacting limit unitary Fermi gas can be similar to those of non-interacting ideal gas. For example, the virial theorem between pressure and energy density of the ideal gas P = 2E/3V is still satisfied by the unitary Fermi gas. This paper analyses the sound velocity of unitary Fermi gases with the quasi-linear approximation. For comparison, the sound velocities for the ideal Boltzmann, Bose and Fermi gas are also given. Quite interestingly, the sound velocity formula for the ideal non-interacting gas is found to be satisfied by the unitary Fermi gas in different temperature regions. (general)

  7. First unitary, then divided: the temporal dynamics of dividing attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Witt, Joseph B

    2018-04-24

    Whether focused visual attention can be divided has been the topic of much investigation, and there is a compelling body of evidence showing that, at least under certain conditions, attention can be divided and deployed as two independent foci. Three experiments were conducted to examine whether attention can be deployed in divided form from the outset, or whether it is first deployed as a unitary focus before being divided. To test this, we adapted the methodology of Jefferies, Enns, and Di Lollo (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 40: 465, 2014), who used a dual-stream Attentional Blink paradigm and two letter-pair targets. One aspect of the AB, Lag-1 sparing, has been shown to occur only if the second target pair appears within the focus of attention. By presenting the second target pair at various spatial locations and assessing the magnitude of Lag-1 sparing, we probed the spatial distribution of attention. By systematically manipulating the stimulus-onset-asynchrony between the targets, we also tracked changes to the spatial distribution of attention over time. The results showed that even under conditions which encourage the division of attention, the attentional focus is first deployed in unitary form before being divided. It is then maintained in divided form only briefly before settling on a single location.

  8. Nonunitary Lagrangians and Unitary Non-Lagrangian Conformal Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buican, Matthew; Laczko, Zoltan

    2018-02-01

    In various dimensions, we can sometimes compute observables of interacting conformal field theories (CFTs) that are connected to free theories via the renormalization group (RG) flow by computing protected quantities in the free theories. On the other hand, in two dimensions, it is often possible to algebraically construct observables of interacting CFTs using free fields without the need to explicitly construct an underlying RG flow. In this Letter, we begin to extend this idea to higher dimensions by showing that one can compute certain observables of an infinite set of unitary strongly interacting four-dimensional N =2 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) by performing simple calculations involving sets of nonunitary free four-dimensional hypermultiplets. These free fields are distant cousins of the Majorana fermion underlying the two-dimensional Ising model and are not obviously connected to our interacting theories via an RG flow. Rather surprisingly, this construction gives us Lagrangians for particular observables in certain subsectors of many "non-Lagrangian" SCFTs by sacrificing unitarity while preserving the full N =2 superconformal algebra. As a by-product, we find relations between characters in unitary and nonunitary affine Kac-Moody algebras. We conclude by commenting on possible generalizations of our construction.

  9. Nonunitary Lagrangians and Unitary Non-Lagrangian Conformal Field Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buican, Matthew; Laczko, Zoltan

    2018-02-23

    In various dimensions, we can sometimes compute observables of interacting conformal field theories (CFTs) that are connected to free theories via the renormalization group (RG) flow by computing protected quantities in the free theories. On the other hand, in two dimensions, it is often possible to algebraically construct observables of interacting CFTs using free fields without the need to explicitly construct an underlying RG flow. In this Letter, we begin to extend this idea to higher dimensions by showing that one can compute certain observables of an infinite set of unitary strongly interacting four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories (SCFTs) by performing simple calculations involving sets of nonunitary free four-dimensional hypermultiplets. These free fields are distant cousins of the Majorana fermion underlying the two-dimensional Ising model and are not obviously connected to our interacting theories via an RG flow. Rather surprisingly, this construction gives us Lagrangians for particular observables in certain subsectors of many "non-Lagrangian" SCFTs by sacrificing unitarity while preserving the full N=2 superconformal algebra. As a by-product, we find relations between characters in unitary and nonunitary affine Kac-Moody algebras. We conclude by commenting on possible generalizations of our construction.

  10. Optimization of Intelligent Munition Warfare Using Agent-Based Simulation Software and Design of Experiments Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Floersheim, Bruce; Hou, Gene

    2006-01-01

    ... mechanism for a number of vehicles caught in the killzone. Thus, it is useful to study and attempt to model through equations and simulation the interaction between enemy agents and these new munitions...

  11. National Security Strategy and the Munitions' Paradox: Self-Sufficiency or Maximum Efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McChesney, Michael

    1998-01-01

    ... that the United States military strategy may not be credible to likely regional aggressors. Conversely, DoD acquisition leadership believes industry consolidation should continue and the munitions base should be expanded to include US allies...

  12. Energetic materials standards – Chemical compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuukkanen, I.M.; Bouma, R.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Subgroup A Energetic Materials Team, SG/A (EMT), develops and maintains standards that are relevant to all life-cycle phases of ammunition/weapon systems. STANAG 4147 is the standard regarding chemical compatibility of explosives with munition components, and is a document of prime importance.

  13. Applicability of federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs to waste chemical weapons and chemical warfare agents.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffenden, R.; Kimmell, T.

    2002-01-01

    This report reviews federal and state hazardous waste regulatory programs that govern the management of chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents. It addresses state programs in the eight states with chemical weapon storage facilities managed by the U.S. Army: Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Oregon, and Utah. It also includes discussions on 32 additional states or jurisdictions with known or suspected chemical weapons or chemical warfare agent presence (e.g., disposal sites containing chemical agent identification sets): Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., and Wyoming. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste programs are reviewed to determine whether chemical weapons or chemical warfare agents are listed hazardous wastes or otherwise defined or identified as hazardous wastes. Because the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) military munitions rule specifically addresses the management of chemical munitions, this report also indicates whether a state has adopted the rule and whether the resulting state regulations have been authorized by EPA. Many states have adopted parts or all of the EPA munitions rule but have not yet received authorization from EPA to implement the rule. In these cases, the states may enforce the adopted munitions rule provisions under state law, but these provisions are not federally enforceable

  14. U.S. Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity (ATTACC) for Munitions (AFM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Army Training Support Center USDA United States Department of Agriculture USGS United States Geological Survey USLE Universal Soil Loss Equation...Range condition is a function of climate, soil , and hydrology. The munitions impact, constituent load, and range condition are modeled using AFM...For ArcGIS v2 to attain expected concentrations of munitions constituents and corresponding risk due to exposure through soil - and water-related

  15. Compactifications of the Heterotic string with unitary bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, T.

    2006-05-23

    In this thesis we investigate a large new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric string vacua defined as compactifications of the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} and the SO(32) heterotic string on smooth Calabi-Yau threefolds with unitary gauge bundles and heterotic five-branes. The first part of the thesis discusses the implementation of this idea into the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} heterotic string. After specifying a large class of group theoretic embeddings featuring unitary bundles, we analyse the effective four-dimensional N=1 supergravity upon compactification. From the gauge invariant Kaehler potential for the moduli fields we derive a modification of the Fayet-Iliopoulos D-terms arising at one-loop in string perturbation theory. From this we conjecture a one-loop deformation of the Hermitian Yang-Mills equation and introduce the idea of {lambda}-stability as the perturbatively correct stability concept generalising the notion of Mumford stability valid at tree-level. We then proceed to a definition of SO(32) heterotic vacua with unitary gauge bundles in the presence of heterotic five-branes and find agreement of the resulting spectrum with the S-dual framework of Type I/Type IIB orientifolds. A similar analysis of the effective four-dimensional supergravity is performed. Further evidence for the proposed one-loop correction to the stability condition is found by identifying the heterotic corrections as the S-dual of the perturbative part of {pi}-stability as the correct stability concept in Type IIB theory. After reviewing the construction of holomorphic stable vector bundles on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau manifolds via spectral covers, we provide semi-realistic examples for SO(32) heterotic vacua with Pati-Salam and MSSM-like gauge sectors. We finally discuss the construction of realistic vacua with flipped SU(5) GUT and MSSM gauge group within the E{sub 8} x E{sub 8} framework, based on the embedding of line bundles into both E{sub 8} factors. Some of the appealing

  16. Bioinspired polarization navigation sensor for autonomous munitions systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakos, G. C.; Quang, T.; Farrahi, T.; Deshpande, A.; Narayan, C.; Shrestha, S.; Li, Y.; Agarwal, M.

    2013-05-01

    Small unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs (SUAVs), micro air vehicles (MAVs), Automated Target Recognition (ATR), and munitions guidance, require extreme operational agility and robustness which can be partially offset by efficient bioinspired imaging sensor designs capable to provide enhanced guidance, navigation and control capabilities (GNC). Bioinspired-based imaging technology can be proved useful either for long-distance surveillance of targets in a cluttered environment, or at close distances limited by space surroundings and obstructions. The purpose of this study is to explore the phenomenology of image formation by different insect eye architectures, which would directly benefit the areas of defense and security, on the following four distinct areas: a) fabrication of the bioinspired sensor b) optical architecture, c) topology, and d) artificial intelligence. The outcome of this study indicates that bioinspired imaging can impact the areas of defense and security significantly by dedicated designs fitting into different combat scenarios and applications.

  17. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Depleted uranium is a toxic and weakly radioactive metal used for a variety of purposes. Perhaps its most controversial use is in battlefield munitions, where it can be widely dispersed in the form of fine particles and shrapnel that may enter the bodies of combatants and others through inhalation, ingestion or wounding. It is a matter of legitimate public concern whether the use of this material in this way could create unacceptable health hazards or damage to the environment. The objective of our study has been to provide the best scientific understanding of the ways in which the material may be distributed, how it may be taken up by humans, and the potential implications for health. For politicians, any hazards to health have to be balanced against the military advantages that the use of these munitions confers. We have not tried to reach a judgment on these political issues, but we believe that a better scientific understanding of the extent of the hazards will make it easier for these wider questions to be addressed in a more objective way. This report is the first of two, and addresses the likely levels of exposure to depleted uranium, the resulting radiological risks, and the lessons to be learned from epidemiological studies. Our second report will address toxicological risks and environmental issues. So far, we conclude that risks from radiation are low for most soldiers on the battlefield, and for civilians who later return to the area. However, there are uncertainties about the maximal levels of exposure to depleted uranium on the battlefield, and there may be circumstances in which a few soldiers are exposed to levels of depleted uranium that result in a significant risk to health. Further studies are needed to determine the levels of exposure to depleted uranium that might occur on the battlefield and to judge whether such higher risks are likely to occur in practice

  18. The Schur algorithm for generalized Schur functions III : J-unitary matrix polynomials on the circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, Daniel; Azizov, Tomas; Dijksma, Aad; Langer, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    The main result is that for J = ((1)(0) (0)(-1)) every J-unitary 2 x 2-matrix polynomial on the unit circle is an essentially unique product of elementary J-unitary 2 x 2-matrix polynomials which are either of degree 1 or 2k. This is shown by means of the generalized Schur transformation introduced

  19. An Informal Overview of the Unitary Group Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnad, V.; Escher, J.; Kruse, M.; Baker, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Unitary Groups Approach (UGA) is an elegant and conceptually unified approach to quantum structure calculations. It has been widely used in molecular structure calculations, and holds the promise of a single computational approach to structure calculations in a variety of different fields. We explore the possibility of extending the UGA to computations in atomic and nuclear structure as a simpler alternative to traditional Racah algebra-based approaches. We provide a simple introduction to the basic UGA and consider some of the issues in using the UGA with spin-dependent, multi-body Hamiltonians requiring multi-shell bases adapted to additional symmetries. While the UGA is perfectly capable of dealing with such problems, it is seen that the complexity rises dramatically, and the UGA is not at this time, a simpler alternative to Racah algebra-based approaches.

  20. The SNARC effect is not a unitary phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso Moro, Sara; Dell'Acqua, Roberto; Cutini, Simone

    2018-04-01

    Models of the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect-faster responses to small numbers using left effectors, and the converse for large numbers-diverge substantially in localizing the root cause of this effect along the numbers' processing chain. One class of models ascribes the cause of the SNARC effect to the inherently spatial nature of the semantic representation of numerical magnitude. A different class of models ascribes the effect's cause to the processing dynamics taking place during response selection. To disentangle these opposing views, we devised a paradigm combining magnitude comparison and stimulus-response switching in order to monitor modulations of the SNARC effect while concurrently tapping both semantic and response-related processing stages. We observed that the SNARC effect varied nonlinearly as a function of both manipulated factors, a result that can hardly be reconciled with a unitary cause of the SNARC effect.

  1. Construction of unitary matrices from observable transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, A.

    1989-01-01

    An ideal measuring apparatus defines an orthonormal basis vertical strokeu m ) in Hilbert space. Another apparatus defines another basis vertical strokeυ μ ). Both apparatuses together allow to measure the transition probabilities P mμ =vertical stroke(u m vertical strokeυ μ )vertical stroke 2 . The problem is: Given all the elements of a doubly stochastic matrix P mμ , find a unitary matrix U mμ such that P mμ =vertical strokeU mμ vertical stroke 2 . The number of unknown nontrivial phases is equal to the number of independent equations to satisfy. The problem can therefore be solved provided that the values of the P mμ satisfy some inequalities. (orig.)

  2. The Science of Unitary Human Beings in a Creative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caratao-Mojica, Rhea

    2015-10-01

    In moving into a new kind of world, nurses are encouraged to look ahead and be innovative by transcending to new ways of using nursing knowledge while embracing a new worldview. "We need to recognize that we're going to have to use our imagination more and more" (Rogers, 1994). On that note, the author in this paper explicates Rogers' science of unitary human beings in a creative way relating it to painting. In addition, the author also explores works derived from Rogers' science such as Butcher's (1993) and Cowling's (1997), which are here discussed in light of an artwork. A painting is presented with the unpredictability, creativity, and the "dance of color and light" (Butcher, 1993) is appreciated through comprehending essence, pandimensionality, and wholeness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Qubit transport model for unitary black hole evaporation without firewalls*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Kento; Page, Don N.

    2018-03-01

    We give an explicit toy qubit transport model for transferring information from the gravitational field of a black hole to the Hawking radiation by a continuous unitary transformation of the outgoing radiation and the black hole gravitational field. The model has no firewalls or other drama at the event horizon, and it avoids a counterargument that has been raised for subsystem transfer models as resolutions of the firewall paradox. Furthermore, it fits the set of six physical constraints that Giddings has proposed for models of black hole evaporation. It does utilize nonlocal qubits for the gravitational field but assumes that the radiation interacts locally with these nonlocal qubits, so in some sense the nonlocality is confined to the gravitational sector. Although the qubit model is too crude to be quantitatively correct for the detailed spectrum of Hawking radiation, it fits qualitatively with what is expected.

  4. Mesoscopic Fluctuations for the Thinned Circular Unitary Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Tomas; Duits, Maurice

    2017-09-01

    In this paper we study the asymptotic behavior of mesoscopic fluctuations for the thinned Circular Unitary Ensemble. The effect of thinning is that the eigenvalues start to decorrelate. The decorrelation is stronger on the larger scales than on the smaller scales. We investigate this behavior by studying mesoscopic linear statistics. There are two regimes depending on the scale parameter and the thinning parameter. In one regime we obtain a CLT of a classical type and in the other regime we retrieve the CLT for CUE. The two regimes are separated by a critical line. On the critical line the limiting fluctuations are no longer Gaussian, but described by infinitely divisible laws. We argue that this transition phenomenon is universal by showing that the same transition and their laws appear for fluctuations of the thinned sine process in a growing box. The proofs are based on a Riemann-Hilbert problem for integrable operators.

  5. Unitary pole approximations and expansions in few-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casel, A.; Haberzettl, H.; Sandhas, W.

    1982-01-01

    The unitary pole approximations or expansions of the two-body subsystem operators are well known, and particularly efficient and practical, methods to reduce the three-body problem to an effective two-body theory. In the present investigation we develop generalizations of these approximation techniques to the subsystem amplitudes of problems with higher particle numbers. They are based on the expansion of effective potentials which, in contrast to the genuine two-body interactions, are now energy dependent. Despite this feature our generalizations require only energy independent form factors, thus preserving one of the essential advantages of the genuine two-body approach. The application of these techniques to the four-body case is discussed in detail

  6. Nonclassicality by Local Gaussian Unitary Operations for Gaussian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A measure of nonclassicality N in terms of local Gaussian unitary operations for bipartite Gaussian states is introduced. N is a faithful quantum correlation measure for Gaussian states as product states have no such correlation and every non product Gaussian state contains it. For any bipartite Gaussian state ρ A B , we always have 0 ≤ N ( ρ A B < 1 , where the upper bound 1 is sharp. An explicit formula of N for ( 1 + 1 -mode Gaussian states and an estimate of N for ( n + m -mode Gaussian states are presented. A criterion of entanglement is established in terms of this correlation. The quantum correlation N is also compared with entanglement, Gaussian discord and Gaussian geometric discord.

  7. Territory in the Constitutional Standards of Unitary States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Markhgeym

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the analysis of the constitutions of seven European countries (Albania, Hungary, Greece, Spain, Malta, Poland, Sweden. The research allows to reveal general and specific approaches to consolidation of norms on territories in a state and give the characteristic of the corresponding constitutional norms. Given the authors ' comprehensive approach to the definition of the territory of the state declared constitutional norms were assessed from the perspective of the fundamental principles and constituent elements of the territory. Considering the specifics of the constitutional types of state territories authors suggest typical and variative models and determine the constitutions of unitary states, distinguished by their originality in the declared group of legal relations. The original constitutional language areas associated with the introduction at the state level, these types of areas that are not typical for other countries.

  8. Isometric and unitary phase operators: explaining the Villain transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmen, J L van; Wreszinski, Walter F

    2007-01-01

    The Villain transform plays a key role in spin-wave theory, a bosonization of elementary excitations in a system of extensively many Heisenberg spins. Intuitively, it is a representation of the spin operators in terms of an angle and its canonically conjugate angular momentum operator and, as such, has a few nasty boundary-condition twists. We construct an isometric phase representation of spin operators that conveys a precise mathematical meaning to the Villain transform and is related to both classical mechanics and the Pegg-Barnett-Bialynicki-Birula boson (photon) phase operators by means of suitable limits. In contrast to the photon case, unitary extensions are inadequate because they describe the wrong physics. We also discuss in some detail the application to spin-wave theory, pointing out some examples in which the isometric representation is indispensable

  9. Factorization of J-unitary matrix polynomials on the line and a Schur algorithm for generalized Nevanlinna functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, D.; Dijksma, A.; Langer, H.

    2004-01-01

    We prove that a 2 × 2 matrix polynomial which is J-unitary on the real line can be written as a product of normalized elementary J-unitary factors and a J-unitary constant. In the second part we give an algorithm for this factorization using an analog of the Schur transformation.

  10. 48 CFR 225.770 - Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on acquisition of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. 225.770 Section 225... of United States Munitions List items from Communist Chinese military companies. This section...

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7007 - Prohibition on Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of United States Munitions List Items from Communist Chinese Military Companies. 252.225-7007 Section... Chinese Military Companies. As prescribed in 225.1103(4), use the following clause: Prohibition On Acquisition of United States Munitions List Items From Communist Chinese Military Companies (SEP 2006) (a...

  12. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Risk Analysis of the Continued Storage of Chemical Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    assessment. has been utilized in various industries for some time. Insurance companies have long used actuarial data for statistical eva- luations to justify...hand, are examples of major industry efforts to quantify risks of low-frequency events for which no good actuarial data exist. The nuclear power...not all the components exhibit the asm reliability. Intrinsic variations can N be caused, for example, by different ianupacturers, mrinten.c prac- tices

  13. Preliminary Problem Definition Study of 48 Munitions Related Chemicals. Volume I. Explosives Related Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    may be used depending on the desired alcohol/ketone ratio. The oxidation product is hydrolyzed and separated from the catalyst and unreacted...173- ’CU3 Choline, lecithin TMA TMA-*O Exogjenous Kidney - - DMA --- - - - - - - - - - - Endiageuot .s Excretion Sarcosine A -- ", -- Crea tinine N

  14. Linking the Unitary Paradigm to Policy through a Synthesis of Caring Science and Integrative Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koithan, Mary S; Kreitzer, Mary Jo; Watson, Jean

    2017-07-01

    The principles of integrative nursing and caring science align with the unitary paradigm in a way that can inform and shape nursing knowledge, patient care delivery across populations and settings, and new healthcare policy. The proposed policies may transform the healthcare system in a way that supports nursing praxis and honors the discipline's unitary paradigm. This call to action provides a distinct and hopeful vision of a healthcare system that is accessible, equitable, safe, patient-centered, and affordable. In these challenging times, it is the unitary paradigm and nursing wisdom that offer a clear path forward.

  15. Symmetric mixed states of n qubits: Local unitary stabilizers and entanglement classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, David W.; Walck, Scott N. [Lebanon Valley College, Annville, Pennsylvania 17003 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We classify, up to local unitary equivalence, local unitary stabilizer Lie algebras for symmetric mixed states of n qubits into six classes. These include the stabilizer types of the Werner states, the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and its generalizations, and Dicke states. For all but the zero algebra, we classify entanglement types (local unitary equivalence classes) of symmetric mixed states that have those stabilizers. We make use of the identification of symmetric density matrices with polynomials in three variables with real coefficients and apply the representation theory of SO(3) on this space of polynomials.

  16. A unitary model of the black hole evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yu-Lei; Chen, Yi-Xin

    2014-12-01

    A unitary effective field model of the black hole evaporation is proposed to satisfy almost the four postulates of the black hole complementarity (BHC). In this model, we enlarge a black hole-scalar field system by adding an extra radiation detector that couples with the scalar field. After performing a partial trace over the scalar field space, we obtain an effective entanglement between the black hole and the detector (or radiation in it). As the whole system evolves, the S-matrix formula can be constructed formally step by step. Without local quantum measurements, the paradoxes of the information loss and AMPS's firewall can be resolved. However, the information can be lost due to quantum decoherence, as long as some local measurement has been performed on the detector to acquire the information of the radiation in it. But unlike Hawking's completely thermal spectrum, some residual correlations can be found in the radiations. All these considerations can be simplified in a qubit model that provides a modified quantum teleportation to transfer the information via an EPR pairs.

  17. The unitary conformal field theory behind 2D Asymptotic Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nink, Andreas; Reuter, Martin [Institute of Physics, PRISMA & MITP, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz,Staudingerweg 7, D-55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2016-02-25

    Being interested in the compatibility of Asymptotic Safety with Hilbert space positivity (unitarity), we consider a local truncation of the functional RG flow which describes quantum gravity in d>2 dimensions and construct its limit of exactly two dimensions. We find that in this limit the flow displays a nontrivial fixed point whose effective average action is a non-local functional of the metric. Its pure gravity sector is shown to correspond to a unitary conformal field theory with positive central charge c=25. Representing the fixed point CFT by a Liouville theory in the conformal gauge, we investigate its general properties and their implications for the Asymptotic Safety program. In particular, we discuss its field parametrization dependence and argue that there might exist more than one universality class of metric gravity theories in two dimensions. Furthermore, studying the gravitational dressing in 2D asymptotically safe gravity coupled to conformal matter we uncover a mechanism which leads to a complete quenching of the a priori expected Knizhnik-Polyakov-Zamolodchikov (KPZ) scaling. A possible connection of this prediction to Monte Carlo results obtained in the discrete approach to 2D quantum gravity based upon causal dynamical triangulations is mentioned. Similarities of the fixed point theory to, and differences from, non-critical string theory are also described. On the technical side, we provide a detailed analysis of an intriguing connection between the Einstein-Hilbert action in d>2 dimensions and Polyakov’s induced gravity action in two dimensions.

  18. The unitary-group formulation of quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The major part of this dissertation establishes group theoretical techniques that are applicable to the quantum-mechanical many-body atomic and molecular problems. Several matrix element evaluation methods for many-body states are developed. The generator commutation method using generator states is presented for the first time as a complete algorithm, and a computer implementation of the method is developed. A major result of this work is the development of a new method of calculation called the freeon tensor product (FTP) method. This method is much simpler and for many purposes superior to the GUGA procedure (graphical unitary group approach), widely used in configuration interaction calculations. This dissertation is also concerned with the prediction of atomic spectra. In principle spectra can be computed by the methods of ab initio quantum chemistry. In practice these computations are difficult, expensive, time consuming, and not uniformly successful. In this dissertation, the author employs a semi-empirical group theoretical analysis of discrete spectra is the exact analog of the Fourier analysis of continuous functions. In particular, he focuses on the spectra of atoms with incomplete p, d, and f shells. The formulas and techniques are derived in a fashion that apply equally well for more complex systems, as well as the isofreeon model of spherical nuclei

  19. Conditional mutual information of bipartite unitaries and scrambling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Dawei; Hayden, Patrick; Walter, Michael [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-12-28

    One way to diagnose chaos in bipartite unitary channels is via the tripartite information of the corresponding Choi state, which for certain choices of the subsystems reduces to the negative conditional mutual information (CMI). We study this quantity from a quantum information-theoretic perspective to clarify its role in diagnosing scrambling. When the CMI is zero, we find that the channel has a special normal form consisting of local channels between individual inputs and outputs. However, we find that arbitrarily low CMI does not imply arbitrary proximity to a channel of this form, although it does imply a type of approximate recoverability of one of the inputs. When the CMI is maximal, we find that the residual channel from an individual input to an individual output is completely depolarizing when the other input is maximally mixed. However, we again find that this result is not robust. We also extend some of these results to the multipartite case and to the case of Haar-random pure input states. Finally, we look at the relationship between tripartite information and its Rényi-2 version which is directly related to out-of-time-order correlation functions. In particular, we demonstrate an arbitrarily large gap between the two quantities.

  20. Correlation functions in unitary minimal Liouville gravity and Frobenius manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belavin, V. [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, 127994 Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Theoretical Physics, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI,Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-10

    We continue to study minimal Liouville gravity (MLG) using a dual approach based on the idea that the MLG partition function is related to the tau function of the A{sub q} integrable hierarchy via the resonance transformations, which are in turn fixed by conformal selection rules. One of the main problems in this approach is to choose the solution of the Douglas string equation that is relevant for MLG. The appropriate solution was recently found using connection with the Frobenius manifolds. We use this solution to investigate three- and four-point correlators in the unitary MLG models. We find an agreement with the results of the original approach in the region of the parameters where both methods are applicable. In addition, we find that only part of the selection rules can be satisfied using the resonance transformations. The physical meaning of the nonzero correlators, which before coupling to Liouville gravity are forbidden by the selection rules, and also the modification of the dual formulation that takes this effect into account remains to be found.

  1. Resolving the Role of the Dynamic Pressure in the Burial, Exposure, Scour, and Mobility of Underwater Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilooly, S.; Foster, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    In nearshore environments, the motion of munitions results from a mixture of sediment transport conditions including sheet flow, scour, bedform migration, and momentary liquefaction. Incipient motion can be caused by disruptive shear stresses and pressure gradients. Foster et al. (2006) incorporated both processes into a single parameter, indicating incipient motion as a function of the bed state. This research looks to evaluate the role of the pressure gradient in positional state changes such as burial, exposure, and mobility. In the case of munitions, this may include pressure gradients induced by vortex shedding or the passing wave. Pressure-mapped model munitions are being developed to measure the orientation, rotation, and surface pressure of the munitions during threshold events leading to a new positional state. These munitions will be deployed in inner surf zone and estuary environments along with acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs), pore water pressure sensors, a laser grid, and a pencil beam sonar with an azimuth drive. The additional instruments allow for near bed and far field water column and sediment bed sampling. Currently preliminary assessments of various pressure sensors and munition designs are underway. Two pressure sensors were selected; the thin FlexiForce A201 sensors will be used to indicate munition rolling during threshold events and diaphragm sensors will be used to understand changes in surrounding pore water pressure as the munition begins to bury/unbury. Both sensors are expected to give quantitative measurements of dynamic pressure gradients in the flow field surrounding the munition. Resolving the role of this process will give insight to an improved incipient motion parameter and allow for better munition motion predictions.

  2. Optimal path planning for video-guided smart munitions via multitarget tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Jeffrey M.; Vasquez, Juan R.

    2006-05-01

    An advent in the development of smart munitions entails autonomously modifying target selection during flight in order to maximize the value of the target being destroyed. A unique guidance law can be constructed that exploits both attribute and kinematic data obtained from an onboard video sensor. An optimal path planning algorithm has been developed with the goals of obstacle avoidance and maximizing the value of the target impacted by the munition. Target identification and classification provides a basis for target value which is used in conjunction with multi-target tracks to determine an optimal waypoint for the munition. A dynamically feasible trajectory is computed to provide constraints on the waypoint selection. Results demonstrate the ability of the autonomous system to avoid moving obstacles and revise target selection in flight.

  3. Implementability of two-qubit unitary operations over the butterfly network and the ladder network with free classical communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akibue, Seiseki [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Murao, Mio [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan and NanoQuine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    We investigate distributed implementation of two-qubit unitary operations over two primitive networks, the butterfly network and the ladder network, as a first step to apply network coding for quantum computation. By classifying two-qubit unitary operations in terms of the Kraus-Cirac number, the number of non-zero parameters describing the global part of two-qubit unitary operations, we analyze which class of two-qubit unitary operations is implementable over these networks with free classical communication. For the butterfly network, we show that two classes of two-qubit unitary operations, which contain all Clifford, controlled-unitary and matchgate operations, are implementable over the network. For the ladder network, we show that two-qubit unitary operations are implementable over the network if and only if their Kraus-Cirac number do not exceed the number of the bridges of the ladder.

  4. Implementability of two-qubit unitary operations over the butterfly network and the ladder network with free classical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akibue, Seiseki; Murao, Mio

    2014-01-01

    We investigate distributed implementation of two-qubit unitary operations over two primitive networks, the butterfly network and the ladder network, as a first step to apply network coding for quantum computation. By classifying two-qubit unitary operations in terms of the Kraus-Cirac number, the number of non-zero parameters describing the global part of two-qubit unitary operations, we analyze which class of two-qubit unitary operations is implementable over these networks with free classical communication. For the butterfly network, we show that two classes of two-qubit unitary operations, which contain all Clifford, controlled-unitary and matchgate operations, are implementable over the network. For the ladder network, we show that two-qubit unitary operations are implementable over the network if and only if their Kraus-Cirac number do not exceed the number of the bridges of the ladder

  5. Eksplozivne materije za neosetljiva ubojna sredstva / Explosive substances for insensitive munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radun Jeremić

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available U skladu sa sve strožim zahtevima za očuvanje životne sredine i većom bezbednošću, tendencije u razvoju suvremenih ubojnih sredstava (UbS, pored povećanja pouzdanosti i efikasnosti, usmerene su i na povećanje sigurnosti pri njihovoj proizvodnji, skladištenju, manipulaciji i upotrebi. Na taj način dobijena je nova kategorija UbS, tzv. neosetljiva UbS, kod kojih je verovatnoća neželjenog aktiviranja pod dejstvom spoljnih impulsa svedena na minimum. Suština rešavanja ovog problema je primena eksplozivnih materija koje su mnogo manje osetljive na spoljne uticaje u odnosu na standardne. Osnovni zahtev koji se pri tome postavlja je da taktičko-tehničke karakteristike ostanu na nivou ili budu bolje u odnosu na postojeća UbS. U radu je ukratko objašnjen koncept razvoja neosetljivih UbS i dat pregled najznačajnijih rezultata istraživanja u oblasti eksplozivnih materija koje zadovoljavaju zahteve za primenu u neosetljivim UbS. / According to severe environment protection and safety requirements, tendencies in development of modern munitions, besides of increasing reliability and efficiency, are directed to decreasing of danger during their processing, storing, handling and operating. In that manner the new category of munitions has been obtained, named insensitive munitions, with a minimum probability of unplanned activating. The best method for solving this problem is using of explosive substances that are more insensitive according to standard ones. The main requirement is the tactical and technical characteristics stay at the level or to be better according to the existing munitions. In this paper the developing concept of insensitive munitions is shortly explained and presented a review of most important research results of explosive materials that fulfill requirements for applying in insensitive munitions.

  6. Positive-definite functions and unitary representations of locally compact groups in a Hilbert space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gali, I.M.; Okb el-Bab, A.S.; Hassan, H.M.

    1977-08-01

    It is proved that the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of an integral representation of a group of unitary operators in a Hilbert space is that it is positive-definite and continuous in some topology

  7. Observation of Burial and Migration of Instrumented Surrogate Munitions Deployed in the Swash Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristaudo, D.; Puleo, J. A.; Bruder, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Munitions (also known as unexploded ordnance; UXO) in the nearshore environment due to past military activities, may be found on the beach, constituting a risk for beach users. Munitions may be transported from offshore to shallower water and/or migrate along the coast. In addition, munitions may bury in place or be exhumed due to hydrodynamic forcing. Observations on munitions mobility have generally been collected offshore, while observations in the swash zone are scarce. The swash zone is the region of the beach alternately covered by wave runup where hydrodynamic processes may be intense. Studies of munitions mobility require the use of realistic surrogates to quantify mobility/burial and hydrodynamic forcing conditions. Four surrogates (BLU-61 Cluster Bomb, 81 mm Mortar, M151-70 Hydra Rocket and M107 155 mm High Explosive Howitzer) were developed and tested during large-scale laboratory and field studies. Surrogates house sensors that measure different components of motion. Errors between real munitions and surrogate parameters (mass, center of gravity and axial moment of inertia) are all within an absolute error of 20%. Internal munitions sensors consist of inertial motion units (for acceleration and angular velocity in and around the three directions and orientation), pressure transducers (for water depth above surrogate), shock recorders (for high frequency acceleration to detect wave impact on the surrogate), and an in-house designed array of optical sensors (for burial/exposure and rolling). An in situ array of sensors to measure hydrodynamics, bed morphology and sediment concentrations, was deployed in the swash zone, aligned with the surrogate deployment. Data collected during the studies will be shown highlighting surrogate sensor capabilities. Sensors response will be compared with GPS measurements and imagery from cameras overlooking the study sites of surrogate position as a function of time. Examples of burial/exposure and migration of surrogates

  8. A remark on the unitary group of a tensor product of n finite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By using the method of quantum circuits in the theory of quantum computing as outlined in Nielsen and Chuang [2] and using a key lemma of Jaikumar [1] we show that every unitary operator on the tensor product H = H 1 ⊗ H 2 ⊗ … ⊗ H n can be expressed as a composition of a finite number of unitary operators living on ...

  9. All unitary ray representations of the conformal group SU(2,2) with positive energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.

    1975-12-01

    We find all those unitary irreducible representations of the infinitely - sheeted covering group G tilde of the conformal group SU(2,2)/Z 4 which have positive energy P 0 >= O. They are all finite component field representations and are labelled by dimension d and a finite dimensional irreducible representation (j 1 , j 2 ) of the Lorentz group SL(2C). They all decompose into a finite number of unitary irreducible representations of the Poincare subgroup with dilations. (orig.) [de

  10. Swept frequency acoustic interferometry technique for chemical weapons verification and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, D.N.; Anthony, B.W.; Lizon, D.C.

    1995-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques are important for rapid on-site verification and monitoring of chemical munitions, such as artillery shells and bulk containers. Present NDE techniques provide only limited characterizations of such munitions. This paper describes the development of a novel noninvasive technique, swept-frequency acoustic interferometry (SFAI), that significantly enhances the capability of munitions characterizations. The SFAI technique allows very accurate and simultaneous determination of sound velocity and attenuation of chemical agents over a large frequency range inside artillery shells, in addition to determining agent density. The frequency-dependent sound velocity and attenuation can, in principle, provide molecular relaxation properties of the chemical agent. The same instrument also enables a direct fill-level measurement in bulk containers. Industrial and other applications of this general-purpose technique are also discussed.

  11. CHEMICALS

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    It is reminded that all persons who use chemicals must inform CERN's Chemistry Service (TIS-GS-GC) and the CERN Medical Service (TIS-ME). Information concerning their toxicity or other hazards as well as the necessary individual and collective protection measures will be provided by these two services. Users must be in possession of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for each chemical used. These can be obtained by one of several means : the manufacturer of the chemical (legally obliged to supply an MSDS for each chemical delivered) ; CERN's Chemistry Service of the General Safety Group of TIS ; for chemicals and gases available in the CERN Stores the MSDS has been made available via EDH either in pdf format or else via a link to the supplier's web site. Training courses in chemical safety are available for registration via HR-TD. CERN Medical Service : TIS-ME :73186 or service.medical@cern.ch Chemistry Service : TIS-GS-GC : 78546

  12. Minimal unitary realizations of exceptional U-duality groups and their subgroups as quasiconformal groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunaydin, Murat; Pavlyk, Oleksandr

    2005-01-01

    We study the minimal unitary representations of noncompact exceptional groups that arise as U-duality groups in extended supergravity theories. First we give the unitary realizations of the exceptional group E 8(-24) in SU*(8) as well as SU(6,2) covariant bases. E 8(-24) has E 7 x SU(2) as its maximal compact subgroup and is the U-duality group of the exceptional supergravity theory in d=3. For the corresponding U-duality group E 8(8) of the maximal supergravity theory the minimal realization was given. The minimal unitary realizations of all the lower rank noncompact exceptional groups can be obtained by truncation of those of E 8(-24) and E 8(8) . By further truncation one can obtain the minimal unitary realizations of all the groups of the 'Magic Triangle'. We give explicitly the minimal unitary realizations of the exceptional subgroups of E 8(-24) as well as other physically interesting subgroups. These minimal unitary realizations correspond, in general, to the quantization of their geometric actions as quasi-conformal groups. (author)

  13. Modeling midwave infrared muzzle flash spectra from unsuppressed and flash-suppressed large caliber munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, Bryan J.; Perram, Glen P.; Gross, Kevin C.

    2012-07-01

    Time-resolved infrared spectra of firings from a 152 mm howitzer were acquired over an 1800-6000 cm-1 spectral range using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. The instrument collected primarily at 32 cm-1 spectral and 100 Hz temporal resolutions. Munitions included unsuppressed and chemically flash suppressed propellants. Secondary combustion occurred with unsuppressed propellants resulting in flash emissions lasting ˜100 ms and dominated by H2O and CO2 spectral structure. Non-combusting plume emissions were one-tenth as intense and approached background levels within 20-40 ms. A low-dimensional phenomenological model was used to reduce the data to temperatures, soot absorbances, and column densities of H2O, CO2, CH4, and CO. The combusting plumes exhibit peak temperatures of ˜1400 K, areas of greater than 32 m2, low soot emissivity of ˜0.04, with nearly all the CO converted to CO2. The non-combusting plumes exhibit lower temperatures of ˜1000 K, areas of ˜5 m2, soot emissivity of greater than 0.38 and CO as the primary product. Maximum fit residual relative to peak intensity are 14% and 8.9% for combusting and non-combusting plumes, respectively. The model was generalized to account for turbulence-induced variations in the muzzle plumes. Distributions of temperature and concentration in 1-2 spatial regions demonstrate a reduction in maximum residuals by 40%. A two-region model of combusting plumes provides a plausible interpretation as a ˜1550 K, optically thick plume core and ˜2550 K, thin, surface-layer flame-front. Temperature rate of change was used to characterize timescales and energy release for plume emissions. Heat of combustion was estimated to be ˜5 MJ/kg.

  14. Unitary three-body calculation of nucleon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, H.; Ohta, K.

    1986-07-01

    We calculate nucleon-nucleon elastic scattering phase parameters based on a unitary, relativistic, pion-exchange model. The results are highly dependent on the off-shell amplitudes of πN scattering. The isobar-dominated model for the P 33 interaction leads to too small pion production rates owing to its strong suppression of off-shell pions. We propose to expand the idea of the Δ-isobar model in such a manner as to incorporate a background (non-pole) interaction. The two-potential model, which was first applied to the P 11 partial wave by Mizutani and Koltun, is applied also to the P 33 wave. Our phenomenological model for πN interaction in the P 33 partial wave differs from the conventional model only in its off-shell extrapolation, and has two different variants for the πN → Δ vertex. The three-body approach of Kloet and Silbar is extended such that the background interactions can be included straightfowardly. We make detailed comparisons of the new model with the conventional one and find that our model adequately reproduces the 1 D 2 phase parameters as well as those of peripheral partial waves. We also find that the longitudinal total cross section difference Δσ L (pp → NNπ) comes closer to the data compared to Kloet and Silbar. We discuss about the backward pion propagation in the three-body calculation, and the Pauli-principle violating states for the background P 11 interaction. (author)

  15. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    There has been a substantial amount of public discussion on the health effects of the use of depleted uranium (DU), especially on the battlefield. The RoyaI Society therefore convened an independent expert Working Group to review the present state of scientific knowledge about the health and environmental effects of DU, in order to inform public debate. This is the first of two reports. It deals with the amounts of DU to which soldiers could be exposed on the battlefield, the risks from radiation, and what we know from epidemiological studies. We consider past and potential future exposures, the most likely exposures and the 'worst-case' exposures that cannot be excluded. Our second report, to be published later this year, will address the risks from toxic poisoning and environmental issues including risks to civilian populations. The group has consulted widely. It has focused on what is known scientifically about aspects that are relevant to health and has not considered the merits of using DU in munitions. Nor does this report analyse Gulf War syndrome, which has been the subject of other reports. DU is a toxic and weakly radioactive heavy metal that may have adverse consequences to human health, particularly if it enters the body through inhalation, ingestion or wounding. On the battlefield it is used in kinetic energy weapons designed to penetrate the armour of tanks and other vehicles. On impact substantial amounts of DU may be dispersed as particles that can be inhaled and as shrapnel. Our approach has been to estimate the typical levels of exposure on the battlefield over a wide range of scenarios, and the worst-case exposures that individuals are unlikely to exceed. From these we calculate the potential health risks from radiation. We have also considered epidemiological studies of occupational exposures to uranium in other situations as an independent source of information on the risks of inhaling DU particles, although we recognise that the

  16. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    There has been a substantial amount of public discussion on the health effects of the use of depleted uranium (DU), especially on the battlefield. The RoyaI Society therefore convened an independent expert Working Group to review the present state of scientific knowledge about the health and environmental effects of DU, in order to inform public debate. This is the first of two reports. It deals with the amounts of DU to which soldiers could be exposed on the battlefield, the risks from radiation, and what we know from epidemiological studies. We consider past and potential future exposures, the most likely exposures and the 'worst-case' exposures that cannot be excluded. Our second report, to be published later this year, will address the risks from toxic poisoning and environmental issues including risks to civilian populations. The group has consulted widely. It has focused on what is known scientifically about aspects that are relevant to health and has not considered the merits of using DU in munitions. Nor does this report analyse Gulf War syndrome, which has been the subject of other reports. DU is a toxic and weakly radioactive heavy metal that may have adverse consequences to human health, particularly if it enters the body through inhalation, ingestion or wounding. On the battlefield it is used in kinetic energy weapons designed to penetrate the armour of tanks and other vehicles. On impact substantial amounts of DU may be dispersed as particles that can be inhaled and as shrapnel. Our approach has been to estimate the typical levels of exposure on the battlefield over a wide range of scenarios, and the worst-case exposures that individuals are unlikely to exceed. From these we calculate the potential health risks from radiation. We have also considered epidemiological studies of occupational exposures to uranium in other situations as an independent source of information on the risks of inhaling DU particles, although we recognise that the parallels may

  17. Decision Support Tools for Munitions Response Performance Prediction and Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Oldenburg. A discrimination algorithm for UXO using time domain electromagnetic induction . Journal of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics, 6:91...the course of a munitions response project. Unexploded ordnance (UXO), electromagnetic (EM), sensors, electromagnetic induction (EMI), data...approach defines a detection channel that is a linear combination of received channels. The weightings of received channels comprising the optimized

  18. Progressing Insensitive Munitions: Benefits and Techniques for Proactively Addressing Environmental Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    X Worm Tubifex tubifex X X X Black worm Lumbriculus X Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea X Estuarine/marine water column Mysid shrimp Americamysis...Objective: Characterize traditional and insensitive munitions (IMs) impacts on amphibian larvae to manage a candidate for T&E status that inhabit

  19. Dissolution of NTO, DNAN, and Insensitive Munitions Formulations and Their Fates in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    plastic bags to save the (a) (b) ERDC/CRREL TR-14-23 10 sample even if the bottle should break from ice formation. During each collection, we...Bacillus sp. Biodegradation 23 (2): 287–295. Prak, D.L., and D. O’Sullivan. 2012. Photochemical Transformation of Munitions Constituents in Marine

  20. Acoustic Scattering from Munitions in the Underwater Environment: Measurements and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K.; Kargl, S. G.; Espana, A.

    2017-12-01

    Acoustical scattering from elastic targets has been a subject of research for several decades. However, the introduction of those targets into the ocean environment brings new complexities to quantitative prediction of that scattering. The goal of our work has been to retain as much of the target physics as possible while also handling the propagation to and from the target in the multi-path ocean environment. Testing of the resulting predictions has been carried out via ocean experiments in which munitions are deployed on and within the sediment. We will present the overall philosophy used in the modeling and then compare model results to measurements. A 60 cm long 30 cd diameter aluminum cylinder will be used as a canonical example and then a sample of results for a variety of munitions will be shown. Finally, we will discuss the use of both the models and measurements in assessing the ability of sonar to discriminate munitions from other man-made targets. The difficulty of this challenge will be made apparent via results from a recent experiment in which both munitions and man-made "clutter" were deployed on a rippled sand interface.

  1. Analytical and unitary approach in mesons electromagnetic form factor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liptaj, A.

    2010-07-01

    In the dissertation thesis we address several topics related to the domain of particle physics. All of them represent interesting open problems that can be connected to the elastic or transition electromagnetic form factors of mesons, the form factors being the main objects of our interest. Our ambition is to contribute to the solution of these problems and use for that purpose known analytic properties of the form factors and the unitarity condition. These two tools are very powerful in the low energy domain (such as bound states of partons), where the perturbative QCD looses its validity. This is the motivation for construction of the unitary and analytic (U and A) models of studied form factors, that enable us to get the majority of our results. We use the U and A model to evaluate the contribution of the processes e"+e"- → Pγ, P = π"0, η, η to the muon magnetic anomaly a_μ in the lowest order of the hadronic vacuum polarization. For the contribution a_μ"h"a"d","L"O (π"+π"-) we demonstrate, that the use of the model leads to a dramatic error reduction with respect to the results of other authors. We also get a shift in the central value in the 'correct' direction, that brings the theoretical value closer to the experimental one. This results encourages us to use the model also for the evaluation of a_μ"h"a"d","L"O (P_γ). These contributions are smaller, however the precision of the experiment makes their evaluation necessary. We further use the U and A model of the transition form factors of π"0, η and η"' mesons to predict the partial decay widths of these particles Γ_π_"0_→_γ_γ and Γ_η_→_γ_γ and Γ_η_"'_→_γ_γ. In this way we make an independent cross check of the PDG table values. We find an agreement in the case of Γ_η_→_γ_γ and Γ_η_"'_→_γ_γ, even a smaller uncertainty for Γ_η_"'_→_γ_γ. In the case of Γ_π_"0_→_γ_γ we find a disagreement that points to an interesting problem. We wonder whether it could be

  2. Probing non-unitary CP violation effects in neutrino oscillation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Surender; Bhardwaj, Shankita

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we have considered minimal unitarity violation scheme to obtain the general expression for ν _{μ }→ ν _{τ } oscillation probability in vacuum and matter. For this channel, we have investigated the sensitivities of short baseline experiments to non-unitary parameters |ρ _{μ τ }| and ω _{μ τ } for normal as well as inverted hierarchical neutrino masses and θ _{23} being above or below maximality. We find that for normal hierarchy, the 3σ sensitivity of |ρ _{μ τ }| is maximum for non-unitary phase ω _{μ τ }=0 whereas it is minimum for ω _{μ τ }=± π . For inverted hierarchy, the sensitivity is minimum at ω _{μ τ }=0 and maximum for ω _{μ τ }=± π . We observe that the sensitivity to measure non-unitarity remains unaffected for unitary CP phase δ =0 or δ =π /2 . We have, also, explored wide spectrum of L/E ratio to investigate the possibilities to observe CP-violation due to unitary (δ ) and non-unitary (ω _{μ τ } ) phases. We find that the both phases can be disentangled, in principle, from each other for L/E<200 km/GeV.

  3. Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments of Some Military Munitions and Obscurant-related Compounds for Selected Threatened and Endangered Species

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Von Stackleberg, Katherine; Amos, Craig; Butler, C; Smith, Thomas; Famely, J; McArdle, M; Southworth, B; Steevens, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    ...) associated with munitions. This study evaluates the potential long-term impacts on selected threatened and endangered species resulting from dispersion and deposition of vapors and particles found in the fog oils...

  4. Treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method by unitary linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yusen; Chen Xiaoliang

    2009-01-01

    The theory of treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method by unitary linear regression analysis was described. Not only the reactivity, but also the effective neutron source intensity could be calculated by this method. Computer code was compiled base on the inverse kinetic method and unitary linear regression analysis. The data of zero power facility BFS-1 in Russia were processed and the results were compared. The results show that the reactivity and the effective neutron source intensity can be obtained correctly by treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method using unitary linear regression analysis and the precision of reactivity measurement is improved. The central element efficiency can be calculated by using the reactivity. The result also shows that the effect to reactivity measurement caused by external neutron source should be considered when the reactor power is low and the intensity of external neutron source is strong. (authors)

  5. Unitary relation for the time-dependent SU(1,1) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dae-Yup

    2003-01-01

    The system whose Hamiltonian is a linear combination of the generators of SU(1,1) group with time-dependent coefficients is studied. It is shown that there is a unitary relation between the system and a system whose Hamiltonian is simply proportional to the generator of the compact subgroup of SU(1,1). The unitary relation is described by the classical solutions of a time-dependent (harmonic) oscillator. Making use of the relation, the wave functions satisfying the Schroedinger equation are given, for a general unitary representation, in terms of the matrix elements of a finite group transformation (Bargmann function). The wave functions of the harmonic oscillator with an inverse-square potential is studied in detail, and it is shown that through an integral, the model provides a way of deriving the Bargmann function for the representation of positive discrete series of SU(1,1)

  6. A unified approach to the minimal unitary realizations of noncompact groups and supergroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenaydin, Murat; Pavlyk, Oleksandr

    2006-01-01

    We study the minimal unitary representations of non-compact groups and supergroups obtained by quantization of their geometric realizations as quasi-conformal groups and supergroups. The quasi-conformal groups G leave generalized light-cones defined by a quartic norm invariant and have maximal rank subgroups of the form H x SL(2, R) such that G/H x SL(2, R) are para-quaternionic symmetric spaces. We give a unified formulation of the minimal unitary representations of simple non-compact groups of type A 2 , G 2 , D 4 , F 4 , E 6 , E 7 , E 8 and Sp(2n, R). The minimal unitary representations of Sp(2n, R) are simply the singleton representations and correspond to a degenerate limit of the unified construction. The minimal unitary representations of the other noncompact groups SU(m, n), SO(m, n), SO*(2n) and SL(m, R) are also given explicitly. We extend our formalism to define and construct the corresponding minimal representations of non-compact supergroups G whose even subgroups are of the form H x SL(2, R). If H is noncompact then the supergroup G does not admit any unitary representations, in general. The unified construction with H simple or Abelian leads to the minimal representations of G(3), F(4) and O Sp(n|2, R) (in the degenerate limit). The minimal unitary representations of O Sp(n|2, R) with even subgroups SO(n) x SL(2, R) are the singleton representations. We also give the minimal realization of the one parameter family of Lie superalgebras D(2, 1; σ)

  7. Comparison of the unitary pole and Adhikari-Sloan expansions in the three nucleon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afnan, I.R.; Birrell, N.D.

    1977-01-01

    The binding energy of 3 H, percentage S-, S'- and D-state probability, and charge form factor of 3 He are calculated using the unitary pole and Adhikari-Sloan separable expansions to the Reid soft core potential. Comparison of the results for the two separable expansions show that the expansion of Adhikari and Sloan has the better convergence property, and the lowest rank expansion considered (equivalent to the unitary pole approximation) gives a good approximation to the binding energy of 3 H and the charge form factor of 3 He, even at large momentum transfer (K 2 -2 ). (Author)

  8. Solution of problem of determining spin properties of molecules in unitary formalism of quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimko, G.T.; Luzanov, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the problem of calculating one- and two-particle spin densities, which are needed in calculations of spin-orbit and spin-spin coupling. The proposed solution is oriented toward the application of computational algorithms using unitary group representations; the solution consists of explicit expressions for the matrix elements of spin density operators in terms of the means of products of spin-free generators. This has eliminated a serious problem encountered previously in determining spin characteristics of molecules within the framework of unitary formalism

  9. Polynomial approximation of non-Gaussian unitaries by counting one photon at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Francesco; Treps, Nicolas; Ferrini, Giulia

    2017-05-01

    In quantum computation with continuous-variable systems, quantum advantage can only be achieved if some non-Gaussian resource is available. Yet, non-Gaussian unitary evolutions and measurements suited for computation are challenging to realize in the laboratory. We propose and analyze two methods to apply a polynomial approximation of any unitary operator diagonal in the amplitude quadrature representation, including non-Gaussian operators, to an unknown input state. Our protocols use as a primary non-Gaussian resource a single-photon counter. We use the fidelity of the transformation with the target one on Fock and coherent states to assess the quality of the approximate gate.

  10. How many invariant polynomials are needed to decide local unitary equivalence of qubit states?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciążek, Tomasz; Oszmaniec, Michał; Sawicki, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Given L-qubit states with the fixed spectra of reduced one-qubit density matrices, we find a formula for the minimal number of invariant polynomials needed for solving local unitary (LU) equivalence problem, that is, problem of deciding if two states can be connected by local unitary operations. Interestingly, this number is not the same for every collection of the spectra. Some spectra require less polynomials to solve LU equivalence problem than others. The result is obtained using geometric methods, i.e., by calculating the dimensions of reduced spaces, stemming from the symplectic reduction procedure

  11. Munition Burial by Local Scour and Sandwaves: large-scale laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Our effort has been the direct observation and monitoring of the burial process of munitions induced by the combined action of waves, currents and pure oscillatory flows. The experimental conditions have made it possible to observe the burial process due to both local scour around model munitions as well as the passage of sandwaves. One experimental facility is the Large Oscillating Water Sediment Tunnel (LOWST) constructed with DURIP support. LOWST can reproduce field-like conditions near the sea bed. The second facility is a multipurpose wave-current flume which is 4 feet (1.20 m) deep, 6 feet (1.8 m) wide, and 161 feet (49.2 m) long. More than two hundred experiments were carried out in the wave-current flume. The main task completed within this effort has been the characterization of the burial process induced by local scour as well in the presence of dynamic sandwaves with superimposed ripples. It is found that the burial of a finite-length model munition (cylinder) is determined by local scour around the cylinder and by a more global process associated with the formation and evolution of sandwaves having superimposed ripples on them. Depending on the ratio of the amplitude of these features and the body's diameter (D), a model munition can progressively get partially or totally buried as such bedforms migrate. Analysis of the experimental data indicates that existing semi-empirical formulae for prediction of equilibrium-burial-depth, geometry of the scour hole around a cylinder, and time-scales developed for pipelines are not suitable for the case of a cylinder of finite length. Relative burial depth (Bd / D) is found to be mainly a function of two parameters. One is the Keulegan-Carpenter number, KC, and the Shields parameter, θ. Munition burial under either waves or combined flow, is influenced by two different processes. One is related to the local scour around the object, which takes place within the first few hundred minutes of flow action (i.e. short

  12. Munitions having an insensitive detonator system for initiating large failure diameter explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, III, William Leroy

    2015-08-04

    A munition according to a preferred embodiment can include a detonator system having a detonator that is selectively coupled to a microwave source that functions to selectively prime, activate, initiate, and/or sensitize an insensitive explosive material for detonation. The preferred detonator can include an explosive cavity having a barrier within which an insensitive explosive material is disposed and a waveguide coupled to the explosive cavity. The preferred system can further include a microwave source coupled to the waveguide such that microwaves enter the explosive cavity and impinge on the insensitive explosive material to sensitize the explosive material for detonation. In use the preferred embodiments permit the deployment and use of munitions that are maintained in an insensitive state until the actual time of use, thereby substantially preventing unauthorized or unintended detonation thereof.

  13. Matrix elements and few-body calculations within the unitary correlation operator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.; Hergert, H.; Papakonstantinou, P.

    2005-01-01

    We employ the unitary correlation operator method (UCOM) to construct correlated, low-momentum matrix elements of realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. The dominant short-range central and tensor correlations induced by the interaction are included explicitly by an unitary transformation. Using correlated momentum-space matrix elements of the Argonne V18 potential, we show that the unitary transformation eliminates the strong off-diagonal contributions caused by the short-range repulsion and the tensor interaction and leaves a correlated interaction dominated by low-momentum contributions. We use correlated harmonic oscillator matrix elements as input for no-core shell model calculations for few-nucleon systems. Compared to the bare interaction, the convergence properties are dramatically improved. The bulk of the binding energy can already be obtained in very small model spaces or even with a single Slater determinant. Residual long-range correlations, not treated explicitly by the unitary transformation, can easily be described in model spaces of moderate size allowing for fast convergence. By varying the range of the tensor correlator we are able to map out the Tjon line and can in turn constrain the optimal correlator ranges. (orig.)

  14. Matrix elements and few-body calculations within the unitary correlation operator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.; Hergert, H.; Papakonstantinou, P.; Neff, T.; Feldmeier, H.

    2005-01-01

    We employ the unitary correlation operator method (UCOM) to construct correlated, low-momentum matrix elements of realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. The dominant short-range central and tensor correlations induced by the interaction are included explicitly by an unitary transformation. Using correlated momentum-space matrix elements of the Argonne V18 potential, we show that the unitary transformation eliminates the strong off-diagonal contributions caused by the short-range repulsion and the tensor interaction and leaves a correlated interaction dominated by low-momentum contributions. We use correlated harmonic oscillator matrix elements as input for no-core shell model calculations for few-nucleon systems. Compared to the bare interaction, the convergence properties are dramatically improved. The bulk of the binding energy can already be obtained in very small model spaces or even with a single Slater determinant. Residual long-range correlations, not treated explicitly by the unitary transformation, can easily be described in model spaces of moderate size allowing for fast convergence. By varying the range of the tensor correlator we are able to map out the Tjon line and can in turn constrain the optimal correlator ranges

  15. Experimental implementation of optimal linear-optical controlled-unitary gates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lemr, K.; Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Dušek, M.; Soubusta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 15 (2015), "153602-1"-"153602-5" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : two-qubit gates * optimal linear-optical controlled-unitary gates * quantum computing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.645, year: 2015

  16. The flexible focus: whether spatial attention is unitary or divided depends on observer goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Enns, James T; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    The distribution of visual attention has been the topic of much investigation, and various theories have posited that attention is allocated either as a single unitary focus or as multiple independent foci. In the present experiment, we demonstrate that attention can be flexibly deployed as either a unitary or a divided focus in the same experimental task, depending on the observer's goals. To assess the distribution of attention, we used a dual-stream Attentional Blink (AB) paradigm and 2 target pairs. One component of the AB, Lag-1 sparing, occurs only if the second target pair appears within the focus of attention. By varying whether the first-target-pair could be expected in a predictable location (always in-stream) or not (unpredictably in-stream or between-streams), observers were encouraged to deploy a divided or a unitary focus, respectively. When the second-target-pair appeared between the streams, Lag-1 sparing occurred for the Unpredictable group (consistent with a unitary focus) but not for the Predictable group (consistent with a divided focus). Thus, diametrically different outcomes occurred for physically identical displays, depending on the expectations of the observer about where spatial attention would be required.

  17. Gaussian elimination in split unitary groups with an application to public-key cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayan Mahalanobis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Gaussian elimination is used in special linear groups to solve the word problem. In this paper, we extend Gaussian elimination to split unitary groups. These algorithms have an application in building a public-key cryptosystem, we demonstrate that.

  18. Unitary eikonal formalism for multiproduction of isovector mesons at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Redei, L B

    1973-01-01

    Unitary eikonal models for multiproduction of isovector mesons are discussed in general terms. A closed analytic expression is derived for the partial production cross sections and for the meson multiplicity moments. A simple class of models is discussed in more detail. (11 refs).

  19. Point transformations and renormalization in the unitary gauge. III. Renormalization effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherry, T.N.

    1976-06-01

    An analysis of two simple gauge theory models is continued using point transformations rather than gauge transformations. The renormalization constants are examined directly in two gauges, the renormalization (Landau) and unitary gauges. The result is that the individual coupling constant renormalizations are identical when calculated in each of the above two gauges, although the wave-function and proper vertex renormalizations differ

  20. Topology of unitary groups and the prime orders of binomial coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, HaiBao; Lin, XianZu

    2017-09-01

    Let $c:SU(n)\\rightarrow PSU(n)=SU(n)/\\mathbb{Z}_{n}$ be the quotient map of the special unitary group $SU(n)$ by its center subgroup $\\mathbb{Z}_{n}$. We determine the induced homomorphism $c^{\\ast}:$ $H^{\\ast}(PSU(n))\\rightarrow H^{\\ast}(SU(n))$ on cohomologies by computing with the prime orders of binomial coefficients

  1. Universal Superspace Unitary Operator and Nilpotent (Anti-)Dual-BRST Symmetries: Superfield Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, R. P.; Srinivas, N.; Bhanja, T.

    2016-01-01

    We exploit the key concepts of the augmented version of superfield approach to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism to derive the superspace (SUSP) dual unitary operator and its Hermitian conjugate and demonstrate their utility in the derivation of the nilpotent and absolutely anticommuting (anti-)dual-BRST symmetry transformations for a set of interesting models of the Abelian 1-form gauge theories. These models are the one (0+1)-dimensional (1D) rigid rotor and modified versions of the two (1+1)-dimensional (2D) Proca as well as anomalous gauge theories and 2D model of a self-dual bosonic field theory. We show the universality of the SUSP dual unitary operator and its Hermitian conjugate in the cases of all the Abelian models under consideration. These SUSP dual unitary operators, besides maintaining the explicit group structure, provide the alternatives to the dual horizontality condition (DHC) and dual gauge invariant restrictions (DGIRs) of the superfield formalism. The derivations of the dual unitary operators and corresponding (anti-)dual-BRST symmetries are completely novel results in our present investigation.

  2. An Integral Representation of Standard Automorphic L Functions for Unitary Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujun Qin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Let F be a number field, G a quasi-split unitary group of rank n. We show that given an irreducible cuspidal automorphic representation π of G(A, its (partial L function LS(s,π,σ can be represented by a Rankin-Selberg-type integral involving cusp forms of π, Eisenstein series, and theta series.

  3. Beyond the Tipping Point: Issues of Racial Diversity in Magnet Schools Following Unitary Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Claire

    2009-01-01

    This article uses qualitative case study methodology to examine why the racial composition of magnet schools in Nashville, Tennessee, has shifted to predominantly African American in the aftermath of unitary status. The article compares the policy contexts and parents' reasons for choosing magnet schools at two points in time--under court order…

  4. J(l)-unitary factorization and the Schur algorithm for Nevanlinna functions in an indefinite setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpay, D.; Dijksma, A.; Langer, H.

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a Schur transformation for generalized Nevanlinna functions and show that it can be used in obtaining the unique minimal factorization of a class of rational J(l)-unitary 2 x 2 matrix functions into elementary factors from the same class. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Unitary-model-operator approach to Λ17O and lambda-nucleon effective interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Shinichiro; Okamoto, Ryoji; Suzuki, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    The unitary-model-operator approach (UMOA) is applied to Λ 17 O. A lambda-nucleon effective interaction is derived, taking the coupling of the sigma-nucleon channel into account. The lambda single-particle energies are calculated for the Os 1/2 , Op 3/2 and Op 1/2 states employing the Nijmegen soft-core potential. (author)

  6. Cost Of Compliance On Munitions Consolidation From Lualualei To West Loch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    well as the opportunity to drastically reduce the transportation of ordnance to and from the Lualualei Annex through local community roads and areas...single road and the availability of CULT trucks and/or drivers that could impede an expeditious response in a contingency operation. This project...to distribute munitions to the fleet. This consolidation plan will also reduce the infrastructure costs for ordnance storage, maintenance , and

  7. Validation of Passive Sampling Devices for Monitoring of Munitions Constituents in Underwater Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    and explosives of concern (MEC) corroding, breaching, and leaking MC into the water column (Darrach, Chutjian, and Plett, 1998; GMI, 2007; Lewis et...underwater UWMM have the potential to corrode, breach, and leak munitions constituents (MCs) such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5...Wang et al., 2013), a number of challenges prevent accurate assessment of environmental exposure using traditional water , sediment, and tissue

  8. Environmental Assessment: Demolition of Munitions Storage Area Facilities at Ellsworth AFB, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CFR Code of Federal Regulations CO Carbon Monoxide cpm Counts per Minute CRM Cultural Resource Manager...newspaper advertisement in the Rapid City Journal announcing the availability of the Draft EA for a 30-day public and agency review to facilitate...Ellsworth Air Force Base Munitions Storage Area Environmental Assessment Page 2-5 public involvement in the project. This advertisement was published one

  9. REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War I, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite. After the end of t...

  10. Environmental toxicity of Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) - MicrotoxTM and Spontaneous Locomotor Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten Swayne; Sanderson, Hans; Baatrup, Erik

    After the 2nd World War the CWAs were prohibited by law and 11,000 tonnes of toxic agents were dumped in the Bornholm Basin east of Bornholm. The dumped chemical munitions have not reached attention from politicians and scientists until recently. During earlier projects, such as MERCW (2005...

  11. Estimated general population control limits for unitary agents in drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Adams, J.D.; Cerar, R.J.; Hess, T.L.; Kistner, S.L.; Leffingwell, S.S.; MacIntosh, R.G.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical agent during any stage of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the potential exists for contamination of drinking water, forage crops, grains, garden produce, and livestock. Persistent agents such as VX or sulfur mustard pose the greatest human health concern for reentry. This White Paper has been prepared to provide technical bases for these decisions by developing working estimates of agent control limits in selected environmental media considered principal sources of potential human exposure. To date, control limits for public exposure to unitary agents have been established for atmospheric concentrations only. The current analysis builds on previous work to calculate working estimates of control limits for ingestion and dermal exposure to potentially contaminated drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items such as garden produce. Information characterizing agent desorption from, and detection on or in, contaminated porous media are presently too developed to permit reasonable estimation of dermal exposure from this source. Thus, dermal contact with potentially contaminated porous surfaces is not considered in this document.

  12. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1×M bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a , uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes.

  13. Dynamics of Three-Body Correlations in Quenched Unitary Bose Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colussi, V. E.; Corson, J. P.; D'Incao, J. P.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate dynamical three-body correlations in the Bose gas during the earliest stages of evolution after a quench to the unitary regime. The development of few-body correlations is theoretically observed by determining the two- and three-body contacts. We find that the growth of three-body correlations is gradual compared to two-body correlations. The three-body contact oscillates coherently, and we identify this as a signature of Efimov trimers. We show that the growth of three-body correlations depends nontrivially on parameters derived from both the density and Efimov physics. These results demonstrate the violation of scaling invariance of unitary bosonic systems via the appearance of log-periodic modulation of three-body correlations.

  14. Geometric characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states by single-mode unitary operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We present a geometric approach to the characterization of separability and entanglement in pure Gaussian states of an arbitrary number of modes. The analysis is performed adapting to continuous variables a formalism based on single subsystem unitary transformations that has been recently introduced to characterize separability and entanglement in pure states of qubits and qutrits [S. M. Giampaolo and F. Illuminati, Phys. Rev. A 76, 042301 (2007)]. In analogy with the finite-dimensional case, we demonstrate that the 1xM bipartite entanglement of a multimode pure Gaussian state can be quantified by the minimum squared Euclidean distance between the state itself and the set of states obtained by transforming it via suitable local symplectic (unitary) operations. This minimum distance, corresponding to a, uniquely determined, extremal local operation, defines an entanglement monotone equivalent to the entropy of entanglement, and amenable to direct experimental measurement with linear optical schemes

  15. The solution space of the unitary matrix model string equation and the Sato Grassmannian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anagnostopoulos, K.N.; Bowick, M.J.; Schwarz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The space of all solutions to the string equation of the symmetric unitary one-matrix model is determined. It is shown that the string equations is equivalent to simple conditions on points V 1 and V 2 in the big cell Gr (0) of the Sato Grassmannian Gr. This is a consequence of a well-defined continuum limit in which the string equation has the simple form [P, 2 - ]=1, with P and 2 - 2x2 matrices of differential operators. These conditions on V 1 and V 2 yield a simple system of first order differential equations whose analysis determines the space of all solutions to the string equation. This geometric formulation leads directly to the Virasoro constraints L n (n≥0), where L n annihilate the two modified-KdV τ-functions whose product gives the partition function of the Unitary Matrix Model. (orig.)

  16. Non-unitary neutrino mixing and CP violation in the minimal inverse seesaw model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinsky, Michal; Ohlsson, Tommy; Xing, Zhi-zhong; Zhang He

    2009-01-01

    We propose a simplified version of the inverse seesaw model, in which only two pairs of the gauge-singlet neutrinos are introduced, to interpret the observed neutrino mass hierarchy and lepton flavor mixing at or below the TeV scale. This 'minimal' inverse seesaw scenario (MISS) is technically natural and experimentally testable. In particular, we show that the effective parameters describing the non-unitary neutrino mixing matrix are strongly correlated in the MISS, and thus, their upper bounds can be constrained by current experimental data in a more restrictive way. The Jarlskog invariants of non-unitary CP violation are calculated, and the discovery potential of such new CP-violating effects in the near detector of a neutrino factory is discussed.

  17. Characterization and Neutralization of Arsenical-Based WWII Era Chemical Munition Fills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    of 4. Oxalic glycolic, and glyoxylic acids were the major products formed at pH values of 6 and 8. The final step is the oxidation of organic acids ...54 22. Summary of Analytical Results for the Nitric Acid Reagent ............................ 55 23. Summary of Properties of 20 wt... acid (DPAOA). Other arsenic-containing degradation products analyzed for by CE include the inorganic components, arsenate (AsO4) and m-arsenite (AsO2

  18. Developing Quantum Chemical and Polyparameter Models for Predicting Environmentally Significant Parameters for New Munition Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    in fish , plants, and soil invertebrates have been used to build the models. In addition the BCFs for a soil invertebrate (oligochaete Eisenia......Streit B, Nagel R. Tubifex tubifex as a link in food chain transfer of hexachlorobenzene from contaminated sediment to fish . Hydrobiologia

  19. Financial Accounting for the Chemical Agents and Munitions Destruction, Defense Appropriation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The overall audit objective was to assess management controls and compliance with laws and regulations to produce accurate information for financial statements required by the Chief Financial Officers Act...

  20. Toward a self-consistent and unitary reaction network for big bang nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paris, Mark W.; Brown, Lowell S.; Hale, Gerald M.; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna C.; Jungman, Gerard; Kawano, Toshihiko, E-mail: mparis@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Fuller, George M.; Grohs, Evan B. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Kunieda, Satoshi [Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Unitarity, the mathematical expression of the conservation of probability in multichannel reactions, is an essential ingredient in the development of accurate nuclear reaction networks appropriate for nucleosynthesis in a variety of environments. We describe our ongoing program to develop a 'unitary reaction network' for the big-bang nucleosynthesis environment and look at an example of the need and power of unitary parametrizations of nuclear scattering and reaction data. Recent attention has been focused on the possible role of the {sup 9}B compound nuclear system in the resonant destruction of {sup 7}Li during primordial nucleosynthesis. We have studied reactions in the {sup 9}B compound system with a multichannel, two-body unitary R-matrix code (EDA) using the known elastic and reaction data, in a four-channel treatment. The data include elastic {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,{sup 3}He){sup 6}Li differential cross sections from 0.7 to 2.0 MeV, integrated reaction cross sections for energies from 0.7 to 5.0 MeV for {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,p){sup 8}Be* and from 0.4 to 5.0 MeV for the {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,γ){sup 7}Be reaction. Capture data have been added to the previous analysis with integrated cross section measurements from 0.7 to 0.825 MeV for {sup 6}Li({sup 3}He,γ){sup 9}B. The resulting resonance parameters are compared with tabulated values from TUNL Nuclear Data Group analyses. Previously unidentified resonances are noted and the relevance of this analysis and a unitary reaction network for big-bang nucleosynthesis are emphasized. (author)

  1. Equivalence of the Weyl, Coulomb, unitary, and covariant gauges in the functional Schrodinger picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namgung, W.

    1991-01-01

    The well known requirement that physical theories should be gauge independent is not so apparent in the actual calculation of gauge theories, especially in the perturbative approach. In this paper the authors show that the Weyl, Coulomb, and unitary gauges of the scalar QED are manifestly equivalent in the context of the functional Schrodinger picture. Further, the three gauge conditions are shown equivalent to the covariant gauge in the way that they correspond to some specific cases of the latter

  2. Kondo lattice model: Unitary transformations, spin dynamics, strongly correlated charged modes, and vacuum instability

    OpenAIRE

    Prats, J. M.; Lopez-Aguilar, F.

    1996-01-01

    Using unitary transformations, we express the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian in terms of fermionic operators that annihilate the ground state of the interacting system and that represent the best possible approximations to the actual charged excitations. In this way, we obtain an effective Hamiltonian which, for small couplings, consists in a kinetic term for conduction electrons and holes, an RKKY-like term, and a renormalized Kondo interaction. The physical picture of the system implied by this ...

  3. High-energy properties of a class of unitary eikonal models for multiproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Redei, L B

    1974-01-01

    The high-energy properties of a simple class of unitary, crossing- symmetric eikonal models of multiproduction are discussed on the basis of the general closed expression given for the S-matrix elements in a previous publication. In particular, the high-energy behaviour of the multiplicity moments is discussed and it is shown that the KNO scaling relation emerges in a very natural fashion in this class of models. (8 refs).

  4. On the reconstruction of a unitary matrix from its moduli. Existence of continuous ambiguities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auberson, G.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that, for an n x n unitary matrix with n ≥ 4, the knowledge of the moduli of its elements is not always sufficient to determine this matrix up to 'trivial' or 'discrete' ambiguities. Using a parametrization a la Kobayashi-Maskawa in the case n=4, we exhibit various configurations of the moduli for which a continuous ambiguity appears (i.e., some non-trivial phase remains free). (orig.)

  5. Toward a self-consistent and unitary reaction network for big bang nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paris, Mark W.; Brown, Lowell S.; Hale, Gerald M.; Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna C.; Jungman, Gerard; Kawano, Toshihiko; Fuller, George M.; Grohs, Evan B.; Kunieda, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Unitarity, the mathematical expression of the conservation of probability in multichannel reactions, is an essential ingredient in the development of accurate nuclear reaction networks appropriate for nucleosynthesis in a variety of environments. We describe our ongoing program to develop a 'unitary reaction network' for the big-bang nucleosynthesis environment and look at an example of the need and power of unitary parametrizations of nuclear scattering and reaction data. Recent attention has been focused on the possible role of the 9 B compound nuclear system in the resonant destruction of 7 Li during primordial nucleosynthesis. We have studied reactions in the 9 B compound system with a multichannel, two-body unitary R-matrix code (EDA) using the known elastic and reaction data, in a four-channel treatment. The data include elastic 6 Li( 3 He, 3 He) 6 Li differential cross sections from 0.7 to 2.0 MeV, integrated reaction cross sections for energies from 0.7 to 5.0 MeV for 6 Li( 3 He,p) 8 Be* and from 0.4 to 5.0 MeV for the 6 Li( 3 He,γ) 7 Be reaction. Capture data have been added to the previous analysis with integrated cross section measurements from 0.7 to 0.825 MeV for 6 Li( 3 He,γ) 9 B. The resulting resonance parameters are compared with tabulated values from TUNL Nuclear Data Group analyses. Previously unidentified resonances are noted and the relevance of this analysis and a unitary reaction network for big-bang nucleosynthesis are emphasized. (author)

  6. Entanglement Capacity of Two-Qubit Unitary Operator with the Help of Auxiliary System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Baolin; Di Yaomin

    2007-01-01

    The entanglement capacity of general two-qubit unitary operators is studied when auxiliary systems are allowed, and the analytical results based on linear entropy when input states are disentangled are given. From the results the condition for perfect entangler, α 1 = α 2 = π/4, is obtained. Contrary to the case without auxiliary system, the parameter α 3 may play active role to the entanglement capacity when auxiliary systems are allowed.

  7. Massless scalar field in de Sitter spacetime: unitary quantum time evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez, Jerónimo; Blas, Daniel Martín-de; Marugán, Guillermo A Mena; Velhinho, José M

    2013-01-01

    We prove that, under the standard conformal scaling, a free scalar field in de Sitter spacetime admits an O(4)-invariant Fock quantization such that time evolution is unitarily implemented. Since this applies in particular to the massless case, this result disproves previous claims in the literature. We discuss the relationship between this quantization with unitary dynamics and the family of O(4)-invariant Hadamard states given by Allen and Folacci, as well as with the Bunch–Davies vacuum. (paper)

  8. Optimal control landscape for the generation of unitary transformations with constrained dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Michael; Wu, Rebing; Rabitz, Herschel; Lidar, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The reliable and precise generation of quantum unitary transformations is essential for the realization of a number of fundamental objectives, such as quantum control and quantum information processing. Prior work has explored the optimal control problem of generating such unitary transformations as a surface-optimization problem over the quantum control landscape, defined as a metric for realizing a desired unitary transformation as a function of the control variables. It was found that under the assumption of nondissipative and controllable dynamics, the landscape topology is trap free, which implies that any reasonable optimization heuristic should be able to identify globally optimal solutions. The present work is a control landscape analysis, which incorporates specific constraints in the Hamiltonian that correspond to certain dynamical symmetries in the underlying physical system. It is found that the presence of such symmetries does not destroy the trap-free topology. These findings expand the class of quantum dynamical systems on which control problems are intrinsically amenable to a solution by optimal control.

  9. Unitary W-algebras and three-dimensional higher spin gravities with spin one symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afshar, Hamid; Creutzig, Thomas; Grumiller, Daniel; Hikida, Yasuaki; Rønne, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether there are unitary families of W-algebras with spin one fields in the natural example of the Feigin-Semikhatov W_n"("2")-algebra. This algebra is conjecturally a quantum Hamiltonian reduction corresponding to a non-principal nilpotent element. We conjecture that this algebra admits a unitary real form for even n. Our main result is that this conjecture is consistent with the known part of the operator product algebra, and especially it is true for n=2 and n=4. Moreover, we find certain ranges of allowed levels where a positive definite inner product is possible. We also find a unitary conformal field theory for every even n at the special level k+n=(n+1)/(n−1). At these points, the W_n"("2")-algebra is nothing but a compactified free boson. This family of W-algebras admits an ’t Hooft limit. Further, in the case of n=4, we reproduce the algebra from the higher spin gravity point of view. In general, gravity computations allow us to reproduce some leading coefficients of the operator product.

  10. On the complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal superconformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Oliver

    2009-08-03

    Aiming at a complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal models (where the assumption of space-time supersymmetry has been dropped), it is shown that each candidate for a modular invariant partition function of such a theory is indeed the partition function of a minimal model. A family of models constructed via orbifoldings of either the diagonal model or of the space-time supersymmetric exceptional models demonstrates that there exists a unitary N=2 minimal model for every one of the allowed partition functions in the list obtained from Gannon's work. Kreuzer and Schellekens' conjecture that all simple current invariants can be obtained as orbifolds of the diagonal model, even when the extra assumption of higher-genus modular invariance is dropped, is confirmed in the case of the unitary N=2 minimal models by simple counting arguments. We nd a nice characterisation of the projection from the Hilbert space of a minimal model with k odd to its modular invariant subspace, and we present a new simple proof of the superconformal version of the Verlinde formula for the minimal models using simple currents. Finally we demonstrate a curious relation between the generating function of simple current invariants and the Riemann zeta function. (orig.)

  11. Unitary assessment of economical efficiency of the energy resources for electricity production in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luca, Gheorghe

    2004-01-01

    In our country, within the studies, on which the development strategies of power output are based on, the assessment of the economical efficiency of the use of two main energetic resources, the fuel used in cogeneration thermal power plants and the water used in hydropower plants respectively, was made in compliance with non-unitary specific norms. In contradiction with the degree of utilization of hydroelectric resources, realized all over the world in the developed countries (80-90%) resulted that in our country, where the degree of utilization is only 40%, the use of hydroelectric potential is not yet justified from technical-economical point of view. This anomaly was determined by the cause of non-unitary assessment of the economic efficiency for the cogeneration thermo-power plants and hydropower plants. This paper presents comparatively the elements, which were to the basis of the assessment of the economic efficiency for two types of electrical power plants, and one presents a proposal in the aim to perform a unitary assessment of the economical efficiency by applying efficiently the laws in force. (author)

  12. On the complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal superconformal field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Oliver

    2009-08-03

    Aiming at a complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal models (where the assumption of space-time supersymmetry has been dropped), it is shown that each candidate for a modular invariant partition function of such a theory is indeed the partition function of a minimal model. A family of models constructed via orbifoldings of either the diagonal model or of the space-time supersymmetric exceptional models demonstrates that there exists a unitary N=2 minimal model for every one of the allowed partition functions in the list obtained from Gannon's work. Kreuzer and Schellekens' conjecture that all simple current invariants can be obtained as orbifolds of the diagonal model, even when the extra assumption of higher-genus modular invariance is dropped, is confirmed in the case of the unitary N=2 minimal models by simple counting arguments. We nd a nice characterisation of the projection from the Hilbert space of a minimal model with k odd to its modular invariant subspace, and we present a new simple proof of the superconformal version of the Verlinde formula for the minimal models using simple currents. Finally we demonstrate a curious relation between the generating function of simple current invariants and the Riemann zeta function. (orig.)

  13. On the complete classification of unitary N=2 minimal superconformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    Aiming at a complete classi cation of unitary N=2 minimal models (where the assumption of space-time supersymmetry has been dropped), it is shown that each candidate for a modular invariant partition function of such a theory is indeed the partition function of a minimal model. A family of models constructed via orbifoldings of either the diagonal model or of the space-time supersymmetric exceptional models demonstrates that there exists a unitary N=2 minimal model for every one of the allowed partition functions in the list obtained from Gannon's work. Kreuzer and Schellekens' conjecture that all simple current invariants can be obtained as orbifolds of the diagonal model, even when the extra assumption of higher-genus modular invariance is dropped, is confirmed in the case of the unitary N=2 minimal models by simple counting arguments. We nd a nice characterisation of the projection from the Hilbert space of a minimal model with k odd to its modular invariant subspace, and we present a new simple proof of the superconformal version of the Verlinde formula for the minimal models using simple currents. Finally we demonstrate a curious relation between the generating function of simple current invariants and the Riemann zeta function. (orig.)

  14. Construction of Non-Perturbative, Unitary Particle-Antiparticle Amplitudes for Finite Particle Number Scattering Formalisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindesay, James V

    2002-01-01

    Starting from a unitary, Lorentz invariant two-particle scattering amplitude, we show how to use an identification and replacement process to construct a unique, unitary particle-antiparticle amplitude. This process differs from conventional on-shell Mandelstam s,t,u crossing in that the input and constructed amplitudes can be off-diagonal and off-energy shell. Further, amplitudes are constructed using the invariant parameters which are appropriate to use as driving terms in the multi-particle, multichannel nonperturbative, cluster decomposable, relativistic scattering equations of the Faddeev-type integral equations recently presented by Alfred, Kwizera, Lindesay and Noyes. It is therefore anticipated that when so employed, the resulting multi-channel solutions will also be unitary. The process preserves the usual particle-antiparticle symmetries. To illustrate this process, we construct a J=0 scattering length model chosen for simplicity. We also exhibit a class of physical models which contain a finite quantum mass parameter and are Lorentz invariant. These are constructed to reduce in the appropriate limits, and with the proper choice of value and sign of the interaction parameter, to the asymptotic solution of the nonrelativistic Coulomb problem, including the forward scattering singularity , the essential singularity in the phase, and the Bohr bound-state spectrum

  15. Matrix Elements of One- and Two-Body Operators in the Unitary Group Approach (I)-Formalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Lian-Rong; PAN Feng

    2001-01-01

    The tensor algebraic method is used to derive general one- and two-body operator matrix elements within the Un representations, which are useful in the unitary group approach to the configuration interaction problems of quantum many-body systems.

  16. Non-unitary boson mapping and its application to nuclear collective motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Kenjiro

    2001-01-01

    First, the general theory of boson mapping for even-number many-fermion systems is surveyed. In order to overcome the confusion concerning the so-called unphysical or spurious states in the boson mapping, the correct concept of the unphysical states is precisely given in a clear-cut way. Next, a method to apply the boson mapping to a truncated many-fermion Hilbert space consisting of collective phonons is proposed, by putting special emphasis on the Dyson-type non-unitary boson mapping. On the basis of this method, it becomes possible for the first time to apply the Dyson-type boson mapping to analyses of collective motions in realistic nuclei. This method is also extended to be applicable to odd-number-fermion systems. As known well, the Dyson-type boson mapping is a non-unitary transformation and it gives a non-Hermitian boson Hamiltonian. It is not easy (but not impossible) to solve the eigenstates of the non-Hermitian Hamiltonian. A Hermitian treatment of this non-Hermitian eigenvalue problem is discussed and it is shown that this treatment is a very good approximation. using this Hermitian treatment, we can obtain the normal-ordered Holstein-Primakoff-type boson expansion in the multi-collective-phonon subspace. Thereby the convergence of the boson expansion can be tested. Some examples of application of the Dyson-type non-unitary boson mapping to simplified models and realistic nuclei are also shown, and we can see that it is quite useful for analysis of the collective motions in realistic nuclei. In contrast to the above-mentioned ordinary type of boson mapping, which may be called a a 'static' boson mapping, the Dyson-type non-unitary self-consistent-collective-coordinate method is discussed. The latter is, so to speak, a 'dynamical' boson mapping, which is a dynamical extension of the ordinary boson mapping to be capable to include the coupling effects from the non-collective degrees of freedom self-consistently.Thus all of the Dyson-type non-unitary boson

  17. A Biography of the Trousered Munitions Women’s Uniform of World War 1

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Ce chapitre fournit une vue d’ensemble de la recherche pour un exemple survivant de l’uniforme de pantalons des « munitionettes », alors que les travailleurs dans les usines de munitions dans la Première Guerre Mondiale étaient reconnus. Si nous examinons la réaction sur les femmes qui portent un vêtement d’homme et les discussions d’émancipation de cet uniforme, ces recherches ont étudié considérablement les archives jadis moins utilisées dans l’histoire des vêtements. Comme il n’existe plus...

  18. Public Laws Authorization and Appropriations Acts 1969-2007 for the U.S. Army Chemical Materials Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-06

    agents, chemical herbicides , smoke and other obscuration materials. (2) The term "lethal chemical agent and munition" means a chemical agent or...military purposes and harmless to human beings under normal circumstances. (k) EFFECTIVE DATE -- The provisions of this section shall take effect on...the ecological and physiological dangers inherent in the use of herbicides , and (B) the 117 ecological and Physiological effects of the defoliation

  19. In-Flight Self-Alignment Method Aided by Geomagnetism for Moving Basement of Guided Munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-biao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to power-after-launch mode of guided munitions of high rolling speed, initial attitude of munitions cannot be determined accurately, and this makes it difficult for navigation and control system to work effectively and validly. An in-flight self-alignment method aided by geomagnetism that includes a fast in-flight coarse alignment method and an in-flight alignment model based on Kalman theory is proposed in this paper. Firstly a fast in-flight coarse alignment method is developed by using gyros, magnetic sensors, and trajectory angles. Then, an in-flight alignment model is derived by investigation of the measurement errors and attitude errors, which regards attitude errors as state variables and geomagnetic components in navigation frame as observed variables. Finally, fight data of a spinning projectile is used to verify the performance of the in-flight self-alignment method. The satisfying results show that (1 the precision of coarse alignment can attain below 5°; (2 the attitude errors by in-flight alignment model converge to 24′ at early of the latter half of the flight; (3 the in-flight alignment model based on Kalman theory has better adaptability, and show satisfying performance.

  20. Realization of a unique time evolution unitary operator in Klein Gordon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, T.S.; Bhatia, S.Kr.

    1986-01-01

    The scattering theory for the Klein Gordon equation, with time-dependent potential and in a non-static space-time, is considered. Using the Klein Gordon equation formulated in the Hilbert space L 2 (R 3 ) and the Einstein's relativistic equation in the space L 2 (R 3 ,dx) and establishing the equivalence of the vacuum states of their linearized forms in the Hilbert space L 2 (R 3 ) with the help of unique symmetric symplectic operator, the time evolution unitary operator U(t) has been fixed for the Klein Gordon eqution, incorporating either the positive or negative frequencies, in the infinite dimensional Hilbert space L 2 (R 3 ). (author)

  1. A new derivation of the highest-weight polynomial of a unitary lie algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P Chau, Huu-Tai; P Van, Isacker

    2000-01-01

    A new method is presented to derive the expression of the highest-weight polynomial used to build the basis of an irreducible representation (IR) of the unitary algebra U(2J+1). After a brief reminder of Moshinsky's method to arrive at the set of equations defining the highest-weight polynomial of U(2J+1), an alternative derivation of the polynomial from these equations is presented. The method is less general than the one proposed by Moshinsky but has the advantage that the determinantal expression of the highest-weight polynomial is arrived at in a direct way using matrix inversions. (authors)

  2. A gauge-invariant chiral unitary framework for kaon photo- and electroproduction on the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borasoy, B.; Bruns, P.C.; Nissler, R.; Meissner, U.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present a gauge-invariant approach to photoproduction of mesons on nucleons within a chiral unitary framework. The interaction kernel for meson-baryon scattering is derived from the chiral effective Lagrangian and iterated in a Bethe-Salpeter equation. Within the leading-order approximation to the interaction kernel, data on kaon photoproduction from SAPHIR, CLAS and CBELSA/TAPS are analyzed in the threshold region. The importance of gauge invariance and the precision of various approximations in the interaction kernel utilized in earlier works are discussed. (orig.)

  3. On Parseval Wavelet Frames with Two or Three Generators via the Unitary Extension Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2014-01-01

    The unitary extension principle (UEP) by A. Ron and Z. Shen yields a sufficient condition for the construction of Parseval wavelet frames with multiple generators. In this paper we characterize the UEP-type wavelet systems that can be extended to a Parseval wavelet frame by adding just one UEP......-type wavelet system. We derive a condition that is necessary for the extension of a UEP-type wavelet system to any Parseval wavelet frame with any number of generators and prove that this condition is also sufficient to ensure that an extension with just two generators is possible....

  4. Pore dimensions and the role of occupancy in unitary conductance of Shaker K channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Romina V.; Navarro-Quezada, Nieves; González-Nilo, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    K channels mediate the selective passage of K+ across the plasma membrane by means of intimate interactions with ions at the pore selectivity filter located near the external face. Despite high conservation of the selectivity filter, the K+ transport properties of different K channels vary widely, with the unitary conductance spanning a range of over two orders of magnitude. Mutation of Pro475, a residue located at the cytoplasmic entrance of the pore of the small-intermediate conductance K channel Shaker (Pro475Asp (P475D) or Pro475Gln (P475Q)), increases Shaker’s reported ∼20-pS conductance by approximately six- and approximately threefold, respectively, without any detectable effect on its selectivity. These findings suggest that the structural determinants underlying the diversity of K channel conductance are distinct from the selectivity filter, making P475D and P475Q excellent probes to identify key determinants of the K channel unitary conductance. By measuring diffusion-limited unitary outward currents after unilateral addition of 2 M sucrose to the internal solution to increase its viscosity, we estimated a pore internal radius of capture of ∼0.82 Å for all three Shaker variants (wild type, P475D, and P475Q). This estimate is consistent with the internal entrance of the Kv1.2/2.1 structure if the effective radius of hydrated K+ is set to ∼4 Å. Unilateral exposure to sucrose allowed us to estimate the internal and external access resistances together with that of the inner pore. We determined that Shaker resistance resides mainly in the inner cavity, whereas only ∼8% resides in the selectivity filter. To reduce the inner resistance, we introduced additional aspartate residues into the internal vestibule to favor ion occupancy. No aspartate addition raised the maximum unitary conductance, measured at saturating [K+], beyond that of P475D, suggesting an ∼200-pS conductance ceiling for Shaker. This value is approximately one third of the maximum

  5. Quantum entanglement: the unitary 8-vertex braid matrix with imaginary rapidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, Amitabha; Chakraborti, Anirban; Jedidi, Aymen

    2010-01-01

    We study quantum entanglements induced on product states by the action of 8-vertex braid matrices, rendered unitary with purely imaginary spectral parameters (rapidity). The unitarity is displayed via the 'canonical factorization' of the coefficients of the projectors spanning the basis. This adds one more new facet to the famous and fascinating features of the 8-vertex model. The double periodicity and the analytic properties of the elliptic functions involved lead to a rich structure of the 3-tangle quantifying the entanglement. We thus explore the complex relationship between topological and quantum entanglement. (fast track communication)

  6. Scalar ΛN and ΛΛ interaction in a chiral unitary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, K.; Oset, E.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We study the central part of the ΛN and ΛΛ potential by considering the correlated and uncorrelated two-meson exchange in addition to the ω exchange contribution. The correlated two-meson exchange is evaluated within a chiral unitary approach. We find that a short-range repulsion is generated by the correlated two-meson potential, which also produces an attraction in the intermediate-distance region. The uncorrelated two-meson exchange produces a sizable attraction in all cases that is counterbalanced by the ω exchange contribution

  7. Cold dilute neutron matter on the lattice. II. Results in the unitary limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dean; Schaefer, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two articles that investigate cold dilute neutron matter on the lattice using pionless effective field theory. In the unitary limit, where the effective range is zero and scattering length is infinite, simple scaling relations relate thermodynamic functions at different temperatures. When the second virial coefficient is properly tuned, we find that the lattice results obey these scaling relations. We compute the energy per particle, pressure, spin susceptibility, dineutron correlation function, and an upper bound for the superfluid critical temperature

  8. Fortran code for generating random probability vectors, unitaries, and quantum states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eMaziero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of generating random configurations is recognized in many areas of knowledge. Fortran was born for scientific computing and has been one of the main programming languages in this area since then. And several ongoing projects targeting towards its betterment indicate that it will keep this status in the decades to come. In this article, we describe Fortran codes produced, or organized, for the generation of the following random objects: numbers, probability vectors, unitary matrices, and quantum state vectors and density matrices. Some matrix functions are also included and may be of independent interest.

  9. A genetic-algorithm-based method to find unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation and application to a one-bit oracle decision problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Jeongho [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seokwon [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We propose a genetic-algorithm-based method to find the unitary transformations for any desired quantum computation. We formulate a simple genetic algorithm by introducing the 'genetic parameter vector' of the unitary transformations to be found. In the genetic algorithm process, all components of the genetic parameter vectors are supposed to evolve to the solution parameters of the unitary transformations. We apply our method to find the optimal unitary transformations and to generalize the corresponding quantum algorithms for a realistic problem, the one-bit oracle decision problem, or the often-called Deutsch problem. By numerical simulations, we can faithfully find the appropriate unitary transformations to solve the problem by using our method. We analyze the quantum algorithms identified by the found unitary transformations and generalize the variant models of the original Deutsch's algorithm.

  10. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Risk Analysis of the Disposal of Chemical Munitions at Regional or National Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    4-4i = I7-75 IA A uj11 wj M 2 i w bo 1o. P2 ari *fa3 IL L z - = a 2 1.- I 24 -~ 2 z 2 2 ~ o~t 0 I, I ’" a a c .3 0 5 , C., ZZ ~C -) ZZ 4 cc 4cc acca ...IN C I N - I CL- 0.0 0 00 C61. IA f6 .4 Q 0 0 0 0 0 C o 3 OF-- 04- 0 .0 0 0 u 0 0 0 W 0 -’ - 000 ’. 4-3 .0-4 0 0 04 0 41. . 11 . ,. ~ :!~r 0. 19 000 0

  11. Tracking and Interception of Ground-Based RF Sources Using Autonomous Guided Munitions with Passive Bearings-Only Sensors and Tracking Algorithms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ezal, Kenan; Agate, Craig

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of tracking and intercepting a potentially moving ground-based RF source with an autonomous guided munition that has a passive bearings-only sensor located on its nose...

  12. Operation Iraqi Freedom: DOD Should Apply Lessons Learned Concerning the Need for Security over Conventional Munitions Storage Sites to Future Operations Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D'Agostino, Davi M

    2007-01-01

    The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is releasing a report today on lessons learned concerning the need for security over conventional munitions storage sites that provides the basis for this testimony...

  13. 2-D unitary ESPRIT-like direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation for coherent signals with a uniform rectangular array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shiwei; Ma, Xiaochuan; Yan, Shefeng; Hao, Chengpeng

    2013-03-28

    A unitary transformation-based algorithm is proposed for two-dimensional (2-D) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of coherent signals. The problem is solved by reorganizing the covariance matrix into a block Hankel one for decorrelation first and then reconstructing a new matrix to facilitate the unitary transformation. By multiplying unitary matrices, eigenvalue decomposition and singular value decomposition are both transformed into real-valued, so that the computational complexity can be reduced significantly. In addition, a fast and computationally attractive realization of the 2-D unitary transformation is given by making a Kronecker product of the 1-D matrices. Compared with the existing 2-D algorithms, our scheme is more efficient in computation and less restrictive on the array geometry. The processing of the received data matrix before unitary transformation combines the estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT)-Like method and the forward-backward averaging, which can decorrelate the impinging signalsmore thoroughly. Simulation results and computational order analysis are presented to verify the validity and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Efficient Nonlocal M-Control and N-Target Controlled Unitary Gate Using Non-symmetric GHZ States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Bing; Lu, Hong

    2018-03-01

    Efficient local implementation of a nonlocal M-control and N-target controlled unitary gate is considered. We first show that with the assistance of two non-symmetric qubit(1)-qutrit(N) Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, a nonlocal 2-control and N-target controlled unitary gate can be constructed from 2 local two-qubit CNOT gates, 2 N local two-qutrit conditional SWAP gates, N local qutrit-qubit controlled unitary gates, and 2 N single-qutrit gates. At each target node, the two third levels of the two GHZ target qutrits are used to expose one and only one initial computational state to the local qutrit-qubit controlled unitary gate, instead of being used to hide certain states from the conditional dynamics. This scheme can be generalized straightforwardly to implement a higher-order nonlocal M-control and N-target controlled unitary gate by using M non-symmetric qubit(1)-qutrit(N) GHZ states as quantum channels. Neither the number of the additional levels of each GHZ target particle nor that of single-qutrit gates needs to increase with M. For certain realistic physical systems, the total gate time may be reduced compared with that required in previous schemes.

  15. PRESENTED 03/01/2006: 2006 REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN THE REMEDIATION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONTAMINATION IN AN URBAN LANDSCAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington, DC was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite

  16. THE ROLE OF HISTORICAL AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHS IN THE REMEDIATION OF WWI CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION IN THE SPRING VALLEY SUPERFUND SITE, WASHINGTON, DC

    Science.gov (United States)

    During World War 1, The American University in Washington D.C. was used by the U.S. Army as an experiment station for the development and testing of a variety of battlefield munitions including chemical weapons such as Mustard Gas, Phosgene, Ricin and Lewisite, among others. Afte...

  17. Hybrid analysis of multiaxis electromagnetic data for discrimination of munitions and explosives of concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, M. J.; Asch, T. H.; Oden, C.

    2012-08-01

    The remediation of land containing munitions and explosives of concern, otherwise known as unexploded ordnance, is an ongoing problem facing the U.S. Department of Defense and similar agencies worldwide that have used or are transferring training ranges or munitions disposal areas to civilian control. The expense associated with cleanup of land previously used for military training and war provides impetus for research towards enhanced discrimination of buried unexploded ordnance. Towards reducing that expense, a multiaxis electromagnetic induction data collection and software system, called ALLTEM, was designed and tested with support from the U.S. Department of Defense Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. ALLTEM is an on-time time-domain system that uses a continuous triangle-wave excitation to measure the target-step response rather than traditional impulse response. The system cycles through three orthogonal transmitting loops and records a total of 19 different transmitting and receiving loop combinations with a nominal spatial data sampling interval of 20 cm. Recorded data are pre-processed and then used in a hybrid discrimination scheme involving both data-driven and numerical classification techniques. The data-driven classification scheme is accomplished in three steps. First, field observations are used to train a type of unsupervised artificial neural network, a self-organizing map (SOM). Second, the SOM is used to simultaneously estimate target parameters (depth, azimuth, inclination, item type and weight) by iterative minimization of the topographic error vectors. Third, the target classification is accomplished by evaluating histograms of the estimated parameters. The numerical classification scheme is also accomplished in three steps. First, the Biot-Savart law is used to model the primary magnetic fields from the transmitter coils and the secondary magnetic fields generated by currents induced in the target materials in the

  18. Hybrid analysis of multiaxis electromagnetic data for discrimination of munitions and explosives of concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, M.J.; Asch, T.H.; Oden, C.

    2012-01-01

    The remediation of land containing munitions and explosives of concern, otherwise known as unexploded ordnance, is an ongoing problem facing the U.S. Department of Defense and similar agencies worldwide that have used or are transferring training ranges or munitions disposal areas to civilian control. The expense associated with cleanup of land previously used for military training and war provides impetus for research towards enhanced discrimination of buried unexploded ordnance. Towards reducing that expense, a multiaxis electromagnetic induction data collection and software system, called ALLTEM, was designed and tested with support from the U.S. Department of Defense Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. ALLTEM is an on-time time-domain system that uses a continuous triangle-wave excitation to measure the target-step response rather than traditional impulse response. The system cycles through three orthogonal transmitting loops and records a total of 19 different transmitting and receiving loop combinations with a nominal spatial data sampling interval of 20 cm. Recorded data are pre-processed and then used in a hybrid discrimination scheme involving both data-driven and numerical classification techniques. The data-driven classification scheme is accomplished in three steps. First, field observations are used to train a type of unsupervised artificial neural network, a self-organizing map (SOM). Second, the SOM is used to simultaneously estimate target parameters (depth, azimuth, inclination, item type and weight) by iterative minimization of the topographic error vectors. Third, the target classification is accomplished by evaluating histograms of the estimated parameters. The numerical classification scheme is also accomplished in three steps. First, the Biot–Savart law is used to model the primary magnetic fields from the transmitter coils and the secondary magnetic fields generated by currents induced in the target materials in the

  19. On the algebra of local unitary invariants of pure and mixed quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrana, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We study the structure of the inverse limit of the graded algebras of local unitary invariant polynomials using its Hilbert series. For k subsystems, we show that the inverse limit is a free algebra and the number of algebraically independent generators with homogenous degree 2m equals the number of conjugacy classes of index m subgroups in a free group on k - 1 generators. Similarly, we show that the inverse limit in the case of k-partite mixed state invariants is free and the number of algebraically independent generators with homogenous degree m equals the number of conjugacy classes of index m subgroups in a free group on k generators. The two statements are shown to be equivalent. To illustrate the equivalence, using the representation theory of the unitary groups, we obtain all invariants in the m = 2 graded parts and express them in a simple form both in the case of mixed and pure states. The transformation between the two forms is also derived. Analogous invariants of higher degree are also introduced.

  20. A self-consistency check for unitary propagation of Hawking quanta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Daniel; Kodwani, Darsh; Pen, Ue-Li; Yang, I.-Sheng

    2017-11-01

    The black hole information paradox presumes that quantum field theory in curved space-time can provide unitary propagation from a near-horizon mode to an asymptotic Hawking quantum. Instead of invoking conjectural quantum-gravity effects to modify such an assumption, we propose a self-consistency check. We establish an analogy to Feynman’s analysis of a double-slit experiment. Feynman showed that unitary propagation of the interfering particles, namely ignoring the entanglement with the double-slit, becomes an arbitrarily reliable assumption when the screen upon which the interference pattern is projected is infinitely far away. We argue for an analogous self-consistency check for quantum field theory in curved space-time. We apply it to the propagation of Hawking quanta and test whether ignoring the entanglement with the geometry also becomes arbitrarily reliable in the limit of a large black hole. We present curious results to suggest a negative answer, and we discuss how this loss of naive unitarity in QFT might be related to a solution of the paradox based on the soft-hair-memory effect.

  1. A unitary ESPRIT scheme of joint angle estimation for MOTS MIMO radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chao; Shi, Guangming

    2014-08-07

    The transmit array of multi-overlapped-transmit-subarray configured bistatic multiple-input multiple-output (MOTS MIMO) radar is partitioned into a number of overlapped subarrays, which is different from the traditional bistatic MIMO radar. In this paper, a new unitary ESPRIT scheme for joint estimation of the direction of departure (DOD) and the direction of arrival (DOA) for MOTS MIMO radar is proposed. In our method, each overlapped-transmit-subarray (OTS) with the identical effective aperture is regarded as a transmit element and the characteristics that the phase delays between the two OTSs is utilized. First, the measurements corresponding to all the OTSs are partitioned into two groups which have a rotational invariance relationship with each other. Then, the properties of centro-Hermitian matrices and real-valued rotational invariance factors are exploited to double the measurement samples and reduce computational complexity. Finally, the close-formed solution of automatically paired DOAs and DODs of targets is derived in a new manner. The proposed scheme provides increased estimation accuracy with the combination of inherent advantages of MOTS MIMO radar with unitary ESPRIT. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed scheme.

  2. Generalized spacetimes defined by cubic forms and the minimal unitary realizations of their quasiconformal groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenaydin, Murat; Pavlyk, Oleksandr

    2005-01-01

    We study the symmetries of generalized spacetimes and corresponding phase spaces defined by Jordan algebras of degree three. The generic Jordan family of formally real Jordan algebras of degree three describe extensions of the minkowskian spacetimes by an extra 'dilatonic' coordinate, whose rotation, Lorentz and conformal groups are SO(d-1), SO(d-1,1) x SO(1,1) and SO(d,2) x SO(2,1), respectively. The generalized spacetimes described by simple Jordan algebras of degree three correspond to extensions of minkowskian spacetimes in the critical dimensions (d = 3,4,6,10) by a dilatonic and extra commuting spinorial coordinates, respectively. Their rotation, Lorentz and conformal groups are those that occur in the first three rows of the Magic Square. The Freudenthal triple systems defined over these Jordan algebras describe conformally covariant phase spaces. Following hep-th/0008063, we give a unified geometric realization of the quasiconformal groups that act on their conformal phase spaces extended by an extra 'cocycle' coordinate. For the generic Jordan family the quasiconformal groups are SO(d+2,4), whose minimal unitary realizations are given. The minimal unitary representations of the quasiconformal groups F 4(4) , E 6(2) , E 7(-5) and E 8(-24) of the simple Jordan family were given in our earlier work

  3. Regarding the unitary theory of agonist and antagonist action at presynaptic adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsner, S; Abdali, S A

    2001-06-01

    1. The linkage between potentiation of field stimulation-induced noradrenaline release and blockade of the presynaptic inhibitory effect of exogenous noradrenaline by a presynaptic antagonist was examined in superfused rabbit aorta preparations. 2. Rauwolscine clearly potentiated the release of noradrenaline in response to 100 pulses at 2 Hz but reduced the capacity of noradrenaline to inhibit transmitter release to a questionable extent, and then only when comparisons were made with untreated, rather then to rauwolscine-treated, controls. 3. Aortic preparations exposed for 60 min to rauwolscine followed by superfusion with antagonist-free Krebs for 60 min retained the potentiation of stimulation-induced transmitter release but no antagonism of the noradrenaline-induced inhibition could be detected at either of two noradrenaline concentrations when comparisons were made with rauwolscine treated controls. 4. Comparisons of the inhibitory effect of exogenous noradrenaline (1.8 x 10-6 M) on transmitter efflux in the presence and absence of rauwolscine pretreatment revealed that the antagonist enhanced rather than antagonized the presynaptic inhibition by noradrenaline. 5 It is concluded that the unitary hypothesis that asserts that antagonist enhancement of transmitter release and its blockade of noradrenaline induced inhibition are manifestations of a unitary event are not supportable.

  4. Radio-Frequency-Controlled Cold Collisions and Universal Properties of Unitary Bose Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yijue

    This thesis investigates two topics: ultracold atomic collisions in a radio-frequency field and universal properties of a degenerate unitary Bose gas. One interesting point of the unitary Bose gas is that the system has only one length scale, that is, the average interparticle distance. This single parameter determines all properties of the gas, which is called the universality of the system. We first introduce a renormalized contact interaction to extend the validity of the zero-range interaction to large scattering lengths. Then this renormalized interaction is applied to many-body theories to determined those universal relations of the system. From the few-body perspective, we discuss the scattering between atoms in a single-color radio-frequency field. Our motivation is proposing the radio-frequency field as an effective tool to control interactions between cold atoms. Such a technique may be useful in future experiments such as creating phase transitions in spinor condensates. We also discuss the formation of ultracold molecules using radio-freqency fields from a time-dependent approach.

  5. The virial equation of state for unitary fermion thermodynamics with non-Gaussian correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jisheng; Li Jiarong; Wang Yanping; Xia Xiangjun

    2008-01-01

    We study the roles of the dynamical high order perturbation and statistically non-linear infrared fluctuation/correlation in the virial equation of state for the Fermi gas in the unitary limit. Incorporating the quantum level crossing rearrangement effects, the spontaneously generated entropy departing from the mean-field theory formalism leads to concise thermodynamical expressions. The dimensionless virial coefficients with complex non-local correlations are calculated up to the fourth order for the first time. The virial coefficients of unitary Fermi gas are found to be proportional to those of the ideal quantum gas with integer ratios through a general term formula. Counterintuitively, contrary to those of the ideal bosons (a (0) 2 =-(1/4√2)) or fermions (a (0) 2 =(1/4√2)), the second virial coefficient a 2 of Fermi gas at unitarity is found to be equal to zero. With the vanishing leading order quantum correction, the BCS–BEC crossover thermodynamics manifests the famous pure classical Boyle's law in the Boltzmann regime. The non-Gaussian correlation phenomena can be validated by studying the Joule–Thomson effect

  6. Unitary Supermultiplets of $OSp(8^{*}|4)$ and the $AdS_{7}/CFT_{6}$ Duality

    CERN Document Server

    Günaydin, M; Gunaydin, Murat; Takemae, Seiji

    2000-01-01

    We study the unitary supermultiplets of the N=4 d=7 anti-de Sitter (AdS_7) superalgebra OSp(8^*|4), with the even subalgebra SO(6,2) X USp(4), which is the symmetry superalgebra of M-theory on AdS_7 X S^4. We give a complete classification of the positive energy doubleton and massless supermultiplets of OSp(8^*|4) . The ultra-short doubleton supermultiplets do not have a Poincaré limit in AdS_7 and correspond to superconformal field theories on the boundary of AdS_7 which can be identified with d=6 Minkowski space. We show that the six dimensional Poincare mass operator vanishes identically for the doubleton representations. By going from the compact U(4) basis of SO^*(8)=SO(6,2) to the noncompact basis SU^*(4)XD (d=6 Lorentz group times dilatations) one can associate the positive (conformal) energy representations of SO^*(8) with conformal fields transforming covariantly under the Lorentz group in d=6. The oscillator method used for the construction of the unitary supermultiplets of OSp(8^*|4) can be given ...

  7. Three-body unitary transformations, three-body forces, and trinucleon bound state properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haftel, M.I.

    1976-01-01

    A three-body unitary transformation method for the study of three-body forces is presented. Starting with a three-body Hamiltonian with two-body forces, unitary transformations are introduced to generate Hamiltonians that have both two- and three-body forces. For cases of physical interest, the two-body forces of the altered Hamiltonians are phase equivalent (for two-body scattering) to the original and the three-body force vanishes when any interparticle distance is large. Specific examples are presented. Applications for studying the possible role of three-body forces in accounting for trinucleon bound state properties are examined. Calculations of the 3 He and 3 H charge form factors and Coulomb energy difference with hyperspherical radial transformations and with conventional N-N potentials are performed. The form factor calculations demonstrate how the proposed method can help obtain improved agreement with experiment by the introduction of appropriate three-body forces. Calculations of the Coulomb energy difference confirm previous estimates concerning charge symmetry breaking in the N-N interaction

  8. Reconstitutable nuclear reactor fuel assembly with unitary removable top nozzle subassembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallenberger, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    A reconstitutable fuel assembly is described having at least one control rod guide thimble and a top nozzle, the guide thimble including an upper extension, the top nozzle including at least one hold-down spring, an upper hold-down plate and a lower adapter plate, an improved attaching structure removably mounting the top nozzle as a unitary subassembly on the guide thimble. The attaching structure comprises: (a) a coupling member interfitting the lower adapter plate, the upper hold-down plate and the hold-down spring disposed between the plates so as to capture and retain the plates and spring together as a unitary subassembly in which the upper plate is slidably moveable along the coupling member relative to the lower plate with the spring biasing the upper plate away from the lower plate. The coupling member has spaced apart upper and lower portions with a central passageway extending for slidably receiving the upper extension of the guide thimble in a nonattached relationship in which the coupling member is slidably movable relative to the guide thimble extension for respectively inserting and removing the coupling member on and from the guide thimble extension

  9. Universal and Deterministic Manipulation of the Quantum State of Harmonic Oscillators: A Route to Unitary Gates for Fock State Qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Marcelo Franca

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple quantum circuit that allows for the universal and deterministic manipulation of the quantum state of confined harmonic oscillators. The scheme is based on the selective interactions of the referred oscillator with an auxiliary three-level system and a classical external driving source, and enables any unitary operations on Fock states, two by two. One circuit is equivalent to a single qubit unitary logical gate on Fock states qubits. Sequences of similar protocols allow for complete, deterministic, and state-independent manipulation of the harmonic oscillator quantum state

  10. Discrimination of unitary transformations in the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm: Implications for thermal-equilibrium-ensemble implementations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, David

    2010-01-01

    A general framework for regarding oracle-assisted quantum algorithms as tools for discriminating among unitary transformations is described. This framework is applied to the Deutsch-Jozsa problem and all possible quantum algorithms which solve the problem with certainty using oracle unitaries in a particular form are derived. It is also used to show that any quantum algorithm that solves the Deutsch-Jozsa problem starting with a quantum system in a particular class of initial, thermal equilibrium-based states of the type encountered in solution-state NMR can only succeed with greater probability than a classical algorithm when the problem size n exceeds ∼10 5 .

  11. Structure of N = 2 superconformally invariant unitary ''minimal'' theories: Operator algebra and correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiritsis, E.B.

    1987-01-01

    N = 2 superconformal-invariant theories are studied and their general structure is analyzed. The geometry of N = 2 complex superspace is developed as a tool to study the correlation functions of the theories above. The Ward identities of the global N = 2 superconformal symmetry are solved, to restrict the form of correlation functions. Advantage is taken of the existence of the degenerate operators to derive the ''fusion'' rules for the unitary minimal systems with c<1. In particular, the closure of the operator algebra for such systems is shown. The c = (1/3 minimal system is analyzed and its two-, three-, and four-point functions as well as its operator algebra are calculated explicitly

  12. Gap probabilities for edge intervals in finite Gaussian and Jacobi unitary matrix ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, N.S.; Forrester, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    The probabilities for gaps in the eigenvalue spectrum of the finite dimension N x N random matrix Hermite and Jacobi unitary ensembles on some single and disconnected double intervals are found. These are cases where a reflection symmetry exists and the probability factors into two other related probabilities, defined on single intervals. Our investigation uses the system of partial differential equations arising from the Fredholm determinant expression for the gap probability and the differential-recurrence equations satisfied by Hermite and Jacobi orthogonal polynomials. In our study we find second and third order nonlinear ordinary differential equations defining the probabilities in the general N case, specific explicit solutions for N = 1 and N = 2, asymptotic expansions, scaling at the edge of the Hermite spectrum as N →∞ and the Jacobi to Hermite limit both of which make correspondence to other cases reported here or known previously. (authors)

  13. Some new aspects of the unitary and analytic VMD model for electromagnetic structure of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubnickova, A.Z.; Dubnicka, S.

    1991-01-01

    Recent J/φ→π + π - data analyzed along with all existing pion form factor data by means of the unitary and analytic vector dominance model manifest a strong evidence of the third excited state of the ρ(770) meson with resonance parameters m ρ ''' =2169±46 MeV and Γ ρ ''' =319±136 MeV. A simultaneous analysis of all reliable proton and neutron form factor data in the space-like region along with data on the total cross section of electron-positron annihilation into a proton-antiproton pair by the same model predicts an unexpected inequality σ tot (e e- +→nn-bar)>>σ tot (e + e - →pp-bar) just above the nucleon-antinucleon threshold and also surprisingly large one-photon electromagnetic corrections to the strong J/φ→pp-bar and J/φ→nn-bar decay amplitudes. 21 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  14. First and second sound of a unitary Fermi gas in highly oblate harmonic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Hui; Dyke, Paul; Vale, Chris J; Liu, Xia-Ji

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically investigate first and second sound modes of a unitary Fermi gas trapped in a highly oblate harmonic trap at finite temperatures. Following the idea by Stringari and co-workers (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 150402), we argue that these modes can be described by the simplified two-dimensional two-fluid hydrodynamic equations. Two possible schemes—sound wave propagation and breathing mode excitation—are considered. We calculate the sound wave velocities and discretized sound mode frequencies, as a function of temperature. We find that in both schemes, the coupling between first and second sound modes is large enough to induce significant density fluctuations, suggesting that second sound can be directly observed by measuring in situ density profiles. The frequency of the second sound breathing mode is found to be highly sensitive to the superfluid density. (paper)

  15. Stability of the Zagreb realization of the Carnegie-Mellon-Berkeley coupled-channels unitary model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanović, H.; Ceci, S.; Švarc, A.; Hadžimehmedović, M.; Stahov, J.

    2011-09-01

    In Hadžimehmedović [Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.84.035204 84, 035204 (2011)] we have used the Zagreb realization of Carnegie-Melon-Berkeley coupled-channel, unitary model as a tool for extracting pole positions from the world collection of partial-wave data, with the aim of eliminating model dependence in pole-search procedures. In order that the method is sensible, we in this paper discuss the stability of the method with respect to the strong variation of different model ingredients. We show that the Zagreb CMB procedure is very stable with strong variation of the model assumptions and that it can reliably predict the pole positions of the fitted partial-wave amplitudes.

  16. Stability of the Zagreb realization of the Carnegie-Mellon-Berkeley coupled-channels unitary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanovic, H.; Hadzimehmedovic, M.; Stahov, J.; Ceci, S.; Svarc, A.

    2011-01-01

    In Hadzimehmedovicet al.[Phys. Rev. C 84, 035204 (2011)] we have used the Zagreb realization of Carnegie-Melon-Berkeley coupled-channel, unitary model as a tool for extracting pole positions from the world collection of partial-wave data, with the aim of eliminating model dependence in pole-search procedures. In order that the method is sensible, we in this paper discuss the stability of the method with respect to the strong variation of different model ingredients. We show that the Zagreb CMB procedure is very stable with strong variation of the model assumptions and that it can reliably predict the pole positions of the fitted partial-wave amplitudes.

  17. 11 Foot Unitary Plan Tunnel Facility Optical Improvement Large Window Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Veronica M.

    2015-01-01

    The test section of the 11 by 11-foot Unitary Plan Transonic Wind Tunnel (11-foot UPWT) may receive an upgrade of larger optical windows on both the North and South sides. These new larger windows will provide better access for optical imaging of test article flow phenomena including surface and off body flow characteristics. The installation of these new larger windows will likely produce a change to the aerodynamic characteristics of the flow in the Test Section. In an effort understand the effect of this change, a computational model was employed to predict the flows through the slotted walls, in the test section and around the model before and after the tunnel modification. This report documents the solid CAD model that was created and the inviscid computational analysis that was completed as a preliminary estimate of the effect of the changes.

  18. Life-cycle cost and payback period analysis for commercial unitary air conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; Coughlin, Katie; Dale, Larry; McMahon, James; Meyers, Steve

    2004-03-31

    This report describes an analysis of the economic impacts of possible energy efficiency standards for commercial unitary air conditioners and heat pumps on individual customers in terms of two metrics: life-cycle cost (LCC) and payback period (PBP). For each of the two equipment classes considered, the 11.5 EER provides the largest mean LCC savings. The results show how the savings vary among customers facing different electricity prices and other conditions. At 11.5 EER, at least 80% of the users achieve a positive LCC savings. At 12.0 EER, the maximum efficiency analyzed, mean LCC savings are lower but still positive. For the {ge} $65,000 Btu/h to <135,000 Btu/h equipment class, 59% of users achieve a positive LCC savings. For the $135,000 Btu/h to <240,000 Btu/h equipment class, 91% of users achieve a positive LCC savings.

  19. Multiply-ionized atoms isolated at low energy in a unitary Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Joseph N.; Hoogerheide, Shannon Fogwell; Guise, Nicholas D.; Brewer, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Ions extracted from the EBIT at NIST are slowed and captured in a Penning trap that is made very compact (< 150 cm 3 ) by a unitary architecture [1]. Measurements after 1 ms of ion storage indicate that the isolated ions are distributed with 5.5(5) eV of energy spread, which is roughly 2 orders of magnitude lower than expected in the ion source, without implementing any active cooling [2]. Some experiments are discussed. One goal is to produce one-electron ions in high angular momentum states for studying optical transitions between Rydberg states that could potentially enable new tests of quantum electrodynamics (QED) and determinations of fundamental constants [3

  20. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Joseph N.; Guise, Nicholas D.; Brewer, Samuel M.

    2012-01-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two-magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  1. Penning traps with unitary architecture for storage of highly charged ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Joseph N; Brewer, Samuel M; Guise, Nicholas D

    2012-02-01

    Penning traps are made extremely compact by embedding rare-earth permanent magnets in the electrode structure. Axially-oriented NdFeB magnets are used in unitary architectures that couple the electric and magnetic components into an integrated structure. We have constructed a two-magnet Penning trap with radial access to enable the use of laser or atomic beams, as well as the collection of light. An experimental apparatus equipped with ion optics is installed at the NIST electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility, constrained to fit within 1 meter at the end of a horizontal beamline for transporting highly charged ions. Highly charged ions of neon and argon, extracted with initial energies up to 4000 eV per unit charge, are captured and stored to study the confinement properties of a one-magnet trap and a two-magnet trap. Design considerations and some test results are discussed.

  2. A geometric quantization of the Kostant-Sekiguchi correpondence for scalar type unitary highest weight representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möllers, Jan

    2013-01-01

    (\\pi)\\subseteq\\mathfrak{p}_{\\mathbb{C}}^*$. The associated variety $Ass(\\pi)$ is the closure of a single nilpotent $K_{\\mathbb{C}}$-orbit $\\mathcal{O}^{K_{\\mathbb{C}}}\\subseteq\\mathfrak{p}_{\\mathbb{C}}^*$ which corresponds by the Kostant-Sekiguchi correspondence to a nilpotent coadjoint $G$-orbit $\\mathcal{O}^G\\subseteq\\mathfrak{g}^*$. The known Schr\\"odinger...... model of $\\pi$ is a realization on $L^2(\\mathcal{O})$, where $\\mathcal{O}\\subseteq\\mathcal{O}^G$ is a Lagrangian submanifold. We construct an intertwining operator from the Schr\\"odinger model to the new Fock model, the generalized Segal-Bargmann transform, which gives a geometric quantization...... and as integral kernel of the Segal-Bargmann transform. As a corollary to our construction we also obtain the integral kernel of the unitary inversion operator in the Schr\\"odinger model in terms of a multivariable $J$-Bessel function....

  3. Unitary evolution and uniqueness of the Fock quantization in flat cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marugán, G A Mena; Błas, D Martín-de; Gomar, L Castelló

    2013-01-01

    We study the Fock quantization of scalar fields with a time dependent mass in cosmological scenarios with flat compact spatial sections. This framework describes physically interesting situations like, e.g., cosmological perturbations in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes, generally including a suitable scaling of them by a background function. We prove that the requirements of vacuum invariance under the spatial isometries and of a unitary quantum dynamics select (a) a unique canonical pair of field variables among all those related by time dependent canonical transformations which scale the field configurations, and (b) a unique Fock representation for the canonical commutation relations of this pair of variables. The proof is generalizable to any compact spatial topology in three or less dimensions, though we focus on the case of the three-torus owing to the especially relevant implications.

  4. On the ratio probability of the smallest eigenvalues in the Laguerre unitary ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Max R.; Charlier, Christophe; Zohren, Stefan

    2018-04-01

    We study the probability distribution of the ratio between the second smallest and smallest eigenvalue in the Laguerre unitary ensemble. The probability that this ratio is greater than r  >  1 is expressed in terms of an Hankel determinant with a perturbed Laguerre weight. The limiting probability distribution for the ratio as is found as an integral over containing two functions q 1(x) and q 2(x). These functions satisfy a system of two coupled Painlevé V equations, which are derived from a Lax pair of a Riemann-Hilbert problem. We compute asymptotic behaviours of these functions as and , as well as large n asymptotics for the associated Hankel determinants in several regimes of r and x.

  5. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  6. An integrated theoretical and experimental investigation of insensitive munition compounds adsorption on cellulose, cellulose triacetate, chitin and chitosan surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurtowski, Luke A; Griggs, Chris S; Gude, Veera G; Shukla, Manoj K

    2018-02-01

    This manuscript reports results of combined computational chemistry and batch adsorption investigation of insensitive munition compounds, 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) and nitroguanidine (NQ), and traditional munition compound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on the surfaces of cellulose, cellulose triacetate, chitin and chitosan biopolymers. Cellulose, cellulose triacetate, chitin and chitosan were modeled as trimeric form of the linear chain of 4 C 1 chair conformation of β-d-glucopyranos, its triacetate form, β-N-acetylglucosamine and D-glucosamine, respectively, in the 1➔4 linkage. Geometries were optimized at the M062X functional level of the density functional theory (DFT) using the 6-31G(d,p) basis set in the gas phase and in the bulk water solution using the conductor-like polarizable continuum model (CPCM) approach. The nature of potential energy surfaces of the optimized geometries were ascertained through the harmonic vibrational frequency analysis. The basis set superposition error (BSSE) corrected interaction energies were obtained using the 6-311G(d,p) basis set at the same theoretical level. The computed BSSE in the gas phase was used to correct interaction energy in the bulk water solution. Computed and experimental results regarding the ability of considered surfaces in adsorbing the insensitive munitions compounds are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Moving towards an Educational Policy for Inclusion? Main Reform Stages in the Development of the Norwegian Unitary School System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Sven

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to study the development of educational policy in Norway in the field of the unitary school system and to analyse whether the development can be seen as a move towards increasing inclusion. The educational policy, when seen over a long time span, has progressively aimed towards the development of a common compulsory…

  8. The effect of unconditional cash transfers on adult labour supply: A unitary discrete choice model for the case of Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mideros, A.; O'Donoghue, C.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of unconditional cash transfers by a unitary discrete labour supply model. We argue that there is no negative income effect of social transfers in the case of poor adults because leisure could not be assumed to be a normal good under such conditions. Using data from the

  9. Renormalization of the Abelian–Higgs model in the Rξ and Unitary gauges and the physicality of its scalar potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Irges

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We perform an old school, one-loop renormalization of the Abelian–Higgs model in the Unitary and Rξ gauges, focused on the scalar potential and the gauge boson mass. Our goal is to demonstrate in this simple context the validity of the Unitary gauge at the quantum level, which could open the way for an until now (mostly avoided framework for loop computations. We indeed find that the Unitary gauge is consistent and equivalent to the Rξ gauge at the level of β-functions. Then we compare the renormalized, finite, one-loop Higgs potential in the two gauges and we again find equivalence. This equivalence needs not only a complete cancellation of the gauge fixing parameter ξ from the Rξ gauge potential but also requires its ξ-independent part to be equal to the Unitary gauge result. We follow the quantum behavior of the system by plotting Renormalization Group trajectories and Lines of Constant Physics, with the former the well known curves and with the latter, determined by the finite parts of the counter-terms, particularly well suited for a comparison with non-perturbative studies.

  10. 47 CFR 65.102 - Petitions for exclusion from unitary treatment and for individual treatment in determining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... granted for a period of two years if the cost of capital for interstate exchange service is so low as to... required rate of return for interstate exchange access services. (b) A petition for exclusion from unitary... and for individual treatment in determining authorized return for interstate exchange access service...

  11. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a 252 Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  12. Estimated general population control limits for unitary agents in drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items. For use in reentry decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Adams, J.D.; Cerar, R.J.; Hess, T.L.; Kistner, S.L.; Leffingwell, S.S.; MacIntosh, R.G.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical agent during any stage of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the potential exists for contamination of drinking water, forage crops, grains, garden produce, and livestock. Persistent agents such as VX or sulfur mustard pose the greatest human health concern for reentry. This White Paper has been prepared to provide technical bases for these decisions by developing working estimates of agent control limits in selected environmental media considered principal sources of potential human exposure. To date, control limits for public exposure to unitary agents have been established for atmospheric concentrations only. The current analysis builds on previous work to calculate working estimates of control limits for ingestion and dermal exposure to potentially contaminated drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items such as garden produce. Information characterizing agent desorption from, and detection on or in, contaminated porous media are presently too developed to permit reasonable estimation of dermal exposure from this source. Thus, dermal contact with potentially contaminated porous surfaces is not considered in this document.

  13. Photochemical transformation of the insensitive munitions compound 2,4-dinitroanisole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Balaji, E-mail: anandharaob@ornl.gov [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Wei [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cai, Qingsong; Anderson, Todd [Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environment and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Gu, Baohua, E-mail: gub1@ornl.gov [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The insensitive munitions compound 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) is increasingly being used as a replacement for traditional, sensitive munitions compounds (e.g., trinitrotoluene [TNT]), but the environmental fate and photo-transformation of DNAN in natural water systems are currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the photo-transformation rates of DNAN with both ultraviolet (UV) and sunlight irradiation under different environmentally relevant conditions. Sunlight photo-transformation of DNAN in water was found to follow predominantly pseudo-first-order decay kinetics with an average half-life (t{sub 1/2}) of approximately 0.70 d and activation energy (E{sub a}) of 53 kJ mol{sup −1}. Photo-transformation rates of DNAN were dependent on the wavelength of the light source: irradiation with UV-B light (280–315 nm) resulted in a greater quantum yield of transformation (ϕ{sub UV-B} = 3.7 × 10{sup −4}) than rates obtained with UV-A light (ϕ{sub UV-A} = 2.9 × 10{sup −4} at 316–400 nm) and sunlight (ϕ{sub sun} = 1.1 × 10{sup −4}). Photo-oxidation was the dominant mechanism for DNAN photo-transformation, based on the formation of nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup −}) and nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) as major N species and 2,4-dinitrophenol as the minor species. Environmental factors (e.g., temperature, pH, and the presence or absence of naturally dissolved organic matter) displayed modest to little effects on the rate of DNAN photo-transformation. These observations indicate that sunlight-induced photo-transformation of DNAN may represent a significant abiotic degradation pathway in surface water, which may have important implications in evaluating the potential impacts and risks of DNAN in the environment. - Highlights: ► DNAN photo-transformation kinetics was dependent on light source and temperature. ► Photolysis produced harmful by-products that included dinitrophenol and nitrate. ► Photo-oxidation was determined to be the likely pathway of DNAN

  14. Digital Device Architecture and the Safe Use of Flash Devices in Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Richard B.; Flowers, David; Bergevin, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Flash technology is being utilized in fuzed munition applications and, based on the development of digital logic devices in the commercial world, usage of flash technology will increase. Digital devices of interest to designers include flash-based microcontrollers and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). Almost a decade ago, a study was undertaken to determine if flash-based microcontrollers could be safely used in fuzes and, if so, how should such devices be applied. The results were documented in the Technical Manual for the Use of Logic Devices in Safety Features. This paper will first review the Technical Manual and discuss the rationale behind the suggested architectures for microcontrollers and a brief review of the concern about data retention in flash cells. An architectural feature in the microcontroller under study will be discussed and its use will show how to screen for weak or failed cells during manufacture, storage, or immediately prior to use. As was done for microcontrollers a decade ago, architectures for a flash-based FPGA will be discussed, showing how it can be safely used in fuzes. Additionally, architectures for using non-volatile (including flash-based) storage will be discussed for SRAM-based FPGAs.

  15. Interpolation between Airy and Poisson statistics for unitary chiral non-Hermitian random matrix ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, G.; Bender, M.

    2010-01-01

    We consider a family of chiral non-Hermitian Gaussian random matrices in the unitarily invariant symmetry class. The eigenvalue distribution in this model is expressed in terms of Laguerre polynomials in the complex plane. These are orthogonal with respect to a non-Gaussian weight including a modified Bessel function of the second kind, and we give an elementary proof for this. In the large n limit, the eigenvalue statistics at the spectral edge close to the real axis are described by the same family of kernels interpolating between Airy and Poisson that was recently found by one of the authors for the elliptic Ginibre ensemble. We conclude that this scaling limit is universal, appearing for two different non-Hermitian random matrix ensembles with unitary symmetry. As a second result we give an equivalent form for the interpolating Airy kernel in terms of a single real integral, similar to representations for the asymptotic kernel in the bulk and at the hard edge of the spectrum. This makes its structure as a one-parameter deformation of the Airy kernel more transparent.

  16. C{sub T} for non-unitary CFTs in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Hugh [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Wilberforce Road,Cambridge CB3 0WA, England (United Kingdom); Stergiou, Andreas [Department of Physics, Yale University,New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2016-06-13

    The coefficient C{sub T} of the conformal energy-momentum tensor two-point function is determined for the non-unitary scalar CFTs with four- and six-derivative kinetic terms. The results match those expected from large-N calculations for the CFTs arising from the O(N) non-linear sigma and Gross-Neveu models in specific even dimensions. C{sub T} is also calculated for the CFT arising from (n−1)-form gauge fields with derivatives in 2n+2 dimensions. Results for (n−1)-form theory extended to general dimensions as a non-gauge-invariant CFT are also obtained; the resulting C{sub T} differs from that for the gauge-invariant theory. The construction of conformal primaries by subtracting descendants of lower-dimension primaries is also discussed. For free theories this also leads to an alternative construction of the energy-momentum tensor, which can be quite involved for higher-derivative theories.

  17. Local unitary versus local Clifford equivalence of stabilizer and graph states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Bei; Chung, Hyeyoun; Cross, Andrew W.; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2007-01-01

    The equivalence of stabilizer states under local transformations is of fundamental interest in understanding properties and uses of entanglement. Two stabilizer states are equivalent under the usual stochastic local operations and classical communication criterion if and only if they are equivalent under local unitary (LU) operations. More surprisingly, under certain conditions, two LU-equivalent stabilizer states are also equivalent under local Clifford (LC) operations, as was shown by Van den Nest et al. [Phys. Rev. A 71, 062323 (2005)]. Here, we broaden the class of stabilizer states for which LU equivalence implies LC equivalence (LU LC) to include all stabilizer states represented by graphs with cycles of length neither 3 nor 4. To compare our result with Van den Nest et al.'s, we show that any stabilizer state of distance δ=2 is beyond their criterion. We then further prove that LU LC holds for a more general class of stabilizer states of δ=2. We also explicitly construct graphs representing δ>2 stabilizer states which are beyond their criterion: we identify all 58 graphs with up to 11 vertices and construct graphs with 2 m -1 (m≥4) vertices using quantum error-correcting codes which have non-Clifford transversal gates

  18. Anatomy of the Higgs Boson Decay into Two Photons in the Unitary Gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Dedes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We review and clarify computational issues about the W -gauge boson one-loop contribution to the H → γ γ decay amplitude, in the unitary gauge and in the Standard Model. We find that highly divergent integrals depend upon the choice of shifting momenta with arbitrary vectors. One particular combination of these arbitrary vectors reduces the superficial divergency down to a logarithmic one. The remaining ambiguity is then fixed by exploiting gauge invariance and the Goldstone Boson Equivalence Theorem. Our method is strictly realised in four dimensions. The result for the amplitude agrees with the “famous” one obtained using dimensional regularisation (DR in the limit d → 4 , where d is the number of spatial dimensions in Euclidean space. At the exact equality d = 4 , a three-sphere surface term appears that renders the Ward Identities and the equivalence theorem inconsistent. We also examined a recently proposed four-dimensional regularisation scheme and found agreement with the DR outcome.

  19. Crossover between the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble, the Gaussian unitary ensemble, and Poissonian statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiner, Frank; Laturner, Jeanine; Main, Jörg; Wunner, Günter

    2017-11-01

    Until now only for specific crossovers between Poissonian statistics (P), the statistics of a Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE), or the statistics of a Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) have analytical formulas for the level spacing distribution function been derived within random matrix theory. We investigate arbitrary crossovers in the triangle between all three statistics. To this aim we propose an according formula for the level spacing distribution function depending on two parameters. Comparing the behavior of our formula for the special cases of P→GUE, P→GOE, and GOE→GUE with the results from random matrix theory, we prove that these crossovers are described reasonably. Recent investigations by F. Schweiner et al. [Phys. Rev. E 95, 062205 (2017)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.95.062205] have shown that the Hamiltonian of magnetoexcitons in cubic semiconductors can exhibit all three statistics in dependence on the system parameters. Evaluating the numerical results for magnetoexcitons in dependence on the excitation energy and on a parameter connected with the cubic valence band structure and comparing the results with the formula proposed allows us to distinguish between regular and chaotic behavior as well as between existent or broken antiunitary symmetries. Increasing one of the two parameters, transitions between different crossovers, e.g., from the P→GOE to the P→GUE crossover, are observed and discussed.

  20. Macroscopicity of quantum superpositions on a one-parameter unitary path in Hilbert space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkoff, T. J.; Whaley, K. B.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze quantum states formed as superpositions of an initial pure product state and its image under local unitary evolution, using two measurement-based measures of superposition size: one based on the optimal quantum binary distinguishability of the branches of the superposition and another based on the ratio of the maximal quantum Fisher information of the superposition to that of its branches, i.e., the relative metrological usefulness of the superposition. A general formula for the effective sizes of these states according to the branch-distinguishability measure is obtained and applied to superposition states of N quantum harmonic oscillators composed of Gaussian branches. Considering optimal distinguishability of pure states on a time-evolution path leads naturally to a notion of distinguishability time that generalizes the well-known orthogonalization times of Mandelstam and Tamm and Margolus and Levitin. We further show that the distinguishability time provides a compact operational expression for the superposition size measure based on the relative quantum Fisher information. By restricting the maximization procedure in the definition of this measure to an appropriate algebra of observables, we show that the superposition size of, e.g., NOON states and hierarchical cat states, can scale linearly with the number of elementary particles comprising the superposition state, implying precision scaling inversely with the total number of photons when these states are employed as probes in quantum parameter estimation of a 1-local Hamiltonian in this algebra.

  1. Unitary Transformations in the Quantum Model for Conceptual Conjunctions and its Application to Data Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas eVeloz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantum models of concept combinations have been successful in representing various experimental situations that cannot be accommodated by traditional models based on classical probability or fuzzy set theory. In many cases, the focus has been on producing a representation that fits experimental results to validate quantum models. However, these representations are not always consistent with the cognitive modeling principles. Moreover, some important issues related to the representation of concepts such as the dimensionality of the realization space, the uniqueness of solutions, and the compatibility of measurements, have been overlooked.In this paper, we provide a dimensional analysis of the realization space for the two-sector Fock space model for conjunction of concepts focusing on the first and second sectors separately. We then introduce various representation of concepts that arise from the use of unitary operators in the realization space. In these concrete representations, a pair of concepts and their combination are modeled by a single conceptual state, and by a collection of exemplar-dependent operators. Therefore, they are consistent with cognitive modeling principles. %Moreover, we show that each representation is unique up to change of basis. This framework not only provides a uniform approach to model an entire data set, but, because all measurement operators are expressed in the same basis, allows us to address the question of compatibility of measurements. In particular, we present evidence that it may be possible to predict non-commutative effects from partial measurements of conceptual combinations.

  2. Unitary Transformations in the Quantum Model for Conceptual Conjunctions and Its Application to Data Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloz, Tomas; Desjardins, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Quantum models of concept combinations have been successful in representing various experimental situations that cannot be accommodated by traditional models based on classical probability or fuzzy set theory. In many cases, the focus has been on producing a representation that fits experimental results to validate quantum models. However, these representations are not always consistent with the cognitive modeling principles. Moreover, some important issues related to the representation of concepts such as the dimensionality of the realization space, the uniqueness of solutions, and the compatibility of measurements, have been overlooked. In this paper, we provide a dimensional analysis of the realization space for the two-sector Fock space model for conjunction of concepts focusing on the first and second sectors separately. We then introduce various representation of concepts that arise from the use of unitary operators in the realization space. In these concrete representations, a pair of concepts and their combination are modeled by a single conceptual state, and by a collection of exemplar-dependent operators. Therefore, they are consistent with cognitive modeling principles. This framework not only provides a uniform approach to model an entire data set, but, because all measurement operators are expressed in the same basis, allows us to address the question of compatibility of measurements. In particular, we present evidence that it may be possible to predict non-commutative effects from partial measurements of conceptual combinations.

  3. Quench of non-Markovian coherence in the deep sub-Ohmic spin–boson model: A unitary equilibration scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Yao

    2015-01-01

    The deep sub-Ohmic spin–boson model shows a longstanding non-Markovian coherence at low temperature. Motivating to quench this robust coherence, the thermal effect is unitarily incorporated into the time evolution of the model, which is calculated by the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group algorithm combined with the orthogonal polynomials theory. Via introducing a unitary heating operator to the bosonic bath, the bath is heated up so that a majority portion of the bosonic excited states is occupied. It is found in this situation the coherence of the spin is quickly quenched even in the coherent regime, in which the non-Markovian feature dominates. With this finding we come up with a novel way to implement the unitary equilibration, the essential term of the eigenstate-thermalization hypothesis, through a short-time evolution of the model

  4. Invariance of the Berry phase under unitary transformations: application to the time-dependent generalized harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobe, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The Berry phase is derived in a manifestly gauge-invariant way, without adiabatic or cyclic requirements. It is invariant under unitary transformations, contrary to recent assertions. A time-dependent generalized harmonic oscillator is taken as an example. The energy of the system is not in general the Hamiltonian. An energy, the time derivative of which is the power, is obtained from the equation of motion. When the system is quantized, the Berry phase is zero, and is invariant under unitary transformations. If the energy is chosen incorrectly to be the Hamiltonian, a nonzero Berry phase is obtained. In this case the total phase, the sun of the dynamical and Berry phases, is equal to the correct total phase through first order in perturbation theory. (author)

  5. Penetrating injury to the chest by an attenuated energy projectile: a case report and literature review of thoracic injuries caused by "less-lethal" munitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porto Leonardo BO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the case of a patient who sustained a penetrating injury to the chest caused by an attenuated energy rubber bullet and review the literature on thoracic injuries caused by plastic and rubber "less-lethal" munitions. The patient of this report underwent a right thoracotomy to extract the projectile as well as a wedge resection of the injured lung parenchyma. This case demonstrates that even supposedly safe riot control munition fired at close range, at the torso, can provoke serious injury. Therefore a thorough investigation and close clinical supervision are justified.

  6. Penetrating injury to the chest by an attenuated energy projectile: a case report and literature review of thoracic injuries caused by "less-lethal" munitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende-Neto, Joao; Silva, Fabriccio Df; Porto, Leonardo Bo; Teixeira, Luiz C; Tien, Homer; Rizoli, Sandro B

    2009-06-26

    We present the case of a patient who sustained a penetrating injury to the chest caused by an attenuated energy rubber bullet and review the literature on thoracic injuries caused by plastic and rubber "less-lethal" munitions. The patient of this report underwent a right thoracotomy to extract the projectile as well as a wedge resection of the injured lung parenchyma. This case demonstrates that even supposedly safe riot control munition fired at close range, at the torso, can provoke serious injury. Therefore a thorough investigation and close clinical supervision are justified.

  7. Power, trust, and Science of Unitary Human Beings influence political leadership: a celebration of Barrett's power theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Barbara W

    2010-01-01

    The importance of nurses' participation in health policy leadership is discussed within the context of Rogers' science of unitary human beings, Barrett's power theory, and one nurse-politician's experience. Nurses have a major role to play in resolving public policy issues that influence the health of people. A brief review of the history of nurses in the political arena is presented. Research related to power and trust is reviewed. Suggested strategies for success in political situations are offered.

  8. Determining the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes of PFI data in central region Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Kamaruddin, Saadi Bin; Md Ghani, Nor Azura; Mohamed Ramli, Norazan

    2013-04-01

    The concept of Private Financial Initiative (PFI) has been implemented by many developed countries as an innovative way for the governments to improve future public service delivery and infrastructure procurement. However, the idea is just about to germinate in Malaysia and its success is still vague. The major phase that needs to be given main attention in this agenda is value for money whereby optimum efficiency and effectiveness of each expense is attained. Therefore, at the early stage of this study, estimating unitary charges or materials price indexes in each region in Malaysia was the key objective. This particular study aims to discover the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes in construction industry by different regions in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia (Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan, and Melaka). The unitary charges indexes data used were from year 2002 to 2011 monthly data of different states in the central region Peninsular Malaysia, comprising price indexes of aggregate, sand, steel reinforcement, ready mix concrete, bricks and partition, roof material, floor and wall finishes, ceiling, plumbing materials, sanitary fittings, paint, glass, steel and metal sections, timber and plywood. At the end of the study, it was found that Backpropagation Neural Network with linear transfer function produced the most accurate and reliable results for estimating unitary charges price indexes in every states in central region Peninsular Malaysia based on the Root Mean Squared Errors, where the values for both estimation and evaluation sets were approximately zero and highly significant at p Malaysia. The estimated price indexes of construction materials will contribute significantly to the value for money of PFI as well as towards Malaysian economical growth.

  9. Thermocouple-based Temperature Sensing System for Chemical Cell Inside Micro UAV Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanhui; Feng, Yue; Lou, Haozhe; Zhang, Xinzhao

    2018-03-01

    Environmental temperature of UAV system is crucial for chemical cell component inside. Once the temperature of this chemical cell is over 259 °C and keeps more than 20 min, the high thermal accumulation would result in an explosion, which seriously damage the whole UAV system. Therefore, we develop a micro temperature sensing system for monitoring the temperature of chemical cell thermally influenced by UAV device deployed in a 300 °C temperature environment, which is quite useful for insensitive munitions and UAV safety enhancement technologies.

  10. Mammalian Toxicity of Munition Compounds. Phase II. Effects of Multiple Doses. Part III. 2,6-Dinitrotoluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-01

    and the neuromuscular effects in these dogs were not due to hypocalcemia . The lowest serum calcium concen- tration in these dogs was 4.2 meq/liter...motor end plate might produce a local hypocalcemia . Such a mechanism is purely speculative. Qualitatively and quantitavely, most of the effects of 2,6...I ýNw,- -MIM I/ MIDWEST RESEARCH INS14ITUTE H0q .3L I LU -_ MAMMALIAN TOXICITY OF MUNITIONS COMPOUlNDSPHASE II: EFFECTS OF MiULTIPLE DOSES C* •PART

  11. Post-traumatic stress disorder in adult victims of cluster munitions in Lebanon: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, Jawad; Gebeily, Souheil; Saad, Mohamad; Harati, Hayat; Nabha, Sanaa; Said, Najwane; Kanso, Mohamad; Abdel Rassoul, Ronza; Fares, Youssef

    2017-08-18

    This study aims to explore the short-term and long-term prevalence and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among victims of cluster munitions. A prospective 10-year longitudinal study that took place in Lebanon. Two-hundred-and-forty-four Lebanese civilian victims of submunition blasts, who were injured in 2006 and were over 18 years old, were interviewed. Included were participants who had been diagnosed with PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) and the PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version in 2006. Interviewees were present for the 10-year follow-up. PTSD prevalence rates of participants in 2006 and 2016 were compared. Analysis of the demographical data pertaining to the association of long-term PTSD with other variables was performed. p Values <0.05 were considered statistically significant for all analyses (95% CI). All the 244 civilians injured by cluster munitions in 2006 responded, and were present for long-term follow-up in 2016. The prevalence of PTSD decreased significantly from 98% to 43% after 10 years (p<0.001). A lower long-term prevalence was significantly associated with male sex (p<0.001), family support (p<0.001) and religion (p<0.001). Hospitalisation (p=0.005) and severe functional impairment (p<0.001) post-trauma were significantly associated with increased prevalence of long-term PTSD. Symptoms of negative cognition and mood were more common in the long run. In addition, job instability was the most frequent socioeconomic repercussion among the participants (88%). Psychological symptoms, especially PTSD, remain high in war-affected populations many years after the war; this is particularly evident for Lebanese civilians who were victimised by cluster munitions. Screening programmes and psychological interventions need to be implemented in vulnerable populations exposed to war traumas. Officials and public health advocates should consider the socioeconomic implications, and

  12. Computer-based test system for the Tactical Airfield Attack Munition (TAAM) safing, arming, and fuzing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warhus, J.; Castleton, R.; Lanning, S.

    1981-12-01

    Testing and quality assurance of large numbers of firing systems are an essential part of the development of the Tactical Airfield Attack Munition (TAAM). A computerized test and data acquisition system has been developed to make the testing and quality assurance workload manageable. The system hardware utilizes an LSI-11/23 computer, a Tektronix 7612 transient digitizer, and various other programmable instruments and power supplies. The system is capable of measuring and analyzing mechanical shock and fireset transient waveforms, automating testing sequences, and making records and comparisons of the test results. The system architecture is flexible for general purpose firing system development work

  13. Sea-dumped chemical weapons: environmental risk, occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, M I; Sexton, K J; Vearrier, D

    2016-01-01

    Chemical weapons dumped into the ocean for disposal in the twentieth century pose a continuing environmental and human health risk. In this review we discuss locations, quantity, and types of sea-dumped chemical weapons, related environmental concerns, and human encounters with sea-dumped chemical weapons. We utilized the Ovid (http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com) and PubMed (http://www.pubmed.org) search engines to perform MEDLINE searches for the terms 'sea-dumped chemical weapons', 'chemical warfare agents', and 'chemical munitions'. The searches returned 5863 articles. Irrelevant and non-English articles were excluded. A review of the references for these articles yielded additional relevant sources, with a total of 64 peer-reviewed articles cited in this paper. History and geography of chemical weapons dumping at sea: Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed off at sea following World War II. European, Russian, Japanese, and United States coasts are the areas most affected worldwide. Several areas in the Baltic and North Seas suffered concentrated large levels of dumping, and these appear to be the world's most studied chemical warfare agent marine dumping areas. Chemical warfare agents: Sulfur mustard, Lewisite, and the nerve agents appear to be the chemical warfare agents most frequently disposed off at sea. Multiple other type of agents including organoarsenicals, blood agents, choking agents, and lacrimators were dumped at sea, although in lesser volumes. Environmental concerns: Numerous geohydrologic variables contribute to the rate of release of chemical agents from their original casings, leading to difficult and inexact modeling of risk of release into seawater. Sulfur mustard and the organoarsenicals are the most environmentally persistent dumped chemical agents. Sulfur mustard in particular has a propensity to form a solid or semi-solid lump with a polymer coating of breakdown products, and can persist in this state on the ocean floor

  14. Unitary group adapted state specific multireference perturbation theory: Formulation and pilot applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Avijit; Sen, Sangita; Samanta, Pradipta Kumar; Mukherjee, Debashis

    2015-04-05

    We present here a comprehensive account of the formulation and pilot applications of the second-order perturbative analogue of the recently proposed unitary group adapted state-specific multireference coupled cluster theory (UGA-SSMRCC), which we call as the UGA-SSMRPT2. We also discuss the essential similarities and differences between the UGA-SSMRPT2 and the allied SA-SSMRPT2. Our theory, like its parent UGA-SSMRCC formalism, is size-extensive. However, because of the noninvariance of the theory with respect to the transformation among the active orbitals, it requires the use of localized orbitals to ensure size-consistency. We have demonstrated the performance of the formalism with a set of pilot applications, exploring (a) the accuracy of the potential energy surface (PES) of a set of small prototypical difficult molecules in their various low-lying states, using natural, pseudocanonical and localized orbitals and compared the respective nonparallelity errors (NPE) and the mean average deviations (MAD) vis-a-vis the full CI results with the same basis; (b) the efficacy of localized active orbitals to ensure and demonstrate manifest size-consistency with respect to fragmentation. We found that natural orbitals lead to the best overall PES, as evidenced by the NPE and MAD values. The MRMP2 results for individual states and of the MCQDPT2 for multiple states displaying avoided curve crossings are uniformly poorer as compared with the UGA-SSMRPT2 results. The striking aspect of the size-consistency check is the complete insensitivity of the sum of fragment energies with given fragment spin-multiplicities, which are obtained as the asymptotic limit of super-molecules with different coupled spins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Technical skills assessment toolbox: a review using the unitary framework of validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Iman; Manji, Farouq; Park, Yoon Soo; Juul, Dorthea; Ott, Michael; Harris, Ilene; Farrell, Timothy M

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a technical skills assessment toolbox for 35 basic and advanced skills/procedures that comprise the American College of Surgeons (ACS)/Association of Program Directors in Surgery (APDS) surgical skills curriculum and to provide a critical appraisal of the included tools, using contemporary framework of validity. Competency-based training has become the predominant model in surgical education and assessment of performance is an essential component. Assessment methods must produce valid results to accurately determine the level of competency. A search was performed, using PubMed and Google Scholar, to identify tools that have been developed for assessment of the targeted technical skills. A total of 23 assessment tools for the 35 ACS/APDS skills modules were identified. Some tools, such as Operative Performance Rating System (OSATS) and Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OPRS), have been tested for more than 1 procedure. Therefore, 30 modules had at least 1 assessment tool, with some common surgical procedures being addressed by several tools. Five modules had none. Only 3 studies used Messick's framework to design their validity studies. The remaining studies used an outdated framework on the basis of "types of validity." When analyzed using the contemporary framework, few of these studies demonstrated validity for content, internal structure, and relationship to other variables. This study provides an assessment toolbox for common surgical skills/procedures. Our review shows that few authors have used the contemporary unitary concept of validity for development of their assessment tools. As we progress toward competency-based training, future studies should provide evidence for various sources of validity using the contemporary framework.

  16. GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA SEEDLING ROOTS EXPOSED TO THE MUNITION HEXAHYDRO-1,3,5-TRINITRO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabidopsis thaliana root transcriptome responses to the munition, hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), were assessed using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Comparison of the transcriptional profile for the RDX response to a profile previously described for Ar...

  17. Legacy in the Sand: The United States Army Armament, Munitions and Chemical Command in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-21

    States Army Medical Department, over 1.5 million British-designed Small Box Respirator ( SBR ) masks, utilizing activated coconut charcoal as a filter, had...conflicts this nation will tfce-short in rjuration but of high intensity. In such a war, relance must bpp oaced upon the established stockpile and the...Supply System SAW squad automatic weapon SBA Small Business Administration SBR small box respirator SCR senior command representati’e SCRAM self-contained

  18. Evaporation Rates of Chemical Warfare Agents Measured Using 5 CM Wind Tunnels. 2. Munitions Grade Sulfur Mustard From Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    micropores and the pH of 0.1 g sand in 2 mL water, measured after 24 hr using pH paper, was 6. The measured bulk and tapped densities of the sand...o oasr^^roryrgQcor-»infO KNceend’-ojnrS^’u:* ^ t\\i kO N © co uS oS - <- eg CM M (M n eft ^ eg ni r»i s rt...O cn o o 2 eft — cn co in ^ ^ iri — 3 *- t- — n vt rt CD £ 2 9 a H d a -i --’ p | E •i = ° 2r ^ A

  19. Evaporation Rates of Chemical Warfare Agents Measured using 5 cm Wind Tunnels III. Munition-Grade Sulfur Mustard on Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    tD O o o 1 1 1 1 — -_.-^_ 1 o in o...O < < < h- SH h Q 1 1-6 o o Is. c x X •g m LU o o O X o N O o c cj o LU ro ra Q "o tD w co tu o o c c s o 5...D Si a flj CO CD CO CJ o o a) » S. 8- 1 S Js 5 co 0 m 0 (£ £ £ o Q. 8 .9

  20. Spectral properties of embedded Gaussian unitary ensemble of random matrices with Wigner's SU(4) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, Manan; Kota, V.K.B.

    2010-01-01

    For m fermions in Ω number of single particle orbitals, each fourfold degenerate, we introduce and analyze in detail embedded Gaussian unitary ensemble of random matrices generated by random two-body interactions that are SU(4) scalar [EGUE(2)-SU(4)]. Here the SU(4) algebra corresponds to the Wigner's supermultiplet SU(4) symmetry in nuclei. Embedding algebra for the EGUE(2)-SU(4) ensemble is U(4Ω) contains U(Ω) x SU(4). Exploiting the Wigner-Racah algebra of the embedding algebra, analytical expression for the ensemble average of the product of any two m particle Hamiltonian matrix elements is derived. Using this, formulas for a special class of U(Ω) irreducible representations (irreps) {4 r , p}, p = 0, 1, 2, 3 are derived for the ensemble averaged spectral variances and also for the covariances in energy centroids and spectral variances. On the other hand, simplifying the tabulations of Hecht for SU(Ω) Racah coefficients, numerical calculations are carried out for general U(Ω) irreps. Spectral variances clearly show, by applying Jacquod and Stone prescription, that the EGUE(2)-SU(4) ensemble generates ground state structure just as the quadratic Casimir invariant (C 2 ) of SU(4). This is further corroborated by the calculation of the expectation values of C 2 [SU(4)] and the four periodicity in the ground state energies. Secondly, it is found that the covariances in energy centroids and spectral variances increase in magnitude considerably as we go from EGUE(2) for spinless fermions to EGUE(2) for fermions with spin to EGUE(2)-SU(4) implying that the differences in ensemble and spectral averages grow with increasing symmetry. Also for EGUE(2)-SU(4) there are, unlike for GUE, non-zero cross-correlations in energy centroids and spectral variances defined over spaces with different particle numbers and/or U(Ω) [equivalently SU(4)] irreps. In the dilute limit defined by Ω → ∞, r >> 1 and r/Ω → 0, for the {4 r , p} irreps, we have derived analytical

  1. Proceedings of the Conference of the young specialists of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise GIDROPRESS Special Designers' Office 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragunov, Yu.G.; Banyuk, G.F.; Denisov, V.P.; Sorokin, S.R.; Safonova, M.A.; Prodon, D.G.

    2002-01-01

    The texts of the reports at the Conference of the young specialists of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise GIDROPRESS Special Designers' Office (January 24-25, 2002, Podolsk) are presented. The subject field of the reports is related to the 0NPPs designing and operation. In particular, the following problems are discussed: the operational safety of the reactors and containers for the radioactive waste storage and transport; the analysis of the WWER-type reactor behavior under different emergency situations; the possibilities of increasing the service life of the reactors at the NPPs [ru

  2. Lucian tries out the scenes-novel: episodic appearance and unitary structure of the Dialogues of the Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Gonzàlez Julià

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lucian’s Dialogues of the Dead belong to a very specific genre and their order in manuscript transmission is very confused. For those reasons, they have been usually considered as individual scenes without interrelation to each other, apart from their main characters or the world they move in. Nevertheless, a detailed examination of their inner allusions and their typical structure in travel-novels allows us to reconsider all of them as belonging to a unitary and close wholeness, to propose an order change and even to point three of these dialogues as possible interpolations in the series.

  3. Model Deformation and Optical Angle of Attack Measurement System in the NASA Ames Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Laura K.; Drain, Bethany A.; Schairer, Edward T.; Heineck, James T.; Bell, James H.

    2017-01-01

    Both AoA and MDM measurements can be made using an optical system that relies on photogrammetry. Optical measurements are being requested by customers in wind tunnels with increasing frequency due to their non-intrusive nature and recent hardware and software advances that allow measurements to become near real time. The NASA Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel is currently developing a system based on photogrammetry to measure model deformation and model angle of attack. This paper describes the new system, its development, its use on recent tests and plans to further develop the system.

  4. Unitary representations of some infinite-dimensional Lie algebras motivated by string theory on AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, Oleg

    1999-01-01

    We consider some unitary representations of infinite-dimensional Lie algebras motivated by string theory on AdS 3 . These include examples of two kinds: the A,D,E type affine Lie algebras and the N=4 superconformal algebra. The first presents a new construction for free field representations of affine Lie algebras. The second is of a particular physical interest because it provides some hints that a hybrid of the NSR and GS formulations for string theory on AdS 3 exists

  5. Management of storm water in unitary sewer systems; Gestion de las aguas de tormenta en las redes de alcantarillado unitarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayos, C.

    1999-08-01

    A brief review is provided of the general problems of storm waters and how they are dealt with in Directive 91/27/EEC. An experiment in Asturias, Spain, is reported in which storm water storage tanks were designed to reduce the number and impact of discharges from the unitary sewer systems. The criteria for calculating the design flows in accordance with the guidelines of Spain`s Northern Hydrographic Confederation, the procedures used in determining the size of the overflows and the different elements employed in the equipment, control systems and safety systems are all described. (Author) 31 refs.

  6. High-Threshold Low-Overhead Fault-Tolerant Classical Computation and the Replacement of Measurements with Unitary Quantum Gates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, Benjamin; Jacobs, Kurt

    2017-07-21

    von Neumann's classic "multiplexing" method is unique in achieving high-threshold fault-tolerant classical computation (FTCC), but has several significant barriers to implementation: (i) the extremely complex circuits required by randomized connections, (ii) the difficulty of calculating its performance in practical regimes of both code size and logical error rate, and (iii) the (perceived) need for large code sizes. Here we present numerical results indicating that the third assertion is false, and introduce a novel scheme that eliminates the two remaining problems while retaining a threshold very close to von Neumann's ideal of 1/6. We present a simple, highly ordered wiring structure that vastly reduces the circuit complexity, demonstrates that randomization is unnecessary, and provides a feasible method to calculate the performance. This in turn allows us to show that the scheme requires only moderate code sizes, vastly outperforms concatenation schemes, and under a standard error model a unitary implementation realizes universal FTCC with an accuracy threshold of p<5.5%, in which p is the error probability for 3-qubit gates. FTCC is a key component in realizing measurement-free protocols for quantum information processing. In view of this, we use our scheme to show that all-unitary quantum circuits can reproduce any measurement-based feedback process in which the asymptotic error probabilities for the measurement and feedback are (32/63)p≈0.51p and 1.51p, respectively.

  7. Bounds on the entanglement attainable from unitary transformed thermal states in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Terri M.; Brown, Kenneth R.; Chuang, Isaac L.

    2005-01-01

    The role of mixed-state entanglement in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum computation is not yet well understood. In particular, despite the success of quantum-information processing with NMR, recent work has shown that quantum states used in most of those experiments were not entangled. This is because these states, derived by unitary transforms from the thermal equilibrium state, were too close to the maximally mixed state. We are thus motivated to determine whether a given NMR state is entanglable - that is, does there exist a unitary transform that entangles the state? The boundary between entanglable and nonentanglable thermal states is a function of the spin system size N and its temperature T. We provide bounds on the location of this boundary using analytical and numerical methods; our tightest bound scales as N∼T, giving a lower bound requiring at least N∼22 000 proton spins to realize an entanglable thermal state at typical laboratory NMR magnetic fields. These bounds are tighter than known bounds on the entanglability of effective pure states

  8. Options for the destruction of chemical weapons and management of the associated risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Ron G

    2006-09-01

    The destruction of chemical weapons is a hazardous operation. The degree of hazard posed, however, is not uniform and is dependent on the specific chemical agent and the configuration of the weapon or bulk storage vessel in which it is contained. For example, a highly volatile nerve agent in an explosively configured munition, such as a rocket, poses a very different hazard from that of a bulk storage container of viscous mustard gas. Equally the handling of recovered, often highly corroded, World War (WW)I or WWII chemical munitions will pose a very different hazard from that associated with dealing with modern chemical weapons stored under the appropriate conditions. Over the years, a number of technologies have been developed for the destruction of chemical weapons. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. None of them provide a universal solution to the problem. When assessing options for the destruction of these weapons and the management of the associated risks, therefore, it is important to give due consideration and weight to these differences. To ensure that the destruction technology selected takes due account of them and that the resulting overall risk assessment accurately reflects the actual risks involved.

  9. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Precision Guided Munitions (PGMs), their evolution and some economic considerations, Working Paper No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.

    1990-08-01

    A brief study was made of some of the forces driving the move to Precision Guided Munitions (PGMs), including the quest for military effectiveness, combat experience, and logistic compression. PGMs cost from a few hundred to a few thousand dollars per Kg but are tens to hundreds of times more effective than conventional munitions. A year's peacetime plateau production of each US PGM can be carried by a few C-5 aircraft. Surge quantities of PGMs are within US airlift capabilities, taking some of the risk out of off-shore procurement. The improving capability of antiaircraft PGMs and the escalating cost of combat aircraft (50 to 100-fold in constant dollars since WW II) may bring into question the economic viability of manned attack aircraft. The same may be true to a slightly lesser degree for heavy armored vehicles. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. On Parametrization of the Linear GL(4,C) and Unitary SU(4) Groups in Terms of Dirac Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red'Kov, Victor M.; Bogush, Andrei A.; Tokarevskaya, Natalia G.

    2008-02-01

    Parametrization of 4 × 4-matrices G of the complex linear group GL(4,C) in terms of four complex 4-vector parameters (k,m,n,l) is investigated. Additional restrictions separating some subgroups of GL(4,C) are given explicitly. In the given parametrization, the problem of inverting any 4 × 4 matrix G is solved. Expression for determinant of any matrix G is found: det G = F(k,m,n,l). Unitarity conditions G+ = G-1 have been formulated in the form of non-linear cubic algebraic equations including complex conjugation. Several simplest solutions of these unitarity equations have been found: three 2-parametric subgroups G1, G2, G3 - each of subgroups consists of two commuting Abelian unitary groups; 4-parametric unitary subgroup consis! ting of a product of a 3-parametric group isomorphic SU(2) and 1-parametric Abelian group. The Dirac basis of generators Λk, being of Gell-Mann type, substantially differs from the basis λi used in the literature on SU(4) group, formulas relating them are found - they permit to separate SU(3) subgroup in SU(4). Special way to list 15 Dirac generators of GL(4,C) can be used {Λk} = {μiÅνjÅ(μiVνj = KÅL ÅM )}, which permit to factorize SU(4) transformations according to S = eiaμ eibνeikKeilLeimM, where two first factors commute with each other and are isomorphic to SU(2) group, the three last ones are 3-parametric groups, each of them consisting of three Abelian commuting unitary subgroups. Besides, the structure of fifteen Dirac matrices Λk permits to separate twenty 3-parametric subgroups in SU(4) isomorphic to SU(2); those subgroups might be used as bigger elementary blocks in constructing of a general transformation SU(4). It is shown how one can specify the present approach for the pseudounitary group SU(2,2) and SU(3,1).

  11. Generic features of the dynamics of complex open quantum systems: statistical approach based on averages over the unitary group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, Manuel; Breuer, Heinz-Peter

    2013-04-01

    We obtain exact analytic expressions for a class of functions expressed as integrals over the Haar measure of the unitary group in d dimensions. Based on these general mathematical results, we investigate generic dynamical properties of complex open quantum systems, employing arguments from ensemble theory. We further generalize these results to arbitrary eigenvalue distributions, allowing a detailed comparison of typical regular and chaotic systems with the help of concepts from random matrix theory. To illustrate the physical relevance and the general applicability of our results we present a series of examples related to the fields of open quantum systems and nonequilibrium quantum thermodynamics. These include the effect of initial correlations, the average quantum dynamical maps, the generic dynamics of system-environment pure state entanglement and, finally, the equilibration of generic open and closed quantum systems.

  12. 2D Unitary ESPRIT Based Super-Resolution Channel Estimation for Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO with Hybrid Precoding

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Anwen

    2017-11-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) with hybrid precoding is a promising technique for the future 5G wireless communications. Due to a large number of antennas but a much smaller number of radio frequency (RF) chains, estimating the high-dimensional mmWave massive MIMO channel will bring the large pilot overhead. To overcome this challenge, this paper proposes a super-resolution channel estimation scheme based on two-dimensional (2D) unitary ESPRIT algorithm. By exploiting the angular sparsity of mmWave channels, the continuously distributed angle of arrivals/departures (AoAs/AoDs) can be jointly estimated with high accuracy. Specifically, by designing the uplink training signals at both base station (BS) and mobile station (MS), we first use low pilot overhead to estimate a low-dimensional effective channel, which has the same shift-invariance of array response as the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel to be estimated. From the low-dimensional effective channel, the superresolution estimates of AoAs and AoDs can be jointly obtained by exploiting the 2D unitary ESPRIT channel estimation algorithm. Furthermore, the associated path gains can be acquired based on the least squares (LS) criterion. Finally, we can reconstruct the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel according to the obtained AoAs, AoDs, and path gains. Simulation results have confirmed that the proposed scheme is superior to conventional schemes with a much lower pilot overhead.

  13. 2D Unitary ESPRIT Based Super-Resolution Channel Estimation for Millimeter-Wave Massive MIMO with Hybrid Precoding

    KAUST Repository

    Liao, Anwen; Gao, Zhen; Wu, Yongpeng; Wang, Hua; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) with hybrid precoding is a promising technique for the future 5G wireless communications. Due to a large number of antennas but a much smaller number of radio frequency (RF) chains, estimating the high-dimensional mmWave massive MIMO channel will bring the large pilot overhead. To overcome this challenge, this paper proposes a super-resolution channel estimation scheme based on two-dimensional (2D) unitary ESPRIT algorithm. By exploiting the angular sparsity of mmWave channels, the continuously distributed angle of arrivals/departures (AoAs/AoDs) can be jointly estimated with high accuracy. Specifically, by designing the uplink training signals at both base station (BS) and mobile station (MS), we first use low pilot overhead to estimate a low-dimensional effective channel, which has the same shift-invariance of array response as the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel to be estimated. From the low-dimensional effective channel, the superresolution estimates of AoAs and AoDs can be jointly obtained by exploiting the 2D unitary ESPRIT channel estimation algorithm. Furthermore, the associated path gains can be acquired based on the least squares (LS) criterion. Finally, we can reconstruct the high-dimensional mmWave MIMO channel according to the obtained AoAs, AoDs, and path gains. Simulation results have confirmed that the proposed scheme is superior to conventional schemes with a much lower pilot overhead.

  14. Munitions and Explosives of Concern Survey Methodology and In-field Testing for Wind Energy Areas on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVal, C.; Carton, G.; Trembanis, A. C.; Edwards, M.; Miller, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    Munitions and explosives of concern (MEC) are present in U.S. waters as a result of past and ongoing live-fire testing and training, combat operations, and sea disposal. To identify MEC that may pose a risk to human safety during development of offshore wind facilities on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) is preparing to develop guidance on risk analysis and selection processes for methods and technologies to identify MEC in Wind Energy Areas (WEA). This study developed a process for selecting appropriate technologies and methodologies for MEC detection using a synthesis of historical research, physical site characterization, remote sensing technology review, and in-field trials. Personnel were tasked with seeding a portion of the Delaware WEA with munitions surrogates, while a second group of researchers not privy to the surrogate locations tested and optimized the selected methodology to find and identify the placed targets. This in-field trial, conducted in July 2016, emphasized the use of multiple sensors for MEC detection, and led to further guidance for future MEC detection efforts on the Atlantic OCS. An April 2017 follow on study determined the fate of the munitions surrogates after the Atlantic storm season had passed. Using regional hydrodynamic models and incorporating the recommendations from the 2016 field trial, the follow on study examined the fate of the MEC and compared the findings to existing research on munitions mobility, as well as models developed as part of the Office of Naval Research Mine-Burial Program. Focus was given to characterizing the influence of sediment type on surrogate munitions behavior and the influence of mophodynamics and object burial on MEC detection. Supporting Mine-Burial models, ripple bedforms were observed to impede surrogate scour and burial in coarse sediments, while surrogate burial was both predicted and observed in finer sediments. Further, incorporation of

  15. Chemical Disarmament: Current Problems in Implementing the Chemical Weapons Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek, J.

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC is briefly characterised by stressing its main pillars, such as verified destruction ofCWstockpiles and destruction/conversion ofCWproduction facilities (CWPFs, verified non-production of CW by the chemical industries, assistance and protection, and international cooperation. The CWC´s leading principle in defining theCW(protecting it generally against scientific and technological development, i. e. so called General Purpose Criterion is thoroughly elucidated showing its relation to the CWC´s sophisticated verification system. Status of implementation (as of August 2005 shows main data obligatory declared by the States Parties (SP, among them 6 possessors of CW stockpiles (Russia, USA, India, South Korea, Albania and Libya. From the declared 71 373 agent-tons, 12 889 have been destroyed, from the declared 8 679 M items of munitions (containers, 2 420 have been destroyed, which means that the anticipated 10 years deadline for CW destruction (after entry into force – EIF will be not managed. For Russia and USA the allowed extension by another 5 years has been already agreed. From the 64 CWPFs (operational after 1946, declared by 12 SPs, 53 have been certified as destroyed/converted. The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW is briefly presented and main results of the First Review Conference (2003 analysed on the base of the adopted principal documents. Future problems of implementing the CWC are connected in the first line with its universality, because among 16 non-SPs, several countries (located mainly in the Near East and on the Korean peninsula are presumed to be CW-possessors. Special emphasis is laid on both, threats and benefits of the scientific and technological development for current implementing the CWC as well as of its implementation in future after all CW stockpiles have been destroyed.

  16. Penetration Evaluation of Explosively Formed Projectiles Through Air and Water Using Insensitive Munition: Simulative and Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahmed

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The process of formation, flying, penetration of explosively-formed projectiles (EFP and the effect of water on performance of the charge for underwater applications is simulated by Ansysis Autodyn 2D-Hydro code. The main objective of an explosively formed projectile designed for underwater applications is to disintegrate the target at longer standoff distances. In this paper we have simulated the explosively formed projectile from OFHC-Copper liner for 1200 conical angle. The Affect of water on the penetration of EFP is determined by simulations from Ansysis Autodyn 2-D Hydrocode and by varying depth of water from 1CD-5CD. The depth of penetration against steel target is measured experimentally. Flash X-Ray Radiography (FXR is used to capture EFP jet formation and its penetration against target is measured by depth of penetration experiments. Simulation results are compared with experimental results. The difference in simulated and experimental results for depth of penetration is about 7 mm, which lies within favorable range of error. The jet formation captured from FXR is quite clear and jet velocity determined from Flash X-ray radiography is the same as the ones obtained by using other high explosives. Therefore, it is indicated that Insensitive Munition (8701 can be utilized instead of Polymer Bonded Explosives (PBX for air and underwater environments with great reliability and without any hazard.

  17. Genuine multipartite entanglement of symmetric Gaussian states: Strong monogamy, unitary localization, scaling behavior, and molecular sharing structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the structural aspects of genuine multipartite entanglement in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. Generalizing the results of Adesso and Illuminati [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150501 (2007)], we analyze whether the entanglement shared by blocks of modes distributes according to a strong monogamy law. This property, once established, allows us to quantify the genuine N -partite entanglement not encoded into 2,…,K,…,(N-1) -partite quantum correlations. Strong monogamy is numerically verified, and the explicit expression of the measure of residual genuine multipartite entanglement is analytically derived, by a recursive formula, for a subclass of Gaussian states. These are fully symmetric (permutation-invariant) states that are multipartitioned into blocks, each consisting of an arbitrarily assigned number of modes. We compute the genuine multipartite entanglement shared by the blocks of modes and investigate its scaling properties with the number and size of the blocks, the total number of modes, the global mixedness of the state, and the squeezed resources needed for state engineering. To achieve the exact computation of the block entanglement, we introduce and prove a general result of symplectic analysis: Correlations among K blocks in N -mode multisymmetric and multipartite Gaussian states, which are locally invariant under permutation of modes within each block, can be transformed by a local (with respect to the partition) unitary operation into correlations shared by K single modes, one per block, in effective nonsymmetric states where N-K modes are completely uncorrelated. Due to this theorem, the above results, such as the derivation of the explicit expression for the residual multipartite entanglement, its nonnegativity, and its scaling properties, extend to the subclass of non-symmetric Gaussian states that are obtained by the unitary localization of the multipartite entanglement of symmetric states. These findings provide strong

  18. Spectral Theory of Chemical Bonding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Langhoff, P. W; Boatz, J. A; Hinde, R. J; Sheehy, J. A

    2004-01-01

    .... Wave function antisymmetry in the aggregate atomic spectral-product basis is enforced by unitary transformation performed subsequent to formation of the Hamiltonian matrix, greatly simplifying its construction...

  19. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Chemical peels Overview Chemical peels: Overview Also called chemexfoliation , derma peeling Do ... Overview Chemical peels: FAQs Chemical peels: Preparation FAQs Chemical peels: FAQs To help you decide whether this ...

  20. A Unitary and Renormalizable Theory of the Standard Model in Ghost-Free Light-Cone Gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2002-02-15

    Light-front (LF) quantization in light-cone (LC) gauge is used to construct a unitary and simultaneously renormalizable theory of the Standard Model. The framework derived earlier for QCD is extended to the Glashow, Weinberg, and Salam (GWS) model of electroweak interaction theory. The Lorentz condition is automatically satisfied in LF-quantized QCD in the LC gauge for the free massless gauge field. In the GWS model, with the spontaneous symmetry breaking present, we find that the 't Hooft condition accompanies the LC gauge condition corresponding to the massive vector boson. The two transverse polarization vectors for the massive vector boson may be chosen to be the same as found in QCD. The non-transverse and linearly independent third polarization vector is found to be parallel to the gauge direction. The corresponding sum over polarizations in the Standard model, indicated by K{sub {mu}{nu}}(k); has several simplifying properties similar to the polarization sum D{sub {mu}{nu}}(k) in QCD. The framework is ghost-free, and the interaction Hamiltonian of electroweak theory can be expressed in a form resembling that of covariant theory, except for few additional instantaneous interactions which can be treated systematically. The LF formulation also provides a transparent discussion of the Goldstone Boson (or Electroweak) Equivalence Theorem, as the illustrations show.

  1. Unitary Dynamics of Strongly Interacting Bose Gases with the Time-Dependent Variational Monte Carlo Method in Continuous Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleo, Giuseppe; Cevolani, Lorenzo; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent; Holzmann, Markus

    2017-07-01

    We introduce the time-dependent variational Monte Carlo method for continuous-space Bose gases. Our approach is based on the systematic expansion of the many-body wave function in terms of multibody correlations and is essentially exact up to adaptive truncation. The method is benchmarked by comparison to an exact Bethe ansatz or existing numerical results for the integrable Lieb-Liniger model. We first show that the many-body wave function achieves high precision for ground-state properties, including energy and first-order as well as second-order correlation functions. Then, we study the out-of-equilibrium, unitary dynamics induced by a quantum quench in the interaction strength. Our time-dependent variational Monte Carlo results are benchmarked by comparison to exact Bethe ansatz results available for a small number of particles, and are also compared to quench action results available for noninteracting initial states. Moreover, our approach allows us to study large particle numbers and general quench protocols, previously inaccessible beyond the mean-field level. Our results suggest that it is possible to find correlated initial states for which the long-term dynamics of local density fluctuations is close to the predictions of a simple Boltzmann ensemble.

  2. An analytical study of the improved nonlinear tolerance of DFT-spread OFDM and its unitary-spread OFDM generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulkind, Gal; Nazarathy, Moshe

    2012-11-05

    DFT-spread (DFT-S) coherent optical OFDM was numerically and experimentally shown to provide improved nonlinear tolerance over an optically amplified dispersion uncompensated fiber link, relative to both conventional coherent OFDM and single-carrier transmission. Here we provide an analytic model rigorously accounting for this numerical result and precisely predicting the optimal bandwidth per DFT-S sub-band (or equivalently the optimal number of sub-bands per optical channel) required in order to maximize the link non-linear tolerance (NLT). The NLT advantage of DFT-S OFDM is traced to the particular statistical dependency introduced among the OFDM sub-carriers by means of the DFT spreading operation. We further extend DFT-S to a unitary-spread generalized modulation format which includes as special cases the DFT-S scheme as well as a new format which we refer to as wavelet-spread (WAV-S) OFDM, replacing the spreading DFTs by Hadamard matrices which have elements +/-1 hence are multiplier-free. The extra complexity incurred in the spreading operation is almost negligible, however the performance improvement with WAV-S relative to plain OFDM is more modest than that achieved by DFT-S, which remains the preferred format for nonlinear tolerance improvement, outperforming both plain OFDM and single-carrier schemes.

  3. Shape-driven graphical unitary group approach to the electron correlation problem. Application to the ethylene molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxe, P.; Fox, D.J.; Schaefer, H.F. III; Handy, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    A new method for the approximate solution of Schroedinger's equation for many electron molecular systems is outlined. The new method is based on the unitary group approach (UGA) and exploits in particular the shape of loops appearing in Shavitt's graphical representation for the UGA. The method is cast in the form of a direct CI, makes use of Siegbahn's external space simplifications, and is suitable for very large configuration interaction (CI) wave functions. The ethylene molecule was chosen, as a prototype of unsaturated organic molecules, for the variational study of genuine many (i.e.,>2) body correlation effects. With a double zeta plus polarization basis set, the largest CI included all valence electron single and double excitations with respect to a 703 configuration natural orbital reference function. This variational calculation, involving 1 046 758 spin- and space-adapted 1 A/sub g/ configurations, was carried out on a minicomputer. Triple excitations are found to contribute 2.3% of the correlation energy and quadruple excitations 6.4%

  4. Examining the validity of the unitary theory of clinical relationships: comparison of observed and experienced parent-doctor interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Bridget; Ward, Jo; Forsey, Mary; Gravenhorst, Katja; Salmon, Peter

    2011-10-01

    We explored parent-doctor relationships in the care of children with leukaemia from three perspectives simultaneously: parents', doctors' and observers'. Our aim was to investigate convergence and divergence between these perspectives and thereby examine the validity of unitary theory of emotionality and authority in clinical relationships. 33 audiorecorded parent-doctor consultations and separate interviews with parents and doctors, which we analysed qualitatively and from which we selected three prototype cases. Across the whole sample doctors' sense of relationship generally converged with our observations of consultation, but parents' sense of relationship diverged strongly from each. Contrary to current assumptions, parents' sense of emotional connection with doctors did not depend on doctors' emotional behaviour, and parents did not feel disempowered by doctors' authority. Moreover, authority and emotionality were not conceptually distinct for parents, who gained emotional support from doctors' exercise of authority. The relationships looked very different from the three perspectives. These divergences indicate weaknesses in current ideas of emotionality and authority in clinical relationships and the necessity of multisource datasets to develop these ideas in a way that characterises clinical relationships from all perspectives. Methodological development will be needed to address the challenges posed by multisource datasets. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Coherent states of the real symplectic group in a complex analytic parametrization. I. Unitary-operator coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesne, C.

    1986-01-01

    In the present series of papers, the coherent states of Sp(2d,R), corresponding to the positive discrete series irreducible representations 1 +n/2> encountered in physical applications, are analyzed in detail with special emphasis on those of Sp(4,R) and Sp(6,R). The present paper discusses the unitary-operator coherent states, as defined by Klauder, Perelomov, and Gilmore. These states are parametrized by the points of the coset space Sp(2d,R)/H, where H is the stability group of the Sp(2d,R) irreducible representation lowest weight state, chosen as the reference state, and depends upon the relative values of lambda 1 ,...,lambda/sub d/, subject to the conditions lambda 1 > or =lambda 2 > or = x x x > or =lambda/sub d/> or =0. A parametrization of Sp(2d,R)/H corresponding to a factorization of the latter into a product of coset spaces Sp(2d,R)/U(d) and U(d)/H is chosen. The overlap of two coherent states is calculated, the action of the Sp(2d,R) generators on the coherent states is determined, and the explicit form of the unity resolution relation satisfied by the coherent states in the representation space of the irreducible representation is obtained. The Hilbert space of analytic functions arising from the coherent state representation is studied in detail. Finally, some applications of the formalism developed in the present paper are outlined

  6. Review and Synthesis of Evidence Regarding Environmental Risks Posed by Munitions Constituents (MC) in Aquatic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Reaction (kg/y) Chemical Mass 4.01E-02 kg % of total chem. 5.12E-02 2.92E+00 Exchange (kg/y) Fugacity 1.15E-06 µPa Concentration 6.18E-01 ng/L 1.55E-06...Advection (kg/y) Sediment 1.33E-04 Reaction (kg/y) Chemical Mass 2.92E-03 kg % of total chem. 1.79E-02 1.77E-01 Exchange (kg/y) Fugacity 1.55E-10...public release; distribution is unlimited. The U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) solves the nation’s toughest engineering

  7. Cross Directorate Proposal: Nanostructured Materials for Munitions and Propellants-Production, Modeling, and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-15

    is now well established and the Pierron group has successfully measured the tensile strength of gold nanocluster films produced by wet -chemical means...local annealing . This is in stark contrast to a vapor deposited or sputter coated film in which the depositing material lands on the surface with...enough energy to locally anneal the film into a polycrystalline bulk material. This is a result that requires further investigation and plans are

  8. May a unitary autonomic index help assess autonomic cardiac regulation in elite athletes? Preliminary observations on the national Italian Olympic committee team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Roberto; Malacarne, Mara; Tosi, Fabio; Benzi, Manuela; Solaro, Nadia; Tamorri, Stefano; Spataro, Antonio; Pagani, Massimo; Lucini, Daniela

    2017-12-01

    Long term endurance training, as occurring in elite athletes, is associated to cardiac neural remodeling in favor of cardioprotective vagal mechanisms, resulting in resting bradycardia and augmented contribution of cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity. Autonomic assessment can be performed by way of heart rate variability. This technique however provides multiple indices, and there is not yet complete agreement on their specific significance. Purpose of the study was to assess whether a rank transformation and radar plot could provide a unitary autonomic index, capable to show a correlation between intensity of individual work and quality of autonomic regulation. We studied 711 (23.6±6.2 years) elite athletes that took part in the selection procedure for the 2016 Rio Olympic Games for the National Italian Olympic Committee (CONI). Indices from Heart Rate Variability HRV obtained at rest, during standing up and during recovery from an exercise test were used to compute a percent ranked unitary autonomic index for sport (ANSIs), taken as proxy of quality of autonomic regulation. Within the observed wide range of energy expenditure, the unitary autonomic index ANSIs appears significantly correlated to individual and discipline specific training workloads (r=0.25, P<0.001 and r=0.78, P<0.001, respectively), correcting for possible age and gender bias. ANSIs also positively correlates to lipid profile. Estimated intensity of physical activity correlates with quality of cardiac autonomic regulation, as expressed by a novel unitary index of cardiac autonomic regulation. ANSIs could provide a novel and convenient approach to individual autonomic evaluation in athletes.

  9. Estimating areas threatened by contamination from leaking chemical warfare agents dumped into the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakacki, Jaromir; Przyborska, Anna; Andrzejewski, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 60,000 tons of chemical munitions were dumped into the Baltic Sea after World War II (the exact amount is unknown and some sources estimate it as more than 200,000 tons). Dumped munitions still pose a risk of leakage caused by erosion and corrosion, and it is important to know the danger areas. Because of wide dispersion of the dumped munitions, modelling is only one tool that could provide wide image of physical state of the sea at all locations and which could also be used for analysing contamination during a potential leakage. Obviously, it is possible to take samples at each dumpsite, but modelling also allows to develop possible scenarios of leakages under specific physical conditions. For the purpose of analysis of potential leakage a high-resolution model (HRM) of the contamination will be embedded in the hydrodynamic model (HM) of the Baltic Sea. The HRM will use data from general circulation model results of estimated resolution of nearly 2 km. The Parallel Ocean Program will be implemented as the HM for the whole Baltic Sea. Atmospheric data from regional implementation of the Weather Research and Forecasting System (WRF) have been used as the top boundary conditions of the HM, and sea level data from Gothenburg had been included into model barotropic equation as lateral boundary conditions. Passive tracer will represent the contamination in the HRM and horizontal resolution of the HRM will be close to 50 meters. Passive tracers will also be implemented in the HM - for comparison of the results. For proper representation of potential leakage of chemical warfare agents the HRM will have included diffusion and advection processes. The results from the HM are going to be interpolated into the HRM domain and then integration will be performed. Based on the implemented simulations, estimated contaminated area and its comparison from the HRM as well as from the HM will be presented. The research work was fund by the European Union (European

  10. On the unitary transformation between non-quasifree and quasifree state spaces and its application to quantum field theory on curved spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, Hanno; Hack, Thomas-Paul

    2009-12-01

    Using *-calculus on the dual of the Borchers-Uhlmann algebra endowed with a combinatorial co-product, we develop a method to calculate a unitary transformation relating the GNS representations of a non-quasifree and a quasifree state of the free hermitian scalar field. The motivation for such an analysis and a further result is the fact that a unitary transformation of this kind arises naturally in scattering theory on non-stationary backgrounds. Indeed, employing the perturbation theory of the Yang-Feldman equations with a free CCR field in a quasifree state as an initial condition and making use of extended Feynman graphs, we are able to calculate the Wightman functions of the interacting and outgoing fields in a φ p -theory on arbitrary curved spacetimes. A further examination then reveals two major features of the aforementioned theory: firstly, the interacting Wightman functions fulfil the basic axioms of hermiticity, invariance, spectrality (on stationary spacetimes), perturbative positivity, and locality. Secondly, the outgoing field is free and fulfils the CCR, but is in general not in a quasifree state in the case of a non-stationary spacetime. In order to obtain a sensible particle picture for the outgoing field and, hence, a description of the scattering process in terms of particles (in asymptotically flat spacetimes), it is thus necessary to compute a unitary transformation of the abovementioned type. (orig.)

  11. On the unitary transformation between non-quasifree and quasifree state spaces and its application to quantum field theory on curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, Hanno [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Mathematik; Hack, Thomas-Paul [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2009-12-15

    Using *-calculus on the dual of the Borchers-Uhlmann algebra endowed with a combinatorial co-product, we develop a method to calculate a unitary transformation relating the GNS representations of a non-quasifree and a quasifree state of the free hermitian scalar field. The motivation for such an analysis and a further result is the fact that a unitary transformation of this kind arises naturally in scattering theory on non-stationary backgrounds. Indeed, employing the perturbation theory of the Yang-Feldman equations with a free CCR field in a quasifree state as an initial condition and making use of extended Feynman graphs, we are able to calculate the Wightman functions of the interacting and outgoing fields in a {phi}{sup p}-theory on arbitrary curved spacetimes. A further examination then reveals two major features of the aforementioned theory: firstly, the interacting Wightman functions fulfil the basic axioms of hermiticity, invariance, spectrality (on stationary spacetimes), perturbative positivity, and locality. Secondly, the outgoing field is free and fulfils the CCR, but is in general not in a quasifree state in the case of a non-stationary spacetime. In order to obtain a sensible particle picture for the outgoing field and, hence, a description of the scattering process in terms of particles (in asymptotically flat spacetimes), it is thus necessary to compute a unitary transformation of the abovementioned type. (orig.)

  12. Minimal unitary representation of D(2,1;λ) and its SU(2) deformations and d=1, N=4 superconformal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, Karan; Gunaydin, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Quantization of the geometric quasiconformal realizations of noncompact groups and supergroups leads directly to their minimal unitary representations (minreps). Using quasiconformal methods massless unitary supermultiplets of superconformal groups SU(2,2|N) and OSp(8 ⁎ |2n) in four and six dimensions were constructed as minreps and their U(1) and SU(2) deformations, respectively. In this paper we extend these results to SU(2) deformations of the minrep of N=4 superconformal algebra D(2,1;λ) in one dimension. We find that SU(2) deformations can be achieved using n pair of bosons and m pairs of fermions simultaneously. The generators of deformed minimal representations of D(2,1;λ) commute with the generators of a dual superalgebra OSp(2n ⁎ |2m) realized in terms of these bosons and fermions. We show that there exists a precise mapping between symmetry generators of N=4 superconformal models in harmonic superspace studied recently and minimal unitary supermultiplets of D(2,1;λ) deformed by a pair of bosons. This can be understood as a particular case of a general mapping between the spectra of quantum mechanical quaternionic Kähler sigma models with eight super symmetries and minreps of their isometry groups that descends from the precise mapping established between the 4d, N=2 sigma models coupled to supergravity and minreps of their isometry groups.

  13. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crean, Daniel E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Livens, Francis R.; Sajih, Mustafa [Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Batch leaching was examined to remediate soils contaminated with munitions depleted uranium. • Site specific maximum extraction was 42–50% total U in single batch with NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}. • Analysis of residues revealed partial leaching and secondary carbonate phases. • Sequential batch leaching alternating between NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} and citric acid was designed. • Site specific extraction was increased to 68–87% total U in three batch steps. -- Abstract: Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42–50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30–42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13–19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68–87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents.

  14. Insensitive Munitions (Les Munitions a Risque Attenue)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    82176talonnage des tests d’IAD, qui ont U6 calibr~s iium~riquement et exp&imentalement k laide de jauges pi~zo-r~sistives. La figure 1 donne ces courbes d...tests siont instrumnentks avec des jauges de sitions B 2214 et B 3017, malgr6 Vaecroissement ,ýurpression "irienne. des came6ras rapides (500 1 30

  15. Loop-driven graphical unitary group approach to the electron correlation problem, including configuration interaction energy gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.R.

    1979-09-01

    The Graphical Unitary Group Approach (GUGA) was cast into an extraordinarily powerful form by restructuring the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. This restructuring allows the adoption of the loop-driven formulation which illuminates vast numbers of previously unappreciated relationships between otherwise distinct Hamiltonian matrix elements. The theoretical/methodological contributions made here include the development of the loop-driven formula generation algorithm, a solution of the upper walk problem used to develop a loop breakdown algorithm, the restriction of configuration space employed to the multireference interacting space, and the restructuring of the Hamiltonian in terms of loop types. Several other developments are presented and discussed. Among these developments are the use of new segment coefficients, improvements in the loop-driven algorithm, implicit generation of loops wholly within the external space adapted within the framework of the loop-driven methodology, and comparisons of the diagonalization tape method to the direct method. It is also shown how it is possible to implement the GUGA method without the time-consuming full (m 5 ) four-index transformation. A particularly promising new direction presented here involves the use of the GUGA methodology to obtain one-electron and two-electron density matrices. Once these are known, analytical gradients (first derivatives) of the CI potential energy are easily obtained. Several test calculations are examined in detail to illustrate the unique features of the method. Also included is a calculation on the asymmetric 2 1 A' state of SO 2 with 23,613 configurations to demonstrate methods for the diagonalization of very large matrices on a minicomputer. 6 figures, 6 tables

  16. Icezones instead of firewalls: extended entanglement beyond the event horizon and unitary evaporation of a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, John; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2016-01-01

    We examine the basic assumptions in the original setup of the firewall paradox. The main claim is that a single mode of the lathe radiation is maximally entangled with the mode inside the horizon and simultaneously with the modes of early Hawking radiation. We argue that this situation never happens during the evolution of a black hole. Quantum mechanics tells us that while the black hole exists, unitary evolution maximally entangles a late mode located just outside the horizon with a combination of early radiation and black hole states, instead of either of them separately. One of the reasons for this is that the black hole radiation is not random and strongly depends on the geometry and charge of the black hole, as detailed numerical calculations of Hawking evaporation clearly show. As a consequence, one can not factor out the state of the black hole. However, this extended entanglement between the black hole and modes of early and late radiation indicates that, as the black hole ages, the local Rindler horizon is modified out to macroscopic distances from the black hole. Fundamentally non-local physics nor firewalls are not necessary to explain this result. We propose an infrared mechanism called icezone that is mediated by low energy interacting modes and acts near any event horizon to entangle states separated by long distances. These interactions at first provide small corrections to the thermal Hawking radiation. At the end of evaporation however the effect of interactions is as large as the Hawking radiation and information is recovered for an outside observer. We verify this in an explicit construction and calculation of the density matrix of a spin model. (paper)

  17. Icezones instead of firewalls: extended entanglement beyond the event horizon and unitary evaporation of a black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2016-07-01

    We examine the basic assumptions in the original setup of the firewall paradox. The main claim is that a single mode of the lathe radiation is maximally entangled with the mode inside the horizon and simultaneously with the modes of early Hawking radiation. We argue that this situation never happens during the evolution of a black hole. Quantum mechanics tells us that while the black hole exists, unitary evolution maximally entangles a late mode located just outside the horizon with a combination of early radiation and black hole states, instead of either of them separately. One of the reasons for this is that the black hole radiation is not random and strongly depends on the geometry and charge of the black hole, as detailed numerical calculations of Hawking evaporation clearly show. As a consequence, one can not factor out the state of the black hole. However, this extended entanglement between the black hole and modes of early and late radiation indicates that, as the black hole ages, the local Rindler horizon is modified out to macroscopic distances from the black hole. Fundamentally non-local physics nor firewalls are not necessary to explain this result. We propose an infrared mechanism called icezone that is mediated by low energy interacting modes and acts near any event horizon to entangle states separated by long distances. These interactions at first provide small corrections to the thermal Hawking radiation. At the end of evaporation however the effect of interactions is as large as the Hawking radiation and information is recovered for an outside observer. We verify this in an explicit construction and calculation of the density matrix of a spin model.

  18. Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a hazardous chemical has been released, it may harm people's health. Chemical releases can be unintentional, as in the case of an ... the case of a terrorist attack with a chemical weapon. Some hazardous chemicals have been developed by ...

  19. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems. Initial assessment of plant DNA mutation spectra as a biomarker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, F.; Cataldo, D.A.; Fellows, R.J.; Jarrell, A.E.; Harvey, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    Munitions material can enter the environment as a result of manufacturing activities and field usage. Predictor methodologies, or biomarkers would enhance evaluation of environmental impacts. The goal of this exploratory study deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mutation frequency as a biomarker for munitions exposure. The approach e resolution of an effective repetitive sequence probe for the identification of characteristic mutations, and (2) the development of a testing media [a clonal cell line of carrot (Daucus carota) spension cells]. Commercially available probes demonstrated marginal resolution therefore a low-C{sub o}t library was then constructed. Three colonies from the low-C{sub o}t DNA library were screened and the DNA isolates sequenced. A suspension culture of carrot (Daucus carota) was developed. A mutation spectra experiment was initiated at a 10-mg TNT/L exposure concentration with the attempt to clone over 1500 single TNT-exposed cells. Over the following six months greater than 98% of the initially isolated cells were unable to survive and produce micro calluses. The remaining calli were too few to be statistically significant and the experiment was terminated. The biomarker concept itself remains to be disproved, but the need for large numbers of uniform clones to differentiate true mutations suggest that more direct techniques using whole tissues need to be developed.

  20. Advanced MicroObserver UGS integration with and cueing of the BattleHawk squad level loitering munition and UAV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steadman, Bob; Finklea, John; Kershaw, James; Loughman, Cathy; Shaffner, Patti; Frost, Dean; Deller, Sean

    2014-06-01

    Textron's Advanced MicroObserver(R) is a next generation remote unattended ground sensor system (UGS) for border security, infrastructure protection, and small combat unit security. The original MicroObserver(R) is a sophisticated seismic sensor system with multi-node fusion that supports target tracking. This system has been deployed in combat theaters. The system's seismic sensor nodes are uniquely able to be completely buried (including antennas) for optimal covertness. The advanced version adds a wireless day/night Electro-Optic Infrared (EOIR) system, cued by seismic tracking, with sophisticated target discrimination and automatic frame capture features. Also new is a field deployable Gateway configurable with a variety of radio systems and flexible networking, an important upgrade that enabled the research described herein. BattleHawkTM is a small tube launched Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) with a warhead. Using transmitted video from its EOIR subsystem an operator can search for and acquire a target day or night, select a target for attack, and execute terminal dive to destroy the target. It is designed as a lightweight squad level asset carried by an individual infantryman. Although BattleHawk has the best loiter time in its class, it's still relatively short compared to large UAVs. Also it's a one-shot asset in its munition configuration. Therefore Textron Defense Systems conducted research, funded internally, to determine if there was military utility in having the highly persistent MicroObserver(R) system cue BattleHawk's launch and vector it to beyond visual range targets for engagement. This paper describes that research; the system configuration implemented, and the results of field testing that was performed on a government range early in 2013. On the integrated system that was implemented, MicroObserver(R) seismic detections activated that system's camera which then automatically captured images of the target. The geo-referenced and time-tagged Micro

  1. Pairing-gap, pseudogap, and no-gap phases in the radio-frequency spectra of a trapped unitary 6Li gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pieri, P.; Perali, A.; Strinati, G. C.; Riedl, S.; Altmeyer, A.; Grimm, R.; Wright, M. J.; Kohstall, C.; Sanchez Guajardo, E. R.; Hecker Denschlag, J.

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency spectra of a trapped unitary 6 Li gas are reported and analyzed in terms of a theoretical approach that includes both final-state and trap effects. The different strength of the final-state interaction across the trap is crucial for evidencing two main peaks associated with two distinct phases residing in different trap regions. These are the pairing-gap and pseudo-gap phases below the critical temperature T c , which evolve into the pseudo-gap and no-gap phases above T c . In this way, a long standing puzzle about the interpretation of rf spectra for 6 Li in a trap is solved.

  2. On unitary representations of the exceptional non-linear N=7 and N=8 superconformal algebras in terms of free fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketov, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    The simplest free-field realizations of the exceptional non-linear (quadratically generated, or W-type) N=8 and N=7 superconformal algebras with Spin(7) and G 2 affine currents, respectively, are investigated. Both the N=8 and N=7 algebras are found to admit unitary and highest-weight irreducible representations in terms of a single free boson and free fermions in 8 of Spin(7) or 7 of G 2 , respectively, at level k=1 and the corresponding central charges c 8 =26/5 and c 7 =5. (orig.)

  3. PRINCIPLES OF HYDROGEOMORPHOLOGY AS A BASIC PRECONDITION FOR SOLUTION OF TERRITORIAL STRUCTURE OF UNITARY SYSTEM OF AGRICULTURAL, FOREST AND WATER MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K KUDRNA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the presented work, the laws of hydrogeomorfhology have been defi ned on the principle of symmetry and invariance, which are to be respected at solution of territorial structure of Unitary System of Agricultural, Forest and Water Management (USAFWM. The principle of the solution is a dominant position of the geomorphologic formation Gh of a given sea-level altitude in the analyzed part of territory, which determines control and regulation of all components of water balance. The newly formed territory unit, delimited around the geomorphologic formation by water streams, was called a hydrogeomorphologic region of the third order (HGR-3.

  4. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Sajih, Mustafa; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

    2013-12-15

    Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42-50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30-42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13-19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68-87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of separability and entanglement in (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional systems by single-qubit and single-qutrit unitary transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the geometric characterization of pure state bipartite entanglement of (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional composite quantum systems. To this aim, we analyze the relationship between states and their images under the action of particular classes of local unitary operations. We find that invariance of states under the action of single-qubit and single-qutrit transformations is a necessary and sufficient condition for separability. We demonstrate that in the (2xD)-dimensional case the von Neumann entropy of entanglement is a monotonic function of the minimum squared Euclidean distance between states and their images over the set of single qubit unitary transformations. Moreover, both in the (2xD)- and in the (3xD)-dimensional cases the minimum squared Euclidean distance exactly coincides with the linear entropy [and thus as well with the tangle measure of entanglement in the (2xD)-dimensional case]. These results provide a geometric characterization of entanglement measures originally established in informational frameworks. Consequences and applications of the formalism to quantum critical phenomena in spin systems are discussed

  6. Stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) and local unitary operations (LU) classifications of n qubits via ranks and singular values of the spin-flipping matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dafa

    2018-06-01

    We construct ℓ -spin-flipping matrices from the coefficient matrices of pure states of n qubits and show that the ℓ -spin-flipping matrices are congruent and unitary congruent whenever two pure states of n qubits are SLOCC and LU equivalent, respectively. The congruence implies the invariance of ranks of the ℓ -spin-flipping matrices under SLOCC and then permits a reduction of SLOCC classification of n qubits to calculation of ranks of the ℓ -spin-flipping matrices. The unitary congruence implies the invariance of singular values of the ℓ -spin-flipping matrices under LU and then permits a reduction of LU classification of n qubits to calculation of singular values of the ℓ -spin-flipping matrices. Furthermore, we show that the invariance of singular values of the ℓ -spin-flipping matrices Ω 1^{(n)} implies the invariance of the concurrence for even n qubits and the invariance of the n-tangle for odd n qubits. Thus, the concurrence and the n-tangle can be used for LU classification and computing the concurrence and the n-tangle only performs additions and multiplications of coefficients of states.

  7. Flow characteristics analysis of purge gas in unitary pebble beds by CFD simulation coupled with DEM geometry model for fusion blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Youhua [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Chen, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Liu, Songlin, E-mail: slliu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Luo, Guangnan [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A unitary pebble bed was built to analyze the flow characteristics of purge gas based on DEM-CFD method. • Flow characteristics between particles were clearly displayed. • Porosity distribution, velocity field distribution, pressure field distribution, pressure drop and the wall effects on velocity distribution were studied. - Abstract: Helium is used as the purge gas to sweep tritium out when it flows through the lithium ceramic and beryllium pebble beds in solid breeder blanket for fusion reactor. The flow characteristics of the purge gas will dominate the tritium sweep capability and tritium recovery system design. In this paper, a computational model for the unitary pebble bed was conducted using DEM-CFD method to study the purge gas flow characteristics in the bed, which include porosity distribution between pebbles, velocity field distribution, pressure field distribution, pressure drop as well as the wall effects on velocity distribution. Pebble bed porosity and velocity distribution with great fluctuations were found in the near-wall region and detailed flow characteristics between pebbles were displayed clearly. The results show that the numerical simulation model has an error with about 11% for estimating pressure drop when compared with the Ergun equation.

  8. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, paranoid personality disorder diagnosis: a unitary or a two-dimensional construct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkum, Erik; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2009-01-01

    This article examines reliability and validity aspects of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) paranoid personality disorder (PPD) diagnosis. Patients with personality disorders (n = 930) from the Norwegian network of psychotherapeutic day hospitals, of which 114 had PPD, were included in the study. Frequency distribution, chi(2), correlations, reliability statistics, exploratory, and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. The distribution of PPD criteria revealed no distinct boundary between patients with and without PPD. Diagnostic category membership was obtained in 37 of 64 theoretically possible ways. The PPD criteria formed a separate factor in a principal component analysis, whereas a confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the DSM-IV PPD construct consists of 2 separate dimensions as follows: suspiciousness and hostility. The reliability of the unitary PPD scale was only 0.70, probably partly due to the apparent 2-dimensionality of the construct. Persistent unwarranted doubts about the loyalty of friends had the highest diagnostic efficiency, whereas unwarranted accusations of infidelity of partner had particularly poor indicator properties. The reliability and validity of the unitary PPD construct may be questioned. The 2-dimensional PPD model should be further explored.

  9. Contribution to the study of non-lethal whole-body gamma irradiation effects on the unitary activities of the dorsal hippocampus in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassant, M.-H.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal whole-body gamma irradiation on the spontaneous activity of the dorsal hippocampus pyramidal cells were studied in rabbits. First of all the unitary activity of the CA 1 and CA 4 pyramidal cells was recorded extracellularly in the reference animal. The results were analyzed by a statistical method. By classifying the various cell functioning modes observed, and measuring the frequency with which they appear as a function of the state of vigilance, an attempt was made to characterize precisely the spontaneous activity of the hippocampal neurons. Recording were then made under identical experimental conditions on animals totally irradiated to mean absorbed doses of 250 and 450 rads (delivered at a constant rate of 14 rads/mn). The electroencephalographic activity of the hippocampus shows many anomalies (slow waves, wave-points, theta rythm deformation) as a function of which several pathological states were distinguished and used to classify the data, then processed by the methods already used for the reference data. The results obtained prove that the statistical characteristics of the unitary activity are changed by irradiation [fr

  10. From nuclides to nerve gas: The development of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Exercise Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gant, K.S.; Adler, M.V.

    1991-01-01

    The Army and the Federal Emergency Management Agency established the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), to improve emergency preparedness around each location storing the nation's aging stockpile of unitary chemical weapons. The CSEPP requires that a series of exercises be conducted at each location on a regular schedule. The CSEPP exercise program drew upon the existing Army and civilian exercises. Merging the exercise traditions of both the communities and installations into a joint exercise program acceptable to both sides and the particular nature of the hazard required a number of adjustments in the usual approaches. 14 refs., 1 fig

  11. Evaluation of the metabolic fate of munitions material (TNT & RDX) in plant systems and initial assessment of material interaction with plant genetic material (DNA). Initial assessment of plant DNA adducts as biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, S.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    Genetic damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has long been suspected of being a fundamental event leading to cancer. A variety of causal factors can result in DNA damage including photodimerization of base pairs, ionizing radiation, specific reaction of DNA with environmental pollutants, and nonspecific oxidative damage caused by the action of highly reactive oxidizing agents produced by metabolism. Because organisms depend on an unadulterated DNA template for reproduction, DNA repair mechanisms are an important defense for maintaining genomic integrity. The objective of this exploratory project was to evaluate the potential for TNT to form DNA adducts in plants. These adducts, if they exist in sufficient quantities, could be potential biomarkers of munitions exposure. The ultimate goal is to develop a simple analytical assay for the determination of blomarkers that is indicative of munitions contamination. DNA repair exists in dynamic equilibrium with DNA damage. Repair mechanisms are capable of keeping DNA damage at remarkably low concentrations provided that the repair capacity is not overwhelmed.

  12. 2009 Munitions Executive Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-05

    ACTIVITIES Brazil: 30 - UH-60L, Blackhawk Colombia : 15 - UH-60L, Blackhawks 360 - Assorted small arms (Numerous Cases) 214 - NVDs Chile: Avenger M109A5...187.3M ISRAEL $59.3M JAPAN $35.9M UNITED ARAB EMIRATES $27.0M IRAQ $136.8M NETHERLANDS $19.5M COLOMBIA $25.3M AFGHANISTAN $593.5M Top Ten...New Systems Fielding New Non-Developmental Capabilities Modernizing Production Ammunition Protect Force (Non-lethal Non-Ammo) VLAD TASER Shoulder

  13. 2011 Munitions Executive Summit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    Industrial Base • Global Competitiveness of NTIB • OSD Efficiency and Cost Reduction Initiatives • AMC Quality of Work Environment Initiative ( QWE ...USG – Industry Partnering • Industry / GOCO QWE efforts • Procurement & Contracting Timelines • IBAT / Minimum Sustaining Rates • ICAP is the

  14. Orbitally invariant internally contracted multireference unitary coupled cluster theory and its perturbative approximation: theory and test calculations of second order approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Hoffmann, Mark R

    2012-07-07

    A unitary wave operator, exp (G), G(+) = -G, is considered to transform a multiconfigurational reference wave function Φ to the potentially exact, within basis set limit, wave function Ψ = exp (G)Φ. To obtain a useful approximation, the Hausdorff expansion of the similarity transformed effective Hamiltonian, exp (-G)Hexp (G), is truncated at second order and the excitation manifold is limited; an additional separate perturbation approximation can also be made. In the perturbation approximation, which we refer to as multireference unitary second-order perturbation theory (MRUPT2), the Hamiltonian operator in the highest order commutator is approximated by a Mo̸ller-Plesset-type one-body zero-order Hamiltonian. If a complete active space self-consistent field wave function is used as reference, then the energy is invariant under orbital rotations within the inactive, active, and virtual orbital subspaces for both the second-order unitary coupled cluster method and its perturbative approximation. Furthermore, the redundancies of the excitation operators are addressed in a novel way, which is potentially more efficient compared to the usual full diagonalization of the metric of the excited configurations. Despite the loss of rigorous size-extensivity possibly due to the use of a variational approach rather than a projective one in the solution of the amplitudes, test calculations show that the size-extensivity errors are very small. Compared to other internally contracted multireference perturbation theories, MRUPT2 only needs reduced density matrices up to three-body even with a non-complete active space reference wave function when two-body excitations within the active orbital subspace are involved in the wave operator, exp (G). Both the coupled cluster and perturbation theory variants are amenable to large, incomplete model spaces. Applications to some widely studied model systems that can be problematic because of geometry dependent quasidegeneracy, H4, P4

  15. Release mitigation spray safety systems for chemical demilitarization applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Jonathan; Tezak, Matthew Stephen; Brockmann, John E.; Servantes, Brandon; Sanchez, Andres L.; Tucker, Mark David; Allen, Ashley N.; Wilson, Mollye C.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Betty, Rita G.

    2010-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has conducted proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating effective knockdown and neutralization of aerosolized CBW simulants using charged DF-200 decontaminant sprays. DF-200 is an aqueous decontaminant, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, and procured and fielded by the US Military. Of significance is the potential application of this fundamental technology to numerous applications including mitigation and neutralization of releases arising during chemical demilitarization operations. A release mitigation spray safety system will remove airborne contaminants from an accidental release during operations, to protect personnel and limit contamination. Sandia National Laboratories recently (November, 2008) secured funding from the US Army's Program Manager for Non-Stockpile Chemical Materials Agency (PMNSCMA) to investigate use of mitigation spray systems for chemical demilitarization applications. For non-stockpile processes, mitigation spray systems co-located with the current Explosive Destruction System (EDS) will provide security both as an operational protective measure and in the event of an accidental release. Additionally, 'tented' mitigation spray systems for native or foreign remediation and recovery operations will contain accidental releases arising from removal of underground, unstable CBW munitions. A mitigation spray system for highly controlled stockpile operations will provide defense from accidental spills or leaks during routine procedures.

  16. Chemical Peels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products In This Section Dermatologic Surgery What is dermatologic ... for Every Season How to Choose the Best Skin Care Products Chemical Peels Uses for Chemical Peels Learn more ...

  17. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IMTECH),. Chandigarh. Praveen Kumar is pursuing his PhD in chemical dynamics at. Panjab University,. Chandigarh. Keywords. Chemical oscillations, autoca-. talYSis, Lotka-Volterra model, bistability, hysteresis, Briggs-. Rauscher reaction.

  18. Chemical ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasivirta, J.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses risk assessment, chemical cycles, structure-activity relations, organohalogens, oil residues, mercury, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals, and emissions from the forestry industry. Topics include: Cycles of chemicals in the environment. Rick assessment and management, strucuture and toxicity, sampling and analysis of trace chemicals in environment, interpretation of the environmental analysis results, mercury in the environment, organohalogen compounds in the environment, emissions from forestry industry, oil residues in the environment: oil spills in the marine environment

  19. Local unitary transformation method for large-scale two-component relativistic calculations: case for a one-electron Dirac Hamiltonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2012-06-28

    An accurate and efficient scheme for two-component relativistic calculations at the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) level is presented. The present scheme, termed local unitary transformation (LUT), is based on the locality of the relativistic effect. Numerical assessments of the LUT scheme were performed in diatomic molecules such as HX and X(2) (X = F, Cl, Br, I, and At) and hydrogen halide clusters, (HX)(n) (X = F, Cl, Br, and I). Total energies obtained by the LUT method agree well with conventional IODKH results. The computational costs of the LUT method are drastically lower than those of conventional methods since in the former there is linear-scaling with respect to the system size and a small prefactor.

  20. Path-Integral Monte Carlo Determination of the Fourth-Order Virial Coefficient for a Unitary Two-Component Fermi Gas with Zero-Range Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yangqian; Blume, D

    2016-06-10

    The unitary equal-mass Fermi gas with zero-range interactions constitutes a paradigmatic model system that is relevant to atomic, condensed matter, nuclear, particle, and astrophysics. This work determines the fourth-order virial coefficient b_{4} of such a strongly interacting Fermi gas using a customized ab initio path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) algorithm. In contrast to earlier theoretical results, which disagreed on the sign and magnitude of b_{4}, our b_{4} agrees within error bars with the experimentally determined value, thereby resolving an ongoing literature debate. Utilizing a trap regulator, our PIMC approach determines the fourth-order virial coefficient by directly sampling the partition function. An on-the-fly antisymmetrization avoids the Thomas collapse and, combined with the use of the exact two-body zero-range propagator, establishes an efficient general means to treat small Fermi systems with zero-range interactions.

  1. Chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, R. David (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A sensor for detecting a chemical substance includes an insertion element having a structure which enables insertion of the chemical substance with a resulting change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element under conditions sufficient to permit effective insertion; the change in the bulk electrical characteristics of the insertion element is detected as an indication of the presence of the chemical substance.

  2. Mono-Heteromeric Configurations of Gap Junction Channels Formed by Connexin43 and Connexin45 Reduce Unitary Conductance and Determine both Voltage Gating and Metabolic Flux Asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Zhong

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In cardiac tissues, the expression of multiple connexins (Cx40, Cx43, Cx45, and Cx30.2 is a requirement for proper development and function. Gap junctions formed by these connexins have distinct permeability and gating mechanisms. Since a single cell can express more than one connexin isoform, the formation of hetero-multimeric gap junction channels provides a tissue with an enormous repertoire of combinations to modulate intercellular communication. To study further the perm-selectivity and gating properties of channels containing Cx43 and Cx45, we studied two monoheteromeric combinations in which a HeLa cell co-transfected with Cx43 and Cx45 was paired with a cell expressing only one of these connexins. Macroscopic measurements of total conductance between cell pairs indicated a drastic reduction in total conductance for mono-heteromeric channels. In terms of Vj dependent gating, Cx43 homomeric connexons facing heteromeric connexons only responded weakly to voltage negativity. Cx45 homomeric connexons exhibited no change in Vj gating when facing heteromeric connexons. The distributions of unitary conductances (γj for both mono-heteromeric channels were smaller than predicted, and both showed low permeability to the fluorescent dyes Lucifer yellow and Rhodamine123. For both mono-heteromeric channels, we observed flux asymmetry regardless of dye charge: flux was higher in the direction of the heteromeric connexon for MhetCx45 and in the direction of the homomeric Cx43 connexon for MhetCx43. Thus, our data suggest that co-expression of Cx45 and Cx43 induces the formation of heteromeric connexons with greatly reduced permeability and unitary conductance. Furthermore, it increases the asymmetry for voltage gating for opposing connexons, and it favors asymmetric flux of molecules across the junction that depends primarily on the size (not the charge of the crossing molecules.

  3. Mono-Heteromeric Configurations of Gap Junction Channels Formed by Connexin43 and Connexin45 Reduce Unitary Conductance and Determine both Voltage Gating and Metabolic Flux Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guoqiang; Akoum, Nazem; Appadurai, Daniel A.; Hayrapetyan, Volodya; Ahmed, Osman; Martinez, Agustin D.; Beyer, Eric C.; Moreno, Alonso P.

    2017-01-01

    In cardiac tissues, the expression of multiple connexins (Cx40, Cx43, Cx45, and Cx30.2) is a requirement for proper development and function. Gap junctions formed by these connexins have distinct permeability and gating mechanisms. Since a single cell can express more than one connexin isoform, the formation of hetero-multimeric gap junction channels provides a tissue with an enormous repertoire of combinations to modulate intercellular communication. To study further the perm-selectivity and gating properties of channels containing Cx43 and Cx45, we studied two monoheteromeric combinations in which a HeLa cell co-transfected with Cx43 and Cx45 was paired with a cell expressing only one of these connexins. Macroscopic measurements of total conductance between cell pairs indicated a drastic reduction in total conductance for mono-heteromeric channels. In terms of Vj dependent gating, Cx43 homomeric connexons facing heteromeric connexons only responded weakly to voltage negativity. Cx45 homomeric connexons exhibited no change in Vj gating when facing heteromeric connexons. The distributions of unitary conductances (γj) for both mono-heteromeric channels were smaller than predicted, and both showed low permeability to the fluorescent dyes Lucifer yellow and Rhodamine123. For both mono-heteromeric channels, we observed flux asymmetry regardless of dye charge: flux was higher in the direction of the heteromeric connexon for MhetCx45 and in the direction of the homomeric Cx43 connexon for MhetCx43. Thus, our data suggest that co-expression of Cx45 and Cx43 induces the formation of heteromeric connexons with greatly reduced permeability and unitary conductance. Furthermore, it increases the asymmetry for voltage gating for opposing connexons, and it favors asymmetric flux of molecules across the junction that depends primarily on the size (not the charge) of the crossing molecules. PMID:28611680

  4. Public Health, Law, and Local Control: Destruction of the US Chemical Weapons Stockpile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael R.

    2003-01-01

    Destruction of US chemical weapons has begun at one of the 8 sites in the continental United States, was completed on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean, and is scheduled to begin in at least 3 other locations during the upcoming year. About 25% of the stockpile and 38% of the munitions had been destroyed as of December 31, 2002. However, the program has become controversial with regard to choice of technology, emergency management, and cost. This controversy is in large part due to efforts by some state and local governments and activist groups to play a more central role in a decisionmaking process that was once fully controlled by the US Army. PMID:12893599

  5. [Chemical weapons and chemical terrorism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsumi

    2005-10-01

    Chemical Weapons are kind of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). They were used large quantities in WWI. Historically, large quantities usage like WWI was not recorded, but small usage has appeared now and then. Chemical weapons are so called "Nuclear weapon for poor countrys" because it's very easy to produce/possession being possible. They are categorized (1) Nerve Agents, (2) Blister Agents, (3) Cyanide (blood) Agents, (4) Pulmonary Agents, (5) Incapacitating Agents (6) Tear Agents from the viewpoint of human body interaction. In 1997 the Chemical Weapons Convention has taken effect. It prohibits chemical weapons development/production, and Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) verification regime contributes to the chemical weapons disposal. But possibility of possession/use of weapons of mass destruction by terrorist group represented in one by Matsumoto and Tokyo Subway Sarin Attack, So new chemical terrorism countermeasures are necessary.

  6. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.

  7. Alarms, Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    cited in applicable qualitative materiel requirements, small development requirements, technical characteristics, and other requirements and documentation that pertain to automatic chemical agent alarms.

  8. Chemical oceanography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Millero, F.J

    1996-01-01

    Chemical Oceanography presents a comprehensive examination of the chemistry of oceans through discussions of such topics as descriptive physical oceanography, the composition of seawater and the major...

  9. Chemical Emergencies - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) PDF Chemical Emergencies - English MP3 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) MP3 Chemical Emergencies - English MP4 Chemical Emergencies - bosanski (Bosnian) ...

  10. Hydrogeologic and chemical data for the O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoff, P.R.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    O-Field, located at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, was periodically used for disposal of munitions, waste chemicals, and chemical-warfare agents from World War II through the 1950's. This report includes various physical, geologic, chemical, and hydrologic data obtained from well-core, groundwater, surface water, and bottom-sediment sampling sites at and near the O-Field disposal area. The data are presented in tables and hydrographs. Three site-location maps are also included. Well-core data include lithologic logs for 11 well-cluster sites, grain-size distributions, various chemical characteristics, and confining unit characteristics. Groundwater data include groundwater chemistry, method blanks for volatile organic carbon, available data on volatile and base/neutral organics, and compilation of corresponding method blanks, chemical-warfare agents, explosive-related products, radionuclides, herbicides, and groundwater levels. Surface-water data include field-measured characteristics; concentrations of various inorganic constituents including arsenic; selected organic constituents with method blanks; detection limits of organics; and a compilation of information on corresponding acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles; and method blanks corresponding to acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. A set of 15 water-level hydrographs for the period March 1986 through September 1987 also is included in the report. 3 refs., 18 figs., 24 tabs

  11. Development of a computational model applied to a unitary 144 CM2 proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robalinho, Eric

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the development of a numerical computer model and methodology to study and design polymeric exchange membrane fuel cell - PEM. For the validation of experimental results, a sequence of routines, appropriate to fit the data obtained in the laboratory, was described. At the computational implementation it was created a new strategy of coupling two 3-dimensional models to satisfy the requirements of the comprehensive model of the fuel cell, including its various geometries and materials, as well as the various physical and chemical processes simulated. To effective assessment of the real cell analogy with numerical model, numerical studies were carried out. Comparisons with values obtained in the literature, characterization of variables through laboratory experiments and estimates from models already tested in the literature were also performed. Regarding the experimental part, a prototype of a fuel cell unit of 144 cm 2 of geometric area was designed, produced and operated at laboratory with the purpose of validating the numerical computer model proposed, with positive results. The results of simulations for the 2D and 3D geometries proposed are presented in the form of polarization curves, highlighting the catalytic layer model based on the geometry of agglomerates. Parametric and sensitivity studies are presented to illustrate the change in performance of the fuel cell studied. The final model is robust and useful as a tool for design and optimization of PEM type fuel cells in a wide range of operating conditions. (author)

  12. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  13. Application of the graphical unitary group approach to the energy second derivative for CI wave functions via the coupled perturbed CI equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, D.J.

    1983-10-01

    Analytic derivatives of the potential energy for Self-Consistent-Field (SCF) wave functions have been developed in recent years and found to be useful tools. The first derivative for configuration interaction (CI) wave functions is also available. This work details the extension of analytic methods to energy second derivatives for CI wave functions. The principal extension required for second derivatives is evaluation of the first order change in the CI wave function with respect to a nuclear perturbation. The shape driven graphical unitary group approach (SDGUGA) direct CI program was adapted to evaluate this term via the coupled-perturbed CI equations. Several iterative schemes are compared for use in solving these equations. The pilot program makes no use of molecular symmetry but the timing results show that utilization of molecular symmetry is desirable. The principles for defining and solving a set of symmetry adapted equations are discussed. Evaluation of the second derivative also requires the solution of the second order coupled-perturbed Hartree-Fock equations to obtain the correction to the molecular orbitals due to the nuclear perturbation. This process takes a consistently higher percentage of the computation time than for the first order equations alone and a strategy for its reduction is discussed

  14. The multi-reference retaining the excitation degree perturbation theory: A size-consistent, unitary invariant, and rapidly convergent wavefunction based ab initio approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Reinhold F.

    2009-01-01

    The retaining the excitation degree (RE) partitioning [R.F. Fink, Chem. Phys. Lett. 428 (2006) 461(20 September)] is reformulated and applied to multi-reference cases with complete active space (CAS) reference wave functions. The generalised van Vleck perturbation theory is employed to set up the perturbation equations. It is demonstrated that this leads to a consistent and well defined theory which fulfils all important criteria of a generally applicable ab initio method: The theory is proven numerically and analytically to be size-consistent and invariant with respect to unitary orbital transformations within the inactive, active and virtual orbital spaces. In contrast to most previously proposed multi-reference perturbation theories the necessary condition for a proper perturbation theory to fulfil the zeroth order perturbation equation is exactly satisfied with the RE partitioning itself without additional projectors on configurational spaces. The theory is applied to several excited states of the benchmark systems CH 2 , SiH 2 , and NH 2 , as well as to the lowest states of the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen atoms. In all cases comparisons are made with full configuration interaction results. The multi-reference (MR)-RE method is shown to provide very rapidly converging perturbation series. Energy differences between states of similar configurations converge even faster

  15. Bidirectional quantum teleportation of unknown photons using path-polarization intra-particle hybrid entanglement and controlled-unitary gates via cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jino; Hong, Chang-Ho; Lim, Jong-In; Yang, Hyung-Jin

    2015-05-01

    We propose an arbitrary controlled-unitary (CU) gate and a bidirectional quantum teleportation (BQTP) scheme. The proposed CU gate utilizes photonic qubits (photons) with cross-Kerr nonlinearities (XKNLs), X-homodyne detectors, and linear optical elements, and consists of the consecutive operation of a controlled-path (C-path) gate and a gathering-path (G-path) gate. It is almost deterministic and feasible with current technology when a strong coherent state and weak XKNLs are employed. Based on the CU gate, we present a BQTP scheme that simultaneously teleports two unknown photons between distant users by transmitting only one photon in a path-polarization intra-particle hybrid entangled state. Consequently, it is possible to experimentally implement BQTP with a certain success probability using the proposed CU gate. Project supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT&Future Planning, Korea, under the C-ITRC (Convergence Information Technology Research Center) Support program (NIPA-2013-H0301-13-3007) supervised by the National IT Industry Promotion Agency.

  16. Local unitary transformation method for large-scale two-component relativistic calculations. II. Extension to two-electron Coulomb interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2012-10-14

    The local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme at the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) level [J. Seino and H. Nakai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 244102 (2012)], which is based on the locality of relativistic effects, has been extended to a four-component Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian. In the previous study, the LUT scheme was applied only to a one-particle IODKH Hamiltonian with non-relativistic two-electron Coulomb interaction, termed IODKH/C. The current study extends the LUT scheme to a two-particle IODKH Hamiltonian as well as one-particle one, termed IODKH/IODKH, which has been a real bottleneck in numerical calculation. The LUT scheme with the IODKH/IODKH Hamiltonian was numerically assessed in the diatomic molecules HX and X(2) and hydrogen halide molecules, (HX)(n) (X = F, Cl, Br, and I). The total Hartree-Fock energies calculated by the LUT method agree well with conventional IODKH/IODKH results. The computational cost of the LUT method is reduced drastically compared with that of the conventional method. In addition, the LUT method achieves linear-scaling with respect to the system size and a small prefactor.

  17. Bosonic construction of the Lie algebras of some non-compact groups appearing in supergravity theories and their oscillator-like unitary representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenaydin, M.; Saclioglu, C.

    1981-06-01

    We give a construction of the Lie algebras of the non-compact groups appearing in four dimensional supergravity theories in terms of boson operators. Our construction parallels very closely their emergence in supergravity and is an extension of the well-known construction of the Lie algebras of the non-compact groups Sp(2n,IR) and SO(2n) from boson operators transforming like a fundamental representation of their maximal compact subgroup U(n). However this extension is non-trivial only for n >= 4 and stops at n = 8 leading to the Lie algebras of SU(4) x SU(1,1), SU(5,1), SO(12) and Esub(7(7)). We then give a general construction of an infinite class of unitary irreducible representations of the respective non-compact groups (except for Esub(7(7)) and SO(12) obtained from the extended construction). We illustrate our construction with the examples of SU(5,1) and SO(12). (orig.)

  18. Radiological protection regulation during spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management in the western branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise 'SevRAO'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, A V; Sneve, M K; Abramov, Yu V; Kochetkov, O A; Smith, G M; Tsovianov, A G; Romanov, V V

    2008-12-01

    The site of temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, situated at Andreeva Bay in Northwest Russia, was developed in the 1960s, and it has carried out receipt and storage of fresh and spent nuclear fuel, and solid and liquid radioactive waste generated during the operation of nuclear submarines and nuclear-powered icebreakers. The site is now operated as the western branch of the Federal State Unitary Enterprise, SevRAO. In the course of operation over several decades, the containment barriers in the Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste storage facilities partially lost their containment effectiveness, so workshop facilities and parts of the site became contaminated with radioactive substances. This paper describes work being undertaken to provide an updated regulatory basis for the protection of workers during especially hazardous remediation activities, necessary because of the unusual radiation conditions at the site. It describes the results of recent survey work carried out by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre, within a programme of regulatory cooperation between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia. The survey work and subsequent analyses have contributed to the development of special regulations setting out radiological protection requirements for operations planned at the site. Within these requirements, and taking account of a variety of other factors, a continuing need arises for the implementation of optimisation of remediation at Andreeva Bay.

  19. Switched 4-to-1 Transimpedance Combining Amplifier for Receiver Front-End Circuit of Static Unitary Detector-Based LADAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Gyu Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Laser detection and ranging (LADAR systems are commonly used to acquire real-time three-dimensional (3D images using the time-of-flight of a short laser pulse. A static unitary detector (STUD-based LADAR system is a simple method for obtaining real-time high-resolution 3D images. In this study, a switched 4-to-1 transimpedance combining amplifier (TCA is implemented as a receiver front-end readout integrated circuit for the STUD-based LADAR system. The 4-to-1 TCA is fabricated using a standard 0.18 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology, and it consists of four independent current buffers, a two-stage signal combiner, a balun, and an output buffer in one single integrated chip. In addition, there is a switch on each input current path to expand the region of interest with multiple photodetectors. The core of the TCA occupies an area of 92 μm × 68 μm, and the die size including I/O pads is 1000 μm × 840 μm. The power consumption of the fabricated chip is 17.8 mW for a supplied voltage of 1.8 V and a transimpedance gain of 67.5 dBΩ. The simulated bandwidth is 353 MHz in the presence of a 1 pF photodiode parasitic capacitance for each photosensitive cell.

  20. Unitary gauge calculation of K0/sub L/ → μ+μ- in the Weinberg SU(2)'/sub L/ x U(1) gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olenick, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    The rare weak decay K 0 /sub L/ → μ + μ - is calculated in the unitary gauge of the Weinberg SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) model of weak and electromagnetic interactions. A historical development of gauge theories is presented first; this indicates the need for extension of the hadron symmetry group to SU(4). The GIM mechanism, which extends this group by introducing the charmed quark, is incorporated into Weinberg theory. Explicit calculations of the fourth-order Feynman diagrams representing W + W - , Z 0 , γ, and Higgs scalar intermediate states are performed. Through the technique of dimensional regularization the divergent amplitudes are evaluated, and the calculation is shown to be renormalizable by counterterms generated from the original Lagrangian. The Higgs scalar contribution to the effective Lagrangian is found to be greatly suppressed compared to the W + W - and Z 0 contributions, which are used to estimate the charmed quark mass. Analysis reveals that a charmed quark mass less than or equal to 5 GeV will suppress the decay rate to the experimentally observed value. Concluding remarks are made

  1. Chemical Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your expectations. Talk with your doctor about your motivations and expectations, as well as the potential risks. ... the sun permanently to prevent changes in skin color. Keep in mind that chemical peel results might ...

  2. Chemical carcinogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Searle, Charles E

    1976-01-01

    Cancer causing agents are now known to exist throughout the environment-in polluted air and tobacco smoke, in various plants and foods, and in many chemicals that are used in industry and laboratories...

  3. Development of a Scalable Process Control System for Chemical Soil Washing to Remove Uranyl Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    testing equipment and munitions. These sites include ranges that may have been contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, tungsten, or uranium ...Occurring Radioactive Materials NRC Nuclear Regulatory Commission NU Natural Uranium ORP Oxidation -Reduction Potential RCRA Resource Conservation...munitions. These sites include ranges that may have been contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, tungsten, or uranium . Many types of weapon

  4. Joint Ordnance Test Procedure (JOTP)-010 Safety and Suitability for Service Assessment Testing for Shoulder Launched Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-09

    A. BACKGROUND/RATIONALE. ANNEX 1. ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS. A.1-16 TABLE A-4. HELICOPTER MAIN ROTOR PARAMETERS HELICOPTER MAIN ROTOR ...3.1.2.3.2 A.1-15 C.2-4.1.2 C.2-6 Helicopter Cargo Transportation Vibration A.1-3.1.2.3.3 A.1-15 C.2-4.2 C.2-7 Parachute Delivery A.1-3.1.2.3.4 A.1-16...inspection. This is typified by destructive inspection assessing the chemical ( composition , hazard properties, etc.) and physical (tensile, hardness, etc

  5. Chemical sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  6. The environmental behavior and chemical fate of energetic compounds (TNT, RDX, tetryl) in soil and plant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cataldo, D.A.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    Munitions materials can accumulate or cycle in terrestrial environs at production and manufacturing facilities and thus pose potential heath and environmental concerns. To address questions related to food chain accumulation, the environmental behavior of energetic compounds (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene,TNT; hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, RDX; 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine, tetryl) was evaluated. Emphasis was placed on determining the potential for soil/plant transfer of munitions residues, translocation and distribution within the plant, the extent to which compounds were metabolized following accumulation, and the chemical nature and form of accumulated residues. Both TNT and tetryl undergo extensive chemical transformation in soil, forming aminodinitrotoluene isomers and N-methyl-2,4,6-trinitroaniline residues, respectively, along with a series of unknowns. After 60 days, only 30% of the amended TNT and 8% of the amended tetryl remained unchanged in the soil. In contrast, 78% of the soil-amended RDX remained unchanged after 60 days. After 60 days, plants grown in soils containing 10 ppm residues contained from 5 μg TNT/g to 600 μg RDX/G fresh wt. tissue. TNT and tetryl residues were primarily accumulated in roots (75%), while RDX was concentrated in leaves and seed. The principal transport form for TNT (root to shoot) was an acid labile conjugate of aminodinitrotoluene; RDX was transported unchanged. On accumulation in roots and leaves, highly polar and non-extractable TNT metabolites dominated, with the aminodinitrotoluene isomers accounting for less than 20% of the residues present. Only a few percent were present as the parent TNT. RDX was partitioned similarly to TNT, with 8 to 30% of the RDX appearing as polar metabolites, 20--50% as parent RDX, and the balance as non-extractable residues. Tetryl was metabolized to N-methyl-2,4,6-trinitroaniline and a variety of polar metabolites

  7. Fermionic counting of RSOS states and Virasoro character formulas for the unitary minimal series M(ν,ν+1): Exact results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovich, Alexander

    1994-01-01

    The Hilbert space of an RSOS model, introduced by Andrews, Baxter, and Forrester, can be viewed as a space of sequences (paths) {a 0 ,a 1 ,.s, a L }, with a j -integers restricted by 1≤qslanta j ≤qslantν,vertical stroke a j -a j+1 vertical stroke =1,a 0 ≡s, a L ≡r. In this paper we introduce different basis which, as shown here, has the same dimension as that of an RSOS model. This basis appears naturally in the Bethe ansatz calculations of the spin (ν-1)/2 XXZ model. Following McCoy et al., we call this basis fermionic (FB).Our first theorem Dim(FB)=Dim(RSOS-basis) can be succinctly expressed in terms of some identities for binomial coefficients. Remarkably, these binomial identities can be q-deformed. Here, we give a simple proof of these q-binomial identities in the spirit of Schur's proof of the Rogers-Ramanujan identities. Notably, the proof involves only the elementary recurrences for the q-binomial coefficients and a few creative observations.Finally, taking the limit L→∞ in these q-identities, we derive an expression for the character formulas of the unitary minimal series M(ν,ν+1) ''Bosonic Sum ≡ Fermionic Sum''. Here, Bosonic Sum denotes Rocha-Caridi representation (χ r,s=1 ν,ν+1 (q)) and Fermionic Sum stands for the companion representation recently conjectured by the McCoy group. ((orig.))

  8. Chemical pneumonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cleaning materials such as chlorine bleach, during industrial accidents, or near swimming pools) Grain and fertilizer dust ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Chemical Emergencies ... about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  9. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  10. Chemical radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, G.

    1979-01-01

    A reivew of the problems and progress in the field of chemical radioprotection is given. After defining the field of research, the practical significance of radioprotective substances and the requirements for a utilizable radioprotective preparation are presented. Trends of development of this field of research, the state of the art, and resulting conclusions for the future development of radioprotective substances of practical value are discussed. (author)

  11. Unitary Representations of Gauge Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerfano, Ruth Stella

    I generalize to the case of gauge groups over non-trivial principal bundles representations that I. M. Gelfand, M. I. Graev and A. M. Versik constructed for current groups. The gauge group of the principal G-bundle P over M, (G a Lie group with an euclidean structure, M a compact, connected and oriented manifold), as the smooth sections of the associated group bundle is presented and studied in chapter I. Chapter II describes the symmetric algebra associated to a Hilbert space, its Hilbert structure, a convenient exponential and a total set that later play a key role in the construction of the representation. Chapter III is concerned with the calculus needed to make the space of Lie algebra valued 1-forms a Gaussian L^2-space. This is accomplished by studying general projective systems of finitely measurable spaces and the corresponding systems of sigma -additive measures, all of these leading to the description of a promeasure, a concept modeled after Bourbaki and classical measure theory. In the case of a locally convex vector space E, the corresponding Fourier transform, family of characters and the existence of a promeasure for every quadratic form on E^' are established, so the Gaussian L^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space is constructed. Chapter III finishes by exhibiting the explicit Hilbert space isomorphism between the Gaussian L ^2-space associated to a real Hilbert space and the complexification of its symmetric algebra. In chapter IV taking as a Hilbert space H the L^2-space of the Lie algebra valued 1-forms on P, the gauge group acts on the motion group of H defining in an straight forward fashion the representation desired.

  12. Unitary four-body model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, A.C.; Shanley, P.E.

    1976-01-01

    A field-theoretic model describing nonrelativistic four-body scattering processes is developed. The model is related to Bronzan's extended Lee model, but the allowed interactions are restricted so that the resulting dynamical equations are as simple as possible, yet still exact. Two elementary particles n and a are introduced with the couplings n + n in equilibrium D and a + a in equilibrium. Three-particle processes are generated by the additional coupling D + a in equilibrium α, leading to the possible three-body reactions D + a → D + a and D + a → n + n + a. The four-body sector then involves the 2 → 2 reactions aα → aα and aα → CD, the 2 → 3 reactions aα → Daa and aα → Cnn, and the 2 → 4 reaction aα → nnaa. Off-shell integral equations are obtained for the 2 → 2 amplitudes, and from these, expressions for the 2 → 3 and 2 → 4 amplitudes are constructed. Possible applications and generalizations of the model are discussed

  13. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  14. Chemical cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, Jan CA

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp

  15. CAMEO Chemicals Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAMEO Chemicals is an extensive chemical database, available for download, with critical response information for thousands of chemicals, and a tool that tells you what reactions might occur if chemicals were mixed together.

  16. CHEMICAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin

    1965-06-01

    How did life come to be on the surface of the earth? Darwin himself recognized that his basic idea of evolution by variation and natural selection must be a continuous process extending backward in time through that period in which the first living things arose and into the period of 'Chemical Evolution' which preceded it. We are approaching the examination of these events by two routes. One is to seek for evidence in the ancient rocks of the earth which were laid down prior to that time in which organisms capable of leaving their skeletons in the rocks to be fossilized were in existence. This period is sometime prior to approximately 600 million years ago. The earth is believed to have taken its present form approximately 4700 million years ago. We have found in rocks whose age is about 1000 million years certain organic molecules which are closely related to the green pigment of plants, chlorophyll. This seems to establish that green plants were already fluorishing prior to that time. We have now found in rocks of still greater age, namely, 2500 million years, the same kinds of molecules mentioned above which can be attributed to the presence of living organisms. If these molecules are as old as the rocks, we have thus shortened the time available for the generation of the complex biosynthetic sequences which give rise to these specific hydrocarbons (polyisoprenoids) to less than 2000 million years.

  17. Survey of Munitions Response Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    item. EMI detectors are operated in either time domain (TD) or frequency domain (FD). A common example of a hand-held EMI sensor is the 3-1 metal ...held Digital Emerging Fisher 1266-X Metal Detector Hand-held Analog Established Foerster MINEX 2FD 4.500 Hand-held Analog Established Minelab...ferrous and nonferrous metallic objects. • Effective in detecting near-surface objects. • Can be effective in geology that challenges magnetometers

  18. Determination of mustard and lewisite related compounds in abandoned chemical weapons (Yellow shells) from sources in China and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanaoka, Shigeyuki; Nomura, Koji; Wada, Takeharu

    2006-01-06

    Knowledge of the states of the contents in chemical munitions that Japanese Imperial Forces abandoned at the end of World War II in Japan and China is gravely lacking. To unearth and recover these chemical weapons and detoxify the contents safely, it is essential to establish analytical procedures to definitely determine the CWA contents. We established such a procedure and applied it to the analysis of chemicals in the abandoned shells. Yellow shells are known to contain sulfur mustard, lewisite, or a mixture of both. Lewisite was analyzed without thiol derivatization, because it and its decomposition products yield the same substances in the derivatization. Analysis using our new procedure showed that both mustard and lewisite remained as the major components after the long abandonment of nearly 60 years. The content of mustard was 43% and that of lewisite 55%. The viscous material found was suggested to be mostly oligomers of mustard. Comparison of the components in the Yellow agents with mustard recovered in both Japan and China showed a difference in the impurities between the CWAs produced by the former Imperial navy and those by the former Imperial army.

  19. Solid phase microextraction headspace sampling of chemical warfare agent contaminated samples : method development for GC-MS analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson Lepage, C.R.; Hancock, J.R. [Defence Research and Development Canada, Medicine Hat, AB (Canada); Wyatt, H.D.M. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Defence R and D Canada-Suffield (DRDC-Suffield) is responsible for analyzing samples that are suspected to contain chemical warfare agents, either collected by the Canadian Forces or by first-responders in the event of a terrorist attack in Canada. The analytical techniques used to identify the composition of the samples include gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. GC-MS and LC-MS generally require solvent extraction and reconcentration, thereby increasing sample handling. The authors examined analytical techniques which reduce or eliminate sample manipulation. In particular, this paper presented a screening method based on solid phase microextraction (SPME) headspace sampling and GC-MS analysis for chemical warfare agents such as mustard, sarin, soman, and cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate in contaminated soil samples. SPME is a method which uses small adsorbent polymer coated silica fibers that trap vaporous or liquid analytes for GC or LC analysis. Collection efficiency can be increased by adjusting sampling time and temperature. This method was tested on two real-world samples, one from excavated chemical munitions and the second from a caustic decontamination mixture. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  20. High Resolution Mapping of an Alleged Chemical Weapons Dump Site in the Santa Cruz Basin, offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.

    2013-12-01

    Nautical charts record seven locations off the coast of California labeled as 'Chemical Munitions Dumping Area, Disused' that together cover some 12,000 km2 of sea floor. However only one such chemical munitions site is officially documented and no record exists of any chemical munitions disposed of at other locations, thus creating confusion. We have executed a one day AUV mapping survey of a corner of one such site in the Santa Cruz Basin, south of Port Hueneme, to examine and investigate the debris field. The region is covered with soft sediment and the overlying water is very low in oxygen at ~10 μmol/kg. The processed 110 kHz sidescan data revealed some 754 targets in 25.6 km2 for an average of 29 targets per km2. This was followed by two ROV dives to investigate the targets identified. We found but one false positives among the over 40 targets visited, and found items ranging from two distinct lines of unmarked or labeled and now empty barrels, two target drones, and much miscellaneous debris including 4-packs of cat food cans and a large ships mast over 30m in length. There was zero evidence of chemical weapons materiel as expected given the lack of official records. Almost all of the targets were covered in dense and colorful assemblages of invertebrates: sponges, anemones, and crabs. Where barrels were sufficiently open for full visual inspection, the interior sea floor appeared to have become fully anoxic and was covered in white and yellow bacterial mat. The area chosen for our survey (centered at 33.76 deg N 119.56 deg W) was across the north western boundary of the marked site, and represents only ~ 10% percent of the designated area. Our expectation, that human nature would drive the disposal activities to the nearest corner of the chosen area rather than the center of the field appears to have been confirmed. Objects were found both within and outside of the boundary of the dump site. We have not surveyed the full marked area but there appears to be

  1. Chemical Function Predictions for Tox21 Chemicals

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Random forest chemical function predictions for Tox21 chemicals in personal care products uses and "other" uses. This dataset is associated with the following...

  2. Investigations of the 0.020-scale 88-OTS Integrated Space Shuttle Vehicle Jet-Plume Model in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11 by11-Foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (IA80). Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1976-01-01

    The results are documented of jet plume effects wind tunnel test of the 0.020-scale 88-OTS launch configuration space shuttle vehicle model in the 11 x 11 foot leg of the NASA/Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This test involved cold gas main propulsion system (MPS) and solid rocket motor (SRB) plume simulations at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.4. Integrated vehicle surface pressure distributions, elevon and rudder hinge moments, and wing and vertical tail root bending and torsional moments due to MPS and SRB plume interactions were determined. Nozzle power conditions were controlled per pretest nozzle calibrations. Model angle of attack was varied from -4 deg to +4 deg; model angle of sideslip was varied from -4 deg to +4 deg. Reynolds number was varied for certain test conditions and configurations, with the nominal freestream total pressure being 14.69 psia. Plotted force and pressure data are presented.

  3. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Hormones and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. ...

  4. Microfluidic chemical reaction circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-cheng [Irvine, CA; Sui, Guodong [Los Angeles, CA; Elizarov, Arkadij [Valley Village, CA; Kolb, Hartmuth C [Playa del Rey, CA; Huang, Jiang [San Jose, CA; Heath, James R [South Pasadena, CA; Phelps, Michael E [Los Angeles, CA; Quake, Stephen R [Stanford, CA; Tseng, Hsian-rong [Los Angeles, CA; Wyatt, Paul [Tipperary, IE; Daridon, Antoine [Mont-Sur-Rolle, CH

    2012-06-26

    New microfluidic devices, useful for carrying out chemical reactions, are provided. The devices are adapted for on-chip solvent exchange, chemical processes requiring multiple chemical reactions, and rapid concentration of reagents.

  5. Chemical Emergencies Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Chemical Emergencies Overview Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... themselves during and after such an event. What chemical emergencies are A chemical emergency occurs when a ...

  6. Assessment of Energetic Compounds, Semi-volatile Organic Compounds, and Trace Elements in Streambed Sediment and Stream Water from Streams Draining Munitions Firing Points and Impact Areas, Fort Riley, Kansas, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiner, R.L.; Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of energetic compounds (explosive and propellant residues) and associated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and trace elements in streambed sediment and stream water from streams draining munitions firing points and impact areas at Fort Riley, northeast Kansas, was performed during 2007-08 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army. Streambed sediment from 16 sampling sites and stream-water samples from 5 sites were collected at or near Fort Riley and analyzed for as many as 17 energetic compounds, 65 SVOCs, and 27 trace elements. None of the energetic compounds or SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment collected from sites within the Fort Riley Military Reservation. This may indicate that these compounds either are not transported from dispersal areas or that analytical methods are not sensitive enough to detect the small concentrations that may be transported. Concentrations of munitions-associated trace elements did not exceed sediment-quality guidelines recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and are not indicative of contamination of streambed sediment at selected streambed sampling sites, at least in regards to movement from dispersal areas. Analytical results of stream-water samples provided little evidence of contamination by energetic compounds, SVOCs, or associated trace elements. Perchlorate was detected in 19 of 20 stream-water samples at concentrations ranging from an estimated 0.057 to an estimated 0.236 ug/L (micrograms per liter) with a median concentration of an estimated 0.114 ug/L, substantially less than the USEPA Interim Health Advisory criterion (15 ug/L), and is in the range of documented background concentrations. Because of these small concentrations and possible natural sources (precipitation and groundwater), it is likely that the occurrence of perchlorate in stream water is naturally occurring, although a definitive identification of the source of perchlorate in

  7. LCA of Chemicals and Chemical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi

    2018-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the application of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance of chemicals as well as of products and processes where chemicals play a key role. The life cycle stages of chemical products, such as pharmaceuticals drugs or plant protection products......, are discussed and differentiated into extraction of abiotic and biotic raw materials, chemical synthesis and processing, material processing, product manufacturing, professional or consumer product use, and finally end-of-life . LCA is discussed in relation to other chemicals management frameworks and concepts...... including risk assessment , green and sustainable chemistry , and chemical alternatives assessment. A large number of LCA studies focus on contrasting different feedstocks or chemical synthesis processes, thereby often conducting a cradle to (factory) gate assessment. While typically a large share...

  8. Chemical Security Analysis Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  9. A conceptual chemical solidification/stabilization system to remediate radioactive raffinate sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.J.; Ansted, J.P.; Foldyna, J.T.

    1994-01-01

    Past operations at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Weldon Spring, Missouri, Superfund Site included the manufacture of nitroaromatic-based munitions and the production of uranium and thorium metal from ore concentrates. These operations generated a large quantity of diverse contaminated waste media including raffinate sludge, soil, sediment, and building debris. These various waste media are contaminated with varying amounts of radionuclides nitroaromatics, metals, metalloids, non-metals, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and asbestos. The volumes and diversity of contaminants and waste media pose significant challenges in identifying applicable remedial technologies, particularly for the excavation and treatment of the water-rich raffinate sludge. This paper presents the results of comprehensive efforts to develop a conceptual chemical solidification/stabilization (CSS) system to treat a variety of waste media. The emphasis of this paper is the treatment of a water-rich refractory raffinate sludge and site contaminated soils both radioactive and nonradioactive. The conceptual system design includes raffinate sludge excavation, dewatering, and CSS processing (reagent selection and formulation, reagent and waste storage and metering, and product mixing). Many innovations were incorporated into the design, producing a system that can process the various waste types. Additionally, the radioactive and hazardous constituents are sufficiently immobilized to allow the secured disposal in a waste cell of the treated product. The conceptual CSS system can also produce a variety of treated product types, ranging from a monolithic form to a compactible soil-like medium. The advantages of this system flexibility are also presented

  10. Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veriansyah, Bambang [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: vaveri@kist.re.kr; Kim, Jae-Duck [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jdkim@kist.re.kr; Lee, Jong-Chol [Agency for Defense Development (ADD), P.O. Box 35-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jcleeadd@hanafos.com

    2007-08-17

    A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG (HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion.

  11. Design of chemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Il; Kim, Seung Jae; Yang, Jae Ho; Ryu, Hwa Won

    1993-01-01

    This book describes design of chemical plant, which includes chemical engineer and plan for chemical plant, development of chemical process, cost engineering pattern, design and process development, general plant construction plan, project engineering, foundation for economy on assets and depreciation, estimation for cost on capital investment and manufacturing cost, design with computers optimal design and method like fluid mechanics design chemical device and estimation for cost, such as dispatch of material and device writing on design report and appendixes.

  12. Health impacts of chemical irritants used for crowd control: a systematic review of the injuries and deaths caused by tear gas and pepper spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini J. Haar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical irritants used in crowd control, such as tear gases and pepper sprays, are generally considered to be safe and to cause only transient pain and lacrimation. However, there are numerous reports that use and misuse of these chemicals may cause serious injuries. We aimed to review documented injuries from chemical irritants to better understand the morbidity and mortality associated with these weapons. Methods We conducted a systematic review using PRISMA guidelines to identify injuries, permanent disabilities, and deaths from chemical irritants worldwide between January 1, 1990 and March 15, 2015. We reviewed injuries to different body systems, injury severity, and potential risk factors for injury severity. We also assessed region, context and quality of each included article. Results We identified 31 studies from 11 countries. These reported on 5131 people who suffered injuries, two of whom died and 58 of whom suffered permanent disabilities. Out of 9261 total injuries, 8.7% were severe and required professional medical management, while 17% were moderate and 74.3% were minor. Severe injuries occurred to all body systems, with the majority of injuries impacting the skin and eyes. Projectile munition trauma caused 231 projectile injuries, with 63 (27% severe injuries, including major head injury and vision loss. Potentiating factors for more severe injury included environmental conditions, prolonged exposure time, and higher quantities of chemical agent in enclosed spaces. Conclusions Although chemical weapons may have a limited role in crowd control, our findings demonstrate that they have significant potential for misuse, leading to unnecessary morbidity and mortality. A nuanced understanding of the health impacts of chemical weapons and mitigating factors is imperative to avoiding indiscriminate use of chemical weapons and associated health consequences.

  13. Health impacts of chemical irritants used for crowd control: a systematic review of the injuries and deaths caused by tear gas and pepper spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haar, Rohini J; Iacopino, Vincent; Ranadive, Nikhil; Weiser, Sheri D; Dandu, Madhavi

    2017-10-19

    Chemical irritants used in crowd control, such as tear gases and pepper sprays, are generally considered to be safe and to cause only transient pain and lacrimation. However, there are numerous reports that use and misuse of these chemicals may cause serious injuries. We aimed to review documented injuries from chemical irritants to better understand the morbidity and mortality associated with these weapons. We conducted a systematic review using PRISMA guidelines to identify injuries, permanent disabilities, and deaths from chemical irritants worldwide between January 1, 1990 and March 15, 2015. We reviewed injuries to different body systems, injury severity, and potential risk factors for injury severity. We also assessed region, context and quality of each included article. We identified 31 studies from 11 countries. These reported on 5131 people who suffered injuries, two of whom died and 58 of whom suffered permanent disabilities. Out of 9261 total injuries, 8.7% were severe and required professional medical management, while 17% were moderate and 74.3% were minor. Severe injuries occurred to all body systems, with the majority of injuries impacting the skin and eyes. Projectile munition trauma caused 231 projectile injuries, with 63 (27%) severe injuries, including major head injury and vision loss. Potentiating factors for more severe injury included environmental conditions, prolonged exposure time, and higher quantities of chemical agent in enclosed spaces. Although chemical weapons may have a limited role in crowd control, our findings demonstrate that they have significant potential for misuse, leading to unnecessary morbidity and mortality. A nuanced understanding of the health impacts of chemical weapons and mitigating factors is imperative to avoiding indiscriminate use of chemical weapons and associated health consequences.

  14. Decree No 82-1050 of 13 December 1982 creating a Central Service for repression of illicit trading in weapons, munitions, explosive products and nuclear, biological and chemical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Central Service was set up within the Ministry of the Interior and is responsible for the protection of the State and the national territory against criminal attempts, conspiracies and acts of terrorism and is vested with the necessary powers to discharge its duties. It co-operates with the other departments concerned in the study of measures to prevent unlawful use of weapons and nuclear materials. (NEA) [fr

  15. Chemical Data Reporting Fact Sheet: Chemicals Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the chemical manufacturing, processing, and use information collected for the 2012 Chemical Data Reporting (CDR) rule. Users do not have access to the complete CDR data set and should draw conclusions with care.

  16. chemical safety and chemical security overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Wafaa M. Abdou. Chemical Industries Division, National Research Centre, ... substances to attain an acceptably low risk of exposure. Security is: ... Sharing locations of chemicals can publicize targets for theft .... D. Personal Protective Equipments (PPE): ... E. Lighting & Noise Levels ... PPE. ➢ Autoclave or sterilize wastes.

  17. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics. This volume explores: Quantum Dynamical Resonances in Ch

  18. Inclusion of orbital relaxation and correlation through the unitary group adapted open shell coupled cluster theory using non-relativistic and scalar relativistic Hamiltonians to study the core ionization potential of molecules containing light to medium-heavy elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sangita; Shee, Avijit; Mukherjee, Debashis

    2018-02-01

    The orbital relaxation attendant on ionization is particularly important for the core electron ionization potential (core IP) of molecules. The Unitary Group Adapted State Universal Coupled Cluster (UGA-SUMRCC) theory, recently formulated and implemented by Sen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074104 (2012)], is very effective in capturing orbital relaxation accompanying ionization or excitation of both the core and the valence electrons [S. Sen et al., Mol. Phys. 111, 2625 (2013); A. Shee et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 2573 (2013)] while preserving the spin-symmetry of the target states and using the neutral closed-shell spatial orbitals of the ground state. Our Ansatz invokes a normal-ordered exponential representation of spin-free cluster-operators. The orbital relaxation induced by a specific set of cluster operators in our Ansatz is good enough to eliminate the need for different sets of orbitals for the ground and the core-ionized states. We call the single configuration state function (CSF) limit of this theory the Unitary Group Adapted Open-Shell Coupled Cluster (UGA-OSCC) theory. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively explore the efficacy of our Ansatz to describe orbital relaxation, using both theoretical analysis and numerical performance. Whenever warranted, we also make appropriate comparisons with other coupled-cluster theories. A physically motivated truncation of the chains of spin-free T-operators is also made possible by the normal-ordering, and the operational resemblance to single reference coupled-cluster theory allows easy implementation. Our test case is the prediction of the 1s core IP of molecules containing a single light- to medium-heavy nucleus and thus, in addition to demonstrating the orbital relaxation, we have addressed the scalar relativistic effects on the accuracy of the IPs by using a hierarchy of spin-free Hamiltonians in conjunction with our theory. Additionally, the contribution of the spin-free component of the two

  19. Inclusion of orbital relaxation and correlation through the unitary group adapted open shell coupled cluster theory using non-relativistic and scalar relativistic Hamiltonians to study the core ionization potential of molecules containing light to medium-heavy elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sangita; Shee, Avijit; Mukherjee, Debashis

    2018-02-07

    The orbital relaxation attendant on ionization is particularly important for the core electron ionization potential (core IP) of molecules. The Unitary Group Adapted State Universal Coupled Cluster (UGA-SUMRCC) theory, recently formulated and implemented by Sen et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 137, 074104 (2012)], is very effective in capturing orbital relaxation accompanying ionization or excitation of both the core and the valence electrons [S. Sen et al., Mol. Phys. 111, 2625 (2013); A. Shee et al., J. Chem. Theory Comput. 9, 2573 (2013)] while preserving the spin-symmetry of the target states and using the neutral closed-shell spatial orbitals of the ground state. Our Ansatz invokes a normal-ordered exponential representation of spin-free cluster-operators. The orbital relaxation induced by a specific set of cluster operators in our Ansatz is good enough to eliminate the need for different sets of orbitals for the ground and the core-ionized states. We call the single configuration state function (CSF) limit of this theory the Unitary Group Adapted Open-Shell Coupled Cluster (UGA-OSCC) theory. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively explore the efficacy of our Ansatz to describe orbital relaxation, using both theoretical analysis and numerical performance. Whenever warranted, we also make appropriate comparisons with other coupled-cluster theories. A physically motivated truncation of the chains of spin-free T-operators is also made possible by the normal-ordering, and the operational resemblance to single reference coupled-cluster theory allows easy implementation. Our test case is the prediction of the 1s core IP of molecules containing a single light- to medium-heavy nucleus and thus, in addition to demonstrating the orbital relaxation, we have addressed the scalar relativistic effects on the accuracy of the IPs by using a hierarchy of spin-free Hamiltonians in conjunction with our theory. Additionally, the contribution of the spin-free component of the two

  20. Personal Chemical Exposure informatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Exposure science is the study of human contact with chemicals (from manufacturing facilities, everyday products, waste) occurring in their environments and advances knowledge of the mechanisms and dynamics of events that cause or prevent adverse health outcomes. (adapted...

  1. Capacitive chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P; Moorman, Matthew W; Wheeler, David R

    2014-05-27

    A microfabricated capacitive chemical sensor can be used as an autonomous chemical sensor or as an analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator in a larger microanalytical system. The capacitive chemical sensor detects changes in sensing film dielectric properties, such as the dielectric constant, conductivity, or dimensionality. These changes result from the interaction of a target analyte with the sensing film. This capability provides a low-power, self-heating chemical sensor suitable for remote and unattended sensing applications. The capacitive chemical sensor also enables a smart, analyte-sensitive chemical preconcentrator. After sorption of the sample by the sensing film, the film can be rapidly heated to release the sample for further analysis. Therefore, the capacitive chemical sensor can optimize the sample collection time prior to release to enable the rapid and accurate analysis of analytes by a microanalytical system.

  2. Chemical Weapons Convention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    On April 29, 1997, the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling, and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, known as the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC...

  3. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  4. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  5. Chemicals Industry Vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1996-12-01

    Chemical industry leaders articulated a long-term vision for the industry, its markets, and its technology in the groundbreaking 1996 document Technology Vision 2020 - The U.S. Chemical Industry. (PDF 310 KB).

  6. Chemical Industry Bandwidth Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-12-01

    The Chemical Bandwidth Study provides a snapshot of potentially recoverable energy losses during chemical manufacturing. The advantage of this study is the use of "exergy" analysis as a tool for pinpointing inefficiencies.

  7. Chemical Search Web Utility

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Chemical Search Web Utility is an intuitive web application that allows the public to easily find the chemical that they are interested in using, and which...

  8. Chemical cleaning review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dow, B.L.; Thomas, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    Three main chemical processes for cleaning steam generators have evolved from the early work of the industry. Of the more than 50 chemical cleanings carried out to date most have been considered a success by the utilities performing them. (author)

  9. An Evaluation of the Environmental Fate and Behavior of Munitions Material (TNT, RDX) in Soil and Plant Systems. Environmental Fate and Behavior of RDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-08-01

    2.2 2.2 SOIL CHARACTERIZATION AND SAMPLING ............................................. 2.7 2.3 PLANT CULTIVATION ...cycle. 2.3 Plant Cultivation and Samoling The chemical fate of RDX in plants was evaluated using bush beans K (Phaseolus vulgaris), wheat (Triticum...particularly in light of the high tissue concentrations observed, may be important from the standpoint of food-chain transfer and ecotoxicology

  10. Computing Equilibrium Chemical Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcbride, Bonnie J.; Gordon, Sanford

    1995-01-01

    Chemical Equilibrium With Transport Properties, 1993 (CET93) computer program provides data on chemical-equilibrium compositions. Aids calculation of thermodynamic properties of chemical systems. Information essential in design and analysis of such equipment as compressors, turbines, nozzles, engines, shock tubes, heat exchangers, and chemical-processing equipment. CET93/PC is version of CET93 specifically designed to run within 640K memory limit of MS-DOS operating system. CET93/PC written in FORTRAN.

  11. Results of investigations of an 0.010-scale 140A/B configuration (model 72-OTS) of the Rockwell International space shuttle orbiter in the NASA/Langley Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrozzi, M. T.; Milam, M. D.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in the NASA/Langley unitary plan wind tunnel on a sting mounted 0.010-scale outer mold line model of the 140A/B configuration of the Rockwell International Space Shuttle Vehicle. The primary test objectives were to obtain: (1) six component force and moment data for the mated vehicle at subsonic and transonic conditions, (2) effects of configuration build-up, (3) effects of protuberances, ET/orbiter fairings and attach structures, and (4) elevon deflection effects on wing bending moment. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data and base and balance cavity pressures were recorded over Mach numbers of 1.6, 2.0, 2.5, 2.86, 3.9, and 4.63 at a nominal Reynolds number of 20 to the 6th power per foot. Selected configurations were tested at angles of attack and sideslip from -10 deg to +10 deg. For all configurations involving the orbiter, wing bending, and torsion coefficients were measured on the right wing.

  12. Advances in chemical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  13. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Physics is the only series of volumes available that explores the cutting edge of research in chemical physics. This is the only series of volumes available that presents the cutting edge of research in chemical physics.Includes contributions from experts in this field of research.Contains a representative cross-section of research that questions established thinking on chemical solutions.Structured with an editorial framework that makes the book an excellent supplement to an advanced graduate class in physical chemistry or chemical physics.

  14. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  15. Results of a jet plume effects test on Rockwell International integrated space shuttle vehicle using a vehicle 5 configuration 0.02-scale model (88-OTS) in the 11 by 11 foot leg of the NASA/Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel (IA19), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of jet plume effects test IA19 using a vehicle 5 configuration integrated space shuttle vehicle 0.02-scale model in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11 x 11-foot leg of the unitary plan wind tunnel. The jet plume power effects on the integrated vehicle static pressure distribution were determined along with elevon, main propulsion system nozzle, and solid rocket booster nozzle effectiveness and elevon hinge moments.

  16. The chemical juggernaut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadbury, D

    1997-01-01

    Man-made chemicals pervade and support every aspect of modern living. The chemical industry has become such a powerful force in the global economy, sales of synthetic chemicals and products derived from them constitute well in excess of a third of the world's gross national product. But, these man-made chemicals are also 'elixirs of death,' the symbol of human destruction. Laboratory tests have shown that a number of chemicals in common use possess a remarkable property: they can weakly mimic or modify the action of human hormones. It has been proven that some chemicals found in plastics, pesticides, and industrial products are weakly estrogenic, modifying the action of the female hormone. In addition, other chemicals affect the male hormones, androgens, or anti-androgens; others are thought to target different hormone systems, such as thyroid and adrenal glands. Many research studies are being conducted to establish the impact of chemicals on human health. Of special concern are the rising incidence of testicular cancer, decline in human sperm counts, and the sharp rise of breast cancer. In conclusion, although there is a worldwide debate on the effects of chemical exposure on humans, the significance of findings for human health, concerning testicular and breast cancer, are still unknown. An international treaty is called for to control the use of the persistent hormonally active chemicals.

  17. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    CERN Document Server

    Frenking, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  18. Chemical and biological weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the prospects of the multilateral negotiations aimed at achieving a complete and total ban on chemical weapons the Chemical Weapons convention (CWC). The control of the proliferation of chemical weapons is no longer just on East-West issue; it is also an issue of concern in Third World Countries, and in some of the wealthier middle eastern nations, such as Kuwait

  19. Apparatus for chemical synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C [Idaho Falls, ID; Herring, J Stephen [Idaho Falls, ID; Grandy, Jon D [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-05-10

    A method and apparatus for forming a chemical hydride is described and which includes a pseudo-plasma-electrolysis reactor which is operable to receive a solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further includes a cathode and a movable anode, and wherein the anode is moved into and out of fluidic, ohmic electrical contact with the solution capable of forming a chemical hydride and which further, when energized produces an oxygen plasma which facilitates the formation of a chemical hydride in the solution.

  20. Introduction to chemical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Soustelle, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This book is a progressive presentation of kinetics of the chemical reactions. It provides complete coverage of the domain of chemical kinetics, which is necessary for the various future users in the fields of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, Macromolecular Chemistry and Combustion. It will help them to understand the most sophisticated knowledge of their future job area. Over 15 chapters, this book present the fundamentals of chemical kinetics, its relations with reaction mechanisms and kinetic properties. Two chapters are then devoted to experimental re